Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transmitted by aerosolized saliva droplets among individuals in close contact with expelled sputum of a diseased patient. However, TB lesions of the oral cavity are often overlooked in the differential diagnosis. We report here a case of tuberculosis of oral cavity affecting the gingiva of a 24-year-old male.
Jaiswal, Rohit; Singh, Anil; Badni, Manjunath; Singh, Priyanka
Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is a rare condition. A 55-year-old labourer was referred as a case of oral cancer for further management. The patient had no systemic symptoms. Biopsy of the lesion revealed caseating granulomatous inflammation. Chest X-ray and sputum revealed evidence of asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. The purpose of this paper is to sensitize clinicians to consider oral tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with an Non-healing oral cavity ulcer.
Kannan, S.; Thakkar, Purvi; Dcruz, Anil K.
Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.
Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine
Esophageal involvement is an extremely rare complication of tuberculosis even in countries with high prevalence of infection. We report the case of a 57 year-old hiv-seronegative patient with simultaneous diagnoses of oral blastomycosis and laryngeal papillomatosis. Both were confirmed by anatomopathological analysis. The esophageal biopsy revealed granulomatous esophagitis with necrosis and ziehl-neelsen stain showed acid-fast alcohol resistant bacilli suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient's history included pulmonary tuberculosis twice and previous abandonment of therapy. Thus, it was necessary to use oral itraconazole combined with second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs administered through a gastrostomy tube. The clinical development was favorable. PMID:22858774
Montoya, Manuel; Chumbiraico, Robert; Ricalde, Melvin; Cazorla, Ernesto; Hernández-Córdova, Gustavo
The authors report a case of oral tuberculosis in a 38-year-old heavy cigarette smoker man. He showed a painful, non-healing ulc er with indurated borders of the lateral surface of the tongue. No tonsil or lymph node enlargement was also noted. The medical history was not significant for systemic disease. Histopathological examination showed granulomas exhibiting a central caseinating necrotic focus, surrounded by mononucl ear cell s, epithelioid histiocytes and multi nucl eated Langhans giant cell s. A mantle of lympocytes and fibrous tissue surrounded the granulomas. Since the morphologic picture oriented for tubercoloid granulomata, a Ziehl- Neelsen staining of the tissue was performed. Chest radiography did not detect any pulmonary or nodal disease. On the bases of these results a diagnosis of oral tuberculosis was establ ished. PMID:23756837
Battista, G; Lo Russo, L; Padovano Di Leva, A; Rubini, C; Sberna, M T; Bollero, R; De Santis, D; D'Agostino, A; Bertossi, D; Lo Muzio, L
We present a case of primary oral tuberculosis that led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. Our patient had clinically nonspecific ulcers on the labial mucosa and on the ventral surface of the tongue which were diagnosed as being tuberculous only on histological examination. This raised the suspicion of HIV infection that was subsequently confirmed by blood tests. The oral lesions resolved after 4 weeks of antituberculosis treatment. Some aspects of the pathogenesis of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection are discussed.
Khammissa, R. A. G.; Wood, N. H.; Meyerov, R.; Lemmer, J.; Raubenheimer, E. J.; Feller, Liviu
Oral lesions of tuberculosis though uncommon, are seen both in the primary as well as the secondary stages of the disease. In secondary tuberculosis, the oral manifestations are accompanied by lesions in the lung, lymph nodes, or any other organ system of the body. This can be detected by the usual clinical history and systemic examination. Primary oral tuberculosis may thus present as a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Amongst the oral lesions also, tongue is the usual site for tubercular infection, with the upper lip and soft palate being the least affected. The authors report two rare cases of children with isolated primary tuberculosis of the lip and uvula. Interestingly, the first case presenting just as a diffuse swelling of the upper lip, and the second as pain in throat with congestion and granulations on the uvula. We suggest a distinct Indian social habit which predisposes to primary lip and uvular tuberculosis, sites not common in the rest of the world. The habit of doing "datoon" i.e. brushing of the teeth with neem twigs in rural India, which at times causes trauma on the palate and thus predisposing to seedling of the wound with mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:21063810
Kumar, Virad; Singh, Amit P; Meher, Ravi; Raj, Anoop
There is a need for intravenous therapy for severe forms of tuberculosis in those who are HIV-positive, diabetic, have cystic fibrosis, extensive gastrointestinal involvement, haemodynamic instability with difficulty to take and absorb oral medications, which results in a lack of appropriate therapeutic effect during treatment, such as not creating the optimal blood concentration of the substance. We report an HIV-infected patient presenting with severe disseminated tuberculosis with extensive intestinal involvement which was successfully treated with an initial combination regimen of injectable and oral anti-tuberculosis agents. We discuss and emphasize the importance of an initial regimen with injectable and oral agents for treating severe forms of tuberculosis. PMID:24096909
Boff, Diego F; Goldani, Luciano Z
The compatibility of oral contraceptives with antitubercular chemotherapy and the effect of the contraceptives on regression of the tubercular lesions were studied in 100 16-40 year old female patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Each patient was living with her husband and had 1 or more living children. Antitubercular treatment was given similarly to all. Half of the patients were also given Ovulen therapy. Of the 100 who started, 41 of those using Ovulen and 42 of the others completed the investigation. A patient in each group died of tuberculosis during the study. The overall antitubercular efficacy was similar in the 2 groups at the end of 1 year. Side effects from the oral contraceptive were minimal and caused no withdrawals. Menstrual abnormalities were improved in those taking the Ovulen. Weight gain was about twice as much and hemoglobin increased 3 times as much in the oral contraceptive users. A pregnancy occurred in the group taking the contraceptive; there were 4 pregnancies in the other group. Some early increases in blood pressures were found in the contraceptive users. It is concluded that oral contraceptives in female tuberculosis patients are compatible with antituberculosis drugs. Also, overall progress was improved by the therapy and a greater sense of well-being expressed. PMID:4448525
Mehrotra, M L; Gautam, K D; Pande, D C; Chaube, C K; Dixit, R; Malhotra, A; Kushwaha, S
The novel use of transgenic plants as vectors for the expression of viral and bacterial antigens has been increasingly tested as an alternative methodology for the production and delivery of experimental oral vaccines. Here, we examined the immunogenicity of combined plant-made vaccines that include four genes encoding immune-dominant antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compared with the wild type and other control groups, mice treated with the combined plant-made vaccines showed significantly higher levels of interferon-? and interleukin-2 production in response to all four proteins, and higher levels of antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses and immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA titers. These results suggest that combined plant-made vaccines can induce immunogenicity against M. tuberculosis through the induction of stronger Th1-associated immune responses. This is the first report of an orally delivered combined plant-made vaccine against tuberculosis priming an antigen-specific Th1 response, a comprehensive effect including both mucosal and systemic immune responses. PMID:22917938
Zhang, Yi; Chen, Suting; Li, Jiayun; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Yuanlei; Cai, Hong
Preclinical evaluation of drug-like molecules requires their oral administration to experimental animals using suitable vehicles. We studied the effect of oral dosing with corn oil, carboxymethyl cellulose, dimethyl sulfoxide, and polysorbate-80 on the progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice. Infection was monitored by physical (survival time and body weight) and bacteriological (viable counts in lungs) parameters. Compared with water, corn oil significantly improved both sets of parameters, whereas the other vehicles affected only physical parameters.
Singh, Shubhra; Dwivedi, Richa
Bovine tuberculosis (Tb) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has proved refractory to eradication from domestic livestock in countries with wildlife disease reservoirs. Vaccination of wild hosts offers a way of controlling Tb in livestock without wildlife culling. This study was conducted in a Tb-endemic region of New Zealand, where the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the main wildlife reservoir of Tb. Possums were trapped and vaccinated using a prototype oral-delivery system to deliver the Tb vaccine bacille Calmette–Guerin. Vaccinated and control possums were matched according to age, sex and location, re-trapped bimonthly and assessed for Tb status by palpation and lesion aspiration; the site was depopulated after 2 years and post-mortem examinations were conducted to further identify clinical Tb cases and subclinical infection. Significantly fewer culture-confirmed Tb cases were recorded in vaccinated possums (1/51) compared with control animals (12/71); the transition probability from susceptible to infected was significantly reduced in both males and females by vaccination. Vaccine efficacy was estimated at 95 per cent (87–100%) for females and 96 per cent (82–99%) for males. Hence, this trial demonstrates that orally delivered live bacterial vaccines can significantly protect wildlife against natural disease exposure, indicating that wildlife vaccination, along with existing control methods, could be used to eradicate Tb from domestic animals.
Tompkins, D. M.; Ramsey, D. S. L.; Cross, M. L.; Aldwell, F. E.; de Lisle, G. W.; Buddle, B. M.
We evaluated the efficacy of nanoparticle-encapsulated antituberculosis drugs administered every 10 days versus that of daily nonencapsulated drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol infection in guinea pigs. Both treatments significantly reduced the bacterial count and lung histopathology, suggesting that the nanoparticle drug delivery system has potential in intermitted treatment of tuberculosis.
Johnson, Christine M.; Pandey, Rajesh; Sharma, Sadhna; Khuller, G. K.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Orme, Ian M.; Lenaerts, Anne J.
Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB) in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar.
Beltran-Beck, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Cristina; Vicente, Joaquin; de la Fuente, Jose; Gortazar, Christian
Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends largely on activation of cell-mediated responses, and gamma interferon has been shown to play a crucial role in this process in both humans and animal models. Since the lung is normally the organ in which infection is initiated and is the major site of pathology, immune responses in the lung play a significant role in
T. Mark Doherty; Anja Weinrich Olsen; Laurens van Pinxteren; Peter Andersen
Patient non-compliance is the major drawback associated with the long-duration chemotherapy of tuberculosis (TB); hence, reduction in dosing frequency forms an important therapeutic strategy. The present study reports the formulation of three frontline antitubercular drugs (ATD), i.e. rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) encapsulated in poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles. Drug encapsulation efficiencies were 56.9±2.7% for RIF, 66.3±5.8% for INH
Rajesh Pandey; A Zahoor; Sadhna Sharma; G. K Khuller
Among tuberculosis patients, timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and early antiretroviral treatment are crucial, but are hampered by a myriad of individual and structural barriers. Community-based models to provide counseling and rapid HIV testing are few but offer promise. During November 2009-April 2010, community health workers offered and performed HIV counseling and testing by using the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to new tuberculosis cases in 22 Ministry of Health establishments and their household contacts (n = 130) in Lima, Peru. Refusal of HIV testing or study participation was low (4.7%). Intervention strengths included community-based approach with participant preference for testing site, use of a rapid, non-invasive test, and accompaniment to facilitate HIV care and family disclosure. We will expand the intervention under programmatic auspices for rapid community-based testing for new tuberculosis cases in high incidence establishments. Other potential target populations include contacts of HIV-positive persons and pregnant women. PMID:22826481
Nelson, Adrianne K; Caldas, Adolfo; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Muñoz, Maribel; Bonilla, Cesear; Yamanija, Jose; Jave, Oswaldo; Magan, Christina; Saldivar, Judith; Espiritu, Betty; Rosell, Gustavo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya
Mycobacterium microti is phylogenetically closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is a member of that complex of organisms. It is a curved, acid-fast bacillus that is naturally attenuated with a narrow host range for Microtus species only. In this study, we confirm the unique susceptibility of voles to infection with M. microti and the relative resistance of mice with a
Yukari C. Manabe; Cherise P. Scott; William R. Bishai
Cattle were given Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in a lipid-based formulation via the oral route and tested for immune responses and protection against a challenge with virulent M. bovis. Calves were vaccinated by orally administering a pellet containing 108 colony forming units (CFU) of BCG, or 10 pellets containing a total of 109 CFU of BCG, whereas positive controls
Bryce M. Buddle; Frank E. Aldwell; Margot A. Skinner; Geoffrey W. de Lisle; Michel Denis; H. Martin Vordermeier; R. Glyn Hewinson; D. Neil Wedlock
Primary esophageal tuberculosis is virtually non-existent and there are few cases described of secondary esophageal tuberculosis. Esophageal tuberculosis should be suspected in patients with dysphagia, positive test results for tuberculin, active pulmonary disease or mediastinal adenopathies. Endoscopic or x-ray images could be indistinguishable from esophageal carcinomas, hence a diagnosis can prevent wrong treatments. Confirming the diagnosis requires isolation of tuberculosis bacillus. Treatment for a patient with esophageal tuberculosis is standard therapy. Key words: Tuberculosis, esophagus. PMID:16865167
Baños, Ramón; Serrano, Andrés; Alberca, Fernando; Alajarín, María; Albaladejo, Aquilino; Vargas, Angel; Molina, Joaquín
Bovine tuberculosis (Tb), due to infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, represents a threat to New Zealand agriculture due to vectorial transmission from wildlife reservoir species, principally the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). An oral-delivery wildlife vaccine has been developed to immunize possums against Tb, based on formulation of the human Tb vaccine (M. bovis BCG) in edible lipid matrices. Here BCG bacilli were shown to be stable in lipid matrix formulation for over 8 mo in freezer storage, for 7 wk under room temperature conditions, and for 3-5 wk under field conditions in a forest/pasture margin habitat (when maintained in weatherproof bait-delivery sachets). Samples of the lipid matrix were flavored and offered to captive possums in a bait-preference study: a combination of 10% chocolate powder with anise oil was identified as the most effective attractant/palatability combination. In a replicated field study, 85-100% of wild possums were shown to access chocolate-flavored lipid pellets, when baits were applied to areas holding approximately 600-800 possums/km(2). Finally, in a controlled vaccination/challenge study, chocolate-flavored lipid vaccine samples containing 10(8) BCG bacilli were fed to captive possums, which were subsequently challenged via aerosol exposure to virulent M. bovis: vaccine immunogenicity was confirmed, and protection was identified by significantly reduced postchallenge weight loss in vaccinated animals compared to nonvaccinated controls. These studies indicate that, appropriately flavored, lipid delivery matrices may form effective bait vaccines for the control of Tb in wildlife. PMID:19617486
Cross, Martin L; Henderson, Ray J; Lambeth, Matthew R; Buddle, Bryce M; Aldwell, Frank E
Cutaneous tuberculosis occurs rarely, despite a high and increasing prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterrium bovis, and the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine can cause tuberculosis involving the skin. Cutaneous tuberculosis can be acquired exogenously or endogenously and present as a multitude of differing clinical morphologies. Diagnosis of these lesions can be difficult, as they resemble many other dermatological conditions that are often primarily considered. Further, microbiological confirmation is poor, despite scientific advances, such as the more frequent use of polymerase chain reaction. The authors report a case that illustrates the challenges faced by dermatologists when considering a diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis.
Frankel, Amylynne; Penrose, Carolin
Tuberculosis (TB) in animals and humans may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti). Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from tuberculous catt...
There is a need for an improved vaccine to better control human tuberculosis (TB), as the only currently available TB vaccine, bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) delivered parenterally, offers variable levels of efficacy. Therefore, recombinant strains expressing additional antigens are being developed alongside alternative routes to parenteral delivery. There is strong evidence that BCG Moreau (RdJ) is a safe and effective vaccine
Simon O. Clark; Dominic L. F. Kelly; Edgar Badell; Luiz Roberto Castello-Branco; Frank Aldwell; Nathalie Winter; David J. M. Lewis; Philip D. Marsh
Tuberculosis is one of the major causes of ill health and death worldwide. Isolated tuberculosis of tonsil in the absence of active pulmonary tuberculosis is a very rare clinical entity. A 10-year-male child presented with recurrent episodes of upper respiratory tract infections, with 2-3 occurrences per month for the past 6 years. On general physical examination, bilateral tonsils showed grade III enlargement and congestion. Posterior pharyngeal wall was clear. Examination of the chest was within normal limits. Histopathological examination of bilateral tonsils revealed caseating and noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas with Langhans giant cells. Ziehl-Neelsen stain for acid fast bacillus was positive. Features were consistent with a diagnosis of tuberculosis of tonsils. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is uncommon and lesions may be either primary or secondary. Early detection and intervention is essential for cure. Isolated and primary tuberculosis of the tonsils in the absence of pulmonary tuberculosis is a rare entity, which prompted us to report this case.
Prasad, Pooja; Bhardwaj, Minakshi
Tuberculosis is still a major health and social problem because, on the one hand, we have witnessed the dismantling of the sanatoriums, with a reduced level of diagnostic suspicion, knowledge and expertise on the management of the disease, while, the other side, are considered migratory flows, the lower socio-economic faced by immigrants, the states of immunosuppression associated with HIV prevalence of malnutrition and other diseases, and the phenomenon of multidrug-resistance, which often turns out to be iatrogenic. The success of the strategy of control/elimination of tuberculosis promoted by the World Health Organization requires a well coordinated multidisciplinary approach in which everyone does their part, the general practitioner, the pulmonologist, the infectious disease specialist, and the microbiologist. PMID:22688374
Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13
Kapoor, V. K.
Four boys with abdominal tuberculosis, one of whom had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, are presented. Abdominal imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and gastrointestinal contrast studies included tuberculous peritonitis and ascites in all patients, tuberculous adenopathy in two, gastrointestinal tuberculosis in two, and omental tuberculosis in two. The radiographic features particularly characteristic of abdominal tuberculosis were: (1) low attenuating
D. S. Ablin; K. A. Jain; E. M. Azouz
The abdomen is involved in 10% to 30% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis is not difficult in societies where the disease is common and clinicians are aware of it. While previously rare in Western countries, the incidence is now rising among immigrants, and patients with AIDS. In HIV-infected patients, the disease is of a rapidly progressive nature, often fatal through usually treatable, but the diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. Treatment is essentially medical but occasionally surgical operation is necessary.
Ahmed, M. E.; Hassan, M. A.
Risk factors for tuberculosis. P.D.O. Davies. The risk of developing tuberculosis is dependent on both the risk of being infected and the risk of infection lead- ing on to active disease. The former will depend on the inci- dence of tuberculosis in the community where the individual lives or works. The latter will depend on many factors im- pinging on
P. D. O. Davies
A case report discusses the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of a 22-year-old male who presented with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis of the foot involving the cuneiform bones. Tuberculosis of the foot is extremely rare and accounts for less than 10% of ostearticular tuberculosis. Radiographic and MRI correlations are introduced.
J. Terrence Jose Jerome; Mathew Varghese; Balu Sankaran
Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host's susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.
Gupta, Krishna Bihari; Gupta, Rajesh; Atreja, Atulya; Verma, Manish; Vishvkarma, Suman
Despite the burden of both malnutrition and tuberculosis in children worldwide, there are few studies on the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. From available research, it appears that malnutrition is a predictor of tuberculosis disease and is associated with worse outcomes. This is supported through several lines of evidence, including the role of vitamin D receptor genotypes, malnutrition's effects on immune development, respiratory infections among malnourished children, and limited work specifically on pediatric tuberculosis and malnutrition. Nutritional supplementation has yet to suggest significant benefits on the course of tuberculosis in children. There is a critical need for research on childhood tuberculosis, specifically on how nutritional status affects the risk and progression of tuberculosis and whether nutritional supplementation improves clinical outcomes or prevents disease. PMID:23033147
Jaganath, Devan; Mupere, Ezekiel
The historical aspects of phisiology are briefly outlined. The main factors that promote the prevalence of tuberculosis are characterized. The present-day tuberculosis epidemiological situation makes one to correct antituberculous measures and with the use of new investigations and developments to improve the identification of patients with tuberculosis, primarily those with contagious types of the disease, to introduce the currently available short-term regimens of 2-stage drug therapy, to design novel agents and depot formulations of the well known ones. Further investigations are required to search for a new tuberculosis vaccine. PMID:9503920
Khomenko, A G
The aim of tuberculosis treatment is to cure the individual patient with antituberculosis drugs (ATT) in a short time without emergence of drug resistance. The anti tuberculosis drugs are selected in a combination to attack all the subpopulations of tubercle bacilli with first line drugs which include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Intermittent ATT regimens have been documented to be as effective as daily regimen. World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested a category based treatment of tuberculosis given in two phases, intensive phase and continuation phase. As per WHO, Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) recommends directly observed therapy short course strategy (DOTS) for the treatment of both adult and pediatric tuberculosis. In DOTS the patient is asked to swallow ATT under the direct observation of health personnel. Drug dosage for daily and intermittent therapy varies. To simplify the prescription, fixed drug combination (FDC) and patient-wise boxes (PWB) are available under RNTCP, free of cost. Each patient's management plan should be individualized to incorporate measures that facilitate adherence. The knowledge of drug resistant tuberculosis, HIV-related tuberculosis, and latent tuberculosis infection are the areas that need to be updated. Private practioners may play a significant role by referring the children with tuberculosis to the DOTS centers early which will not only benefit the affected family but also the society. PMID:21049292
|The need to isolated health providers with critical knowledge in tuberculosis (TB) case management prompted the development of "Tuberculosis Case Management" CD-ROM. Features include "Learning Center,""Examination Room," and "Library." The combination of audio, video, and graphics allows participants to practice acquired skills in a simulated…
Knebel, Elisa; Kolodner, Jennifer
Objectives: This study was designed to review previous studies and analyse the current knowledge and controversies related to seasonal variability of tuberculosis (TB) to examine whether TB has an annual seasonal pattern. Study Design and Methods: Systematic review of peer reviewed studies identified through literature searches using online databases belonging to PubMed and the Cochrane library with key words “Tuberculosis, Seasonal influence” and “Tuberculosis, Seasonal variation”. The search was restricted to articles published in English. The references of the identified papers for further relevant publications were also reviewed. Results: Twelve studies conducted between the period 1971 and 2006 from 11 countries/regions around the world (South Western Cameroon, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Kuwait, Spain, UK, Ireland, Russia, and Mongolia) were reviewed. A seasonal pattern of tuberculosis with a mostly predominant peak is seen during the spring and summer seasons in all of the countries (except South Western Cameroon and Russia). Conclusions: The observation of seasonality leads to assume that the risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis does appear to be the greatest during winter months. Vitamin D level variability, indoor activities, seasonal change in immune function, and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis are potential stimuli of seasonal tuberculosis disease. Additionally, seasonal variation in food availability and food intake, age, and sex are important factors which can play a role in the tuberculosis notification variability. Prospective studies regarding this topic and other related subjects are highly recommended.
Extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis are reported in less than one in five cases with the knee affected in 8% after the spine and hip. We report a case of isolated highly erosive tuberculosis of the knee presenting in a previously fit Vietnamese woman. The difficulties of diagnosis, modalities of chemotherapeutic management, and surgical treatment are discussed.
Lidder, Surjit; Lang, Kathryn; Haroon, Mallick; Shahidi, Mitra; El-Guindi, Magdi
Tuberculosis remains a major cause of mortality and physical and economic deprivation worldwide. There have been significant recent advances in our understanding of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, mycobacterial genetics and the host determinants of protective immunity. Nevertheless, the challenge is to harness this information to develop a more effective vaccine than BCG, the attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis derived by
Warwick J Britton; Umaimainthan Palendira
Tuberculosis is a major cause of death around the world, with most of the 1.5 million deaths per year attributable to the disease occurring in developing countries. This disease is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus that is transmitted primarily via the respiratory route. Infection occurs in the lungs, but the organism can seed any organ via hematogenous spread.
JOANNE L. FLYNN; JOHN CHAN
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis has vague symptoms and few signs. It is essential to recognize and diagnose this curable disease prior to performing definitive surgery. Newer tests such as DNA or RNA amplification allow for early diagnosis but have limitations. CASE: We report a case of peritoneal tuberculosis in an immigrant woman. She had vague symptoms of low-grade fever, mild abdominal pain, obstipation, and bloating. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed to establish the diagnosis. Tuberculosis was confirmed by DNA extraction from the frozen section specimen with subsequent analysis using polymerase chain reaction. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal tuberculosis is a disease that often simulates malignancies. With the increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in developed countries, tuberculosis is also on the rise and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an abdominal/pelvic mass and ascites.
Lal, N; Soto-Wright, V
Childhood tuberculosis accounts for a significant proportion of the global tuberculosis disease burden. However, tuberculosis in children is difficult to diagnose, because disease tends to be paucibacillary and sputum samples are often not easy to obtain. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in children is traditionally based on chest radiography, tuberculin skin testing, and mycobacterial staining/culture from appropriate samples. Newer diagnostic strategies have included improved bacteriologic and molecular methods, as well as new methods for sample collection from children. Recently, immune-based diagnostics, such as the interferon-gamma release assays, have been introduced for clinical use. These tests do not offer substantial improvements in sensitivity over tuberculin skin testing for the diagnosis of active disease but may be useful in excluding false-positive tuberculin skin tests. Further research is needed to develop better diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in children. PMID:22330167
Tuberculosis remains a major health problem worldwide. The disease is caused by Mycobacteriumtuberculosis whose preferred habitat is the host macrophage. The immune response against tuberculosis is mediated by different subsets of T cells including both conventional CD4 and CD8 T cells as well as unconventional CD1 restricted and ?? T cells. The CD1 restricted T cells are particularly remarkable because they recognise the glycolipids abundant in the mycobacterial cell wall. Although a vaccine, M.bovis BCG, is available which protects toddlers against miliary tuberculosis, it is ineffective in preventing pulmonary tuberculosis in adults. Therefore, a novel vaccine is urgently required. Knowledge about the functioning of different T cell populations during infection and disease provides the basis for rational vaccine design. We have constructed a recombinant BCG vaccine which, compared with wild-type BCG, induces superior protection not only against laboratory strains but also against clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis.
Pharmacokinetics and excretion of the novel anti-tuberculosis compound 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-3-O-(phenyl cyclopropyl methanonyl)-alpha-D-glucofuranose (S-001-14) after oral doses in rats. Development of a sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography-UV method for the determination of the test compound in rat serum.
A sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of the novel anti-tuberculosis compound 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-3-O-(phenyl cyclopropyl methanonyl)-alpha-D-glucofuranose (S-001-14) has been developed and validated in rat serum, urine and feces. Following extraction with hexane at alkaline pH, samples were separated on a reverse phase C18 column and quantified using UV detection at 267 nm. The mobile phase was 70% acetonitrile in ammonium acetate buffer (10 mmol/L, pH 6.0) with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The method was used to determine the pharmacokinetics and excretion of S-001-14 after oral doses in rats. Linearity was satisfactory over the concentration range of 5-500 ng/ml (r2, > 0.99). Recoveries were > 90% and were consistent throughout the calibration range. The precision and accuracy were acceptable as indicated by relative standard deviation ranging from 2.72 to 9.54%, bias values ranging from 1.62 to 12.05%. Moreover, S-001-14 was stable in rat serum after being subjected to three freeze-thaw cycles and for 30 days on storage at - 60 degrees C. The method was used to determine the serum concentration-time profiles for S-001-14 after oral doses of 4, 100 and 200 mg/kg in rats. A linear pharmacokinetics was found in rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses with a long elimination half-life (approximately 24 h), wide distribution and bioavailability of approximately 13%. The excretion study after the 100 mg/kg oral dose revealed that S-001-14 was excreted in urine (0.002 +/- 0.001%) and feces (15.6 +/- 3.5%). PMID:18807582
Lal, Jawahar; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Gupta, Ram Chandra
SUMMARY Objectives: According to The World Oral Health Report 2003, oral diseases remain a major public health problem worldwide. However, oral health is seen as a very low priority in the African Region, where extreme poverty means that the limited resources available to the health sector are directed towards life-threatening conditions such as HIV\\/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The mission of
Charlotte Faty Ndiaye
Tuberculosis can cause infertility when it infects the genital tract (e.g., endometritis). A 31-year-old woman (origin: Algeria) was referred to our academic gynecological institute for unexplained primary infertility. The patient presented with no complaint. Hysteroscopy showed a 10?mm sized endometrial polyp. The polyp was removed. Pathology showed lymphocytic and plasmacytic chronic inflammatory modification, granulomatous modification, and gigantocellular modification,which lead to the diagnosis of tuberculosis. No acid fast organism was seen on Ziehl-Neelsen staining. A chest thorax X-ray revealed no sign of pulmonary tuberculosis. The patient underwent antituberculosis therapy during one year. Posttreatment hysteroscopy revealed no abnormality. This is the first reported case of endometrial tuberculosis diagnosed following removal of a polyp with classical benign appearance.
Seror, Julien; Faivre, Erika; Prevot, Sophie; Deffieux, Xavier
Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere. In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another. Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes.
Roelsgaard, E.; Iversen, E.; Bl?cher, C.
A 59-year-old female was complaining of sore throat, right otorrhea, and hearing impairment. There were no abnormal findings suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis on her chest XP and CT. Nasopharyngoscopic examination detected a lesion coated with white mass on her nasopharynx, and a biopsy-specimen from this lesion revealed histopathological findings compatible with tuberculosis and the presence of acid-fast bacilli. PCR was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Therefore, we diagnosed the case as primary nasopharyngeal tuberculosis and treated her by 4-drug combination regimen with daily isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Later, low degree of resistance was noticed, isoniazid was replaced by levofloxacin. After the anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, her symptoms almost completely diminished and the mass in her nasopharynx disappeared. As far as we can search, 23 Japanese cases of primary nasopharyngeal tuberculosis, including this case, have been reported in the literatures. We summarized the clinical features of these cases in Table. Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis is a rather rare disease. But, recently, due to the advances in diagnostic technology, the number of the case-reports has been increasing. Difficulties in detecting tubercle bacilli in nasopharyngeal lesion sometimes delayed definite diagnosis and treatment. If a patient complains the symptoms compatible with this disease, such as sore throat, pharyngeal pain and otorrhea, which are refractory to the general antibiotic therapy, we should be aware of the existence of this disease and repeat bacteriological and/or molecular examinations to prove tubercle bacilli to be able to start timely anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. PMID:23882729
Takagi, Ayaka; Nagayasu, Fumihiro; Sugama, Yoshimi; Shiraishi, Satoshi
OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the historical link between tuberculosis and poverty still exists. DESIGN--Retrospective study examining the notifications of all forms of tuberculosis by council ward over a six year period and correlating this with four indices of poverty; council housing, free school meals, the Townsend overall deprivation index, and the Jarman index. SETTING--The 33 electoral wards of the city of
D P Spence; J Hotchkiss; C S Williams; P D Davies
Hepatosplenic involvement is a rare manifestation of abdominal tuberculosis in children. We describe the case of a 7-year-old girl with persistent fever, cough, and hepatosplenomegaly. Typical lesions were shown in the liver and spleen by ultrasound and computed tomography. Colonoscopy showed a nodular, ulcerated mass that partially obstructed the cecum. Microbiological and histopathological findings of intestinal and liver biopsy confirmed the clinical suspicion of tuberculosis.
Guidi, Roberto; Bolli, Valeria; Lanza, Cecilia; Biagetti, Chiara; Osimani, Patrizia; de Benedictis, Fernando Maria
Summary Tuberculosis (TB) today remains one of the world’s most lethal infectious diseases. An estimated one-third of the world’s\\u000a population is infected with the tubercle bacillus-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and 7 to 8 million people develop TB disease each year (27). For purpose of clarity, TB infection (latent TB) is defined\\u000a as harboring Mtb without evidence of active infection, and TB
S. Rajagopalan; T. T. Yoshikawa
Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which commonly attacks the lungs (as pulmonary TB) but can also affect other organ systems. Over one third of the world’s\\u000a population now carries the TB bacterium. Not everyone infected develops active TB, and latent (asymptomatic) infection is\\u000a common. TB is a problem not only in the developing world
John B. Bass; James N. Byrd
Characteristic features of a migratory process of tuberculosis patients in the Republic of Moldova were subjected to study. Two tendencies have been revealed: growth of a number of the arriving subjects and deterioration of the structure of pulmonary tuberculosis among them. Patients who arrived from the places of confinement where morbidity persists on a high level constitute a particular hazard concerning tuberculosis dissemination. Certain organization measures have been taken. The epidemiologic situation for tuberculosis in the penitentiary-labour establishments at the republican Ministry of Internal Affairs was subjected to a comprehensive analysis with subsequent discussion of the results at a meeting of the staff of the Ministry of Public Health; instruction and plan of measures to be taken have been compiled by both ministries; a permanent board has been instituted for rendering help to medical workers of the penitentiary establishments; all law-protective organs have been involved in tuberculosis control; a specialized institution has been set up with a hospital for 200 beds intended for skilled examination and treatment of patients. As a result, the index of tuberculosis morbidity in the republican penitentiary-labour establishments reduced by more than half to promote an improvement of the epidemiologic situation in the republic. PMID:1409515
Degtiarev, V P; Evtodiev, V S; Bylich, F G
1. Guinea pigs living in the same room but not in the same cage with tuberculous animals acquire tuberculosis, characterized by a chronic course, a marked involvement of the lungs, often with cavity formation and a massive tuberculosis of the tracheobronchial nodes; the mesenteric and cervical nodes are slightly or not at all affected. 2. The route of infection in these guinea pigs is almost always the respiratory tract. 3. Of 103 guinea pigs exposed for a period of up to 32 months 15 or 14.5 per cent developed tuberculosis. The shortest period of exposure leading to fatal tuberculosis was 8 months. 4. The incidence of this tuberculosis acquired by air-borne contagion increases with the duration and intensity of the exposure up to a certain point. 5. A large percentage of the guinea pigs weathered a continuous exposure to the tubercle bacillus for 32 months without becoming tuberculous. This may be due to an innate natural resistance against tuberculosis, or to an acquired immunity resulting from the continuous exposure to the contagion.
Lurie, Max B.
Congenital tuberculosis is a rare disease of which the most common presentations include respiratory distress, fever, and organomegaly. We report a case of congenital tuberculosis presenting with ascites. PMID:21529114
Aelami, Mohammad Hassan; Qhodsi Rad, Mohammad Ali; Sasan, Mohammad Saeed; Ghazvini, Kiarash
A case of laryngeal tuberculosis, in a 21-year-old female, is presented. The pathophysiology and natural course of the disease are discussed. The incidence of apical tuberculosis and associated laryngeal spread is noted. ImagesFigure 1
Jones, Christine E.; Jones, Beulah D.
Incidence of tuberculosis has increased in the Netherlands in recent years, especially among immigrants. Nearly half of all patients with tuberculosis have extrapulmonary disease; in 5% of these patients it is localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the low incidence of gastrointestinal tuberculosis we recently established this diagnosis in three of our patients, who demonstrated tuberculosis within the oesophagus, colon and pancreas, respectively. They were successfully treated, but only after a long diagnostic process. PMID:23739601
Schrauwen, Ruud; Richter, Clemens; Vrolijk, Jan Maarten
Tuberculosis has been a disease of human beings for thousands of years. In recent times it has waxed to become the feared White Plague of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and waned under the impact of effective chemotherapy until its elimination seemed possible by the early twenty-first century. The resurgence of tuberculosis in the past 10 to 15 years, caused by unanticipated events such as the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus and deteriorating social conditions, also brought with it the problem of multiple drug resistance. Control measures such as tuberculin skin testing, perhaps somewhat forgotten when tuberculosis seemed to be a disease of the past, again became first-line defenses against spread of the disease. Environmental controls must be well understood and used effectively. Diagnosis of tuberculosis requires knowledge of the strengths and shortcomings of the various diagnostic methods and experience in their use. Practitioners are cautioned to remember that no diagnostic method, by itself, can be relied on to confirm or rule out tuberculosis. Well-tested diagnostic methods of chest radiograph, tuberculin skin testing, smear, and culture have been recently supplemented by rapid diagnostic tests based on amplification of bacterial RNA and DNA. More invasive diagnostic methods are sometimes required to diagnose extrapulmonary disease. Two-drug up to seven-drug therapy may be indicated for a case of tuberculosis, depending on evidence of the presence of multiple drug resistance. Duration of treatment can range from 6 to 12 months, also depending on identification of drug-sensitive or drug-resistant organisms. Failure of compliance can be a significant problem in patients who are homeless, or drug abusers, or who for various reasons cannot or will not complete a course of therapy. Directly observed therapy is strongly recommended for these patients, and for assistance in its administration the physician must cooperate with the local or state health department. The health department also must be notified whenever a case of tuberculosis is identified. PMID:9105282
McDermott, L J; Glassroth, J; Mehta, J B; Dutt, A K
|The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…
Gessner, Bradford D.
|Lifeguards run the risk of workplace infection by tuberculosis-carrying swimmers. Even if they work in ventilated, sunlit areas (which reduces risk), they can contract tuberculosis when performing respiratory resuscitation. Without appropriate precautions, lifeguards may be unnecessarily exposed. A tuberculosis infection control plan is needed in…
|The first section of this report on childhood tuberculosis in developed and developing countries discusses the epidemiology of tuberculosis in children. Information is presented on: (1) sources and prevalence of infection; (2) risks, frequency, and types of tuberculosis; (3) mortality rates; and (4) the relation of poverty and AIDS to…
Chaulet, Pierre; And Others
Chylothorax in an adult is a rare cause of pleural effusion. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may cause chylous effusion, but usually in association with extensive intrapulmonary involvement. A case of chylothorax is presented in which M tuberculosis was isolated from the pleural fluid and was the only intrathoracic manifestation of tuberculosis.
Anton, P A; Rubio, J; Casan, P; Franquet, T
The growing pandemic of human tuberculosis has not been affected significantly by the widespread use of the only currently available vaccine, bacille Calmette Guerin. Bacille Calmette Guerin protects uniformly against serious paediatric forms of tuberculosis and against adult pulmonary tuberculosis in some parts of the world, but there are clearly populations in high-burden countries which do not benefit from the current vaccination regimen. New tuberculosis vaccines will be essential for the ultimate control of this ancient disease. Research over the past 10 years has produced literally hundreds of new tuberculosis vaccine candidates representing all of the major vaccine design strategies; protein/peptide vaccines in adjuvants, DNA vaccines, naturally and rationally attenuated strains of mycobacteria, recombinant mycobacteria and other living vaccine vectors expressing genes coding for immunodominant mycobacterial antigens, and non-peptide vaccines. Many of these vaccines have been tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mouse and guinea pig models of low-dose pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, alternative routes of tuberculosis vaccine delivery (e.g. oral, respiratory, gene gun) and various combinations of priming or boosting an experimental vaccine with bacille Calmette Guerin have been examined in relevant animal models. One of the most promising of these vaccines is currently in Phase I trials in human subjects, and others are expected to follow in the near future. This review will summarise the most recent progress made toward the development and preclinical evaluation of novel vaccines for human tuberculosis. PMID:12782054
McMurray, David N
1. Ultraviolet irradiation of the air of a room exercises a protective influence against natural air-borne contagion of tuberculosis in rabbits. 2. When the radiant energy is of low intensity it reduces considerably the incidence of tuberculosis. (a) It completely protects rabbits of high natural resistance from acquiring demonstrable disease though they become tuberculin sensitive. (b) It fails to protect a small proportion of rabbits of low natural resistance from fatal tuberculosis. 3. When the radiant energy is of high intensity all rabbits, whether of high or of low natural resistance, are almost completely protected from a contagion so severe that it is fatal to the great majority of rabbits of the same genetic constitution not protected by these rays. The protected rabbits do not develop tuberculin sensitivity. 4. The contagion of tuberculosis in these studies is air-borne and the radiant energy exercises its protective influence by its bactericidal properties. It is probable that ultraviolet irradiation may control air-borne contagion of human tuberculosis.
Lurie, Max B.
In order to analyze the structure of urogenital tuberculosis, retrospective analysis of medical records of 131 patients with newly diagnosed urogenital tuberculosis observed in the Novosibirsk Regional TB Dispensary from 2009 to 2011 was performed. The renal tuberculosis is main form in the structure is urotuberculosis, detected in 75% of patients, and widespread destructive forms of the disease were diagnosed in more than half of cases. Isolated nephrotuberculosis was more often diagnosed in women--56.8%. 15.9% of patients had asymptomatic nephrotuberculosis; one-third of patients complained of pain in the lumbar region and frequent painful urination (35.2 and 39.8%, respectively); symptoms of intoxication were present in 17% of patients, renal colic--in 9.1%, and gross hematuria--in 7.9% of patients. Mycobacteriuria in isolated nephrotuberculosis was detected in 31.8% of cases. Acute tuberculous orchiepididymitis developed in 35.7% of patients, hemospermia was observed in 7.1% of patients, dysuria was in 35.7% of patients. The pain in the perineum, frequent painful urination (both by 31.6%), hemospermia (26.3%) were main complaints in prostate tuberculosis. Mycobacteria was detected in 10.5% of cases. It was found that urogenital tuberculosis has no pathognomonic symptoms; the most alarming manifestations include long-term dysuria, hematuria, hemospermia. PMID:23662488
Zhukova, I I; Kul'chavenia, E V; Kholtobin, D P; Brizhatiuk, E V; Khomiakov, V T; Osadchi?, A V
Central Nervous System (CNS) tuberculosis is a serious, often fatal form of tuberculosis, predomi- nantly affecting young children. HIV co-infection and drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are making the diagnosis and treatment of CNS tuberculosis more complicated. Current concepts about the pat- hogenesis of CNS tuberculosis are based on necropsy studies done in 1933, which suggest that tuberculous meningitis
Nicholas A. Be; Kwang Sik Kim; William R. Bishai; Sanjay K. Jain
Intraabdominal tuberculosis (TB) presents with a wide variety of clinical and radiologic features. Besides the reported computed tomographic (CT) finding of high-density ascites in tuberculous peritonitis, this report describes additional CT features highly suggestive of abdominal tuberculosis in eight cases: (1) irregular soft-tissue densities in the omental area; (2) low-density masses surrounded by thick solid rims; (3) a disorganized appearance of soft-tissue densities, fluid, and bowel loops forming a poorly defined mass; (4) low-density lymph nodes with a multilocular appearance after intravenous contrast administration; and (5) possibly high-density ascites. The differential diagnosis of these features include lymphoma, various forms of peritonitis, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and peritoneal mesothelioma. It is important that the CT features of intraabdominal tuberculosis be recognized in order that laparotomy be avoided and less invasive procedures (e.g., laparoscopy, biopsy, or a trial of antituberculous therapy) be instituted.
Epstein, B.M. (Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa); Mann, J.H.
Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) plays an important role because its complications may be fatal, it significantly reduces quality of life, and it is often associated with AIDS. Diagnosis of UGTB is often delayed. We analyzed 131 case histories of UGTB patients from the years 2009-2011. Gender, age, and the clinical form and main features of the disease were taken into account. The most common form was kidney tuberculosis (74.8 %). Isolated kidney tuberculosis (KTB) more often occurs in women: 56.8 %. Patients of middle and old age more often showed the stage of cavernous KTB; younger patients had smaller forms. Among all cases, an asymptomatic course was seen in 12.2 % and, among cases of KTB, in 15.9 %. Every third patient complained of flank pain and dysuria (35.2 % and 39.8 %, respectively); 17 % presented with toxicity symptoms, 9.1 % with renal colic, and 7.9 % with gross hematuria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in urine was found in 31.8 % of cases in all levels of isolated KTB. UGTB has no specific symptom; even sterile pyuria occurs only in 25 %. The acute onset of tuberculous orchiepididymitis was seen in 35.7 % of patients, hemospermia in 7.1 %, and dysuria in 35.7 %. The most common complaints for prostate tuberculosis were perineal pain (31.6 %), dysuria (also 31.6 %), and hemospermia (26.3 %). MTB in prostate secretion/ejaculate was revealed in 10.5 % of this group. All urogenital tract infections should be suspected as UGTB in patients who are living in a region with a high incidence rate, who have had contact with tuberculosis infection, and who have a recurrence of the disease that is resistant to standard therapy. PMID:23526041
Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Zhukova, Irina; Kholtobin, Denis
Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.
Sanjay Kalra; Bharti Kalra; Navneet Agrawal
Methods of inhibiting the proliferation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis comprising contacting Mycobacterium tuberculosis with an effective amount of a polynucleotide complementary to an mRNA transcript expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are provided. T...
D. Tabatadze G. Harth M. A. Horwitz P. C. Zamecnik
Fennec foxes (Fennecus zerda) in 2 zoos were found on necropsy to have lesions typical of those found in canine tuberculosis. Histologic examination revealed numerous acid-fast bacilli in lesions of liver, portal lymph node, spleen, kidney, and lung. Mycobacterium bovis isolated from tissues was identified by biochemical methods and by pathogenicity tests in guinea pigs and rabbits. PMID:7005205
Himes, E M; Luchsinger, D W; Jarnagin, J L; Thoen, C O; Hood, H B; Ferrin, D A
The role of iron in the growth and metabolism of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria is discussed in relation to the acquisiton of iron from host sources, such as transferrin, lactoferrin and ferritin, and its subsequent assimilation and utilization by the bacteria. Key components involved in the acquisition of iron (as ferric ion) and its initial transport into the mycobacterial
After decades of decline, tuberculosis case rates in New York City more than tripled between 1978 and 1992. While the number of cases of those born in the United States declined after 1992, the proportion of immigrant tuberculosis cases continued to increase and reached 58 percent in 1999. This article questions the biomedical explanation of immigrant tuberculosis as being imported from immigrants' countries of origin. Illness narratives of illegal Chinese immigrants with tuberculosis detailing risks associated with migratory journeys are presented. The social and cultural nature of the concept of risk, as well as the adverse implication of biomedical identification of immigrants as being at higher risk of tuberculosis, are also discussed. The author concludes that the dominant biomedical explanation of immigrant tuberculosis could be modified with the incorporation of the migratory process as a risk factor. PMID:14716918
Alcohol consumption has been described as a risk factor for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its contribution to tuberculosis has been difficult to isolate from other adverse socioeconomic factors. Our objec- tive was to evaluate the impact of alcohol consumption on pulmonary infection with M. tuberculosis in a murine model. BALB\\/c mice were maintained on the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet
Carol M. Mason; Elizabeth Dobard; Ping Zhang; Steve Nelson
The authors reviewed the initial chest roentgenograms of 182 consecutive adult patients with proven active tuberculosis. Less than 50% of all cases were known or suspected at the time of initial presentation. There is a low degree of correlation between radiologically discernible active pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. A high percentage of cases represent uncommon pulmonary locations. The frequency of occurrence of four common pulmonary patterns is presented. 21 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.
Tytle, T.L.; Johnson, T.H.
The incidence of new cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis has remained constant, despite the decline in new cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis. This might be due to a delay in recognition, and particularly a lack of consideration of tuberculosis when the presenting symptoms are other than respiratory. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bone, joint, genitourinary tract and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. To determine factors that might delay recognition and identification, 62 patients having extrapulmonary tuberculosis during 1969-1972 at the Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center were studied. Three quarters of these patients had had CNS, skeletal or genitourinary tuberculosis in equal distribution or 25 percent each. CNS involvement was seen frequently in the disseminated form. Presenting symptoms were protean and not specific, such as fever, anorexia, weight loss, cough, lymphadenopathy and neurologic abnormalities. Roentgenograms of the chest were abnormal in most. When a roentgenogram of the chest suggests pulmonary tuberculosis, signs and symptoms in other body systems should suggest extrapulmonary tuberculosis. If no abnormalities are seen on a roentgenogram of the chest, however, this does not preclude the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Neither does a negative tuberculin skin test exclude the condition. Abnormal laboratory findings are common, especially in disseminated tuberculosis. These include various anemias, bone marrow disorders, hyponatremia due to inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome. Analyses of pleural, peritoneal, pericardial and joint fluid usually show an exudate high in lymphocytes and occasionally low in glucose. Similar findings are seen in spinal fluid. The histological features of caseous or noncaseous granulomas are suggestive of but not specific for tuberculosis. Only culture of mycobacteria from sputum, urine, spinal fluid, pleural and other effusions and tissue biopsy specimens will yield a definitive diagnosis. Physicians must have a high index of suspicion to diagnose extrapulmonary tuberculosis, as it can resemble any disease in any organ system. Immediate therapy in the disseminated variety, sometimes even before a definite diagnosis can be made, may be lifesaving.
Latent tuberculosis infection is a key stage in the natural history of tuberculosis, and provides an important period where strategies to prevent the development of disease may be implemented. The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is well described in many national guidelines. In this review, we attempt to help pneumonologists to implement these guidelines accurately and appropriately, prescribing preventive treatment when the benefit-risk ratio is optimal, providing treatment most safely, performing therapeutic education and incorporating preventive treatment into the full array of measures against tuberculosis. PMID:22542415
The Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the major wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis in New Zealand. Control of bovine tuberculosis in farmed animals requires measures to reduce the transmission of M. bovis from wildlife. Possums were vaccinated with BCG intranasally by aerosol spray, orally or subcutaneously to compare the efficacy of these three routes on protection against challenge with
F. E. Aldwell; D. L. Keen; V. C. Stent; A. Thomson; G. F. Yates; G. W. de Lisle; B. M. Buddle
According to WHO, about one third of the world's population is infected with bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Currently there is globally 9.15 million recorded cases of overt tuberculosis (TB) annually and due to lack of adequate diagnostics presumably a large but unknown number of non-recorded cases. TB is estimated to cause 1.65 million deaths per annum which accounts for one-fifth of all deaths by infectious diseases of adults in low-income countries. During recent years a rapid spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria causing about 0.5 million TB cases per year has worsened the problem. The live attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine which is the only currently available TB vaccine does not confer any significant protection against the most common and contagious form of TB-adult pulmonary TB. PMID:20372087
Svenson, Stefan; Källenius, Gunilla; Pawlowski, Andrzej; Hamasur, Beston
Tuberculosis of the spine is one of the most common spine pathology in India. Over last 4 decades a lot has changed in the diagnosis, medical treatment and surgical procedures to treat this disorder. Further developments in diagnosis using molecular genetic techniques, more effective antibiotics and more aggressive surgical protocols have become essential with emergence of multidrug resistant TB. Surgical procedures such as single stage anterior and posterior stabilization, extrapleral dorsal spine anterior stabilization and endoscopic thoracoscopic surgeries have reduced the mortality and morbidity of the surgical procedures. is rapidly progressing. It is a challenge to treat MDR-TB Spine with late onset paraplegia and progressive deformity. Physicians must treat tuberculosis of spine on the basis of Culture and sensitivity.
Agrawal, Vinod; Patgaonkar, P. R.; Nagariya, S. P.
Tuberculosis is one of the main causes of serious diseases in developing countries. Despite of decreasing tuberculosis in industrial countries, diseases is not eradicated. In last fifth years the picture of diseases is changed with large number atypical cases. Factor that is responsible for this are variable and includes primary infection in old ages, or problems that are in relation with immigration of populations. Tuberculosis meningitis disease witch appears mostly in childhood with high incidence in first three years of life. Most cases tuberculosis meningitis are caused with human types of tuberculosis bacillus, while bovines type is responsible for less than 5% of cases, but there are also reported cases of tuberculosis meningitis caused 3% atypical mycobacterium. In report is described a girl in age of two years sick of tuberculosis meningitis, she come from Kosovo, with positive epidemiological anamnesis. When she came to the hospital diseases had all clinical manifestation of serious meningoencefalitis. Very soon signs of decompensate hydrocephalus are developed. In the culture of cerebrospinalis fluid isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary resistant on etambutol and rifampicin. PMID:16528937
Bajramovi?, Nermina; Koluder, Nada; Dautovi?, Sajma; Muratovi?, Planinka
There has been a resurgence in tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Approximately 2 billion people have latent infection, 8 million would develop active TB annually, and 2–3 million would die due to TB. With this resurgence, cases with extrapulmonary TB have also shown an increase. Approximately 10–11% of extrapulmonary TB involves joints and bones, which is approximately 1–3% of all TB cases.
P. P Kotwal
John Keats was trained as an apothecary, the general practitioner of the day. Precocious in his sensibilities and fluent in his imagery, he also was the model of the romantic poet. That he was a physician and a poet makes his early death from tuberculosis poignant and revealing. This history traces his life and death against the backdrop of medicine at the turn of the 19th century. PMID:11368115
Thirty-fourth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. About 2 billion people are walking around infected by tuberculosis. But they don't it, because they don't have any symptoms of this terrible disease. The trick with TB is to catch it early and prevent ever-widening circles of infection.
...2010-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Reagents Â§ 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...a) Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
...2009-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Reagents Â§ 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...a) Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
Although the overall prevalence of tuberculosis has decreased in the United States, with the increasing prevalence of tuberculosis globally, higher rates of tuberculosis in some states and localities have been reported, with some component probably related to immigrant populations. We report a case of primary pulmonary tuberculosis in a malnourished adolescent.
Zawaideh, Mazen; Chao, Cherng; Poole, Patricia; Naheedy, John
PURPOSE: Segmental colonic tuberculosis commonly involves the ascending, transverse, or sigmoid colon. Rectal involvement in tuberculosis is uncommon and poorly characterized. This study describes the clinical presentation, endoscopic features, and outcome of isolated rectal tuberculosis. METHODS: Isolated rectal tuberculosis was defined as focal lesions of the rectum in the absence of radiologically demonstrable lesions in the small and large bowel
A. S. Puri; J. C. Vij; A. Chaudhary; Nirmal Kumar; A. Sachdev; V. Malhotra; V. K. Malik; S. L. Broor
CNS tuberculosis remains relatively frequent in endemic regions. Both CT and MRI are valuable for diagnosis. Even though non-specific, MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging and proton spectroscopy is more sensitive than CT for detection of some lesions. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the imaging features of CNS tuberculosis. PMID:18354351
Semlali, S; El Kharras, A; Mahi, M; Hsaini, Y; Benameur, M; Aziz, N; Chaouir, S; Akjouj, S
Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst.
Kamal, Mir Reza; Jha, Jayesh Kumar
Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst. PMID:23346004
Jindal, Tarun; Kamal, Mir Reza; Jha, Jayesh Kumar
The varied clinical presentation of osteoarticular tuberculosis makes the diagnosis an enigma. This report underlines the fact that osteoarticular tuberculosis can present in the most atypical pattern. It also emphasises the need for a high index of clinical suspicion and the low threshold for tissue biopsy for establishing the diagnosis. PMID:16305093
Kakarala, Gopikrishna; Rajan, Daniel
The global incidence of tuberculosis peaked around the year 2003 and is currently declining gradually. However, the worldwide incidence of new tuberculosis cases is still estimated to be 8.8 million/year, with 1.5 million deaths occurring per year. Considering that previous studies have determined the risk factors for death due to tuberculosis, we aimed at reviewing the literature to collectively evaluate these risk factors. According our literature review of 12 articles published in English language and 7 articles published in Japanese, the risk factors for death due to tuberculosis are age, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), malnutrition, low activities of daily living, co-morbidities, unemployment, and drug injection. We developed a scoring system to calculate the Tuberculosis Prognostic Score using 4 risk factors, namely, age, serum albumin level, oxygen requirement, and activities of daily living, after assessing several cohorts in Japan, in which HIV co-infection and MDR-TB are rare and their associations with mortality due to tuberculosis patients are unclear. This scoring system was successfully able to estimate life prognosis of inpatients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, lung tuberculosis without MDR-TB and/or HIV virus co-infection. PMID:23898497
Horita, Nobuyuki; Miyazawa, Naoki; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki
Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a globally emerging problem with a rising incidence. According to the WHO in 2008, 17% of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in untreated cases were resistant to at least one drug and 3.6% were resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid, which is called multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The problem is greater in patients previously treated and in some countries, where rates of multidrug resistance reach 60%. Approximately 5% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients are also resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one injectable drug, being called extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. The treatment of these forms of tuberculosis requires the use of second-line drugs, which causes higher cost, higher toxicity and a longer duration of treatment. There is a need for new compounds with efficacy and safety profiles better than those currently used to treat these forms of tuberculosis. In the last decade different drugs have being reassessed and appeared, which are at different stages of development. PMID:23540388
Ramírez Lapausa, Marta; Pascual Pareja, José Francisco; Noguerado Asensio, Arturo
SUMMARY Mycobacterium tuberculosis parasitizes host macrophages and subverts host innate and adaptive immunity. A number of cytokines elicited by the tubercle bacilli have been recognized as mediators of mycobacterial clearance or pathology in tuberculosis. Surprisingly, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), a major pro-inflammatory cytokine activated by processing upon assembly of a specialized protein complex termed the inflammasome, has not been implicated in host-pathogen interactions in tuberculosis. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis prevents inflammasome activation and IL-1? processing, and that a functional M. tuberculosis zmp1 gene is required for this process. Infection of macrophages with the zmp1 null M. tuberculosis triggered activation of caspase-1/IL-1? inflammasome, resulting in increased secretion of IL-1?, enhanced mycobacterial phagosome maturation into phagolysosomes, improved mycobacterial clearance by macrophages, and lower bacterial burden in the lungs of aerosol-infected mice. Thus, we uncovered the previously masked role for IL-1? in control of M. tuberculosis, and the existence of a mycobacterial system that prevents IL-1?/inflammasome activation.
Master, Sharon S.; Davis, Alexander. S.; Rampini, Silvana K.; Keller, Christine; Ehlers, Stefan; Springer, Burkhardt; Sander, Peter; Deretic, Vojo
Objective. Cicatricial pemphigoid (CP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by anti-basement membrane zone (BMZ) antibodies with a varied heterogeneous clinical spectrum. We sought to characterize a subset of patients with disease limited to the oral cavity.Study Design. Twenty-nine random patients with vesiculobullous disease limited to the oral cavity were studied. We identified patients by clinical criteria, the presence of
Narciss Mobini; Neville Nagarwalla; A. Razzaque Ahmed
In Japan, the care of patients with tuberculosis has been mainly dependent on the state of hospital wards. The number of patients that have tuberculosis has steadily declined over the years, and we are now on the way to low prevalence state of tuberculosis. However there is a need for discussion about how future care for patients with tuberculosis should take place. The problems of present tuberculosis care system are as follows: (i) there is inefficiency and difficulty in maintaining the tuberculosis wards because of the declining number of patients and specialists; (ii) there are difficulties in treating complications such as renal insufficiency which requires blood dialysis, delivery, psychiatric diseases in tuberculosis beds; (iii) there is a high proportion of elderly patients that require substantial nursing care and long-term admission in the hospital; (iv) there is not only insufficient patient care but also financial support for patients with socioeconomic problems such as foreign-born worker or homelessness, (v) in addition to the medical care for patients of MDR-TB being insufficient, there are also inappropriate environment and amenities for long-term hospitalization. Moreover the public subsidy system for medical treatment requires patients to pay 5% of expense cost in the outpatient clinic. The following points should be discussed for the future tuberculosis care system: (i) general hospitals should take more part in caring for patients with complications and there should be a close cooperation among general hospitals, tuberculosis specialists and the administration; (ii) there should be a limited number of hospitals maintained for the integrated treatment of MDR-TB including surgical treatment and suitable circumstances for long-term hospital care. Additionally, there should be a system of detention for non-adherent patients or home isolation for adherent patient; (iii) there should be reinforcement of public commitment for patients with socioeconomic problems or MDR patients such as public subsidized full coverage of medical expense, free treatment in regional health centers PMID:21404573
Several changes have been observed in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic modalities and treatment of tuberculosis. Emergence of HIV epidemic and drug resistance have posed significant challenges. With increase in the number of diseased adults and spread of HIV infection, the infection rates in children are likely to increase. It is estimated that in developing countries, the annual risk of tuberculosis infection in children is 2.5%. Nearly 8-20% of the deaths caused by tuberculosis occur in children. Extra pulmonary tuberculosis has increased over last two decades. HIV infected children are at an increased risk of tuberculosis, particularly disseminated disease. In last two decades, drug resistant tuberculosis has increased gradually with emergence of MDR and XDR-TB. The rate of drug resistance to any drug varied from 20% to 80% in different geographic regions. Significant changes have occurred in TB diagnostics. Various diagnostic techniques such as fluorescence LED microscopy, improved culture techniques, antigen detection, nucleic acid amplification, line probe assays and IGRAs have been developed and evaluated to improve diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. Serodiagnosis is an attractive investigation but till date none of the tests have desirable sensitivity and specificity. Tests based on nucleic acid amplification are a promising advance but relatively less experience in children, need for technical expertise and high cost are limiting factors for their use in children with tuberculosis. Short-course chemotherapy for childhood tuberculosis is well established. Directly observed treatment strategy (DOTS) have shown encouraging result. DOTS plus strategy has been introduced for MDR TB. PMID:21161446
Mukherjee, Aparna; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K
A 48-year-old man was being treated unsuccessfully for miliary tuberculosis for 5 months until he presented with acromioclavicular joint swelling. Imaging of the shoulder revealed destruction of the acromioclavicular joint and the patient was brought to the operating theatre and underwent the excision of the distal end of the clavicle, synovectomy and drainage of the abscess. Surgery was followed by prompt clinical, functional and radiological improvement. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of acromioclavicular tuberculosis. Resistance to appropriate antituberculous treatment in patients with miliary tuberculosis can sometimes be a result of undiagnosed extrapulmonary site of infection. PMID:23813516
Agathangelidis, Filon; Boutsiadis, Achilleas; Fouka, Evangelia; Karataglis, Dimitrios
The quadritherapy by isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, is still the gold standard for the treatment of tuberculosis disease. Except for severe presentations, the treatment remains based on a 6 months therapy with a 2 months induction phase. During the first health care contact, looking for an immunosupression and risk factors of hepatotoxicity and multiresistant strains is necessary. A close supervision by medical staff is recommended during all treatment duration. Rifampicin expose to drug interactions. In France, once the diagnosis is made, the referent practitioner and the biologist must notify the case to the local Health Authorities which is in charge of finding and treat, if needed, the newly infected case contacts. In order to prevent transmission, a respiratory isolation must be performed for smear positive patients. In case of renal or hepatic previous impairment, a multidisciplinary and closely supervision is recommended. Treatment of extensively and multi drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is based on combination of 2nd line drugs, and a prolonged treatment is advised. Expert supervision is necessary for case management. PMID:22641888
Gatey, Caroline; Bouvet, Elisabeth
Spinal tuberculosis usually occurs in a single vertebral body or two to three adjacent vertebrae; it rarely occurs in multiple vertebral bodies. Surgery is indicated in cases that do not improve with conservative therapy, or when paralysis is evident. Two cases regarding patients with spinal tuberculosis in multiple vertebral bodies on whom surgery was performed are reported. Case 1, the patient was a 77-year-old woman with spinal tuberculosis in four vertebral bodies from the lower thoracic to the lumbar spine. As she had pronounced lower back pain, posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Case 2, the patient was a 29-year-old Indonesian man with spinal tuberculosis in 17 vertebral bodies of the spine who was unable to stand due to paralysis of both legs, thus posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Good results were obtained from tuberculostatic drug therapy and surgical instrumentation. PMID:24066219
Baba, Hideo; Tagami, Atsushi; Adachi, Shinji; Hiura, Takeshi; Osaki, Makoto
BackgroundThis study was carried out with the aim of detecting possible differences between proteins secreted by fresh wild isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and from a reference strain of this microorganism, H37Rv TMCC 102.
Oscar Rojas-Espinosa; Javier Rangel-Moreno; Angélica Amador-Jiménez; Ruth Parra-Maldonado; Patricia Arce-Paredes; Javier Torres-López
Tuberculosis of the gallbladder is rare, even in our country known for being an endemic area. The positive diagnosis depends on suspicion of tuberculosis, peroperative findings and histological examination. From a review of the literature, the physiopathology of this infection is discussed, emphasizing the role of lithiasis in the development of tuberculous lesions. The authors report a case of gallbladder tuberculosis in a female patient who presented with a clinical picture of chronic cholelithiasis. The diagnosis of gallbladder tuberculosis was reached only after surgery and proven by histopathology. In our case, the presence of stones associated with non specific inflammatory alterations and possibly low resistance against tubercle bacillus, is believed to have been of importance for the development of the tuberculous infection. PMID:14978850
Rouas, L; Mansouri, F; Jahid, A; Zouaidia, F; Saïdi, H; Nabih, N; Benabdellah, M; Laraqui, L; Mahassini, N; Bernoussi, Z; Elhachimi, A
Spinal tuberculosis usually occurs in a single vertebral body or two to three adjacent vertebrae; it rarely occurs in multiple vertebral bodies. Surgery is indicated in cases that do not improve with conservative therapy, or when paralysis is evident. Two cases regarding patients with spinal tuberculosis in multiple vertebral bodies on whom surgery was performed are reported. Case 1, the patient was a 77-year-old woman with spinal tuberculosis in four vertebral bodies from the lower thoracic to the lumbar spine. As she had pronounced lower back pain, posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Case 2, the patient was a 29-year-old Indonesian man with spinal tuberculosis in 17 vertebral bodies of the spine who was unable to stand due to paralysis of both legs, thus posterolateral fusion with a pedicle screw was performed. Good results were obtained from tuberculostatic drug therapy and surgical instrumentation.
Baba, Hideo; Tagami, Atsushi; Adachi, Shinji; Hiura, Takeshi
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis [HLH] is a reactive disorder characterized by generalised non-malignant histiocytic proliferation with prominent hemophagocytosis. It may be either primary [familial (FLH)] or secondary [infection or malignancy associated]. Organisms incriminated for infection associated hemophagocytic syndrome (IAHS) include viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, fungi and parasites. Reports of IAHS associated with tuberculosis in neonates are rare. The authors report a case of perinatal tuberculosis presenting as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. PMID:22246612
Maheshwari, Prabhat; Chhabra, Rajiv; Yadav, Padam
Tuberculosis remains one of the leading cause of death from infectious disease in the world. Tuberculosis control is one of the Word Health Organisation priority. One third of the population was estimated to be bacillus tuberculosis carrier responsible for 8 million of new tuberculosis cases occurring each year and nearly 2 million deaths. In Europe near 400,000 cases have been declared in 2001 with a west-east gradient in the incidence rate: 11 cases for 100,000 in west european countries, 41 per 100,000 in central european countries and 92 per 100,000 in east european countries. The number of tuberculosis cases decreased in France with an average annual decline of 7.5% between 1972 and 1988. This trend discontinued in 1989. Between 1991 and 1993 the number of reported tuberculosis increased. This excess of cases is attributable partly to HIV infection, but also to worsening in socio-economic conditions. From 1993 to 1997 the number of cases decreases again and the incidence rate is about 11 p. 100,000 and remains stable. In 2002, 6322 cases have been declared in France. There are important geographic differences. The Ile de France region has the highest incidence rate: 27.1 per 100,000. The rates of the other regions are much lower. The infection risk is different according to age, sex and nationality. People over 75 are one of the most affected age group. Children under 15 years of age represent 4.3% of cases with half of these cases before 5 years of age. As in adult, incidence rate of tuberculosis is 11 fold higher in migrants children than in french children. Less than 10 cases of tuberculous meningitis are reported annually under 15 years of age. Since 2003, mandatory notification includes tuberculous infection for children under 15 years of age. Data recorded in mandatory notification might be useful to improve tuberculosis control in France. PMID:16129331
Gaudelus, J; De Pontual, L
Alcohol consumption has been described as a risk factor for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its contribution to tuberculosis has been difficult to isolate from other adverse socioeconomic factors. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of alcohol consumption on pulmonary infection with M. tuberculosis in a murine model. BALB/c mice were maintained on the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet or a liquid control diet and infected intratracheally with low-dose M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Lung organism burdens, lung and lung-associated lymph node CD4+- and CD8+- lymphocyte numbers and rates of proliferation, and CD4+-lymphocyte cytokine production levels were compared between the groups. The alcohol-consuming mice had significantly higher lung organism burdens than the control mice, and the CD4+- and CD8+-lymphocyte responses to pulmonary infection with M. tuberculosis were blunted in the alcohol group. Lymphocyte proliferation and production of gamma interferon were decreased in the CD4+ lymphocytes from the alcohol-consuming mice. Additionally, lung granulomas were significantly smaller in the alcohol-consuming mice. In conclusion, murine alcohol consumption is associated with decreased control of pulmonary infection with M. tuberculosis, which is accompanied by alterations in the region-specific CD4+- and CD8+-lymphocyte responses and defective lung granuloma formation.
Mason, Carol M.; Dobard, Elizabeth; Zhang, Ping; Nelson, Steve
Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.
Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya
A 26-year-old man (human immunodeficiency virus-positive and not taking highly active antiretroviral treatment [HAART]) presented to the emergency room with 2 months of malaise, 20 kg weight loss, high spiking fevers, generalized lymph nodes, night sweats, dry cough, and chest pain when swallowing. On physical examination, he had multiple cervical lymphadenopathies. Suspecting a systemic opportunistic infection, a contrasted chest computed tomography (CT) was done, showing an esophageal to mediastinum fistulae. Two days after admission, a fluoroscopic contrasted endoscopy was done that showed two esophageal fistulae from scrofula to esophagus and then, to mediastinum. A bronchoalveolar lavage and a cervical lymphadenopathy biopsy were done, both showing multiple acid-fast bacillae, where cultures grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:23740190
Cataño, Juan; Cardeño, John
An unprecedented number of new tuberculosis (TB) medications are currently in development, and there will be great pressure to deploy these new drugs among all populations after their efficacy is demonstrated. People living with HIV experience a large burden of TB and have a particularly pressing need for TB treatments that are shorter and less toxic. In addition, all people living with HIV now require antiretroviral therapy during TB treatment. A roadmap of the research, programmatic, and regulatory considerations includes the following: (1) inclusion of people living with HIV early in clinical trials for treatment and prevention using new TB medications, (2) prioritization of key studies of HIV–TB drug interactions and interactions between new TB agents, and (3) optimization of clinical trial infrastructure, laboratory capacity, and drug susceptibility testing.
Getahun, Haileyesus; Chamie, Gabriel; Lienhardt, Christian; Havlir, Diane V.
The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6.
Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha
The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6. PMID:20871843
Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha
Despite the efforts made worldwide to reduce the number of cases of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) constitutes an important public health issue. Around 440,000 new cases of MDR-TB are estimated annually, although in 2008 only 7% of these (29,423 cases) were notified. The laboratory tests for diagnosing resistance may be phenotypic (based on culture growth in the presence of drugs) or genotypic (i.e. identification of the presence of mutations that confer resistance). The urgent need for a rapid means of detecting resistance to anti-TB drugs has resulted in the development of many genotypic methods over recent years. The treatment of MDR-TB is expensive, complex, prolonged (18-24 months) and associated with a higher incidence of adverse reactions. Some basic principles must be observed when prescribing an adequate treatment regimen for MDR-TB: (a) the association of at least four drugs (three of which should not have been used previously); (b) use of a fluoroquinolone; and (c) use of an injectable anti-TB drug. In Brazil, the therapeutic regimen for MDR-TB has been standardized and consists of five drugs: terizidone, levofloxacin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and an aminoglycoside (streptomycin or amikacin). Pulmonary resection is an important tool in the coadjuvant treatment of MDR-TB. While a recent meta-analysis revealed an average cure rate of MDR-TB of 69%, clinical studies are currently being conducted with new drugs and with drugs already available on the market but with a new indication for TB, with encouraging results that will enable more effective treatment regimens to be planned in the future. PMID:23477764
Lemos, Antônio Carlos Moreira; Matos, Eliana Dias
A 36-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented with two-month abdominal distention, night sweats, and weight loss of 15?Ib. He had no known exposure to tuberculosis. PPD test was negative prior to the hospital admission. Physical examination was notable for new onset ascites, but no superficial lymphadenopathy or stigmata of chronic liver disease was found. CT scan demonstrated enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, and prominent retroperitoneal lymph nodes along with moderate ascites and omental infiltration. Diagnostic paracentesis yielded WBC of 295/mm3, lymphocytic predominance (70%), and serum ascitic albumin gradient of 0.1, consistent with exudate. Both the ascitic culture and AFB smear were negative, and ascitic cytology revealed nonmalignant cells. Exploratory laparoscopy for excisional biopsy of mesenteric lymph nodes was performed. Pathologic findings revealed caseous granulomas with scattered multinucleated giant cells. Mesenteric lymph node tissue culture subsequently grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the diagnosis of peritoneal tuberculosis was confirmed. The patient was started on quadruple therapy. A couple of days after the antibiotics were started, the small bowel obstruction started to resolve with resumption of bowel movements and tolerance of oral intake. A week later, ascites stopped accumulating and fever was no longer noted. He has been well and continues to be under observation.
Yecies, Emmanuelle B.; Craig, Fiona E.
... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If ...
... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If ...
... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation corticosteroid ...
Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.
Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht
Recording memories of World War II is an intervention that can humanize geriatric care in addition to the historical significance provided. Participants in this oral history project described memories of World War II and expressed themes of patriotism, loss, tense moments, makeshift living, self-sufficiency, and uncertain journey. Their ethnic roots were primarily Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and English. The nursing home
Lois B. Taft; Mary Ellen Stolder; Alice Briolat Knutson; Karolyn Tamke; Jennifer Platt; Tara Bowlds
Objective: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis remains an enigma despite many recent technological developments. The present study\\u000a has been taken up with the aim to assess the diagnostic potential of mycobacterium tuberculosis excretory-secretory ES-31\\u000a antigen and affinity purified anti ES-31 antibodies in the serodiagnosis of different spectrum of childhood tuberculosis.Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Ra excretory-secretory antigen (ES-31) and affinity purified goat
A. S. Bhatia; Sonika Gupta; Neeraj Shende; Satish Kumar; B. C. Harinath
Objective To determine the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis in one of Uganda's poor peri-urban areas. Methods Multi-stage sampling was used to select a sample of households whose members were evaluated for presence of signs and\\/or symptoms of active tuberculosis; history of tuberculosis treatment; and relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and household environment characteristics. Patients with suspected tuberculosis underwent standardized evaluation for
David Guwatudde; Sarah Zalwango; Moses R. Kamya; Sara M. Debanne; Mireya I. Diaz; Alphonse Okwera; Roy D. Mugerwa; Charles King; Christopher C. Whalen
Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845
Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas
Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). Conditioning of gut dendritic cells (DCs) by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent DC that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of oral tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and forkhead box protein 3+ iTregs are induced by oral antigen and by oral administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Oral or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and oral or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.
Weiner, Howard L.; da Cunha, Andre Pires; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry
Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). Conditioning of gut dendritic cells by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces a CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent dendritic cell that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of oral tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and Foxp3 iTregs are induced by oral antigen and by oral administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Oral or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and oral or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces a LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.
Weiner, Howard L.; Cunha, Andre Pires da; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry
Countries with a low incidence of tuberculosis have recently been faced with the problem of tuberculosis (TB) in asylum seekers from countries with a high TB prevalence. We report on the tuberculosis case notification rate (TBCNR) in Belgium in 1993, and on the results of active screening in a group of asylum seekers. The TBCNR in Belgium in 1993 increased
P. Van den Brande; M. Uydebrouck; P. Vermeire; M. Demedts; U. Z. Gasthuisberg; Dienst Longziekten
...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection Â§ 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...
Tuberculosis (TB) vaccine trials are planned in adolescents in a high tuberculosis burden rural area near Cape Town, South Africa. To determine the knowledge and attitudes of adolescents about tuberculosis, vaccines and vaccine trials, a representative sample of adolescent learners was chosen from high schools in the trial area. A questionnaire was administered and focus group discussions held with the
H. Mahomed; J. Shea; F. Kafaar; T. Hawkridge; W. A. Hanekom; G. D. Hussey
Two probable references to tuberculosis are found in Old Testament books of the Bible dating to a time when the Israelites lived in Egypt, which is known from archeological evidence to be an area where tuberculosis was then prevalent. Other putative biblical references to tuberculosis are less credible. PMID:10585812
Daniel, V S; Daniel, T M
A child with isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis monoarthritis, with features initially suggesting oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is presented. This patient illustrates the need to consider the possibility of tuberculosis as the cause of oligoarthritis in high-risk pediatric populations even in the absence of a tuberculosis contact history and without evidence of overt pulmonary disease.
Rajakumar, Derek; Rosenberg, Alan M
Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number
Lisa Claire du Toit; Viness Pillay; Michael Paul Danckwerts
Background: Childhood tuberculosis is treated with multiple regimens for different clinical manifestations. World Health Organization has suggested a category-based treatment of tuberculosis that focuses on adult type of illness. To include children as DOTS beneficiaries, there is a need to assess the feasibility of classification and treatment of various types of childhood tuberculosis in different categories. Methods: The study was
S. K. Kabra; Rakesh Lodha; V. Seth
Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen(®) 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417
Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N
Suboccipital tuberculosis is an uncommon localization of Pott's disease. The gravity results from the neurological and life threatening risk. We report a case of suboccipital tuberculosis in a 22-year woman who survived. She was given an anti-tuberculosis antibiotic regimen due to pulmonary and pericardal involvement. The patient interrupted her treatment after four months and was admitted six months later for torticolis and spastic tetraplegia without sphincter disorders. Standard x-rays and MRI of the head confirmed suboccipital Pott's disease. Transcranial evacuation was performed and the patient was again given anti-tuberculosis antibiotics. The clinical course was favorable with definitive recovery 45 days later. The patient continued the antibiotic regimen for nine months. An orthopedic supporting device was worn for nine months. The diagnosis of suboccipital tuberculosis can be confirmed on MRI. Appropriate treatment is a subject of debate between exclusive orthopedic or combined orthopedic and surgical treatment. Prognosis depends on the neurological deficit, early diagnosis and prompt treatment. PMID:11283459
Ibahioin, K; Ait Ben Ali, A; Choukri, M; Sami, A; Achouri, M; Ouboukhlik, A; El Kamar, A; El Azhari, A
Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases.
Akpan, A; Morgan, R
The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is considered a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in south-central Spain. The vaccination of wildlife with BCG offers an alternative to culling and to movement restriction for the control of bTB among wildlife reservoirs. In this study, we hypothesized that oral
C. Ballesteros; J. M. Garrido; J. Vicente; B. Romero; R. C. Galindo; E. Minguijón; M. Villar; M. P. Martín-Hernando; I. Sevilla; R. Juste; A. Aranaz; J. de la Fuente; C. Gortázar
The distribution of counts of asbestos bodies in lung specimens from 25 persons dying of fibrocaseous tuberculosis was essentially identical to that in age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although tuberculosis mortality has been elevated in the past in cohorts of asbestos workers, asbestos exposure at environmental levels found in a region with a history of heavy asbestos use appears to be unassociated with risk of tuberculosis. Potentiation of the risk of death from tuberculosis may require both a high risk of tuberculosis in the general community and intense personal exposure to asbestos.
Walker, A.M.; Stanta, G.; Delendi, M.
Considerable variability exists in the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. We hypothesized that M. africanum was less likely than M. tuberculosis to transmit and progress to tuberculosis disease. In a cohort study of tuberculosis patients and their household contacts in the Gambia, we categorized 1,808 HIV negative tuberculosis contacts according to exposure to M. tuberculosis or to M. africanum. A positive skin test indicated transmission and development of tuberculosis during 2 years of follow-up indicated progression to disease. Transmission was similar, but progression to disease was significantly lower in contacts exposed to M. africanum than to M. tuberculosis (1.0% vs 2.9%; Hazard Ratio (HR) 3.1, 95% CI 1.1–8.7). Within M. tuberculosis sensu stricto, contacts exposed to a Beijing family strain were most likely to progress to disease (5.6%; HR 6.7 (2.0–22) relative to M. africanum). M. africanum and M. tuberculosis transmit equally well to household contacts, but contacts exposed to M. africanum are less likely to progress to tuberculosis disease than those exposed to M. tuberculosis. The variable rate of progression by lineage suggests that TB variability matters in clinical settings and should be taken into account in studies evaluating tuberculosis vaccines and treatment regimens for latent tuberculosis infection.
de Jong, Bouke C.; Hill, Philip C.; Aiken, Alex; Awine, Timothy; Antonio, Martin; Adetifa, Ifedayo M.; Jackson-Sillah, Dolly J.; Fox, Annette; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Gagneux, Sebastien; Borgdorff, Martien W.; McAdam, Keith P.W.J.; Corrah, Tumani; Small, Peter M.; Adegbola, Richard A.
Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of standard chemoradiation regimens used for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Virtually all patients who receive cumulative radiation doses of more than 30 Gy that includes oral mucosal fields will develop the condition. Not only does mucositis cause extreme discomfort, often necessitating opioid analgesia, but it is also associated with increased use of health resources and cost of treatment. The incremental cost of mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer is more than $17 000 (US). Much has been learned about the pathobiology that underlies the condition. The departure from the historical paradigm of direct cell death as being the primary cause for mucosal injury in favor of a more comprehensive view of the impact of chemoradiation on all the cells of the mucosa, has resulted in a picture of mucositis pathogenesis, which is biologically broad based. Although there are currently few treatment options for oral mucositis at the moment, the recognition that its underlying biology is complex has provided a range of treatment options that are currently being developed. PMID:21709615
Sonis, Stephen T
BackgroundIn developed countries, tuberculosis is considered a disease with little loss of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Tuberculosis treatment is predominantly ambulatory and death from tuberculosis is rare. Research has shown that there are chronic pulmonary sequelae in a majority of patients who have completed treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This and other health effects of tuberculosis have not been considered
Thaddeus L. Miller; Scott J. N. McNabb; Peter Hilsenrath; Jotam Pasipanodya; Stephen E. Weis; James Holland Jones
Background Tuberculosis is a necrotizing bacterial infection with protean manifestation and wide distribution. There has been a great fall in the prevalence of tuberculosis in the United States since 1990, although the impact of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has increased the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal tuberculosis is the commonest form of skeletal tuberculosis. In this article, an overview of
DNA immunization is a promising new approach for the development of novel tuberculosis vaccines. In this study, the immune responses following the administration of single and combination tuberculosis DNA vaccines were evaluated. Single DNA vaccines encoding the MPT-63 and MPT-83 tuberculosis antigens evoked partial protection against an aerogenic challenge with M. tuberculosis Erdman in the mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Sheldon Morris; Cynthia Kelley; Angela Howard; Zhongming Li; Frank Collins
Nearly one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Moreover, tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. Genitourinary tuberculosis is not very common but it is considered as a severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosisThe diagnosis of genitourinary tuberculosis is made based on culture studies by isolation of the causative organism; however,
Mete Çek; Severin Lenk; Kurt G. Naber; Michael C. Bishop; Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen; Henry Botto; Magnus Grabe; Bernard Lobel; Juan Palou Redorta; Peter Tenke
Over the past 10 years, tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development has resurged as an active area of investigation. The renewed interest has been stimulated by the recognition that, although BCG is delivered to approximately 90% of all neonates globally through the Expanded Programme on Immunization, Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to cause over 8 million new cases of TB and over 2 million deaths annually. Over one hundred TB vaccine candidates have been developed, using different approaches to inducing protective immunity. Candidate vaccines are typically screened in small animal models of primary TB disease for their ability to protect against a virulent strain of M. tuberculosis. The most promising are now beginning to enter human safety trials, marking real progress in this field for the first time in 80 years.
Ginsberg, Ann M.
This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.
Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.
The first tuberculosis vaccine candidates have reached clinical testing. Novel subunit vaccine candidates aimed at boosting previous BCG-prime vaccination and novel viable attenuated vaccine candidates aimed at substituting BCG have both completed the preclinical stage. Despite these achievements, rational vaccine design against tuberculosis has not come to an end. Novel findings in basic immunology and microbiology will advance further improvements in vaccine development. These include the potential role of crosspriming to induce more potent T-cell responses, the role of memory T cells and regulatory T cells in sustaining or curtailing optimal immune responses, respectively, as well as the involvement of cytokines in T-cell migration to nonimmunologic tissue sites and in the generation of memory. Knowledge about basic mechanisms underlying optimum protection will not only have a direct impact on future vaccine design against tuberculosis but also help in the formulation of a set of biomarkers with predictive value for vaccine efficacy assessment. PMID:16777396
Baumann, Sven; Nasser Eddine, Ali; Kaufmann, Stefan H E
A total of 206 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and mental disorders from the Kirov Region were examined in 1997-1998. The results were compared with those obtained in 154 control patients with pulmonary tuberculosis without mental disorders. In both group males fell ill with tuberculosis in the prime of their life whereas females did at their old age. Males with mental disorders are more susceptible to tuberculosis than mentally healthy patients. In contrast, females with mental disorders are much less susceptible to tuberculosis than mentally healthy patients. Women of reproductive age are the least prone to tuberculosis particularly in the presence of mental disorders. The authors proposes to continue studies of the causes of female resistance to tuberculous infection, the specific features of the hormonal background in women having mental disorders and whether estrogens may be used in the therapy of tuberculosis. PMID:12593160
Rogacheva, M G
Childhood tuberculosis is common in our community. The diagnosis in most cases is still based on clinical evidence alone. The present study was designed to study clinical profile, laboratory investigations and outcome of pediatric tuberculosis. A prospective study was conducted among the children admitted in Nepal Medical College from April 2007 to March 2011. The prevalence of tuberculosis was 1.5%. Pulmonary tuberculosis was common (53.7%) than extra pulmonary (46.3%) tuberculosis. BCG scar was present in 48.8%. History of tuberculosis contact was present in 36.6% and Mantoux test was positive in 39.0%. The most common symptoms were fever (75.6%), cough (63.4%) and weight loss (41.5%). Confirmed diagnosis was made (bacteriological or histological) only in 14.6%. This study supports the use of history and clinical features to diagnose childhood tuberculosis. PMID:22364096
Shrestha, S; Bichha, R P; Sharma, A; Upadhyay, S; Rijal, P
Exposure to crystalline silica dust causes multiple diseases, but silicosis and silica dust-associated tuberculosis (TB), in particular, are the two diseases that remain high on the list of occupational health priorities in low-income countries and that still occur in some high-income countries. The prevalence of silica-related TB is exacerbated by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in low-income countries. This review describes the morphology of silica and the variable potency of the different forms. Sources of crystalline silica are discussed, with emphasis on less commonly recognised sources, such as small-scale mining operations and agriculture. Trends in the prevalence of silicosis are also presented. Although efforts have been made for many years in most countries to reduce silica dust levels, silicosis continues to occur even in young people. The clinical and pathological features and diagnosis of silicosis, with emphasis on chest radiography, are described. The high risk of mycobacterial infection in silica-exposed individuals is given particular attention, with emphasis on control. Treatment for latent TB is recommended. The management of silicosis and silica-associated TB, including monitoring for early detection of disease and surveillance to identify disease-causing workplaces, are discussed in detail. Prevention of disease, in the form of dust control, remains the focus of the World Health Organization and International Labour Office Global Elimination of Silicosis Campaign. However, clinicians must be aware that silica-associated diseases will be around for many years to come. PMID:17439668
Rees, D; Murray, J
The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.
Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of combined inhalation of cycloferon for 5 weeks and oral intake of cytoflavin during the period of sanatorium-and-spa treatment of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. It was shown that combined immunotrophic and antioxidative treatment promotes resolution of focal and infiltrative lesions in the lungs, normalization of hemograms, and minimization of the activity of cytolytic and cholestatic markers of the liver. PMID:20017380
Sukhanov, D S; Ivanov, A K; Kovalenko, A L; Dziuba, E G; Andreeva, M N; Romantsov, M G
The potential of econazole (ECZ) and moxifloxacin (MOX) individually against tuberculosis (TB) caused by multidrug-resistant and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been demonstrated. In this study, poly-(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticle-encapsulated ECZ and MOX were evaluated against murine TB (drug susceptible) in order to develop a more potent regimen for TB. PLG nanoparticles were prepared by the multiple emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and were administered orally to mice. A single oral dose of PLG nanoparticles resulted in therapeutic drug concentrations in plasma for up to 5 days (ECZ) or 4 days (MOX), whilst in the organs (lungs, liver and spleen) it was up to 6 days. In comparison, free drugs were cleared from the same organs within 12-24h. In M. tuberculosis-infected mice, eight oral doses of the formulation administered weekly were found to be equipotent to 56 doses (MOX administered daily) or 112 doses (ECZ administered twice daily) of free drugs. Furthermore, the combination of MOX+ECZ proved to be significantly efficacious compared with individual drugs. Addition of rifampicin (RIF) to this combination resulted in total bacterial clearance from the organs of mice in 8 weeks. PLG nanoparticles appear to have the potential for intermittent therapy of TB, and combination of MOX, ECZ and RIF is the most potent. PMID:18155883
Ahmad, Zahoor; Pandey, Rajesh; Sharma, Sadhna; Khuller, G K
To assess whether rinsing with oral antiseptics before sputum collection would reduce contamination of mycobacterial cultures, 120 patients with suspected tuberculosis were randomly assigned to rinse with chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium mouthwash before collection. The culture contamination rate was significantly lower after rinsing with chlorhexidine before collection, especially for cultures grown in MGIT medium.
Peres, Renata L.; Palaci, Moises; Loureiro, Rafaela B.; Dietze, Reynaldo; Johnson, John L.; Golub, Jonathan E.; Ruffino-Netto, A.; Maciel, Ethel L.
Background Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon disease even in countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Case Report This is a case series concerning 4 postmenopausal breast tuberculosis cases encountered in Moulay Youssef Hospital between January 2007 and December 2010. Breast tuberculosis represents 0.25% of all hospitalized tuberculosis patients in our department. The mean age of our patients was 62.5 ± 5.8 years. Clinical findings were heterogeneous; 1 case was multifocal tuberculosis, and another case was coexistent tuberculosis and malignancy of the breast. Mammography and ultrasonography findings were suspicious for malignancy in all 4 cases. Fine needle aspiration was negative in 3 cases. The diagnosis was made in all patients by histological examination of biopsy specimens, which revealed typical tuberculous lesions. Anti-tuberculosis therapy formed the mainstay of treatment. Conclusion The clinical and radiological features of mammary tuberculosis can be very confusing and easily mistaken for breast cancer. Symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis warrant a biopsy to exclude possible cancer.
Bouti, Khalid; Soualhi, Mouna; Marc, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Iraqi, Ghali
In countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is low, perinatal tuberculosis is seldom diagnosed. With increasing numbers of human immunodeficiency virus-infected people and increasing immigrant population from high tuberculosis incidence countries, one might expect perinatal tuberculosis to become more frequent. Early recognition of newborns at risk for perinatal tuberculosis infection is of utmost importance to prevent disease by chemoprophylaxis. We describe a case of latent perinatal tuberculosis infection in a newborn infected from a mother with extrapulmonary primary tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test was negative, and latent tuberculosis infection was eventually diagnosed by specific immunological tests. We discuss the difficulties in diagnosis of recent tuberculosis infection in neonates and infants, and the risk factors for vertical transmission of tuberculosis, which need to be taken into account in considering the need for chemoprophylaxis in the newborn. Although perinatal TB infection is a rare condition and diagnosis is difficult due to poor diagnostic testing in pregnancy and newborns, a high index of suspicion is needed to limit the diagnostic delay and to avoid progression to perinatal TB disease. PMID:20411276
De Schutter, Iris; Schepers, Kinda; Singh, Mahavir; Mascart, Françoise; Malfroot, Anne
As knowledge of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Greenland has increased, it has become evident that the majority of cases develop long after the primary infection and that it would therefore be valuable from the public health point of view if the disease rate among naturally infected persons could be reduced. To examine the possibility of achieving this, a double-blind drug trial with isoniazid and a placebo was conducted among some 70% of the adult population of western Greenland. The results show that throughout the six years of the study the incidence of tuberculosis was lower in the group treated with isoniazid and that this reduction occurred whether the initial X-rays pictures were normal or showed suspicious or healed lesions. It is concluded that chemoprophylaxis programmes should probably be administered only to selected groups of the population. The delimitation of such groups is discussed on the basis of their tuberculosis risk and of the expected yield in terms of reduction in tuberculosis prevalence.
Horwitz, Ole; Payne, Penelope G.; Wilbek, Erik
|To help college health services in all parts of the country improve their approach to latent tuberculosis, two Listservs were provided for them to post their questions on dealing with TB infection. In this article, the authors present some of the questions posted in the Listservs and their corresponding answers. In their answers, the authors have…
Lerman, Stephen J.; Bernardo, John; Daly, Jennifer S.; Husson, Robert
Mayotte is a French territory island, part of the Comoros Archipelago in the Indian Ocean with 200,000 inhabitants. The tuberculosis control program started in 1976, although available epidemiological data remains incomplete. We conducted a retrospective hospital-based survey in 202 outpatients and hospital medical records from the Hospital Centre of the main city to contribute to the epidemiological evaluation of tuberculosis patterns. The tuberculosis frequency remains unchanged since 2000. It affects a young population partly coming from the other neighbouring Comoro Islands (69%) with illegal immigrate status (53% in 2004). The systematic diagnostic screening efficiency of the condition appears marginal. Pulmonary involvement is the most frequent clinical manifestation (78%), although severe extrapulmonary manifestations are not exceptional. Co-infection with HIV and multi resistance to antituberculosis agents are not frequent. Up to 60% of cases have been proven to be bacteriologically linked. The notification rate remains critically low with an estimate of 39% of notifications to the local sanitary authorities in charge of secondary cases screening. The case coverage seems limited both by low socio-economical status and poor health facility accessibility The loss of follow up is dramatically high, 41% on the overall period, and up to 51% in 2004. Our results make mandatory the reinforcement of a tuberculosis survey and control involvement within the context of this French territory. Screening, care and follow up are to be implemented particularly for vulnerable and precarious groups and for patients. PMID:18956814
Woessner, J; Receveur, M C; Malvy, D; Taytard, A
Drug resistant tuberculosis is a man made problem. While tuberculosis is hundred percent curable, multidrug resistant tuberculosis\\u000a (MDR-TB) is difficult to treat. Inadequate and incomplete treatment and poor treatment adherence has led to a newer form of\\u000a drug resistance known as extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). XDR-TB is defined as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, which is resistant to
Amita Jain; Pratima Dixit
The incidence of tuberculosis is expected to increase, from 8.8 million cases in 1995, to 10.2 million cases by the year 2000 and 11.9 million by 2005. Three million deaths due to tuberculosis occurred in 1995, and 3.5 million can be expected in the year 2000. The most important causes of the world-wide increase in tuberculosis are: 1) non-compliance with control programmes; 2) inadequate diagnosis and treatment; 3) migration; 4) endemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); 5) ambulatory and self-administered treatment. In the 1970s it was stated that treatment needed to be supervised-a recommendation that went unheeded. A number of fundamental changes should be introduced in order to make treatment effective, to cure patients and thus to arrest the transmission of the disease: 1) supervision during the whole period antituberculosis drugs are taken, and 2) hospitalization during the initial treatment stage for all groups at risk. It is already 50 years since the first antituberculosis drugs were discovered; effective treatments capable of curing all patients in 6 months have been available for the last 25 years, and the result is failure plus a growing mortality curve at the beginning of the twenty-first century. If we wish to alter this trend, we need trained doctors all over the world who possess enough clinical knowledge of tuberculosis; hospitalization for specific groups of tuberculosis patients; true supervision during the whole treatment period; fixed-dose combinations of drugs; and prophylaxis or preventive treatment whenever possible. We also need to take into account other factors such as drug resistance, endemic HIV, and migration. PMID:9755922
Pilheu, J A
Although uncommon, infection of prostheses with Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be managed successfully if it is diagnosed early and treated correctly. A case of M. tuberculosis infection of a prosthetic knee first diagnosed 4.5 years after initial arthroplasty is described. This case and a review of the literature led to the conclusion that there are two distinct patterns of M. tuberculosis
R. J. Spinner; D. J. Sexton; R. D. Goldner; L. S. Levin
During the past two decades, Tuberculosis - both pulmonary and extrapulmonary have re-emerged as a major health problem worldwide. Nasal tuberculosis may be primary, or secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis or facial lupus. However all of them are rare entities. Nasal tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic nasal granulomas. We report a case of primary nasal tuberculosis in an adult female who presented with a polypoidal lesion in the nasal cavity. The diagnosis was based upon smear study, histopathology, culture & polymerase chain reaction. The patient successfully responded to antituberculous therapy and is presently disease free. Given the resurgence of tuberculosis in recent times, it is important that otolaryngologists remain aware of this rare clinical entity. PMID:23120401
Kameswaran, Mohan; Anand Kumar, R S; Murali, Sathiya; Raghunandan, S; Vijaya Krishnan, P
Primary hepatobiliary tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose and treat. We describe a woman with obstructive jaundice, a common hepatic duct stricture, and granulomatous hepatitis diagnosed with biliary tract tuberculosis when acid-fast bacilli were found in bile aspirated during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The hilar stricture resulted from either primary biliary tuberculosis or secondary inflammation related to tuberculous periportal adenitis and persisted despite adequate medical treatment for tuberculosis, apparently the result of postinflammatory stenosis. After 20 months, the patient had persistently elevated bilirubin due to the stricture, and liver biopsy revealed early secondary biliary cirrhosis. Placement of a permanent metal biliary stent produced excellent results. Both diagnosis of hepatobiliary tuberculosis by bile aspirate and treatment of a biliary stricture with a permanent metal biliary stent are newly described advances in the management of biliary tuberculosis made possible by ERCP. PMID:8946995
Bearer, E A; Savides, T J; McCutchan, J A
Emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis is one of the major challenges faced by health community globally. Tuberculosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children in endemic areas, yet little is known regarding epidemiology of pediatric tuberculosis and even far lesser information is available about epidemiology, diagnosis, management and treatment outcome of drug resistant tuberculosis in children. Despite limited data and difficulties in its management, drug resistant tuberculosis can be successfully treated even in resource poor settings with proper use of existing technologies. A high index of suspicion and early drug susceptibility testing is the key to early diagnosis and good treatment outcome. Difficulties in establishing the diagnosis, drug toxicities and absence of pediatric formulations add challenges to the management of Pediatric MDR TB Cases. Active research is required to answer the unresolved issues of finding optimal diagnostic tools, treatment regimens and duration and chemoprophylaxis in pediatric drug resistant tuberculosis. PMID:21193973
Singh, Varinder; Kaur, Satnam
BackgroundGenotyping methods developed to survey the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis currently rely on the interpretation of restriction and amplification profiles. Multispacer sequence typing (MST) genotyping is based on the sequencing of several intergenic regions selected after complete genome sequence analysis. It has been applied to various pathogens, but not to M. tuberculosis.Methods and FindingsIn M. tuberculosis, the MST approach
Zoheira Djelouadji; Catherine Arnold; Saheer Gharbia; Didier Raoult; Michel Drancourt; Niyaz Ahmed
Tuberculosis is a disease with protean manifestations. We present a case which was initially suspected as bronchogenic carcinoma with lymphangitic carcinomatosis, based on radiological appearance but later diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculoma with military tuberculosis and silicosis after thoracotomy and open lung biopsy. The patient was treated successfully with Antituberculosis Therapy (ATT). Rarity of presentation in form of pulmonary tuberculoma co-existing with histological features of miliary tuberculosis and silicosis, led us to report this case.
Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Karmakar, Saurabh
Summary Tuberculosis (TB) in children reflects the prevalence of the disease in adults as well as current transmission rates.Africa and South-east Asia have the largest number of tuberculosis cases and the situation there has been worsened by the HIV epidemic. Children born to HIV-infected parents, whether infected or not, are at high risk of developing tuberculosis because of the increased
M. Datta; S. Swaminathan
The mechanisms that regulate the acidification of intracellular compartments are key to host defense against pathogens. In this paper, we demonstrate that Abl tyrosine kinase, a master switch for cell growth and trafficking of intracellular organelles, controls the acidification of lysosomes in human macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition by imatinib and gene silencing of Abelson (Abl) tyrosine kinase reduced the lysosomal pH in human macrophages by increasing the transcription and expression of the proton pumping enzyme vacuolar-type H+-adenosine triphosphatase. Because lysosomal acidification is required for antimicrobial activity against intracellular bacteria, we determined the effect of imatinib on the growth of the major human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Imatinib limited the multiplication of M. tuberculosis. and growth restriction was dependent on acidification of the mycobacterial compartment. The effects of imatinib were also active in vivo because circulating monocytes from imatinibtreated leukemia patients were more acidic than monocytes from control donors. Importantly, sera from imatinib-treated patients triggered acidification and growth restriction of M. tuberculosis in macrophages. In summary, our results identify the control of phagosomal acidification as a novel function of Abl tyrosine kinase and provide evidence that the regulation occurs on the level of the vacuolar-type H+-adenosine triphosphatase. Given the efficacy of imatinib in a mouse model of tuberculosis and our finding that orally administered imatinib increased the ability of human serum to trigger growth reduction of intracellular M. tuberculosis, clinical evaluation of imatinib as a complementary therapy of tuberculosis, in particular multidrug or extremely drugresistant disease, is warranted.
Bruns, Heiko; Stegelmann, Frank; Fabri, Mario; Dohner, Konstanze; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wagner, Manfred; Skinner, Mhairi; Modlin, Robert L.; Stenger, Steffen
Thrombocytopenic purpura as a manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis is very rare. We report a case of 25-year-old female who presented with thrombocytopenia-induced purpuric spots and an abnormal chest X-ray. There was no hepatosplenomegaly while the bone marrow examination revealed normal maturation of myeloid and erythroid series with increased megakaryocytes. Acid fast bacilli were seen in the sputum microscopy. A diagnosis of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis along with immune thrombocytopenia was made. High dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy along with antituberculous drugs corrected the thrombocytopenia and also cured pulmonary tuberculosis. This case report illustrates the causal association between immune thrombocytopenia and tuberculosis.
Bairagya, Tapan Das; Das, Sibes Kumar; Jana, Pulak Kumar; Bhattacharya, Somnath
As part of a prospective study on the safety of TNF-? inhibitor therapy after screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), we report two patients who developed active tuberculosis (TB) infection during TNF-? inhibitor therapy, despite negative screening for LTBI. The clinical history is suggestive of a primary infection acquired during travelling to TB-endemic countries. In this lesson of the month we would like to highlight the risk of travelling to TB-endemic areas in patients treated with TNF-? inhibitor therapy. Screening for latent tuberculosis infection is not enough to prevent tuberculosis in patients treated with TNF-? inhibitor therapy. PMID:23598710
Hofland, Regina W; Thijsen, Steven F T; Verhagen, Marc A M T; Schenk, Yolande; Bossink, Ailko W J
We reviewed the 52 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed at Pusat Pakar Utara, Kedah in 1998. It was found that the majority of the patients had symptoms for many years. They had seen many doctors but were not diagnosed. In 40% of the patients, no investigations for tuberculosis were done and in the others tuberculosis was excluded because of negative sputum smear examination. Many had typical history and X-ray changes suggestive of tuberculosis but more sensitive investigations such as sputum culture for Mycobacterium or bronchoscopy were not performed. Cases are presented to illustrate the problems in the diagnosis. PMID:12188060
The emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been widely reported throughout the world, but there are very few data regarding children. We describe the case of a 14-year-old Peruvian adolescent who had been living in Italy since the age of 8 years and was diagnosed as having peritoneal tuberculosis (TB). While she was receiving first-line anti-TB therapy, she developed pyrazinamide-associated thrombocytopenia and cultures revealed a multidrug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pyrazinamide, rifampicin and isoniazid were replaced by moxifloxacin, which was continued for 9 months together with ethambutol. The patient recovered without experiencing any drug-related adverse event or the recurrence of TB in the following year. In conclusion, this case illustrates some of the problems that can arise when multidrug-resistant TB has to be treated in children and adolescents, and also highlights the fact that further studies are needed to clarify which drugs should be used and for how long. PMID:23679177
Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Canazza, Lorena; Tenconi, Rossana; Torricelli, Maurizio; Principi, Nicola
Summary 1. We examine whether various measures of herbivore current physiological state (age, breed- ing and immune status) and genetic potential can be used as indicators of exposure to and risk from disease. We use dairy cattle and the risks of tuberculosis (TB) transmission posed to them by pasture contaminated with badger excreta (via the fecal-oral route) as a model
M. Scantlebury; S. Harris; D. J. Allcroft; M. R. Hutchings
Greenland experienced, during the 1950s, a decline in mortality such as is on record for hardly any other place in the world: from 24 per 1 000 in 1951 to 8 per 1 000 in 1960, a decline of more than 10% per year. Deaths from tuberculosis were especially reduced. Whereas more than one-third of all deaths in 1951 were considered to be due to this disease, practically no deaths are ascribed to it today. This rapid improvement in the health situation in Greenland, which coincides with a large-scale development programme, is documented in detail in the present paper. The study is based partly on official mortality statistics and partly on a 9-year follow-up study of mortality and of morbidity from tuberculosis in the total population of West Greenland registered in 1955. The existence of such data for a developing area is probably unique.
The incidence of tuberculosis in the non-indigenous Australian population is low. However, in this paper we report on three cases of cavitating disease, which seem to be associated with a common illicit drug habit namely smoking marijuana using a makeshift pipe or bong. There was a total of 34 positive contacts of these cases and among the contacts sharing a bong with an index case was associated with a sixfold risk of transmission (odds ratio 6.5, confidence interval 1.4-30.4, P = 0.016). When cavitating tuberculosis is detected in a young non-indigenous native born Australian, marijuana use should be considered as a possible risk factor. PMID:23551310
Thu, K; Hayes, M; Miles, S; Tierney, L; Foy, A
A commercially available dot immunoassay that employs the lipoarabinomannan antigen was evaluated for the serologic diagnosis of tuberculosis. The test showed a high specificity (100%); however, its sensitivity was low (18.5%). Antibodies to lipoarabinomannan were detected in the sera of 7 of 71 patients with newly acquired tuberculosis and in sera of 10 of 21 patients with relapse tuberculosis. It has been shown by others that sera from patients with relapse tuberculosis had a higher concentration of antibodies and reacted with a greater variety of antigens (native culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv) than did sera from patients with newly acquired tuberculosis. Our data confirm the results of these previous studies as far as lipoarabinomannan is concerned. We conclude that the differences in the production of antibodies shown by the two groups of tuberculous patients (new and relapse) must be taken into account when assessing the usefulness of serologic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Julian, E; Matas, L; Ausina, V; Luquin, M
Mucositis and xerostomia are the most common oral complications of the non-surgical therapy of cancer. Mucositis, a common sequel of radio- (DXR), chemo-(CXR) and radiochemo-therapy in patients with cancer, or patients requiring haemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), has a direct and significant impact on the quality of life and cost of care, and also affects survival--because of the risk of infection. Apart from dose reduction, preventive and treatment options for mucositis are scarce, although multiple agents have been tested. Evidence suggests that cryotherapy, topical benzydamine and amifostine might provide some benefit in specific situations. The recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor Palifermin (Kepivance) was recently approved as a mucositis intervention in patients receiving conditioning regimens before HSCT for the treatment of haematological malignancies. A number of mechanistically based interventions are in various stages of development. Unfortunately, many other approaches have not been rigorously tested. This paper reviews the clinical features, prevalence, diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and management of mucositis. PMID:16700732
Scully, C; Sonis, S; Diz, P D
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global burden despite extensive efforts to control it. TB arthritis commonly manifest as monoarthritis of weight-bearing joints. We report a rare presentation of osteoarticular TB involving multiple small joints of the hands, which mimicked rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Magnetic resonance imaging showed tenosynovitis. The patient was initially treated for seronegative RA but failed to respond. Subsequently, synovial biopsy led to the diagnosis. Antituberculosis treatment was given for 1 year. PMID:22399018
Seung, Ong Ping; Sulaiman, Wahinuddin
Tuberculosis continues to be one of the most important global infectious causes of morbidity and mortality. Development of a more effective vaccine is a high worldwide priority and depends on a thorough understanding of the host response to infection. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the innate immune response to MTb infection. We also describe recent discoveries in immunogenetics that are generating insight into the potential development of immunomodulatory therapies.
Arentz, Matthew; Hawn, Thomas R.
This article covers public health aspects of the investigation and management of people who are infected with tuberculosis (TB). It contains a brief overview of the recent epidemiology of TB in Scotland, focusing on changes in Scottish TB incidence and describing some epidemiological associations. We then describe the initial public health assessment of those with suspected TB and responses that should be initiated. It does not address issues relating to the clinical treatment of patients with TB. PMID:22953320
Blatchford, O; Cameron, J C
Spinal tuberculosis (TB) produces neurological complications and grotesque spinal deformity, which in children increases even\\u000a with treatment and after achieving healing. Long-standing, severe deformity leads to painful costo-pelvic impingement, respiratory\\u000a distress, risk of developing late-onset paraplegia and consequent reduction in quality and longevity of life. The treatment\\u000a objective is to avoid the sequelae of neural complications and achieve the healed
Anil Kumar Jain; Saurabh Jain
Several changes have been observed in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic modalities and treatment of tuberculosis.\\u000a Emergence of HIV epidemic and drug resistance have posed significant challenges. With increase in the number of diseased adults\\u000a and spread of HIV infection, the infection rates in children are likely to increase. It is estimated that in developing countries,\\u000a the annual risk of
Aparna Mukherjee; Rakesh Lodha; S. K. Kabra
The introduction of chemotherapy dramatically changed the epidemiology of tuberculosis as the risk of infection was thereby nearly eliminated. The present paper illustrates the risk of disease under these conditions. A large and representative segment of the Danish population, a total of over 626 000 persons aged 15-44 years, was examined by a standardized technique in 1950-52 and has now been followed for 12 years. It has been possible by means of simple parameters such as infection and vaccination status, X-ray lesion and age to divide the population into groups with widely different incidence rates. The time trend in disease rates among vaccinated persons and natural reactors suggests that post-primary tuberculosis is of great significance in the present tuberculosis situation. Three-quarters of all cases stem from the natural reactors. It would have been of great practical significance to identify high-risk groups which yielded a great part of the patients. This was not possible since the majority of cases developed among reactors whose distinctive feature was that they were infected at time of examination.
Horwitz, Ole; Wilbek, Erik; Erickson, Pennifer A.
Tuberculosis remains a global health threat, and there is dire need to develop a vaccine that is safe and efficacious and confers long-lasting protection. In this study, we constructed recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains with plasmids expressing fusion proteins consisting of the 80 amino-terminal amino acids of the type 3 secretion system effector SopE of Salmonella and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa (ESAT-6) protein and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10). We demonstrated that the SopE-mycobacterial antigen fusion proteins were translocated into the cytoplasm of INT-407 cells in cell culture assays. Oral immunization of mice with RASV strains synthesizing SopE–ESAT-6–CFP-10 fusion proteins resulted in significant protection of the mice against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis H37Rv that was similar to the protection afforded by immunization with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) administered subcutaneously. In addition, oral immunization with the RASV strains specifying these mycobacterial antigens elicited production of significant antibody titers to ESAT-6 and production of ESAT-6- or CFP-10-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?)-secreting and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-secreting splenocytes.
Juarez-Rodriguez, Maria Dolores; Arteaga-Cortes, Lourdes T.; Kader, Rebin; Curtiss, Roy
Tuberculosis remains a global health threat, and there is dire need to develop a vaccine that is safe and efficacious and confers long-lasting protection. In this study, we constructed recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains with plasmids expressing fusion proteins consisting of the 80 amino-terminal amino acids of the type 3 secretion system effector SopE of Salmonella and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa (ESAT-6) protein and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10). We demonstrated that the SopE-mycobacterial antigen fusion proteins were translocated into the cytoplasm of INT-407 cells in cell culture assays. Oral immunization of mice with RASV strains synthesizing SopE-ESAT-6-CFP-10 fusion proteins resulted in significant protection of the mice against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis H37Rv that was similar to the protection afforded by immunization with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) administered subcutaneously. In addition, oral immunization with the RASV strains specifying these mycobacterial antigens elicited production of significant antibody titers to ESAT-6 and production of ESAT-6- or CFP-10-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?)-secreting and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-secreting splenocytes. PMID:22144486
Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Arteaga-Cortés, Lourdes T; Kader, Rebin; Curtiss, Roy; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E
To determine whether the high incidence of tuberculosis among Asiatic Indians in the United Kingdom was due to impaired killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages from patients deficient in cobalamin, a nutritional survey was carried out among 1187 Indians and the incidence of tuberculosis determined from medical records. The question asked was whether tuberculosis was significantly more common among life-long
I Chanarin; E Stephenson
Tuberculosis poses a significant threat to mankind. Multidrug-resistant strains are on the rise, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Satisfactory control of tuberculosis can only be achieved using a highly efficacious vaccine. Tuberculosis is particularly challenging for the immune system. The intracellular location of the pathogen shields it from antibodies, and a variety of
Stefan H. E. Kaufmann
Tuberculosis is an important cause of mortality due to its high prevalence, considering that one third of the worlds population is infected with the tuberculosis bacillus. We report the first case of carcinomatous lymphangitis associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Carcinomatous lymphangitis is a rare event that may be confounded with tuberculosis because of its radiographic and clinical characteristics. PMID:17486260
Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Miyaji, Karina T; de Vidal, Paula Marques; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Kono, Adriana; Franca, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira
To identify sites of tuberculosis transmission and to determine the contribution of HIV-infected pa- tients to tuberculosis morbidity in an urban area, we prospectively evaluated 249 patients with cul- ture-proven tuberculosis in central Los Angeles. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to identify patients infected with the same strain. Using RFLP and clinical and
PETER F. BARNES; ZHENHUA YANG; JANICE M. POGODA; SUSAN PRESTON-MARTIN; BRENDA E. JONES; MICHIKO OTAYA; LAURA KNOWLES; SYDNEY HARVEY; KATHLEEN D. EISENACH; M. DONALD CAVE
Objective and design: The increased risk for tuberculosis in HIV-infected people has fueled a worldwide resurgence of tuberculosis. A major hindrance to controlling tuberculosis is the long treatment duration, leading to default, jeopardizing cure, and generating drug resistance. We investigated how tuberculosis is impacted by reducing treatment duration alone or combined with enhanced case detection and\\/ or cure under different
James O. Lloyd-Smithb; Travis C. Porcoc; Brian G. Williamsd; Martien W. Borgdorffe; John Mansoerg; Joshua A. Salomonh; Wayne M. Getza
Adamantyl ureas were previously identified as a group of compounds active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture with minimum inhibitor concentrations (MICs) below 0.1 ?g/ml. These compounds have been shown to target MmpL3, a protein involved in secretion of trehalose mono-mycolate. They also inhibit both human soluble epoxide hydrolase (hsEH) and M. tuberculosis epoxide hydrolases. However, active compounds to date have high cLogP’s and are poorly soluble, leading to low bioavailability and thus limiting any therapeutic application. In this study, a library of 1,600 ureas (mostly adamantyl ureas), which were synthesized for the purpose of increasing the bioavailability of inhibitors of hsEH, was screened for activity against M. tuberculosis. 1-Adamantyl-3-phenyl ureas with a polar para substituent were found to retain moderate activity against M. tuberculosis and one of these compounds was shown to be present in serum after oral administration to mice. However, neither it, nor a closely related analog, reduced M. tuberculosis infection in mice. No correlation between in vitro potency against M. tuberculosis and the hsEH inhibition were found supporting the concept that activity against hsEH and M. tuberculosis can be separated. Also there was a lack of correlation with cLogP and inhibition of the growth of M. tuberculosis. Finally, members of two classes of adamantyl ureas that contained polar components to increase their bioavailability, but lacked efficacy against growing M. tuberculosis, were found to taken up by the bacterium as effectively as a highly active apolar urea suggesting that these modifications to increase bioavailability affected the interaction of the urea against its target rather than making them unable to enter the bacterium.
Scherman, Michael S.; North, Elton J.; Jones, Victoria; Hess, Tammara N.; Grzegorzewicz, Anna E.; Kasagami, Takeo; Kim, In-Hae; Merzlikin, Oleg; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Lee, Richard E.; Jackson, Mary; Morisseau, Christophe; McNeil, Michael R.
The ESAT-6 antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dominant target for cell-mediated immunity in the early phase of tuberculosis (TB) in TB patients as well as in various animal models. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potential of ESAT-6 in an experimental TB vaccine. We started out using dimethyl dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA), an adjuvant which has been
LISE BRANDT; MARTIN ELHAY; IDA ROSENKRANDS; ERIK B. LINDBLAD; PETER ANDERSEN
Background: A negative association has been observed between infections and allergy in several studies. The aim of the present study was to examine whether tuberculosis and leprosy patients have more or fewer allergies than healthy individuals. Method:Sera from tuberculosis patients, leprosy patients and healthy controls were analysed by ELISA and Pharmacia Unicap® for serological markers for allergy and mycobacterial infection.
L. K. Ellertsen; H. G. Wiker; N. T. Egeberg; G. Hetland
|Tuberculosis is reappearing with increasing prevalence and presenting new treatment challenges. Art therapy, which partly originated in a tuberculosis sanatoria, again serves to assist patients in coping with their illness and confinement. Case examples illustrate aspects of the disease and related emotions and highlight the potential for such an…
Rosner-David, Irene; Ilusorio, Shereen
|Describes a peer helper program initiated by the University of Iowa Student Health Services to prevent active tuberculosis development among foreign national students. Before instituting the program, compliance with tuberculosis prevention efforts for those students was less than 5%. Since the peer program was instituted, compliance has risen to…
McCue, Maureen; Afifi, Larry Anna
Background: Type I collagen synthesis and degradation are important events during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) granuloma or cavity formation, and fibroblasts are cells involved in these processes. Objective: We examined the MTb effects on fibroblast collagen metabolism to understand the virulence factors involved in tuberculosis pathogenesis. Methods: Human lung fibroblasts were incubated with culture medium or sonicated MTb H37Ra (avirulent) or
Georgina González-Avila; Cuauhtemoc Sandoval; M. Teresa Herrera; Victor Ruiz; Bettina Sommer; Eduardo Sada; Carlos Ramos; M. Carmen Sarabia
A case is described of tuberculosis of the cecum mimicking carcinoma so closely that a conventional cancer operation was carried\\u000a out. Ileocecal tuberculosis, reported in the literature, is briefly reviewed with special attention to its incidence, clinical\\u000a manifestations, clinical investigation, and treatment.
Halifax C. King; Edward C. Voss
Tuberculosis is increasing in prevalence in many countries and is now the leading infectious cause of death world wide, being responsible for three million deaths annually. Infection with HIV, likewise increasing in prevalence, has emerged as the most important predisposing factor for developing overt tuberculosis in people co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Owing to the widespread geographical overlap of these two infections, it is estimated that in 1999, HIV related tuberculosis will reach one million cases and will cause 30% of the expected 2.5 million AIDS related deaths. Tuberculosis in HIV infected individuals may have unusual clinical features and can cause diagnostic difficulties. Despite the effectiveness of modern short course treatment, the mortality of HIV related tuberculosis during and after treatment remains high, and this may be due to other HIV related infections. The "cursed duet" of infection with both HIV and M tuberculosis is generating a threat to human health of unparalleled proportions which, if not taken seriously by health workers and decision makers, could become totally unmanageable.???Keywords: HIV; AIDS; tuberculosis
Zumla, A.; Malon, P.; Henderson, J.; Grange, J.
Biomarkers are indispensable to the development of new tuberculosis therapeutics and vaccines. The most robust biomarkers measure factors that are essential to the underlying pathological process of the disease being treated, and thus can capture the full effects of many types of interventions on clinical outcomes in multiple prospective, randomised clinical trials. Many Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human biomarkers have been studied over the past decade. Present research focuses on three areas: biomarkers predicting treatment efficacy and cure of active tuberculosis, the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection, and the induction of protective immune responses by vaccination. Many older, non-specific markers of inflammation, when considered in isolation, do not have sufficient predictive values for clinical use in tuberculosis. Although no new accurate, tuberculosis-specific biomarkers have yet been discovered, substantial progress has been made in some areas. However, the qualification of biomarkers as a surrogate for a clinical endpoint in tuberculosis is very challenging, and, for biomarkers that are non-culture-based, impossible to pursue without the availability of well characterised biobanks containing biospecimens from patients who have had adequate follow-up to establish long-term treatment outcome. We review progress in tuberculosis biomarker development and efforts being made to harness resources to meet future challenges. PMID:23531389
Wallis, Robert S; Kim, Peter; Cole, Stewart; Hanna, Debra; Andrade, Bruno B; Maeurer, Markus; Schito, Marco; Zumla, Alimuddin
Parotid gland involvement in tuberculosis is rare. We present a case of middle aged male presenting with parotid swelling for 1 year and diagnosed to have parotid tuberculosis on fine needle aspiration cytology. A brief review of radiological findings in tuberculous parotitis is discussed which can help in correct interpretation and timely diagnosis, and thus avoiding unnecessary parotidectomies.
Vyas, Sameer; Kaur, Neeraj; Yadav, Thakur D.; Gupta, Nalini; Khandelwal, Niranjan
Parotid gland involvement in tuberculosis is rare. We present a case of middle aged male presenting with parotid swelling for 1 year and diagnosed to have parotid tuberculosis on fine needle aspiration cytology. A brief review of radiological findings in tuberculous parotitis is discussed which can help in correct interpretation and timely diagnosis, and thus avoiding unnecessary parotidectomies. PMID:23833498
Vyas, Sameer; Kaur, Neeraj; Yadav, Thakur D; Gupta, Nalini; Khandelwal, Niranjan
Bone and joint tuberculosis is common in developing countries, and surgeons in these countries are often faced with the dual problem of diagnosing and treating this disease. However, bone and joint tuberculosis has not yet completely disappeared from industrialized countries, either. This book discusses this issue.
The computed tomographic (CT) features of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis are reported in two cases that demonstrate two typical different clinical and morphological manifestations of the disease. The incidence and CT appearance of adrenal tuberculosis are discussed, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
Wilms, G.E. (Katholicke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium); Baert, A.L.; Kint, E.J.; Pringot, J.H.; Goddeeris, P.G.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis are closely related (>99% genetic identity), inducing similar host responses and disease expression upon infection. There is a rich history of co-discovery in the development of control measures applicable to both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB) including s...
Prophylaxis of tuberculosis in children with four month (n = 53) and three month regimens (n = 213) of rifampicin and isoniazid from 1987 to 1996 were tolerated without any toxicity. The reduction in the proportion of paediatric tuberculosis, which was seen after the introduction of chemoprophylaxis with longer regimens in 1981, was maintained with the shorter duration regimens. Altered
L P Ormerod
...the gastrointestinal tract) or in any lymph node as a result of draining a muscle...tuberculosis or when the corresponding lymph node contains lesions of tuberculosis...seat of infection, such as the cervical lymph nodes, the mesenteric lymph nodes,...
...the gastrointestinal tract) or in any lymph node as a result of draining a muscle...tuberculosis or when the corresponding lymph node contains lesions of tuberculosis...seat of infection, such as the cervical lymph nodes, the mesenteric lymph nodes,...
Genital tuberculosis is a major cause of infertility in countries where tuberculosis is endemic. With recent advances in assisted reproductive technology, women with tuberculous endometritis may become pregnant and ultimately have children with congenital tuberculosis. In vitro fertilisation represents a useful treatment for infertility. Congenital tuberculosis is a rare and severe, rapidly progressive, disease. Making an early diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis is difficult, because it can mimic many neonatal illnesses. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first cases of premature twins with congenital tuberculosis following in vitro fertilisation. After the diagnosis of genital tuberculosis in the mother, the twins were screened and diagnosed for tuberculosis. The twins dramatically improved after anti-tuberculosis therapy. We also wish to draw attention to the importance of searching for genital tuberculosis as the possible cause of congenital infection, even if the mother is asymptomatic.
Altunhan, Huseyin; Keser, Melike; Pekcan, Sevgi; Ural, Onur; Ors, Rahmi
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk for opportunistic infections including tuberculosis. Although guidelines on the management of latent tuberculosis and active tuberculosis are available, there remain a number of clinical areas with limited guidance. We discuss challenges in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of latent and active tuberculosis in SOT candidates and recipients who reside in low-tuberculosis-prevalence areas. We discuss the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis in SOT candidates/recipients using tuberculin skin tests and interferon-? release assays and risk stratification of SOT candidates/recipients that would identify individuals at high risk for latent tuberculosis despite negative test results. Through a careful review of posttransplant tuberculosis cases, we identify a history of treated tuberculosis in SOT recipients as a risk factor for development of posttransplant active tuberculosis. Finally, we include comparisons of recommendations by several large transplant organizations and identify areas for future research. PMID:23899676
Horne, David J; Narita, Masahiro; Spitters, Christopher L; Parimi, Soumya; Dodson, Sherry; Limaye, Ajit P
Ethambutol, one of four drugs in the first-line antitubercular regimen, is used to protect against rifampin resistance in the event of preexisting resistance to isoniazid. The population pharmacokinetics of ethambutol in South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were characterized using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Patients from 2 centers were treated with ethambutol (800 to 1,500 mg daily) combined with standard antitubercular medication. Plasma concentrations of ethambutol were measured following multiple doses at steady state and were determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. The data comprised 189 patients (54% male, 12% HIV positive) weighing 47 kg, on average (range, 29 to 86 kg), and having a mean age of 36 years (range, 16 to 72 years). The estimated creatinine clearance was 79 ml/min (range, 23 to 150 ml/min). A two-compartment model with one transit compartment prior to first-order absorption and allometric scaling by body weight on clearance and volume terms was selected. HIV infection was associated with a 15% reduction in bioavailability. Renal function was not related to ethambutol clearance in this cohort. Interoccasion variability exceeded interindividual variability for oral clearance (coefficient of variation, 36 versus 20%). Typical oral clearance in this analysis (39.9 liters/h for a 50-kg individual) was lower than that previously reported, a finding partly explained by the differences in body weight between the studied populations. In summary, a population model describing the pharmacokinetics of ethambutol in South African tuberculosis patients was developed, but additional studies are needed to characterize the effects of renal function.
Jonsson, Siv; Davidse, Alistair; Wilkins, Justin; Van der Walt, Jan-Stefan; Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.; Karlsson, Mats O.; Smith, Peter; McIlleron, Helen
We present a case of 23-year-old student misdiagnosed for two months. Radiological finding showed a pneumonial infiltrate of left lung lower lobe. Antibiotical therapy was not resulting in a radiological regression. Biopsy of the lung infiltrate by transthoracic computed tomography guided histology needle, showed granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Bronchial aspirate received by bronchoscopy was positive in culture on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After 6 months of antituberculotic therapy advance the complete regression of lung infiltrate. Tuberculosis of lower lung lobe is difficult to diagnose, particularly in persons who are not immunocompromised or without associated diseases. Lower lobe localization of tuberculosis is between 0.6 to 10.5% in all cases. Early diagnosis and therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis depends on bronchoscopic samples. The biopsy of the lung infiltrate by transthoracic computed tomography guided histology needle in histopathological and bacteriological diagnosis of tuberculosis was also useful. PMID:21874738
Flego, Veljko; Kurpis, Marina; Milevoj-Ribi?, Flavija; Bulat-Kardum, Ljiljana; Matani?, Dubravka
The resurgence of tuberculosis in the 1990s and the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the first decade of the 21st century increased the importance of epidemiological models for the disease. Due to slow progression of tuberculosis, the transmission dynamics and its long-term effects can often be better observed and predicted using simulations of epidemiological models. This study provides a review of earlier study on modeling different aspects of tuberculosis dynamics. The models simulate tuberculosis transmission dynamics, treatment, drug resistance, control strategies for increasing compliance to treatment, HIV/TB co-infection, and patient groups. The models are based on various mathematical systems, such as systems of ordinary differential equations, simulation models, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The inferences from the models are justified by case studies and statistical analysis of TB patient datasets.
Ozcaglar, Cagri; Shabbeer, Amina; Vandenberg, Scott L.; Yener, Bulent; Bennett, Kristin P.
A 54 year old Asian woman developed fulminant hepatic failure followed by renal failure. Because of a past history of possible tuberculosis, she was given antituberculous drugs. The chest x ray was normal. A transjugular liver biopsy showed caseating necrosis, granulomas, and acid fast bacilli indicative of miliary tuberculosis. Despite full supportive therapy, her condition deteriorated and she died. Postmortem examination showed widespread miliary tuberculosis; culture confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis causes fulminant hepatic failure rarely and only three cases have been described. In this, as with the other cases, hyponatraemia and hepatomegaly were features at presentation. This is the first report of treatment being given before death. Images p793-a
Hussain, W; Mutimer, D; Harrison, R; Hubscher, S; Neuberger, J
This study aimed to analyze the relation between the singularities of the sick subject with the history of dropping out of the tuberculosis treatment and the care given by the family health team in light of the bonding concept. The empirical material was built through recorded interviews, in the period from July to September of 2008, using the Thematic Oral History methodology. Interviews were taken with nine users whose drop out was the criteria for closing the treatment to tuberculosis in two municipalities of the metropolitan region of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The analysis was performed according to the discourse analysis technique. The study identified that a therapeutic relation, sharing commitments and the user's valuation, strengthens the bonding and produces the care management democratization. On the other hand, a vertical relation, with fragile bonding, is opposed to the purpose of an intersubjective practice in the perspective of the care co-management. PMID:21337770
de Souza, Káren Mendes Jorge; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; de Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Figueiredo, Danielle Alves
Aconiazide, a hydrazone derivative of isoniazid, has been proposed for the treatment of tuberculosis. As a first step toward assessing the safety of this drug, the effects of a daily oral 14-day treatment on weight gain, pathology, and several hematologic and clinical chemistry parameters were determined in Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Dosage-related changes in body weight were observed and these
Kenneth L. Dooley; Eugene B. Hansen; Winslow G. Sheldon; Frederick A. Beland
Setting: The applicability of serodiagnosis of tuberculosis using Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex-specific antigens in a Tanzanian population with high prevalence of HIV.Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness, sensitivity and specificity of serology using M. tuberculosis-specific antigens in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with and without HIV co-infection.Design: Patients with proven pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis at a major referral
S. Thybo; C. Richter; H. Wachmann; S. Y. Maselle; D. H. Mwakyusa; I. Mtoni; Å. B. Andersen
Background Tuberculosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. DC-SIGN, encoded by CD209, is a receptor capable of binding and internalizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous studies have reported that the CD209 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-336A/G exerts an effect on CD209 expression and is associated with human susceptibility to dengue, HIV-1 and tuberculosis in humans. The present study investigates the role of the CD209 -336A/G variant in susceptibility to tuberculosis in a large sample of individuals from sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Findings A total of 2,176 individuals enrolled in tuberculosis case-control studies from four sub-Saharan Africa countries were genotyped for the CD209 -336A/G SNP (rs4804803). Significant overall protection against pulmonary tuberculosis was observed with the -336G allele when the study groups were combined (n?=?914 controls vs. 1262 cases, Mantel-Haenszel 2x2 ?2?=?7.47, P?=?0.006, odds ratio?=?0.86, 95%CI 0.77–0.96). In addition, the patients with -336GG were associated with a decreased risk of cavitory tuberculosis, a severe form of tuberculosis disease (n?=?557, Pearson's 2×2 ?2?=?17.34, P?=?0.00003, odds ratio?=?0.42, 95%CI 0.27–0.65). This direction of association is opposite to a previously observed result in a smaller study of susceptibility to tuberculosis in a South African Coloured population, but entirely in keeping with the previously observed protective effect of the -336G allele. Conclusion This study finds that the CD209 -336G variant allele is associated with significant protection against tuberculosis in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and, furthermore, cases with -336GG were significantly less likely to develop tuberculosis-induced lung cavitation. Previous in vitro work demonstrated that the promoter variant -336G allele causes down-regulation of CD209 mRNA expression. Our present work suggests that decreased levels of the DC-SIGN receptor may therefore be protective against both clinical tuberculosis in general and cavitory tuberculosis disease in particular. This is consistent with evidence that Mycobacteria can utilize DC-SIGN binding to suppress the protective pro-inflammatory immune response.
Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Tosh, Kerrie; Floyd, Sian; Jackson-Sillah, Dolly; Crampin, Amelia; Sichali, Lifted; Bah, Boubacar; Gustafson, Per; Aaby, Peter; McAdam, Keith P. W. J.; Bah-Sow, Oumou; Lienhardt, Christian; Sirugo, Giorgio; Fine, Paul; Hill, Adrian V. S.
About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort. PMID:7713546
The statistical data of tuberculosis (TB) cases show seasonal fluctuations in many countries. A TB model incorporating seasonality\\u000a is developed and the basic reproduction ratio R\\u000a 0 is defined. It is shown that the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the disease eventually disappears\\u000a if R\\u000a 0R\\u000a 0>1. Numerical simulations indicate that there may be a unique positive periodic
Luju Liu; Xiao-Qiang Zhao; Yicang Zhou
Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains have great potential to induce protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by delivering M. tuberculosis antigens. Recently, we reported that, in orally immunized mice, RASV strains delivering the M. tuberculosis early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa (ESAT-6) protein and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) antigens via the Salmonella type III secretion system (SopE amino-terminal region residues 1 to 80 with two copies of ESAT-6 and one copy of CFP-10 [SopENt80-E2C]) afforded protection against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis. Here, we constructed and evaluated an improved Salmonella vaccine against M. tuberculosis. We constructed translational fusions for the synthesis of two copies of ESAT-6 plus CFP-10 fused to the OmpC signal sequence (OmpCSS-E2C) and amino acids 44 to 338 of antigen 85A (Ag85A294) flanked by the signal sequence (SS) and C-terminal peptide (CT) of ?-lactamase (BlaSS-Ag85A294-BlaCT) to enable delivery via the Salmonella type II secretion system. The genes expressing these proteins were cloned as an operon transcribed from Ptrc into isogenic Asd+/MurA+ pYA3681 lysis vector derivatives with different replication origins (pBR, p15A, pSC101), resulting in pYA4890, pYA4891, and pYA4892 for SopENt80-E2C/Ag85A294 synthesis and pYA4893 and pYA4894 for OmpCSS-E2C/Ag85A294 synthesis. Mice orally immunized with the RASV ?11021 strain engineered to display regulated delayed lysis and regulated delayed antigen synthesis in vivo and harboring pYA4891, pYA4893, or pYA4894 elicited significantly greater humoral and cellular immune responses, and the RASV ?11021 strain afforded a greater degree of protection against M. tuberculosis aerosol challenge in mice than RASVs harboring any other Asd+/MurA+ lysis plasmid and immunization with M. bovis BCG, demonstrating that RASV strains displaying regulated delayed lysis with delayed antigen synthesis resulted in highly immunogenic delivery vectors for oral vaccination against M. tuberculosis infection.
Juarez-Rodriguez, Maria Dolores; Yang, Jiseon; Kader, Rebin; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy
Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains have great potential to induce protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by delivering M. tuberculosis antigens. Recently, we reported that, in orally immunized mice, RASV strains delivering the M. tuberculosis early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa (ESAT-6) protein and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) antigens via the Salmonella type III secretion system (SopE amino-terminal region residues 1 to 80 with two copies of ESAT-6 and one copy of CFP-10 [SopE(Nt80)-E2C]) afforded protection against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis. Here, we constructed and evaluated an improved Salmonella vaccine against M. tuberculosis. We constructed translational fusions for the synthesis of two copies of ESAT-6 plus CFP-10 fused to the OmpC signal sequence (OmpC(SS)-E2C) and amino acids 44 to 338 of antigen 85A (Ag85A(294)) flanked by the signal sequence (SS) and C-terminal peptide (CT) of ?-lactamase (Bla(SS)-Ag85A(294)-Bla(CT)) to enable delivery via the Salmonella type II secretion system. The genes expressing these proteins were cloned as an operon transcribed from P(trc) into isogenic Asd(+)/MurA(+) pYA3681 lysis vector derivatives with different replication origins (pBR, p15A, pSC101), resulting in pYA4890, pYA4891, and pYA4892 for SopE(Nt80)-E2C/Ag85A(294) synthesis and pYA4893 and pYA4894 for OmpC(SS)-E2C/Ag85A(294) synthesis. Mice orally immunized with the RASV ?11021 strain engineered to display regulated delayed lysis and regulated delayed antigen synthesis in vivo and harboring pYA4891, pYA4893, or pYA4894 elicited significantly greater humoral and cellular immune responses, and the RASV ?11021 strain afforded a greater degree of protection against M. tuberculosis aerosol challenge in mice than RASVs harboring any other Asd(+)/MurA(+) lysis plasmid and immunization with M. bovis BCG, demonstrating that RASV strains displaying regulated delayed lysis with delayed antigen synthesis resulted in highly immunogenic delivery vectors for oral vaccination against M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:22144485
Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Yang, Jiseon; Kader, Rebin; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy; Clark-Curtiss, Josephine E
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been used to measure serum antibody to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 5 in patients\\u000a with bacteriologically positive pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy control subjects. The test can the carried out under conditions\\u000a commonly found in areas where tuberculosis prevalence is high. On the basis of studies in Bolivia, Argentina, China, and USA,\\u000a we believe that this test
T. M. Daniel; R. G. Benjamin; S. M. Debanne; Yu Ma; E. A. Balestrino
Objective: To determine the frequency and association of Vitamin D deficiency in patients with tuberculosis. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Department, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, from July 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: One hundred and five outdoor patients of tuberculosis were selected with 255 gender matched controls. Tuberculosis was diagnosed by presence of acid fast bacilli in sputum smears, positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis or demonstration of chronic caseating granulomatous inflammation in tissue specimens. Controls were drawn randomly from general population. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D3] levels < 25 ng/ml was considered Vitamin D deficiency. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: Mean Vitamin D levels were 23.23 ± 6.81 ng/ml in cases, 29.27 ± 8.89 ng/ml in controls (p < 0.0001). Vitamin D deficiency was found in 57% of cases and 33% controls (p < 0.0001). Mean Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in females with tuberculosis (20.84 ng/ml) as compared to males (25.03 ng/ml, p = 0.002). Mean BMI in patients of tuberculosis with Vitamin D deficiency were 19.51 ± 1.77 kg/m2 and in patients with normal Vitamin D were 21.65 ± 1.79 kg/m2 (p < 0.0001). Mean Vitamin D levels in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis was lower to a mean of 15.41 ± 4.67 ng/ml (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: There is significant deficiency of Vitamin D in patients with tuberculosis as compared to controls. This deficiency is more pronounced in females, individuals with low BMI, extra pulmonary and MDR tuberculosis. PMID:24169384
Iftikhar, Raheel; Kamran, Sultan Mehmood; Qadir, Adnan; Haider, Ehtesham; Hassan Bin Usman
The incidence rate of tuberculosis in Osaka City (104.2 per 100,000 population) is extremely high, namely 3 times higher than the national average. Why the tuberculosis situation of Osaka City is so bad? The reason could be summarized as follows: Before the end of the World War II (1945), it was the sequelae of high prevalence observed in the era of Meiji, Taisho and early years of Showa. However, after the World War II, especially from the Heisei era (1989-), it is deeply affected by the influence of socio-economic background in Japan. Osaka City is characterized as the city of merchants and small enterprises. And therefore, the city substantially has the nature of the locality that brings in or produces some kinds of social vulnerability such as temporary laborers and homeless people. Of the tuberculosis patients in Osaka City, about 20% are homeless. In addition, patients of the smear positive infectious tuberculosis are often discovered among temporary laborers who change their residences and job sites from place to place and contact widely with citizens. These two are the most difficult problems in tuberculosis control program of Osaka City. In the meantime, there are many citizens who are careless of their health and do not follow the law or social rule, and this has apparently no direct connection with the problems of tuberculosis. However, it might be one of the factors of an undesirable trend of tuberculosis in Osaka City. In order to improve such a unfavorable tuberculosis situation in Osaka City, effective and strong supporting activities to the tuberculosis program are essentially needed. And these activities must be done from the standpoint of health-promotion, namely, health education for citizens and improvement of social environmental conditions to maintain healthy and cultural life. PMID:11201140
Tuberculosis without pulmonal manifestation is uncommon, but must still be considered as differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy. We present a case where the main symptom was dysphagia caused by a traction diverticulum due to glandular tuberculosis, which involved the lymph nodes in the neck. Based on the results of a magnetic resonance scanning and a computed tomography the primary diagnosis was a malignant oesophageal tumour, but a polymerase chain reaction on needle-aspirated pus from a lymph node revealed a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. No malignant cells were found in an oesophageal biopsy. After anti-tuberculous treatment, the dysphagia resolved completely. PMID:23121911
Westergaard-Nielsen, Marie; Hammelsvang Pedersen, Birthe
The article aimed at assessing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis control in Brazil, based on the experiences of reference institutions, and the most relevant studies carried out to determine local and national resistance rates. Control measures and the current situation of treatment and diagnoses after the implementation of the national guidelines, which were revised in 2004, are considered. The first national survey on resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs was performed in the middle of last decade. From its outcomes, a regimen to treat all cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was validated and adopted. Government measures enabled the implementation of a surveillance system, whose outcomes are also commented. PMID:18038089
Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Andrade, Mônica Kramer de Noronha; Picon, Pedro Dornelles
Tuberculosis is an ancient infectious disease that remains a threat for public health around the world. Although the etiological agent as well as tuberculosis pathogenesis is well known, the molecular mechanisms underlying the host defense to the bacilli remain elusive. In this paper we focus on the innate immunity of this disease reviewing well-established and consensual mechanisms like Mycobacterium tuberculosis interference with phagosome maturation, less consensual mechanism like nitric oxide production, and new mechanisms, such as mycobacteria translocation to the cytosol, autophagy, and apoptosis/necrosis proposed mainly during the last decade.
Jordao, Luisa; Vieira, Otilia V.
We report an elderly Chinese man who presented with erythroderma. He was treated with topical corticosteroids and emollients, but did not improve. Chest X-ray revealed cavitation in the right upper pulmonary lobe, and laryngeal swab culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Polymerase chain reaction performed on a skin biopsy was positive for M. tuberculosis DNA. Within a month of starting antituberculous medication, his erythroderma had almost completely resolved. Pulmonary tuberculosis should be included in the list of differential diagnosis for erythroderma. PMID:12588391
Chan, Y-C; Yosipovitch, G
Genitourinary tuberculosis is one of the common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We report a case of atypical genitourinary tuberculosis: massive uterovaginal prolapse with cervical lesion mimicking cervical carcinoma. This particular case highlights the problem of healthcare in most of the developing countries. Lack of patient education, awareness, and access to a healthcare system resulted in a complicated situation. In an endemic area or in an immunocompromised individual, a higher index of suspicion would allow early recognition and treatment institution to minimise its late consequences as well as spreading of the disease. Though anti-TB is the mainstay of treatment, surgical intervention might be needed in selected cases.
Lim, Pei Shan; Atan, Ixora Kamisan; Naidu, Aruku
The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases. PMID:22236124
Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario
SUMMARY BACKGROUND In high tuberculosis (TB) burden, resource-poor countries, sputum smear microscopy remains the mainstay of diagnosis. The low sensitivity of this test means that patients with smear-negative but culture-positive TB pass undetected through the health care system. Such clinical episodes are missed opportunities for diagnosis and interruption of transmission, which might be averted through the application of more sensitive diagnostic tests. OBJECTIVES To estimate the proportion of incident TB cases that might have been detected earlier than the actual date of diagnosis if a test more sensitive than smear microscopy had been used at an earlier presentation episode. METHOD Retrospective cohort study in urban Peru, investigating health care facility interactions for symptoms suggestive of TB prior to TB diagnosis through patient interviews and a review of clinical records. RESULTS Of 212 participants enrolled, 58% had one or more clinical interactions prior to their diagnostic episode. Of those with a prior episode, the median number of episodes was three. The median delay to diagnosis from first presentation was 26 days. CONCLUSION There are clear missed opportunities for earlier TB diagnosis, delaying treatment initiation and continued spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the community. The implementation of sensitive diagnostic tests appropriate to resource-poor settings should be given high priority.
Bailey, S. L.; Roper, M. H.; Huayta, M.; Trejos, N.; Alarcon, V. Lopez; Moore, D. A. J.
The problems of diagnosis, treatment and management of tuberculosis associated with HIV infection in Africa are placed in perspective by the former director of the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Tuberculosis (TB) has increased as much as 3-fold in many African countries due to heightened susceptibility of HIV patients. HIV infection may both re-activate latent TB, which virtually all Africans harbor, or increase the likelihood of exogenous infection or re-infection by TB. In most of Africa diagnosis by stained sputum smear is standard: in late AIDS, this method may yield false negatives due to non-pulmonary TB, or pulmonary TB with a negative smear. Chest x-rays are also atypical, since cavitation of the upper zones is not as common, but lobar consolidation and lower zone involvement, and various unusual findings are likely. There is no evidence that mycobacterium avium intracellular has occurred in Africa. Treatment in Africa often centers on long-term thiazina (thiacetazone and isoniazid combined). HIV+ patients are more prone to skin rashes or even lethal epidermal neurolysis as a complication of treatment. Treated patients should be monitored for other symptoms such as diarrhea, recurrent fevers, other chest infections, cerebral space occupying lesions, urinary infections. Many can be treated with broad spectrum antibiotics such as chloramphenicol. Nursing HIV-infected young adults is an expensive and burdensome prospect for overworked and underpaid staff, but curing TB in AIDS patients is possible and worthwhile because of the public health advantages. PMID:12343452
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines.
Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Beltran-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijon, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C.; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramon A.; Vicente, Joaquin; de la Fuente, Jose; Gortazar, Christian
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. Earlier reports suggested that sarcoidosis was a disease of the developed world. However, recent reports suggest that the disease is found in the developing countries as well. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis pose a great challenge in countries endemic for tuberculosis. Mantoux test, high resolution computed tomography, and transbronchial lymph node and lung biopsies are diagnostic modalities, which play an important role in the diagnosis of sarcoid. In this review, we look at the epidemiology of sarcoid in tuberculosis-endemic regions, the sarcoidosis-tuberculosis link, clinical profile, diagnostic modalities, dilemma in the diagnosis, and the treatment of this disease. PMID:23803558
Tuberculosis (TB) is on the rise. An estimated 10 to 15 million people in the United States are infected. This resurgence poses a challenge to all health care providers, including home health care professionals, where many patients fall into the \\
A new diagnostic test for tuberculosis - including its most common resistant form - is being rolled out at record pace, with South Africa its biggest implementer. The challenge now is to treat the new cases. Claire Keeton reports. PMID:23476087
Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis seriously threaten tuberculosis (TB) control and prevention efforts. Molecular studies of the mechanism of action of antitubercular drugs have elucidated the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is attributed primarily to the accumulation of mutations in the drug target genes; these mutations lead either to an altered target (e.g., RNA polymerase and catalase-peroxidase in rifampicin and isoniazid resistance, respectively) or to a change in titration of the drug (e.g., InhA in isoniazid resistance). Development of specific mechanism-based inhibitors and techniques to rapidly detect multidrug resistance will require further studies addressing the drug and drug-target interaction.
Rattan, A.; Kalia, A.; Ahmad, N.
Problems in tuberculosis are its rarity, drug-resistant strains, and patients' social aspects. Knowing the epidemiology helps to "think tuberculosis" when some anamnestic and clinical findings are present. In a not too seriously ill patient, the emergency consists of excluding infectious tuberculosis by sputum smear examinations. A positive result will lead to the patient's isolation and the initiation of treatment. Negative smears allow to wait for culture results, while following the patient and repeating smears after a non-specific antibiotic treatment. In case of strong suspicion of tuberculosis or risk for a rapid progression, the treatment should begin without delay. Discussion with a specialist is often warranted. A follow-up by the Swiss Pulmonary Association is recommended to prevent the patient from defaulting from treatment. PMID:17124854
Helbling, Peter; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Altpeter, Ekkehardt; Boubaker, Karim
The present invention provides a method for specifically detecting a Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-specific secretory protein MPT64 antigen in a biological sample, whereby diagnosis of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is carried out rapidly and safely with higher accuracy than before. An antibody that recognizes an epitope for MPB64 located in any one of amino acid sequences of SEQ ID NOS: 2 to 4, particularly a monoclonal antibody was obtained. Thus, an immunoassay using the antibody, particularly a sandwich immunoassay using first and second antibodies to MPB64, particularly an immunochromatographic assay and an immunochromatographic test strip are provided. A biological sample can be rapidly subjected to the immunoassay without culturing or after culturing for a time before Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria in the sample substantially start to grow. The biological sample may be pretreated by treatment for inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or treatment by dispersion or solubilization.
Namba; Yasuharu (Numazu, JP)
Development of a more effective tuberculosis vaccine is a global public health priority. The first clinical efficacy trial of a new tuberculosis vaccine candidate in over 45 years recently reported its results. Unfortunately, the vaccine, MVA85A, showed no improved efficacy over BCG in preventing tuberculosis disease or infection in 2797 infants. This disappointing result has far-reaching ramifications because the majority of TB vaccine candidates in clinical trials broadly aim to induce the same type of immune responses as MVA85A. This compels close re-examination of the immunological paradigm underpinning the development of most new tuberculosis vaccines. Progress will require frank appraisal of the gaps in our understanding of protective immunity and appropriate use and interpretation of the available animal models. Identifying correlates of protection by dissecting immune responses induced by existing partially effective vaccines may be a good place to focus renewed efforts. PMID:23749816
Lalvani, Ajit; Sridhar, Saranya; Fordham von Reyn, C
Inhalable clofazimine-containing dry powder microparticles (CFM-DPI) and native clofazimine (CFM) were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocyte-derived macrophage cultures and in mice infected with a low-dose aerosol. Both formulations resulted in 99% killing at 2.5 ?g/ml in vitro. In mice, 480 ?g and 720 ?g CFM-DPI inhaled twice per week over 4 weeks reduced numbers of CFU in the lung by as much as log10 2.6; 500 ?g oral CFM achieved a log10 0.7 reduction.
Verma, Rahul Kumar; Germishuizen, Willem A.; Motheo, M. Portia; Agrawal, Atul Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mohan, Mradul; Gupta, Pushpa; Gupta, Umesh Datta; Cholo, Moloko; Anderson, Ronald
Summary \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Incidence of different forms of tuberculosis has been presented in 523 tuberculous children up to 15 years of age. Data have\\u000a been analysed with respect to different age groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The ratio of pulmonary to extra-pulmonary type was found to be 28% to 72% in marked contrast to the ratio seen in the adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Tuberculous adenitis was
D. N. Shivpuri
One third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis (TB), and new infections occur at a rate of one per second.\\u000a The recent increase in the emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the dearth of anti-TB drugs is threatening the future containment of TB. New drugs or delivery systems that will stop\\u000a the spread of TB and
Pavan Muttil; Chenchen Wang; Anthony J. Hickey
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis.
Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and represents the most frequent cause of death by a single infectious agent worldwide1. While the incidence of TB is slowly decreasing in Europe due to active case finding and targeted therapies, the emergence of multi-drug-resistant and extensive-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are a great concern for the
Drug-resistant tuberculosis has brought back the spectre of pre-antibiotic days. WHO surveillance data from 2007 showed multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)-tubercle bacillus resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin accounting for 4.8% of all new and subsequent cases of tuberculosis. India and China-the two most populated countries of the world, house the maximum number of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases. In eastern European and central Asian countries, more than 6% of new TB cases are MDR-TB, whereas the number is <3% in the countries of the western world. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged with the prospect of tuberculosis becoming an incurable disease. A surveillance spreading over the six continents showed 10% of MDR-TB cases were also XDR-TB. The fact that tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection among HIV-infected patients in developing countries makes the challenge almost insurmountable. The mortality of HIV and MDR-TB co-infected patients is exceedingly high. The absence of guidelines for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis and of infrastructure for delivery of DOT program and rapid laboratory diagnostic facilities, including drug susceptibility testing for both first and second-line drugs, and lack of trained human resource in most of the developing world account for the emergence and perpetuation of this menacing problem. WHO along with partnership with Green Light Committee and individual national governments has started DOT plus program to control this global epidemic. PMID:21127999
Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a rare chronic skin disorder of unknown origin. Here we describe what is believed to be the first case of PN associated with tuberculosis. For the first time, culture and PCR analysis of skin biopsy confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in PN skin lesions. The pruritus and skin lesions resolved following antitubercular therapy. Our case provides further evidence in favour of a link between PN and mycobacterial infection. PMID:19661207
Saporito, Laura; Florena, Ada Maria; Colomba, Claudia; Pampinella, Diego; Di Carlo, Paola
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the extent and possible causes of the increased incidence of tuberculosis among Amazonian Indians in Surinam. DESIGN: Descriptive. METHOD: In two cross-sectional surveys in 1998 and 2000, the inhabitants of Kwamalasamutu, a village of Trio-Indians in Surinam, were examined for the presence of active and latent tuberculosis. Previous cases from the period 1995-2000 were evaluated retrospectively by
R. van Crevel; D. J. van Doorninck; J. E. van Ams; H. T. Fat; S. G. S. Vreden
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug-drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis. PMID:22287857
Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker
Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease that predominantly affects the lungs. The hallmark of tuberculosis infection\\u000a is the formation of granulomas in the vicinity of infectious foci. Tuberculous granulomas are highly organized bodies with\\u000a a complex cell composition and well-orchestrated biochemical pathways. Granuloma development plays a dual role. The process\\u000a restricts the infection dissemination and forms a battlefield for protective
A. Apt; T. K. Kondratieva
At present, the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis rests with microscopy. However, this technique is insensitive and many cases of pulmonary tuberculosis cannot be initially confirmed. Nucleic acid amplification techniques are extremely sensitive, but when they are applied to tuberculosis diagnosis, they have given variable results. Investigators at six centers in Europe compared a standardized PCR system (Amplicor; Roche) against conventional culture methods. Defined clinical information was collected. Discrepant samples were retested, and inhibition assays and backup amplification with a separate primer pair were performed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms were recovered from 654 (9.1%) of 7,194 samples and 293 (7.8%) of 3,738 patients. Four hundred fifty-two of the M. tuberculosis isolates from 204 patients were smear positive and culture positive. Among the culture-positive specimens, PCR had a sensitivity of 91.4% for smear-positive specimens and 60.9% for smear-negative specimens, with a specificity of 96.1%. Analysis of 254 PCR-positive, culture-negative specimens with discrepant results revealed that 130 were from patients with recently diagnosed tuberculosis and 94 represented a presumed laboratory error. Similar analysis of 118 PCR-negative, culture-positive specimens demonstrated that 27 discrepancies were due to presumed uneven aliquot distribution and 11 were due to presumed laboratory error; PCR inhibitors were detected in 8 specimens. Amplicor enables laboratories with little previous experience with nucleic acid amplification to perform PCR. Disease in more than 60% of the patients with tuberculosis with smear-negative, culture-positive specimens can be diagnosed at the time of admission, and potentially all patients with smear-positive specimens can immediately be confirmed as being infected with M. tuberculosis, leading to improved clinical management.
Bennedsen, J; Thomsen, V O; Pfyffer, G E; Funke, G; Feldmann, K; Beneke, A; Jenkins, P A; Hegginbothom, M; Fahr, A; Hengstler, M; Cleator, G; Klapper, P; Wilkins, E G
Background Genotyping methods developed to survey the transmission dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis currently rely on the interpretation of restriction and amplification profiles. Multispacer sequence typing (MST) genotyping is based on the sequencing of several intergenic regions selected after complete genome sequence analysis. It has been applied to various pathogens, but not to M. tuberculosis. Methods and Findings In M. tuberculosis, the MST approach yielded eight variable intergenic spacers which included four previously described variable number tandem repeat loci, one single nucleotide polymorphism locus and three newly evaluated spacers. Spacer sequence stability was evaluated by serial subculture. The eight spacers were sequenced in a collection of 101 M. tuberculosis strains from five phylogeographical lineages, and yielded 29 genetic events including 13 tandem repeat number variations (44.82%), 11 single nucleotide mutations (37.93%) and 5 deletions (17.24%). These 29 genetic events yielded 32 spacer alleles or spacer-types (ST) with an index of discrimination of 0.95. The distribution of M. tuberculosis isolates into ST profiles correlated with their assignment into phylogeographical lineages. Blind comparison of a further 93 M. tuberculosis strains by MST and restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 fingerprinting and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units typing, yielded an index of discrimination of 0.961 and 0.992, respectively. MST yielded 41 different profiles delineating 16 related groups and proved to be more discriminatory than IS6110-based typing for isolates containing <8 IS6110 copies (P<0.0003). MST was successfully applied to 7/10 clinical specimens exhibiting a Cts ? 42 cycles in internal transcribed spacer-real time PCR. Conclusions These results support MST as an alternative, sequencing-based method for genotyping low IS6110 copy-number M. tuberculosis strains. The M. tuberculosis MST database is freely available (http://ifr48.timone.univ-mrs.fr/MST_MTuberculosis/mst).
Djelouadji, Zoheira; Arnold, Catherine; Gharbia, Saheer; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
The whole world is divided into 3 groups by the magnitude of tuberculosis problem: namely, developed countries in which tuberculosis is already a minor health problem and continues to decline; NIES and some oil-producing countries in which tuberculosis started to decline significantly; and most developing countries in which tuberculosis is still highly prevalent and no or only a slow decline. Number of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the whole world in a year is estimated at about 4.5 million, and adding smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, total number of new tuberculosis patients amounts to 9 to 10 million, and nearly 3 million persons die every year from tuberculosis, and 97% of these cases occur in developing countries. Failure of tuberculosis control in most developing countries could be explained by slow economic development of financial crisis, which caused poor allocation of budget for health including tuberculosis programme and slow development of primary health care. Activities of tuberculosis supervisory teams are weak. Tuberculosis programmes succeeded in developed countries could not be implemented easily in developing countries. New obstacles to the rapid decline of tuberculosis are the epidemic of AIDS, movement of population and lowering concern on tuberculosis problems, and tuberculosis will remain as one of serious global health problems at least for coming several decades. Maintenance of research and training facilities for tuberculosis is needed, however, they have been disappearing in developed countries. Facilities in developing countries might have difficulties to maintain unless financial and technical support is given from developed countries. Japan is the second biggest economic power in the world, and it is our duty to increase ODA for developing countries. In the field of health, Dr. Nakajima started to work as the director-general of WHO since 1988. We have to intensify our technical cooperation in health. As we succeeded to control tuberculosis in the past 40 years and still maintain research and training facilities for tuberculosis, they should be used for the sake of developing countries. Multi-and bi-lateral cooperation in tuberculosis control should also be intensified. The author would like to urge members of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis to talk about the importance of tuberculosis problem and role expected to Japan in the global fight against tuberculosis to people outside the society so as to have appropriate understanding on global tuberculosis problems. PMID:2593463
Of the five basic taste qualities, the molecular mechanisms underlying sweet, bitter, and umami (savory) taste perception have been extensively elucidated, including the taste receptors and downstream signal transduction molecules. Recent studies have revealed that these taste-related molecules play important roles not only in the oral cavity but also in a variety of tissues including the respiratory tract, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver, kidney, testes, and brain. This review covers the current knowledge regarding the physiological roles of taste-related molecules in the oral and extra-oral tissues. PMID:22963927
Yamamoto, Kurumi; Ishimaru, Yoshiro
Copper resistance mechanisms are crucial for many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, during infection because the innate immune system utilizes copper ions to kill bacterial intruders. Despite several studies detailing responses of mycobacteria to copper, the pathways by which copper ions cross the mycobacterial cell envelope are unknown. Deletion of porin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to a severe growth defect on trace copper medium but simultaneously increases tolerance for copper at elevated concentrations, indicating that porins mediate copper uptake across the outer membrane. Heterologous expression of the mycobacterial porin gene mspA reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in the presence of 2.5 ?M copper by 40% and completely suppressed growth at 15 ?M copper, while wild-type M. tuberculosis reached its normal cell density at that copper concentration. Moreover, the polyamine spermine, a known inhibitor of porin activity in Gram-negative bacteria, enhanced tolerance of M. tuberculosis for copper, suggesting that copper ions utilize endogenous outer membrane channel proteins of M. tuberculosis to gain access to interior cellular compartments. In summary, these findings highlight the outer membrane as the first barrier against copper ions and the role of porins in mediating copper uptake in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis. PMID:24013632
Speer, Alexander; Rowland, Jennifer L; Haeili, Mehri; Niederweis, Michael; Wolschendorf, Frank
Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio Pleistocene) North American mammals, including 114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely “culprits” in its spread.
Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.
Cell-surface saccharides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appear to be crucial factors in tuberculosis pathogenicity and could be useful antigens in tuberculosis immunodiagnosis. In the present study, we report the successful antigenic and immunogenic mimicry of mannose-containing cell-wall compounds of M. tuberculosis by dodecamer peptides identified by phage-display technology. Using a rabbit antiserum raised against M. tuberculosis cell-surface saccharides as a target for biopanning, peptides with three different consensus sequences were identified. Phage-displayed and chemically synthesized peptides bound to the anticarbohydrate antiserum. Rabbit antibodies elicited against the peptide QEPLMGTVPIRAGGGS recognize the mannosylated M. tuberculosis cell-wall antigens arabinomannan and lipoarabinomannan, and the glycosylated recombinant protein alanine/proline-rich antigen. Furthermore, antibodies were also able to react with mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not with phosphatidylinositol dimannosides or arabinogalactan from mycobacteria. These results suggest that the immunogenic peptide mimics oligomannosidic epitopes. Interestingly, this report provides evidence that, in contrast with previously known carbohydrate mimotopes, no aromatic residues are necessary in a peptide sequence for mimicking unusual glycoconjugates synthesized by mycobacteria. The possible usefulness of the identified peptide mimotopes as surrogate reagents for immunodiagnosis and for the study of functional roles of the native non-peptide epitopes is discussed. PMID:15560754
Gevorkian, Goar; Segura, Erika; Acero, Gonzalo; Palma, José P; Espitia, Clara; Manoutcharian, Karen; López-Marín, Luz M
Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio-Pleistocene) North American mammals, including 114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely "culprits" in its spread. PMID:16896974
Rothschild, Bruce M; Martin, Larry D
Clinical tuberculosis (TB), whether noncavitary or cavitary, is the late stage of a chronic disease process, since Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a slowly growing organism. Our studies have shown that the profiles of antigenic proteins expressed by the in vivo bacteria that elicit antibodies differ in cavitary and noncavitary TB (K. Samanich, J. T. Belisle, and S. Laal, Infect. Immun. 69:4600-4609,
Krishna K. Singh; Yuxin Dong; Sai A. Patibandla; David N. McMurray; Vijay K. Arora; Suman Laal
The rabbit model of tuberculosis has been used historically to differentiate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis based on their relative virulence in this animal host. M. tuberculosis infection in market rabbits is cleared over time, whereas infection with M. bovis results in chronic, progressive, cavitary disease leading to death. Because of the innate resistance of commercial rabbits to M. tuberculosis, 320 to 1,890 log-phase, actively growing inhaled bacilli were required to form one grossly visible pulmonary tubercle at 5 weeks. The range of inhaled doses required to make one tubercle allows us to determine the relative pathogenicities of different strains. Fewer inhaled organisms of the M. tuberculosis Erdman strain were required than of M. tuberculosis H37Rv to produce a visible lesion at 5 weeks. Furthermore, with the Erdman strain, only 7 of 15 rabbits had healed lesions at 16 to 18 weeks; among the other animals, two had chronic, progressive cavitary disease, a phenotype usually seen only with M. bovis infection. Genotypic investigation of the Erdman strain with an H37Rv-based microarray identified gene differences in the RD6 region. Southern blot and PCR structural genetic analysis showed significant differences between M. tuberculosis strains in this region. Correlation of the relative pathogenicity, including disease severity, in the rabbit model with the strain genotype may help identify stage-specific M. tuberculosis genes important in human disease.
Manabe, Yukari C.; Dannenberg, Arthur M.; Tyagi, Sandeep K.; Hatem, Christine L.; Yoder, Mark; Woolwine, Samuel C.; Zook, Bernard C.; Pitt, M. Louise M.; Bishai, William R.
Received 29 August 2007\\/Returned for modification 20 September 2007\\/Accepted 26 November 2007 Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global disease. The fatality rate attributed to TB is among the highest of infectious diseases, with approximately 2 million deaths occurring per year worldwide. Identification of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and screening of their immediate contacts is crucial for controlling the spread
Imran H. Khan; Resmi Ravindran; JoAnn Yee; Melanie Ziman; David M. Lewinsohn; Marila L. Gennaro; JoAnne L. Flynn; Celia W. Goulding; Kathryn DeRiemer; Nickolas W. Lerche; Paul A. Luciw
We identified an unusual strain of mycobacteria from two patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by its smooth, glossy morphotype and, primarily, its genotypic characteristics. Spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism typing were carried out with the insertion sequence IS6110 patterns. All known cases of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium canetti have been contracted in the Horn of Africa.
Morillon, Marc; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Varnerot, Anne; Briant, Jean-Francois; Nguyen, Gilbert; Verrot, Denis; Bonnet, Daniel; Vincent, Veronique
Drug resistance in tuberculosis is a growing global problem. The emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases, particularly in the 1990s, has become an important health problem and threatens tuberculosis control worldwide. Resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, two of the most potent anti-tuberculosis drugs currently available, in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases is clinically quite important. The treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis requires prolonged use of costly second-line drugs with significant toxic potentials under supervision and long-term hospitalization of patients. The appropriate management of tuberculosis, clinical/radiological and bacteriological follow-up, and surgery when needed are essential factors in the successful treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patients. An extensively drug resistant tuberculosis outbreak seen in KwaZulu-Natal region of the Republic of South Africa in 2005 led to certain doubts worldwide; this outbreak, introduced the importance and emergence of the counter measures against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases. Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis is defined as resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin from the first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (the definition of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis) in addition to resistance to any fluoroquinolone, and to at least one of the three injectable second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (kanamycin, capreomycin and amikacin) used in tuberculosis treatment. Mistreatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases by physicians, the use of anti-tuberculosis drugs with low quality, poor experience in management, lack of laboratories to perform second-line anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing and problems in adherence of patients to treatment are factors associated to the development of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis. With the emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, World Health Organization gives importance to the mycobacteriology laboratory improvement, better multi-drug resistant tuberculosis case management, adequate drug supply, prevention of tuberculosis transmission and development of new drugs and diagnostics. Recently, a new form of tuberculosis, resistant to all first-and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs seen in just a few number of cases, has been defined as extremely drug resistant tuberculosis and this is the end point in resistance problem in tuberculosis. In the view of this situation the stages of tuberculosis in terms of developing resistance are as follows: drugsensitive tuberculosis, mono-drug resistant tuberculosis, poly-drug resistant tuberculosis, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis. In this review, the recent information about drug resistant tuberculosis forms, particularly extremely drug resistant tuberculosis that has been popular since 2005, has been discussed. PMID:21341173
The spinal column is involved in less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a very dangerous type of skeletal TB as it can be associated with neurologic deficit due to compression of adjacent neural structures and significant spinal deformity. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of spinal TB has special importance in preventing these serious complications. In order to extract current trends in diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of spinal TB we performed a narrative review with analysis of all the articles available for us which were published between 1990 and 2011. Althoug h the development of more accurate imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and advanced surgical techniques have made the early diagnosis and management of spinal TB much easier, these are still very challenging topics. In this review we aim to discuss the diagnosis and management of spinal TB based on studies with acceptable design, clearly explained results and justifiable conclusions.
Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Mirkoohi, Maryam; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi
It is now privately acknowledged that there may be little if any perceptible impact of the national Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination program on disease prevalence, despite the extensive coverage of the newborn infant population and likely benefit in the early years of life. A better preventive vaccine than BCG is now being sought by Chinese researchers. Urgency has been added to the control problem by the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Furthermore, expensive second-line drugs seem unlikely to be made available by the government to treat drug-resistant cases, so attention in addition has turned to the potential of immunotherapy as an adjunct to chemotherapy. Research trends are summarized here.
Lowrie, Douglas B
The spinal column is involved in less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal TB is a very dangerous type of skeletal TB as it can be associated with neurologic deficit due to compression of adjacent neural structures and significant spinal deformity. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of spinal TB has special importance in preventing these serious complications. In order to extract current trends in diagnosis and medical or surgical treatment of spinal TB we performed a narrative review with analysis of all the articles available for us which were published between 1990 and 2011. Althoug h the development of more accurate imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and advanced surgical techniques have made the early diagnosis and management of spinal TB much easier, these are still very challenging topics. In this review we aim to discuss the diagnosis and management of spinal TB based on studies with acceptable design, clearly explained results and justifiable conclusions. PMID:23275816
Rasouli, Mohammad R; Mirkoohi, Maryam; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Yarandi, Kourosh Karimi; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
During the last decade, abdominal tuberculosis (TB) has experienced a renaissance. The number of cases diagnosed in Western European and North American countries has dramatically increased. The reasons for this are multiple and include the appearance of AIDS as a significant disorder and the increased morbidity of peoples across the world with the migration of many people from areas of high incidence of TB to the West. Recent epidemiological work is reviewed, and its relationship to these changes considered. The distribution of disease along the gastrointestinal tract and in the mesentery is discussed. The frequency of involvement at various sites and the clinical symptoms caused by the disease are reviewed. The need to diagnose abdominal TB in the 1990s is considered in detail in areas where the disease had previously been thought rare. PMID:8443955
Jayanthi, V; Probert, C S; Sher, K S; Wicks, A C; Mayberry, J F
In a landmark development, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, has taken important steps to establish the compulsory notification of tuberculosis in the country. A Government Order to this effect was issued on 7 May 2012. In addition to this IMA passed a resolution on TB notification in CWC on 22nd April 2012 at Mumbai: "In conformity with the requirements of ISTC, Indian Medical Association (IMA) desires that Notification of TB patient to the National Programme be made mandatory. IMA also recommends to the medical practitioner to follow the ISTC guidelines in diagnosis and management of TB care". Notification of TB will facilitate early diagnosis and treatment, prevention of MDR and XDR, reduce TB deaths, better quality diagnostic and treatment services for the TB patients. RNTCP will realistically estimateTB burden, plan resources and control measures to commensurate with the actual burden of disease. PMID:23738407
Roy, Sukhendu; Rai, D R; Suresh, Gutta
Infection caused by the lung fluke is endemic in north eastern parts of India. Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus heterotremus are known to be endemic in eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland. The infection is related to eating habits of the locals and is acquired by ingestion of raw, inadequately cooked crabs or crayfish containing encysted metacercariae which act as second intermediate hosts during the life cycle of the lung fluke. Diagnosis is generally delayed due to lack of suspicion and presentation similar to tuberculosis which is endemic in the population. We report pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis in a soldier from eastern India who presented with chest pain, haemoptysis, and eosinophilia. He gave history of consumption of raw crabs while on leave at his native village in Nagaland. Ova morphologically resembling Paragonimus heterotremus were detected in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Symptoms resolved with praziquantel treatment. PMID:23432864
Lall, Mahima; Sahni, Ajay Kumar; Rajput, A K
...77 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0087] Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids AGENCY: Animal...CervidTB Stat-Pak[supreg] and DPP[supreg] tests as official tuberculosis tests for the following species of captive cervids:...
...Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how the program...services; and (3) Will implement infection control procedures established by the...Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which are designed...
...Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how the program...services; and (3) Will implement infection control procedures established by the...Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which are designed...
Screening of genomic expression libraries from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with sera from tuberculosis (TB) patients or rabbit antiserum to M. tuberculosis led to the identification of novel antigens capable of detecting specific antibodies to M. tuberculosis. Three antigens, Mtb11 (also known as CFP-10), Mtb8, and Mtb48, were tested together with the previously reported 38-kDa protein, in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Raymond L. Houghton; Michael J. Lodes; Davin C. Dillon; Lisa D. Reynolds; Craig H. Day; Patricia D. McNeill; Ronald C. Hendrickson; Yasir A. W. Skeiky; Diana P. Sampaio; Roberto Badaro; Konstantin P. Lyashchenko; Steven G. Reed
Setting: The diagnosis of tuberculosis is based primarily on identification of mycobacteria and on clinical evidence. Recently, serological studies have been widely used experimentally as a diagnostic approach.Objective: The aim of our study was to optimize serodiagnosis of tuberculosis by detecting mycobacterial antigens and antibodies in sera from patients with lung tuberculosis, non-related diseases and healthy controls.Design: Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv
A. G. Khomenko; A. V. Bayensky; L. N. Chernousova; N. V. Kulikovskaya; N. V. Demianenko; V. I. Litvinov
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the most common communicable infectious disease worldwide and the top killer of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected\\u000a people. Because of common dual HIV and M. tuberculosis infections, the emergence of multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, the lack of effective vaccination, the morbidity, and the mortality of M. tuberculosis infection are increasing sharply. Therefore, there is an urgent need for
Jing Zhang; Yan-Qing Ye; Yong Wang; Ping-Zheng Mo; Qiao-Yang Xian; Yan Rao; Rong Bao; Ming Dai; Jun-Yan Liu; Ming Guo; Xin Wang; Zhi-Xiang Huang; Li-Hua Sun; Zhi-Jiao Tang; Wen-Zhe Ho
SummaryBackground: Mammary tuberculosis is rare in the Western world. It has no defined clinical or imaging features, and has to be differentiated from breast cancer and an abscess. Case Report: We present a case of mammary tuberculosis combined with borderline ovarian cancer. The bilateral breast tuberculosis was the first and only symptom of underlying tuberculosis with Ziehl-Neelsenpositive para-aortic lymph nodes.
Joachim Van Keirsbilck; Ine Riphagen; Hans Struyven; Andre Van den Eeckhout; Ann Cornelis; Patrick Neven; Frederic Amant; Ignace Vergote
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis, the most common clinical form of mycobacterial diseases, is a granulomatous disease of the lungs caused by Mycobaterium tuberculosis. A number of genes have been identified in studies of diverse origins to be important in tuberculosis. Of these, both tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and lymphotoxin ? (LT-?) play important immunoregulatory roles. METHODS: To investigate the association
Shilpy Sharma; Jaishriram Rathored; Balaram Ghosh; Surendra K Sharma
We report erythema induratum in a patient who was found to have active endometrial tuberculosis. This case report emphasizes the importance of an exhaustive search for active tuberculosis in patients with erythema induratum, especially in countries where tuberculosis is prevalent, as the indiscriminate treatment of erythema induratum with steroids may be harmful.
H. J. De Silva; A. K. Goonetilleke; N. R. De Silva; L. R. Amarasekera
Tuberculosis remains a worldwide threat despite the avail- ability of the BCG vaccine and antibiotic treatment. It is esti- mated that its etiologic agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in- fects almost a third of the human population and kills two million people every year (27). The recent human immunode- ficiency virus pandemic, the selection of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, and the
Riccardo Manganelli; Roberta Proveddi; Sebastien Rodrigue; Jocelyn Beaucher; Luc Gaudreau; Issar Smith
Drug-resistant tuberculosis is caused by transmission of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and by acquisition of resistance through inadequate treatment. We investigated the clinical and molecular features of the disease in 2 families after drug-resistant tuberculosis was identified in 2 children. The findings demonstrate the potential for resistance to be transmitted and amplified within families.
Warren, Rob M.; Enarson, Donald A.; Beyers, Nulda; Schaaf, H. Simon
Objectives: To describe the characteristics of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with tuberculosis in Europe; to assess the incidence and risk factors of tuberculosis after AIDS; to compare survival of AIDS patients with and without extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) at the time of AIDS diagnosis.Design: Multicentric retrospective cohort study of 6544 AIDS patients diagnosed in 52 clinical centres and 17
P. Sudre; B. J. Hirschel; J. M. Gatell; S. Schwander; S. Vella; C. Katlama; B. Ledergerber; A. d'Arminio Monforte; F.-D. Goebel; P. O. Pehrson; C. Pedersen; J. D. Lundgren
The present study was conducted to compare three methods, culture and morphology of colonies, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using well characterized clinical specimens from patients who were assessed according to standard parameters for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Seventy seven isolated Mycobacterium species from patient's samples suspected to have tuberculosis from March 2003 till
TAVAKKOL AFSHARI; KHODADOOST MA
A rapid serological test for tuberculosis (TB) infection was designed using antigens specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis infection, TB vaccination and exposure to environmental Mycobacteria cannot be distinguished using skin tests based on tuberculin protein derivatives. The standard diagnostic techniques such as skin tests, X-rays and DNA techniques are time consuming, expensive, and not practical for screening large populations. We
J. R. Reddy; J. Kwang; K. F. Lechtenberg; N. C. Khan; B. Prasad Reddy; M. M. Chengappa
Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa. PMID:23622814
Firdessa, Rebuma; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Schelling, Esther; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Kiros, Teklu; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Robertson, Brian D; Ameni, Gobena; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan; Comas, Iñaki; Gagneux, Sebastien; Tschopp, Rea; Yamuah, Lawrence; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V; Young, Douglas B; Aseffa, Abraham
BACKGROUND: Data on the percentage of gamma\\/delta T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis are few and contradictory. The percentage of gamma\\/delta T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of tuberculin positive and tuberculin negative patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and healthy controls was compared. METHODS: Thirty six patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 11 healthy
Z. Baliko; L. Szereday; J. Szekeres-Bartho
The emergence of multidrug resistant varieties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to a search for novel drug targets. We have performed an insilico comparative analysis of metabolic pathways of the host Homo sapiens and the pathogen M. tuberculosis. Enzymes from the biochemical pathways of M. tuberculosis from the KEGG metabolic pathway database were compared with proteins from the hostH. sapiens,
Sharmila Anishetty; Mrudula Pulimi; Pennathur Gautam
Tuberculosis of bone is an uncommon entity in the western world. We present a case of tuberculosis of the patella mimicking prepatellar bursitis in an otherwise fit and well woman of Bangladeshi origin. We believe tuberculosis of bone should form a differential diagnosis of the swollen knee in high-risk patients. PMID:23317718
MacLean, S; Kulkarni, S
Two decades ago, WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency, and invested in the highly cost-effective directly observed treatment short-course programme to control the epidemic. At that time, most strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were susceptible to first-line tuberculosis drugs, and drug resistance was not a major issue. However, in 2013, tuberculosis remains a major public health concern worldwide, with prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis rising. WHO estimates roughly 630?000 cases of MDR tuberculosis worldwide, with great variation in the frequency of MDR tuberculosis between countries. In the past 8 years, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis has emerged, and has been reported in 84 countries, heralding the possibility of virtually untreatable tuberculosis. Increased population movement, the continuing HIV pandemic, and the rise in MDR tuberculosis pose formidable challenges to the global control of tuberculosis. We provide an overview of the global burden of drug-resistant disease; discuss the social, health service, management, and control issues that fuel and sustain the epidemic; and suggest specific recommendations for important next steps. Visionary political leadership is needed to curb the rise of MDR and XDR tuberculosis worldwide, through sustained funding and the implementation of global and regional action plans. PMID:23531391
Abubakar, Ibrahim; Zignol, Matteo; Falzon, Dennis; Raviglione, Mario; Ditiu, Lucica; Masham, Susan; Adetifa, Ifedayo; Ford, Nathan; Cox, Helen; Lawn, Stephen D; Marais, Ben J; McHugh, Timothy D; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Lipman, Marc; Zijenah, Lynn; Logan, Simon; McNerney, Ruth; Zumla, Adam; Sarda, Krishna; Nahid, Payam; Hoelscher, Michael; Pletschette, Michel; Memish, Ziad A; Kim, Peter; Hafner, Richard; Cole, Stewart; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Maeurer, Markus; Schito, Marco; Zumla, Alimuddin
Children with low-flow congenital heart lesions are reported to have an increased incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if children with congenital heart disease have an increased incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and to determine if patients with certain heart conditions are more susceptible to pulmonary tuberculosis than others. This retrospective study over a 6-year
P.-L. Merwe; N. Kalis; H. S. Schaaf; E. H. Nel; R. P. Gie
AIMS: To determine factors that may influence the efficacy of an oral pelleted vaccine containing Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to induce protection of brushtail possums against tuberculosis. To determine the duration of protective immunity following oral administration of BCG.METHODS: In Study 1, a group of possums (n=7) was immunised by feeding 10 pellets containing dead Pasteur BCG, followed 15
BM Buddle; FE Aldwell; DL Keen; NA Parlane; KL Hamel; GW de Lisle
This study extends earlier reports regarding the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of the nitroimidazopyran PA-824 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PA-824 was tested in vitro against a broad panel of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates and was found to be highly active against all isolates (MIC < 1 ?g/ml). The activity of PA-824 against M. tuberculosis was also assessed grown under conditions of oxygen depletion. PA-824 showed significant activity at 2, 10, and 50 ?g/ml, similar to that of metronidazole, in a dose-dependent manner. In a short-course mouse infection model, the efficacy of PA-824 at 50, 100, and 300 mg/kg of body weight formulated in methylcellulose or cyclodextrin/lecithin after nine oral treatments was compared with those of isoniazid, rifampin, and moxifloxacin. PA-824 at 100 mg/kg in cyclodextrin/lecithin was as active as moxifloxacin at 100 mg/kg and isoniazid at 25 mg/kg and was slightly more active than rifampin at 20 mg/kg. Long-term treatment with PA-824 at 100 mg/kg in cyclodextrin/lecithin reduced the bacterial load below 500 CFU in the lungs and spleen. No significant differences in activity between PA-824 and the other single drug treatments tested (isoniazid at 25 mg/kg, rifampin at 10 mg/kg, gatifloxacin at 100 mg/kg, and moxifloxacin at 100 mg/kg) could be observed. In summary, its good activity in in vivo models, as well as its activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and against M. tuberculosis isolates in a potentially latent state, makes PA-824 an attractive drug candidate for the therapy of tuberculosis. These data indicate that there is significant potential for effective oral delivery of PA-824 for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Lenaerts, Anne J.; Gruppo, Veronica; Marietta, Karen S.; Johnson, Christine M.; Driscoll, Diane K.; Tompkins, Nicholas M.; Rose, Jerry D.; Reynolds, Robert C.; Orme, Ian M.
Transient bacteremia from oral cavity related to oral anaerobic bacteria may occur as a result of dental healthcare procedures but also as a result of daily gestures involving the gums (chewing and oral hygiene). The risk of presenting a transient bacteremia is related to oral cavity bacterial load and to the severity of inflammation in the oral cavity. Although bacteremia is transient, in patients with immunodeficiency or comorbidity, this bacteremia may cause extra-oral infections. The bacteremia rate and the identified bacteria vary from one study to the next, depending on the method used to isolate and identify bacteria. Nevertheless, the risk for bacteremia is determined by the infectious and inflammatory conditions of each patient. PMID:21940028
Perez-Chaparro, P J; Meuric, V; De Mello, G; Bonnaure-Mallet, M
Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreases mortality risk in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients, but the effect of the duration of anti-tuberculosis therapy and timing of anti-tuberculosis therapy initiation in relation to ART initiation on mortality, is unclear. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational multi-center cohort study among HIV-infected persons concomitantly treated with Rifamycin-based anti-tuberculosis therapy and ART in Latin America. The study population included persons for whom 6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy is recommended. Results Of 253 patients who met inclusion criteria, median CD4+ lymphocyte count at ART initiation was 64 cells/mm3, 171 (68%) received >180 days of anti-tuberculosis therapy, 168 (66%) initiated anti-tuberculosis therapy before ART, and 43 (17%) died. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model that adjusted for CD4+ lymphocytes and HIV-1 RNA, tuberculosis diagnosed after ART initiation was associated with an increased risk of death compared to tuberculosis diagnosis before ART initiation (HR 2.40; 95% CI 1.15, 5.02; P = 0.02). In a separate model among patients surviving >6 months after tuberculosis diagnosis, after adjusting for CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV-1 RNA, and timing of ART initiation relative to tuberculosis diagnosis, receipt of >6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy was associated with a decreased risk of death (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.08, 0.66; P=0.007). Conclusions The increased risk of death among persons diagnosed with tuberculosis after ART initiation highlights the importance of screening for tuberculosis before ART initiation. The decreased risk of death among persons receiving > 6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy suggests that current anti-tuberculosis treatment duration guidelines should be re-evaluated.
Cortes, Claudia P.; Wehbe, Firas H.; McGowan, Catherine C.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Duda, Stephany N.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Gonzalez, Elsa; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Schechter, Mauro; Padgett, Denis; Cesar, Carina; Madero, Juan Sierra; Pape, Jean W.; Masys, Daniel R.; Sterling, Timothy R.
Probiotics utilize the naturally occurring bacteria to confer health benefits. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and are being mainly utilized for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and disease; however, recently, several studies have suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to understand the potential mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize their observed effects with respect to oral health.
Rastogi, Pavitra; Saini, Himani; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Rameshwari
Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is tobe preferred as this administration routeis convenient to patients, reducesadministration costs and facilitates theuse of more chronic treatment regimens. Forthe taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel,however, low oral bioavailability haslimited development of treatment by theoral route. Preclinical studies with mdr1aP-glycoprotein knock-out mice, which lackfunctional P-glycoprotein activity in thegut, have shown significant bioavailabilityof orally administered paclitaxel.Additional studies
Mirte M. Malingré; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens
Halitosis is a common problem. Its aetiology is multifactorial, but oral malodour is usually caused by microbial metabolism from the tongue, saliva or dental plaque. Mouthwashes are only effective against halitosis caused by intraoral factors. The principal causative agents of oral malodour are volatile sulphide compounds (VSCs), including hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide. Data suggest that oral VSC levels correlate with the depth of periodontal pockets. Trials have shown that both mechanical oral care and mouthwash use can reduce halitosis levels. The majority of studies involving mouthwashes have investigated chlorhexidine and essential oil mouthwashes, although comparative studies are sparse. PMID:12787198
Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.
Meurman, Jukka H.
Approximately one-third of the human population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, comprising a critical reservoir for disease reactivation. Despite the importance of latency in maintaining M. tuberculosis in the human population, little is known about the mycobacterial factors that regulate persistence and reactivation. Previous in vitro studies have implicated a family of five related M. tuberculosis proteins, called resuscitation
JoAnn M. Tufariello; K. Mi; J. Xu; Y. C. Manabe; A. K. Kesavan; J. Drumm; K. Tanaka; W. R. Jacobs; J. Chan
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the US National Tuberculosis Genotyping and Surveillance Network to study the utility of genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates for prevention and control. From 1998 to 2000, four sites performed conventional contact investigations and epidemiologic investigations of cases with genotypically matched M. tuberculosis isolates, called cluster investigations. The authors compared cluster pairs (two cases
Scott J. N. McNabb; J. Steve Kammerer; Andrew C. Hickey; Christopher R. Braden; Nong Shang; Lisa S. Rosenblum; Thomas R. Navin
Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA) test. Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence rate of 2.6%). The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis.
Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad
|The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…
Hand, Samuel B., Ed.
One hundred and fifty patients requiring maintenance haemodialysis were investigated to determine the incidence and pattern of tuberculosis. Twenty patients were found to have tuberculosis, giving an incidence of 13.3 times that of the general population. The most frequent clinical presentations of tuberculosis in these patients were pyrexia, pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic difficulties were encountered in 7 patients in whom therapeutic trial with anti-tubercular drugs had to be undertaken. Two patients died from tuberculosis. Five patients received renal transplants after initial treatment of tuberculosis.
Malhotra, K. K.; Parashar, M. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Bhuyan, U. N.; Dash, S. C.; Kumar, R.; Rana, D. S.
The epidemiology of tuberculosis has changed dramatically over the past 5 years with significant shifts in at-risk populations, resulting in increased disease among young adults and children, especially among those from developing countries. Congenital tuberculosis is rare, and the clinical presentation of tuberculosis during pregnancy and infancy is often non-specific, making recognition difficult. Advances have been made with diagnostic tools, in public health practices, and with treatment recommendations. Controversy and debate continue regarding the safety and use of isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection during pregnancy. New vaccine development may be promising for the future, but much work is needed to understand the complicated immune response to tuberculosis. PMID:12015461
Smith, Kim Connelly
Growing consensus indicates that progress in tuberculosis control in the low- and middle-income world will require not only investment in strengthening tuberculosis control programs, diagnostics, and treatment but also action on the social determinants of tuberculosis. However, practical ideas for action are scarcer than is notional support for this idea. We developed a framework based on the recent World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health and on current understanding of the social determinants of tuberculosis. Interventions from outside the health sector—specifically, in social protection and urban planning—have the potential to strengthen tuberculosis control.
Boccia, Delia; Evans, Carlton A.; Adato, Michelle; Petticrew, Mark; Porter, John D. H.
Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) live with a risk of reactivation, and several treatments for chronic inflammatory conditions are highly associated with such reactivation. A new Janus kinase inhibitor, tofacitinib (CP-690550), has shown promising results for treatment of inflammatory disorders, thus raising concerns of risk of active tuberculosis. Our goal was to characterize the impact of tofacitinib on LTBI using a mouse model of contained tuberculosis. Our data indicate that tofacitinib reduces host containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and promotes bacterial replication in the lungs, suggesting tuberculosis reactivation. Tofacitinib may carry a significant risk for LTBI reactivation in humans.
Maiga, Mamoudou; Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Winglee, Kathryn; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Bishai, William R.
Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) live with a risk of reactivation, and several treatments for chronic inflammatory conditions are highly associated with such reactivation. A new Janus kinase inhibitor, tofacitinib (CP-690550), has shown promising results for treatment of inflammatory disorders, thus raising concerns of risk of active tuberculosis. Our goal was to characterize the impact of tofacitinib on LTBI using a mouse model of contained tuberculosis. Our data indicate that tofacitinib reduces host containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and promotes bacterial replication in the lungs, suggesting tuberculosis reactivation. Tofacitinib may carry a significant risk for LTBI reactivation in humans. PMID:22474037
Maiga, Mamoudou; Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Winglee, Kathryn; Ammerman, Nicole C; Bishai, William R
MPT53 is a secreted protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Southern transfer and hybridization showed mpt53 to be conserved in the M. tuberculosis complex and to have homology with DNA from Mycobacterium avium and other nontuberculous mycobacteria. However, anti-MPT53 polyclonal antibodies detected no antigen in the culture filtrates of M. avium and other nontuberculous mycobacteria. MPT53 of M. tuberculosis induced strong, tuberculosis-specific antibody responses in guinea pigs but induced no delayed-type hypersensitivity. Involvement in immune responses during human tuberculosis was very modest. PMID:11500477
Johnson, S; Brusasca, P; Lyashchenko, K; Spencer, J S; Wiker, H G; Bifani, P; Shashkina, E; Kreiswirth, B; Harboe, M; Schluger, N; Gomez, M; Gennaro, M L
MPT53 is a secreted protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Southern transfer and hybridization showed mpt53 to be conserved in the M. tuberculosis complex and to have homology with DNA from Mycobacterium avium and other nontuberculous mycobacteria. However, anti-MPT53 polyclonal antibodies detected no antigen in the culture filtrates of M. avium and other nontuberculous mycobacteria. MPT53 of M. tuberculosis induced strong, tuberculosis-specific antibody responses in guinea pigs but induced no delayed-type hypersensitivity. Involvement in immune responses during human tuberculosis was very modest.
Johnson, Sadie; Brusasca, PierNatale; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Spencer, John S.; Wiker, Harald G.; Bifani, Pablo; Shashkina, Elena; Kreiswirth, Barry; Harboe, Morten; Schluger, Neil; Gomez, Manuel; Gennaro, Maria Laura
Summary: Numerous studies have reported that individuals can simultaneously harbor multiple distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To date, there has been limited discussion of the consequences for the individual or the epidemiological importance of mixed infections. Here, we review studies that documented mixed infections, highlight challenges associated with the detection of mixed infections, and discuss possible implications of mixed infections for the diagnosis and treatment of patients and for the community impact of tuberculosis control strategies. We conclude by highlighting questions that should be resolved in order to improve our understanding of the importance of mixed-strain M. tuberculosis infections.
van Helden, Paul D.; Wilson, Douglas; Colijn, Caroline; McLaughlin, Megan M.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Warren, Robin M.
Cutaneous tuberculosis is an important health problem in developing countries such as India. Poverty, overcrowding, malnutrition, and ignorance are predisposing factors. The commonly seen variants of cutaneous tuberculosis are scrofuloderma, lupus vulgaris, and tuberculosis verrucosa cutis. Malnourished children may present with unusual forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. Herein we report two interesting cases of multifocal cutaneous tuberculosis in malnourished children. PMID:22957927
Verma, Shikha; Thakur, Binod Kumar; Gupta, Amlan
Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within communities. Currently recommended gold-standard diagnostic tests for tuberculosis are laboratory based, and multiple investigations may be necessary over a period of weeks or months before a diagnosis is made. Several new diagnostic tests have recently become available for detecting active tuberculosis disease, screening for latent M. tuberculosis infection, and identifying drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. However, progress toward a robust point-of-care test has been limited, and novel biomarker discovery remains challenging. In the absence of effective prevention strategies, high rates of early case detection and subsequent cure are required for global tuberculosis control. Early case detection is dependent on test accuracy, accessibility, cost, and complexity, but also depends on the political will and funder investment to deliver optimal, sustainable care to those worst affected by the tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics. This review highlights unanswered questions, challenges, recent advances, unresolved operational and technical issues, needs, and opportunities related to tuberculosis diagnostics. PMID:22496353
McNerney, Ruth; Maeurer, Markus; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Marais, Ben; McHugh, Timothy D; Ford, Nathan; Weyer, Karin; Lawn, Steve; Grobusch, Martin P; Memish, Ziad; Squire, S Bertel; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Casenghi, Martina; Migliori, Giovanni-Batista; Mwaba, Peter; Zijenah, Lynn; Hoelscher, Michael; Cox, Helen; Swaminathan, Soumya; Kim, Peter S; Schito, Marco; Harari, Alexandre; Bates, Matthew; Schwank, Samana; O'Grady, Justin; Pletschette, Michel; Ditui, Lucica; Atun, Rifat; Zumla, Alimuddin
To inform development of tuberculosis (TB) control strategies, we characterized a total of 2,261 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by using multiple phenotypic and molecular markers, including polymorphisms in repetitive sequences (spoligotyping and variable-number tandem repeats [VNTRs]) and large sequence and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The Beijing family was strongly associated with multidrug resistance (p = 0.0001), and VNTR allelic variants showed strong associations with spoligotyping families: >5 copies at exact tandem repeat (ETR) A, >2 at mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit 24, and >3 at ETR-B associated with the East African–Indian and M. bovis strains. All M. tuberculosis isolates were differentiated into 4 major lineages, and a maximum parsimony tree was constructed suggesting a more complex phylogeny for M. africanum. These findings can be used as a model of pathogen global diversity.
Brown, Timothy; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Velji, Preya
The findings in a 4-yr survey of 82 patients with abdominal tuberculosis are described and compared with those encountered in previous surveys. Fourteen cases of intestinal, 11 of mesenteric-lymphnodal, and 57 of peritoneal tuberculosis were identified. The disease occurred essentially in patients living under worsening socioeconomic conditions, and 51 of them had associated pulmonary tuberculosis. Symptoms and clinical findings were again nonspecific, but newer imaging, endoscopic, and other invasive procedures were helpful in establishing a definite diagnosis. In addition, adenosine deaminase determination showed great promise as a noninvasive diagnostic procedure in patients with tuberculous ascites. The six hospital deaths in the series highlight the hazard of potentially lethal delays in early diagnosis and treatment, even in centers with a high awareness of the disease. PMID:8480741
Lingenfelser, T; Zak, J; Marks, I N; Steyn, E; Halkett, J; Price, S K
Tuberculosis is one of the world's most prevalent infectious diseases. The causative agent, M. tuberculosis, asymptomatically infects more than 30% of the world population and causes 8 million cases of active disease and 2 million deaths annually. Its pathogenic success stems from its ability to block phagolysosome biogenesis and subsequent destruction in the host macrophages. Recently, our laboratory has uncovered autophagy as a new means of overcoming this block and promoting the killing of mycobacteria. Here we describe the methods to study autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection of macrophages. The described assays can be used to investigate and identify factors important for autophagic elimination of mycobacteria that could potentially provide new therapeutic targets to defeat this disease.
Ponpuak, Marisa; Delgado, Monica A.; Elmaoued, Rasha A.; Deretic, Vojo
Tuberculosis remains one of the most significant human diseases of the developing world, accounting for 3800 worldwide deaths per day. Although we currently have a vaccine for tuberculosis, BCG, this is insufficient at protecting from adult pulmonary tuberculosis in the parts of the world where a good vaccine is most needed. This has prompted the search for new vaccination strategies that can protect better than BCG, or can boost BCG-induced immunity. We discuss these subjects in line with what is known of the immune responses to BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis - the etiological agent of the disease, as well as the particular difficulties facing development of new vaccines against tuberculosis. A greater understanding of the factors constituting optimal protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, as well as which pathogenic factors facilitate active disease, will accelerate the delivery of safe vaccines able to restrict active tuberculosis and thus impede contagion. PMID:23257069
Pitt, Jonathan M; Blankley, Simon; McShane, Helen; O'Garra, Anne
The global distribution of individual species of oral bacteria demonstrates their ability to survive among their human hosts. Such an ubiquitous existence is the result of efficient transmission of strains and their persistence in the oral environment. Genetic analysis has identified specific clones of pathogenic bacteria causing infection. Presumably, these express virulence-associated characteristics enhancing colonization and survival in their hosts.
G. H. W. Bowden; I. R. Hamilton
It is well known that smoking contributes to the development of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, and there is weighty evidence that it has a considerable influence on oral health. Smoking has many negative effects on the mouth, including staining of teeth and dental restorations, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and the development of oral diseases such
ABSTRACT Although tuberculosis (TB) has its highest burden among young adults, especially since the advent of HIV infection, two other groups with low immunity, the very young (<1 year) with immature immunity and the elderly (>65 years) with waning immunity, are vulnerable groups not to be forgotten. This review describes the epidemiology, clinical aspects, public health aspects and outcome of TB in patients at the extremes of age. The epidemiology differs therein that TB in infants occurs in developing countries with high incidences of TB and HIV, while TB in the elderly occurs in developed countries with ageing populations. The clinical presentation may be non-specific, history of contact with TB is often not known and TB is often not considered at these age extremes, and when the diagnosis is considered, disease progression may already be advanced. Anti-TB treatment regimens are the same as in other age groups, but drug dosages may need adjustment according to weight, renal function, liver function and other potentially complicating factors. Adverse events are more difficult to observe and both the young and the elderly are reliant on others for adherence to treatment. Mortality at both age extremes is higher than in the general TB population. For all the above reasons, public health measures to: prevent transmission of infection; identify those infected and providing preventive therapy; high index of suspicion in order to make an early diagnosis; and timely initiation of treatment are important in both the very young and the elderly. PMID:20546192
Schaaf, H Simon; Collins, Andrea; Bekker, Adrie; Davies, Peter D O
Mycobacterial persisters, the survivors from antibiotic exposure, necessitate the lengthy treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and pose a significant challenge for our control of the disease. We suggest that persisters in TB are heterogeneous in nature and comprise various proportions of the population depending on the circumstances; the mechanisms of their formation are complex and may be related to those required for persistence in chronic infection. Results from recent studies implicate multiple pathways for persister formation, including energy production, the stringent response, global regulators, the trans-translation pathway, proteasomal protein degradation, toxin-antitoxin modules, and transporter or efflux mechanisms. A combination of specifically persister-targeted approaches, such as catching them when active and susceptible either by stimulating them to “wake up” or by intermittent drug dosing, the development of new drugs, the use of appropriate drug combinations, and combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy, may be needed for more effective elimination of persisters and better treatment of TB. Variations in levels of persister formation and in host genetics can play a role in the outcome of clinical treatment, and thus, these may entail personalized treatment regimens.
Yew, Wing Wai; Barer, Michael R.
The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,135 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2007, of which 1,086 were new cases and 48 were relapsed cases. The incidence of TB in Australia in 2007 was 5.4 cases per 100,000 population, similar to rates since 1986. In 2007, 86.4% of cases occurred in the overseas-born population. The incidence in the Indigenous Australian population was 6.6 cases per 100,000 population. By contrast, the incidence of TB in the non-Indigenous population was 0.9 cases per 100,000 population. Household or other close contact with TB or past residence in a high risk country were the most commonly reported risk factors for TB infection. In 2007, 31 cases of TB were reported in health care workers, 29 of which were in health care workers born overseas. There were no reports of TB transmission in Australian health care settings. Outcome data of the 2006 TB cohort indicate that treatment success was attained in more than 95% of cases. As Australia continues to contribute to global TB control it is important to maintain good centralised reporting of TB to identify populations at risk and for early detection of reversal in trends in TB. PMID:20043601
Barry, Christina; Konstantinos, Anastasios
Successful long-term preservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells is important for sample transport, research, biobanking, and the development of new drugs, vaccines, biomarkers, and diagnostics. In this report, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and M. tuberculosis H37Ra were used as models of M. tuberculosis complex strains to study cryopreservation of M. tuberculosis complex cells in diverse sample matrices at different cooling rates. Cells were cryopreserved in diverse sample matrices, namely, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Middlebrook 7H9 medium with or without added glycerol, and human sputum. The efficacy of cryopreservation was quantified by microbiological culture and microscopy with BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. In all sample matrices examined, the microbiological culture results showed that the cooling rate was the most critical factor influencing cell viability. Slow cooling (a few degrees Celsius per minute) resulted in much higher M. tuberculosis complex recovery rates than rapid cooling (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen) (P < 0.05). Among the three defined cryopreservation media (PBS, 7H9, and 7H9 plus glycerol), there was no significant differential effect on viability (P = 0.06 to 0.87). Preincubation of thawed M. tuberculosis complex cells in 7H9 broth for 20 h before culture on solid Middlebrook 7H10 plates did not help the recovery of the cells from cryoinjury (P = 0.14 to 0.71). The BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining kit, based on Syto 9 and propidium iodide (PI), was also applied to assess cell envelope integrity after cryopreservation. Using the kit, similar percentages of “live” cells with intact envelopes were observed for samples cryopreserved under different conditions, which was inconsistent with the microbiological culture results. This implies that suboptimal cryopreservation might not cause severe damage to the cell wall and/or membrane but instead cause intracellular injury, which leads to the loss of cell viability.
Shu, Zhiquan; Weigel, Kris M.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Lakey, Annie; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon
Oral keratinocytes and dendritic cells of the oral mucosa, through molecular pattern recognition receptors, distinguish between commensal and pathogenic microorganisms and mediate the generation of protective immunoinflammatory responses to potentially invading pathogens or mediate immune tolerance toward commensal microorganisms. Oral immune tolerance is the result either of lack of activation of T cells in response to immunogenic presentation of antigens or of suppression of activity of effector T cells by regulatory T cells. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies at oral mucosal sites contribute to oral immunity by limiting colonization of microorganisms and their invasion of the epithelium. Ig isotype class switching to IgA is either dependent on or independent of T helper cells and is facilitated by cytokines secreted by dendritic cells and monocytes. PMID:24119522
Feller, L; Altini, M; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Bouckaert, M; Lemmer, J
Eighty-eight patients with abdominal tuberculosis were studied for the diagnostic value of peritoneal biopsy. Peritoneum for biopsy was obtained during laparotomy in 41 cases and by making a small incision in the right iliac fossa, under local anaesthesia, in 47 cases. In 80% histopathological examination revealed caseation or giant cells and epithelioid cell infiltration. In 20% non-specific inflammatory changes were present. Thus, histopathological examination of the peritoneum was helpful in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis in all the 88 patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3
Shukla, H. S.; Naitrani, Y. P.; Bhatia, S.; Das, Pritam; Gupta, S. C.
The clinical epidemiology of pulmonary paragonimiasis and tuberculosis was investigated in a known endemic municipality of Sorsogon, Philippines. Records of diagnosed tuberculosis patients on treatment and follow up at the local Rural Health Unit over a two year period from 1993 to 1994 were reviewed to provide an overview of pulmonary tuberculosis in the area, specifically to describe the population at risk, the basis for diagnosis and the proportion of case notification who were sputum negative. Patients from the same group of individuals as well as undiagnosed tuberculosis patients with productive cough, fever with chest and/or back pain, or hemoptysis were examined to look into clinical manifestations, duration of symptoms, history of crab-eating and sputum examination results for acid-fast bacilli and Paragonimus. There was difficulty in determining the number of non-responders as the records did not have any provision for the recording of such. Annual tuberculosis case notification rates for the two years (374 and 401 per 100,000 population) were higher than the national figure in 1991 (325 per 100,000 population) indicating that tuberculosis is still a major health problem in the area and tuberculosis control efforts may have to be more aggressive to better contain the disease. Twenty-six out of 160 individuals surveyed were sputum smear positive for Paragonimus. Paragonimiasis rates were not significantly different in the two groups (15.6% vs 16.9%, respectively) indicating that there is a need for routine sputum examination for Paragonimus which is not available at present. Only six patients surveyed were sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose paragonimiasis and to be able to differentiate it from tuberculosis. The diagnosis may be suggested by a patient's place of origin being a known endemic area, a long period of chronic cough and the habit of eating raw or insufficiently cooked crabs or crayfish. Laboratories in endemic areas should have the capacity to differentiate between the two infections by being able to provide the routine laboratory procedures necessary for definitive diagnosis and treatment. PMID:9656346
Belizario, V; Guan, M; Borja, L; Ortega, A; Leonardia, W
Tuberculosis is one of the conditions with higher incidence worldwide. Infection occurs when Mycobacterium enters the body, and its progression to disease occurs when immune, nutritional and vaccination status are altered. The diagnosis in children is based on elements such as contact history, tuberculin test, chest radiograph and microbiological finding of the bacillus, so these criteria will help us to make an early diagnosis and treatment, breaking the life cycle of M. tuberculosis, preventing an increase in morbidity and mortality in a community. PMID:22451288
Cruz Anleu, Israel Didier; Velásquez Serratos, José Roberto
Since the nature of abdominal tuberculosis is mimicking a number of diseases, this may cause delayed diagnosis resulting in evident increased morbidity and mortality. Most of the time, serologic and bacteriologic tools are not enough. We report 3 adolescents with distinct presentations, one mimicking Crohn's disease, one with hepatitis, and the last one with ascites. Terminal ileitis and mesenteric lymphadenitis were found in laparotomy of the first case mimicking Crohn disease. Granulomatous hepatitis was found in the liver biopsy of the second patient, and peritonitis was found by laparoscopy of the third patient. Tuberculosis could be diagnosed merely by histopathologic investigation. All were treated successfully without complication. PMID:15756368
Akcam, Mustafa; Artan, Reha; Yilmaz, Aygen; Cig, Hikmet; Aksoy, Nazif H
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11,708 patterns from as many clinical isolates originating from more than 90 countries. The 11,708 spoligotypes were clustered into 813 shared types. A total of 1,300 orphan patterns (clinical isolates showing a unique spoligotype) were also detected.
Filliol, Ingrid; Driscoll, Jeffrey R.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Kremer, Kristin; Valetudie, Georges; Anh, Dang Duc; Barlow, Rachael; Banerjee, Dilip; Bifani, Pablo J.; Brudey, Karin; Cataldi, Angel; Cooksey, Robert C.; Cousins, Debby V.; Dale, Jeremy W.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Drobniewski, Francis; Engelmann, Guido; Ferdinand, Severine; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Gordon, Max; Gutierrez, M. Cristina; Haas, Walter H.; Heersma, Herre; Kallenius, Gunilla; Kassa-Kelembho, Eric; Koivula, Tuija; Ly, Ho Minh; Makristathis, Athanasios; Mammina, Caterina; Martin, Gerald; Mostrom, Peter; Mokrousov, Igor; Narbonne, Valerie; Narvskaya, Olga; Nastasi, Antonino; Niobe-Eyangoh, Sara Ngo; Pape, Jean W; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Ridell, Malin; Rossetti, M. Lucia; Stauffer, Fritz; Suffys, Philip N.; Takiff, Howard; Texier-Maugein, Jeanne; Vincent, Veronique; de Waard, Jacobus H.
We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11708 patterns from as many clinical isolates originating from more than 90 countries. The 11708 spoligotypes were clustered into 813 shared types. A total of 1300 orphan patterns (clinical isolates showing a unique spoligotype) were also detected. PMID:12453368
Filliol, Ingrid; Driscoll, Jeffrey R; Van Soolingen, Dick; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kremer, Kristin; Valétudie, Georges; Anh, Dang Duc; Barlow, Rachael; Banerjee, Dilip; Bifani, Pablo J; Brudey, Karine; Cataldi, Angel; Cooksey, Robert C; Cousins, Debby V; Dale, Jeremy W; Dellagostin, Odir A; Drobniewski, Francis; Engelmann, Guido; Ferdinand, Séverine; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Gordon, Max; Gutierrez, M Cristina; Haas, Walter H; Heersma, Herre; Källenius, Gunilla; Kassa-Kelembho, Eric; Koivula, Tuija; Ly, Ho Minh; Makristathis, Athanasios; Mammina, Caterina; Martin, Gerald; Moström, Peter; Mokrousov, Igor; Narbonne, Valérie; Narvskaya, Olga; Nastasi, Antonino; Niobe-Eyangoh, Sara Ngo; Pape, Jean W; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Ridell, Malin; Rossetti, M Lucia; Stauffer, Fritz; Suffys, Philip N; Takiff, Howard; Texier-Maugein, Jeanne; Vincent, Véronique; De Waard, Jacobus H; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin
|As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…
The number of newly notified childhood tuberculosis (TB) cases (TB in patients aged 0-14 years) in Japan in 2010 was 89, which corresponds to a notification rate of 0.53 per 100,000 population. The annual notified numbers and rates of childhood TB decreased steadily until 2006, after which the number dropped to below 100 and have since remained stable. Among the 89 childhood TB patients notified in 2010, 30 (33.7%) were aged 0-4 years, 26 (29.2%) were 5-9 years, and 33 (37.1%) were 10-14 years. In 2010, the number and proportion of TB patients aged 10-14 years were remarkably increased as compared to those in previous years. In the same year, 25 (28.1%) extrapulmonary TB cases were reported in children, while no TB meningitis or miliary TB cases were reported. The number of foreigners with childhood TB increased from 5 in 2008 and 3 in 2009 to 9 (10.1%) in 2010. In 2010, 30 patients (33.7%) with TB symptoms were identified at medical institutions, and 40 (44.9%) were identified by contact investigation of household members. These accounted for nearly 80% of the childhood TB cases detected, similar to the trend in previous years. Of the 47 prefectures in Japan, 15 reported no cases of childhood TB in 2010. Childhood TB cases were concentrated in the metropolitan areas such as the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (23 cases) and Kanagawa Prefecture (9 cases). In recent years, the number and rate of childhood TB cases in Japan have remained low; however, further efforts to eliminate childhood TB will require early detection and treatment of infectious cases, efficient contact investigations, and sustaining good TB prevention practices. PMID:23025015
Aim To determine association between tuberculosis (TB) related stigma and delay in seeking a treatment after the onset of symptoms associated with tuberculosis. Methods This prospective study was carried out in the "Podhrastovi" University Clinic of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis and Health facilities for lung diseases and tuberculosis in the Sarajevo area. The sample consisted of 300 tuberculosis patients. Between patients who consider TB a stigmatizing disease and patients who did not consider TB a stigmatizing disease distribution of patient delay was compared. Results Of the total of 300 patients 79 (26.3%) considered TB a socially stigmatizing disease. Among them 43 (54.4%) were females and 36 (45.6%) males. Among patients in the age group 18-24 years, nine (50%) considered TB a socially stigmatizing disease compared to seven (12.3%) among patients in the age group 65-75 years. Among patients with university degree, nine (64.3%) and among patients that had no education, one (9.1%) declared TB as a socially stigmatizing disease. The average time interval from the appearance of first symptoms of tuberculosis until the first visit to a health care facility for those who consider TB a stigmatizing disease was 6.41 weeks and for those who did not consider it a stigmatizing disease the average time interval was 4.99 weeks. Conclusion Study results revealed high stigma-generating attitudes towards tuberculosis. Perceived TB related stigma had no strong impact on patient delay in seeking care for TB symptoms. Key words: community norms, tuberculosis, health-seeking behaviour Med Glas. PMID:23892844
Kurspahi?-Muj?i?, Amira; Hasanovi?, Aida; Sivi?, Suad
. A sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that can detect up to 0.5 ng of culture filtrate proteins (CFPs)\\u000a of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra is described. This detection system features several special characteristics: (i) the use of CFPs from the H37Ra\\u000a strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to generate capture and detection antibodies in rabbits and mice, respectively; (ii) affinity purification
V. Choudhry; R. K. Saxena
This article reviews the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of renal tuberculosis (TB), including TB in transplant recipients and immunocompromised patients. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) forms the mainstay of cross-sectional imaging in renal TB. It can easily identify calcification, renal scars, mass lesions, and urothelial thickening. The combination of uneven caliectasis, with urothelial thickening and lack of pelvic dilatation, can also be demonstrated on MDCT. MRI is a sensitive modality for demonstration of features of renal TB, including tissue edema, asymmetric perinephric fat stranding, and thickening of Gerota's fascia, all of which may be clues to focal pyelonephritis of tuberculous origin. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may help in differentiating hydronephrosis from pyonephrosis. ADC values also have the potential to serve as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of renal fibrosis. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of renal TB. In transplant patients, renal TB, including tuberculous interstitial nephritis, is an important cause of graft dysfunction. Renal TB in patients with HIV more often shows greater parenchymal affection, with poorly formed granulomas and relatively less frequent findings of caseation and stenosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are also more common in immunocompromised patients.
Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha
Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. Cancer Prev Res; 6(9); 917-24. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23966202
Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan
Introduction The objective of this study is to explore the associations between national tuberculosis program (NTP) budget allocation and tuberculosis related outcomes in the World Health Organization's 22 high burden countries from 2007–2009. Methods This ecological study used mixed effects and generalized estimating equation models to identify independent associations between NTP budget allocations and various tuberculosis related outcomes. Models were adjusted for a number of independent variables previously noted to be associated with tuberculosis incidence. Results Increasing the percent of the NTP budget for advocacy, communication and social mobilization was associated with an increase in the case detection rate. Increasing TB-HIV funding was associated with an increase in HIV testing among TB patients. Increasing the percent of the population covered by the Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) program was associated with an increase in drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory funding was positively associated with tuberculosis notification. Increasing the budgets for first line drugs, management and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was associated with a decrease in smear positive deaths. Conclusion Effective TB control is a complex and multifaceted challenge. This study revealed a number of budget allocation related factors associated with improved TB outcome parameters. If confirmed with future longitudinal studies, these findings could help guide NTP managers with allocation decisions.
Chapple, Will; Katz, Alan Roy; Li, Dongmei
This study aimed to analyze the incidence of tuberculosis (TB), AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in the municipality of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 2001 – 2009. A historical trend study, it uses secondary data from the Tuberculosis Surveillance Database of the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and the São Paulo State STD-AIDS Center of Excellence and Training. It included new cases of TB, AIDS, and of tuberculosis-AIDS reported in the municipality of Campinas. A decrease in cases of TB until 2007 was observed, with an increase in 2008 and 2009. There was a general reduction in AIDS from 2007, but with an increase among men aged 60 or over, in the years 2007 to 2009. For tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection, the tendency was to reduce. The proportion of HIV tests not undertaken, among patients with tuberculosis, was high (27.5%). This scenario shows the need for integration of the databanks into the planning and control activities.
Saita, Nanci Michele; de Oliveira, Helenice Bosco
...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions Â§ 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...
...Diseases Â§ 3.375 Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will be held to have reached a condition of âcomplete arrestâ when a...
...Service department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless...Affairs diagnosis. Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by the medical authorities...physician's diagnosis. Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...
... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids Â§ 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis; Notice of Charter Renewal This gives...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human Services...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to Be Discussed:...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions Â§ 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...
... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids Â§ 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions Â§ 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...
...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...
Tuberculosis is one of the most wide spread contagious diseases, but it is certainly not all people who catch tuberculosis. Many people experience their first tubercular infection without even knowing it and never really become ill with tuberculosis for t...
A 62-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis presented with fever (T-103.9°F). Vital signs and physical examination were normal. She was taking adalimumab, methotrexate, and prednisone for the past 9 months. Blood and urine cultures, human immunodeficiency virus, rapid plasma reagin, purified protein derivative, and cerebrospinal fluid test findings were negative. Computed tomography showed scattered 0.2-cm nodules in the lungs and innumerable subcentimeter lesions in the liver and spleen. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were started empirically. Liver biopsy findings revealed necrotizing granulomas and were negative for acid fast bacilli and fungi on staining. As the patient was persistently febrile despite antibiotics, the antibiotics were discontinued, and an antituberculous regimen including INH, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide was initiated empirically on day 40 of hospitalization. Fourteen days after liver biopsy, acid-fast bacilli grew in the tissue culture. Disseminated tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed. Fever subsided after 1 week of anti-TB treatment. Antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy in rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of TB 5-fold. This is mostly as a result of reactivation of latent TB and commonly presents as disseminated TB. It usually occurs in the early stage of treatment. In our patient, the screening test results for TB before initiation of Adalimumab could have been falsely negative due to immunosuppression secondary to steroids. Our case emphasizes that current screening tests can miss latent TB especially in immunosuppressed patients. As it is difficult to diagnose TB with polymerase chain reaction and culture, histopathology should be sought early. Patients on antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy presenting with fever of unknown origin should be considered for empirical anti-TB treatment regardless of microbiological and tissue diagnosis. PMID:20838203
Pednekar, Manali; Chandra, Abhinav B; Chandra, Preeti A
According to the World HeaLth Organization, tuberculosis (TB) is the third leading cause of death worldwide among women at child bearing age. However, in Israel, a low TB prevalence country, TB in pregnant women is infrequent and infectious pulmonary TB at puerperium is rare. Early diagnosis of TB in pregnancy is challenging because the non-specific symptoms of early TB such as weakness, excess perspiration and tachycardia will usually be attributed to pregnancy. Furthermore, since health care givers attempt to avoid superfluous exposure of the fetus to radiation, and pregnant women are reluctant to be X-rayed, the diagnosis of active TB may be further delayed, especially if the woman is not in a risk group for TB. However, delaying treatment of TB in a pregnant woman, especially in advanced pregnancy may lead to TB in the fetus, TB infection of the new born transmitted from the mother who may also infect other mothers and their infants in the maternity ward. We report a case of highly infectious active TB diagnosed in a pregnant woman one week before delivery. The woman, a native Israeli, had no risk factor for TB except her recent stay in a high burden TB country. We present the diagnostic workup and therapeutic approach to the pregnant patient, the newborn infant and the measures applied to control infection. Awareness of risk factors for TB, the elusive symptoms of the disease during pregnancy, and implementing the necessary diagnostic workup at delivery is vital to minimize pregnancy related TB morbidity. PMID:23957080
Bishara, Hashem; Vinitsky, Olga; Satim, Raed; Keness, Yoram; Chazan, Bibiana; Miron, Dan
Tuberculosis remains one of the top two causes of death caused by a single infectious disease worldwide, despite curative therapy. Children with tuberculosis are especially difficult to detect, since acid fast bacilli smears and cultures are usually negative and clinical signs are nonspecific or lacking. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, or tuberculosis resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, has emerged in most areas of the world over the past 20 years. Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is more expensive and difficult. The second-line tuberculosis medications required for treatment are more toxic and less efficacious than standard treatment. These medications are not readily available in many areas of the world where drug resistance is most common. Fluoroquinolones are one of the most promising classes of second-line medications, but are not generally recommended for use in children. Ethambutol is recommended in the initial treatment of tuberculosis in children treated in areas where there is a risk of drug-resistant disease and the susceptibility of the source case is not known. Some experts have been hesitant to use ethambutol due to the risk of visual impairment associated with the drug and the difficulties in monitoring vision in young children. Pediatric drug formulations are not available for most antituberculosis medications, even the first-line tuberculosis drugs. Treatment of children exposed, infected or ill with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is reviewed with special emphasis on second-line drugs, including recommended dosage, available formulations and necessary monitoring. While new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have decreased in most developed countries over the past 10 years, cases continue to increase in many developing countries and among immigrants from high-risk areas. Tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are serious threats requiring worldwide strategies to control and treat. Better diagnostic tests, medications, public health strategies and vaccines will all be needed to eliminate tuberculosis. PMID:16307511
Smith, Kim Connelly; Seaworth, Barbara J
Estimates of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in developing countries are based on case reporting from local health laboratories or the annual risk of tuberculin skin test conversion. Because these methods are problematic, the authors used a multiple case ascertainment method to estimate the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis from 1989 to 1993 in a Peruvian shantytown of 34,000 inhabitants. Two methods, face-to-face interview of all local inhabitants and examination of local laboratory smear records, were used for case gathering. The number of missed cases was estimated by capture-recapture analysis. Survey cases with positive smears were matched to age- and sex-matched controls and interviewed about socioeconomic conditions. The average annual incidence per 100,000 population was 364 (95% confidence interval 293-528) by capture-recapture methods. For the city encompassing the shantytown, the Peruvian Ministry of Heath reported an average annual incidence of 134 cases per 100,000 population. The authors conclude that, in Peru, alarming clusters of pulmonary tuberculosis are masked by government reports that pool zones of disparate incidence. Existing estimators of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence based on tuberculin conversion rates may be invalid in such areas. Within these hyperendemic areas, persons suitable for intensive prophylaxis efforts cannot be reliably identified by housing and socioeconomic risk factors. PMID:9717883
Sanghavi, D M; Gilman, R H; Lescano-Guevara, A G; Checkley, W; Cabrera, L Z; Cardenas, V
In much of the world, tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading killer of young adults, in spite of the fact that effective chemotherapy has existed for 50 years. The epidemiology of TB, with its persistence in poor countries and resurgence among the poor of many industrialized nations, causes consternation among those charged with protecting the public's health. Two factors, ostensibly biological
Abdominal tuberculosis was common in the United Kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries and in the first half of the 20th century. During the 1950's the recognition of Crohn's disease, the use of streptomycin and other drugs, and the pasteurisation of milk led to the virtual disappearance of abdominal tuberculosis in the western world. During the last two decades a new type, mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis, has appeared mainly in the immigrant population, especially in those from the Indian subcontinent. A retrospective review of 68 patients with abdominal tuberculosis is presented. The pathology, diagnosis and management of these cases is discussed, together with the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease. It is suggested that the immigrant brings the disease into the United Kingdom in his mesenteric glands and that the disease is reactivated or 'revived' at some later date due to some modification of the immune process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7
Addison, N. V.
...tuberculosis is considered to be generalized when the lesions are distributed in a manner made possible only by entry of the bacilli into the systemic circulation); (2) When on ante mortem inspection the animal is observed to have a fever found to...
Objective To document resources for controlling tuberculosis (TB) in Malawi. Methods We performed a countrywide study of all 43 hospitals (3 central, 22 district and 18 mission) which register and treat patients with TB. To collect data for 1998 on the TB-related workload, diagnostic facilities, programme staff and treatment facilities, we used laboratory, radiographic and TB registers, conducted interviews and
Anthony D. Harries; John H. Kwanjana; Nicola J. Hargreaves; Jeroen Van Gorkom; Felix M. L. Salaniponi
Tuberculosis can cause genital ulcers, although this clinical manifestation was more frequent at the beginning of the 20th century as it was related to the rite of circumcision. We report the case of a patient with this disease, presumably acquired through sexual intercourse. PMID:22801347
Toledo-Pastrana, Tomás; Ferrándiz, Lara; Pichardo, Antonio Rodríguez; Muniaín Ezcurra, Miguel Angel; Camacho Martínez, Francisco M
|There has been a recent slowdown in the decline of rates of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States. However, there are disparities in TB diagnosis between U.S.-born and foreign-born persons and between Whites and minorities. Measures for achieving TB elimination include identification of high-risk persons, including children and adolescents, at…
|In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…
Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda
Antituberculosis drug resistance, especially multidrug resistance, is a major factor threatening the success of tuberculosis control programs . To date, no antituberculosis drug resistance surveys have been conducted in Turkey, although high resistance rates have been reported from various hospital-based studies [2, 3]. The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of drug resistance in patients with
Z. Kilicaslan; H. Albal; E. Kiyan; N. Aydemir; E. Seber
This work involves the development of a fiberoptic genosensor for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A rapid and sensitive non-radioactive method for the detection of Mycobacterium is described. This method involves polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the target DNA utilizing gene specific primers labelled with fluorescein at the 5' end and hybridization of the amplified product to a species
N. R. Isola; Jean P. Alarie; G. D. Griffin; Tuan Vo-Dinh
Objective: To assess the awareness about spread and control of Tuberculosis amongst people presenting at Ghurki Trust Hospital, Lahore. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Place of study: Lahore Medical and Dental College (LMDC), Lahore, Period: From November and December 2006. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among people presenting at Ghurki Trust Hospital, Lahore, between N ovember an d D ecember
The persistence of tuberculosis bacilli in patients who are cured, thus causing recurrence, is an important issue. This case-control study investigated individual and institutional risk factors for relapse by analyzing independent variables related to the patient, the use of antituberculosis drugs, and the service delivered at health care institutions; 56 cases and 105 controls were interviewed. Recurrence was defined as a new tuberculosis episode after the patient had been successfully treated. Controls were selected from among patients who were treated and cured of pulmonary tuberculosis and who did not experience a relapse. Regression models were proposed to control confounding factors or effect modifiers. The variables identified as risk factors for relapse were those related to erratic patient behavior (missing medical appointments and therefore not picking up the medication, not taking the medication, taking the wrong dosage), age, and stress from life events; adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs; and problems in the organization of health care services that resulted in patients receiving insufficient dosages or amounts of antituberculosis drugs. Receiving information regarding treatment duration provided protection against recurrence. The knowledge regarding these risk factors should result in more intensive follow-up and in more use of directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in order to prevent relapse. PMID:10846926
de Oliveira, H B; Moreira Filho, D de C
Central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) was identified in 20 cases of unexplained encephalitis referred to the California Encephalitis Project. Atypical features (encephalitic symptoms, rapid onset, age) and diagnostic challenges (insensitive cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] TB PCR result, elevated CSF glucose levels in patients with diabetes, negative result for tuberculin skin test) complicated diagnosis.
Loeffler, Ann M.; Honarmand, Somayeh; Flood, Jennifer M.; Baxter, Roger; Jacobson, Susan; Alexander, Rick; Glaser, Carol A.
Central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) was identified in 20 cases of unexplained encephalitis referred to the California Encephalitis Project. Atypical features (encephalitic symptoms, rapid onset, age) and diagnostic challenges (insensitive cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] TB PCR result, elevated CSF glucose levels in patients with diabetes, negative result for tuberculin skin test) complicated diagnosis. PMID:18760024
Christie, Laura J; Loeffler, Ann M; Honarmand, Somayeh; Flood, Jennifer M; Baxter, Roger; Jacobson, Susan; Alexander, Rick; Glaser, Carol A
We present a rare case of a 36 year old man who presented with recurrent fever but no other symptoms. Laboratory data provided no specific information for diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed splenomegaly with multiple small hypoechoic lesions within the spleen. Computed tomography of abdomen showed a hypodense diffuse lesion. A diagnosis of isolated splenic tuberculosis was confirmed after a splenic puncture and histopathological examination.
Zhan, Feng; Wang, Chang-Jun; Lin, Ju-Ze; Zhong, Pei-Jin; Qiu, Wei-Zhong; Lin, Hua-Huan; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Zhen-Jun
Background: Routinely collected data from tuberculosis surveillance system can be used to investigate and monitor the irregularities and abrupt changes of the disease incidence. We aimed at using a Hidden Markov Model in order to detect the abnormal states of pulmonary tuberculosis in Iran. Methods: Data for this study were the weekly number of newly diagnosed cases with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis reported between April 2005 and March 2011 throughout Iran. In order to detect the unusual states of the disease, two Hidden Markov Models were applied to the data with and without seasonal trends as baselines. Consequently, the best model was selected and compared with the results of Serfling epidemic threshold which is typically used in the surveillance of infectious diseases. Results: Both adjusted R-squared and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) reflected better goodness-of-fit for the model with seasonal trends (0.72 and ?1336.66, respectively) than the model without seasonality (0.56 and ?1386.75). Moreover, according to the Serfling epidemic threshold, higher values of sensitivity and specificity suggest a higher validity for the seasonal model (0.87 and 0.94, respectively) than model without seasonality (0.73 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusion: A two-state Hidden Markov Model along with a seasonal trend as a function of the model parameters provides an effective warning system for the surveillance of tuberculosis.
Rafei, A; Pasha, E; Jamshidi Orak, R
In sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa has seen the woeful failure of World Health Organization (WHO) targets of detecting 70% of the infectious cases of tuberculosis and curing > or =85%. Current treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in most resource limited settings is comprised of a four-drug initial antituberculosis regimen for two months, followed by either a two-drug continuation phase of antituberculosis regimen for four months or six months depending on the medications. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are scaling up with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), using one of the first-line regimens that consist of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Our current HAART regimen and antituberculosis drugs continue to give us a therapeutic challenge in terms of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes. Scientific research is needed in the areas of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Such research could be facilitated due to greater availability of funding than a decade ago.
This article discusses the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the abdomen, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, mesentery, omentum, abdominal lymph nodes, solid abdominal organs, the genital system and the abdominal aorta. Abdominal TB is a diagnostic challenge, particularly when pulmonary TB is absent. It may mimic many other abdominal diseases, both clinically and radiologically. An
F. M. Vanhoenacker; A. I. De Backer; B. Op de Beeck; M. Maes; R. Van Altena; D. Van Beckevoort; P. Kersemans; A. M. De Schepper
Background: Low treatment completion rate in tuberculosis (TB) patients is a major concern. Physicians have always been striving for better treatment adherence in such patients. The present study is one such attempt in this direction. Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the role of behavior modification by psychotherapy in improving compliance with short-course anti-TB chemotherapy in India. Methods: It
A. K. Janmeja; S. K. Das; R. Bhargava; B. S. Chavan
In sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa has seen the woeful failure of World Health Organization (WHO) targets of detecting 70% of the infectious cases of tuberculosis and curing > or =85%. Current treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in most resource limited settings is comprised of a four-drug initial antituberculosis regimen for two months, followed by either a two-drug continuation phase of antituberculosis regimen for four months or six months depending on the medications. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are scaling up with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), using one of the first-line regimens that consist of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Our current HAART regimen and antituberculosis drugs continue to give us a therapeutic challenge in terms of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes. Scientific research is needed in the areas of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Such research could be facilitated due to greater availability of funding than a decade ago. PMID:18229780
In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…
Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda
The epidemiological situation of tuberculosis (TB) in Germany has improved considerably during the past few years. However, those in unprotected contact with infectious tuberculosis patients frequently and/or over longer periods of time and/or intensively continue to have a higher risk for TB infection. Rapid diagnosis, prompt initiation of effective treatment, and adequate infection control measures are of particular importance to prevent infection. The present recommendations depict the essentials of infection control as well as specific measures in the hospital (isolation, criteria for its duration and technical requirements, types of respiratory protection, disinfection measures, waste disposal). The specific requirements for outpatients (medical practice), at home, for ambulance services, and in congregate settings, including prisons, are also addressed. Compared with the previous recommendations the pattern of respiratory protection measures has been simplified. As a rule, hospital staff and those visiting infectious tuberculosis patients are advised to wear respiratory protection that satisfies the criteria of FFP2-masks (DIN EN 149), while patients should wear mouth-nose protectors (surgical masks) in the presence of others and outside the isolation room. A detailed depiction of criteria for isolation and its duration in smear positive and only culturally confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis has been added. PMID:22723258
Ziegler, R; Just, H-M; Castell, S; Diel, R; Gastmeier, P; Haas, W; Hauer, B; Loytved, G; Mielke, M; Moser, I; Nienhaus, A; Richter, E; Rüden, H; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Schaberg, T; Wischnewski, N; Loddenkemper, R
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Since the effectiveness of the only available tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette- Guerin (BCG), is suboptimal, there is a strong demand to develop new tuberculosis vaccines. As tuberculosis is an airborne disease, the intranasal route of vaccination might be preferable. Live influenza virus
Sabine Sereinig; Marina Stukova; Natalia Zabolotnyh; Boris Ferko; Christian Kittel; Julia Romanova; Tatiana Vinogradova; Hermann Katinger; Oleg Kiselev; Andrej Egorov
Purification and characterisation of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and evaluation of their potential as suitable antigens for the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis
Setting: Enzymes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are potent antigens and might thus be of interest in the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis.Objective: The purpose of the study was to purify and characterize the two enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from, M. tuberculosis and to evaluate their potential in the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis.Design: The two enzymes were analysed for specificity by
R. Öhman; M. Ridell
Background Leucocyte activating chemokines such as CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL8 together with proinflammatory IFN?, TNF? and downmodulatory IL10 play a central role in the restriction of M. tuberculosis infections, but is unclear whether these markers are indicative of tuberculosis disease severity. Methodology We investigated live M. tuberculosis- and M. bovis BCG- induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and healthy endemic controls (ECs, n?=?36). TB patients comprised pulmonary (PTB, n?=?34) and extrapulmonary groups, subdivided into those with less severe localized extrapulmonary TB (L-ETB, n?=?16) or severe disseminated ETB (D-ETB, n?=?16). Secretion of CCL2, IFN?, IL10 and CCL3, and mRNA expression of CCL2, TNF?, CCL3 and CXCL8 were determined. Results M. tuberculosis- and BCG- induced CCL2 secretion was significantly increased in both PTB and D-ETB (p<0.05, p<0.01) as compared with L-ETB patients. CCL2 secretion in response to M. tuberculosis was significantly greater than to BCG in the PTB and D-ETB groups. M. tuberculosis-induced CCL2 mRNA transcription was greater in PTB than L-ETB (p?=?0.023), while CCL2 was reduced in L-ETB as compared with D-ETB (p?=?0.005) patients. M. tuberculosis –induced IFN? was greater in L-ETB than PTB (p?=?0.04), while BCG-induced IFN? was greater in L-ETB as compared with D-ETB patients (p?=?0.036). TNF? mRNA expression was raised in PTB as compared with L-ETB group in response to M. tuberculosis (p?=?0.02) and BCG (p?=?0.03). Mycobacterium-induced CCL3 and CXCL8 was comparable between TB groups. Conclusions The increased CCL2 and TNF? in PTB patients may support effective leucocyte recruitment and M. tuberculosis localization. CCL2 alone is associated with severity of TB, possibly due to increased systemic inflammation found in severe disseminated TB or due to increased monocyte infiltration to lung parenchyma in pulmonary disease.
Hasan, Zahra; Cliff, Jacqueline M.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Jamil, Bushra; Irfan, Muhammad; Ashraf, Mussarat; Hussain, Rabia
Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.
We developed a DNA sequencing-based method to detect mutations in the genome of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in restricted regions of the genome. Eight genome regions associated with drug resistance, including rpoB for rifampin (RIF), katG and the mabA (fabG1)-inhA promoter for isoniazid (INH), embB for ethambutol (EMB), pncA for pyrazinamide (PZA), rpsL and rrs for streptomycin (STR), and gyrA for levofloxacin, were amplified simultaneously by PCR, and the DNA sequences were determined. It took 6.5 h to complete all procedures. Among the 138 clinical isolates tested, 55 were resistant to at least one drug. Thirty-four of 38 INH-resistant isolates (89.5%), 28 of 28 RIF-resistant isolates (100%), 15 of 18 EMB-resistant isolates (83.3%), 18 of 30 STR-resistant isolates (60%), and 17 of 17 PZA-resistant isolates (100%) had mutations related to specific drug resistance. Eighteen of these mutations had not been reported previously. These novel mutations include one in rpoB, eight in katG, one in the mabA-inhA regulatory region, two in embB, five in pncA, and one in rrs. Escherichia coli isolates expressing individually five of the eight katG mutations showed loss of catalase and INH oxidation activities, and isolates carrying any of the five pncA mutations showed no pyrazinamidase activity, indicating that these mutations are associated with INH and PZA resistance, respectively. Our sequencing-based method was also useful for testing sputa from tuberculosis patients and for screening of mutations in Mycobacterium bovis. In conclusion, our new method is useful for rapid detection of multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis and for identifying novel mutations in drug-resistant M. tuberculosis.
Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Augustynowicz-Kopec, Ewa; Zwolska, Zofia; Kirikae, Fumiko; Toyota, Emiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Morita, Koji; Kudo, Koichiro; Kato, Seiya; Kuratsuji, Tadatoshi; Mori, Toru; Kirikae, Teruo
We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry.
Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.
We prospectively followed-up new patients of tuberculosis while on maintenance hemodialysis at a State Government-run tertiary care institute. Between 2000 and 2010, 1237 new patients were initiated on maintainence hemodialysis. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis after initiation of hemodialysis was 131 (10.5% of 1237). The age was 46.4 ± 10.4 (range 8-85) years and there were 90 (68.7%) males. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis on the basis of organ involvement were: Pulmonary-60, pleural effusion-31, lymph node-21, meningitis-8, pericardial effusion-7, peritoneum-2, latent tuberculosis-2. The incidence of tuberculosis in hemodialysis was found to be 105.9 per 1000 patient years. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, past history of tuberculosis, mining as an occupation, low serum albumin, and duration of hemodialysis more than 24 months, and unemployment were found to be significant risk-factors on univariate analysis.
Rao, T. Manmadha; Ram, R.; Swarnalatha, G.; Santhosh Pai, B. H.; Ramesh, V.; Rao, C. Shyam Sunder; Naidu, G. Diwaker; Dakshinamurty, K. V.
Morbidity and mortality caused by tuberculosis are increased in most of the Latin-American indigenous communities. Factors that could explain this situation are poverty and limited health services access due to social conflicts and geographical isolation. We determined the frequency of tuberculosis in Colombian indigenous communities and described their knowledge related to transmission and control. We developed a descriptive study and health survey. Interviews were performed to find ancestral knowledge about tuberculosis. Sputum samples from patients with respiratory symptoms were analyzed. 10 indigenous communities were studied, which tuberculosis incidence was 291/100,000. Communities believe that tuberculosis is a body and spirit disease, which transmission is by direct contact or by witchcraft. Tuberculosis incidence in the studied communities was ninefold higher than that of the general population from Antioquia Department. Knowledge exchange could facilitate the community empowerment and implementation of educational activities which might improve the control of the disease. PMID:22825464
Hernández Sarmiento, José Mauricio; Dávila Osorio, Victoria Lucia; Martínez Sánchez, Lina María; Restrepo Serna, Laura; Grajales Ospina, Diana Carolina; Toro Montoya, Andrés Eduardo; Arango Urrea, Verónica; Vargas Grisales, Natalia; Estrada Gómez, Manuela; Lopera Valle, Johan Sebastián; García Gil, Juan José; Restrepo, Lady; Mejía, Gloria; Zapata, Elsa; Gómez, Verónica; Lopera, Diver; Domicó Domicó, José Leonardo; Robledo, Jaime
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in granulomatous tissues from patients with sarcoidosis and from controls matched for age, sex, and tissue by using the polymerase chain reaction. DESIGN--Single blind control trial. SUBJECTS--16 patients with sarcoidosis who had undergone diagnostic biopsy of lung, skin, or lymph node and 16 patients with squamous cell carcinoma or Hodgkin's disease to act as controls. In addition, four lung specimens infected with M tuberculosis were included as positive controls. RESULTS--M tuberculosis DNA was present in sarcoid tissues containing granulomas from seven of the 16 patients and one of the 16 matched controls. Two of the four specimens known to be infected with M tuberculosis were positive in the controlled experiment. CONCLUSION--These figures suggest that M tuberculosis DNA is detected as readily in patients with sarcoidosis as in patients with frankly tuberculous tissues and imply that M tuberculosis may be linked to the cause of sarcoidosis.
Fidler, H M; Rook, G A; Johnson, N M; McFadden, J
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important pathogen that infects approximately one third of the world’s population and kills almost two million people annually. An important aspect of M. tuberculosis physiology and pathogenesis is its ability to export proteins into and across the thick mycobacterial cell envelope, where they are ideally positioned to interact with the host. In addition to the specific proteins that are exported by M. tuberculosis, the systems through which these proteins are exported represent potential targets for future drug development. M. tuberculosis possesses two well-known and conserved export systems: the housekeeping Sec pathway and the Tat pathway. In addition, M. tuberculosis possesses specialized export systems including the accessory SecA2 pathway and five ESX pathways. Here we review the current understanding of each of these export systems, with a focus on M. tuberculosis, and discuss the contribution of each system to disease and physiology.
Ligon, Lauren S.; Hayden, Jennifer D.; Braunstein, Miriam
We prospectively followed-up new patients of tuberculosis while on maintenance hemodialysis at a State Government-run tertiary care institute. Between 2000 and 2010, 1237 new patients were initiated on maintainence hemodialysis. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis after initiation of hemodialysis was 131 (10.5% of 1237). The age was 46.4 ± 10.4 (range 8-85) years and there were 90 (68.7%) males. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis on the basis of organ involvement were: Pulmonary-60, pleural effusion-31, lymph node-21, meningitis-8, pericardial effusion-7, peritoneum-2, latent tuberculosis-2. The incidence of tuberculosis in hemodialysis was found to be 105.9 per 1000 patient years. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, past history of tuberculosis, mining as an occupation, low serum albumin, and duration of hemodialysis more than 24 months, and unemployment were found to be significant risk-factors on univariate analysis. PMID:24049269
Rao, T Manmadha; Ram, R; Swarnalatha, G; Santhosh Pai, B H; Ramesh, V; Rao, C Shyam Sunder; Naidu, G Diwaker; Dakshinamurty, K V
Background: India ranks second amongst the high-burden multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) countries, with an estimated incidence of 2.3% MDR-TB cases amongst the new cases and 17.2% amongst the previously treated cases. The diagnosis and treatment protocol for MDR-TB of the spine are not clearly established. We report outcome of a series of 15 cases of TB spine who were suspected to be therapeutically refractory cases (MDR-TB) on the basis of clinicoradiological failures of initial treatment. Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases of TB spine from C2 to L5 spine were suspected to be the cases of MDR-TB (therapeutically refractory cases) on the basis of failures of adequate clinicoradiological healing response at 5 months or more on antitubercular treatment (ATT). None of the patient was immunocompromised. Thirteen out of 15 patients had tissue samples sent for histopathology, culture and sensitivity, smear, BACTEC, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All patients were put on second line ATT and followed up fortnightly with regular liver and kidney function tests, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and plain X-ray. Healing was documented as subjective improvement of symptoms, reduction in ESR, and observations on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) such as resolution of marrow edema, fatty replacement of bone marrow and resolution of abscesses. Ambiguous MRI observations in a few patients were resolved on positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Patients were monitored continuously for 2 years after stopping ATT. Results: We could demonstrate a positive culture in three cases. Two of them had multi drug resistance. We could achieve healing status in 13 out of 14 patients after starting second line drugs, one patient is still on treatment while other patient with no drug resistance is responding well on ATT. Conclusions: The suspicion of therapeutically refractory case is of paramount importance. Once suspected, surgery to procure tissue for diagnosis and culture is to be undertaken. The demonstration of drug resistance on culture may not be achieved in all TB spine cases and empiric drug regimen for MDR-TB is to be started. We have achieved the healed status with immunomodulation and second line ATT. The length of treatment needs to be monitored with MRI and PET scan.
Jain, Anil K; Dhammi, Ish K; Modi, Prashant; Kumar, Jaswant; Sreenivasan, Ravi; Saini, Namita Singh
Background \\u000a Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects approximately 2 billion people worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality\\u000a due to infectious disease. Current TB therapy involves a regimen of four antibiotics taken over a six month period. Patient\\u000a compliance, cost of drugs and increasing incidence of drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains have added urgency to the
Dennis J Murphy; James R Brown
The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most successful of human pathogens. It can evade the host immune response and establish a persistent infection\\u000a or enter a dormant state within the host which can be reactivated if the host becomes immuno-compromised. Both of these features\\u000a are major obstacles to tuberculosis eradication. Dormancy and reactivation of M.
XiaoZhen Wang; HongHai Wang; JianPing Xie
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been used as a successful form of treatment in patients with long-standing tuberculosis,\\u000a but it is unclear whether THA should be performed in patients with current infection. We performed THA in six patients with\\u000a advanced active tuberculosis of the hip from 2002 to 2006. Tuberculosis was confirmed in all cases by histological examination.\\u000a All patients
Yongqing Wang; Jingsheng Wang; Zhanmin Xu; Yuan Li; Huimin Wang
Edith Lincoln (1899-1971), one of the most influential American pediatricians to study childhood tuberculosis, managed more than a thousand children from time of tuberculosis infection into adult life. She spoke with authority regarding the prognosis of childhood tuberculosis. Her observations of chemotherapy in children treated with isoniazid led directly to chemoprophylaxis, now of great importance in the management of the human immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:23190783
Donald, Peter R
[From the introduction]\\u000aWithin the history of literature no other disease is as complex and enigmatic as tuberculosis. The disease has known many names, including the Great White Plague, Phthisis, and, most famously, Consumption, before receiving the decidedly unromantic name tuberculosis in the mid-Nineteenth Century (Dubos and Dubos 10). Tuberculosis stands unique within the realm of literature against other diseases
Ashley M. Wilsey
Here we identify the amino acid transporter AnsP1 as the unique aspartate importer in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Metabolomic analysis of a mutant with an inactive AnsP1 revealed that the transporter is essential for M. tuberculosis to assimilate nitrogen from aspartate. Virulence of the AnsP1 mutant is impaired in vivo, revealing that aspartate is a primary nitrogen source required for host colonization by the tuberculosis bacillus. PMID:24077180
Gouzy, Alexandre; Larrouy-Maumus, Gérald; Wu, Ting-Di; Peixoto, Antonio; Levillain, Florence; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Gerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro Sório; Poquet, Yannick; Neyrolles, Olivier
Three new studies have used whole-genome sequencing of M. tuberculosis to demonstrate unexpected complexity in the modern evolution of drug-resistant tuberculosis, and a fourth study suggests a close evolutionary relationship between the pathogen and its human host over a period of 70,000 years. Collectively, the observations in these studies suggest that future strategies to tackle drug-resistant tuberculosis must integrate host genetics with detailed strain epidemiology. PMID:24071843
Warner, Digby F; Mizrahi, Valerie
The 1951 Tuberculosis Control Law of Japan was amended extensively and has been in effect since April, 2005. The revision of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is to respond to the tremendous changes that have occurred during the last 50 years in tuberculosis epidemiology and in the environment in tuberculosis control implementation. In this review, the main points and framework of the revisions were summarized and the perspective of the development of new technical innovations relevant to each area of the revised TB control legislation is discussed. Also, challenges of Japan's NTP in the recent future are discussed, including the controversies over the proposed abolishment of the Tuberculosis Control Law. 1. IMMUNIZATION: In the revision of NTP, the BCG vaccination of elementary school and junior-high school entrants was discontinued. In order to strengthen the early primary vaccination for infants, the new Law has adopted the direct vaccination scheme omitting tuberculin testing prior to immunization. This program is implemented to young babies, i.e., less than six months old, as defined by the decree. It is a heavy responsibility for the municipalities to ensure the high coverage of immunization when the period of legal vaccination is rather strictly limited practically to the fourth to sixth months after birth. The safe direct vaccination is another new challenge where appropriate management of the Koch's phenomenon or similar reactions should be warranted. 2. CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS: Though unfortunately suspended for some legal reason currently, the expansion and improvement of chemoprophylaxis, or treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, to cover anyone with higher risk of clinical development of TB would have a tremendous effect in Japan, especially since 90% of patients who developed TB were infected tens of years ago. The technical innovations in diagnosis of TB infection such as QuantiFERON will be very helpful. Development of new drugs or drug regimens for this purpose is also expected. 3. CASE DETECTION: The "indiscriminate" screening scheme in the periodic mass health examination has been replaced with a selective one. Only subjects aged 65 or older are eligible for the screening, supplemented with selected occupational groups who are considered to become source of infection, should they develop tuberculosis, such as health-care providers and school teachers. Local autonomies are also responsible for offering screening to the socio-economic high-risk populations, such as homeless people, slum residents, day laborers, and/or workers in small businesses, as decided by the autonomies at their disposal. Another important mode of active case-finding, i.e., contact investigation has been legally enforced so that anybody cannot refuse to be examined by the Health Center. This investigation service will be greatly enhanced by such new technologies as DNA fingerprinting of TB bacilli and a new diagnostic of TB infection. Regarding the clinical service of the symptomatic patients that detect 75% of new cases currently will be improved in its quality by introducing an external quality assurance system of commercial bacteriological laboratory services. 4. TREATMENT AND PATIENT SUPPORT: The revised NTP clearly states the government's responsibility for treating TB patients in close cooperation with a doctor, in the framework of the DOTS Japan version. While the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs will be realized in the near future, Japan still has to overcome the issues of improper practice of treatment, as well as the government's slow process for approving drugs to be used for multi-drug resistant TB and non-tuberculous mycobacterioses, such as quinolones, macrolides and others. 5. PREFECTURAL TB CONTROL PLAN: In order to respond to the specific issues of tuberculosis problem in the respective prefectures in terms of epidemiology or in available resources, the Law requests every prefecture to develop and implement its own TB control plan. The rather abruptly proposed argument of abolishing Tuberculo
Tuberculosis is the most common disease inaugural of AIDS in France and HIV serology should be offered routinely when a tuberculosis case is diagnosed. Similarly, tuberculosis should also be sought before starting antiretroviral treatment. The case of pleural tuberculosis revealing AIDS presented here illustrates the difficulties of management of this co-infection due to polychemotherapy used to treat each of these pathologies causing drug interactions requiring dose adjustments and changes in treatment protocol and an increase in side effects. This is especially true when combining rifampicin and protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. On the other hand, resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is possible in these patients coinfected by HIV particularly among migrants and in the case history of tuberculosis treatment. PMID:21659054
Leang, Vanessa; Bastides, Frédéric; Cattier, Blandine; Lemmens, Bruno; Barin, Francis; Mereghetti, Laurent; Goudeau, Alain; Lanotte, Philippe
We report two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae diagnosed by Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) oral contrast swallow examination. It is helpful to supplement the CT study with an oral contrast swallow as it aids in confirmation of a suspected fistula and also demonstrates the fistula tract better. We present the clinical details and the imaging findings on MDCT of two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae – one secondary to chronic chest tuberculosis and the other secondary to a squamous cell carcinoma of the upper esophagus – followed by discussion of the etiology, pathogenesis, and imaging of these fistulae.
Hegde, Rahul G; Kalekar, Tushar M; Gajbhiye, Meenakshi I; Bandgar, Amol S; Pawar, Shephali S; Khadse, Gopal J
Tuberculosis remains the world’s second leading infectious cause of death, with nearly one-third of the global population latently infected. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a mainstay of tuberculosis-control efforts in low-to medium-incidence countries. Isoniazid monotherapy has been the standard of care for decades, but its utility is impaired by poor completion rates. However, new, shorter-course regimens using rifamycins improve completion rates and are cost-saving compared with standard isoniazid monotherapy. We review the currently available therapies for latent tuberculosis infection and their toxicities and include a brief economic comparison of the different regimens.
Norton, Brianna L; Holland, David P
Among identified in the army for one year of active tuberculosis patients constitute 38.7% of the number of soldiers from young recruits, including 59.7% of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. At the same time during the examination of these individuals revealed only about half of patients. Timely delivery of fluorographic examination recruitment plays a crucial role in preventing the spread of tuberculosis in the Armed Forces. From the military doctors need more work in groups at increased risk of tuberculosis, early identification of need in the dispensary dynamic observation and conducting a full range of therapeutic and preventive measures in foci of tuberculous infection. PMID:22686023
Beznosik, R V; Grishin, V K; Savitski?, G G; Grishin, A V
The tubercle bacillus parasitizes macrophages by inhibiting phagosome maturation into the phagolysosome. This phenomenon underlies the tuberculosis pandemic involving 2 billion people. We report here how Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes phagosome maturation arrest. A glycosylated M. tuberculosis phosphatidylinositol [mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM)] interfered with the phagosomal acquisition of the lysosomal cargo and syntaxin 6 from the trans-Golgi network. ManLAM specifically inhibited the pathway dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding effectors. These findings identify ManLAM as the M. tuberculosis product responsible for the inhibition of phagosomal maturation. PMID:12702770
Fratti, Rutilio A; Chua, Jennifer; Vergne, Isabelle; Deretic, Vojo
... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents Â§ 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. (a)...
The relationship between specific antibody profiles and tuberculosis (TB) state was investigated by measuring serum antibody levels to six Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in human subjects grouped into four diagnostic categories: active disease, inactive (past) tuberculosis, latent infection without radiographic chest abnormalities, and infection free. Statistical data analyses showed that the latter two groups were serologically indistinguishable and that active tuberculosis and inactive tuberculosis were characterized by different antibody profiles. Antibodies to the 38-kDa antigen, alanine dehydrogenase, and Rv2626c were associated with active TB, while antibodies to the 16-kDa antigen, ferredoxin A, and ESAT-6 were associated with inactive TB. Thus, the targets of the immune response vary with tuberculosis state. The correlation between bacterial antigen production and infection stage was investigated in mice infected with M. tuberculosis by bacterial transcription profiling. It was found that levels of transcripts encoding the six M. tuberculosis antigens varied during infection. Together, the data indicate that antigen composition of tubercle bacilli varies with stage of infection and that immunoprofiling can distinguish between tuberculosis states.
Davidow, Amy; Kanaujia, Ganga V.; Shi, Lanbo; Kaviar, Justin; Guo, XuDong; Sung, Nackmoon; Kaplan, Gilla; Menzies, Dick; Gennaro, Maria L.
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis constitutes about 10% of all cases of tuberculosis, and cutaneous tuberculosis makes up only a small proportion of these cases. Despite prevention programs, tuberculosis is still progressing endemically in developing countries. Commonest clinical variant of cutaneous tuberculosis in our study was lupus vulgaris seen in 55% patients followed by scrufuloderma seen in 25% patients followed by orificial tuberculosis, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, papulonecrotic tuberculid, and erythema induratum seen in 5% each. The commonest site of involvement was limbs seen in 50% patients followed by neck seen in 25% patients, face in 15%, and trunk in 10% patients. Maximum percentage of patients (55%) had duration of cutaneous tuberculosis between 6–12 months followed by 35% between 13–24 months, 5% had duration of cutaneous tuberculosis less than 6 months, and the rest 5% had duration more than 24 months. The commonest histopathological feature in our study was tuberculoid granuloma with epitheloid cell and Langhans giant cells seen in 70% patients, hyperkeratosis was seen in 15% patients and AFB bacilli were seen in 5% patients.
The modern tuberculosis control strategy, which focuses on identifying and curing infectious cases, has made remarkable progress in recent years. This strategy, known as DOTS, receives significant support from bilateral and multilateral donors, in particular from the recently created Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Although case finding rates are still far too low everywhere in the world (45%), cure rates among infectious cases (target 85%) are progressing, but are still too low in Africa (71%). Nevertheless, the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic had led to a dramatic increase in the number of tuberculosis cases, even in countries where tuberculosis programmes have been functioning well for several years; in those countries that are heavily affected by HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis seems to be difficult to control if no progress is made in controlling the HIV epidemic. Health services are often too centralised, particularly in the big cities, and all health structures need to be involved in fighting tuberculosis. Treatment possibilities are limited; new research has been initiated to find new anti-tuberculosis drugs, but it is extremely important to take care to avoid the development of resistance to those drugs that are available. The main challenge in vanquishing tuberculosis is still that of development, mainly of the health services, and particularly their human resources. Tuberculosis elimination is necessarily a long-term goal that will require constant effort spanning several decades. PMID:15816136
In a tuberculosis (TB) program in the Central Penitentiary Hospital of Azerbaijan, we analyzed 65 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by IS6110-based restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) and spoligotyping. From 11 clusters associated with 33 patients, 31 isolates had an IS6110-based banding pattern characteristic of the Beijing genotype of M. tuberculosis. In addition, 15 M. tuberculosis isolates with similar RFLP patterns constituted a single group by spoligotyping, matching the Beijing genotype. Multidrug resistance, always involving isoniazid and rifampin, was seen in 34 (52.3%) of 65 isolates, with 28 belonging to the Beijing genotype.
Pfyffer, G. E.; Strassle, A.; van Gorkum, T.; Portaels, F.; Rigouts, L.; Mathieu, C.; Mirzoyev, F.; Traore, H.; van Embden, J. D.
Whole transcriptome profiling is now almost routinely used in various fields of biology, including microbiology. In vivo transcriptome studies usually provide relevant information about the biological processes in the organism and thus are indispensable for the formulation of hypotheses, testing, and correcting. In this study, we describe the results of genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the major human bacterial pathogen M. tuberculosis during its persistence in lungs. Two mouse strains differing in their susceptibility to tuberculosis were used for experimental infection with M. tuberculosis. Mycobacterial transcriptomes obtained from the infected tissues of the mice at two different time points were analyzed by deep sequencing and compared. It was hypothesized that the changes in the M. tuberculosis transcriptome may attest to the activation of the metabolism of lipids and amino acids, transition to anaerobic respiration, and increased expression of the factors modulating the immune response. A total of 209 genes were determined whose expression increased with disease progression in both host strains (commonly upregulated genes, CUG). Among them, the genes related to the functional categories of lipid metabolism, cell wall, and cell processes are of great interest. It was assumed that the products of these genes are involved in M. tuberculosis adaptation to the host immune system defense, thus being potential targets for drug development. PMID:23819037
Skvortsov, T A; Ignatov, D V; Majorov, K B; Apt, A S; Azhikina, T L
Understanding the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of TB and could have implications for the development of new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines. M. tuberculosis isolates were characterized using spoligotyping and were compared with the SpoIDB4 database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. A total of 53 different patterns were identified among 192 isolates examined. 169 of the isolates were classified into one of the 33 shared SITs, whereas the remaining 23 corresponded to 20 orphan patterns. 54% of the isolates were ascribed to the T family, a family which has not been well defined to date. Other prominent families were CAS, Haarlem, LAM, Beijing, and Unknown comprising 26%, 13%, 2.6%, 0.5%, and 2.1%, respectively. Among HIV-positive patients, 10 patterns were observed among 25 isolates. The T (38.5%), H (26.9%), and CAS (23.1%) families were the most common among HIV-positive individuals. The diversity of the M. tuberculosis strains found in this study is very high, and there was no difference in the distribution of families in HIV-positive and HIV-negative TB patients except the H family. Tuberculosis transmission in Addis Ababa is due to only the modern M. tuberculosis families (CAS, LAM, T, Beijing, Haarlem, and U).
Mihret, Adane; Bekele, Yonas; Loxton, Andre G.; Jordan, Annemie M.; Yamuah, Lawrence; Aseffa, Abraham; Howe, Rawleigh; Walzl, Gerhard
Prevention and control measures against tuberculosis still remain a contemporary issue in Japan. In April 2005, the Tuberculosis Control Law was revised, which has newly been with particular emphasis on medical screening. However, the present law has been indicated to have issues in the fields of such as public health, human rights, and legislation. Although the Tuberculosis Control Law will be integrated into the Infectious Diseases Law on the basis of those issues, the aim of the integration of these laws are mainly for the establishment of pathogen control system to prevent biological terrorism and the accidental spread of infectious diseases and for the comprehensive control of infectious diseases based on the latest medical knowledge. In March 2006, the draft for the revised the Infectious Diseases Law was approved by the Cabinet of government. The combination of the two laws is expected to improve the program quality for the control of tuberculosis and infectious diseases but some issues remains to be resolved. This paper will review the combination of the Tuberculosis Control Law and the Infectious Diseases Law in light of what has been done, what will be intended, and what will change after the combination. PMID:17240919
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific ESAT-6 antigen induces highly potent T-cell responses and produc- tion of gamma interferon (IFN-), which play a critical role in protective cell-mediated immunity against tuberculosis (TB). In the present study, IFN- secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 in Brazilian TB patients was investigated in relation to clinical disease types, such
Fernando L. L. Cardoso; Paulo R. Z. Antas; Alexandre S. Milagres; Annemieke Geluk; Kees L. M. C. Franken; Eliane B. Oliveira; Henrique C. Teixeira; Susie A. Nogueira; Euzenir N. Sarno; Paul Klatser; Tom H. M. Ottenhoff; Elizabeth P. Sampaio
IS986ofMycobacterium tuberculosis belongsto theIS3-like familyofinsertion sequences, and ithas previously beenshowntobepresentinmultiple copies inthechromosomeofM. tuberculosis. Inthisstudywe investigated thevalue ofa IS986-based DNA probeinthediagnosis andepidemiology oftuberculosis. IS986 was foundonlyinspecies belonging totheM.tuberculosis complex. Independent isolates ofM. tuberculosis complex strains showed a very highdegree ofpolymorphism ofrestriction fragments whichcontainedIS986 DNA. In contrast, Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strains as well as clinical isolates ofM. bovisBCG contained one copy
PETER W. M. HERMANS; DICK VAN SOOLINGEN; JEREMY W. DALE; ANJA R. J. SCHUITEMA; RUTH A. McADAM; DAVID CATTY; JAN D. A. VAN EMBDEN; N. H. Swellengrebel
The diagnosis of tuberculosis is seriously hampered in the absence of standard biosafety laboratory facilities for specimen concentration and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture. Within a laboratory twinning arrangement, heat-fixed direct smear and sediment from 74 bleach-processed and 20 non-processed specimens from Cumura Hospital, Guinea-Bissau, were sent to Lisbon for molecular evaluation of rifampicin resistance. Sequence analysis of a 369 base-pair rpoB locus detected 3.2% (3/94) resistant specimens. To our knowledge, this represents the first report on the molecular analysis of M. tuberculosis from bleach-processed sputum, an alternative to current diagnostic practice in low-resource settings. PMID:23044448
David, S; Sutre, A F; Sanca, A; Mané, A; Henriques, V; Portugal, C; Sancho, L; Cardoso, A; Paixão, E; Duarte, E L; Leite, C Q F; Salem, J I; Antunes, A
Ten extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients were identified among 104 human immunodeficiency virus negative multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients treated at the Tuberculosis Research Centre, Chennai, India, in two different cohorts between 1999-2003 and 2006-2007. They were managed with individualised treatment regimens. At the time of diagnosis of MDR-TB, one patient had XDR-TB and three had initial ofloxacin resistance. One patient who had had a lobectomy in addition to chemotherapy became bacteriologically negative, three died, three defaulted and the remaining three, who are bacteriologically positive, are still continuing treatment. Although based on a small number of patients, our results have not been encouraging. PMID:22283888
Thomas, A; Joseph, P; Nair, D; Rao, D V B; Rekha, V V B; Selvakumar, N; Jaggarajamma, K; Balambal, R
Drug-resistant tuberculosis is quickly emerging as one of the largest threats to the global health community. Current chemotherapy for tuberculosis dates back to the 1950s and is arduous, lengthy, and remains extremely difficult to complete in many of the highest burdened areas. This causes inadequate or incomplete treatment, resulting in genetic selection of drug-resistant strains. With a dearth of novel anti-TB drug candidates in the development pipeline, nanoparticle technology allows us to take current chemotherapies and deliver them more efficaciously, reducing the frequency and duration of treatment and increasing bioavailability. This approach can improve patient adherence, reduce pill burden, and shorten time to completion, all which are at the heart of drug resistance. This review examines the multiple advantages of nanoparticle drug delivery of tuberculosis chemotherapy and summarizes the challenges in implementation.
Smith, Jonathan Paul
Granulomatous inflammation of the lung is characterized by the recruitment and organization of activated macrophages and lymphocytes in discrete lesions laced in a network of matrix proteins. These lesions, termed granulomas, represent an important defense mechanism against infectious organisms such as fungi and mycobacteria, but also can be elicited by noninfectious agents. Occasionally, this inflammatory reaction can develop for unknown reasons, causing a systemic illness termed sarcoidosis. The mechanisms involved in granuloma formation in the lung have not been elucidated entirely. However, studies performed in animal models of granuloma formation and in humans suggest important roles for specific soluble mediators (eg, cytokines, chemokines) produced by monocytic cells. If uncontrolled, granulomatous inflammation leads to excessive tissue remodeling, causing fibrosis and/or cavitation as seen in tuberculosis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the factors involved in granuloma formation in the lung with particular attention to their role in sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. PMID:12652451
Perez, Rafael L; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A; Roman, Jesse
The campaign against tuberculosis in Finnmark in the first half of the 20th century was defined as a national responsibility. The Norwegian state and voluntary associations, the Norwegian Association against Tuberculosis prominent among them, initiated special measures against the disease in this multicultural county. It was considered important to increase the capacity for isolation of patients, but efforts to enhance the populations' cultural and social standards, particularly among the Sámi, were also prioritized. In the decades between wars, a stronger emphasis was placed on strict epidemiological measures. However, cultural concerns surfaced anew in a new medical and political context in the preventive work from 1952, in connection with implementation of mass miniature X-ray screenings in Finnmark. PMID:19092967
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is now thought to afflict between 1 and 2 million patients annually. Although significant regional variability in the distribution of disease has been recorded, surveillance data are limited by several factors. The true burden of disease is likely underestimated. Nevertheless, the estimated burden is substantial enough to warrant concerted action. A range of approaches is possible, but all appropriate interventions require scale-up of laboratories and early treatment with regimens containing a sufficient number of second-line drugs. Ambulatory treatment for most patients, and improved infection control, can facilitate scale-up with decreased risk of nosocomial transmission. Several obstacles have been considered to preclude worldwide scale-up of treatment, mostly attributable to inadequate human, drug, and financial resources. Further delays in scale-up, however, risk continued generation and transmission of resistant tuberculosis, as well as associated morbidity and mortality.
Mitnick, Carole D.; Appleton, Sasha C.; Shin, Sonya S.
Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective immune response in humans. Here, we report on a novel biotechnological approach for mucosal vaccination against TB that overcomes some of the current limitations. This is achieved by coating protective TB antigens onto the surface of inert bacterial spores, which are then delivered to the respiratory tract. Our data showed that mice immunized nasally with coated spores developed humoral and cellular immune responses and multifunctional T cells and, most importantly, presented significantly reduced bacterial loads in their lungs and spleens following pathogenic challenge. We conclude that this new vaccine delivery platform merits further development as a mucosal vaccine for TB and possibly also other respiratory pathogens. PMID:23959722
Reljic, Rajko; Sibley, Laura; Huang, Jen-Min; Pepponi, Ilaria; Hoppe, Andreas; Hong, Huynh A; Cutting, Simon M
Haemophagocytic syndrome is a life threatening complication of systemic infection resulting from an exaggerated immune response to a triggering agent. Prompt recognition and treatment of this disorder can abrogate otherwise high fatality associated with this disorder. A 2 year old girl presented with acute enteritis, developed prolonged fever and organomegaly complicated by multi-organ failure. She fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis including bone marrow evidence of haemophagocytosis. In addition she had serological evidence of tubercular infection as well as a positive family history of tuberculosis. She responded rapidly to immunosuppressive therapy and anti-tubercular therapy. Our case illustrates the association of haemophagocytic syndrome with tuberculosis as well as the favourable response obtained with prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23997456
Verma, Tarun; Aggarwal, Sameer
\\u000a OBJECTIVE: To document the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) skin test positivity among homeless adults in Los Angeles and determine whether\\u000a certain characteristics of homelessness were risk factors for TB.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Shelters, soup lines, and outdoor locations in the Skid Row and Westside areas of Los Angeles.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Tuberculosis tine test reactivity was measured. The overall prevalence of TB
Lillian Gelberg; Christopher J. Panarites; Hal Morgenstern; Barbara Leake; Ronald M. Andersen; Paul Koegel
A 24-year-old man presented with mental change, fever, abdominal pain, tenderness and palpable mass on the lower abdomen. He was a non-Korean engineer and did not accompany a legal guardian, so medical history taking was difficult due to his mental status. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple rim-enhanced lesions of the brain, and abdominal computed tomography showed huge paraspinal abscess. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed poorly defined nodular opacities. We initially thought that this patient was infected with toxoplasmosis with typical cerebral image finding and immunoglobulin laboratory finding of cerebrospinal fluid and serum study. The abdominal abscess was confirmed as tuberculosis through the pathologic finding of caseous necrosis. We used anti-tuberculosis medication and anti-toxoplasmosis medication for almost 4 months, and then his clinical state and radiological findings were considerably improved.
Ahn, Poong Gi; Lee, Dong Min; Kim, Hyeok Su
Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.
Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai
Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6Quebec genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710–1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ?100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate.
Pepperell, Caitlin S.; Granka, Julie M.; Alexander, David C.; Behr, Marcel A.; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Jamieson, Frances B.; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W.
There is a need for rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tissue specimens. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis was evaluated in 60 formalin-fixed tissue specimens, the target for the amplification being a segment of IS6110 in the M. tuberculosis chromosome. Of the 60 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens studied, 57 showed granulomatous inflammation and 53 had been cultured for mycobacteria; 10 were positive for M. tuberculosis and three were positive for other mycobacteria. Of 60 samples, 15 showed acid-fast bacilli on special staining. When done comparatively on a positive culture for M. tuberculosis, PCR for M. tuberculosis DNA in 60 tissue samples was 100% sensitive and 93% specific, having a positive predictive value of 76.9% and negative predictive value of 100%. PCR for M. tuberculosis DNA done on tissue samples was positive for 14 of 19 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis, negative for all six patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, and negative for all 33 patients who had a diagnosis of a disease other than mycobacterial infection. When compared with the clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis, PCR for M. tuberculosis DNA in these patients' tissues was 73.6% sensitive and 100% specific, having a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 88.6%. These data indicate that PCR amplification is useful for detecting M. tuberculosis DNA in formalin-fixed tissue specimens, and that it can be used to increase diagnostic accuracy in patients who have perplexing diagnostic problems associated with a granulomatous tissue response. PMID:9769274
Salian, N V; Rish, J A; Eisenach, K D; Cave, M D; Bates, J H
With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV\\/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a
Y.-L. Wong; Samantha Sampson; W. A. Germishuizen; Sunali Goonesekera; Giovanni Caponetti; Jerry Sadoff; B. R. Bloom; David Edwards
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the leading killer of mankind among all infectious diseases, especially in the developing\\u000a countries. Since the discovery of tubercle bacillus more than 100 years ago, TB has been the subject of research in an attempt\\u000a to develop tools and strategies to combat this disease. Research in Indian laboratories has contributed significantly towards\\u000a developing the DOTS
Anil K. Tyagi; Neeraj Dhar
Although sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the world, the rates of TB amongst its health care workers (HCWs) are poorly documented. We therefore conducted a country-wide investigation. All district\\/government and mission hospitals in Malawi that diagnose and care for TB patients were visited in order to obtain information on
A. D. Harries; T. E. Nyirenda; A. Banerjee; M. J. Boeree; F. M. Salaniponi
Objective: To explore the possibility that an analysis of antibody specificity to separated components of mycobacteria in a group of tuberculous patients may reveal a combination of target antigens whose antibodies could form the basis of a useful serodiagnostic test.Design: Immunoblots of 1-dimensional (SDS-PAGE) and 2-dimensional (isoelectric focusing\\/SDS-PAGE) separation of antigenic extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTSE) and M. bovis
E. O. E. Bassey; D. Catty; D. S. Kumararatne; C. Raykundalia
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current anti-TB chemotherapies, although effective, are associated\\u000a with side effects and are limited in treating drug-resistant strands. Autoimmune diseases are a leading cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality, with a growing mass of evidence implicating infections (e.g., TB) as their triggers. The burden of TB might\\u000a further increase by
Yinon Shapira; Nancy Agmon-Levin; Yehuda Shoenfeld