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1

Oral ulcer: an uncommon site in primary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, have been observed in both primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of primary tuberculosis manifested as a non-healing, tender ulcer on the lingual mucosa of the edentulous right mandibular arch molar zone, an uncommon site. The diagnosis was confirmed after histopathology examination, polymerase chain reaction and purified protein derivative tests and chest radiograph. A recommended treatment plan of six months with four anti-tuberculotic antibiotics was commenced. Clinically, the oral ulcer disappeared three months after the commencement of treatment. The resurgence of tuberculosis should compel clinicians to include the disease in the differential diagnosis of various types of non-healing oral ulcers. PMID:25721285

Aoun, N; El-Hajj, G; El Toum, S

2015-03-01

2

Oral Manifestations of Tuberculosis: Step towards Early Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis, as known universally, is a chronic infectious disease that can affect any part of the body including mouth. It usually affects the lungs, TB bacilli can spread hematogenously to other parts of the body and this also includes mandible or maxilla. It can occur in the mouth involving the tongue with very unusual features and forms. So oral lesions, although rare, are very important for early diagnosis and interception of primary tuberculosis. PMID:25654056

Jain, Isha

2014-01-01

3

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA on the oral mucosa of tuberculosis patients  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) usually includes laboratory analysis of sputum, a viscous material derived from deep in the airways of patients with active disease. As a diagnostic sample matrix, sputum can be difficult to collect and analyze by microbiological and molecular techniques. An alternative, less invasive sample matrix could greatly simplify TB diagnosis. We hypothesized that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells or DNA accumulate on the oral epithelia of pulmonary TB patients, and can be collected and detected by using oral (buccal) swabs. To test this hypothesis, 3 swabs each were collected from 20 subjects with active pulmonary TB and from 20 healthy controls. Samples were tested by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific to the M. tuberculosis IS6110 insertion element. Eighteen out of 20 confirmed case subjects (90%) yielded at least 2 positive swabs. Healthy control samples were 100% negative. This case-control study supports past reports of M. tuberculosis DNA detection in oral swabs. Oral swab samples are non-invasive, non-viscous, and easy to collect with or without active TB symptoms. These characteristics may enable simpler and more active TB case finding strategies. PMID:25727773

Wood, Rachel C.; Luabeya, Angelique K.; Weigel, Kris M.; Wilbur, Alicia K.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Hatherill, Mark; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

2015-01-01

4

Oral Immunogenicity of plant-made Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CFP10.  

PubMed

Two lines of transgenic carrot plants producing Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins (ESAT6 and CFP10) have been constructed. The target proteins are present in carrot storage roots at a level not less than 0.056% of the total storage protein (TSP) for ESAT6 and 0.002% of TSP for CFP10. As has been shown, oral immunization of mice induces both the cell-mediated and humoral immunities. These data suggest that the proteins in question are appropriate as a candidate edible vaccine against tuberculosis. PMID:24455687

Uvarova, Elena A; Belavin, Pavel A; Permyakova, Natalya V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Kakimzhanova, Almagul A; Deineko, Elena V

2013-01-01

5

Oral Immunogenicity of Plant-Made Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CFP10  

PubMed Central

Two lines of transgenic carrot plants producing Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins (ESAT6 and CFP10) have been constructed. The target proteins are present in carrot storage roots at a level not less than 0.056% of the total storage protein (TSP) for ESAT6 and 0.002% of TSP for CFP10. As has been shown, oral immunization of mice induces both the cell-mediated and humoral immunities. These data suggest that the proteins in question are appropriate as a candidate edible vaccine against tuberculosis. PMID:24455687

Uvarova, Elena A.; Belavin, Pavel A.; Permyakova, Natalya V.; Zagorskaya, Alla A.; Nosareva, Olesya V.; Kakimzhanova, Almagul A.; Deineko, Elena V.

2013-01-01

6

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Tuberculosis KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Tuberculosis Print ... Prevention Treatment Duration When to Call the Doctor TB Basics Tuberculosis (also known as "TB") is a ...

7

Oral bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine against tuberculosis: why not?  

PubMed Central

The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine for human use against tuberculosis (TB). Although controversy exists about its efficacy, the BCG vaccine is able to protect newborns and children against disseminated forms of TB, but fails to protect adults against active forms of TB. In the last few years, interest in the mucosal delivery route for the vaccine has been increasing owing to its increased capacity to induce protective immune responses both in the mucosal and the systemic immune compartments. Here, we show the importance of this route of vaccination in newly developed vaccines, especially for vaccines against TB. PMID:25317714

Monteiro-Maia, Renata; de Pinho, Rosa Teixeira

2014-01-01

8

Influence of oral lactoferrin on Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced immunopathology.  

PubMed

The ability of lactoferrin to provide protection and decrease immunopathology in infectious diseases was evaluated using an aggressive aerosol model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. C57BL/6 mice were challenged with MTB strain Erdman and treated with 0.5% bovine lactoferrin added to the drinking water starting at day 0 or day 7 post-infection. Mice were sacrificed at three weeks post-challenge and evaluated for organ bacterial burden, lung histopathology, and ELISpot analysis of the lung and spleen for immune cell phenotypes. Mice given tap water alone had lung log10 colony forming units (CFUs) of 7.5 ± 0.3 at week 3 post-infection. Lung CFUs were significantly decreased in mice given lactoferrin starting the day of infection (6.4 ± 0.7), as well as in mice started therapeutically on lactoferrin at day 7 after established infection (6.5 ± 0.4). Quantitative immunohistochemistry using multispectral imaging demonstrated that lung inflammation was significantly reduced in both groups of lactoferrin treated mice, with decreased foamy macrophages, increased total lymphocytes, and increased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. ELISpot analysis showed that lactoferrin treated mice had increased numbers of CD4 + IFN-?+ and IL-17 producing cells in the lung, cells that have protective functions during MTB infection. Lactoferrin alone did not alter the proliferation of MTB in either broth or macrophage culture, but enhanced IFN-? mediated MTB killing by macrophages in a nitric oxide dependent manner. These studies indicate that lactoferrin may be a novel therapeutic for the treatment of tuberculosis, and may be useful in infectious diseases to reduced immune-mediated tissue damage. PMID:22138562

Welsh, Kerry J; Hwang, Shen-An; Boyd, Sydney; Kruzel, Marian L; Hunter, Robert L; Actor, Jeffrey K

2011-12-01

9

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but they can also damage other parts of the body. TB spreads through the air when a person with ...

10

Boosting of cellular immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and modulation of skin cytokine responses in healthy human volunteers by Mycobacterium bovis BCG substrain Moreau Rio de Janeiro oral vaccine.  

PubMed

Oral immunization of healthy adults with 10(7) CFU BCG Moreau Rio de Janeiro was well tolerated and significantly boosted gamma interferon responses to purified protein derivative, Ag85, and MPB70 from previous childhood intradermal BCG immunization. Oral BCG offers the possibility of a needle-free tuberculosis vaccine and of boosting the protective immunity from intradermal tuberculosis vaccines. PMID:16552077

Cosgrove, Catherine A; Castello-Branco, Luiz R R; Hussell, Tracy; Sexton, Amy; Giemza, Rafaela; Phillips, Richard; Williams, Andrew; Griffin, George E; Dougan, Gordon; Lewis, David J M

2006-04-01

11

Development of Oral Fomulation of SCV-07 for Use in Tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the immunomodulatory peptide SCV-07 was conducted as a possible therapeutic treatment for tuberculosis. This evaluation included mouse models, clinical trials and various forms of the drug such as liquid injection and development of an oral pill. It was found that SCV-07 significantly increased the survival rate of animals infected with lethal doses of Mycobacterium bovis. It enhanced the functional activity of macrophages in a dose-dependent fashion. The combination of SCV-07 with bacteriostatic drugs, such as izoniazid, was particularly effective. Phase II clinical trials in a TB clinic demonstrated that the usage of the injection form of SCV-07 for lung TB treatment in combination with standard chemotherapy decreased the quantity of patients with positive sputum assays for Mycobacteria, promoted healing of cavities in lungs, stabilized parameters of cell immunity, and resulted in a significant improvement in the general condition of patients. Clinical trials results of the oral drug form are still being evaluated.

None

2007-11-16

12

Rapid cytolysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by faropenem, an orally bioavailable ?-lactam antibiotic.  

PubMed

Recent clinical studies indicate that meropenem, a ?-lactam antibiotic, is a promising candidate for therapy of drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, meropenem is chemically unstable, requires frequent intravenous injection, and must be combined with a ?-lactamase inhibitor (clavulanate) for optimal activity. Here, we report that faropenem, a stable and orally bioavailable ?-lactam, efficiently kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis even in the absence of clavulanate. The target enzymes, L,D-transpeptidases, were inactivated 6- to 22-fold more efficiently by faropenem than by meropenem. Using a real-time assay based on quantitative time-lapse microscopy and microfluidics, we demonstrate the superiority of faropenem to the frontline antituberculosis drug isoniazid in its ability to induce the rapid cytolysis of single cells. Faropenem also showed superior activity against a cryptic subpopulation of nongrowing but metabolically active cells, which may correspond to the viable but nonculturable forms believed to be responsible for relapses following prolonged chemotherapy. These results identify faropenem to be a potential candidate for alternative therapy of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25421469

Dhar, Neeraj; Dubée, Vincent; Ballell, Lluis; Cuinet, Guillaume; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Signorino-Gelo, François; Barros, David; Arthur, Michel; McKinney, John D

2015-02-01

13

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... PEPFARâ??s Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria funds health initiatives and strengthens health systems worldwide ... secure better health outcomes for HIV, TB and malaria. Read about the Global Fund on the AIDS. ...

14

Tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis remains a serious health problem worldwide, particularly affecting the poorest in both high-income and developing countries. It was declared a global emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993. Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is caused by mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and is acquired through inhalation of aerosolized droplet nuclei. Meningitis represents the most frequent and severe form of CNS tuberculosis. Parenchymal CNS involvement can occur in the form of tuberculoma or, more rarely, abscess. Also, damage of the spinal cord, roots, and spine can occur in the form of spinal meningitis, radiculomyelitis, spondylitis, or spinal cord infarction. Diagnosis remains a challenge due to the slow growth of the organisms and the low yield of cerebrospinal fluid cultures, as well as the frequent absence of evidence of infection elsewhere. This results in frequent empirical therapy, based on a combination of four drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) for 2 months, followed by 10 additional months with two drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin) to a total duration of 12 months. Shorter regimens have also been successful, but there have been few controlled trials in patients with extrapulmonary disease. Corticoid therapy seems to be associated with a reduced risk of death, and is usually indicated. Evidence of multidrug resistance requires variable combinations of first- and second-line drugs; fortunately, resistance does not seem to represent a serious threat for CNS tuberculosis at present, but still requires the utmost vigilance. PMID:24365432

Garcia-Monco, Juan Carlos

2014-01-01

15

Tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is still a leading cause of death in low-income and middle-income countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa where tuberculosis is an epidemic because of the increased susceptibility conferred by HIV infection. The effectiveness of the Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine is partial, and that of treatment of latent tuberculosis is unclear in high-incidence settings. The routine diagnostic methods that are used in many parts of the world are still very similar to those used 100 years ago. Multidrug treatment, within the context of structured, directly observed therapy, is a cost-effective control strategy. Nevertheless, the duration of treatment needed reduces its effectiveness, as does the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant disease; the latter has recently become widespread. The rapid expansion of basic, clinical, and operational research, in addition to increasing knowledge of tuberculosis, is providing new diagnostic, treatment, and preventive measures. The challenge is to apply these advances to the populations most at risk. The development of a comprehensive worldwide plan to stop tuberculosis might facilitate this process by coordinating the work of health agencies. However, massive effort, political will, and resources are needed for this plan to succeed. PMID:17719083

Maartens, Gary; Wilkinson, Robert J

2007-12-15

16

Oral vaccination reduces the incidence of tuberculosis in free-living brushtail possums  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (Tb) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has proved refractory to eradication from domestic livestock in countries with wildlife disease reservoirs. Vaccination of wild hosts offers a way of controlling Tb in livestock without wildlife culling. This study was conducted in a Tb-endemic region of New Zealand, where the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the main wildlife reservoir of Tb. Possums were trapped and vaccinated using a prototype oral-delivery system to deliver the Tb vaccine bacille Calmette–Guerin. Vaccinated and control possums were matched according to age, sex and location, re-trapped bimonthly and assessed for Tb status by palpation and lesion aspiration; the site was depopulated after 2 years and post-mortem examinations were conducted to further identify clinical Tb cases and subclinical infection. Significantly fewer culture-confirmed Tb cases were recorded in vaccinated possums (1/51) compared with control animals (12/71); the transition probability from susceptible to infected was significantly reduced in both males and females by vaccination. Vaccine efficacy was estimated at 95 per cent (87–100%) for females and 96 per cent (82–99%) for males. Hence, this trial demonstrates that orally delivered live bacterial vaccines can significantly protect wildlife against natural disease exposure, indicating that wildlife vaccination, along with existing control methods, could be used to eradicate Tb from domestic animals. PMID:19493904

Tompkins, D. M.; Ramsey, D. S. L.; Cross, M. L.; Aldwell, F. E.; de Lisle, G. W.; Buddle, B. M.

2009-01-01

17

Tuberculosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program discusses latent and active tuberculosis infections. It also reviews the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of tuberculosis. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

18

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG Danish Strain 1331) in Protecting White-tailed Deer (Odecoileus Virginianus) against Bovine Tuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildlife Disease Association Annual Conference, August 6-10, 2006 Terry Amundson Student Presentation Award Oral Presentation EFFICACY OF ORAL AND PARENTERAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG DANISH STRAIN 1331) IN PROTECTING WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODECOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS Paulin...

19

Oral Vaccination with Heat Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Activates the Complement System to Protect against Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-? producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar. PMID:24842853

Garrido, Joseba M.; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

2014-01-01

20

Immunological responses in patients with tuberculosis and in vivo effects of acetyl-L-carnitine oral administration.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TBC) is characterized by a complex immune response which parallels the clinical course of the disease. In this respect, acquired resistance, delayed hypersensitivity reaction and anergy are the main types of immune reactivity to mycobacterial antigens. In view of the presence of nonspecific and specific immune deficits in TBC patients, a clinical trial was carried out in a group of 20 individuals with active pulmonary TBC by oral administration of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC). This drug, which has been shown to possess immunomodulating activities, was able to upregulate the T-dependent antibacterial activity in TBC patients after 30 days' treatment, while the same activity decreased in patients receiving placebo only. On the other hand, ALC did not modify serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, in the same individuals. This cytokine plays a detrimental rather than beneficial role in TBC pathogenesis. In the light of these data, ALC seems to be a powerful immunomodulator in the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and other mycobacteriosis. PMID:18475563

Jirillo, E; Altamura, M; Marcuccio, C; Tortorella, C; De Simone, C; Antonaci, S

1993-01-01

21

Immunological responses in patients with tuberculosis and in vivo effects of acetyl-L-carnitine oral administration  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TBC) is characterized by a complex immune response which parallels the clinical course of the disease. In this respect, acquired resistance, delayed hypersensitivity reaction and anergy are the main types of immune reactivity to mycobacterial antigens. In view of the presence of nonspecific and specific immune deficits in TBC patients, a clinical trial was carried out in a group of 20 individuals with active pulmonary TBC by oral administration of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC). This drug, which has been shown to possess immunomodulating activities, was able to upregulate the T-dependent antibacterial activity in TBC patients after 30 days' treatment, while the same activity decreased in patients receiving placebo only. On the other hand, ALC did not modify serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-?, in the same individuals. This cytokine plays a detrimental rather than beneficial role in TBC pathogenesis. In the light of these data, ALC seems to be a powerful immunomodulator in the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and other mycobacteriosis. PMID:18475563

Altamura, Maria; Marcuccio, Carlo; Tortorella, Cosimo; De Simone, Claudio; Antonaci, Salvatore

1993-01-01

22

Combined inhalation and oral supplementation of Vitamin A and Vitamin D: A possible prevention and therapy for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is continuing as a problem of mankind. With evolution, MDR and XDR forms of tuberculosis have emerged from drug sensitive strain. MDR and XDR strains are resistant to most of the antibiotics, making the management more difficult. BCG vaccine is not providing complete protection against tuberculosis. Therefore new infections are spreading at a tremendous rate. At the present moment there is experimental evidence to believe that Vitamin A and Vitamin D has anti-mycobacterial property. It is in this context, we have hypothesized a host based approach using the above vitamins that can cause possible prevention and cure of tuberculosis with minimal chance of resistance or toxicity. PMID:25617043

Syal, Kirtimaan; Chakraborty, Surajit; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

2015-03-01

23

A neonatal oral Mycobacterium tuberculosis-SIV prime / intramuscular MVA-SIV boost combination vaccine induces both SIV and Mtb-specific immune responses in infant macaques.  

PubMed

Mother-to-child-transmission of HIV by breast-feeding remains a major obstacle in the eradication of HIV infection. Compared to adults, HIV-infected infants have more rapid disease and show higher susceptibility to co-infections like tuberculosis (TB). Although the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine can be administered at birth to protect against TB, BCG can disseminate in HIV-infected infants and increase mortality. Thus, a pediatric combination vaccine to stop both HIV and TB infection in infants is urgently needed. Towards the goal of developing a pediatric combination HIV-TB vaccine to prevent both oral HIV acquisition by breast-feeding and TB infection, we tested and optimized an immunization regimen using a novel live attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine engineered to express simian immunodeficiency (SIV) antigens followed by heterologous MVA-SIV boosting in the infant macaque model. A single oral dose of the attenuated Mtb-SIV vaccine strain mc(2)6435 during the first week of life was sufficient to induce persistent TB-specific immune responses. SIV-specific immunity was induced at low but comparable magnitudes after oral or intradermal priming, and was enhanced following MVA-SIV boosts. T cell responses were most pronounced in intestinal tissues and oral lymph nodes. Importantly, in addition to plasma SIV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, infant macaques developed mucosal SIV-specific IgA in saliva and intestinal IgA and IgG. While future SIV and Mtb challenge studies will be needed to determine the protective efficacy of the Mtb-SIV / MVA-SIV vaccine, infants at high risk for oral HIV acquisition by breast-feeding and TB infection could profoundly benefit from an effective combination vaccine. PMID:24454591

Jensen, Kara; Pena, Myra Grace Dela; Wilson, Robert L; Ranganathan, Uma Devi K; Jacobs, William R; Fennelly, Glenn; Larsen, Michelle; Van Rompay, Koen K A; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Abel, Kristina

2013-11-01

24

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchitis and Emphysema Tuberculosis Sinusitis If you have a respiratory condition, make ... dental office and make sure it is full. Tuberculosis Oral Effects If you have tuberculosis, you may ...

25

Pulmonary tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) . You can get TB by breathing ... chap 332. Fitzgerald DW, Sterling TR, Haas DW. Mycobacterium tuberculosis . In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. ...

26

Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine oral administration on lymphocyte antibacterial activity and TNF-alpha levels in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. A randomized double blind versus placebo study.  

PubMed

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), a drug for the treatment of ageing-related neuroendocrine dysfunctions, was orally administered--2 gm/day for 30 days--to 10 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TBC). Lymphocyte-mediated antibacterial activity and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated before and after treatment, comparing the values with those of 10 TBC patients receiving placebo. Results show that by day 30, antibacterial activity remained unmodified or increased in ALC-treated subjects, while decreased in the placebo group. No influence of ALC on TNF-alpha levels was detectable. These data suggest that the host's immune responses to M. tuberculosis infection can be selectively modulated by drugs acting on the neuroendocrine axis. PMID:1770216

Jirillo, E; Altamura, M; Munno, I; Pellegrino, N M; Sabato, R; Di Fabio, S; De Simone, C

1991-01-01

27

Lipid-formulated bcg as an oral-bait vaccine for tuberculosis: vaccine stability, efficacy, and palatability to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (Tb), due to infection with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, represents a threat to New Zealand agriculture due to vectorial transmission from wildlife reservoir species, principally the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). An oral-delivery wildlife vaccine has been developed to immunize possums against Tb, based on formulation of the human Tb vaccine (M. bovis BCG) in edible lipid matrices. Here BCG bacilli were shown to be stable in lipid matrix formulation for over 8 mo in freezer storage, for 7 wk under room temperature conditions, and for 3-5 wk under field conditions in a forest/pasture margin habitat (when maintained in weatherproof bait-delivery sachets). Samples of the lipid matrix were flavored and offered to captive possums in a bait-preference study: a combination of 10% chocolate powder with anise oil was identified as the most effective attractant/palatability combination. In a replicated field study, 85-100% of wild possums were shown to access chocolate-flavored lipid pellets, when baits were applied to areas holding approximately 600-800 possums/km(2). Finally, in a controlled vaccination/challenge study, chocolate-flavored lipid vaccine samples containing 10(8) BCG bacilli were fed to captive possums, which were subsequently challenged via aerosol exposure to virulent M. bovis: vaccine immunogenicity was confirmed, and protection was identified by significantly reduced postchallenge weight loss in vaccinated animals compared to nonvaccinated controls. These studies indicate that, appropriately flavored, lipid delivery matrices may form effective bait vaccines for the control of Tb in wildlife. PMID:19617486

Cross, Martin L; Henderson, Ray J; Lambeth, Matthew R; Buddle, Bryce M; Aldwell, Frank E

2009-07-01

28

Sternal tuberculosis in an immunocompetent adult  

PubMed Central

Skeletal tuberculosis accounts for 1–3% of patients with mycobacterial infection. Any bone can be a site for tuberculosis, but sternum involvement is quite rare. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman admitted because of chest pain and increased swelling over the anterior chest. She was immunocompetent and had no systemic features. She was diagnosed with tuberculosis of the sternum without active pulmonary disease. Conservative management with oral multidrug antituberculous therapy completely cured the patient. PMID:23580679

Cherif, Eya; Ben Hassine, Lamia; Boukhris, Imen; Khalfallah, Narjess

2013-01-01

29

Tuberculosis Fluoroscopy  

Cancer.gov

Follow-up though Dec 31, 2002 has been completed for a study of site-specific cancer mortality among tuberculosis patients treated with artificial lung collapse therapy in Massachusetts tuberculosis sanatoria (1930-1950).

30

Tuberculosis (TB)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Tuberculosis (TB) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... thought to be infected with TB bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). TB is a chronic bacterial infection. It ...

31

Tuberculosis Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Tuberculosis (TB) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... patients. Many people who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) do not get sick or spread the ...

32

Bovine Tuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tuberculosis (TB) in animals and humans may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti). Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from tuberculous catt...

33

Tuberculosis (TB)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Tuberculosis (TB) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... HIV/AIDS Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Research Agenda (PDF) TB Research at NIAID Research ...

34

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Twenty-two white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=5) received 109 colony-forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=5) received 109 cfu

P. Nol; M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; F. E. Aldwell; B. M. Buddle; J. M. Triantis; L. M. Linke; G. E. Phillips; T. C. Thacker; J. C. Rhyan; M. D. Salman; M. R. Dunbar

2008-01-01

35

Novel, potent, orally bioavailable and selective mycobacterial ATP synthase inhibitors that demonstrated activity against both replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The mycobacterial F0F1-ATP synthase (ATPase) is a validated target for the development of tuberculosis (TB) therapeutics. Therefore, a series of eighteen novel compounds has been designed, synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATPase. The observed ATPase inhibitory activities (IC50) of these compounds range between 0.36 and 5.45?M. The lead compound 9d [N-(7-chloro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-N-(3-((diethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dichlorobenzenesulfonamide] with null cytotoxicity (CC50>300?g/mL) and excellent anti-mycobacterial activity and selectivity (mycobacterium ATPase IC50=0.51?M, mammalian ATPase IC50>100?M, and selectivity >200) exhibited a complete growth inhibition of replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv at 3.12?g/mL. In addition, it also exhibited bactericidal effect (approximately 2.4log10 reductions in CFU) in the hypoxic culture of non-replicating M. tuberculosis at 100?g/mL (32-fold of its MIC) as compared to positive control isoniazid [approximately 0.2log10 reduction in CFU at 5?g/mL (50-fold of its MIC)]. The pharmacokinetics of 9d after p.o. and IV administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats indicated its quick absorption, distribution and slow elimination. It exhibited a high volume of distribution (Vss, 0.41L/kg), moderate clearance (0.06L/h/kg), long half-life (4.2h) and low absolute bioavailability (1.72%). In the murine model system of chronic TB, 9d showed 2.12log10 reductions in CFU in both lung and spleen at 173?mol/kg dose as compared to the growth of untreated control group of Balb/C male mice infected with replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The in vivo efficacy of 9d is at least double of the control drug ethambutol. These results suggest 9d as a promising candidate molecule for further preclinical evaluation against resistant TB strains. PMID:25614114

Singh, Supriya; Roy, Kuldeep K; Khan, Shaheb R; Kashyap, Vivek Kr; Sharma, Abhisheak; Jaiswal, Swati; Sharma, Sandeep K; Krishnan, Manju Yasoda; Chaturvedi, Vineeta; Lal, Jawahar; Sinha, Sudhir; Gupta, Arnab D; Srivastava, Ranjana; Saxena, Anil K

2015-02-15

36

Understanding Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... expensive, and last longer. Learn more about symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for tuberculosis ... Top Stories More about Lung Disease Behind the Headlines: COPD February 27, 2015 Personalized Medicine: Don't Guess. ...

37

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One gr...

38

[Extrapulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Up to 25% of tuberculosis cases present extrapulmonary involvement. This is produced by haematogenous and lymphatic spread of the M. tuberculosis bacillus to other organs. The most common locations are the lymph nodes, pleura and the osteoarticular system. The problem with these types of tuberculosis is the difficulty in establishing a definitive diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms and results of imaging tests may be vague. It is often necessary to resort to invasive diagnostic testing such as ultrasound or CAT-guided FNAB, used to collect biological samples for diagnosis. Despite the growing use of and advances in recent years of molecular methods for early detection of mycobacteria DNA, cultures continue to be the gold standard that enable a firm microbiological diagnosis to be made. Treatment for these types of tuberculosis do not differ from treatment regimens for pulmonary forms of the same disease. The same antibiotic regimens for 6 months are recommended, and any extension of this period is advisable solely in tuberculosis affecting the central nervous system and in Pott's disease. PMID:25803112

Ramírez-Lapausa, M; Menéndez-Saldaña, A; Noguerado-Asensio, A

2015-06-01

39

Tuberculosis chemotherapy: current drug delivery approaches  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number of novel implant-, microparticulate-, and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems incorporating the principal anti-tuberculosis agents have been fabricated that either target the site of tuberculosis infection or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient outcomes. These developments in drug delivery represent attractive options with significant merit, however, there is a requisite to manufacture an oral system, which directly addresses issues of unacceptable rifampicin bioavailability in fixed-dose combinations. This is fostered by the need to deliver medications to patients more efficiently and with fewer side effects, especially in developing countries. The fabrication of a polymeric once-daily oral multiparticulate fixed-dose combination of the principal anti-tuberculosis drugs, which attains segregated delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid for improved rifampicin bioavailability, could be a step in the right direction in addressing issues of treatment failure due to patient non-compliance. PMID:16984627

du Toit, Lisa Claire; Pillay, Viness; Danckwerts, Michael Paul

2006-01-01

40

Living with Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... for ENews Home > Lung Disease > Tuberculosis Living With Tuberculosis You will need regular checkups to make sure ... breathes the air. View in depth resources for tuberculosis A A A Share Print State of Tobacco ...

41

Tuberculosis and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

TUBERCULOSIS & DIABETES COLLABORATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR CARE AND CONTROL OF TUBERCULOSIS AND DIABETES © WHO Sept 2011 For more information: ... increase by 50% by 2030 THE LINKS BETWEEN TUBERCULOSIS AND DIABETES • People with a weak immune system, ...

42

Oesophageal tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The case discussed is that of a previously healthy 48-year-old female who presented with a week long history of epigastric pain and continuing weight loss. A series of investigations and supporting literature alluded to a diagnosis of oesophageal tuberculosis (TB), and antituberculous medication was commenced accordingly. An accompanying discussion considers the incidence, differential diagnoses, pathogenesis, clinical features, investigations and aspects of management of oesophageal TB. PMID:22669888

Bonthala, Latha; Wood, Eleanor

2011-01-01

43

Prevalence of Tuberculosis, HIV and Respiratory Symptoms in Two Zambian Communities: Implications for Tuberculosis Control in the Era of HIV  

PubMed Central

Background The Stop TB Partnership target for tuberculosis is to have reduced the prevalence of tuberculosis by 50% comparing 2015 to 1990. This target is challenging as few prevalence surveys have been conducted, especially in high burden tuberculosis and HIV countries. Current tuberculosis control strategies in high HIV prevalent settings are therefore based on limited epidemiological evidence and more evidence is needed from community-based surveys to inform improved policy formulation. Methods and Findings 8044 adults were sampled from 2 sub-districts (wards) in Lusaka province, Zambia. Questionnaires were used to screen for symptoms, respiratory samples were obtained for culture and oral secretions collected for HIV testing. 79 individuals were found to have Mycobacterium tuberculosis in their sputum, giving an adjusted overall prevalence of tuberculosis of 870/100,000 (95% CI 570–1160/100,000). The adjusted overall prevalence of HIV was 28.61% (95% CI 26.04–31.19). HIV- infection was significantly associated with prevalent tuberculosis (Adj OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.42–3.74) and the population attributable fraction of HIV for prevalent tuberculosis was 36%. Symptoms such as prolonged cough (adj OR 12.72, 95% CI 7.05–22.94) and fever (Adj OR 2.04, 95%CI 1.23–3.39), were associated with prevalent tuberculosis, but 8 (10%) individuals with prevalent tuberculosis denied having any symptoms at all and only 34 (43%) would have been classified as a TB suspect by current guidelines. Conclusions Undiagnosed tuberculosis is a challenge for tuberculosis control and new approaches are needed if we are to reach international targets. Epidemiological studies can inform screening algorithms for both detection and prevention of active tuberculosis. PMID:19440346

Ayles, Helen; Schaap, Albertus; Nota, Amos; Sismanidis, Charalambos; De Haas, Petra; Muyoyeta, Monde; Beyers, Nulda

2009-01-01

44

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): a rare association of lymph node tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Although various haematologic abnormalities are known to occur with tuberculosis, association of immune thrombocytopenia with tuberculosis is uncommon. We report a case of retroperitoneal lymph node tuberculosis who presented with ITP. A 76 year old female was admitted to our hospital with oral mucosal bleed and petechial lesions over extremities and abdomen. A diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was established. Intravenous Anti-D immunoglobulin and Dexamethasone therapy was started, but failed to elicit any sustained platelet response. CT abdomen revealed multiple retroperitoneal lymph nodes with central necrosis. Histopathology (HPE) of these revealed caseating lymphadenitis suggestive of tuberculosis. After 2 months of anti-tuberculous therapy, the platelet counts returned to normal and patient was off all therapy for ITP thereby suggesting likely association between tuberculosis and immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:25327103

Surana, Anuj P; Shelgikar, Kishor M; Melinkeri, Sameer; Phadke, Arvind

2014-01-01

45

Tuberculosis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Tuberculosis KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Tuberculosis Print A A ...

46

Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Treating Tuberculosis Active TB Disease Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Latent TB Infection TB Preventive Treatment History of TB ... to cooperate fully in the therapy program. Both latent TB infection and active TB disease are treated ...

47

Tuberculosis in Blacks  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Compartir Fact Sheet ( PDF - 272k) Tuberculosis In Blacks Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by a ... cases were reported in the United States; however, blacks continue to have a disproportionate share of TB. ...

48

Play the Tuberculosis Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

49

Primary Thyroid Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, it is estimated that more than 40% of the adults are infected with tuberculosis bacilli and every year 2 million\\u000a people develop tuberculosis and nearly 500,000 die from it1. But, tuberculosis of the thyroid gland occurs only rarely. Since\\u000a extra-pulmonary tuberculosis is now seen relatively more frequently, the existence of this condition should be recognized\\u000a when goitres are

Sunita Sanehi; Chandrashekhar Dravid; Neena Chaudhary; A. K. Rai

2007-01-01

50

PERSPECTIVE Candidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE Candidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes targeted by human microRNAs WeiRui Guo1-wu@northwestern.edu (J. Y. Wu), weilp@mail.cbi.pku.edu.cn (L. Wei) Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health issue in 1882, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), the causative agent for tuberculosis, remains one

Wu, Jane Y.

51

Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

52

Tuberculosis in the lung (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...

53

Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

54

Women and tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death in women worldwide. The disease poses a major threat to women's health security. Population growth, the HIV epidemic, increasing poverty and rising levels of drug resistance will inevitably increase the burden of this disease in women. Women are at increased risk of progression to disease during their reproductive years. However, in most low-income countries, twice as many men are notified with tuberculosis as women. Biological mechanisms may account for most of this difference but socioeconomic and cultural factors leading to barriers in accessing health care may cause under-notification in women. Tuberculosis control programmes should be sensitive to the constraints faced by women in accessing health care, in order to empower women to commence and complete treatment. The fear and stigma associated with tuberculosis have a greater impact on women than on men, often leaving them in a more precarious social and economic position. Tuberculosis in women creates orphans, impoverished families and reduces the economic development of society. Tuberculosis is a major cause of preventable suffering and death in women. WHO's recommended tuberculosis control strategy, DOTS, represents a cost-effective response to the problem of tuberculosis in women. Tuberculosis is a major women's health issue. It is a global health priority that tuberculosis treatment be made available to women, particularly to those in low-income countries who are bearing the brunt of this epidemic. PMID:9050189

Connolly, M; Nunn, P

1996-01-01

55

Oral myiasis.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

2015-01-01

56

Oral Myiasis  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

2015-01-01

57

Bilateral Parotid Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of parotid is a rare clinical entity, and cases of bilateral tubercular parotitis are even rarer. We present a case of bilateral primary parotid tuberculosis in a 49-year-old female. The patient received anti-tuberculosis treatment for six months, resulting in complete resolution of the disease. We also review the theories related to the pathogenesis of tubercular parotitis, and propose a novel hypothesis about greater involvement of parotid gland as compared to other salivary glands in primary tuberculosis. PMID:21887065

Thakur, JS; Thakur, A; Mohindroo, NK; Mohindroo, S; Sharma, DR

2011-01-01

58

Bilateral parotid tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of parotid is a rare clinical entity, and cases of bilateral tubercular parotitis are even rarer. We present a case of bilateral primary parotid tuberculosis in a 49-year-old female. The patient received anti-tuberculosis treatment for six months, resulting in complete resolution of the disease. We also review the theories related to the pathogenesis of tubercular parotitis, and propose a novel hypothesis about greater involvement of parotid gland as compared to other salivary glands in primary tuberculosis. PMID:21887065

Thakur, Js; Thakur, A; Mohindroo, Nk; Mohindroo, S; Sharma, Dr

2011-07-01

59

Therapeutic management of endobronchial tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree. Common symptoms are cough, haemoptysis, sputum production, wheezing, chest pain and fever in active disease and dyspnoea and wheezing in the fibrous stage. This form of tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose because the lesion is not evident in the chest radiograph, frequently delaying treatment. Computed tomography is very useful in evaluating bronchial lesions such as stenosis or obstruction. The most important goal of treatment in active EBTB is eradication of tubercle bacilli. The second most important goal is prevention of bronchial stenosis. Corticosteroid therapy for the prevention of bronchial stenosis in EBTB remains controversial. However, the healing time of ulcerous lesions was shorter and bronchial stenosis was less severe, in patients treated with aerosol therapy, consisting of streptomycin 100 mg, a corticosteroid (dexamethasone 0.5 mg) and naphazoline 0.1 mg administered twice-daily along with conventional oral therapy. In inactive disease, treatment to restore full patency is appropriate. As steroids or other medications are unable to reverse stenosis from fibrous disease, airway patency must be restored mechanically by surgery or endobronchial intervention. Effectiveness and complications remain important issues with the mechanical techniques as use and evaluation continue. Corticosteroid therapy for prevention of bronchial stenosis in EBTB remains controversial. Our observations suggest that progression of bronchial stenosis can be prevented in patients who are treated with aerosol therapy with corticosteroids. PMID:15212597

Rikimaru, Toru

2004-07-01

60

TUBERCULOSIS 1 Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Populations in Canada  

E-print Network

TUBERCULOSIS 1 Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Populations in Canada: The Role of Health Care, PhD March 27, 2013 #12;TUBERCULOSIS 2 Abstract The persistent presence of infectious and increasingly). Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which is far more common in the Aboriginal population than the Canadian

Peak, Derek

61

"Tuberculosis Case Management" Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to isolated health providers with critical knowledge in tuberculosis (TB) case management prompted the development of "Tuberculosis Case Management" CD-ROM. Features include "Learning Center,""Examination Room," and "Library." The combination of audio, video, and graphics allows participants to practice acquired skills in a simulated…

Knebel, Elisa; Kolodner, Jennifer

2001-01-01

62

Spinal tuberculosis: A review  

PubMed Central

Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good. PMID:22118251

Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh

2011-01-01

63

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pyomyositis in an Infant  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic to many parts of the world. It may have variable clinical presentations, especially in the pediatric age group. Presented here is the case of a 9-month old infant who was referred for infectious disease opinion when his thigh induration failed to improve after surgical drainage and a course of oral antibiotic therapy. Mycobacterial PCR on the operative sample fluid was found to be positive; and mycobacterial culture grew M. tuberculosis. He received 9 months of treatment with anti-TB medications, with excellent results and complete recovery. This is the first report of TB pyomyositis in an infant; and highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion for unusual organisms when conventional therapy fails to demonstrate expected results. PMID:23919207

Malik, ZA; Shehab, M

2013-01-01

64

Psychiatry and Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Studies on the psychosomatic aspects of tuberculosis have not brought to light a clearcut correlation between a specific personality structure and susceptibility to the illness. The recommendation is made to look for several rather than for one personality type. It is suggested that people should be studied who react to stress with loss of appetite and loss of sleep. This character structure in contrast to that where the person withdraws into sleep and overeats might make a person prone to tuberculosis. The somatopsychic influence of tuberculosis needs to be interpreted in terms of the localization of the lesion as well as infectiousness and conspicuousness of the disease. Some common sociopsychological factors of tuberculosis have been mentioned. Reports on mental illness and tuberculosis and on diet were reviewed. PMID:14792351

Fantl, Kurt

1950-01-01

65

Indoleamides are active against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Responsible for nearly two million deaths each year, the infectious disease tuberculosis remains a serious global health challenge. The emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis confounds control efforts, and new drugs with novel molecular targets are desperately needed. Here we describe lead compounds, the indoleamides, with potent activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis by targeting the mycolic acid transporter MmpL3. We identify a single mutation in mmpL3 which confers high resistance to the indoleamide class while remaining susceptible to currently used first- and second-line tuberculosis drugs, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Importantly, an indoleamide derivative exhibits dose-dependent anti-mycobacterial activity when orally administered to M. tuberculosis-infected mice. The bioavailability of the indoleamides, combined with their ability to kill tubercle bacilli, indicates great potential for translational developments of this structure class for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:24352433

Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Onajole, Oluseye K.; Pieroni, Marco; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Chen, Gang; Tipparaju, Suresh K.; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Bishai, William R.

2014-01-01

66

Tuberculosis in Thailand.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) was expected to be eradicated by the end of this century. However, an increasing incidence of tuberculosis in many parts of the world has led to renewed interest in the disease. The pandemic of HIV infection has changed TB, an endemic disease, to an epidemic worldwide. In Thailand, tuberculosis cases and deaths reduced year after year, until 1992 when the cases began to increase as a result of HIV infection. The annual risk of infection in 1997 was estimated at 1.4%, with approximately 100 000 new TB cases developing each year. Fifteen per cent of tuberculosis patients are seropositive for HIV infection. Increasing antituberculosis drug resistance has been correlated with the high prevalence of HIV infection in some parts of the country. In 1995, cure rate of this disease was approximately 50% and, since 1996, in order to cope with the worsening situation, the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) has adopted Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS). Despite the current economic turmoil of the country, the programme has now been expanded to cover over 400 of the 810 districts of Thailand. Also, the economic effects of tuberculosis at the household level in Thailand were recently studied. Tuberculosis is a chronic disease that commonly affects the lower socioeconomic classes. Some patients were unable to follow the treatment regimens because of the financial burden. The low case detection and treatment completion rates are, in part, due to the inability of poor patients to cope with the expenditure. PMID:11264766

Palwatwichai, A

2001-03-01

67

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor before starting anything new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and dosage of medicine for your needs. In this section Treatment and ...

68

Tuberculosis and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... the African-American Community Summit Background Slideset Slideset Text version Websites Children Correctional Facilities Table of Contents ... Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Core Curriculum Text- only version Self-Study Modules Module 1 (text ...

69

Global Tuberculosis (TB)  

MedlinePLUS

... the African-American Community Summit Background Slideset Slideset Text version Websites Children Correctional Facilities Table of Contents ... Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Core Curriculum Text- only version Self-Study Modules Module 1 (text ...

70

Update on cutaneous tuberculosis*  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498

Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; do Nascimento, Leninha Valério; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem

2014-01-01

71

Evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Genomic studies have provided a refined understanding of the genetic diversity within the Mycobacterium genus, and more specifically within Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These results have informed a new perspective on the macro- and micro-evolution of the tubercle bacillus. In the first step, a M. kansasii-like opportunistic pathogen acquired new genes, through horizontal gene transfer, that enabled it to better exploit an intracellular niche and ultimately evolve into a professional pathogen. In the second step, different subspecies and strains of the M. tuberculosis complex emerged through mutation and deletion of unnecessary DNA. Understanding the differences between M. tuberculosis and related less pathogenic mycobacteria is expected to reveal key bacterial virulence mechanisms and provide opportunities to understand host resistance to mycobacterial infection. Understanding differences within the M. tuberculosis complex and the evolutionary forces shaping these differences is important for investigating the basis of its success as both a symbiont and a pathogen. PMID:23468104

Behr, Marcel A

2013-01-01

72

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Oral Cancer Are You at Risk? What Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ... Health Early Detection It is important to find oral cancer as early as possible when it can be ...

73

Tuberculosis in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Tuberculosis (TB) today remains one of the world’s most lethal infectious diseases. An estimated one-third of the world’s\\u000a population is infected with the tubercle bacillus-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and 7 to 8 million people develop TB disease each year (27). For purpose of clarity, TB infection (latent TB) is defined\\u000a as harboring Mtb without evidence of active infection, and TB

S. Rajagopalan; T. T. Yoshikawa

2000-01-01

74

Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

75

Childhood Tuberculosis, Still with Us...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of this report on childhood tuberculosis in developed and developing countries discusses the epidemiology of tuberculosis in children. Information is presented on: (1) sources and prevalence of infection; (2) risks, frequency, and types of tuberculosis; (3) mortality rates; and (4) the relation of poverty and AIDS to…

Chaulet, Pierre; And Others

1992-01-01

76

Tuberculosis: A Problem for Lifeguards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifeguards run the risk of workplace infection by tuberculosis-carrying swimmers. Even if they work in ventilated, sunlit areas (which reduces risk), they can contract tuberculosis when performing respiratory resuscitation. Without appropriate precautions, lifeguards may be unnecessarily exposed. A tuberculosis infection control plan is needed in…

Skaros, Susan

1996-01-01

77

Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

Gessner, Bradford D.

1997-01-01

78

Development of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis during Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Treatment  

E-print Network

Development of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis during Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; 6 Tomsk Oblast Tuberculosis Services, Tomsk, Russian Federation; 7 Siberia State Medical University, Tomsk, Russian Federation; 8 Tomsk Oblast Tuberculosis Hospital, Tomsk

Cohen, Ted

79

[Urogenital tuberculosis today].  

PubMed

In order to analyze the structure of urogenital tuberculosis, retrospective analysis of medical records of 131 patients with newly diagnosed urogenital tuberculosis observed in the Novosibirsk Regional TB Dispensary from 2009 to 2011 was performed. The renal tuberculosis is main form in the structure is urotuberculosis, detected in 75% of patients, and widespread destructive forms of the disease were diagnosed in more than half of cases. Isolated nephrotuberculosis was more often diagnosed in women--56.8%. 15.9% of patients had asymptomatic nephrotuberculosis; one-third of patients complained of pain in the lumbar region and frequent painful urination (35.2 and 39.8%, respectively); symptoms of intoxication were present in 17% of patients, renal colic--in 9.1%, and gross hematuria--in 7.9% of patients. Mycobacteriuria in isolated nephrotuberculosis was detected in 31.8% of cases. Acute tuberculous orchiepididymitis developed in 35.7% of patients, hemospermia was observed in 7.1% of patients, dysuria was in 35.7% of patients. The pain in the perineum, frequent painful urination (both by 31.6%), hemospermia (26.3%) were main complaints in prostate tuberculosis. Mycobacteria was detected in 10.5% of cases. It was found that urogenital tuberculosis has no pathognomonic symptoms; the most alarming manifestations include long-term dysuria, hematuria, hemospermia. PMID:23662488

Zhukova, I I; Kul'chavenia, E V; Kholtobin, D P; Brizhatiuk, E V; Khomiakov, V T; Osadchi?, A V

2013-01-01

80

Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

1 Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND Since 1985, the rate of new cases of tuberculosis, more than 26,000 new cases of active tuberculosis were reported in the US. In New York City alone, 3,700 cases of active tuberculosis were reported in 1991. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that causes

de Lijser, Peter

81

Spectrum of urogenital tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) plays an important role because its complications may be fatal, it significantly reduces quality of life, and it is often associated with AIDS. Diagnosis of UGTB is often delayed. We analyzed 131 case histories of UGTB patients from the years 2009-2011. Gender, age, and the clinical form and main features of the disease were taken into account. The most common form was kidney tuberculosis (74.8%). Isolated kidney tuberculosis (KTB) more often occurs in women: 56.8%. Patients of middle and old age more often showed the stage of cavernous KTB; younger patients had smaller forms. Among all cases, an asymptomatic course was seen in 12.2% and, among cases of KTB, in 15.9%. Every third patient complained of flank pain and dysuria (35.2% and 39.8%, respectively); 17% presented with toxicity symptoms, 9.1% with renal colic, and 7.9% with gross hematuria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in urine was found in 31.8% of cases in all levels of isolated KTB. UGTB has no specific symptom; even sterile pyuria occurs only in 25%. The acute onset of tuberculous orchiepididymitis was seen in 35.7% of patients, hemospermia in 7.1%, and dysuria in 35.7%. The most common complaints for prostate tuberculosis were perineal pain (31.6%), dysuria (also 31.6%), and hemospermia (26.3%). MTB in prostate secretion/ejaculate was revealed in 10.5% of this group. All urogenital tract infections should be suspected as UGTB in patients who are living in a region with a high incidence rate, who have had contact with tuberculosis infection, and who have a recurrence of the disease that is resistant to standard therapy. PMID:23526041

Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Zhukova, Irina; Kholtobin, Denis

2013-10-01

82

Oral implants.  

PubMed

Today, more and more evidence suggests that even small changes in hardware for oral implants may jeopardize its biocompatibility. Even the manner in which the hardware is sterilized can influence cellular adhesion. This review discusses the surface characteristics, configuration, and success rates of various oral implants, as well as the complications that can result following implantation. PMID:1777657

van Steenberghe, D

1991-04-01

83

Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

84

Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

85

Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

86

[Tuberculosis in the elderly].  

PubMed

For people born in France, age is a major risk factor for developing tuberculosis.This curable pathology still has a high mortality rate which increases with age. Diagnosis difficulties, tolerance and compliance with treatment are issues specific to old age. An active policy of prevention, monitoring and training should enable the incidence of this pathology to continue to fall. PMID:22852503

Vétillard, Anne-Laure; Cudennec, Tristan; Teillet, Laurent

2012-01-01

87

Unique transcriptome signature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Although tuberculosis remains a substantial global threat, the mechanisms that enable mycobacterial persistence and replication within the human host are ill defined. This study represents the first genome-wide expression analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical lung samples, which has enabled the identification of M. tuberculosis genes actively expressed during pulmonary tuberculosis. To obtain optimal information from our DNA array analyses, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes within the context of computationally inferred protein networks. Protein networks were constructed using functional linkages established by the Rosetta stone, phylogenetic profile, conserved gene neighbor, and operon computational methods. This combined approach revealed that during pulmonary tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis actively transcribes a number of genes involved in active fortification and evasion from host defense systems. These genes may provide targets for novel intervention strategies. PMID:16428773

Rachman, Helmy; Strong, Michael; Ulrichs, Timo; Grode, Leander; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Mollenkopf, Hans; Kosmiadi, George A; Eisenberg, David; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

2006-02-01

88

Unique Transcriptome Signature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pulmonary Tuberculosis†  

PubMed Central

Although tuberculosis remains a substantial global threat, the mechanisms that enable mycobacterial persistence and replication within the human host are ill defined. This study represents the first genome-wide expression analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical lung samples, which has enabled the identification of M. tuberculosis genes actively expressed during pulmonary tuberculosis. To obtain optimal information from our DNA array analyses, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes within the context of computationally inferred protein networks. Protein networks were constructed using functional linkages established by the Rosetta stone, phylogenetic profile, conserved gene neighbor, and operon computational methods. This combined approach revealed that during pulmonary tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis actively transcribes a number of genes involved in active fortification and evasion from host defense systems. These genes may provide targets for novel intervention strategies. PMID:16428773

Rachman, Helmy; Strong, Michael; Ulrichs, Timo; Grode, Leander; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Mollenkopf, Hans; Kosmiadi, George A.; Eisenberg, David; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.

2006-01-01

89

resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a significant threat to the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The current susceptibility testing for the first-line TB drug pyrazinamide (PZA) is not only time-consuming but also difficult, due to the requirement for acid pH for drug activity. Predominantly, resistance to PZA in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in the pncA gene, and the detection of

Ying Zhang; Steven Denkin; Dmitriy Volokhov; Vladimir Chizhikov

90

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... two categories. The diverse variety is simply a variation of a few major themes. Oral appliances can be classified by mode of action or design variation. Tongue Retaining Appliances Tongue retaining appliances hold the ...

91

Male genital tuberculosis in Siberians.  

PubMed

To study the epidemiology and the clinical picture of male genital tuberculosis in Siberia, Russia. Five hundred and fourteen patients with genitourinary tuberculosis were enrolled in the study: 414 had kidney tuberculosis only, 100 had genital involvement. The clinical picture and structure of genital tuberculosis were investigated: 42 had tuberculosis of scrotal organs and 58 had tuberculosis of the prostate. Urinary cultures, urinalysis, three-glass test, and investigation of the prostate secretion, Mycobacteria culture, and susceptibility testing were performed in all 514 patients. 33.6% of all patients earlier suffered from pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis and were successfully cured. In 61.9% nephrotuberculosis was diagnosed alongside with an orchiepididymitis. In 30.9% of patients bilateral epididymorchitis was diagnosed. Mycobacteriuria was present in 38.1%. Scrotal fistula was found in 11.9%. In 66.7% the symptoms appeared acutely. Half of the patients with prostate tuberculosis complained of dysuria, 23 (39.6%) had perineal pain, 34 (58.6%) had flank pain. Leucocytes in urine were present in 49 (84.5%) patients, and in prostatic secretion in 45 (77.6%) patients. Erythrocytes in urine were present in 31 (53.4%) patients, and in prostatic secretions in 17 (29.3%) patients. Male genital tuberculosis has no specific pathognomonic signs. Using a special algorithm for the management of patients with prostatitis or epididymitis is recommended. PMID:16429302

Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Khomyakov, Victor

2006-02-01

92

[Adrenal tuberculosis: case report].  

PubMed

Isolated adrenal tuberculosis is rare, and represents between 1-2% of the etiologies of adrenal masses called incidentalomas. A 32-year-old woman, without notable medical history, was hospitalized for pain in the left hypochondrium, lasting for two months in a context of apyrexia and weight loss amounted to 5 kg. Clinical examination was normal, but abdominopelvic CT objectified bilateral adrenal hypertrophy predominantly left with bilateral linear calcifications. The chest radiograph was normal, adrenal hormones were normal. The research of BK in sputum and urine were negative on direct examination and culture. The tuberculin was 12 mm and HIV status was negative. A left adrenal biopsy was done and histopathological study of tuberculous lesions was found confirming caseofolliculaire adrenal tuberculosis. The patient has been treated with antibacillaire with favorable evolution. In light of this observation, the authors make the point on this rare disease. PMID:22206787

Ouarssani, A; Atoini, F; Ait Lhou, F; Rguibi, M I

2012-06-01

93

Current tuberculosis screening practices.  

PubMed Central

Health department officials in all 50 states and 14 major cities responded to a survey questionnaire designed to obtain information about current tuberculosis screening practices. Persons being screened fell into the groups designated as high risk by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The methods used for screening were generally those advocated by ATS, CDC, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), although chest radiographs continue to be overused. Screening in about one-half of the groups is mandated by law or regulation. There appears to be some confusion about the circumstances in which "two-step" tuberculin testing should be used. Data on the productivity and costs of screening activities were very limited. We encourage those responsible for tuberculosis screening programs to evaluate them, discontinue those which are unproductive, and intensify those which are productive. PMID:6507687

Snider, D E; Anderson, H R; Bentley, S E

1984-01-01

94

Tuberculosis and BCG  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tuberculosis occurred in humans probably as early as 8,000 bc in its sporadic form. Indeed, it is mentioned in India’s Vedas, the most sacred texts of Hinduism, and later by Hippocrates,\\u000a Celse D’Aretée de Cappadoce (170 bc), and Avicene (Calmette 1923; Calmette et al. 1928). Recently, genetic studies of the tubercle bacillus have found its progenitor\\u000a to come into existence

Marina Gheorghiu; Micheline Lagranderie; Anne-Marie Balazuc

95

Sensing the Killer - Tuberculosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty-fourth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. About 2 billion people are walking around infected by tuberculosis. But they don't it, because they don't have any symptoms of this terrible disease. The trick with TB is to catch it early and prevent ever-widening circles of infection.

2010-01-04

96

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

2011-04-01

97

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

2013-04-01

98

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

2012-04-01

99

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

2014-04-01

100

Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a pathogen of growing concern in free-ranging wildlife in Africa, but little is known about the disease in Tanzanian wildlife. Here, we report the infection status of Mycobacterium bovis in a range of wildlife species sampled from protected areas in northern Tanzania. M. bovis was isolated from 11.1% (2/18) migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and 11.1% (1/9) topi (Damaliscus lunatus) sampled systematically in 2000 during a meat cropping program in the Serengeti ecosystem, and from one wildebeest and one lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) killed by sport hunters adjacent to Tarangire National Park. A tuberculosis antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to screen serum samples collected from 184 Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) and 19 lions from Ngorongoro Crater sampled between 1985 and 2000. Samples from 212 ungulates collected throughout the protected area network between 1998 and 2001 also were tested by EIA. Serological assays detected antibodies to M. bovis in 4% of Serengeti lions; one positive lion was sampled in 1984. Antibodies were detected in one of 17 (6%) buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Tarangire and one of 41 (2%) wildebeest in the Serengeti. This study confirms for the first time the presence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife of northern Tanzania, but further investigation is required to assess the impact on wildlife populations and the role of different wildlife species in maintenance and transmission. PMID:16107683

Cleaveland, S; Mlengeya, T; Kazwala, R R; Michel, A; Kaare, M T; Jones, S L; Eblate, E; Shirima, G M; Packer, C

2005-04-01

101

Tuberculosis endometritis presenting as a leiomyoma.  

PubMed

Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. Taking into consideration that genitourinary tuberculosis may be associated with a diversity of presentations, its diagnoses may be difficult. A young woman with an initial presumptive diagnosis of a uterine leiomyoma presented with abdominal pain and a pelvic mass that after further investigations, she was diagnosed with genital tuberculosis. PMID:25780530

Shirazi, Mahboobeh; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Pirzadeh, Leila; Mohammadi, Seyed Rahim; Ghaffari, Parisa; Eftekhar, Tahereh

2015-01-01

102

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretory proteins  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretory proteins CFP-10, ESAT-6 and the CFP10:ESAT6, Dinakar M Salunke2 and Pawan Sharma1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes death of 2­3 million people; lipopolysaccharide; NF-kB; ROS Tuberculosis is a global health problem caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb

Cai, Long

103

Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Molecular Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis seriously threaten tuberculosis (TB) control and prevention efforts. Molecular studies of the mechanism of action of antitubercular drugs have elucidated the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is attributed primarily to the accumulation of mutations in the drug target genes; these mutations lead either to an altered target

Ashok Rattan; Awdhesh Kalia; Nishat Ahmad

1998-01-01

104

Schiffert Health Center TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM  

E-print Network

Schiffert Health Center TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM Name that tuberculosis skin testing (PPD) be performed on all individuals who may be at increased risk of tuberculosis tuberculosis · Use of illegal injected drugs · At risk of being infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Virginia Tech

105

Tuberculosis Endometritis Presenting as A Leiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. Taking into consideration that genitourinary tuberculosis may be associated with a diversity of presentations, its diagnoses may be difficult. A young woman with an initial presumptive diagnosis of a uterine leiomyoma presented with abdominal pain and a pelvic mass that after further investigations, she was diagnosed with genital tuberculosis.

Shirazi, Mahboobeh; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Pirzadeh, Leila; Mohammadi, Seyed Rahim; Ghaffari, Parisa; Eftekhar, Tahereh

2015-01-01

106

Noninvasive Test for Tuberculosis Detection among Primates  

PubMed Central

Traditional testing methods have limited epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis among free-living primates. PCR amplification of insertion element IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from fecal samples was evaluated as a noninvasive screening test for tuberculosis in primates. Active tuberculosis was detected among inoculated macaques and naturally exposed chimpanzees, demonstrating the utility of this test. PMID:25695329

Mugisha, Lawrence; Shoyama, Fernanda Miyagaki; O’Malley, Melanie J.; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Asiimwe, Benon; Travis, Dominic A.; Singer, Randall S.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2015-01-01

107

Tuberculosis: a problem with persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of most successful pathogens of mankind, infecting one-third of the global population and claiming two million lives every year. The ability of the bacteria to persist in the form of a long-term asymptomatic infection, referred to as latent tuberculosis, is central to the biology of the disease. The persistence of bacteria in superficially normal tissue was

Graham R. Stewart; Brian D. Robertson; Douglas B. Young

2003-01-01

108

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment by an SLP are important to restore speech intelligibility and swallowing skills. Treatment often includes helping people get used to the differences in the size, shape, and feel of their mouth. The SLP will ... how to produce speech sounds more clearly. Oral exercises help the client ...

109

Oral tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the mucosal immune system to distinguish between harmful and harmless antigens is essential for mounting protective immune responses and preventing the induction of mucosal pathology yet the basis for this remains unclear. As fed antigen can also exert systemic effects understanding oral tolerance and priming will also have important consequences for therapy and vaccination. Here we will

P Garside; A. McI Mowat

2001-01-01

110

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

111

Highly structured genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in  

E-print Network

Highly structured genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Djibouti S, Djibouti Ville, Djibouti Abstract Djibouti is an East African country with a high tuberculosis incidence with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were included. Genetic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using

Choisy, Marc

112

78 FR 1718 - Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids AGENCY...antibodies to bovine tuberculosis in certain species...has waived its review under Executive...tests as official tuberculosis tests for captive...tuberculosis tests for bovine...

2013-01-09

113

Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript. PMID:25624652

Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

2015-01-01

114

Oral care.  

PubMed

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

2011-01-01

115

Oral calcitonin  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N

2012-01-01

116

Tuberculosis - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tuberculosis educational game and related reading, are based on the 1905 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for investigations and discoveries concerning the disease tuberculosis, "TB". In this game you will try to repeat Robert Koch's remarkable successes. Carry out your own experiments using Koch's methods and discover the bacteria causing tuberculosis. Rather than scoring points and doing things quickly, this game rewards figuring out what to do in the correct order to allow you to move on and reach the end!

2009-01-01

117

Immunology of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

MTB ranks as the first worldwide pathogen latently infecting one third of the population and the second leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The development of vigorous and apparently appropriate immune response upon infection with M. tuberculosis in humans and experimental animals conflict with failure to eradicate the pathogen itself and with its ability to undergo clinical latency from which it may exit. From a clinical standpoint, our views on MTB infection may take advantage from updating the overall perspective, that has quite changed over the last decade, following remarkable advances in our understanding of the manipulation of the immune system by M. tuberculosis and of the role of innate components of the immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and NK cells in the initial spread of MTB and its exit from latency. Scope of this review is to highlight the major mechanisms of MTB escape from immune control and to provide a supplementary translational perspective for the interpretation of innate immune mechanisms with particular impact on clinical aspects. PMID:24804000

Bozzano, Federica; Marras, Francesco; De Maria, Andrea

2014-01-01

118

Clinical peculiarities of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The ongoing spread of tuberculosis (TB) in poor resource countries and the recently increasing incidence in high resource countries lead to the need of updated knowledge for clinicians, particularly for pediatricians. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the most important peculiarities of TB in children. Children are less contagious than adults, but the risk of progression to active disease is higher in infants and children as compared to the subsequent ages. Diagnosis of TB in children is more difficult than in adults, because few signs are associated with primary infection, interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test are less reliable in younger children, M. tuberculosis is more rarely detected in gastric aspirates than in smears in adults and radiological findings are often not specific. Treatment of latent TB is always necessary in young children, whereas it is recommended in older children, as well as in adults, only in particular conditions. Antimycobacterial drugs are generally better tolerated in children as compared to adults, but off-label use of second-line antimycobacterial drugs is increasing, because of spreading of multidrug resistant TB worldwide. Given that TB is a disease which often involves more than one member in a family, a closer collaboration is needed between pediatricians and clinicians who take care of adults. PMID:24564419

2014-01-01

119

Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere. PMID:25408856

Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.

2014-01-01

120

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

121

Tuberculosis Information for International Travelers  

MedlinePLUS

... the African-American Community Summit Background Slideset Slideset Text version Websites Children Correctional Facilities Table of Contents ... Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Core Curriculum Text- only version Self-Study Modules Module 1 (text ...

122

Tuberculosis in Hispanics/Latinos  

MedlinePLUS

... the African-American Community Summit Background Slideset Slideset Text version Websites Children Correctional Facilities Table of Contents ... Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Core Curriculum Text- only version Self-Study Modules Module 1 (text ...

123

Tuberculosis care: an evaluability study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the tuberculosis control program (TCP) is evaluable and to examine the feasibility of building an evaluation model in apriority municipality for the control of tuberculosis. METHOD: this evaluability study was conducted in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. For data collection, documental analysis and interviews with key informants were performed. For indicator validation, the nominal group technique was adopted. RESULTS: the details of TCP were described, and both the logical model and the classification framework for indicators were developed and agreed up on, with the goal of characterizing the structural elements of the program, defining the structure and process indicators, and formulating the evaluation questions. CONCLUSION: TCP is evaluable. Based on logical operational analysis, it was possible to evaluate the adequacy of the program goals for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, the performance of a summative evaluation is recommended, with a focus on the analysis of the effects of tuberculosis control interventions on decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25493675

Coelho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Cláudia Santos; Brito, Ewerton Willian Gomes; Negrão, Oswaldo Gomes Corrêa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa

2014-01-01

124

Health Care Workers and Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... which patients might have tuberculosis (also known as “TB”). You could catch this disease by breathing in ... infection. When the immune system does its job, TB often stays dormant for years. Unfortunately, it can ...

125

Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Mutation Database  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death from a largely preventable and curable infectious disease, with an estimated 1.7 million deaths in 2006. Global prospects for TB control are challenged by the emergence ...

Church, George M.

126

Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis, has an extraordinary ability to survive against environmental stresses including antibiotics. Although stress tolerance of M. tuberculosis is one of the likely contributors to the 6-month long chemotherapy of tuberculosis 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying this characteristic phenotype of the pathogen remain unclear. Many microbial species have evolved to survive in stressful environments by self-assembling in highly organized, surface attached, and matrix encapsulated structures called biofilms 2-4. Growth in communities appears to be a preferred survival strategy of microbes, and is achieved through genetic components that regulate surface attachment, intercellular communications, and synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) 5,6. The tolerance to environmental stress is likely facilitated by EPS, and perhaps by the physiological adaptation of individual bacilli to heterogeneous microenvironments within the complex architecture of biofilms 7. In a series of recent papers we established that M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis have a strong propensity to grow in organized multicellular structures, called biofilms, which can tolerate more than 50 times the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin 8-10. M. tuberculosis, however, intriguingly requires specific conditions to form mature biofilms, in particular 9:1 ratio of headspace: media as well as limited exchange of air with the atmosphere 9. Requirements of specialized environmental conditions could possibly be linked to the fact that M. tuberculosis is an obligate human pathogen and thus has adapted to tissue environments. In this publication we demonstrate methods for culturing M. tuberculosis biofilms in a bottle and a 12-well plate format, which is convenient for bacteriological as well as genetic studies. We have described the protocol for an attenuated strain of M. tuberculosis, mc27000, with deletion in the two loci, panCD and RD1, that are critical for in vivo growth of the pathogen 9. This strain can be safely used in a BSL-2 containment for understanding the basic biology of the tuberculosis pathogen thus avoiding the requirement of an expensive BSL-3 facility. The method can be extended, with appropriate modification in media, to grow biofilm of other culturable mycobacterial species. Overall, a uniform protocol of culturing mycobacterial biofilms will help the investigators interested in studying the basic resilient characteristics of mycobacteria. In addition, a clear and concise method of growing mycobacterial biofilms will also help the clinical and pharmaceutical investigators to test the efficacy of a potential drug. PMID:22371116

Kulka, Kathleen; Hatfull, Graham; Ojha, Anil K.

2012-01-01

127

Drug Tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis is eradicated rapidly during therapy in some patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, it can persist for many months in others. This study examined the relationship between myco- bacterial drug tolerance (delayed killing in vitro), persistence, and relapse. It was performed with 39 fully drug-susceptible isolates from a prospective trial of standard short-course antituberculous therapy with sputum smear-positive, human

ROBERT S. WALLIS; SHRIPAD PATIL; SEON-HEE CHEON; KAY EDMONDS; MANIJEH PHILLIPS; MARK D. PERKINS; MOSES JOLOBA; ALICE NAMALE; JOHN L. JOHNSON; LUCILEIA TEIXEIRA; REYNALDO DIETZE; SALMAN SIDDIQI; ROY D. MUGERWA; KATHLEEN EISENACH

128

Mixed-Strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections and the Implications for Tuberculosis Treatment and Control  

E-print Network

Mixed-Strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections and the Implications for Tuberculosis Treatment Tuberculosis Research/MRC Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Division of Molecular Biology and Human of Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, and Tuberculosis Section, Health

Cohen, Ted

129

High Rates of Potentially Infectious Tuberculosis and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among  

E-print Network

High Rates of Potentially Infectious Tuberculosis and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR, Massachusetts, United States of America, 3 KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV Research (K) and multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) tuberculosis at Church of Scotland Hospital (CoSH), in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN

Cohen, Ted

130

Psoriatic Disease and Tuberculosis Nowadays  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing and remitting inflammatory skin and joint disease that has a prevalence of 2-3% in the world's population, whereas of 1–2% in Europe. The traditional concept of psoriasis as the “healthy people's” disease has been recently revised because of ever-increasing reports of associations with various pathological conditions (hypertension, Crohn's disease, type II diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, infectious conditions). Particularly, advances in psoriasis therapies have introduced biologic agents. All the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of developing active disease in patients with latent tuberculosis infection, because of TNF-? key role against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For this reason, exclusion of active tuberculosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection are clinical imperatives prior to starting this therapy. Moreover active surveillance for a history of untreated or partially treated tuberculosis or latent form has already been shown to be effective in reducing the number of incident tuberculosis cases. PMID:22645622

Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Bocchino, Marialuisa

2012-01-01

131

First data on Eurasian wild boar response to oral immunization with BCG and challenge with a Mycobacterium bovis field strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is considered a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in south-central Spain. The vaccination of wildlife with BCG offers an alternative to culling and to movement restriction for the control of bTB among wildlife reservoirs. In this study, we hypothesized that oral

C. Ballesteros; J. M. Garrido; J. Vicente; B. Romero; R. C. Galindo; E. Minguijón; M. Villar; M. P. Martín-Hernando; I. Sevilla; R. Juste; A. Aranaz; J. de la Fuente; C. Gortázar

2009-01-01

132

Not your routine foreign body: endobronchial tuberculosis in an infant.  

PubMed

Foreign-body aspiration is a common cause of respiratory distress among children. Here we describe an 8-month-old, previously 34-week premature, male patient who presented with a 1-day history of fever and increased work of breathing. Of note, 3 weeks before presentation, the patient had been treated with orally administered amoxicillin for presumed pneumonia and exhibited good clinical response. No chest radiograph was obtained at that time. A current chest radiograph revealed hyperexpansion of the left lung, with a mediastinal shift. Although the patient was referred because of possible foreign-body aspiration, no clear history of an aspiration event was obtained, and computed tomographic scans of the chest were recommended. These showed extensive hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, resulting in obstruction of the left bronchus. Bronchoscopy revealed a cheesy granulomatous mass in the left mainstem bronchus, which was ball-valving into the upper bronchus. Removal resulted in improvement of the patient's respiratory status. Pathology, bronchial lavage, and gastric aspirate specimens all revealed acid-fast bacilli, consistent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. This unusual presentation of tuberculosis may become more common in the United States as the incidence of immigrants carrying tuberculosis increases. PMID:15995065

Agarwal, Swati; Hong, David K; Soslow, Jonathan; Chang, Kay W

2005-07-01

133

Molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The phenotypic methods of smear microscopy, culture and indirect drug susceptibility testing (DST) remain the 'gold standard' diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) in 2015. However, this review demonstrates that genotypic methods are in the ascendancy. Current-generation nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are important supplementary tests for the rapid direct detection of (multidrug-resistant) TB in specific clinical settings. Genotypic detection is already the preferred method of detecting rifampicin and pyrazinamide resistance. Next-generation NAATs able to detect about 10 colony forming units/mL of sputum could replace culture as the initial test for detecting TB. Whole genome sequencing could also plausibly replace phenotypic DST but much work is required in method standardisation, database development and elucidation of all resistance gene determinants. The challenge then will be to rollout these increasingly complex and expensive diagnostics in the low-income countries where TB is prevalent. PMID:25719854

Noor, K M; Shephard, L; Bastian, I

2015-04-01

134

[Tuberculosis in Asia].  

PubMed

1. Philippines: The development, expansion and maintenance of pilot area activities: Cristina B. Giango (Technical Division, Cebu Provincial Health Office, the Philippines) In 1994, the Department of Health developed the new NTP policies based on WHO recommendations and started a pilot project in Cebu Province in collaboration with the Japan International Cooperation Agency. To test its feasibility and effectiveness, the new NTP policies were pre-tested in one city and one Rural Health Unit. The test showed a high rate of three sputum collection (90%), high positive rate (10%), and high cure rate (80%). Before the new guidelines were introduced, the new policy was briefed, a baseline survey of the facility was conducted, equipment was provided, and intensive training was given. Recording/Reporting forms and procedures were also developed to ensure accurate reporting. Supervision, an important activity to ensure effective performance, was institutionalized. Laboratory services were strengthened, and a quality-control system was introduced in 1995 to ensure the quality of the laboratory services. With the implementation of DOTS strategy, barangay health workers were trained as treatment partners. In partnership with the private sector, the TB Diagnostic Committee was organized to deliberate and assess sputum negative but X-ray positive cases. The implementation of the new NTP guidelines in Cebe Province has reached a satisfactory level, the cure rate and positive rate have increased, and laboratory services have improved. Because of its successful implementation, the new NTP guidelines are now being used nationwide. 2. Nepal: The DOTS Strategy in the area with hard geographic situation: Dirgh Singh Bam (National Tuberculosis Center, Nepal) Three groups of factors characterize the population of Nepal: 1) Socio-cultural factors, e.g. migration, poverty, language; 2) Environmental factors, e.g. geography and climate; and 3) Political factors, prisoners and refugee populations. These factors pose particular problems for implementing DOTS in various ways. Socio-cultural and environmental factors are particularly important in Nepal, and several measures have been developed to overcome these difficulties. One is active community participation through the DOTS committee. The committee consists of a group of motivated people, including social workers, political leaders, health services providers, journalists, teachers, students, representatives of local organizations, medical schools and colleges, industries, private practitioners, and TB patients. One DOTS committee is formed in every treatment center. A key role of the DOTS committee is to identify local problems and their solutions. It increases public awareness about TB and DOTS; supports people with TB in the community by providing treatment observers and tracing late patients; and encourages cooperation among health institutions, health workers, NGOs, and political leaders. The case finding rate is now 69%, and nearly 95% of diagnosed TB cases are being treated under DOTS. The treatment success rate of new smear-positive cases is nearly 90%. Thus, DOTS increases the case finding and treatment success. 3. Cambodia: HIV/TB and the health sector reform: Tan Eang Mao (National Center for Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control, Cambodia) Cambodia is one of the 23 high burden countries of tuberculosis in the world. Moreover, HIV/AIDS has been spreading rapidly since 1990s, which is worsening the tuberculosis epidemics. To cope with the burden, Cambodia has started implementation of DOTS in 1994 and has expanded it to most of public hospitals across the country by 1998. NTP of Cambodia is now enjoying high cure rate of more than 90%. However, due to the constraints such as weak infrastructure and the poverty, it is proved that many of TB sufferers do not have access to the TB services, resulting in still low case detection rate. It is for this reason that the NTP has decided to expand DOTS to health center and community level based on the new health system. Its pilot program that has been

2002-10-01

135

A case of isolated splenic tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

There are few cases of isolated splenic tuberculosis reported in the literature internationally, and nearly none from western medical centers. The incidence of tuberculosis has declined in the United States since the 1950s, with 11,585 reported cases in 2009, 21% of which were exclusively extrapulmonary. Splenic tuberculosis occurs mostly as part of miliary tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients. Isolated splenic tuberculosis is extremely rare, particularly in the immunocompetent patient. Patients susceptible to acquiring splenic tuberculosis usually have one of the following risk factors: immunosuppression, preceding pyogenic infections, splenic abnormalities, prior trauma to the spleen, sickle cell disease and other hemopathies, and in the immunocompetent patient another body site infected by M. tuberculosis. In this report we present the case of a young immunocompetent male with no other significant past medical history with isolated splenic tuberculosis. PMID:25667987

Basa, Johanna V.; Singh, Lilly; Jaoude, Wassim Abi; Sugiyama, Gainosuke

2014-01-01

136

Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

137

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2010-01-01

138

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2011-07-01

139

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2011-01-01

140

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2010-07-01

141

Mechanisms of latency in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis can persist within the human host for years without causing disease, in a syndrome known as latent tuberculosis (TB). As one-third of the world population has latent TB, placing them at risk for active TB, the mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis establishes a latent metabolic state, eludes immune surveillance and responds to triggers that stimulate reactivation are a

Nikki M Parrish; James D Dick; William R Bishai

1998-01-01

142

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2012-01-01

143

Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer  

E-print Network

Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer Denise Kirschner and Simeone Marino of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the immune system. Different mathematical models were formulated on the basis that contribute to the success of M. tuberculosis as a human pathogen. Our goal is to stimulate experimentation

Kirschner, Denise

144

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2014-07-01

145

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis  

E-print Network

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis Visualization of microarray results to assist on Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used to develop and evaluate the visualization tool and initiate the development. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2003.12.012 Tuberculosis (2004) 84, 275­281 #12;define

Sergot, Marek

146

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2012-07-01

147

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2013-01-01

148

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis  

E-print Network

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis Direct lung delivery of para-aminosalicylic acid potentially be used for the delivery of additional anti- tuberculosis agents such as rifampicin, aminoglucosides or fluoroquinolones. & 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS Tuberculosis treatment

149

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2014-01-01

150

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2013-07-01

151

A case of tuberculosis of the prostate.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of the prostate is uncommon. However, the number of patients with tuberculosis has once again recently been gradually increasing in Japan. The number of immunocompromised hosts, such as those with AIDS, is also increasing, suggesting that this rare infectious disease may increase in frequency in the near future. We present a case of tuberculosis of the prostate. PMID:10515092

Fujikawa, K; Matsui, Y; Fukuzawa, S; Soeda, A; Takeuchi, H

1999-08-01

152

Transmission of Tuberculosis Among the Urban Homeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions.\\\\p=m-\\\\Theminimum percentage of cases due to primary tuberculosis in the homeless was estimated to be 53%, compared with the traditional estimate of 10% in the general population. The results suggest that primary tuberculosis caused the majority of tuberculosis cases in this population of the urban homeless in central Los Angeles. (JAMA. 1996;275:305-307)

Peter F. Barnes; Hiyam El-Hajj; Susan Preston-Martin; M. Donald Cave; Brenda E. Jones; Michiko Otaya; Janice Pogoda; Kathleen D. Eisenach

2010-01-01

153

Hepatosplenic tuberculosis with hypersplenism: CT evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatosplenic tuberculosis of macronodular form is extremely rare. We present one case of hepatosplenic tuberculosis with its appearance on computed tomography (CT). The CT findings of hepatosplenic tuberculosis were multiple, well-defined, round or ovoid, low-density masses with a range of +35 to +45 HU. Lymphadenopathy in the abdominal and mediastinal area and pleural effusion were also found. Although CT does

Byung Ihn Choi; Jung-Gi Im; Man Chung Han; Hyo Suk Lee

1989-01-01

154

Population Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin, Gatifloxacin, and Moxifloxacin in Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the population pharmacokinetic parameters of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin following multiple oral doses. Twenty-nine patients with tuberculosis at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil, participated. Subjects received multiple doses of one drug (levofloxacin, 1,000 mg daily, or gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin, 400 mg daily) as part of a 7-day study of early bactericidal

Charles A. Peloquin; David Jamil Hadad; Lucilia Pereira Dutra Molino; Moises Palaci; W. Henry Boom; Reynaldo Dietze; John L. Johnson

2008-01-01

155

Newer diagnostic modalities for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The gold standard for diagnosis of tuberculosis is demonstration of mycobacteria from various body fluids. This is often not possible in children due to pauci-bacillary nature of illness. Significant improvement in understanding of molecular biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to development of newer diagnostic techniques of tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an emerging diagnostic tool for diagnosis of TB in children. However, its role in day-to-day clinical practice needs to be defined. A negative PCR never eliminates possibility of tuberculosis, and a positive result is not always confirmatory. The PCR may be useful in evaluating children with significant pulmonary disease when diagnosis is not readily established by other means, and in evaluating immunocompromised children (HIV infection) with pulmonary disease. In the absence of good diagnostic methods for tuberculosis, a lot of interest has been generated in serodiagnosis. ELISA has been used to detect antibodies to various purified or complex antigens of M. tuberculosis in children. Despite a large number of studies published over the past several years, serology has found little place in the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, even though it is rapid and does not require specimen from the site of disease. Sensitivity and specificity depend on the antigen used, gold standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and the type of tubercular infection. Though most of these tests have high specificity, their sensitivity is poor. In addition, these tests may be influenced by factors such as age, prior BCG vaccination and exposure to environmental mycobacteria. The serological tests, theoretically, may not be able to differentiate between infection and disease. At present, serodiagnosis does not appear to have any role in diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis. A new test (QuantiFERON-TB or QFT) that measures the release of interferon-gamma in whole blood in response to stimulation by purified protein derivative is comparable with the tuberculin skin testing to detect latent tubercular infection, and is less affected by BCG vaccination. It can also discriminate responses due to nontuberculous mycobacteria, and avoids variability and subjectivity associated with placing and reading the tuberculin skin test. Polymerase chain reaction based test for identification of katG and rpoB mutation which are associated with isoniazid and rifampicin resistance may help in early identification of drug resistance in mycobacterium. PMID:15080409

Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

2004-03-01

156

Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

Saif, Muhammad Wasif

2014-01-01

157

Significance of nutrition in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems mostly of the developing countries. Tuberculosis can lead to malnutrition and malnutrition may predispose to tuberculosis. Poor nutrition leads to protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies which lead to immunodeficiency. This secondary immunodeficiency increases the host's susceptibility to infection and hence increase the risk for developing tuberculosis. Tuberculosis itself leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting and poor nutritional status. Nutritional status and dietary intake and hence nutritional status of patients get improved during antituberculosis treatment. PMID:24915351

Kant, Surya; Gupta, Harshita; Ahluwalia, Savita

2015-06-01

158

Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

2013-06-01

159

[Tuberculosis in healthcare workers].  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is an occupational risk hazard that explains 5 to 5.361 additional cases of TB per 100.000 individuals among healthcare workers (HCW) in relation to general population in developing countries. For each clinical case a number of additional infections are occurring, that can be detected by tuberculin skin test conversion among non-BCG vaccinated HCW or by interferon-gamma testing. Risk factors for HCW infection include number of TB patients examined, job characteristics and place of work, delay in diagnostic suspicion, patients with multidrug resistant strains, limited access to appropriate ventilation systems, non-compliance with aerosol dissemination precautions, immune suppressed and/or malnourished HCW. Molecular studies suggest that only 32 to 42% of TB cases among HCW are related to occupational exposure. Useful measures to prevent occupational TB acquisition include a number of administrative-, infrastructure- and personal-related measures that have proven to be successful in reducing occurrence of new infections including clinical TB cases among HCW. In Chile, two official government sponsored guidelines are currently available for preventing TB infection among HCW, issued by the national TBC Control Program and by the National Nosocomial infection Control Program. Major differences in recommendations between these guidelines indicate that an update is urgently needed. PMID:18769770

Fica C, Alberto; Cifuentes D, Marcela; Ajenjo H, M Cristina; Jemenao P, M Irene; Zambrano O, Alejandra; Febré V, Naldy; Delpiano M, Luis; Diomedi P, Alexis; Ramonda C, Paulina

2008-08-01

160

Field Friendly Tuberculosis Biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a fading threat in the United States, but in the developing world it is still a major health-care concern. Given the rising number of cases and lack of resources, there is a desperate need for an affordable, portable detection system. We are working towards the development of a field-friendly immunological biosensor that utilizes florescence microscopy to undertake this task. We observe fluorescently labeled antibodies/antigens as they bind to a glass slide treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to inhibit non-specific adsorption. Antibodies against the antigens of interest are bound to the PEGylated glass slides via biotin-streptavidin interactions. Then, fluorescently labeled antibodies are mixed with different concentrations of TB antigens and this solution is incubated on the treated glass slides for 30 minutes. The slides are thoroughly rinsed with water following the incubation period. The antigens are then detected by fluorescence using a low-cost biosensor. Our system includes a ``supermarket-scanner'' HeNe laser, home-built electronics, off-the-shelf optics and a Si photodiode. Work is underway to incorporate a flow-cell into the system, in a small portable box.

Proper, N.; Scherman, M. S.; Jevsevar, K. L.; Stone, J.; McNeil, M. R.; Krapf, D.

2009-10-01

161

Central nervous system tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients. PMID:24887691

Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy; Figueroa, Ramon; Gupta, Rakesh K

2014-06-01

162

Tuberculosis in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy and in the perinatal period was once considered to be an infrequent event in the United States. After a decade of steady decline, however, the disease has begun a resurgence. According to the CDC, a 20% increase in the number of reported cases occurred between 1985 and 1992. The factors associated with this increase are the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the development of drug-resistant organisms, substance abuse, homelessness, and immigration. Environmental factors promoting transmission can be found in overcrowded areas such as correctional facilities, nursing homes, hospitals, and migrant-worker camps. For a large number of medically underserved women, the obstetrician is the only interface with medical care, as most of these patients do not have primary-care providers. It is important, therefore, that health-care providers recognize the clinical symptoms of TB and follow the recognized guidelines for antenatal screening for TB because the omission of these steps can lead to potentially disastrous sequelae in the fetus and neonate. PMID:18476074

Apuzzio, Joseph J.

1996-01-01

163

Treatment guidelines for latent tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been established as valid for patients at high risk for developing active tuberculosis. Treatment of LTBI is also considered an important strategy for eliminating tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. In recent years, interferon-gamma release assays have come into widespread use; isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy for HIV patients has come to be recommended worldwide; and there have been increases in both types of biologics used in the treatment of immune diseases as well as the diseases susceptible to treatment. In light of the above facts, the Prevention Committee and the Treatment Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis have jointly drafted these guidelines. In determining subjects for LTBI treatment, the following must be considered: 1) risk of TB infection/ development; 2) infection diagnosis; 3) chest image diagnosis; 4) the impact of TB development; 5) the possible manifestation of side effects; and 6) the prospects of treatment completion. LTBI treatment is actively considered when relative risk is deemed 4 or higher, including risk factors such as the following: HIV/AIDS, organ transplants (immunosuppressant use), silicosis, dialysis due to chronic renal failure, recent TB infection (within 2 years), fibronodular shadows in chest radiographs (untreated old TB), the use of biologics, and large doses of corticosteroids. Although the risk is lower, the following risk factors require consideration of LTBI treatment when 2 or more of them are present: use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids, use of other immunosuppressants, diabetes, being underweight, smoking, gastrectomy, and so on. In principle, INH is administered for a period of 6 or 9 months. When INH cannot be used, rifampicin is administered for a period of 4 or 6 months. It is believed that there are no reasons to support long-term LTBI treatment for immunosuppressed patients in Japan, where the risk of infection is not considered markedly high. For pregnant women, HIV-positive individuals, heavy drinkers, and individuals with a history of liver injury, regular liver function tests are necessary when treatment is initiated and when symptoms are present. There have been reports of TB developing during LTBI treatment; therefore, attention should be paid to TB development symptoms. When administering LTBI treatment, patients must be educated about side effects, the risk of developing TB onset, and the risks associated with discontinuing medication. Treatment outcomes and support for continuation of treatment are evaluated in cooperation with health centers. As stipulated by the Infectious Diseases Control Law, doctors are required to notify a health center when an individual develops TB. Based on this notification, the health center registers the patient, sends a public health nurse to visit the patient and give instructions, and provides medication adherence support. The patient applies at a health center for public expenses for medical care at a designated TB care facility. Pending approval in a review by an infectious disease examination council, the patient's copayment is reduced. PMID:24654427

2014-01-01

164

Tuberculosis diagnosis using immunodominant, secreted antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health concern in most low-income countries. Hence, rapid and sensitive TB diagnostics play an important role in detecting and preventing the disease. In addition to established diagnostic methods, several new approaches have been reported. Some techniques are simple but time-consuming, while others require complex instrumentation. One prominent and readily available approach is to detect proteins that Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretes, such as Mpt64, the 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (Esat6), the 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (Cfp10), and the antigen 85 (Ag85) complex. Although their functions are not fully understood, a growing body of molecular evidence implicates them in M. tuberculosis virulence. Currently these biomarkers are either being used or investigated for use in skin patch tests, biosensor analyses, and immunochromatographic, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction-based, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of the roles these immunodominant antigens play in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and compares diagnostic methods based on the detection of these proteins with more established tests for TB. PMID:23602700

Bekmurzayeva, Aliya; Sypabekova, Marzhan; Kanayeva, Damira

2013-07-01

165

Tuberculosis and Stigma: Predictors of Prejudice Against People with Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis is a main cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Although diagnostic and curative means are well known, they are not always available and affordable. Also, the disease has a worldwide stigma, which adds to the suffering. A survey exploring the correlates of prejudice, as an attitudinal component of this stigma, was carried out in Cali, Colombia. Results

Ernesto Jaramillo

1999-01-01

166

[Zoonotic tuberculosis in Argentina].  

PubMed

There are significant achievements in the control of animal tuberculosis (tB) in Argentina. the percentage of bovines with apparent tB lesions at the slaughterhouse inspection decreased from 6.7% to 0.6% between 1969 and 2011. on the other hand, the mean percentage of human tB cases due to M. bovis among all those bacteriologically confirmed, was in Santa Fe, an agro-industrial province, 2.3% in the period 1977-2001. It fell to 1.6% by 2011. In the Cetrángolo Hospital (Buenos Aires), it was 0.34% in the period 2001-2005, and 0.36% in 2006-2011. At the Muñiz Hospital, these percentages decreased from 1.75% in 1971 to 0.22% in 2006. Frequency of HIV infection among M. bovis cases varied from 5.9% in santa Fe to 11.1% and 20.5% respectively, in Cetrángolo and Muñiz Hospitals (a reference institution for aids) in Buenos Aires. According to these data M. bovis infection predominates in agro-industrial/ rural areas, showing a slow decrease there as well as in Buenos Aires. Co-infection with HIV is more frequent among patients with M. bovis that in all cases of tB. The situation of M. bovis in Argentina is here compared with that in USA and in several European and Latin American countries. Trends followed by tB in cattle, in humans, and the percentages of M. bovis among them, are not always closely related to move towards the common goal of eradicating tB; the employment of appropriate strategies and the strengthening of control measures are critical in both programs. PMID:23241296

Kantor, Isabel N de; Torres, Pedro M; Morcillo, Nora; Imaz, María S; Sequeira, María D

2012-01-01

167

76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings AGENCY...framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United...revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in...

2011-05-06

168

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2010-10-01

169

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2011-10-01

170

76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework...framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United...revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in...

2011-07-01

171

Forum in immunology Live attenuated mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Forum in immunology Live attenuated mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as candidate vaccines against tuberculosis Vasan K. Sambandamurthy, William R. Jacobs Jr. * Department of Microbiology to manipulate Mycobacterium tuberculosis have led to the construction of defined mutants and to the study

172

Truman State University Student Health Center Tuberculosis Screening Form  

E-print Network

Truman State University Student Health Center Tuberculosis Screening Form Name been exposed to Tuberculosis since your last TB skin test? Yes No If yes, when and where did the exposure occur? ________________________________________ Have you ever been treated for Tuberculosis? Yes

Gering, Jon C.

173

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

174

Tuberculosis Prevention in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help college health services in all parts of the country improve their approach to latent tuberculosis, two Listservs were provided for them to post their questions on dealing with TB infection. In this article, the authors present some of the questions posted in the Listservs and their corresponding answers. In their answers, the authors have…

Lerman, Stephen J.; Bernardo, John; Daly, Jennifer S.; Husson, Robert

2004-01-01

175

Childhood tuberculosis in general practice.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) in children is a common cause of morbidity. Diagnosis is difficult because of paucibacillary nature of illness and difficulty in obtaining appropriate samples. Children presenting with poor weight gain, fever with or without cough for more than two weeks or contact with an adult in family with pulmonary tuberculosis should be investigated for TB. In all suspected cases of tuberculosis initial investigations include radiograph of chest (CXR) and Mantoux test. If CXR is suggestive of TB, an ambulatory gastric aspirate and induced sputum for acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear may be carried out in two days. Children with AFB positive or abnormal CXR with positive Mantoux test should be started on Antitubercular therapy (ATT). Rest of the patients require more investigations and should be referred to a specialist. All children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis should be treated with 6 mo of ATT (two months with 4 drugs, followed by four months with 2 drugs). Children on ATT should be monitored for improvement in symptoms and weight gain along with side effects of medications. CXR should be done after completion of treatment. PMID:25280927

Kumar, Prawin; Kumar, Amber; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

2015-04-01

176

Dermatomyositis and chest radiography leading to the diagnosis of lung cancer and subsequent confusions in staging due to the presence of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

This clinical scenario describes dermatomyositis as a presenting feature of carcinoma of the lung. However, the coincident existence of tuberculosis in the opposite lung gave rise to a false impression of contralateral lung metastasis and hence confusions with regard to staging ensued, which were clarified after further investigation confirmed a unilateral lung adenocarcinoma and contralateral tuberculosis. The patient was initiated on oral antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapy with erlotinib, as well as on multi-drug therapy for tuberculosis. This report intends to illustrate that paraneoplastic syndromes such as dermatomyositis can be the presenting feature of lung cancer, and also that the co-incident presence of carcinoma and tuberculosis can cause confusions with regard to staging and management. PMID:22602825

Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Rastogi, Madhup; Kesari, Avinash Arjun Rao; Seam, Rajeev Kumar; Gupta, Manish; Chauhan, Suneel; Madabhavi, Irappa

2012-01-01

177

Genomics and the evolution, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis kills nearly 2 million people annually, and current approaches to tuberculosis control are expensive, have limited efficacy, and are vulnerable to being overcome by extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Determination of the genome sequence of M. tuberculosis has revolutionized tuberculosis research, contributed to major advances in the understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis, and facilitated development of new diagnostic tests with increased specificity for tuberculosis. In this review, we describe some of the major progress in tuberculosis research that has resulted from knowledge of the genome sequence and note some of the problems that remain unsolved. PMID:17607348

Ernst, Joel D.; Trevejo-Nuñez, Giraldina; Banaiee, Niaz

2007-01-01

178

Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in countries with high tuberculosis burdens: individual  

E-print Network

Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in countries with high tuberculosis burdens: individual risks of type 2 diabetes as an individual-level risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), though evi- dence from the poor, in whom diabetes may be less common. We assessed the relationship between individual-level risk

Cohen, Ted

179

[Pulmonary surgery for pulmonary lesion with pulmonary tuberculosis or of tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Nine patients with pulmonary tuberculosis underwent open chest surgery for pulmonary lesions of tuberculosis or other than tubercolosis. They were 1 case of lung cancer, 4 cases of pneumothorax, 1 case of multi drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis and 3 cases of tuberculoma. Postoperative complications developed in 3 cases including 2 of pneumothorax and 1 of lung collapse. PMID:11712371

Niimi, S; Kato, T; Hayakawa, Y; Hirota, M; Kako, T

2001-11-01

180

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Casablanca, Morocco Loubna Tazi a,*, Ralf Reintjes b,c , Anne-Laure Ban in most developing countries, tuberculosis represents a major public health problem in Morocco. This paper

181

Tuberculosis deaths: are we measuring accurately?  

PubMed

Death among tuberculosis patients is one of the major reasons for non-attainment of 85% treatment success target set by World Health Organization. In this short paper, we evaluated whether the overall mortality rate in pulmonary tuberculosis is being affected by other comorbid conditions. All new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients (N =336), who started their treatment at the chest clinic of the Penang General Hospital, between March 2010 and February 2011, were followed-up until December 2011. Tuberculosis treatment outcomes were reported according to six treatment outcome categories recommended by World Health Organization. The outcome category 'died' was defined as 'a patient who died due to tuberculosis or other cause during tuberculosis treatment'. Our findings showed that out of 336 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 59 (17.6%) died during treatment (mortality rate = 1.003 cases per 1000 person-days of follow-up). Among the deceased patients, the mean age was 55.8 years (SD =16.17) and 49 were male. According to the mortality review forms, 29 deaths were tuberculosis-related, while the remaining 30 patients died due to reasons other than tuberculosis. Cerebrovascular accident (n =7), septicaemia shock (n =4) and acute coronary syndrome (n =4) were the most common non-tuberculosis related reasons for mortality in the patients. If the 30 patients, for whom tuberculosis was incidental to death, are excluded from the final cohort, the proportion of patients in the 'died' outcome category could be reduced to 9.5%. The treatment outcome criterion (i.e., died) set by World Health Organization has limitations. Therefore, it requires improvement for more objective evaluation of the performance of the National Tuberculosis Program. PMID:25838918

Atif, Muhammad; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Qamar Uz Zaman, Muhammad; Asif, Muhammad

2014-01-01

182

Monkey models of tuberculosis: lessons learned.  

PubMed

The use of animal models has been invaluable for studying the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, as well as for testing the efficacy of vaccines and drug regimens for tuberculosis. Among the applied animal models, nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, share the greatest anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. As such, macaque models have been used for investigating tuberculosis pathogenesis and preclinical testing of drugs and vaccines. This review focuses on published major studies which illustrate how the rhesus and cynomolgus macaques have enriched and may continue to advance the field of global tuberculosis research. PMID:25547788

Peña, Juliet C; Ho, Wen-Zhe

2015-03-01

183

Tuberculosis of the breast: a case report.  

PubMed

Primary tuberculosis of the breast is a rare disease. It usually occurs in female of reproductive age. Any form of tuberculosis mastitis may present with feature of malignancy. Diagnosis is mainly based on identification of tubercle bacilli. We report a 42-year-old woman with primary tuberculosis abscess of the breast, who underwent surgical resection. Fine needle biopsy failed to achieve specific diagnosis before surgical operation. She responded to anti-TB therapy postoperatively. In endemic area, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast tumors. PMID:21598225

Azarkar, Zohreh; Zardast, Mahmood; Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid

2011-01-01

184

Neurons Are Host Cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system. PMID:24566619

Randall, Philippa J.; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M.; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston

2014-01-01

185

Tuberculosis during TNF-? inhibitor therapy, despite screening.  

PubMed

As part of a prospective study on the safety of TNF-? inhibitor therapy after screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), we report two patients who developed active tuberculosis (TB) infection during TNF-? inhibitor therapy, despite negative screening for LTBI. The clinical history is suggestive of a primary infection acquired during travelling to TB-endemic countries. In this lesson of the month we would like to highlight the risk of travelling to TB-endemic areas in patients treated with TNF-? inhibitor therapy. Screening for latent tuberculosis infection is not enough to prevent tuberculosis in patients treated with TNF-? inhibitor therapy. PMID:23598710

Hofland, Regina W; Thijsen, Steven F T; Verhagen, Marc A M T; Schenk, Yolande; Bossink, Ailko W J

2013-11-01

186

Tuberculosis--are we missing the diagnosis?  

PubMed

We reviewed the 52 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed at Pusat Pakar Utara, Kedah in 1998. It was found that the majority of the patients had symptoms for many years. They had seen many doctors but were not diagnosed. In 40% of the patients, no investigations for tuberculosis were done and in the others tuberculosis was excluded because of negative sputum smear examination. Many had typical history and X-ray changes suggestive of tuberculosis but more sensitive investigations such as sputum culture for Mycobacterium or bronchoscopy were not performed. Cases are presented to illustrate the problems in the diagnosis. PMID:12188060

Ismail, Y

2002-04-01

187

Metabolism of 2-methyladenosine in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

2-Methyladenosine (methyl-Ado) has selective activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). In an effort to better understand its mechanism of action, we have characterized its metabolism in M. tuberculosis cells. The primary intracellular metabolite of methyl-Ado was 2-methyl-adenylate (methyl-AMP). Very little of the methyl-AMP was metabolized further. A M. tuberculosis strain that was resistant to methyl-Ado did not express adenosine kinase and did not convert methyl-Ado to methyl-AMP in intact cells. In contrast to these results, the primary intracellular metabolite of adenosine in M. tuberculosis cells was ATP, which was readily incorporated into RNA. The rate of metabolism of methyl-Ado to methyl-AMP was similar to the rate of metabolism of adenosine to ATP. Treatment of M. tuberculosis with methyl-Ado did not affect intracellular ATP levels. Methyl-Ado and Ado were also cleaved to 2-methyladenine and adenine, respectively, which accumulated in the medium outside the cells. These studies suggested that methyl-AMP was the active metabolite responsible for the cytotoxicity of this agent. Furthermore, because methyl-Ado was poorly metabolized in human cells, these studies indicated that the selective activity of methyl-Ado was due to its selective activation by M. tuberculosis. These studies have identified two enzyme reactions (Ado kinase and Ado cleavage) in M. tuberculosis that could be exploited for the rational design of new and selective anti-M. tuberculosis agents. PMID:15207808

Parker, William B; Barrow, Esther W; Allan, Paula W; Shaddix, Sue C; Long, Mary C; Barrow, William W; Bansal, Namita; Maddry, Joseph A

2004-01-01

188

Pentacyclic Nitrofurans with In Vivo Efficacy and Activity against Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The reductively activated nitroaromatic class of antimicrobials, which include nitroimidazole and the more metabolically labile nitrofuran antitubercular agents, have demonstrated some potential for development as therapeutics against dormant TB bacilli. In previous studies, the pharmacokinetic properties of nitrofuranyl isoxazolines were improved by incorporation of the outer ring elements of the antitubercular nitroimidazole OPC-67683. This successfully increased stability of the resulting pentacyclic nitrofuran lead compound Lee1106 (referred to herein as 9a). In the current study, we report the synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 9a and panel of 9a analogs, which were developed to increase oral bioavailability. These hybrid nitrofurans remained potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with favorable selectivity indices (>150) and a narrow spectrum of activity. In vivo, the pentacyclic nitrofuran compounds showed long half-lives and high volumes of distribution. Based on pharmacokinetic testing and lack of toxicity in vivo, 9a remained the series lead. 9a exerted a lengthy post antibiotic effect and was highly active against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis grown under hypoxia. 9a showed a low potential for cross resistance to current antitubercular agents, and a mechanism of activation distinct from pre-clinical tuberculosis candidates PA-824 and OPC-67683. Together these studies show that 9a is a nanomolar inhibitor of actively growing as well as nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. PMID:24505329

Scherman, Michael S.; Woolhiser, Lisa K.; Madhura, Dora B.; Maddox, Marcus M.; Singh, Aman P.; Lee, Robin B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; McNeil, Michael R.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Meibohm, Bernd; Lee, Richard E.

2014-01-01

189

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against Mycobacterium bovis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) with documented spread to cattle. In vaccine efficacy trials, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) administered orally reduces colonization and bTB-associated lesions in whi...

190

Editorial Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Currently, a third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, and annually there are 10 million new cases of clinical TB and approximately 2 million deaths [1]. TB kills more individuals each year than any other bacterial pathogen, and alarmingly, current control practices have not been able to significantly reduce the incidence of the disease over the past 15 years [1]. The current vaccine in use, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), has been unable to limit the transmission of the disease, and the problem is compounded by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of M.

James A. Triccas; Nathalie Winter; Carl G. Feng; Nicholas P. West

191

Tuberculosis: Hospitalization and Outpatient Treatment  

PubMed Central

Initial hospitalization terminated by discharge upon medical advice to continue with chemotherapy on an outpatient basis represents the treatment of choice for most patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Any departure from this plan for any patient should be accepted only after careful consideration of all the circumstances. Patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who are to receive outpatient chemotherapy without adequate initial hospitalization should be carefully selected by the local or provincial department of public health. Approval in writing should be required from the appropriate public health authority before antituberculosis chemotherapy is provided at public expense for any such patient, except possibly for a limited period while awaiting formal approval. In all instances, the clinic which dispenses the antituberculosis drugs should have the patient under supervision with recall for follow-up examinations as required. Prophylactic antituberculosis chemotherapy may be provided to certain groups of persons without hospitalization. PMID:14179540

Wicks, C. A.

1964-01-01

192

Macrophage immunoregulatory pathways in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Macrophages, the major host cells harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), are a heterogeneous cell type depending on their tissue of origin and host they are derived from. Significant discord in macrophage responses to M.tb exists due to differences in M.tb strains and the various types of macrophages used to study tuberculosis (TB). This review will summarize current concepts regarding macrophage responses to M.tb infection, while pointing out relevant differences in experimental outcomes due to the use of divergent model systems. A brief description of the lung environment is included since there is increasing evidence that the alveolar macrophage (AM) has immunoregulatory properties that can delay optimal protective host immune responses. In this context, this review focuses on selected macrophage immunoregulatory pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), cytokines, negative regulators of inflammation, lipid mediators and microRNAs (miRNAs). PMID:25453226

Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Ni, Bin; Dodd, Claire E; Schlesinger, Larry S

2014-12-01

193

HAD Oral History Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

Holbrook, Jarita

2014-01-01

194

Osteoarticular tuberculosis mimicking rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global burden despite extensive efforts to control it. TB arthritis commonly manifest as monoarthritis of weight-bearing joints. We report a rare presentation of osteoarticular TB involving multiple small joints of the hands, which mimicked rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Magnetic resonance imaging showed tenosynovitis. The patient was initially treated for seronegative RA but failed to respond. Subsequently, synovial biopsy led to the diagnosis. Antituberculosis treatment was given for 1 year. PMID:22399018

Seung, Ong Ping; Sulaiman, Wahinuddin

2012-11-01

195

Novel approaches in diagnosing tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Gibson, Tim; Anthony, Richard; Claassens, Mareli M.; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

2011-06-01

196

Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

Troiano, Claire A.

2010-01-01

197

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by the medical authorities... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...

2011-07-01

198

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by the medical authorities... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...

2010-07-01

199

Primary tuberculosis of the clavicle.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of the clavicle is a rare lesion, accounting for less than 1% of all osteoarticular tuberculosis. The lesion has been described in a few case reports. The lesion can have a varied presentation, ranging from dull, aching pain to bony swelling and a draining sinus. The rarity of the lesion, its nonspecific symptoms, and its striking resemblance to common cystic conditions such as bone tumors and metabolic conditions such as rickets make diagnosis difficult. The authors describe a series of 17 patients with primary tuberculosis of the clavicle. Radiographs and magnetic resonance images were obtained for all patients, and a preliminary diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical features and the results of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and Mantoux tests. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was uniformly elevated. Radiographs showed diffused thickening and honeycombing, eccentric expansile lytic lesions with surrounding osteopenia, or sequestration not unlike pyogenic infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful for determining the extent of the lesion and soft tissue involvement. The radiological and laboratory findings provided complementary information. The diagnosis was confirmed on biopsy material that was analyzed with histopathology, pus culture and sensitivities, gram stain, acid-fast stain, and cultures on Löwenstein-Jensen medium. Patients were treated with multidrug antitubercular chemotherapy for 18 months and were assessed on pre- and posttreatment radiology, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale. The results of conservative management of tubercular osteomyelitis were uniformly good, and all patients recovered well. PMID:25275974

Prakash, Jatin; Aggarwal, Shilpi; Mehtani, Anil

2014-10-01

200

How can immunology contribute to the control of tuberculosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis poses a significant threat to mankind. Multidrug-resistant strains are on the rise, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Satisfactory control of tuberculosis can only be achieved using a highly efficacious vaccine. Tuberculosis is particularly challenging for the immune system. The intracellular location of the pathogen shields it from antibodies, and a variety of

Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

2001-01-01

201

Vegetarian diet and cobalamin deficiency: their association with tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the high incidence of tuberculosis among Asiatic Indians in the United Kingdom was due to impaired killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages from patients deficient in cobalamin, a nutritional survey was carried out among 1187 Indians and the incidence of tuberculosis determined from medical records. The question asked was whether tuberculosis was significantly more common among life-long

I Chanarin; E Stephenson

1988-01-01

202

Tuberculosis immunity: Opportunities from studies with cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis are closely related (>99% genetic identity), inducing similar host responses and disease expression upon infection. There is a rich history of co-discovery in the development of control measures applicable to both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB) including s...

203

Tuberculosis in the Homeless A Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We set out to determine tuberculosis incidence and risk factors in the homeless population in San Francisco. We also examined the trans- mission of tuberculosis by molecular methods. We followed a cohort of 2,774 of the homeless first seen between 1990 and 1994. There were 25 incident cases during the period 1992 to 1996, or 270 per 100,000 per year

ANDREW R. MOSS; JUDITH A. HAHN; JACQUELINE P. TULSKY; CHARLES L. DALEY; PETER M. SMALL; PHILLIP C. HOPEWELL

204

A review of tuberculosis research in malaysia.  

PubMed

One hundred seventy four articles related to tuberculosis were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. One hundred fifty three articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Topics related to epidemiology, clinical presentation, detection methods and treatment were well researched. However, limited information was available on screening and behavioural interventions. The younger population were more vulnerable to tuberculosis infection and had higher prevalence of risk factors that reactivate tuberculosis infection. Screening of tuberculosis was conducted primarily on healthcare workers, tuberculosis contacts, prisoners and foreign workers. Data on the clinical presentation of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis was comprehensive. There was a general focus on related risk factors such as HIV and diabetes mellitus. A great degree of information was available on the treatment and various detection methods to identify tuberculosis. The efficacy and the practicality of investigative methods was analysed in this review. In conclusion, the direction of research should be aimed at novel preventive and control measures of tuberculosis. There should be emphasis on the screening of high risk groups (other than HIV) within the population namely diabetic patients, smokers and immunosuppressed individuals. The design of health policies should be guided by information gathered from research evaluation of communitybased behavioural interventions. PMID:25417956

Swarna Nantha, Y

2014-08-01

205

Tuberculosis of the skull mimicking multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

There is a resurgence of tuberculosis globally but lesions affecting the skull are rare. Cases reported are of single, focal lesions as seen on plain x-rays. We report a 34 yearold patient with tuberculosis of the skull where multiple punched out lesions are seen, mimicking that of multiple myeloma. PMID:25500853

Pan, K L; Zulkarnaen, M

2014-08-01

206

Diagnosis and therapy for prostate tuberculosis.  

PubMed

In its 2012 global report on tuberculosis, the World Health Organization estimated that 3-7% (range 2.1-5.2%) of new cases and 20% (range 13-26%) of previously treated cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (defined as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that are resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid). In many countries in Eastern Europe and central Asia, 9-32% of new patients and more than 50% of previously treated patients have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Ninety-three patients with suspected prostate tuberculosis were enrolled in this study and all underwent prostate biopsy. This method allowed confirmation of diagnosis in 32 patients (34.4%): 23 by histology, six by culture and five by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (among them, two also had positive culture). The efficiency of an optimized scheme for the therapy of prostate tuberculosis (the second part of the study) was estimated in 53 patients. The first group (25 patients) was treated with a standard scheme of chemotherapy; the second group (28 prostate tuberculosis patients) received ofloxacin in addition for 2 months during the intensive phase. The phase continuation in both groups was identical, with rifampicin and isoniazid administered for 6 months. Optimization of the standard therapy by additional administration of ofloxacin improved results of the treatment in 33.8% of patients. PMID:25083162

Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Brizhatyuk, Elena; Khomyakov, Victor

2014-08-01

207

Using Peer Helpers for Tuberculosis Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a peer helper program initiated by the University of Iowa Student Health Services to prevent active tuberculosis development among foreign national students. Before instituting the program, compliance with tuberculosis prevention efforts for those students was less than 5%. Since the peer program was instituted, compliance has risen to…

McCue, Maureen; Afifi, Larry Anna

1996-01-01

208

Tuberculosis: Art Therapy with Patients in Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tuberculosis is reappearing with increasing prevalence and presenting new treatment challenges. Art therapy, which partly originated in a tuberculosis sanatoria, again serves to assist patients in coping with their illness and confinement. Case examples illustrate aspects of the disease and related emotions and highlight the potential for such an…

Rosner-David, Irene; Ilusorio, Shereen

1995-01-01

209

ESAT-6 Subunit Vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ESAT-6 antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dominant target for cell-mediated immunity in the early phase of tuberculosis (TB) in TB patients as well as in various animal models. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potential of ESAT-6 in an experimental TB vaccine. We started out using dimethyl dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA), an adjuvant which has been

LISE BRANDT; MARTIN ELHAY; IDA ROSENKRANDS; ERIK B. LINDBLAD; PETER ANDERSEN

2000-01-01

210

Computed tomographic findings in bilateral adrenal tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

The computed tomographic (CT) features of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis are reported in two cases that demonstrate two typical different clinical and morphological manifestations of the disease. The incidence and CT appearance of adrenal tuberculosis are discussed, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

Wilms, G.E. (Katholicke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium); Baert, A.L.; Kint, E.J.; Pringot, J.H.; Goddeeris, P.G.

1983-03-01

211

Tuberculosis mimicking cervical carcinoma--case report.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial infection that primarily results in pulmonary disease. Although there are several reported cases of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, very few reports have described this disease in the female genital tract. We present a case involving a 67-year-old woman who presented with vaginal discharge, abdominal discomfort, and a pelvic mass in 2006. Clinically, cervical carcinoma was suspected, but pathologic diagnosis eventually revealed tuberculosis of the cervix. Tuberculosis is associated with a significant inflammatory reaction, which may mimic a gynecologic malignancy on exam or with diagnostic imaging. Despite the rare incidence, tuberculosis of the cervix should be considered in the differential diagnosis when cervical carcinoma is initially suspected. PMID:17713102

Micha, J P; Brown, J V; Birk, C; Van Horn, D; Rettenmaier, M A; Goldstein, B H

2007-01-01

212

[Analysis of tuberculosis mortality in Armenia].  

PubMed

The outpatient and patient histories were analyzed in 198 dead patients with tuberculosis. Particular concern is caused by an increase in mortality due to tuberculosis within a month after its detection. Clinically, there are predominant patients with progressive destructive forms of the disease. A total of 86.4% of the patients died directly from tuberculosis and its complications, the remaining (16.6%) patients died from other non-tuberculous diseases. The main cause of death from tuberculosis was its progression (50.1%), cardiopulmonary failure (34.3%), pulmonary hemorrhage (9%). A combination of several causes of death was noted in 33.1% of the patients who died from generalized tuberculosis. PMID:12164109

Safarian, M D; Nikolaian, L T

2002-01-01

213

Tonsillar Tuberculosis: A Forgotten Clinical Entity  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of tonsils is an extremely rare variety of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis which frequently simulates the tonsillar malignancy, especially in elderly individuals. Secondary form is more common than primary one, and in present day, contact with the infected sputum or saliva in a case of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis is the main source of the disease. Chronic or recurrent tonsillitis with enlarged tonsils and sore throat is the main clinical presentation. As it is very difficult to differentiate it from tonsillar malignancy on clinical ground, histopathological examination of the tissue is must for the diagnosis of tonsillar TB. Antitubercular therapy is adequate for its successful resolution. Here, we report a primary form of tonsillar tuberculosis in a 76-year-old male, in whom, no pulmonary tuberculosis was documented.

Das, Anirban; Das, Sibes K.; Pandit, Sudipta; Basuthakur, Sumitra

2015-01-01

214

Tuberculosis: the return of an old enemy.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is an ancient human scourge that continues to be an important public health problem worldwide. The increasing number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis isolates from both AIDS and non-AIDS patients is an ominous trend that threatens tuberculosis eradication programs both in the U.S. and overseas. New antituberculosis vaccines with therapeutic properties are urgently needed for human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, as well as health care professionals likely to be exposed to MDR tubercle bacilli. Recombinant DNA vaccines bearing protective genes from virulent M. tuberculosis are being developed using shuttle phasmids to transfer genetic material from one mycobacterial species to another. Improved assay procedures are needed to measure the protection afforded by these new vaccines under experimental and field test conditions. Tuberculosis vaccine development should be given a high priority in current medical research goals. PMID:8481210

Collins, F M

1993-01-01

215

Pancreatic tuberculosis masquerading as pancreatic serous cystadenoma  

PubMed Central

Solitary pancreatic involvement of tuberculosis is rare, especially in an immunocompetent individual, and it may be misdiagnosed as pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are being identified in increasing numbers, probably because of the frequent use of radiology and advances in endoscopic techniques. However, they are composed of a variety of neoplasms with a wide range of malignant potential, and it is often difficult to differentiate pancreatic tuberculosis mimicking cystic neoplasms from benign or malignant pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Non-surgical diagnosis of pancreatic tuberculosis is inconclusive and continues to be a challenge in many cases. If so, then laparotomy should be employed to establish the diagnosis. Therefore, pancreatic tuberculosis should be kept in mind during the differential diagnosis of solitary cystic masses in the pancreas. We report a patient who had solitary pancreatic tuberculosis masquerading as pancreatic serous cystadenoma. PMID:19248204

Hong, Seung Goun; Kim, Jae Seon; Joo, Moon Kyung; Lee, Kwang Gyun; Kim, Key Hyeon; Oh, Cho Rong; Park, Jong-Jae; Bak, Young-Tae

2009-01-01

216

Disseminated tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient.  

PubMed

Miliary tuberculosis refers to the clinical disease resulting from the hematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. Contiguous tuberculosis in the form of lymphadenitis is generally responsible for the aortic involvement. We report a case of tuberculous mycotic aneurysm in patient with miliary disease, not affected by a cellular immunodeficiency and with no other common risk factor for infection. He received anti-tubercular therapy and endovascular stenting before the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in lung, lymph nodes, and gastric lavage. The clinician should be aware that a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm could be caused by M. tuberculosis, even if microbiological confirmation is lacking or is negative, especially if a contiguous focus of tubercular infection is detected. PMID:23931745

Mearelli, Filippo; Burekovic, Ismet; Zanetti, Michela; Altamura, Nicola; Carlo, Giansante; Biolo, Gianni; Cernic, Stefano; Casarsa, Chiara

2013-09-01

217

The pharmacokinetics of a single oral or rectal dose of concurrently administered isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).  

PubMed

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a disease of concern in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Treatment for tuberculosis in elephants utilizes multidrug protocols combining isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and/or ethambutol. In this study, a single, coformulated dose of isoniazid 5 mg/kg, rifampin 10 mg/kg, pyrazinamide 30 mg/kg, and ethambutol 30 mg/kg was administered orally to six Asian elephants, and rectally to five elephants using a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected serially over 24 h. Pyrazinamide and ethambutol concentrations were determined using validated gas chromatography assays. Isoniazid and rifampin concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography assays. Rectal isoniazid produced an earlier Tmax compared with oral administration. Oral isoniazid resulted in a comparatively lower Cmax , but higher AUC values compared with rectal isoniazid. Oral rifampin and oral ethambutol were well absorbed while rectal rifampin was not. Oral pyrazinamide produced comparatively higher Cmax and AUC values compared with rectal pyrazinamide. Results of this study indicate that currently recommended therapeutic monitoring sample collection times for rectal isoniazid and oral rifampin do not provide an accurate assessment of exposure for these drugs. This study demonstrates notable individual variability, indicating that dosing of these medications requires individual monitoring and provides additional information to guide the clinician when treating elephants. PMID:24684601

P Brock, A; Isaza, R; Egelund, E F; Hunter, R P; Peloquin, C A

2014-10-01

218

CD209 Genetic Polymorphism and Tuberculosis Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. DC-SIGN, encoded by CD209, is a receptor capable of binding and internalizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous studies have reported that the CD209 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-336A/G exerts an effect on CD209 expression and is associated with human susceptibility to dengue, HIV-1 and tuberculosis in humans. The present study investigates the role of the CD209 -336A/G variant in susceptibility to tuberculosis in a large sample of individuals from sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Findings A total of 2,176 individuals enrolled in tuberculosis case-control studies from four sub-Saharan Africa countries were genotyped for the CD209 -336A/G SNP (rs4804803). Significant overall protection against pulmonary tuberculosis was observed with the -336G allele when the study groups were combined (n?=?914 controls vs. 1262 cases, Mantel-Haenszel 2x2 ?2?=?7.47, P?=?0.006, odds ratio?=?0.86, 95%CI 0.77–0.96). In addition, the patients with -336GG were associated with a decreased risk of cavitory tuberculosis, a severe form of tuberculosis disease (n?=?557, Pearson's 2×2 ?2?=?17.34, P?=?0.00003, odds ratio?=?0.42, 95%CI 0.27–0.65). This direction of association is opposite to a previously observed result in a smaller study of susceptibility to tuberculosis in a South African Coloured population, but entirely in keeping with the previously observed protective effect of the -336G allele. Conclusion This study finds that the CD209 -336G variant allele is associated with significant protection against tuberculosis in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and, furthermore, cases with -336GG were significantly less likely to develop tuberculosis-induced lung cavitation. Previous in vitro work demonstrated that the promoter variant -336G allele causes down-regulation of CD209 mRNA expression. Our present work suggests that decreased levels of the DC-SIGN receptor may therefore be protective against both clinical tuberculosis in general and cavitory tuberculosis disease in particular. This is consistent with evidence that Mycobacteria can utilize DC-SIGN binding to suppress the protective pro-inflammatory immune response. PMID:18167547

Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Tosh, Kerrie; Floyd, Sian; Jackson-Sillah, Dolly; Crampin, Amelia; Sichali, Lifted; Bah, Boubacar; Gustafson, Per; Aaby, Peter; McAdam, Keith P. W. J.; Bah-Sow, Oumou; Lienhardt, Christian; Sirugo, Giorgio; Fine, Paul; Hill, Adrian V. S.

2008-01-01

219

Short communication How dormant is Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latency? A study  

E-print Network

Short communication How dormant is Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latency? A study integrating. Boulevard, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark 1. Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading infectious cause infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) represent

Rosenberg, Noah

220

76 FR 61253 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the State's tuberculosis eradication program...split-State status) if bovine tuberculosis is detected in...findings of a review of the tuberculosis...has waived its review under Executive...and bison for bovine tuberculosis in order to...

2011-10-04

221

76 FR 61251 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; New Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the State's tuberculosis eradication program...split-State status) if bovine tuberculosis is detected in...findings of a review of the tuberculosis...has waived its review under Executive...and bison for bovine tuberculosis in order to...

2011-10-04

222

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases  

PubMed Central

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

2014-01-01

223

Radiation induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

PATIENTS RECEIVING RADIOTHERAPY OR CHEMOTHERAPY WILL RECEIVE SOME DEGREE OF ORAL MUCOSITIS THE INCIDENCE OF ORAL MUCOSITIS WAS ESPECIALLY HIGH IN PATIENTS: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene. PMID:20668585

Ps, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

2009-07-01

224

Christopher Draven Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Christopher Draven Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 9, 2008 http...://hdl.handle.net/1808/5684 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual...

Draven, Christopher; Albin, Tami

2010-01-12

225

Tuberculosis caused by RDRio Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not associated with differential clinical features  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND We recently described the Mycobacterium tuberculosis RDRio genotype, a clonally derived sublineage within the Latin American–Mediterranean (LAM) family. Genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis likely affects the clinical aspects of tuberculosis (TB). Prospective studies that address this issue are scarce and remain controversial. OBJECTIVE To determine the association of differential clinical features of pulmonary TB with the RDRio M. tuberculosis etiology. METHODS Culture-proven pulmonary TB patients (n = 272) were clinically evaluated, including history, physical examination, chest X-ray and anti-human immunodeficiency virus serology. Isolates were classified as RDRio or non-RDRio M. tuberculosis by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and further spoligotyped. Clinical and M. tuberculosis genotype data were analyzed. RESULTS RDRio M. tuberculosis caused disease in 26.5% (72/270) of all TB cases. The LAM genotype, of which RDRio strains are members, was responsible for 46.0% of the TB cases. Demographic data, major signs and symptoms, radiographic presentation, microbiological features and clinical outcomes were not significantly different among patients with TB caused by RDRio and non-RDRio strains. CONCLUSIONS Disease caused by M. tuberculosis RDRio strains was not clinically distinctive or more severe than disease caused by non-RDRio strains in this series of TB patients. Larger prospective studies specifically designed to disclose differential clinical characteristics of TB caused by specific M. tuberculosis lineages are needed. PMID:22863208

Barbosa, C. de B.; Lazzarini, L. C. O.; Elias, A. R.; Leung, J. A. M.; Ribeiro, S. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Duarte, R. S.; Suffys, P.; Gomes, H. M.; Kritski, A. L.; Lapa e Silva, J. R.; Ho, J. L.; Boéchat, N.

2013-01-01

226

Global Oral Health Inequalities  

PubMed Central

Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

2011-01-01

227

Chrysomya bezziana oral myiasis.  

PubMed

Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly. PMID:22224006

Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S

2011-10-01

228

Obstructive jaundice: a manifestation of pancreatic tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of the pancreas is extremely rare and is most often associated with miliary tuberculosis or occurs in the immunocompromised patients. A case of isolated pancreatic tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient is presented with constitutional symptoms and obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computerised tomography showed a mass lesion in the head of pancreas. Histological examination of the peripancreatic lymph node and fine needle aspiration cytology from the head of pancreas confirmed the diagnosis following laparotomy. Patient recovered following the administration of antituberculosis chemotherapy. PMID:17824465

Pandya, Garvi; Dixit, Ramakant; Shelat, Vishal; Dixit, Kalpana; Shah, Nalin; Shah, Kusum

2007-03-01

229

Oral sarcoidosis: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a chronic multi-system immuno-inflammatory disorder characterized by non-caseating granulomatous infiltration of affected tissues that may result in fibrosis and organ dysfunction. It generally affects genetically predisposed young adults who develop a local dysregulated cell-mediated immune response towards an undefined 'sarcoidal antigen'. From recent data, it has become evident that Propionibacterium acnes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the probable antigenic agents which initiate sarcoidosis. Oral sarcoidosis is rare with only about 70 cases having been reported in the literature. The purpose of this report is to present a case of oral and cutaneous sarcoidosis in a black female that was probably triggered by mycobacteria. PMID:24862235

Motswaledi, M H; Khammissa, R A G; Jadwat, Y; Lemmer, J; Feller, L

2014-09-01

230

Field-Friendly Tuberculosis Biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuberculosis is a fading threat in the United States, but in the developing world it is still a major health-care concern. With the rising number of cases and lack of resources, there is a desperate need for an affordable, portable detection system. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a field-friendly immunological biosensor that utilizes florescence and specialized surface chemistries. We observe fluorescently labeled antibodies as they bind to a glass slide. Slides are treated with biotinylated polyethylene glycol to inhibit non-specific interactions and facilitate the binding of primary antibodies allowing for a high degree of specificity. Solutions of tuberculosis-specific antigens where mixed with fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies and incubated on the treated surfaces. An array of different concentrations of antigens bound to fluorescent tags is then read in an epifluorescnece microscope. This assay was used in the portable detector to show that higher concentrations of bound labeled antigens produce a greater emission when excited by a HeNe laser. Home-built electronics, off-the-shelf optics, and a Si photodiode (PD) were used. The data collected from multiple concentrations show a measurable photocurrent. Work is now underway to incorporate a avalanche (PD), flow-cell technology, in a portable box.

Proper, Nathan; Stone, Jeremy; Jevsevar, Kristen L.; Scherman, Michael; McNeil, Michael R.; Krapf, Diego

2010-03-01

231

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Success through dormancy  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health threat, killing near to 2 million individuals around this globe, annually. The sole vaccine developed almost a century ago, provides limited protection only during childhood. After decades without the introduction of new antibiotics, several candidates are currently undergoing clinical investigation. Curing TB requires prolonged combination chemotherapy with several drugs. Moreover, monitoring the success of therapy is questionable due to the lack of reliable biomarkers. To substantially improve the situation, a detailed understanding of the crosstalk between human host and the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is vital. Principally, Mtb’s enormous success is based on three capacities: First, reprogramming of macrophages after primary infection/phagocytosis in order to prevent its own destruction; second, initiating the formation of well-organized granulomas, comprising different immune cells to create a confined environment for the host–pathogen standoff; third, the capability to shut down its own central metabolism, terminate replication and thereby transit into a stage of dormancy rendering itself extremely resistant to host defense and drug treatment. Here we review the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, draw conclusions in a working model of mycobacterial dormancy and highlight gaps in our understanding to be addressed in future research. PMID:22320122

Gengenbacher, Martin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.

2012-01-01

232

Urogenital tuberculosis: definition and classification  

PubMed Central

Objectives To improve the approach to the diagnosis and management of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), we need clear and unique classification. UGTB remains an important problem, especially in developing countries, but it is often an overlooked disease. As with any other infection, UGTB should be cured by antibacterial therapy, but because of late diagnosis it may often require surgery. Methods Scientific literature dedicated to this problem was critically analyzed and juxtaposed with the author’s own more than 30 years’ experience in tuberculosis urology. Results The conception, terms and definition were consolidated into one system; classification stage by stage as well as complications are presented. Classification of any disease includes dispersion on forms and stages and exact definitions for each stage. Clinical features and symptoms significantly vary between different forms and stages of UGTB. A simple diagnostic algorithm was constructed. Conclusions UGTB is multivariant disease and a standard unified approach to it is impossible. Clear definition as well as unique classification are necessary for real estimation of epidemiology and the optimization of therapy. The term ‘UGTB’ has insufficient information in order to estimate therapy, surgery and prognosis, or to evaluate the epidemiology.

2014-01-01

233

Tuberculosis and leprosy in perspective.  

PubMed

Two of humankind's most socially and psychologically devastating diseases, tuberculosis and leprosy, have been the subject of intensive paleopathological research due to their antiquity, a presumed association with human settlement and subsistence patterns, and their propensity to leave characteristic lesions on skeletal and mummified remains. Despite a long history of medical research and the development of effective chemotherapy, these diseases remain global health threats even in the 21st century, and as such, their causative agents Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae, respectively, have recently been the subject of molecular genetics research. The new genome-level data for several mycobacterial species have informed extensive phylogenetic analyses that call into question previously accepted theories concerning the origins and antiquity of these diseases. Of special note is the fact that all new models are in broad agreement that human TB predated that in other animals, including cattle and other domesticates, and that this disease originated at least 35,000 years ago and probably closer to 2.6 million years ago. In this work, we review current phylogenetic and biogeographic models derived from molecular biology and explore their implications for the global development of TB and leprosy, past and present. In so doing, we also briefly review the skeletal evidence for TB and leprosy, explore the current status of these pathogens, critically consider current methods for identifying ancient mycobacterial DNA, and evaluate coevolutionary models. PMID:19890861

Stone, Anne C; Wilbur, Alicia K; Buikstra, Jane E; Roberts, Charlotte A

2009-01-01

234

Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian wildlife.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. However, the status of the disease in wildlife populations that often share habitat with livestock is unknown. We screened for BTB in wildlife in five regions in Ethiopia. Blood and tissue samples from 133 mammals of 28 species were collected from 2006 to 2008. We used a rapid serology test (RT) based on lateral flow technology, and performed culture of lymph node specimens inoculated onto Lowenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 media. Acid-fast colonies were further analyzed by molecular typing. Sera from 20 of 87 animals (23%) were positive for BTB by RT; acid-fast bacilli were cultured from 29 of 89 animals (32.5%). None of the positive cultures yielded mycobacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but many environmental mycobacteria were isolated. Among these, Mycobacterium terrae was the most common. We demonstrated a high prevalence of environmental mycobacteria in wildlife, the role of which is unknown. Flagship rare endemic species such as the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) may be at risk for BTB. We also assessed the utility of RT for field purposes. PMID:20688681

Tschopp, R; Berg, S; Argaw, K; Gadisa, E; Habtamu, M; Schelling, E; Young, D; Aseffa, A; Zinsstag, J

2010-07-01

235

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith

236

An Unusual Gross Appearance of Vulval Tuberculosis Masquerading as Tumor  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of the vulva is very rare. It is found in about 0.2% of the cases of genital tract tuberculosis. It usually presents as small shallow ulcers and multiple sinus tracts or rarely as elephantiasis of vulva. Except for very rare cases of primary tuberculosis in the vulva, it is usually associated with tuberculosis elsewhere in the body leading to secondary tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of secondary vulval tuberculosis which presented as a vulval mass in a 40-year-old female patient. The rarity of this presentation in the female genital tract is emphasized. PMID:25298898

Arakeri, Surekha U.

2014-01-01

237

An unusual gross appearance of vulval tuberculosis masquerading as tumor.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of the vulva is very rare. It is found in about 0.2% of the cases of genital tract tuberculosis. It usually presents as small shallow ulcers and multiple sinus tracts or rarely as elephantiasis of vulva. Except for very rare cases of primary tuberculosis in the vulva, it is usually associated with tuberculosis elsewhere in the body leading to secondary tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of secondary vulval tuberculosis which presented as a vulval mass in a 40-year-old female patient. The rarity of this presentation in the female genital tract is emphasized. PMID:25298898

Arakeri, Surekha U; Sinkar, Prachi

2014-01-01

238

Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB)  

MedlinePLUS

... the African-American Community Summit Background Slideset Slideset Text version Websites Children Correctional Facilities Table of Contents ... Tuberculosis Laboratory Aggregate Reports Slide Sets Core Curriculum Text- only version Self-Study Modules Module 1 (text ...

239

Disseminated tuberculosis masquerading primary myelodysplastic syndrome.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is notoriously known to be a great mimicker of other diseases and may cause various haematologic abnormalities, especially with marrow involvement. A 61-year-old man who presented with right empyema and pancytopenia was diagnosed to have disseminated tuberculosis supported by the presence of caseating granuloma with Langhan's giant cells in the marrow and demonstration of acid-fast bacilli in the pleural fluid. Trilineage dysplasia from marrow aspirate was initially attributed to be reactive to the infection. A cytogenetic study was repeated after he showed poor response to a year of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The underlying primary myelodysplastic syndrome was unmasked when his cytogenetics showed trisomy 8. This case report has demonstrated the various haematological manifestations of tuberculosis and highlighted the importance of cytogenetic study in differentiating between primary and secondary myelodysplastic marrow changes. PMID:23493009

Shaharir, Syahrul Sazliyana; Tumian, Nor Rafeah; Yu Lin, Andrea Ban; Abdul Wahid, S Fadilah

2013-03-01

240

Global Alliance for Tuberculosis Drug Development  

MedlinePLUS

... for-profit organization dedicated to the discovery and development of better, faster-acting, and affordable tuberculosis drugs ... its partners around the world, is leading the development of the most comprehensive TB drug portfolio in ...

241

Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Cambodian children.  

PubMed

SUMMARY We analysed Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from children, hospitalized from January 2004 to July 2008 in the largest paediatric hospital complex in Cambodia. Specimens were tested for drug susceptibility and genotypes. From the 260 children, 161 strains were available. The East African-Indian genotype family was the most common (59·0%), increasing in frequency with distance from the Phnom Penh area, while the frequency of the Beijing genotype family strains decreased. The drug resistance pattern showed a similar geographical gradient: lowest in the northwest (4·6%), intermediate in the central (17·1%), and highest in the southeastern (30·8%) parts of the country. Three children (1·9%) had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The Beijing genotype and streptomycin resistance were significantly associated (P < 0·001). As tuberculosis in children reflects recent transmission patterns in the community, multidrug resistance levels inform about the current quality of the tuberculosis programme. PMID:25050615

Schopfer, K; Rieder, H L; Steinlin-Schopfer, J F; van Soolingen, D; Bodmer, T; Chantana, Y; Studer, P; Laurent, D; Zwahlen, M; Richner, B

2015-04-01

242

TUBERCULOSIS IN LESSER FLAMINGOES IN KENYA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bstract: Four cases of tuberculosis are recorded in lesser flamingoes (Phoeniconaias minor) from Lake Nakuru, Kenya. The clinical, pathological and microbiological findings are given and the possible significance of the infection in this species is discussed.

J. E. CoopERm; L. KARSTAD; P. O. Kabete

243

Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: molecular perspectives.  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis seriously threaten tuberculosis (TB) control and prevention efforts. Molecular studies of the mechanism of action of antitubercular drugs have elucidated the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is attributed primarily to the accumulation of mutations in the drug target genes; these mutations lead either to an altered target (e.g., RNA polymerase and catalase-peroxidase in rifampicin and isoniazid resistance, respectively) or to a change in titration of the drug (e.g., InhA in isoniazid resistance). Development of specific mechanism-based inhibitors and techniques to rapidly detect multidrug resistance will require further studies addressing the drug and drug-target interaction. PMID:9621190

Rattan, A.; Kalia, A.; Ahmad, N.

1998-01-01

244

Virulence factors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex  

PubMed Central

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) consists of closely related species that cause tuberculosis in both humans and animals. This illness, still today, remains to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The mycobacteria enter the host by air, and, once in the lungs, are phagocytated by macrophages. This may lead to the rapid elimination of the bacillus or to the triggering of an active tuberculosis infection. A large number of different virulence factors have evolved in MTBC members as a response to the host immune reaction. The aim of this review is to describe the bacterial genes/proteins that are essential for the virulence of MTBC species, and that have been demonstrated in an in vivo model of infection. Knowledge of MTBC virulence factors is essential for the development of new vaccines and drugs to help manage the disease toward an increasingly more tuberculosis-free world. PMID:23076359

Forrellad, Marina A.; Klepp, Laura I.; Gioffré, Andrea; Sabio y García, Julia; Morbidoni, Hector R.; Santangelo, María de la Paz; Cataldi, Angel A.; Bigi, Fabiana

2013-01-01

245

Autophagy in the fight against tuberculosis  

E-print Network

tuberculosis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella enterica) to protozoa and viruses (Gomes and Dikic 2014). In the specific case of bacteria, after invading host cells, they reside within vacuoles or phagosomes, whose maturation tends...

Bento, Carla F.; Empadinhas, Nuno; Mendes, Vítor

2015-01-21

246

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Computational Linguistics, 5 December 2012 Frank University of Toronto #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication An introduction to SPOClab · SPOClab (Signal Processing and Oral Communication) is a new lab intersecting Computer Science

Penn, Gerald

247

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Fall Meeting AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

248

Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

249

Diagnosing oral ulcers.  

PubMed

Oral ulcers are common and can have many causes, making diagnosis challenging. This article provides an overview of common oral ulcers and an algorithmic approach to establishing the correct diagnosis. Factors such as duration, pattern of recurrence, clinical appearance, mucosal location, and presence or absence of systemic symptoms are useful clues to determining an ulcer's cause. PMID:25621959

Bruce, Alison J; Dabade, Tushar S; Burkemper, Nicole M

2015-02-01

250

Steven Brown Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Steven Brown Oral History Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 5 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 6 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video...

Brown, Steven; Albin, Tami

2010-11-24

251

Teaching Oral Language Appreciation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discovering pleasure in words should begin at a young age. But the discovery can continue among college students if oral communication courses offer parallels to the art and music appreciation courses which are part of most collegiate curricula. Some class activities which can enlarge appreciation of oral language are: (1) students may be assigned…

Jensen, Marvin D.

252

Materiality and oral documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available orally. As a strategy to increase understanding of oral information, Turner asserted that it can emerge

Deborah Turner; Warren Allen

2011-01-01

253

Parotid tuberculosis associated with cutaneous tuberculosis on a medial epicanthus.  

PubMed

An 83-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a gradually enlarging, reddish, crusted papule on her left medial epicanthus. Her medical history did not reveal any systemic disease. She gave no personal history of tuberculosis or any systemic symptoms, such as night sweat, weight loss, and pulmonary abnormalities. Her husband had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis 30 years ago. A dermatologic examination revealed a 2.5 x 1.2-cm nontender, erythematous plaque with fine, white adherent scales on the left medial epicanthus (figure 1A). All laboratory values were within the normal range. Results from a tuberculin skin test were initially negative. A skin biopsy was performed, and a pathological examination demonstrated multiple noncaseating granulomas with various diameters in the reticular dermis and an infiltrate of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the surrounding dermis (figure 2). Periodic acid-Schiff, Ziehl-Nilsen, gram, and giemsa stains were negative for any microorganism. Leishman-Donovan-like bodies were observed within the epitheloid histiocytes that formed the granulomas. The pathological diagnosis was granulomatous dermatitis. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) based on her clinical appearance and histopathological findings, although the parasite was not detected in the tissue specimens. Treatment with intralesional glucantime for 5 consecutive weeks did not improve her condition. By the end of the fifth week, the patient developed asymptomatic facial swelling and a 1.5 x 1.2-cm erythematous plaque in the left parotid area (figure 1B). An ultrasonographic examination demonstrated a 13 x 11 x 17-mm hypoechoic mass, which suggested pleomorphic adenoma. In addition, lymph nodes, the largest of which were 9 x 10 mm, were noted in the left cervical area. A skin biopsy from the erythematous plaque of the left parotid area demonstrated diffuse neutrophilic infiltration with formation of focal granulomas. Tuberculosis was suspected, and mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) was isolated from the culture. A tuberculin skin test was performed again, which was positive (12 mm). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 35 mm/h, and all other laboratory tests were within normal limits. Pulmonary radiography and thoracic computerized tomography findings were normal. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and ultrasonographic examination of the parotid mass were performed, which revealed necrotic material with neutrophils and lymphocytes (figure 3). We treated the patient with a standard antituberculous regimen, comprising isoniazid 300 mg/d, rifampin 600 mg/d, ethambutol 1200 mg/d, and pyrazinamide 1500 mg/d. By the end of the second month of treatment, the patient improved considerably. There was a marked reduction in facial swelling, and the lesion on the left medial epicanthus regressed dramatically (Figure 4A and Figure 4B). No adverse effects of the medication occurred. An additional 7 months of therapy with isoniazid and rifampin was planned. PMID:23163079

Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Altunay, Ilknur Kivanç; Merto?lu, Eda; Sakiz, Damlanur

2012-01-01

254

[A rare cause of anosmia: nasosinusal tuberculosis].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 46-year-old-woman who presented with anosmia and nasal obstruction. Primary nasal tuberculosis was discovered. Primary nasal tuberculosis is very rare. Women are more touched than men. Symptomatology is often unilateral with nasal obstruction, anterior rhinorrhea or epistaxis. Diagnosis relies on the anatomopathologic and bacteriological examinations. The treatment is mainly medical based on antituberculosis drugs. In the light of this case report, a review of the literature was made. PMID:24878190

Hemmaoui, B; Fejjal, N; Errami, N; Temsamani, H; Benchafai, I; Jahidi, A; Benariba, F

2014-10-01

255

Detection of Multidrug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a DNA sequencing-based method to detect mutations in the genome of drug-resistant Myco- bacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in restricted regions of the genome. Eight genome regions associated with drug resistance, including rpoB for rifampin (RIF), katG and the mabA (fabG1)-inhA promoter for isoniazid (INH), embB for ethambutol (EMB), pncA for pyrazinamide

Jun-ichiro Sekiguchi; Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama; Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec; Zofia Zwolska; Fumiko Kirikae; Emiko Toyota; Intetsu Kobayashi; Koji Morita; Koichiro Kudo; Seiya Kato; Tadatoshi Kuratsuji; Toru Mori; Teruo Kirikae

256

Detection of Multidrug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a DNA sequencing-based method to detect mutations in the genome of drug-resistant Myco- bacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in restricted regions of the genome. Eight genome regions associated with drug resistance, including rpoB for rifampin (RIF), katG and the mabA (fabG1)-inhA promoter for isoniazid (INH), embB for ethambutol (EMB), pncA for pyrazinamide

Jun-ichiro Sekiguchi; Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama; Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec; Zofia Zwolska; Fumiko Kirikae; Emiko Toyota; Intetsu Kobayashi; Koji Morita; Koichiro Kudo; Seiya Kato; Tadatoshi Kuratsuji; Toru Mori; Teruo Kirikae

2007-01-01

257

Comparing Genomes within the Species Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of genetic variability within natural populations of pathogens may provide insight into their evolution and pathogenesis. We used a Mycobacterium tuberculosis high-density oligonucleotide microarray to detect small-scale genomic deletions among 19 clinically and epidemiologically well-characterized isolates of M. tuberculosis. The pattern of deletions detected was identical within mycobacterial clones but differed between different clones,suggesting that this is a

Midori Kato-Maeda; Jeanne T. Rhee; Thomas R. Gingeras; Hugh Salamon; Jorg Drenkow; Nat Smittipat; Peter M. Small

2001-01-01

258

Isolated cystic duct lymph node tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of the cystic duct lymph node without involvement of gall bladder is exceedingly rare. Cholelithiasis is a usual accompaniment. A case of 65-year-old woman was diagnosed to have cholelithiasis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and a prominent cystic lymph node was excised for biopsy. Histopathology surprisingly reported tuberculosis of cystic duct lymph node without affecting the gall bladder. Thereupon, she was treated with antituberculous chemotherapy. PMID:18236910

Sidhu, D S; Singh, Mohinder; Jindal, Rajiv K; Gupta, Sanjeev; Simpy

2007-08-01

259

Anti-tuberculosis neolignans from Piper regnellii.  

PubMed

The present study determined the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activities of supercritical CO2 extracts, neolignans eupomatenoid-5 (1), conocarpan (4) and eupomatenoid-3 (7) and their derivatives (2, 3, 5, 6, and 8) from Piper regnellii, as well as their cytotoxicities. The supercritical CO2 extract from leaves was purified by chromatographic methods, yielding compounds (1), (4) and (7), which were identified by (1)H NMR and comparison with literature data. Anti-M. tuberculosis activity (H37Rv and clinical isolates) was evaluated using a resazurin microtiter assay plate (REMA) to determine the MIC. The cytotoxicity assay was carried out in macrophages J774G.8 by sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay. The supercritical CO2 extracts from leaves and stems, and compound (4) showed activity against M. tuberculosis (MIC 15.6 ?g/ml). Compound (1) showed the best activity (MIC 1.9 ?g/ml), with good SI. Compounds (7) and (8) showed low activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The derivative compounds did not show increased anti-M. tuberculosis activity. This is the first report, to our knowledge, to describe neolignans from P. regnellii with activity against M. tuberculosis, and compound (1) is a potential candidate for future antituberculosis drugs. PMID:23474218

Scodro, R B L; Pires, C T A; Carrara, V S; Lemos, C O T; Cardozo-Filho, L; Souza, V A; Corrêa, A G; Siqueira, V L D; Lonardoni, M V C; Cardoso, R F; Cortez, D A G

2013-05-15

260

The imaging spectrum of pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis has still an important impact on public health because it is an important cause of death, particularly in developing countries. On the other hand recent studies have shown that tuberculosis is again becoming concentrated in big cities of Western Europe, especially among immigrants, drug addicts, poor people, and the homeless, despite progress in reducing national rates of the disease. Diagnostic imaging is challenging for radiologists because signs of tuberculosis may easily mimic other diseases such as neoplasms or sarcoidosis. Clinical signs and symptoms in affected adults can be non-specific and a high level of pre-test clinical suspicion based on history is fundamental in the diagnostic work-up. Impact of tuberculosis in the world is extremely important considering the high incidence estimated during 2011 that was 8.7 million cases. This article gives a review of imaging patterns of chest tuberculosis as may be detected on conventional radiography and computerized tomography (CT). The main aim is to improve radiologist's familiarity with the spectrum of imaging features of this disease and facilitate timely diagnosis. Furthermore, we consider the emerging role of alternative methods of imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that can be helpful and highly accurate for a better definition of some signs of tuberculosis. PMID:24833643

Cardinale, Luciano; Parlatano, Daniela; Boccuzzi, Francesco; Onoscuri, Maurizio; Volpicelli, Giovanni; Veltri, Andrea

2015-05-01

261

Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio Pleistocene) North American mammals, including 114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely “culprits” in its spread.

Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.

2006-11-01

262

Novel drugs against tuberculosis: a clinician's perspective.  

PubMed

The United Nations Millennium Development Goal of reversing the global spread of tuberculosis by 2015 has been offset by the rampant re-emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis, in particular fluoroquinolone-resistant multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. After decades of quiescence in the development of antituberculosis medications, bedaquiline and delamanid have been conditionally approved for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis, while several other novel compounds (AZD5847, PA-824, SQ109 and sutezolid) have been evaluated in phase II clinical trials. Before novel drugs can find their place in the battle against drug-resistant tuberculosis, linezolid has been compassionately used with success in the treatment of fluoroquinolone-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. This review largely discusses six novel drugs that have been evaluated in phase II and III clinical trials, with focus on the clinical evidence for efficacy and safety, potential drug interactions, and prospect for using multiple novel drugs in new regimens. PMID:25431273

Olaru, Ioana Diana; von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Florian; Heyckendorf, Jan; Yew, Wing Wai; Lange, Christoph; Chang, Kwok Chiu

2014-11-27

263

Establishment of a rabbit model of spinal tuberculosis using mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.  

PubMed

This study was to establish a spinal tuberculosis model by implanting Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv to the lumbar vertebral body of New Zealand White Rabbit. Firstly, a hole was drilled at the top of the 6th lumbar vertebrae of the rabbit, which was then filled with gelatin sponge to adsorb 0.2 ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspension (10(7) CFU /ml) for infection group or normal saline (NS) for control group. Finally, the holes were closed by suturing. Further, the CT findings showed that 5 and 10 rabbits developed spinal tuberculosis at 4 and 8 weeks after operation, respectively. MRI examination revealed 7 and 15 rabbits with positive results at 4 and 8 weeks after operation, respectively. HE staining of the vertebral body and paravertebral soft tissue biopsies of the infected rabbits indicated the infiltration of inflammatory cells or necrosis in 15 rabbits. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured in 67% of the abscesses. The success rate of modeling was 68.1%. By implanting proper dosage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv in the local lumbar vertebral body of New Zealand White Rabbit, we can build a spinal tuberculosis model successfully, the pathological change of which is similar to the human spinal tuberculosis. PMID:25420665

Liu, Xiaochen; Jia, Wenxiao; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yunling; Ma, Jingxun; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Guohua

2014-11-25

264

Unexpectedly high proportion of ancestral Manu genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains cultured from tuberculosis patients in Egypt.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is one of the important public health problems in Egypt. However, limited information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Egypt is available. A total of 151 M. tuberculosis strains were characterized by spoligotyping. The results revealed that 74.8% of M. tuberculosis isolates grouped into 13 different clusters, while 25.2% had unique spoligotype patterns. Comparison with an international spoligotyping database (the SITVIT2 database) showed that types SIT53 (T1 variant) and SIT54 (Manu2 variant) were the most common types between cluster groups. In addition, new shared types SIT2977, SIT2978, and SIT2979 were observed. The results identified for the first time an unusually high proportion of ancestral Manu strains of M. tuberculosis from patients in Egypt. The percentage of the Manu clade in this study (27.15%) was significantly higher than its overall representation of 0.4% in the SITVIT2 database. We show that in Egypt tuberculosis is caused by a predominant M. tuberculosis genotype belonging to the ancestral Manu lineage which could be a missing link in the split between ancestral and modern tubercle bacilli during the evolution of M. tuberculosis. PMID:19553569

Helal, Zeinab H; Ashour, Mohamed Seif El-Din; Eissa, Somaia A; Abd-Elatef, Ghanem; Zozio, Thierry; Babapoor, Sankhiros; Rastogi, Nalin; Khan, Mazhar I

2009-09-01

265

Unexpectedly High Proportion of Ancestral Manu Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Cultured from Tuberculosis Patients in Egypt ?  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is one of the important public health problems in Egypt. However, limited information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Egypt is available. A total of 151 M. tuberculosis strains were characterized by spoligotyping. The results revealed that 74.8% of M. tuberculosis isolates grouped into 13 different clusters, while 25.2% had unique spoligotype patterns. Comparison with an international spoligotyping database (the SITVIT2 database) showed that types SIT53 (T1 variant) and SIT54 (Manu2 variant) were the most common types between cluster groups. In addition, new shared types SIT2977, SIT2978, and SIT2979 were observed. The results identified for the first time an unusually high proportion of ancestral Manu strains of M. tuberculosis from patients in Egypt. The percentage of the Manu clade in this study (27.15%) was significantly higher than its overall representation of 0.4% in the SITVIT2 database. We show that in Egypt tuberculosis is caused by a predominant M. tuberculosis genotype belonging to the ancestral Manu lineage which could be a missing link in the split between ancestral and modern tubercle bacilli during the evolution of M. tuberculosis. PMID:19553569

Helal, Zeinab H.; El-Din Ashour, Mohamed Seif; Eissa, Somaia A.; Abd-Elatef, Ghanem; Zozio, Thierry; Babapoor, Sankhiros; Rastogi, Nalin; Khan, Mazhar I.

2009-01-01

266

Vaccine approaches for bovine tuberculosis: Correlates of protection and relevance to human tuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tuberculosis (TB), primarily due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans and Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, is a classic model of the One Health Concept. M. bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) was first proven effective in cattle prior to use in humans. Recent experimental trials with cattle have d...

267

In vitro and in vivo activities of the nitroimidazole CGI 17341 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

CGI 17341 (2-ethyl-5-nitro-2,3-dihydro[2-1b]imidazo-oxazole) is a novel orally active representative of the 5-nitroimidazole series of antimicrobial agents. At concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 micrograms/ml, CGI 17341 inhibited the drug-susceptible and multi-drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. CGI 17341 had no cross-resistance with isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, or ethambutol. While the in vitro activity of CGI 17341 against M. tuberculosis was comparable to those of isoniazid and rifampin, it was superior to those of streptomycin, ciprofloxacin or norfloxacin, and oxazolidinone DuP 721. The MIC of CGI 17341 was not affected when the pH of the medium was decreased from 6.8 to 5.6, while four- to sixfold increases in the MICs of ciprofloxacin and isoniazid were observed. In mice infected with M. tuberculosis, the 50% effective dose for CGI 17341 was 7.7 mg/kg of body weight (95% confidence limits, 3.5 and 10.27) when administered on days 11 and 12 postinfection. CGI 17341 gave a dose-dependent (r = 0.995) and significant increase in the survival time. Our data indicate that the 5-nitroimidazole CGI 17341 is a promising and novel antituberculosis compound with potent in vitro and in vivo activities. Further investigations on this compound are warranted. PMID:8452346

Ashtekar, D R; Costa-Perira, R; Nagrajan, K; Vishvanathan, N; Bhatt, A D; Rittel, W

1993-01-01

268

[The registered nurse and the battle against tuberculosis in Brazil: 1961-1966].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances that promoted the implementation of the new Program for Action Against Tuberculosis in Brazil (Programa de Ação na Luta contra a Tuberculose no Brasil) and discuss the strategies used by registered nurses from the Santa Maria State Hospital, Guanabara State, to adjust nursing care to the new program against tuberculosis. This was performed through document research, interviews, and statements from nurses working at the time of the reorganization. Documents were analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic power by Pierre Bourdieu, and included written and oral documents as well as secondary sources. The reorganization of the nursing service was performed under the leadership of a nurse whose symbolic capital assigned power and prestige to implement the necessary changes. It is concluded that the work of that nurse made it possible to implement the new program and contributed to establishing the position and importance of the registered nurse in providing care to individuals with tuberculosis, for prevention and cure. PMID:20085168

Montenegro, Hercília Regina do Amaral; de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Lourenço, Lucia Helena Silva Corrêa

2009-12-01

269

Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

McAlpine, Dave

270

Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis: mimicker of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Infection caused by the lung fluke is endemic in north eastern parts of India. Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus heterotremus are known to be endemic in eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland. The infection is related to eating habits of the locals and is acquired by ingestion of raw, inadequately cooked crabs or crayfish containing encysted metacercariae which act as second intermediate hosts during the life cycle of the lung fluke. Diagnosis is generally delayed due to lack of suspicion and presentation similar to tuberculosis which is endemic in the population. We report pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis in a soldier from eastern India who presented with chest pain, haemoptysis, and eosinophilia. He gave history of consumption of raw crabs while on leave at his native village in Nagaland. Ova morphologically resembling Paragonimus heterotremus were detected in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Symptoms resolved with praziquantel treatment. PMID:23432864

Lall, Mahima; Sahni, Ajay Kumar; Rajput, A K

2013-01-01

271

Tuberculosis trends - United States, 2014.  

PubMed

In 2014, a total of 9,412 new tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported in the United States, with an incidence rate of 3.0* cases per 100,000 persons, a decrease of 2.2% from 2013. Although overall numbers of TB cases and rates continue to decline, the percentage decrease in rate is the smallest decrease in over a decade (1). This report summarizes provisional TB surveillance data reported to CDC's National Tuberculosis Surveillance System for 2014. TB cases and rates decreased among U.S.-born persons, and although the case rate also decreased among foreign-born persons,† there was an increase in total number of cases among foreign-born persons. The rate among foreign-born persons in the United States in 2014 was 13.4 times higher than among U.S.-born persons. Racial/ethnic minorities continue to be disproportionately affected by TB within the United States. Asians continue to be the racial/ethnic group with the largest number of TB cases. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the TB rate among Asians was 28.5 times higher, whereas rates among non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics were each eight times higher. Four states (California, Texas, New York, and Florida), representing approximately one third of the U.S. population, accounted for half of all TB cases reported in 2014. Continued progress toward TB elimination in the United States will require focused TB control efforts among populations and in geographic areas with disproportionate burdens of TB. PMID:25789741

Scott, Colleen; Kirking, Hannah L; Jeffries, Carla; Price, Sandy F; Pratt, Robert

2015-03-20

272

Structural and functional characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis uridine monophosphate  

E-print Network

Structural and functional characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis uridine monophosphate drugs with original mechanism of action (1). This is par- ticularly the case for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which remains a major public health issue. Current treatment requires a therapy involving four

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

Paradoxical response to disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis treatment in a patient receiving tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitor: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Biological agents such as tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors are known to cause mycobacterium infections. Here, we report a disseminated non-tuberculosis case caused by TNF-? inhibitor therapy and a probable paradoxical response to antimycobacterial therapy. Case presentation A 68-year-old man with relapsing polychondritis was refractory to glucocorticoid therapy; adalimumab was therefore administered in combination with oral glucocorticoids. Treatment with 40 mg of adalimumab led to rapid improvement of his clinical manifestations. The administration of tacrolimus (1 mg) was started as the dosage of oral glucocorticoids was tapered. However, the patient developed an intermittent high fever and productive cough 15 months after starting adalimumab treatment. A chest computed tomography scan revealed new granular shadows and multiple nodules in both lung fields with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and Mycobacterium intracellulare was isolated from 2 sputum samples; based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis. Tacrolimus treatment was discontinued and oral clarithromycin (800 mg/day), rifampicin (450 mg/day), and ethambutol (750 mg/day) treatment was initiated. However, his condition continued to deteriorate despite 4 months of treatment; moreover, paravertebral and subcutaneous abscesses developed and increased the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a subcutaneous abscess of the right posterior thigh indicated the presence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), and the diagnosis of disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis was confirmed. Despite 9 months of antimycobacterial therapy, the mediastinal lymphadenopathy and paravertebral and subcutaneous abscesses had enlarged and additional subcutaneous abscesses had developed, although microscopic examinations and cultures of sputum and subcutaneous abscess samples yielded negative results. We considered this a paradoxical reaction similar to other reports in tuberculosis patients who had discontinued biological agent treatments, and increased the dose of oral glucocorticoids. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved with this increased dose and his lymph nodes and abscesses began to decrease in size. Conclusions Clinicians should consider the possibility of a paradoxical response when the clinical manifestations of non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis worsen in spite of antimycobacterial therapy or after discontinuation of tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors. However, additional evidence is needed to verify our findings and to determine the optimal management strategies for such cases. PMID:24576098

2014-01-01

274

Reappraising the use of ?-lactams to treat tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The emergence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis calls for novel approaches to treatment. Recent studies have shown that BlaC, the ?-lactamase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the major determinant of ?-lactam resistance. This review invites the reader to explore evidence in order to answer the questions: can ?-lactam and ?-lactamase inhibitors adequately treat M. tuberculosis infection and are they a viable option in the management of resistant tuberculosis today? PMID:23106275

Kurz, Sebastian G; Bonomo, Robert A

2013-01-01

275

Polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, sensitive, specific and yet economical method for the diagnosis ofM. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria in clinical specimen is a desperate and urgent requirement of the day in the laboratory diagnosis\\u000a and hence management of tuberculosis. This need is further accentuated by emerging diseases like multi drug resistant tuberculosis,\\u000a tuberculosis in AIDS patients and opportunistic mycobacterial infections, which do

Manjula Sritharan; Venkataraman Sritharan

2000-01-01

276

An Unusual Presentation of Primary Male Genital Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Urogenital tuberculosis is a rare disease; however, it is the second most common location for tuberculosis after the lung. Currently, incidence of urogenital tuberculosis is increasing due to factors such as a higher prevalence of immunosuppression (especially that caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection) and drug abuse. Herein a new case of male genital primary tuberculosis is reported presenting as a scrotal tumor; the originality of this observation lies in its unusual pseudotumor form. PMID:22114548

Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Kamaoui, Imane; Eddafali, Brahim; Sellam, A. Ibn; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni, Said Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail

2011-01-01

277

La Tuberculosis Cmo recuperar su salud y mantenerse saludable  

E-print Network

La Tuberculosis Cómo recuperar su salud y mantenerse saludable Departamento de Salud y Servicios Enfermedades Infecciosas #12;La Tuberculosis Cómo recuperar su salud y mantenerse saludable Departamento de.niaid.nih.gov #12;Tabla de contenido 1 ¿Qué es la tuberculosis? 3 ¿Qué es la infección de la tuberculosis? 4 ¿Puedo

Bandettini, Peter A.

278

Probiotics and Oral Health  

PubMed Central

The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to oral health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927

Haukioja, Anna

2010-01-01

279

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

280

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria have diverse effects on BCG efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Summary The efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in protection against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is highly variable between populations. One possible explanation for this variability is increased exposure of certain populations to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This study used a murine model to determine the effect that exposure to NTM after BCG vaccination had on the efficacy of BCG against aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. The effects of administering live Mycobacterium avium (MA) by an oral route and killed MA by a systemic route on BCG-induced protection were evaluated. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were profiled to define the immunological mechanisms underlying any effect on BCG efficacy. BCG efficacy was enhanced by exposure to killed MA administered by a systemic route; T helper 1 and T helper 17 responses were associated with increased protection. BCG efficacy was reduced by exposure to live MA administered by the oral route; T helper 2 cells were associated with reduced protection. These findings demonstrate that exposure to NTM can induce opposite effects on BCG efficacy depending on route of exposure and viability of NTM. A reproducible model of NTM exposure would be valuable in the evaluation of novel TB vaccine candidates. PMID:24572168

Poyntz, Hazel C.; Stylianou, Elena; Griffiths, Kristin L.; Marsay, Leanne; Checkley, Anna M.; McShane, Helen

2014-01-01

281

Review article Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors  

E-print Network

Review article Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle: a stratified Tilman, Belgium 2 National and OIE/FAO Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratories, Bacterial Zoonoses ­ The worldwide status of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) as a zoonosis remains of great concern. This article reviews

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Bayesian mapping of pulmonary tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Bayesian mapping of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo, Madagascar Bicout2 Abstract Background: Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic in Madagascar. The capital, Antananarivo is the most seriously affected area. TB had

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Myths and misconceptions: the origin and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much effort has been spent trying to work out the origin and history of tuberculosis. Understanding these concepts could have important consequences for the development of vaccines and therapies that are effective against all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We discuss a series of misconceptions about the origin of both M. tuberculosis and the disease it causes that have arisen over

R. Glyn Hewinson; Kristin Kremer; Roland Brosch; Stephen V. Gordon; Noel H. Smith

2009-01-01

284

Update on vaccination of cattle and wildlife populations against tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, the status of vaccination strategies to reduce bovine tuberculosis of cattle and wildlife reservoirs of the disease is discussed, with a focus on recent developments. Recent work in vaccines to protect humans against tuberculosis has been followed by a similar surge of interest in developing vaccines against bovine tuberculosis. The human vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) affords protection

Bryce M. Buddle; D. Neil Wedlock; Michel Denis; H. Martin Vordermeier; R. Glyn Hewinson

2011-01-01

285

The University of Oklahoma (Norman Campus) Tuberculosis Testing and Certification  

E-print Network

The University of Oklahoma (Norman Campus) Tuberculosis Testing and Certification As part of the University of Oklahoma has adopted a Tuberculosis Testing Policy, effective August 16, 2007. All staff and faculty that fit any of the criteria listed below must comply with the Tuberculosis Testing Requirement

Oklahoma, University of

286

Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence?  

E-print Network

Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence? Olivier Neyrolles1 of Electron Microscopy, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence? PLoS ONE 1(1): e43. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000043

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Tuberculosis in domestic livestock: pathogenesis, transmission, and vaccination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes agents such as M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, the cause of tuberculosis in most animals and a zoonotic pathogen. Mycobacterium bovis has one of the broadest host ranges of any pathogen, infecting most mammals, including humans. Models are used to study ...

288

Origin, Spread and Demography of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex  

E-print Network

Origin, Spread and Demography of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Thierry Wirth1,2 *, Falk of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), one of the most successful groups of bacterial pathogens, remains that the MTBC consists of two independent clades, one composed exclusively of M. tuberculosis lineages from

Wirth, Thierry

289

A Cooperative Oxygen Binding Hemoglobin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

A Cooperative Oxygen Binding Hemoglobin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis STABILIZATION OF HEME, G1K 7P4, Canada The homodimeric hemoglobin (HbN) from Mycobacte- rium tuberculosis displays from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that adds a new twist to the scope of the properties of invertebrate

Yeh, Syun-Ru

290

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis in Honduras Senia Rosales1,2,3* , Lelany Pineda-García1 , Solomon Ghebremichael3,4 , Nalin Rastogi5 , Sven E Hoffner3,4 Abstract Background: Tuberculosis persists as a public health problem

Boyer, Edmond

291

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The dynamics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Colima, Mexico  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The dynamics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Colima, Mexico (1999Á/2002) GERARDO Abstract Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Mexico. From 1999 to 2002, we assessed retrospectively the epidemiological, clinical, and treatment characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in the hospitals of the Mexican

Chowell, Gerardo

292

Social clustering and the transmission and dynamics of tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Social clustering and the transmission and dynamics of tuberculosis Juan P. Aparicio 1 , Angel F Biology Institute Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853­7801, USA April 9, 1999 Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, social clusters, tuberculosis, dynam­ ical systems. Running Head: Social clustering and the dynamics

293

Cell Host & Microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis MycP1 Protease  

E-print Network

Cell Host & Microbe Article Mycobacterium tuberculosis MycP1 Protease Plays a Dual Role tuberculosis uses the ESX-1 secre- tion system to deliver virulence proteins during infec- tion of host cells. Here we report a mechanism of posttranscriptional control of ESX-1 mediated by MycP1, a M. tuberculosis

Craik, Charles S.

294

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED)  

E-print Network

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED) Date: _______________ ID: If yes to any question, a TB skin test and completed Tuberculosis Skin Testing Form is required. 1 into contact with a person who has Tuberculosis? ____ No ____ Yes 3. Have you ever used any illegal

Buehrer, R. Michael

295

Amplification Dynamics: Predicting the Effect of HIV on Tuberculosis Outbreaks  

E-print Network

Amplification Dynamics: Predicting the Effect of HIV on Tuberculosis Outbreaks *Travis C. Porco, U.S.A. Summary: HIV affects the pathogenesis and the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We the probability and the expected severity of tuberculosis out- breaks. Our predictions reveal that an HIV epidemic

Blower, Sally

296

Life and death in the granuloma: immunopathology of tuberculosis  

E-print Network

REVIEW Life and death in the granuloma: immunopathology of tuberculosis Bernadette M Saunders1,2 and Warwick J Britton1,2 During tuberculosis (TB) infection, the granuloma provides the microenvironment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the granuloma is the site for mycobacterial killing, virulent mycobacteria

Cai, Long

297

Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strain Families using Spoligotypes  

E-print Network

Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strain Families using Spoligotypes Inna Vitola-6899, Fax: (518) 276-4824, PhD (Corresponding Author) #12;Key Words: Tuberculosis; Pattern Recognition for analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strain genotyping data. Our work presents a first step

Varela, Carlos

298

WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance of Tuberculosis in Europe  

E-print Network

Suggested citation: EuroTB (InVS/KNCV) and the national coordinators for tuberculosis surveillance in the WHO European Region. Surveillance of tuberculosis in Europe. Report on tuberculosis cases notified in 2002, Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice, December 2004. ?????? (InVS/KNCV) ? ???????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???. ?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????. ?????? ? ???????

In Europe Eurotb

2004-01-01

299

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part I  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide scourge and its incidence appears to be increasing due to various factors, such as the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The insidious onset and non-specific constitutional symptoms of genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) often lead to delayed diagnosis and rapid progression to a non-functioning kidney. Due to hematogenous dissemination of TB, there is a potential risk of involvement of the contralateral kidney too. Imaging plays an important role in the making of a timely diagnosis and in the planning of treatment, and thus helps to avoid complications such as renal failure. Imaging of GUTB still remains a challenge, mainly on account of the dearth of literature, especially related to the use of the newer modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This two-part article is a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and imaging findings in renal TB. Various imaging features of GUTB are outlined, from the pathognomonic lobar calcification on plain film, to finer early changes such as loss of calyceal sharpness and papillary necrosis on intravenous urography (IVU); to uneven caliectasis and urothelial thickening, in the absence of renal pelvic dilatation, as well as the hitherto unreported ‘lobar caseation’ on ultrasonography (USG). Well-known complications of GUTB such as sinus tracts, fistulae and amyloidosis are described, along with the relatively less well-known complications such as tuberculous interstitial nephritis (TIN), which may remain hidden because of its ‘culture negative’ nature and thus lead to renal failure. The second part of the article reviews the computed tomography (CT) and MRI features of GUTB and touches upon future imaging techniques along with imaging of TB in transplant recipients and in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986618

Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

2013-01-01

300

High Tuberculosis Prevalence in a South African Prison: The Need for Routine Tuberculosis Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis is a major health concern in prisons, particularly where HIV prevalence is high. Our objective was to determine the undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (“undiagnosed tuberculosis”) prevalence in a representative sample of prisoners in a South African prison. In addition we investigated risk factors for undiagnosed tuberculosis, to explore if screening strategies could be targeted to high risk groups, and, the performance of screening tools for tuberculosis. Methods and Findings In this cross-sectional survey, male prisoners were screened for tuberculosis using symptoms, chest radiograph (CXR) and two spot sputum specimens for microscopy and culture. Anonymised HIV antibody testing was performed on urine specimens. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of symptoms and investigations were calculated, using Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated on sputum culture as the gold standard. From September 2009 to October 2010, 1046 male prisoners were offered enrolment to the study. A total of 981 (93.8%) consented (median age was 32 years; interquartile range [IQR] 27–37 years) and were screened for tuberculosis. Among 968 not taking tuberculosis treatment and with sputum culture results, 34 (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4–4.9%) were culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HIV prevalence was 25.3% (242/957; 95% CI 22.6–28.2%). Positive HIV status (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0; 95% CI 1.0–4.2) and being an ex-smoker (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2–5.9) were independently associated with undiagnosed tuberculosis. Compared to the gold standard of positive sputum culture, cough of any duration had a sensitivity of 35.3% and specificity of 79.6%. CXR was the most sensitive single screening modality (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 92.2%). Adding CXR to cough of any duration gave a tool with sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 73.8%. Conclusions Undiagnosed tuberculosis and HIV prevalence was high in this prison, justifying routine screening for tuberculosis at entry into the prison, and intensified case finding among existing prisoners. PMID:24498059

Telisinghe, Lilanganee; Fielding, Katherine L.; Malden, Justin L.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.; Charalambous, Salome

2014-01-01

301

The activity of low-clearance liposomal amikacin in experimental murine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Most of the amikacin in low-clearance liposomal amikacin is excreted very slowly, offering the possibility of maintaining effective treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis with widely separated supervised doses. As a preliminary to explorations in humans, its efficacy was assessed in acute experimental murine tuberculosis by weekly counts of viable bacilli in spleen and lungs over a 4 week period. Liposomal amikacin in dosages of 160, 80 and 40 mg/kg given iv three times a week was 2.4-5.0 times more active than free amikacin and 6.6-6.7 times more active than streptomycin with the non-liposomal drugs given im five times a week. When the free amikacin and the streptomycin were also given iv three times a week, liposomal amikacin was 2.7-2.9 times more active than free amikacin and 3.7-5.6 more active than streptomycin. In a model of chronic tuberculosis, initial BCG vaccination was followed by challenge with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a 2 week stabilization period. Thereafter, treatment with liposomal amikacin 160 and 80 mg/kg three times a week for the first 4 weeks and then once a week for a further 4 weeks, had greater initial bactericidal activity than free amikacin 160 mg/kg five times a week, but had less eventual sterilizing activity than five times a week oral isoniazid 25 mg/kg or rifampicin 15 mg/kg. Although low-clearance liposomes increased the safety, potency and dosing interval of amikacin in these models, all aminoglycosides, including liposomal amikacin, were only bactericidal in the presence of bacillary metabolism and growth. PMID:11733471

Dhillon, J; Fielding, R; Adler-Moore, J; Goodall, R L; Mitchison, D

2001-12-01

302

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Introduction 2 #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Hey everybody! My name's James Institute of Health) #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication · Types of dysarthria are related

Penn, Gerald

303

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral Institute of Health) #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication · Types of dysarthria are related and oral communication Dysarthria 5 (After Darley et al., 1969) Ataxic Flaccid Hypo- kinetic Hyper- kinetic

Penn, Gerald

304

Leona Anderson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leona Anderson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Burdick, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Leona Anderson discusses her experiences as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran ...

Anderson, Leona; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

305

Phil Friedl Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Phil Friedl conducted by Sara Vestal and Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Delia, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. Phil Friedl is a follower of David Bawden, who is also known as Pope Michael. In this interview, ...

Friedl, Phil; Vestal, Sara; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-11-11

306

Glenn Lindell Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Glenn Lindell conducted by Jeffrey Caton in Johnson County, Kansas, on October 24, 2009. In this interview, Glen Lindell, pastor emeritus of the Hillcrest Covenant Church in Prairie Village, Kansas, discusses his training...

Lindell, Glenn; Caton, Jeffrey

2009-10-24

307

Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, Kansas. This interview...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

308

Evelyn Forsberg Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Evelyn Forsberg conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Evelyn Forsberg discusses the experience of growing up Catholic in the Herrington, Kansas, area, and, after her marriage to a...

Forsberg, Evelyn; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

309

Terry Koenig Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Terry Koenig conducted by Lauren Helmer in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 16, 2010. In this interview, Terry Koenig discusses her childhood growing up as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church, the importance...

Koenig, Terry L.; Helmer, Lauren

2010-11-16

310

Dan Chaverin Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...

Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-06

311

Mary Tholen Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mary Tholen conducted by Clint Shriner in Kansas City, Missouri, on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Mary Tholen describes her experiences growing up as a member of the Catholic Church, primarily in Hays, Kansas. She...

Tholen, Mary; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-10

312

Janice Bryant Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Janice Bryant conducted by Lauren Helmer in Marion, Kansas, on December 29, 2010. In this interview, Janice Bryant, a former church secretary for Valley Methodist Church, discusses the history, organization, and programs...

Bryant, Janice; Helmer, Lauren

2010-12-29

313

Oral Melanotic Macule  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth. Similarly, any existing spot that changes size, shape, or color should also be evaluated promptly. Treatments Your Physician ... the oral melanotic macule stays stable in size, shape, and color, no treatment is needed. Nonetheless, some people want ...

314

Dehydration and Oral Rehydration  

MedlinePLUS

... v Oral rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...

315

Oral Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... partners of people with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer . Sun exposure Being exposed to sunlight may increase the risk of lip cancer. Lip ... factors, such as drinking alcohol, HPV infection, and sun exposure, increase the risk of oral cancer. It ...

316

David Ollington Oral History  

E-print Network

in the Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from...

Ollington, David; Albin, Tami

2010-01-11

317

Edith Bogart Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Edith Bogart conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 14, 2010. In this interview, Edith Bogart discusses her experiences with a variety of denominations, including Episcopalian, Jehovah's Witnesses...

Bogart, Edith; Miller, Timothy

2010-09-14

318

Leni Salkind Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leni Salkind conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. In this interview, Leni Salkind describes her experiences as a member of the Jewish community in Lawrence. She discusses the issue...

Salkind, Leni; Miller, Timothy

2009-11-11

319

Oral Cancer Exam  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with ...

320

Chris Husbands Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Chris Husbands conducted by Chhaya Kolavalli in Kansas City, Kansas, on June 12, 2014. Chris Husbands, a 24-year old Kansas City resident, discusses his 7-years of experience living in various ...

Husbands, Chris; Kolavalli, Chhaya

2014-01-01

321

Beverly Boyd Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Beverly Boyd conducted by Steve Teichgraeber in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 12, 2010. In this interview, Beverly Boyd discusses the life of Saint Rose-Phillippine Duchesne (1769-1852), a Catholic nun of the Society...

Boyd, Beverly; Teichgraeber, Steve

2010-11-12

322

David Nelson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with David Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on October 31, 2009. In this interview, David Nelson discusses his journey from his childhood experiences in the Swedish Lutheran church in Burdick...

Nelson, David; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-10-31

323

Naomi Nelson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Naomi Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Naomi Nelson describes her early childhood experiences attending church in Wilsey, Kansas. After marriage, she...

Nelson, Naomi; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

324

Joshua Shepherd Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Joshua Shepherd conducted by Chhaya Kolavalli in Kansas City, Missouri, on June 15, 2014. In this interview, Joshua Shepherd discusses the organization of his intentional community in Kansas ...

Shepherd, Joshua; Kolavalli, Chhaya

2014-01-01

325

Seth Davidson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Seth Davidson conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 22, 2010. In this interview, Seth Davidson, lead pastor and founder of what is now the non-denominational Vintage Church in Lawrence, discusses...

Davidson, Seth; Stratton, Emily

2010-10-22

326

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

327

Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica  

E-print Network

de la fuente oral o literaria, análisis estuctural del relato, Antropología, Creatividad, Comunicación, Investigación del Folclore, 72 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Motivación a la Lectura, Movimiento Corporal, Pedagogía, Psico y Neurolingüística... (91), y en el Internacional de Títeres de Bilbao (92). Así como la presencia en el Encuentro Nacional de Cuenteros (México, 1987 y 88), la Feria Internacional del Libro Infantil y Juvenil (México, 87), las Mesas Redondas sobre el Teatro...

Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

1995-10-01

328

Oral Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

2014-01-01

329

Experimental Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Cynomolgus Macaques Closely Resembles the Various Manifestations of Human M. tuberculosis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonhuman primates were used to develop an animal model that closely mimics human Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Cynomolgus macaques were infected with low doses of virulent M. tuberculosis via bronchoscopic instillation into the lung. All monkeys were successfully infected, based on tuberculin skin test conversion and peripheral immune responses to M. tuberculosis antigens. Progression of infection in the 17 monkeys studied

Saverio V. Capuano; Denise A. Croix; Santosh Pawar; Angelica Zinovik; Amy Myers; Philana L. Lin; Stephanie Bissel; Carl Fuhrman; Edwin Klein; JoAnne L. Flynn

2003-01-01

330

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop-ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop- ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in many developed countries suggests that current control strategies are suboptimal. The increase tuberculosis. We describe and discuss a theoretical framework based upon mathematical transmission models

Blower, Sally

331

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

332

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

333

Peculiarities of tuberculosis in kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Renal transplant is becoming increasingly available in developing countries. Significant advances have been made globally since the first successful kidney transplant in 1954, with the advent of newer, more effective and more selective immunosuppressants. As a result, allograft and patient survival has increased, leaving infection and malignancy as major challenges. The incidence rate of tuberculsis in renal transplant recipients is directly proportional to the prevalence in the general population with the developing countries having the highest rates. The objective of this paper is to review the existing literature on post renal transplant tuberculosis with a view to highlighting its peculiarities compared to tuberculosis in the general population. Several databases (Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane data base, Google Scholar and AJOL) were searched for articles using the key words Tuberculosis (MESH), Renal (OR Kidney), AND transplant. Hand search was also made of reference list of retrieved articles. Full text of relevant original articles were retrieved and appraised. Several studies have demonstrated increased risk of tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients, especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients has peculiarities such as difficulty in diagnosing latent TB, atypical presentations, increased risk of dissemination, increased mortality and interactions of anti-Tb drugs with transplant medications. Clinicians managing renal transplant recipients especially in developing countries should have a high index of suspicion for TB and be aware of its peculiarities in this patient population. PMID:24005585

Adamu, Bappa

2013-01-01

334

Optimizing tuberculosis testing for basic laboratories.  

PubMed

Optimal tuberculosis testing usually involves sputum centrifugation followed by broth culture. However, centrifuges are biohazardous and scarce in the resource-limited settings where most tuberculosis occurs. To optimize tuberculosis testing for these settings, centrifugation of 111 decontaminated sputum samples was compared with syringe-aspiration through polycarbonate membrane-filters that were then cultured in broth. To reduce the workload of repeated microscopic screening of broth cultures for tuberculosis growth, the colorimetric redox indicator 2,3-diphenyl-5-(2-thienyl) tetrazolium chloride was added to the broth, which enabled naked-eye detection of culture positivity. This combination of filtration and colorimetric growth-detection gave similar results to sputum centrifugation followed by culture microscopy regarding mean colony counts (43 versus 48; P = 0.6), contamination rates (0.9% versus 1.8%; P = 0.3), and sensitivity (94% versus 95%; P = 0.7), suggesting equivalency of the two methods. By obviating centrifugation and repeated microscopic screening of cultures, this approach may constitute a more appropriate technology for rapid and sensitive tuberculosis diagnosis in basic laboratories. PMID:20889887

Ramos, Eric; Schumacher, Samuel G; Siedner, Mark; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Alvarado, Jessica; Montoya, Rosario; Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Sherman, Jonathan M; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

2010-10-01

335

Diagnostic value of PCR in genitourinary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Genitourinary tuberculosis is a disease of the genitourinary system which includes the entire urinary tract and reproductive system. Genital tuberculosis is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing nations like India. In the present study, a total of 257 clinical specimens comprising of endometrial biopsy (109), endometrial curetting (42), menstrual blood (8), semen (17), placenta (11) and urine (70) were collected from patients and subjected for PCR, Culture and AFB detection. The endometrial biopsy, endometrial curetting, menstrual blood, semen, placenta, urine showed 30.2, 45.2,12.5, 5.8, 27.2, 31.4 %, positivity rate for tuberculosis by PCR, 7.3, 9.5, 25.0, 0, 9, 8.5 % by culture and 1.8, 2.3, 0, 0, 0, 2.8 % respectively by AFB smear. Being a novel, rapid technique, PCR is the method of choice for rapid diagnosis and management of genitourinary tuberculosis shared with the other concerned tests. This study reveals that genital tuberculosis can occur in any age group, however, the majority of patients were from reproductive age (nearly 75 % of them were from 20-45 years of age) group. PMID:24426229

Sharma, Narotam; Sharma, Veena; Singh, Prem Raj; Sailwal, Shivani; Kushwaha, Rajeev S; Singh, Rajesh K; Nautiyal, Satish C; Mishra, Pankaj; Masood, Tariq; Singh, R K

2013-07-01

336

Vaccine against tuberculosis: what’s new?  

PubMed Central

Background one of the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goal is to reduce tuberculosis incidence by 2015. However, more of 8.5 million tuberculosis cases have been reported in 2011, with an increase of multidrug-resistant strains. Therefore, the World Health Organization target cannot be reach without the help of a vaccine able to limit the spread of tuberculosis. Nowadays, bacille Calmette-Guérin is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis. It prevents against meningeal and disseminated tuberculosis in children, but its effectiveness against pulmonary form in adolescents and adults is argued. Method a systematic review was performed by searches of Pubmed, references of the relevant articles and Aeras and ClinicalTrial.gov websites. Results 100 articles were included in this review. Three viral vectored booster vaccines, five protein adjuvant booster vaccines, two priming vaccines and two therapeutic vaccines have been analyzed. Conclusions Several vaccines are in the pipeline, but further studies on basic research, clinical trial and mass vaccination campaigns are needed to achieve the TB eradication target by 2050. PMID:24564340

2014-01-01

337

The Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in People with Household Close Contact with Tuberculosis in North of Iran  

PubMed Central

One of the recommended strategies for preventing tuberculosis is to screen high-risk populations with respect to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate latent infection and active tuberculosis in people with close household contact. It was a cross-sectional descriptive, analytical study with the sample size of 668 people from homes with one infected resident. In order to diagnose tuberculosis latent infection, the PPD test was done. To determine patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, three sputum samples were taken from every patient and were examined using direct microscopy and culture. Data was analyzed by SPSS20 software. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were 42.8% and 0.9% respectively. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in people with close household contact were less than that of other studies. However, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in people with close household contact was 199.5 times more than that of the general population.

Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Khanjani, Narges; Parsaee, Mohammadreza

2015-01-01

338

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

339

Tuberculosis of Spine: Current Views in Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is the chronic consumptive disease and currently the world's leading cause of death. Tuberculous spondylitis is a less common yet the most dangerous form of skeletal tuberculosis. The recent re-emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) hints at a possible resurgence of tuberculosis in the coming years. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculous spondylitis, and updates material that the author has previously published on the subject. Treatment should be individualized according to different indications which is essential to recovery. A treatment model is suggested on the basis of the author's vast personal experiences. PMID:24596613

2014-01-01

340

Diagnosis of Childhood Tuberculosis and Host RNA Expression in Africa  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Improved diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in children are needed. We hypothesized that transcriptional signatures of host blood could be used to distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children who either were or were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS The study population comprised prospective cohorts of children who were undergoing evaluation for suspected tuberculosis in South Africa (655 children), Malawi (701 children), and Kenya (1599 children). Patients were assigned to groups according to whether the diagnosis was culture-confirmed tuberculosis, culture-negative tuberculosis, diseases other than tuberculosis, or latent tuberculosis infection. Diagnostic signatures distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases and from latent tuberculosis infection were identified from genomewide analysis of RNA expression in host blood. RESULTS We identified a 51-transcript signature distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases in the South African and Malawian children (the discovery cohort). In the Kenyan children (the validation cohort), a risk score based on the signature for tuberculosis and for diseases other than tuberculosis showed a sensitivity of 82.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.6 to 94.3) and a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI, 74.6 to 92.7) for the diagnosis of culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Among patients with cultures negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis who were treated for tuberculosis (those with highly probable, probable, or possible cases of tuberculosis), the estimated sensitivity was 62.5 to 82.3%, 42.1 to 80.8%, and 35.3 to 79.6%, respectively, for different estimates of actual tuberculosis in the groups. In comparison, the sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for molecular detection of M. tuberculosis DNA in cases of culture-confirmed tuberculosis was 54.3% (95% CI, 37.1 to 68.6), and the sensitivity in highly probable, probable, or possible cases was an estimated 25.0 to 35.7%, 5.3 to 13.3%, and 0%, respectively; the specificity of the assay was 100%. CONCLUSIONS RNA expression signatures provided data that helped distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children with and those without HIV infection. (Funded by the European Union Action for Diseases of Poverty Program and others). PMID:24785206

Banwell, Claire M.; Chagaluka, George; Crampin, Amelia C.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; French, Neil; Hamilton, Melissa S.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Kern, Florian; Langford, Paul R.; Ling, Ling; Mlotha, Rachel; Ottenhoff, Tom H.M.; Pienaar, Sandy; Pillay, Vashini; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Twahir, Hemed; Wilkinson, Robert J.

2014-01-01

341

Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis facts and controversies  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are both important health issues. A bidirectional association between them has been demonstrated by many researchers. The link of DM and TB is more prominent in developing countries where TB is endemic and the burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing. The association between diabetes and tuberculosis may be the next challenge for global tuberculosis control worldwide. Proper planning and collaboration are necessary to reduce the dual burden of diabetes and TB. One model similar to the TB-HIV program for prevention, screening and treatment of both diseases can be the best approach. In this paper, we review existing data and discuss the matters of controversy that would be helpful for determining research priorities in different countries. PMID:24360398

2013-01-01

342

Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

A small number of viable tuberculosis bacilli can reside in an individual with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) without obvious clinical symptoms or abnormal chest radiographs. Diagnosis and treatment for LTBI are important for tuberculosis (TB) control in public and private health, especially in high-risk populations. The updated 2014 Korean guidelines for TB recommend that tuberculin skin tests, interferon-gamma release assays, or a combination of the two can be used for LTBI diagnosis according to age and immune status of the host as well as TB contact history. The regimens for LTBI treatment include isoniazid, rifampicin, or isoniazid/rifampicin. However, results of drug susceptibility test from the index case must be considered in selecting the appropriate drug for recent contacts. Standardized LTBI diagnosis and treatment based on the new 2014 guidelines will contribute to the effective TB control in Korea as well as to the establishment of updated guidelines. PMID:25861337

Lee, Seung Heon

2015-04-01

343

Tuberculosis of symphysis pubis: A case report  

PubMed Central

Symphysis pubis is an uncommon site of tuberculosis and only few cases have been reported in the literature. It is important to distinguish it from the more common entities like Osteitis pubis and Osteomyelitis of pubis symphysis to prevent delay in diagnosis and minimize morbidity and prevent complications. We report a rare case of tuberculosis of symphysis pubis in a 50-year-old Indian female from low socioeconomic status. Diagnosis is not difficult if one is aware of the condition. A high index of suspicion along with radiograph and fine needle aspiration led to the diagnosis. The patient had an excellent outcome following a complete course of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy for tuberculosis.

Meena, Sanjay; Gangary, Shreesh Kumar

2015-01-01

344

Diagnosis and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection  

PubMed Central

A small number of viable tuberculosis bacilli can reside in an individual with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) without obvious clinical symptoms or abnormal chest radiographs. Diagnosis and treatment for LTBI are important for tuberculosis (TB) control in public and private health, especially in high-risk populations. The updated 2014 Korean guidelines for TB recommend that tuberculin skin tests, interferon-gamma release assays, or a combination of the two can be used for LTBI diagnosis according to age and immune status of the host as well as TB contact history. The regimens for LTBI treatment include isoniazid, rifampicin, or isoniazid/rifampicin. However, results of drug susceptibility test from the index case must be considered in selecting the appropriate drug for recent contacts. Standardized LTBI diagnosis and treatment based on the new 2014 guidelines will contribute to the effective TB control in Korea as well as to the establishment of updated guidelines. PMID:25861337

2015-01-01

345

[Lessons learned from tuberculosis outbreak cases].  

PubMed

Most TB outbreaks were caused by exposure of many people to tuberculosis bacilli due to delayed detection of initial cases who had long-lasting severe coughs and excretion of massive tuberculosis bacilli. They were also affected by several other factors, such as socio-environmental factors of the initial case; time and place of infection; and host factors of the infected persons such as immune status, infectivity, and/or pathogenicity of the bacilli. In this symposium, we learned the seriousness of infection and disease among immune-suppressed groups, special environmental factors with regard to the spread of infection, disease after treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, diagnostic specification of IGRA, and bacteriological features including genotyping of the bacilli. We reaffirmed that countermeasures for the case are important, but outbreaks can provide excellent opportunities to learn important information about infection, disease progression, etc. 1. Tuberculosis outbreak in a cancer ward: Katsuhiro KUWABARA (Division of Respiratory Diseases, National Hospital Organization Nishi-Niigata Chuo National Hospital) There was an outbreak of tuberculosis in a cancer ward of a highly specialized medical center. Outbreak cases included eight hospitalized patients and two medical staff members over a 1.5-year observation period after initial contact. Three immune-compromised patients including the index patent died of cancer and tuberculosis. Community hospitals and highly specialized medical centers, such as cancer centers, should carefully prepare a proper system to prevent nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis. 2. Sixty-one cases of TB exposures in hospital settings and contact investigations of the hospital staff, with special reference to the application of QFT: Hiroko Yoshikawa NIGORIKAWA (The Division of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation, Toshima Hospital; present: Division of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Teishin Hospital), Toru MORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) The index case was a patient who was admitted to a general hospital where she was treated with pulsed corticosteroid therapy and then put on a respirator. Soon after, she developed tuberculosis (TB) and died. Immediately after her death, the healthcare workers who had close contact with the index case were given the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT) test, which indicated that all staff except one were negative. However, a QFT test administered eight weeks later had a positive rate of 18.6%. Subsequently, a total of five workers, including a doctor, nurses, and radiology technicians, developed TB. The bacterial isolates from five of them exhibited an RFLP pattern identical to that of the index case. These secondary cases of TB included a case who had contact of less than 5 minutes, a case whose QFT was negative ("doubtful" in the Japanese criterion of the QFT), and a case who was QFT-positive but declined to be treated for latent TB infection (LTBI). No other workers nor hospitalized patients developed TB. The healthcare worker contacts were further examined with the QFT 6, 9 and 12 months after the contact. The QFT results revealed four additional positive reactors and four "doubtful" reactors who were indicated for LTBI treatment. Among them were seven subjects who turned positive six months after the contact. TB prevention in hospital settings and contact investigations were discussed with the hospital staff, with special reference to the application of QFT. 3. Summary and issues of concern relating to a tuberculosis outbreak in a prison: Mitsunobu HOMMA, Takefumi ITOH (Department of Respiratory Medicine, Akita City Hospital) We report a tuberculosis outbreak that occurred in a prison in the spring of 2011, resulting in 11 cases of active disease and 40 cases of infection. The primary cause of the outbreak is thought to be the delay in identifying the index case, where the screening result interpretation might have contributed to the delay. However, w

Kato, Seiya; Kuwabara, Katsuhiro

2014-02-01

346

[Surgical urinary and male genital tuberculosis].  

PubMed

A total of 209 and 188 patients with urogenital tuberculosis were operated on in 1985-1987 (Period 1) and in 2005-2007 (Period 2), respectively. The mean age of patients with nephrotuberculosis has increased by 10 years in the past 20 years. The total number of operations has retained as before: organ-removing operations have decreased from 61.1 to 27.3% and reconstructive plastic ones increased from 9.7 to 23%. Epididymectomy remains to be a major intervention for genital tuberculosis, with thrice-fold reduction in their number. The specific features of the course of tuberculosis of the kidney and upper urinary tract were studied in 158 patients. The disease complicated by obstructive uropathy takes a more severe course than the uncomplicated disease, which causes a rise in the number of nephrectomies from 25 to 40.5%. PMID:19227325

Zuban', O N; Volkov, A A; Sushchi?, E A; Murav'ev, A N

2008-01-01

347

Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited  

PubMed Central

Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease. PMID:25356043

Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

2014-01-01

348

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

349

Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2011.  

PubMed

The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives. PMID:25631599

Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul

2014-12-01

350

Cryopreservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Cells  

PubMed Central

Successful long-term preservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells is important for sample transport, research, biobanking, and the development of new drugs, vaccines, biomarkers, and diagnostics. In this report, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and M. tuberculosis H37Ra were used as models of M. tuberculosis complex strains to study cryopreservation of M. tuberculosis complex cells in diverse sample matrices at different cooling rates. Cells were cryopreserved in diverse sample matrices, namely, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Middlebrook 7H9 medium with or without added glycerol, and human sputum. The efficacy of cryopreservation was quantified by microbiological culture and microscopy with BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. In all sample matrices examined, the microbiological culture results showed that the cooling rate was the most critical factor influencing cell viability. Slow cooling (a few degrees Celsius per minute) resulted in much higher M. tuberculosis complex recovery rates than rapid cooling (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen) (P < 0.05). Among the three defined cryopreservation media (PBS, 7H9, and 7H9 plus glycerol), there was no significant differential effect on viability (P = 0.06 to 0.87). Preincubation of thawed M. tuberculosis complex cells in 7H9 broth for 20 h before culture on solid Middlebrook 7H10 plates did not help the recovery of the cells from cryoinjury (P = 0.14 to 0.71). The BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining kit, based on Syto 9 and propidium iodide (PI), was also applied to assess cell envelope integrity after cryopreservation. Using the kit, similar percentages of “live” cells with intact envelopes were observed for samples cryopreserved under different conditions, which was inconsistent with the microbiological culture results. This implies that suboptimal cryopreservation might not cause severe damage to the cell wall and/or membrane but instead cause intracellular injury, which leads to the loss of cell viability. PMID:22933596

Shu, Zhiquan; Weigel, Kris M.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Lakey, Annie; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

2012-01-01

351

Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis masquerading as pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) remains a rarity despite the high incidence of tuberculosis in many of the African and Asian countries. Presentation as discrete pancreatic mass often masquerades as pancreatic neoplasm and diagnosis may require histology. Extra-hepatic portal hypertension due to splenic vein thrombosis complicating pancreatic TB has been reported in the literature. We report here a case of isolated pancreatic TB with pancreatic head mass mimicking neoplasm with extra-hepatic portal hypertension. The possibility of TB should be considered in the list of differential diagnoses of pancreatic mass and an endoscopic, ultrasound-guided biopsy might help to clinch the diagnosis of this potentially curable disease. PMID:24759351

Zacharia, George S.; Antony, Rajany; Kolassery, Sandesh; Ramachandran, Thazhath M.

2014-01-01

352

Scrotal lump: do not forget tuberculosis!  

PubMed

Scrotal tuberculosis (TB) is rare. Lack of awareness may lead to a misdiagnosis and/or delayed diagnosis of scrotal TB. Clinicians should have a high suspicion index for scrotal TB when facing a patient with a chronic scrotal lump. Since scrotal TB can be medically cured, biopsy of the scrotal lump for pathology study and/or urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for M. tuberculosis should be performed first for rapid diagnostic purposes, and therefore unnecessary surgery may thereby be circumvented. PMID:24770814

Ho, C C K; Rusdi, A R M

2014-01-01

353

Drug resistant tuberculosis in prisons in Azerbaijan: case study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To document the existence of drug resistance in a tuberculosis treatment programme that adheres strictly to the DOTS principles (directly observed treatment, short course) and to determine the extent of drug resistance in a prison setting in one of the republics of the former Soviet Union. Design: Case study. Setting: Central Penitentiary Hospital in Baku, the referral centre for tuberculosis patients from all prisons in Azerbaijan. Subjects: Prisoners with tuberculosis: 28 selected patients not responding clinically or bacteriologically to the standard treatment (group 1) and 38 consecutive patients at admission to the programme (group 2). Main outcome measures: Drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains grown from sputum. Results: All the non-responding patients (group 1) had strains resistant to at least one drug. 25 (89%) of the non-responding patients and nine (24%) of the consecutive patients had M tuberculosis strains resistant to both rifampicin and isoniazid. A further 17 patients in group 2 had strains resistant to one or more first line drugs. Conclusions: Drug resistant M tuberculosis strains are common in prisons in Azerbaijan. Tuberculosis problems tend to be worse in prisons, but prisoners and former prisoners may have an important role in the transmission of tuberculosis, particularly of drug resistant forms, in the community. National programmes to control tuberculosis will have to take into account and address the problems in prisons to ensure their success. Key messages Tuberculosis is an important problem in prisons in Azerbaijan Multidrug resistant tuberculosis was common and an important cause of non-response to standard treatment National tuberculosis control programmes must include prisons and take account of drug resistance Unless WHO recommended treatment protocols are followed the problem of multidrug resistant tuberculosis may result in untreatable tuberculosis which will spread to the general community PMID:9572751

Coninx, R; Pfyffer, G E; Mathieu, C; Savina, D; Debacker, M; Jafarov, F; Jabrailov, I; Ismailov, A; Mirzoev, F; de Haller, R; Portaels, F

1998-01-01

354

Clinical Evaluation of Tuberculosis Viability Microscopy for Assessing Treatment Response  

PubMed Central

Background.?It is difficult to determine whether early tuberculosis treatment is effective in reducing the infectiousness of patients' sputum, because culture takes weeks and conventional acid-fast sputum microscopy and molecular tests cannot differentiate live from dead tuberculosis. Methods.?To assess treatment response, sputum samples (n = 124) from unselected patients (n = 35) with sputum microscopy–positive tuberculosis were tested pretreatment and after 3, 6, and 9 days of empiric first-line therapy. Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy with fluorescein diacetate, quantitative culture, and acid-fast auramine microscopy were all performed in triplicate. Results.?Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy predicted quantitative culture results such that 76% of results agreed within ±1 logarithm (rS = 0.85; P < .0001). In 31 patients with non-multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, viability and quantitative culture results approximately halved (both 0.27 log reduction, P < .001) daily. For patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and available data, by treatment day 9 there was a >10-fold reduction in viability in 100% (24/24) of cases and quantitative culture in 95% (19/20) of cases. Four other patients subsequently found to have MDR tuberculosis had no significant changes in viability (P = .4) or quantitative culture (P = .6) results during early treatment. The change in viability and quantitative culture results during early treatment differed significantly between patients with non-MDR tuberculosis and those with MDR tuberculosis (both P < .001). Acid-fast microscopy results changed little during early treatment, and this change was similar for non-MDR tuberculosis vs MDR tuberculosis (P = .6). Conclusions.?Tuberculosis quantitative viability microscopy is a simple test that within 1 hour predicted quantitative culture results that became available weeks later, rapidly indicating whether patients were responding to tuberculosis therapy. PMID:25537870

Datta, Sumona; Sherman, Jonathan M.; Bravard, Marjory A.; Valencia, Teresa; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

2015-01-01

355

Is Early Tuberculosis Death Associated with Increased Tuberculosis Transmission?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is now a relatively uncommon disease in high income countries. As such, its diagnosis may be missed or delayed resulting in death before or shortly after the introduction of treatment. Whether early TB death is associated with increased TB transmission is unknown. To determine the transmission risk attributable to early TB death we undertook a case-control study. Methods All adults who were: (1) diagnosed with culture-positive pulmonary TB in the Province of Alberta, Canada between 1996 and 2012, and (2) died a TB-related death before or within the first 60 days of treatment, were identified. For each of these “cases” two sets of “controls” were randomly selected from among culture-positive pulmonary TB cases that survived beyond 60 days of treatment. “Controls” were matched by age, sex, population group, +/- smear status. Secondary cases of “cases” and “controls” were identified using conventional and molecular epidemiologic tools and compared. In addition, new infections were identified and compared in contacts of “cases” that died before treatment and contacts of their smear-matched “controls”. Conditional logistic regression was used to find associations in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results “Cases” were as, but not more, likely than “controls” to transmit. This was so whether transmission was measured in terms of the number of “cases” and smear-unmatched or -matched “controls” that had a secondary case, the number of secondary cases that they had or the number of new infections found in contacts of “cases” that died before treatment and their smear-matched “controls”. Conclusion In a low TB incidence/low HIV prevalence country, pulmonary TB patients that die a TB-related death before or in the initial phase of treatment and pulmonary TB patients that survive beyond the initial phase of treatment are equally likely to transmit. PMID:25622038

Parhar, Anu; Gao, Zhiwei; Heffernan, Courtney; Ahmed, Rabia; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Long, Richard

2015-01-01

356

Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and in these countries diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes increases the risk of TB. Our aim was to assess the potential impact...

Stevenson, Catherine R; Forouhi, Nita G; Roglic, Gojka; Williams, Brian G; Lauer, Jeremy A; Dye, Christopher; Unwin, Nigel

2007-09-06

357

First Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Second-line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  

PubMed Central

We performed drug susceptibility testing on first- and second-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the first time in Ghana to obtain preliminary data on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of 21 isolates (4 new cases and 17 treated cases), 5 (23.8%) were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 19 (90.5%) were resistant to at least one drug, but no extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was identified. Since the target patients were Category II, IV or smear positive at follow-up microscopy, it is understandable that there were many drug-resistant TB cases. Six isolates were resistant to one or two second-line drugs, but the second-line drugs were not approved in Ghana. It is considered that the bacilli were imported from abroad. Preventing the import of drug-resistant TB bacilli is probably one of best ways to control TB in Ghana. PMID:24808747

Kato, Tomoko; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Nartey, Naomi; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank Adae; Mitarai, Satoshi

2014-01-01

358

Esophagobronchial fistulae: Diagnosis by MDCT with oral contrast swallow examination of a benign and a malignant cause  

PubMed Central

We report two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae diagnosed by Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) oral contrast swallow examination. It is helpful to supplement the CT study with an oral contrast swallow as it aids in confirmation of a suspected fistula and also demonstrates the fistula tract better. We present the clinical details and the imaging findings on MDCT of two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae – one secondary to chronic chest tuberculosis and the other secondary to a squamous cell carcinoma of the upper esophagus – followed by discussion of the etiology, pathogenesis, and imaging of these fistulae. PMID:24082484

Hegde, Rahul G; Kalekar, Tushar M; Gajbhiye, Meenakshi I; Bandgar, Amol S; Pawar, Shephali S; Khadse, Gopal J

2013-01-01

359

Spatial Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Antananarivo Madagascar: Tuberculosis-Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis infection may remain latent, but the disease is nevertheless a serious public health issue. Various epidemiological studies on pulmonary tuberculosis have considered the spatial component and taken it into account, revealing the tendency of this disease to cluster in particular locations. The aim was to assess the contribution of Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) to the distribution of tuberculosis and to provide information for the improvement of the National Tuberculosis Program. Methods We investigated the role of KAP to distribution patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo. First, we performed spatial scanning of tuberculosis aggregation among permanent cases resident in Antananarivo Urban Township using the Kulldorff method, and then we carried out a quantitative study on KAP, involving TB patients. The KAP study in the population was based on qualitative methods with focus groups. Results The disease still clusters in the same districts identified in the previous study. The principal cluster covered 22 neighborhoods. Most of them are part of the first district. A secondary cluster was found, involving 18 neighborhoods in the sixth district and two neighborhoods in the fifth. The relative risk was respectively 1.7 (p<10?6) in the principal cluster and 1.6 (p<10?3) in the secondary cluster. Our study showed that more was known about TB symptoms than about the duration of the disease or free treatment. Knowledge about TB was limited to that acquired at school or from relatives with TB. The attitude and practices of patients and the population in general indicated that there is still a stigma attached to tuberculosis. Conclusion This type of survey can be conducted in remote zones where the tuberculosis-related KAP of the TB patients and the general population is less known or not documented; the findings could be used to adapt control measures to the local particularities. PMID:25386655

Rakotosamimanana, Sitraka; Mandrosovololona, Vatsiharizandry; Rakotonirina, Julio; Ramamonjisoa, Joselyne; Ranjalahy, Justin Rasolofomanana; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa

2014-01-01

360

Genetic Polymorphism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Patients with Chronic Multidrug?Resistant Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem because treatment is complicated, cure rates are well below those for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), and patients may remain infectious for months or years, despite receiving the best available therapy. To gain a better understanding of MDR-TB, we characterized serial isolates recovered from 13 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with MDR- TB, by

Barun Mathema; Karen Shean; Elena Shashkina; Gilla Kaplan

2004-01-01

361

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part II  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of renal tuberculosis (TB), including TB in transplant recipients and immunocompromised patients. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) forms the mainstay of cross-sectional imaging in renal TB. It can easily identify calcification, renal scars, mass lesions, and urothelial thickening. The combination of uneven caliectasis, with urothelial thickening and lack of pelvic dilatation, can also be demonstrated on MDCT. MRI is a sensitive modality for demonstration of features of renal TB, including tissue edema, asymmetric perinephric fat stranding, and thickening of Gerota's fascia, all of which may be clues to focal pyelonephritis of tuberculous origin. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may help in differentiating hydronephrosis from pyonephrosis. ADC values also have the potential to serve as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of renal fibrosis. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of renal TB. In transplant patients, renal TB, including tuberculous interstitial nephritis, is an important cause of graft dysfunction. Renal TB in patients with HIV more often shows greater parenchymal affection, with poorly formed granulomas and relatively less frequent findings of caseation and stenosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are also more common in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986619

Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

2013-01-01

362

Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

363

Recurrent oral thrush.  

PubMed

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is characterized by the presence of at least two out of three clinical features, which include chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), Addison's disease and hypoparathyroidism. The authors' present an one and a half year old girl with recurrent oral thrush who presented with generalised afebrile seizure. Evaluation revealed severe hypocalcemia with low parathormone and normal vitamin D level consistent with hypoparathyroidism. In view of the oral candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism, a clinical possibility of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (type 1) was strongly considered. Her mother, on subsequent pregnancy was subjected to gene analysis of the fetus (chorionic villus sampling) and also for this child (index case). Both the fetus and index child were confirmed to have the AIRE gene mutation of APS1. After detailed counseling the parents opted for medical termination of the pregnancy. In children who present with recurrent oral thrush we need to consider but also look beyond immunodeficiency. PMID:24081895

Sivabalan, Somu; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Srinath, M V

2014-04-01

364

Miconazole in oral candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four patients were treated with oral miconazole (250 mg) for a total of 35 episodes of oral candidiasis. Sixteen had various forms of leukaemia and all were massively predisposed to fungal infection because of granulocytopenia and treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics. Clinical cure was observed in all 35 of the treated episodes, with a mean treatment time of five days, cure being observed in two to three days. When patients violating the protocol were excluded, the mycological cure rate was 97%. In 21 episodes there was a recurrence less than one month after miconazole treatment, probably because of reinfection. No side-effects ascribable to miconazole were observed, even in the severely debilitated patients, and the orally administered drug appeared to be superior to other commercially available antimycotic preparations. Images p29-a PMID:122644

Brincker, H

1977-01-01

365

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

366

Per-oral cholangioscopy  

PubMed Central

Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

2011-01-01

367

Oral myiasis in children.  

PubMed

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22629058

Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

2012-04-01

368

Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

369

Oral Myiasis : Case Report  

PubMed Central

Myiasis occurs when living tissues of mammals are invaded by eggs or larvae of flies, mainly from the order of Diptera. Most of the previousty reported cases are in the tropics and they were usually associated with inadequate personal hygiene, sometimes with poor manual dexterity. This report describes two cases of oral myiasis in cerebral palsy patients in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia. This article also discusses the therapeutic property of maggots and highlights the importance of oral health care in the special needs patients. PMID:22844224

Ramli, Roszalina; Abd Rahman, Roslan

2002-01-01

370

Tuberculosis Prevention in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background South Africa has one of the highest per capita rates of tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the world. In 2012, the South African government produced a National Strategic Plan (NSP) to control the spread of TB with the ambitious aim of zero new TB infections and deaths by 2032, and a halving of the 2012 rates by 2016. Methods We used a transmission model to investigate whether the NSP targets could be reached if immediate scale up of control methods had happened in 2014. We explored the potential impact of four intervention portfolios; 1) “NSP” represents the NSP strategy, 2) “WHO” investigates increasing antiretroviral therapy eligibility, 3) “Novel Strategies” considers new isoniazid preventive therapy strategies and HIV “Universal Test and Treat” and 4) “Optimised” contains the most effective interventions. Findings We find that even with this scale-up, the NSP targets are unlikely to be achieved. The portfolio that achieved the greatest impact was “Optimised”, followed closely by “NSP”. The “WHO” and “Novel Strategies” had little impact on TB incidence by 2050. Of the individual interventions explored, the most effective were active case finding and reductions in pre-treatment loss to follow up which would have a large impact on TB burden. Conclusion Use of existing control strategies has the potential to have a large impact on TB disease burden in South Africa. However, our results suggest that the South African TB targets are unlikely to be reached without new technologies. Despite this, TB incidence could be dramatically reduced by finding and starting more TB cases on treatment. PMID:25849558

Grant, Alison D.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; White, Richard G.

2015-01-01

371

Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a horse: zoonotic concerns and limitations of antemortem testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...

372

The Molecular Structure of Epoxide Hydrolase B from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Complex with a  

E-print Network

The Molecular Structure of Epoxide Hydrolase B from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Complex June 2008 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the intracellular pathogen that infects macrophages primarily, is the causative agent of the infectious disease tuberculosis in humans. The Mtb genome encodes

Hammock, Bruce D.

373

38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active...Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active...direct service connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under...

2011-07-01

374

38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...residuals of nonpulmonary tuberculosis unless the graduated rating...graduated ratings for tuberculosis of the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and nonpulmonary...

2010-07-01

375

38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...residuals of nonpulmonary tuberculosis unless the graduated rating...graduated ratings for tuberculosis of the kidney and residuals of tuberculosis of the spine. Where there are existing pulmonary and nonpulmonary...

2011-07-01

376

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Diseases § 3.375 Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will be held to have reached a condition of “complete arrest”...

2011-07-01

377

78 FR 66744 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Guidance for Industry on Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Developing Drugs for Treatment...for industry entitled ``Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Developing Drugs for Treatment...drugs for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. This guidance...

2013-11-06

378

38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3...grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When service connection...original or reopened claim for pulmonary or nonpulmonary tuberculosis and there is...

2010-07-01

379

38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3...grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When service connection...original or reopened claim for pulmonary or nonpulmonary tuberculosis and there is...

2011-07-01

380

38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active...Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active...direct service connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under...

2010-07-01

381

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Diseases § 3.375 Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will be held to have reached a condition of “complete arrest”...

2010-07-01

382

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2011-07-01

383

76 FR 67459 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-11-01

384

77 FR 16661 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2008-0124] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and...interim rule that amended the bovine tuberculosis regulations by establishing two separate zones with different tuberculosis risk classifications for the...

2012-03-22

385

76 FR 18220 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis; Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis; Notice of Charter Renewal This gives...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human Services...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human...

2011-04-01

386

75 FR 6402 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-02-09

387

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2011-01-01

388

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2010-01-01

389

75 FR 15443 - Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop; Request for Comments...Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis (TB).'' The purpose of the workshop...Ending Neglect: The Elimination of Tuberculosis in the United States, Committee...

2010-03-29

390

78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-11-07

391

78 FR 9925 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to Be Discussed:...

2013-02-12

392

78 FR 28221 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-05-14

393

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2010-01-01

394

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2011-01-01

395

77 FR 65555 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-10-29

396

75 FR 33316 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-06-11

397

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2010-01-01

398

77 FR 8877 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2012-02-15

399

75 FR 63496 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-10-15

400

76 FR 27327 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-05-11

401

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2011-01-01

402

77 FR 27776 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-05-11

403

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2010-07-01

404

The Genotypic Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Moroccan Patients Reveals a  

E-print Network

The Genotypic Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Moroccan Patients: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Morocco. Characterization of circulating Mycobacterium Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Moroccan Patients Reveals a Predominance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

MLVA Based Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineages for a Robust  

E-print Network

MLVA Based Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineages for a Robust for various microorganisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The recently released SITVITWEB. (2012) MLVA Based Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Lineages for a Robust

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains Constructed from Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in  

E-print Network

Phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains Constructed from Polymorphisms in Genes, Luo T, Dos Vultos T, Kremer K, Murray A, et al. (2011) Phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing University, Shanghai, China, 3 Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2014-01-01

408

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. 3.374 Section 3.374 Pensions...374 Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. (a) Service diagnosis. Service...department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless a...

2013-07-01

409

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2013-01-01

410

38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...direct service connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under...

2014-07-01

411

38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When service connection is granted...claim for pulmonary or nonpulmonary tuberculosis and there is...

2012-07-01

412

38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When service connection is granted...claim for pulmonary or nonpulmonary tuberculosis and there is...

2014-07-01

413

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2014-07-01

414

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2013-01-01

415

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2013-07-01

416

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had...

2013-07-01

417

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2012-07-01

418

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2012-01-01

419

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. 3.374 Section 3.374 Pensions...374 Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. (a) Service diagnosis. Service...department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless a...

2012-07-01

420

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2014-01-01

421

38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...direct service connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under...

2013-07-01

422

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2014-01-01

423

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2012-01-01

424

38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When service connection is granted...claim for pulmonary or nonpulmonary tuberculosis and there is...

2013-07-01

425

38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...direct service connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under...

2012-07-01

426

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. 3.374 Section 3.374 Pensions...374 Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. (a) Service diagnosis. Service...department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless a...

2014-07-01

427

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had...

2012-07-01

428

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2013-01-01

429

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2012-01-01

430

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had...

2014-07-01

431

Prenatal passive transfer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves.  

PubMed

Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) dams and their newborn calves were tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in serum. Blood was drawn from dams prior to calving and from calves on their day of birth. All six calves born to tuberculosis-reactive dams were also tuberculosis reactive, suggesting prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies. In contrast, all three calves born to tuberculosis-nonreactive dams lacked detectable tuberculosis antibodies in pre-suckling or day-of-birth blood samples. Of the living tuberculosis-reactive calves observed from 1 to 11 yr of age, none exhibited clinical signs of tuberculosis infection or became tuberculosis culture positive. This is the first report of prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies in elephants and demonstrates that detectible tuberculosis antibodies in newborn elephant calves should not be assumed to correlate with clinical tuberculosis. PMID:25632691

McGee, Jennifer L; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro

2014-12-01

432

75 FR 60586 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...its prevalence of tuberculosis in cattle and bison...effectiveness of the State's tuberculosis eradication program...status designations if bovine tuberculosis is detected in a portion...assessment and program review to evaluate that...

2010-10-01

433

76 FR 56635 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations to adjust...INFORMATION: Background Bovine tuberculosis is a contagious and...Budget has waived its review under Executive Order...split State status for bovine tuberculosis with an...

2011-09-14

434

The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the "literate," while the…

Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

1996-01-01

435

Evidence-based oral care for oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Nurses must intervene to provide evidence-based supportive care and symptom management for cancer patients. Oral mucositis, a distressing side effect of cancer treatment, is both a research and clinical priority. Nurses can lead improvements with evidence-based oral mucositis interventions. This article describes application of evidence-based clinical recommendations for oral mucositis across diverse patient populations. PMID:24069711

Farrington, Michele; Cullen, Laura; Dawson, Cindy

2013-01-01

436

Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1987

1987-01-01

437

New Anti-tuberculosis Agents Amongst Known Drugs  

PubMed Central

Summary Mycobacterium tuberculosis has an on-going impact on global public health and new therapeutics to treat tuberculosis are urgently required. The emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis poses a serious threat to the control of this pathogen, and the development of drugs that are active against the resistant strains is vital. A medium-throughput assay using the Alamar Blue reagent was set-up to identify novel inhibitors of M. tuberculosis from a library of known drugs, for which there has already been extensive research investigating their suitability and safety as human therapeutics. Of the 1514 compounds screened, 53 were demonstrated to possess inhibitory properties against M. tuberculosis at a concentration of 5 ?M or below. Of these, 17 were novel inhibitors while 36 were known tuberculosis drugs or had been previously described as possessing anti-tuberculosis activity. Five compounds were selected as those which represent the most promising starting points for new anti-tuberculosis agents. It was demonstrated that all five were active against intracellular M. tuberculosis in a macrophage model of infection. The anti-tuberculosis agents identified in this screen represent promising new scaffolds on which future drug development efforts can be focused. PMID:19699151

Lougheed, Kathryn E.A.; Taylor, Debra L.; Osborne, Simon A.; Bryans, Justin S.; Buxton, Roger S.

2010-01-01

438

Co-evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens  

PubMed Central

The causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an obligate pathogen that evolved to exclusively persist in human populations. For M. tuberculosis to transmit from person to person, it has to cause pulmonary disease. Therefore, M. tuberculosis virulence has likely been a significant determinant of the association between M. tuberculosis and humans. Indeed, the evolutionary success of some M. tuberculosis genotypes seems at least partially attributable to their increased virulence. The latter possibly evolved as a consequence of human demographic expansions. If co-evolution occurred, humans would have counteracted to minimize the deleterious effects of M. tuberculosis virulence. The fact that human resistance to infection has a strong genetic basis is a likely consequence of such a counter-response. The genetic architecture underlying human resistance to M. tuberculosis remains largely elusive. However, interactions between human genetic polymorphisms and M. tuberculosis genotypes have been reported. Such interactions are consistent with local adaptation and allow for a better understanding of protective immunity in TB. Future ‘genome-to-genome’ studies, in which locally associated human and M. tuberculosis genotypes are interrogated in conjunction, will help identify new protective antigens for the development of better TB vaccines. PMID:25703549

Brites, Daniela; Gagneux, Sebastien

2015-01-01

439

Co-evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens.  

PubMed

The causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an obligate pathogen that evolved to exclusively persist in human populations. For M. tuberculosis to transmit from person to person, it has to cause pulmonary disease. Therefore, M. tuberculosis virulence has likely been a significant determinant of the association between M. tuberculosis and humans. Indeed, the evolutionary success of some M. tuberculosis genotypes seems at least partially attributable to their increased virulence. The latter possibly evolved as a consequence of human demographic expansions. If co-evolution occurred, humans would have counteracted to minimize the deleterious effects of M. tuberculosis virulence. The fact that human resistance to infection has a strong genetic basis is a likely consequence of such a counter-response. The genetic architecture underlying human resistance to M. tuberculosis remains largely elusive. However, interactions between human genetic polymorphisms and M. tuberculosis genotypes have been reported. Such interactions are consistent with local adaptation and allow for a better understanding of protective immunity in TB. Future 'genome-to-genome' studies, in which locally associated human and M. tuberculosis genotypes are interrogated in conjunction, will help identify new protective antigens for the development of better TB vaccines. PMID:25703549

Brites, Daniela; Gagneux, Sebastien

2015-03-01

440

Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

The activities of 10 formulations as mycobactericidal agents in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-contaminated suspensions (suspension test) and stainless steel surfaces (carrier test) were investigated with sputum as the organic load. The quaternary ammonium compound, chlorhexidine gluconate, and an iodophor were ineffective in all tests. Ethanol (70%) was effective against M. tuberculosis only in suspension in the absence of sputum. Povidone-iodine was not as efficacious when the test organism was dried on a surface as it was in suspension, and its activity was further reduced in the presence of sputum. Sodium hypochlorite required a higher concentration of available chlorine to achieve an effective level of disinfection than did sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Phenol (5%) was effective under all test conditions, producing at least a 4-log10 reduction in CFU. The undiluted glutaraldehyde-phenate solution was effective against M. tuberculosis and a second test organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, even in the presence of dried sputum, whereas the diluted solution (1:16) was only effective against M. smegmatis in the suspension test. A solution of 2% glutaraldehyde was effective against M. tuberculosis. This investigation presents tuberculocidal efficacy data generated by methods simulating actual practices of routine disinfection. PMID:2121783

Best, M; Sattar, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Kennedy, M E

1990-01-01

441

Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The activities of 10 formulations as mycobactericidal agents in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-contaminated suspensions (suspension test) and stainless steel surfaces (carrier test) were investigated with sputum as the organic load. The quaternary ammonium compound, chlorhexidine gluconate, and an iodophor were ineffective in all tests. Ethanol (70%) was effective against M. tuberculosis only in suspension in the absence of sputum. Povidone-iodine was not as efficacious when the test organism was dried on a surface as it was in suspension, and its activity was further reduced in the presence of sputum. Sodium hypochlorite required a higher concentration of available chlorine to achieve an effective level of disinfection than did sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Phenol (5%) was effective under all test conditions, producing at least a 4-log10 reduction in CFU. The undiluted glutaraldehyde-phenate solution was effective against M. tuberculosis and a second test organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, even in the presence of dried sputum, whereas the diluted solution (1:16) was only effective against M. smegmatis in the suspension test. A solution of 2% glutaraldehyde was effective against M. tuberculosis. This investigation presents tuberculocidal efficacy data generated by methods simulating actual practices of routine disinfection. PMID:2121783

Best, M; Sattar, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Kennedy, M E

1990-10-01

442

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transcriptome of attenuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the deletion of RD1 is likely correlated to attenuation from virulence for members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex, the reasons for this phenotype remain to be fully explained. As genomic variation is responsible for at least a component of variability in gene expression, we looked to the in vitro global expression profile of the RD1 artificial knockout from

Serge Mostowy; Cynthia Cleto; David R. Sherman; Marcel A. Behr

2004-01-01

443

Activities of the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The Korean National Tuberculosis Association (KNTA) set up the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT) in 1970 to foster research and technical activities pertaining to tuberculosis (TB). The KNTA/KIT had successfully conducted a countrywide TB prevalence survey from 1965 to 1995 at 5-year intervals. The survey results (decline in TB rates) established Korea as a country that had successfully implemented national control programs for TB. The KIT developed the Korea Tuberculosis Surveillance System and the Laboratory Management Information System, both of which were transferred to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its establishment. The KIT functions as a central and supranational reference TB laboratory for microbiological and epidemiological research and provides training and education for health-care workers and medical practitioners. Recently, the KIT has expanded its activities to countries such as Ethiopia, Laos, and Timor-Leste to support TB control and prevention. The KIT will continue to support research activities and provide technical assistance in diagnosing the infection until it is completely eliminated in Korea.

Ryoo, Sungweon; Kim, Hee Jin

2014-01-01

444

Multifocal musculoskeletal cystic tuberculosis without systemic manifestations.  

PubMed

A case of multifocal cystic tuberculosis is presented, affecting the clavicle and the iliac bones with considerable soft tissue involvement. It was found in a 34-year-old male, an immigrant from Yemen. The extensive cystic nature of both lesions and the lack of systemic manifestations despite multifocal disease are unusual. PMID:7747104

Eid, A; Chaudry, N; el-Ghoroury, M; Hawasli, A; Salot, W L; Khatib, R

1994-01-01

445

Hyperendemic pulmonary tuberculosis in a Peruvian shantytown.  

PubMed

Estimates of the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in developing countries are based on case reporting from local health laboratories or the annual risk of tuberculin skin test conversion. Because these methods are problematic, the authors used a multiple case ascertainment method to estimate the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis from 1989 to 1993 in a Peruvian shantytown of 34,000 inhabitants. Two methods, face-to-face interview of all local inhabitants and examination of local laboratory smear records, were used for case gathering. The number of missed cases was estimated by capture-recapture analysis. Survey cases with positive smears were matched to age- and sex-matched controls and interviewed about socioeconomic conditions. The average annual incidence per 100,000 population was 364 (95% confidence interval 293-528) by capture-recapture methods. For the city encompassing the shantytown, the Peruvian Ministry of Heath reported an average annual incidence of 134 cases per 100,000 population. The authors conclude that, in Peru, alarming clusters of pulmonary tuberculosis are masked by government reports that pool zones of disparate incidence. Existing estimators of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence based on tuberculin conversion rates may be invalid in such areas. Within these hyperendemic areas, persons suitable for intensive prophylaxis efforts cannot be reliably identified by housing and socioeconomic risk factors. PMID:9717883

Sanghavi, D M; Gilman, R H; Lescano-Guevara, A G; Checkley, W; Cabrera, L Z; Cardenas, V

1998-08-15

446

The chemotherapy of tuberculosis with thiosemicarbazones  

Microsoft Academic Search

groups. What are the special properties of these three groups against the micro-organisms of tuberculosis? In the first instance it can be generally stated that none of them, even when applied for days or even weeks in concentrations much higher than those achieved in the diseased organism, leads to a killing-off of the tubercle bacilli. What then is their effect

G. Domagk

1951-01-01

447

Evaluation of a Tuberculosis Skin Testing Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a recent slowdown in the decline of rates of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States. However, there are disparities in TB diagnosis between U.S.-born and foreign-born persons and between Whites and minorities. Measures for achieving TB elimination include identification of high-risk persons, including children and adolescents, at…

Kahn, Pamela

2009-01-01

448

Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

2011-01-01

449

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Frequency of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Pakistan increased from 1.5% in 2006 to 4.5% in 2009 (p<0.01). To understand the epidemiology, we genotyped selected strains by using spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats, and IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. PMID:20735937

Hasan, Rumina; Jabeen, Kauser; Ali, Asho; Rafiq, Yasraba; Laiq, Rabia; Malik, Babar; Tanveer, Mahnaz; Groenheit, Ramona; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Hoffner, Sven; Hasan, Zahra

2010-09-01

450

The protective immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances have characterized the protective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These include identification of the phenotype of some protective cells, the antigens to which these cells respond and the cytokines produced in response to infection which modulate disease. Progress has also been made in inducing this response by vaccination.

Andrea M. Cooper; JoAnne L. Flynn

1995-01-01

451

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: here today, and here tomorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly successful pathogen that parasitizes the macrophages of its host. Its success can be attributed directly to its ability to manipulate the phagosome that it resides in and to prevent the normal maturation of this organelle into an acidic, hydrolytic compartment. As the macrophage is key to clearing the infection, the interplay between the pathogen and

David G. Russell

2001-01-01

452

Prospects for global health: lessons from tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Preventable diseases continue to afflict billions of people worldwide in both rich and poor countries. With regard to tuberculosis (TB), much has been learned over the past century about Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the responsible infectious agent, and its medical treatment and cure. TB is, however, an old disease currently making a resurgence at the global level. An estimated one third of the world's population is infected with M. tuberculosis and HIV infection is increasing the proportion of those in whom infection will progress to TB disease. HIV and M. tuberculosis infections co-exist most extensively in the poorest parts of the world. TB control programs are inadequate, the degree of multidrug resistance is growing, and infections are increasingly transmitted freely across international borders. The combination of these factors suggests that scientific progress and humanitarian aid to developing countries may not be enough to avert the potential tragedy of untreatable TB. The author discusses the history of TB, the present situation, and the future. PMID:7597659

Benatar, S R

1995-05-01

453

RAPID LATERAL-FLOW FOR BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine tuberculosis remains a costly disease in many countries despite extensive eradication and control efforts. Multiple wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis infection found in recent decades in the US, Europe, New Zealand, and South Africa play important roles fuelling high rates of disease...

454

Host genetic studies in adult pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Early observations, candidate gene studies and, more recently, genome-wide association studies have shown that susceptibility to tuberculosis has a host genetic component. Because the value of candidate gene studies has been doubted due to major limitations such as lack of sufficient power and small study groups, lack of reproducibility in independent groups and, often, ambiguous or even contrasting results in attempts of replication, much hope and expectancy has been put on the progress the genome-wide association approach has created. However, much less than initially expected became clear by the results obtained in genome-wide studies, emphasizing the need of increasing sample sizes, e.g. through meta-analyses, and of increasing the density of genetic variants studied across the human genome. A further reason why a rather low number of associated genetic variants were identified to date in infectious diseases in general and tuberculosis in particular might be the fact that selection acts strongly in diseases that affect the reproductive success. As in most genome-wide association studies performed so far, significant signals, often most likely surrogate marker only, have been found in non-coding regions of genomes, the identification of truly causative genetic variation and of the functionality of associated factors needs urgent attention. In the following we briefly discuss genetic studies in tuberculosis and describe new technologies that are currently employed in the search for responsible genetic elements involved in tuberculosis susceptibility. PMID:25307123

Meyer, Christian G; Thye, Thorsten

2014-12-01

455

Tuberculosis in wild and captive deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deer are found on every continent, save for Antarctica and Australia. Of the over 50 species of deer worldwide, tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis has been documented in at least 14. The broad host range of M. bovis includes most mammals, including humans and livestock. Eradication programs hav...

456

Progress in the control of bovine tuberculosis in Spanish wildlife.  

PubMed

Despite the compulsory test and slaughter campaigns in cattle, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is still present in Spain, and the role of wildlife reservoirs is increasingly recognized. We provide an update on recent progress made in bTB control in Spanish wildlife, including aspects of epidemiology, surveillance, host-pathogen interaction and wildlife vaccination. At the high densities and in the particular circumstances of Mediterranean environments, wild ungulates, mainly Eurasian wild boar and red deer, are able to maintain Mycobacterium bovis circulation even in absence of domestic livestock. Infection is widespread among wild ungulates in the south of the country, local infection prevalence being as high as 52% in wild boar and 27% in red deer. Risk factors identified include host genetic susceptibility, abundance, spatial aggregation at feeders and waterholes, scavenging, and social behaviour. An increasing trend of bTB compatible lesions was reported among wild boar and red deer inspected between 1992 and 2004 in Southwestern Spain. Sporadic cases of badger TB have been detected, further complicating the picture. Gene expression profiles were characterized in European wild boar and Iberian red deer naturally infected with M. bovis. The comparative analysis of gene expression profiles in wildlife hosts in response to infection advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of infection and pathogenesis, revealed common and distinctive host responses to infection and identified candidate genes associated with resistance to bTB and for the characterization of host response to infection and vaccination. Ongoing research is producing valuable knowledge on vaccine delivery, safety and efficacy issues. Baits for the oral delivery of BCG vaccine preparations to wild boar piglets were developed and evaluated. The use of selective feeders during the summer was found to be a potentially reliable bait-deployment strategy. Safety experiments yielded no isolation of M. bovis BCG from faeces, internal organs at necropsy and the environment, even after oral delivery of very high doses. Finally, preliminary vaccination and challenge experiments suggested that a single oral BCG vaccination may protect wild boar from infection by a virulent M. bovis field strain. PMID:21440387

Gortazar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquín; Boadella, Mariana; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C; Garrido, Joseba; Aranaz, Alicia; de la Fuente, José

2011-07-01

457

Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

458

Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives  

MedlinePLUS

... Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... oral contraceptives on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/ ...

459

Tuberculosis in Quebec: a Review of Trends  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was to conduct a thorough review on the literature of tuberculosis in Canada and the Province of Quebec. To achieve this aim, an exhaustive literature review of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec was undertaken. Data was collected with the goal of creating an epidemiological and public health evidence base to forecast the spread of tuberculosis. A keyword search strategy was used to find relevant articles from the peer-reviewed literature using the electronic search engine PubMed and a search of other relevant federal and provincial government databases. Twenty-nine peer-reviewed publications and twenty government reports containing information about the incidence or prevalence of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec were included in the analysis. An analysis of the data revealed that while tuberculosis rates have been decreasing in both Canada and Quebec with an overall incidence below 3 per 100,000 of population in 2007, among immigrants and the Inuit communities in Quebec, the incidence and prevalence of the disease still remains high and reached 18 per 100,000 and 100 per 100,000, respectively in 2007. In general, while tuberculosis does not pose a significant burden to the general population, it does continue to affect certain sub-groups disproportionately, including select immigrants and Inuit communities in Quebec. Efforts to ensure that cost-effective healthcare interventions are delivered in a timely fashion should be pursued to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec. Acknowledgments Funding for this research was provided to Medmetrics Inc., by McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Génome Québec and the Ministère de Développement Economique, Innovation et Exportation du Gouvernement du Québec. The authors also wish to thank Drs. John White and Marcel Behr, both of McGill University and Dr Suneil Malik of the Infectious Disease Program in the Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health at the Public Health Agency of Canada for comments and suggestions on earlier drafts of this manuscript. PMID:25170460

Klotz, Alexander; Harouna, Abdoulaye; Smith, Andrew F.

2012-01-01

460

Specificities and Functions of the recA and pps1 Intein Genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Application for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide recrudescence of tuberculosis and the widespread appearance of antibiotic resistance have strengthened the need for rapid and specific diagnostic tools. The prevailing microbiological identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, which implies the use of in vitro cultures and acid-fast staining microscopy, is time-consuming. Detection of M. tuberculosis directly in clinical samples through PCR amplification of

Isabelle Saves; Lee-Ann Lewis; Fabrice Westrelin; Robin Warren; Mamadou Daffé; Jean-Michel Masson

2002-01-01

461

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2012-07-01

462

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2013-07-01

463

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2014-07-01

464

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2011-07-01

465

Oral Drug Absorption  

E-print Network

properties ? membrane permeability ? metabolic stability ? enzyme inhibition or induction ? protein binding ? transporter affinity ?. Chemical Optimization DDS technology 4 Strategy of Drug Delivery Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Improve of drug... absorption absorption enhancement controlled releasecontrolled release new administration route Drug targeting to the tissue to the cell to the organelle Dr. Shinji Yamashita (Setsunan University) Issue: Oral Drug Absorption Dr. Valentino J. Stella...

Yamashita, Shinji

2006-10-26

466

Alcohol and oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, particularly when associated with tobacco use, has been recognized as an important risk factor for mouth cancer for almost 50 years. Together, they are associated with approximately 75% of upper aerodigestive tract cancers. However, intake of alcohol remains high in many countries. The rising incidence of oral cancer has prompted a revaluation of the role of alcohol (both alone

Graham R. Ogden

2005-01-01

467

[Halitosis in oral diseases].  

PubMed

The presence of hydrogen sulfide, methilmercaptane, dimethilsulfide, putrescine, cadaverine in exhaled air was evaluated in the study. The concentrations of the named substances were defined in various oral diseases. The received results are of interest for differential diagnostics of halitosis causes. PMID:22678600

Bakhmutov, D N; Kharchenko, O I; Ianushevich, O O

2012-01-01

468

Justin Jenkins Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Justin Jenkins conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 6, 2013. Justin Jenkins is the founder and lead pastor of Velocity Church. Velocity Church is a recent non-denominational church-plant in Lawrence...

Jenkins, Justin; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-06

469

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

470

Methotrexate and oral ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methotrexate is well established in the drug treatment of various neoplastic diseases. More recently it has become increasingly used as a once-weekly, low-dose treatment of disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trials have shown its effectiveness in these conditions and it is likely that dentists will encounter patients taking this drug in general dental practice. Oral ulceration can

G M J Deeming; J Collingwood; M N Pemberton

2005-01-01

471

History of oral contraception.  

PubMed

On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

Dhont, Marc

2010-12-01

472

Anaphylaxis to oral furosemide.  

PubMed

Furosemide, one of the most used diuretic drugs, rarely induces type-1 allergic reactions It is included in the non-aromatic sulfonamides but a cross-reactivity mechanism between this group and the sulfonamides antibiotics, has not been clearly demonstrated. A 24-year-old woman, 10 minutes after the intake of one pill of Seguril 40mg experienced oral itching, generalized urticaria, facial angioedema, dyspnea and hypotension. She recovered after the administration of parental adrenaline, methyl-prednisolone and dyphenhydramine. An skin prick test with furosemide (10 mg/ml) was negative. The intradermal skin tests were positive to furosemide (1 %) as well as sulfamethoxazole (0.03 mg/ml), with 10 atopic and non-atopic negative controls. The patient rejected the performance of an oral challenge test with sulfamethoxazole. IgE-mediated reactions to furosemide are infrequent, but it could be the cause of life-threatening reactions. We have reported a case of anaphylaxis after the oral administration of furosemide with a demonstrated hypersensitivity mechanism through the positive intradermal skin test. The previous administration of the drug could probably the mechanism of sensitization, but the positive intradermal test to sulfamethoxazole would open the hypothesis of a cross-reactivity between non-aromatic and antimicrobial sulfonamides. It could be necessary an oral challenge test with furosemide in allergic patients to sulfamides. PMID:14670291

Domínguez-Ortega, J; Martínez-Alonso, J C; Domínguez-Ortega, C; Fuentes, M J; Frades, A; Fernández-Colino, T

2003-01-01

473

Detection of multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We developed a DNA sequencing-based method to detect mutations in the genome of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in restricted regions of the genome. Eight genome regions associated with drug resistance, including rpoB for rifampin (RIF), katG and the mabA (fabG1)-inhA promoter for isoniazid (INH), embB for ethambutol (EMB), pncA for pyrazinamide (PZA), rpsL and rrs for streptomycin (STR), and gyrA for levofloxacin, were amplified simultaneously by PCR, and the DNA sequences were determined. It took 6.5 h to complete all procedures. Among the 138 clinical isolates tested, 55 were resistant to at least one drug. Thirty-four of 38 INH-resistant isolates (89.5%), 28 of 28 RIF-resistant isolates (100%), 15 of 18 EMB-resistant isolates (83.3%), 18 of 30 STR-resistant isolates (60%), and 17 of 17 PZA-resistant isolates (100%) had mutations related to specific drug resistance. Eighteen of these mutations had not been reported previously. These novel mutations include one in rpoB, eight in katG, one in the mabA-inhA regulatory region, two in embB, five in pncA, and one in rrs. Escherichia coli isolates expressing individually five of the eight katG mutations showed loss of catalase and INH oxidation activities, and isolates carrying any of the five pncA mutations showed no pyrazinamidase activity, indicating that these mutations are associated with INH and PZA resistance, respectively. Our sequencing-based method was also useful for testing sputa from tuberculosis patients and for screening of mutations in Mycobacterium bovis. In conclusion, our new method is useful for rapid detection of multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis and for identifying novel mutations in drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. PMID:17108078

Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Augustynowicz-Kope?, Ewa; Zwolska, Zofia; Kirikae, Fumiko; Toyota, Emiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Morita, Koji; Kudo, Koichiro; Kato, Seiya; Kuratsuji, Tadatoshi; Mori, Toru; Kirikae, Teruo

2007-01-01

474

Children's Written and Oral Spelling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether written spelling is superior to oral spelling for children in kindergarten through Grade 2, this study compared children's ability to spell real words and nonsense words orally and in writing. By first and second grade, written spellings were superior to oral spellings in both overall quality and representation of phonological…

Treiman, Rebecca; Bourassa, Derrick

2000-01-01

475

HIV and AIDS: Oral Effects  

MedlinePLUS

HIV and AIDS Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects The oral effects of HIV and AIDS occur because of your weakened immune system and ... of medicines that you may take for HIV/AIDS. Dry mouth can make you more prone to ...

476

Anticoagulation orale en pratique gériatrique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – Atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism are particularly frequent in the elderly. Whether or not prescribe oral anticoagulant treatment in the elderly is therefore a common question for the physician. Despite the benefits of anticoagulation demonstrated in clinical trials, oral anticoagulant therapy is underused in the elderly.Current knowledge and key points. – Indications for oral anticoagulation are discussed specifically

M Debray; E Pautas; P Couturier; A Franco; V Siguret

2003-01-01

477

Frame Tales and Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frame tales, medieval literary works in which characters become narrators by telling stories of their own, owe a great debt to oral tradition and transmission. Oral tradition provides much of the raw material for these texts, while at the same time providing medieval audiences and modern readers cues for understanding them. Frame tales depict oral storytelling events in such a

Bonnie D. Irwin

2003-01-01

478

Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

2015-01-01

479

Quantifying Reproducibility in Computational Biology: The Case of the Tuberculosis Drugome  

E-print Network

Quantifying Reproducibility in Computational Biology: The Case of the Tuberculosis Drugome Daniel. (2013) Quantifying Reproducibility in Computational Biology: The Case of the Tuberculosis Drugome. PLo

Gil, Yolanda

480

Genomic analysis identifies targets of convergent positive selection in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

M. tuberculosis is evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely ...

Farhat, Maha R

481

The Ins and Outs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein Export  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important pathogen that infects approximately one third of the world’s population and kills almost two million people annually. An important aspect of M. tuberculosis physiology and pathogenesis is its ability to export proteins into and across the thick mycobacterial cell envelope, where they are ideally positioned to interact with the host. In addition to the specific proteins that are exported by M. tuberculosis, the systems through which these proteins are exported represent potential targets for future drug development. M. tuberculosis possesses two well-known and conserved export systems: the housekeeping Sec pathway and the Tat pathway. In addition, M. tuberculosis possesses specialized export systems including the accessory SecA2 pathway and five ESX pathways. Here we review the current understanding of each of these export systems, with a focus on M. tuberculosis, and discuss the contribution of each system to disease and physiology. PMID:22192870

Ligon, Lauren S.; Hayden, Jennifer D.; Braunstein, Miriam

2011-01-01

482

Multicentric Spinal Tuberculosis with Sternoclavicular Joint Involvement: A Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

Background. Tuberculosis is a chronic disease which may have varied presentations. Though pulmonary tuberculosis is the commonest, extrapulmonary tuberculosis involving skeletal system is often seen. Individuals with poor nourishment and immunological status are especially susceptible for disseminated and multicentric tuberculosis. Case Report. We here present a case of tuberculosis involving multiple anatomical locations in an immune-competent patient which was diagnosed with radiological studies and confirmed with histological examination. Patient was put on multidrug antitubercular therapy and responded well to the treatment with improvement in clinical and radiological picture. Clinical Relevance. This report of a rare case makes us aware of the varied presentations which tuberculosis can present with. It should be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients with cough and fever but not responding to conventional treatment. This is even more important in countries with poor socioeconomic conditions. PMID:25389505

Meena, Umesh Kumar; Meena, Ramesh Chand

2014-01-01

483

Comprehensive Treatment of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis has been reported in 45 countries, including countries with limited resources and a high burden of tuberculosis. We describe the management of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and treatment outcomes among patients who were referred for individualized outpatient therapy in Peru. METHODS A total of 810 patients were referred for free individualized therapy, including drug treatment, resective surgery, adverse-event management, and nutritional and psychosocial support. We tested isolates from 651 patients for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and developed regimens that included five or more drugs to which the infecting isolate was not resistant. RESULTS Of the 651 patients tested, 48 (7.4%) had extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; the remaining 603 patients had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis had undergone more treatment than the other patients (mean [±SD] number of regimens, 4.2±1.9 vs. 3.2±1.6; P<0.001) and had isolates that were resistant to more drugs (number of drugs, 8.4±1.1 vs. 5.3±1.5; P<0.001). None of the patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis were coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis received daily, supervised therapy with an average of 5.3±1.3 drugs, including cycloserine, an injectable drug, and a fluoroquinolone. Twenty-nine of these patients (60.4%) completed treatment or were cured, as compared with 400 patients (66.3%) with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (P=0.36). CONCLUSIONS Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis can be cured in HIV-negative patients through outpatient treatment, even in those who have received multiple prior courses of therapy for tuberculosis. PMID:18687637

Mitnick, Carole D.; Shin, Sonya S.; Seung, Kwonjune J.; Rich, Michael L.; Atwood, Sidney S.; Furin, Jennifer J.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Alcantara Viru, Felix A.; Appleton, Sasha C.; Bayona, Jaime N.; Bonilla, Cesar A.; Chalco, Katiuska; Choi, Sharon; Franke, Molly F.; Fraser, Hamish S.F.; Guerra, Dalia; Hurtado, Rocio M.; Jazayeri, Darius; Joseph, Keith; Llaro, Karim; Mestanza, Lorena; Mukherjee, Joia S.; Muñoz, Maribel; Palacios, Eda; Sanchez, Epifanio; Sloutsky, Alexander; Becerra, Mercedes C.

2009-01-01

484

[The World Health Organization and the control of tuberculosis].  

PubMed

A brief history of the tuberculosis control programme is described. The basic issues of the programme, like BCG vaccination and case-finding are analyzed and the role of the specific Expert Committee is pointed out. Special emphasis on the task of PAHO and the Chilean participation was considered very important. The relationship between tuberculosis and HIV infection and AIDS is underlined as an emergent and relevant aspect of the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis, a real problem in the future. PMID:9838282

Yáñez, A

1998-07-01

485

Mycobacterium tuberculosis nitrogen assimilation and host colonization require aspartate  

PubMed Central

Here we identify the amino acid transporter AnsP1 as the unique aspartate importer in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Metabolomic analysis of a mutant inactivated in AnsP1 revealed the transporter is essential for M. tuberculosis to assimilate nitrogen from aspartate. Virulence of the AnsP1 mutant is impaired in vivo, revealing aspartate is a primary nitrogen source required for host colonization by the tuberculosis bacillus. PMID:24077180

Gouzy, Alexandre; Larrouy-Maumus, Gérald; Wu, Ting-Di; Peixoto, Antonio; Levillain, Florence; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Gerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro Sório; Poquet, Yannick; Neyrolles, Olivier

2013-01-01

486

Oral health policies in Brazil.  

PubMed

Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply. PMID:19838553

Pucca, Gilberto Alfredo; Costa, José Felipe Riani; Chagas, Luciana de Deus; Sivestre, Rosa Maria

2009-01-01

487

Systems Pharmacology Approach Toward the Design of Inhaled Formulations of Rifampicin and Isoniazid for Treatment of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Conventional oral therapies for the treatment of tuberculosis are limited by poor antibiotic distribution in granulomas, which contributes to lengthy treatment regimens and inadequate bacterial sterilization. Inhaled formulations are a promising strategy to increase antibiotic efficacy and reduce dose frequency. We develop a multiscale computational approach that accounts for simultaneous dynamics of a lung granuloma, carrier release kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. Using this computational platform, we predict that a rationally designed inhaled formulation of isoniazid given at a significantly reduced dose frequency has better sterilizing capabilities and reduced toxicity than the current oral regimen. Furthermore, we predict that inhaled formulations of rifampicin require unrealistic carrier antibiotic loadings that lead to early toxicity concerns. Lastly, we predict that targeting carriers to macrophages has limited effects on treatment efficacy. Our platform can be extended to account for additional antibiotics and provides a new tool for rapidly prototyping the efficacy of inhaled formulations.

Cilfone, NA; Pienaar, E; Thurber, GM; Kirschner, DE; Linderman, JJ

2015-01-01

488

Functional characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2969c membrane protein.  

PubMed

Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis membrane proteins involved in binding to and invasion of host cells is important in designing subunit-based anti-tuberculosis vaccines. The Rv2969c gene sequence was identified by PCR in M. tuberculosis complex strains, being transcribed in M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, and M. bovis BCG. Rabbits immunized with synthetic peptides from highly specific conserved regions of this protein produced antibodies recognizing 27 and 29 kDa bands in M. tuberculosis lysate, which is consistent with the molecular weight of the Rv2969c gene product in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the protein was localized on the bacillus surface. Four and three specific high activity binding peptides (HABPs) to the A549 alveolar epithelial and U937 monocyte cell lines were found, respectively. Two of the HABPs found inhibited M. tuberculosis invasion of A549 cells, suggesting that these peptides might be good candidates to be included in a multiepitopic, subunit-based anti-tuberculosis vaccine. PMID:18539140

Patarroyo, Manuel A; Plaza, David F; Ocampo, Marisol; Curtidor, Hernando; Forero, Martha; Rodriguez, Luis E; Patarroyo, Manuel E

2008-08-01

489

FDG PET/CT findings of common bile duct tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Common bile duct (CBD) tuberculosis is rare. A 39-year-old woman was referred because of a 5-month history of abdominal pain. Abdominal enhanced MRI and CT showed dilatation of the distal CBD with irregularly thickened wall. Enhanced CT revealed enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes. FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG uptake of the CBD lesion and several retroperitoneal lymph nodes with slight FDG uptake. CBD cholangiocarcinoma with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis was suspected. CBD tuberculosis was confirmed by endoluminal biopsy. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abnormal biliary FDG accumulation, particularly in tuberculosis endemic areas. PMID:23579971

Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Gong, Jing; Zuo, Changjing

2014-01-01

490

Role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Membrane Vesicles in Iron Acquisition  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the host. PMID:24415729

Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C.; Piqué, Daniel G.; Jacobs, William R.; Casadevall, Arturo

2014-01-01

491

Cutaneous miliary tuberculosis in a chronic kidney disease patient.  

PubMed

A 79-year-old Thai woman with advanced renal failure, dyslipidemia and anemia of chronic disease was admitted to hospital with prolonged fever, productive cough and multiple discrete small pustules on her face, trunk and extremities. A chest X-ray revealed diffuse miliary infiltration. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in sputum and scrapings of pustules from her skin. Blood culture identified M. tuberculosis complex. Pulmonary and cutaneous miliary tuberculosis was diagnosed. The patient's symptoms improved after 3 weeks of treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. This report details a case of cutaneous miliary tuberculosis in a non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patient. PMID:25493081

Suraprasit, Pudit; Silpa-Archa, Narumol; Triwongwaranat, Daranporn

2014-09-01

492

Mixed infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tuberculosis patients in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Summary We applied a 7 loci Variable-Number-Tandem-Repeats (VNTR-7) analysis method to identify mixed infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to estimate the rate of mixed infections among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Shanghai, China. We validated the VNTR-7 method and used it to genotype an isolate from each of the 249 from pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported from the Songjiang and Chongming districts in Shanghai during 2006. We identified 14 patients with mixed infections, and the estimated rate of mixed infections was 5.6% (14/249) (95% CI 3.1%–9.2%). Mixed infections were observed more frequently among tuberculosis patients undergoing retreatment (15.6%) than among new cases (4.1%) (p < 0.05), and among tuberculosis patients whose disease was caused by non-Beijing genotype strains (12.5%) versus Beijing genotype strains (3.5%) (p < 0.05). The VNTR-7 method is a highly sensitive, practical tool with relatively high discriminatory power, making it useful for studying mixed infections. PMID:18424179

Fang, Rendong; Li, Xia; Li, Jing; Wu, Jie; Shen, Xin; Gui, Xiaohong; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Liu, Li; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

2015-01-01

493

Computational genomics-proteomics and Phylogeny analysis of twenty one mycobacterial genomes (Tuberculosis & non Tuberculosis strains)  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Mycobacterium comprises different species, among them the most contagious and infectious bacteria. The members of the complex Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the most virulent microorganisms that have killed human and other mammals since millennia. Additionally, with the many different mycobacterial sequences available, there is a crucial need for the visualization and the simplification of their data. In this present study, we aim to highlight a comparative genome, proteome and phylogeny analysis between twenty-one mycobacterial (Tuberculosis and non tuberculosis) strains using a set of computational and bioinformatics tools (Pan and Core genome plotting, BLAST matrix and phylogeny analysis). Results Considerably the result of pan and core genome Plotting demonstrated that less than 1250 Mycobacterium gene families are conserved across all species, and a total set of about 20,000 gene families within the Mycobacterium pan-genome of twenty one mycobacterial genomes. Viewing the BLAST matrix a high similarity was found among the species of the complex Mycobacterium tuberculosis and less conservation is found with other slow growing pathogenic mycobacteria. Phylogeny analysis based on both protein conservation, as well as rRNA clearly resolve known relationships between slow growing mycobacteria. Conclusion Mycobacteria include important pathogenic species for human and animals and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is the most cause of death of the humankind. The comparative genome analysis could provide a new insight for better controlling and preventing these diseases. PMID:22929624

2012-01-01

494

Early Bactericidal Activity and Pharmacokinetics of PA-824 in Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients? †  

PubMed Central

PA-824 is a novel nitroimidazo-oxazine being evaluated for its potential to improve tuberculosis (TB) therapy. This randomized study evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and extended early bactericidal activity of PA-824 in drug-sensitive, sputum smear-positive, adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Fifteen patients per cohort received 1 of 4 doses of oral PA-824: 200, 600, 1,000, or 1,200 mg per day for 14 days. Eight subjects received once daily standard antituberculosis treatment as positive control. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean rate of change in log CFU of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum incubated on agar plates from serial overnight sputum collections, expressed as log10 CFU/day/ml (± standard deviation [SD]). The drug demonstrated increases that were dose linear but less than dose proportional in serum concentrations in doses from 200 to 1,000 mg daily. Dosing of 1,200 mg gave no additional exposure compared to 1,000 mg daily. The mean daily CFU fall under standard treatment was 0.148 (±0.055), consistent with that found in previous studies. The mean daily fall under PA-824 was 0.098 (±0.072) and was equivalent for all four dosages. PA-824 appeared safe and well tolerated; the incidence of adverse events potentially related to PA-824 appeared dose related. We conclude that PA-824 demonstrated bactericidal activity over the dose range of 200 to 1,200 mg daily over 14 days. Because maximum efficacy was unexpectedly achieved at the lowest dosage tested, the activity of lower dosages should now be explored. PMID:20498324

Diacon, Andreas H.; Dawson, Rodney; Hanekom, Madeleine; Narunsky, Kim; Maritz, Stefan J.; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R.; van Niekerk, Christo; Whitney, Karl; Rouse, Doris J.; Laurenzi, Martino W.; Ginsberg, Ann M.; Spigelman, Melvin K.

2010-01-01

495

Oral hypoglycemic agent update.  

PubMed

The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of oral hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the oral agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The oral agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the oral agents have marked limitations and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available oral agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This limits the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the oral agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the oral agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the oral agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other conditions, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675

Krall, L P; Chabot, V A

1978-07-01

496

New oral anticoagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new oral anticoagulants may prove to be one of the most significant innovations in clinical practice in the past 60 years.\\u000a Apixaban and rivaroxaban are specific inhibitors of Factor Xa while dabigatran inhibits Factor IIa. The predictable pharmacological\\u000a profile of these new agents will allow physicians to use these drugs without the need for routine coagulation monitoring which\\u000a is the

Taki Galanis; Lynda Thomson; Michael Palladino; Geno J. Merli

2011-01-01

497

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

498

Skylab oral health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

1977-01-01

499

[Extended cycle oral contraceptives].  

PubMed

Oral contraceptive pills are conventionally prescribed in a manner that causes monthly withdrawal uterine bleeding (lunar month). The reasons for this are historical without an inherent medical need. According to our literature search, there are patients' demands for less frequent menstrual cycles. We have learned from patients who were given the pill continuously for long periods due to medical or social indications that continuous administration of the contraceptive pill is feasible and safe. In the current review, the authors have searched the literature regarding extended cycle oral contraception for periods of time up to one year. This way of administration of the pill is not compromising the efficacy of pregnancy prevention, nor is it detrimental in terms of cardiovascular and hemostatic complications or endometrial malignancy. It is known that there is a slightly increased risk of breast cancer in users of oral contraceptives up to 10 years, regardless of the mode of administration. From a few studies of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, there is concern that continuous treatment may be deleterious, while sequential is not. Extended cycle contraceptive treatment has a few side effects, mainly increased breakthrough bleeding but decreased withdrawal bleeding. Other side effects were less prevalent than in conventional administration. PMID:17990394

Geist, Ruth; Beyth, Yoram

2007-10-01

500

The Effect of Garcin® in Preventing AntiTB-Induced Hepatitis in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients.  

PubMed

Adverse effects of antituberculosis agents such as hepatotoxicity may reduce treatment effectiveness, because they significantly contribute to nonadherence and eventually result in treatment failure, relapse or the emergence of drug resistance. Garlic is an ancient herbal substance, which its effectiveness on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in animal models has been demonstrated (1). In the present study a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial was designed to assess the effect(s) of garlic tablets (1000 mg daily) administered for two weeks orally. Fifty eight newly diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, with age ranges between 18-65 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups. Each patient received either garlic or placebo tablets for the first two weeks of tuberculosis treatment. Of total 58 patients, 31 received garlic tablets while 27 received placebo. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding age, sex, nationality, smoking, underlying diseases and opium usage. During 8 weeks of anti-TB (antituberculosis) treatment, 8 (13.0%) patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). Of them, 6 (75%) occurred in the first two weeks of treatment. Fifty percent of the patients who developed DIH were in garlic group. Results indicated no significant difference between groups in developing DIH (p=1.000). We could not show a significant role in preventing DIH by 1000 mg daily garlic administration. PMID:24711843

Tabarsi, Payam; Fahimi, Fanak; Heidarzadeh, Nader; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Kazempour, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01