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1

Oral tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculous lesions of the oral cavity have become so infrequent that it is virtually a forgotten disease entity and may pose a diagnostic problem. Fifteen patients with conditions that were histologically diagnosed as oral tuberculosis were reviewed. All were men ranging in age from 29 to 78 years. The most common clinical presentation was odynophagia with a duration from less than 1 week to several years. The most frequently affected sites were the tongue base and gingiva. The oral lesions took the form of an irregular ulceration or a discrete granular mass. Mandibular bone destruction was evident in two patients. Two patients had a fever, and four had cervical lymphadenopathy. Eight cases were clinically suspicious for malignancy before biopsy. Only four patients had a history of tuberculosis, but 14 of the 15 patients were later found to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in all patients. Tuberculosis should be considered in patients with an inflamed ulcer lesion. A biopsy specimen for histologic study, acid-fast stains, and cultures should be obtained for confirmation and differential diagnosis with other conditions. If a tuberculous lesion is suspected, a chest radiograph is indicated to investigate the possibility of pulmonary involvement. PMID:8705586

Eng, H L; Lu, S Y; Yang, C H; Chen, W J

1996-04-01

2

Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings  

PubMed Central

Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized. PMID:21493882

Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

2011-01-01

3

Oral tuberculosis following successful treatment of oral malignancy.  

PubMed

Coexistence of tuberculosis and neoplastic lesion in the oral cavity is a rare phenomenon. Till date, only three such cases have been reported in the English literature. A case of oral tuberculosis manifesting 3 months following the successful treatment of cancer of the oral tongue with chemoradiotherapy is presented. The diagnostic dilemma it posed, and its eventual successful control by anti-tubercular treatment, is discussed. PMID:23361293

Bagga, Preeti; Dewan, Abhinav; Agarwal, Pankaj; Garg, Charu; Datta, Niloy R

2012-01-01

4

Primary Oral Tuberculosis as an Indicator of HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

We present a case of primary oral tuberculosis that led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. Our patient had clinically nonspecific ulcers on the labial mucosa and on the ventral surface of the tongue which were diagnosed as being tuberculous only on histological examination. This raised the suspicion of HIV infection that was subsequently confirmed by blood tests. The oral lesions resolved after 4 weeks of antituberculosis treatment. Some aspects of the pathogenesis of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection are discussed. PMID:21209722

Khammissa, R. A. G.; Wood, N. H.; Meyerov, R.; Lemmer, J.; Raubenheimer, E. J.; Feller, Liviu

2011-01-01

5

Primary Oral Tuberculosis as an Indicator of HIV Infection.  

PubMed

We present a case of primary oral tuberculosis that led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. Our patient had clinically nonspecific ulcers on the labial mucosa and on the ventral surface of the tongue which were diagnosed as being tuberculous only on histological examination. This raised the suspicion of HIV infection that was subsequently confirmed by blood tests. The oral lesions resolved after 4 weeks of antituberculosis treatment. Some aspects of the pathogenesis of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection are discussed. PMID:21209722

Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J; Raubenheimer, E J; Feller, Liviu

2010-01-01

6

Multiple oral ulcers leading to diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We report a 47 year old man who presented with painful non-healing tongue ulcers of 3 months duration. Examination revealed an additional buccal ulcer that he was unaware of. Histopathology of the ulcers showed caseation necrosis. Following this report, chest radiography and sputum microscopy performed revealed pulmonary tuberculosis. From this case-study, one should be aware of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic non-healing oral ulcers, both for diagnosis as well as prevention of transmission through respiratory droplets. PMID:24883035

Nagaraj, Vezhavendhan; Sashykumar, Shanthi; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Sathish

2013-04-01

7

Oral Vaccination with Subunit Vaccines Protects Animals against Aerosol Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends largely on activation of cell-mediated responses, and gamma interferon has been shown to play a crucial role in this process in both humans and animal models. Since the lung is normally the organ in which infection is initiated and is the major site of pathology, immune responses in the lung play a significant role in restricting initial infection with M. tuberculosis. The aim of the present study was to stimulate efficient immunity in the lung by targeting the gut mucosa. Detoxified monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) has been shown to be a relatively nontoxic adjuvant which efficiently promotes the induction of type 1 responses when it is given by the traditional subcutaneous route. We have therefore compared subcutaneous immunization of mice to oral immunization by using a model subunit vaccine carrying two immunodominant proteins from M. tuberculosis, in combination with MPL-based adjuvants. While less effective when used to prime a response, a heterologous priming and boosting vaccination strategy employing oral boosting induced significant systemic type 1 responses which equaled and surpassed those attained by subcutaneous immunization protocols. Moreover, the increased immune responses observed correlated with the induction of substantial protection against subsequent aerosol infection with virulent M. tuberculosis at levels comparable to, or better than, those obtained by multiple subcutaneous vaccinations. These results demonstrate that booster vaccinations via mucosal surfaces, by combining efficient subunit vaccines with the potent adjuvant MPL, may be an effective method of addressing some of the shortcomings of current vaccination strategies. PMID:12011005

Doherty, T. Mark; Olsen, Anja Weinrich; van Pinxteren, Laurens; Andersen, Peter

2002-01-01

8

Oral bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine against tuberculosis: why not?  

PubMed Central

The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine for human use against tuberculosis (TB). Although controversy exists about its efficacy, the BCG vaccine is able to protect newborns and children against disseminated forms of TB, but fails to protect adults against active forms of TB. In the last few years, interest in the mucosal delivery route for the vaccine has been increasing owing to its increased capacity to induce protective immune responses both in the mucosal and the systemic immune compartments. Here, we show the importance of this route of vaccination in newly developed vaccines, especially for vaccines against TB. PMID:25317714

Monteiro-Maia, Renata; de Pinho, Rosa Teixeira

2014-01-01

9

Lingual tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Oral tuberculosis is very rare and when present they are usually secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculous lesions of the tongue have become so infrequent that they are virtually a forgotten disease entity and may pose a diagnostic problem. The case reported in this paper emphasizes the importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of any chronic oral ulcer. The low number of oral infections by M. tuberculosis could be due to underreporting. PMID:22670511

Mohanapriya, T; Singh, K Balaji; Arulappan, T; Dhanasekar, T

2012-01-01

10

Development of Oral Fomulation of SCV-07 for Use in Tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the immunomodulatory peptide SCV-07 was conducted as a possible therapeutic treatment for tuberculosis. This evaluation included mouse models, clinical trials and various forms of the drug such as liquid injection and development of an oral pill. It was found that SCV-07 significantly increased the survival rate of animals infected with lethal doses of Mycobacterium bovis. It enhanced the functional activity of macrophages in a dose-dependent fashion. The combination of SCV-07 with bacteriostatic drugs, such as izoniazid, was particularly effective. Phase II clinical trials in a TB clinic demonstrated that the usage of the injection form of SCV-07 for lung TB treatment in combination with standard chemotherapy decreased the quantity of patients with positive sputum assays for Mycobacteria, promoted healing of cavities in lungs, stabilized parameters of cell immunity, and resulted in a significant improvement in the general condition of patients. Clinical trials results of the oral drug form are still being evaluated.

None

2007-11-16

11

Oral vaccination reduces the incidence of tuberculosis in free-living brushtail possums  

PubMed Central

Bovine tuberculosis (Tb) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has proved refractory to eradication from domestic livestock in countries with wildlife disease reservoirs. Vaccination of wild hosts offers a way of controlling Tb in livestock without wildlife culling. This study was conducted in a Tb-endemic region of New Zealand, where the introduced Australian brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is the main wildlife reservoir of Tb. Possums were trapped and vaccinated using a prototype oral-delivery system to deliver the Tb vaccine bacille Calmette–Guerin. Vaccinated and control possums were matched according to age, sex and location, re-trapped bimonthly and assessed for Tb status by palpation and lesion aspiration; the site was depopulated after 2 years and post-mortem examinations were conducted to further identify clinical Tb cases and subclinical infection. Significantly fewer culture-confirmed Tb cases were recorded in vaccinated possums (1/51) compared with control animals (12/71); the transition probability from susceptible to infected was significantly reduced in both males and females by vaccination. Vaccine efficacy was estimated at 95 per cent (87–100%) for females and 96 per cent (82–99%) for males. Hence, this trial demonstrates that orally delivered live bacterial vaccines can significantly protect wildlife against natural disease exposure, indicating that wildlife vaccination, along with existing control methods, could be used to eradicate Tb from domestic animals. PMID:19493904

Tompkins, D. M.; Ramsey, D. S. L.; Cross, M. L.; Aldwell, F. E.; de Lisle, G. W.; Buddle, B. M.

2009-01-01

12

Oral Vaccination with Heat Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Activates the Complement System to Protect against Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-? producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar. PMID:24842853

Garrido, Joseba M.; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C.; Perez de la Lastra, Jose M.; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Fernandez de Mera, Isabel G.; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Minguijon, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucia; Dominguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramon; Gortazar, Christian

2014-01-01

13

In Vitro Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates to an Oral Carbapenem Alone or in Combination with ?-Lactamase Inhibitors.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antituberculosis (anti-TB) activity of five ?-lactams alone or in combination with ?-lactamase inhibitors against 41 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains. Of those, tebipenem, an oral carbapenem, showed the most potent anti-TB activity against clinical isolates, with a MIC range of 0.125 to 8 ?g/ml, which is achievable in the human blood. More importantly, in the presence of clavulanate, MIC values of tebipenem declined to 2 ?g/ml or less. PMID:25224000

Horita, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Shinji; Kazumi, Yuko; Doi, Norio

2014-11-01

14

Immunological responses in patients with tuberculosis and in vivo effects of acetyl-L-carnitine oral administration  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TBC) is characterized by a complex immune response which parallels the clinical course of the disease. In this respect, acquired resistance, delayed hypersensitivity reaction and anergy are the main types of immune reactivity to mycobacterial antigens. In view of the presence of nonspecific and specific immune deficits in TBC patients, a clinical trial was carried out in a group of 20 individuals with active pulmonary TBC by oral administration of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC). This drug, which has been shown to possess immunomodulating activities, was able to upregulate the T-dependent antibacterial activity in TBC patients after 30 days' treatment, while the same activity decreased in patients receiving placebo only. On the other hand, ALC did not modify serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-?, in the same individuals. This cytokine plays a detrimental rather than beneficial role in TBC pathogenesis. In the light of these data, ALC seems to be a powerful immunomodulator in the course of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and other mycobacteriosis. PMID:18475563

Altamura, Maria; Marcuccio, Carlo; Tortorella, Cosimo; De Simone, Claudio; Antonaci, Salvatore

1993-01-01

15

Community-Based Rapid Oral Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing for Tuberculosis Patients in Lima, Peru  

PubMed Central

Among tuberculosis patients, timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and early antiretroviral treatment are crucial, but are hampered by a myriad of individual and structural barriers. Community-based models to provide counseling and rapid HIV testing are few but offer promise. During November 2009–April 2010, community health workers offered and performed HIV counseling and testing by using the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to new tuberculosis cases in 22 Ministry of Health establishments and their household contacts (n = 130) in Lima, Peru. Refusal of HIV testing or study participation was low (4.7%). Intervention strengths included community-based approach with participant preference for testing site, use of a rapid, non-invasive test, and accompaniment to facilitate HIV care and family disclosure. We will expand the intervention under programmatic auspices for rapid community-based testing for new tuberculosis cases in high incidence establishments. Other potential target populations include contacts of HIV-positive persons and pregnant women. PMID:22826481

Nelson, Adrianne K.; Caldas, Adolfo; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Munoz, Maribel; Bonilla, Cesear; Yamanija, Jose; Jave, Oswaldo; Magan, Christina; Saldivar, Judith; Espiritu, Betty; Rosell, Gustavo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya

2012-01-01

16

Community-based rapid oral human immunodeficiency virus testing for tuberculosis patients in Lima, Peru.  

PubMed

Among tuberculosis patients, timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and early antiretroviral treatment are crucial, but are hampered by a myriad of individual and structural barriers. Community-based models to provide counseling and rapid HIV testing are few but offer promise. During November 2009-April 2010, community health workers offered and performed HIV counseling and testing by using the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to new tuberculosis cases in 22 Ministry of Health establishments and their household contacts (n = 130) in Lima, Peru. Refusal of HIV testing or study participation was low (4.7%). Intervention strengths included community-based approach with participant preference for testing site, use of a rapid, non-invasive test, and accompaniment to facilitate HIV care and family disclosure. We will expand the intervention under programmatic auspices for rapid community-based testing for new tuberculosis cases in high incidence establishments. Other potential target populations include contacts of HIV-positive persons and pregnant women. PMID:22826481

Nelson, Adrianne K; Caldas, Adolfo; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Muñoz, Maribel; Bonilla, Cesear; Yamanija, Jose; Jave, Oswaldo; Magan, Christina; Saldivar, Judith; Espiritu, Betty; Rosell, Gustavo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya

2012-09-01

17

Activity of IQG-607, a new orally active compound, in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated a potent in vitro inhibitory activity for two pentacyano(isoniazid)ferrate(II) compounds, namely IQG-607 and IQG-639, against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme. In this study, the activity of these compounds was evaluated using an in vivo murine model of tuberculosis. Swiss mice were infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and then IQG-607 or IQG-639 (250 mg/kg) was administered for 28 days or 56 days. In addition, a dose-response study was performed with IQG-607 at 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 250 mg/kg. The activity of test compounds was compared with that of the positive control drug isoniazid (INH) (25 mg/kg). After 28 days or 56 days of treatment, both IQG-607 and INH significantly reduced M. tuberculosis-induced splenomegaly as well as significantly diminishing the colony-forming units in the spleen and lungs. IQG-607 and INH ameliorated the lung macroscopic aspect, reducing lung lesions to a similar extent. However, IQG-639 did not significantly modify any evaluated parameter. Experiments using early and late controls of infection revealed a bactericidal activity for IQG-607. IQG-607 might well represent a good candidate for clinical development as a new antimycobacterial agent. PMID:22748570

Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês S; Dos Santos Junior, André; Dos Santos, Anderson Jader; Schneider, Cristopher Zandoná; Calixto, João B; Sousa, Eduardo Henrique Silva; de França Lopes, Luiz Gonzaga; Souto, André Arigony; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; Campos, Maria M

2012-08-01

18

Ulcer of the tongue as a presenting feature of pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Oral tuberculosis is very rare and when present they are usually secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculous lesions of the tongue have become so infrequent that they are virtually a forgotten disease entity and may pose a diagnostic problem. The case reported in this paper emphasizes the importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of any chronic oral ulcer. The low number of oral infections by M. tuberculosis could be due to underreporting. PMID:23120421

Trivedi, Anjana; Patel, Jitendra; Kalola, Jagruti

2007-06-01

19

Cutaneous Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous tuberculosis occurs rarely, despite a high and increasing prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterrium bovis, and the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine can cause tuberculosis involving the skin. Cutaneous tuberculosis can be acquired exogenously or endogenously and present as a multitude of differing clinical morphologies. Diagnosis of these lesions can be difficult, as they resemble many other dermatological conditions that are often primarily considered. Further, microbiological confirmation is poor, despite scientific advances, such as the more frequent use of polymerase chain reaction. The authors report a case that illustrates the challenges faced by dermatologists when considering a diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis. PMID:20725570

Frankel, Amylynne; Penrose, Carolin

2009-01-01

20

Hepatobiliary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Hepatobiliary tuberculosis is a rare manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and is usually secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs or gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is difficult pre-operatively in local (focal and tubular) forms because of its rarity and presentation in the form of non-specific symptoms and signs and lack of any defined criteria on imaging studies. Histopathological examination is necessary for definite diagnosis but in cases where there is suspicion of hepatobiliary tuberculosis, with PCR assay diagnosis it is possible pre-operatively. Recommended treatment is with conventional antituberculous drugs and surgical intervention in tuberculous abscess or granulomas. The disease is usually associated with good prognosis under complete antituberculous treatment. The author encountered 4 cases of hepatobiliary tuberculosis over 5 years. The aim of this article is to present current knowledge of hepatobiliary tuberculosis and to comprehensively review all the available literature. PMID:24976240

Chaudhary, Poras

2014-01-01

21

Perinatal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Perinatal tuberculosis is insufficiently understood. Its early diagnosis is essential but often difficult as the initial manifestations may be delayed. Improved screening of women at risk and sensitivity of the medical community are necessary. A coherent system of cooperation between the hospital and community services and between pediatricians and adult physicians is indispensable to find the index adult case to break the chain of contagion as well as to offer prophylactic therapy to the children at risk. We hereby report a baby with perinatal tuberculosis who was not offered any prophylactic therapy inspite of the mother being diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:11370442

Ray, M; Goraya, J S; Basu, S; Parmar, V

2001-04-01

22

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Twenty-two white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=5) received 109 colony-forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=5) received 109 cfu

P. Nol; M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; F. E. Aldwell; B. M. Buddle; J. M. Triantis; L. M. Linke; G. E. Phillips; T. C. Thacker; J. C. Rhyan; M. D. Salman; M. R. Dunbar

2008-01-01

23

Sternal Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis constitutes 15-20% of total tuberculosis (TB) case load in immuno-competent patients. Affliction of the skeletal system is rare with still rarer presentation of sternal osteomyelitis even in endemic countries. A patient with primary sternal TB presenting with multiple cutaneous sinuses over the anterior chest wall is being reported. A high element of suspicion is needed more so in resource limited setting for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24349840

Sachdeva, R; Sachdeva, S; Arora, S

2013-01-01

24

Ulcer of the tongue as a presenting feature of pulmonary tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral tuberculosis is very rare and when present they are usually secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculous lesions\\u000a of the tongue have become so infrequent that they are virtually a forgotten disease entity and may pose a diagnostic problem.\\u000a The case reported in this paper emphasizes the importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of any chronic\\u000a oral ulcer. The

Anjana Trivedi; Jitendra Patel; Jagruti Kalola

2007-01-01

25

Tuberculosis chemotherapy: current drug delivery approaches  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number of novel implant-, microparticulate-, and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems incorporating the principal anti-tuberculosis agents have been fabricated that either target the site of tuberculosis infection or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient outcomes. These developments in drug delivery represent attractive options with significant merit, however, there is a requisite to manufacture an oral system, which directly addresses issues of unacceptable rifampicin bioavailability in fixed-dose combinations. This is fostered by the need to deliver medications to patients more efficiently and with fewer side effects, especially in developing countries. The fabrication of a polymeric once-daily oral multiparticulate fixed-dose combination of the principal anti-tuberculosis drugs, which attains segregated delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid for improved rifampicin bioavailability, could be a step in the right direction in addressing issues of treatment failure due to patient non-compliance. PMID:16984627

du Toit, Lisa Claire; Pillay, Viness; Danckwerts, Michael Paul

2006-01-01

26

Abdominal tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

The abdomen is involved in 10% to 30% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis is not difficult in societies where the disease is common and clinicians are aware of it. While previously rare in Western countries, the incidence is now rising among immigrants, and patients with AIDS. In HIV-infected patients, the disease is of a rapidly progressive nature, often fatal through usually treatable, but the diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. Treatment is essentially medical but occasionally surgical operation is necessary. PMID:8154817

Ahmed, M. E.; Hassan, M. A.

1994-01-01

27

Brainstem tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 38-year-old-man who presented with 1-week history of developing weakness of peripheral and cranial nerves. His MRI scan of the brain showed a large cavitating lesion at the brainstem and two further lesions of the right cerebral cortex and his CT chest showed features of old tuberculosis (TB). The identification of acid-fast bacilli was confirmed by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage taken during bronchoscopy. He was started on anti-TB medications and repeat MRI 3 months later confirmed shrinkage of the cavitating lesion. PMID:23868024

Demetriou, George A

2013-01-01

28

Herpes - oral  

MedlinePLUS

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

29

Immunological biomarkers of tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there are no sufficiently validated biomarkers to aid the evaluation of new tuberculosis vaccine candidates, the improvement of tuberculosis diagnostics or the development of more effective and shorter treatment regimens. To date, the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or its products has not been able to adequately address these needs. Understanding the interplay between the host immune system and M.

Katharina Ronacher; Willem Hanekom; Thomas J. Scriba; Alimuddin Zumla; Gerhard Walzl

2011-01-01

30

Tuberculosis part 4: Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in dental care facilities.  

PubMed

The risk of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in oral healthcare facilities is probably low, but the consequences if it occurs, are grave. The greatest risk of exposure to Mtb transmission is associated with treating dental patients from communities with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease because these patients may have active TB but be unaware of their status. The risk of Mtb transmission in the dental surgery is heightened by dental treatment with ultrasonic and air operated high speed instruments that generate aerosols. This article offers recommendations for the necessary components of an effective Mtb infection control programme. PMID:20411836

Feller, L; Wood, N H; Chikte, U M E; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2009-10-01

31

Tuberculosis revisited: Cytological perspective.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. The clinical manifestations of tuberculosis are very nonspecific and may mimic many other conditions. An accurate diagnosis is extremely important as the disease is treatable with antituberculous therapy. Cytological examination can provide useful diagnostic material for routine and ancillary techniques for rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis. Here we review the different morphological patterns of tuberculosis, challenges, and application of ancillary techniques for cytological diagnosis of tuberculosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:993-1001. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24975566

Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Dey, Pranab

2014-11-01

32

PERSPECTIVE Candidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE Candidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes targeted by human microRNAs WeiRui Guo1-wu@northwestern.edu (J. Y. Wu), weilp@mail.cbi.pku.edu.cn (L. Wei) Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health issue in 1882, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), the causative agent for tuberculosis, remains one

Wu, Jane Y.

33

Tuberculosis in the lung (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...

34

Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

35

Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

36

Chemotherapeutic Interventions Against Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of infectious deaths globally. Many effective conventional antimycobacterial drugs have been available, however, emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has overshadowed the effectiveness of the current first and second line drugs. Further, currently available agents are complicated by serious side effects, drug interactions and long-term administration. This has prompted urgent research efforts in the discovery and development of new anti-tuberculosis agent(s). Several families of compounds are currently being explored for the treatment of tuberculosis. This review article presents an account of the existing chemotherapeutics and highlights the therapeutic potential of emerging molecules that are at different stages of development for the management of tuberculosis disease. PMID:24281707

Shakya, Neeraj; Garg, Gaurav; Agrawal, Babita; Kumar, Rakesh

2012-01-01

37

[Spleen and medullary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Spleen is a rare extra-pulmonary tuberculosis manifestation. The spleen tuberculosis is caused by the blood derivative dissemination of mycobacteria. The symptoms can suggest a hematological disease, but it is difficult to make a diagnosis, especially when there are no pulmonary changes. The case of a 27-year-old woman with unclear etiology bone marrow hypoplasia was presented. The patient experienced: fever, body weight loss, pancytopenia and spleen enlargement with numerous focal echographic changes. The splenectomy revealed in a histopathologic examination productiva caseosa tuberculosis. The bone marrow trepanobiopsy revealed as well tuberculosis changes. The antimycobacteria treatment caused an improvement of the clinical state and the regression of symptoms. PMID:20229713

B?achnio, Maria; Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Rzewuska, Ewa; Mioduszewska, Olga; Maryniak, Renata; B?achnio, Antoni

2009-01-01

38

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

39

Zebrafishing for tuberculosis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also known as Koch’s bacillus, is the causative microbe of human tuberculosis (TB) that mainly involves lungs. For centuries, pulmonary TB, known as “lao” disease in Chinese, had been a brutal killer to human beings, as no drug was available to fight it. In the second half of the twentieth century, with the discovery and clinical application of

Liwei Wang

2010-01-01

40

Spinal tuberculosis: A review  

PubMed Central

Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good. PMID:22118251

Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh

2011-01-01

41

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Pyomyositis in an Infant  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic to many parts of the world. It may have variable clinical presentations, especially in the pediatric age group. Presented here is the case of a 9-month old infant who was referred for infectious disease opinion when his thigh induration failed to improve after surgical drainage and a course of oral antibiotic therapy. Mycobacterial PCR on the operative sample fluid was found to be positive; and mycobacterial culture grew M. tuberculosis. He received 9 months of treatment with anti-TB medications, with excellent results and complete recovery. This is the first report of TB pyomyositis in an infant; and highlights the need to have a high index of suspicion for unusual organisms when conventional therapy fails to demonstrate expected results. PMID:23919207

Malik, ZA; Shehab, M

2013-01-01

42

Indoleamides are active against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Responsible for nearly two million deaths each year, the infectious disease tuberculosis remains a serious global health challenge. The emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis confounds control efforts, and new drugs with novel molecular targets are desperately needed. Here we describe lead compounds, the indoleamides, with potent activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis by targeting the mycolic acid transporter MmpL3. We identify a single mutation in mmpL3, which confers high resistance to the indoleamide class while remaining susceptible to currently used first- and second-line tuberculosis drugs, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Importantly, an indoleamide derivative exhibits dose-dependent antimycobacterial activity when orally administered to M. tuberculosis-infected mice. The bioavailability of the indoleamides, combined with their ability to kill tubercle bacilli, indicates great potential for translational developments of this structure class for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:24352433

Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Onajole, Oluseye K; Pieroni, Marco; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Chen, Gang; Tipparaju, Suresh K; Ammerman, Nicole C; Kozikowski, Alan P; Bishai, William R

2013-01-01

43

Multicentric tuberculosis at two rare sites in an immunocompetent adult.  

PubMed

The case of a 20-year-old female who presented with refractory coccydynia and sternal pain is described. She was immunocompetent, and had no systemic features. She was diagnosed with tuberculosis of the sternal and coccygeal regions based on magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology of biopsy specimens. Conservative management with oral multidrug antituberculous therapy completely cured the patient, and she had not suffered any recurrence after three years of follow-up. This case highlights the possibility of the multicentric presentation of tuberculosis at two rare sites in the same immunocompetent patient, even though the differential diagnosis was coccydynia. PMID:22006175

Singh, Saurabh; Nagaraj, Chethan; Khare, Ghanshyam N; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

2011-12-01

44

Isolated Coccygeal Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Isolated tuberculosis of the coccyx is extremely rare. A 35-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of coccygeal and gluteal pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed osseous destruction and a large enhancing mass involving the coccyx with anterior and posterior extension. Pathologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed necrosis, chronic granulomatous inflammation, and multinucleated giant cells consistent with tuberculosis. This case highlights the importance of considering tuberculosis as a diagnosis even though unusual sites are involved. PMID:23323174

Kim, Do Un; Ju, Chang IL

2012-01-01

45

[Cutaneous tuberculosis: case report].  

PubMed

Cutaneous tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is not very frequent and particularly difficult to diagnose. It incidence ranges between 1.5 and 4% of all extrapulmonary tuberculosis, according to bibliography. The clinic presentations depend on the arrival via of the bacillus to the skin, the patient's immune state and the environment. We show a cutaneous tuberculosis on a child with chronic dermatologic lesions, with torpid evolution, without response to treatments; the skin biopsy showed caseous granulomas. The aim is to show a patient with an infrequent clinic presentation of this disease, to emphasize the importance of an early recognition and treatment, avoiding the appearance of complications and sequels. PMID:24862824

Bisero, Elsa; Luque, Graciela; Melillo, Karina; Favier, María Inés; Zapata, Alejandra; Cuello, María Soledad

2014-06-01

46

Update on cutaneous tuberculosis*  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498

Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victoria; do Nascimento, Leninha Valerio; Nery, Jose Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem

2014-01-01

47

Update on cutaneous tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498

Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Nascimento, Leninha Valério do; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem

2014-12-01

48

Global Tuberculosis (TB)  

MedlinePLUS

... Peru, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, South Africa, Thailand, and Vietnam. Learn More » Data and Statistics Reported Tuberculosis in ... Lesotho Mozambique Peru Philippines Rwanda South Africa Thailand Vietnam TB Disease Screening and Diagnosis in People with ...

49

[Epidemiologic trends in tuberculosis].  

PubMed

More than 90% of all tuberculosis cases occur in developing countries. Incidence rates estimated by WHO vary from 23 per 100,000 in industrialized countries to 191 per 100,000 in Africa and 237 per 100,000 in South East Asia. the downward trend observed in most industrialized counties in the 1970's and 1980's caused a neglect that nearly made tuberculosis a forgotten disease among the medical profession and policy makers. Ths neglect has led to a catastrophe in certain large cities in the United States. The resurgence of tuberculosis can not be attributed to the HIV/AIDS epidemic alone but also to the dismantling of health care structures responsible for tuberculosis control in certain countries. PMID:8794615

Billo, N E

1996-06-01

50

[Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].  

PubMed

Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower in poorly-controlled DM patients than that in well-controlled DM patients and healthy subjects. Thus, these clinical data suggest that the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM patients is due to the impaired production of Th1-related cytokines. However, direct evidences to prove this possibility remain to be obtained. In 1980, Saiki and co-workers reported that host defense and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to M. tuberculosis was hampered in a mouse DM model established by injecting streptozotocin (Infect Immun. 1980; 28: 127-131). We followed their investigation with the similar observations. Interestingly, levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12 in serum, lung, liver and spleen after infection were significantly reduced in DM mice when compared with those in control mice. Considered collectively, these results strongly suggest that the reduced production of Th1-related cytokines leads to the susceptibility of DM to mycobacterial infection. However, it remains to be understood how DM hampers the synthesis of Th1-related cytokines. In our preliminary study, the production of these cytokines by PBMC from DM patients and healthy subjects was not affected under a high glucose condition. Thus, it is not likely that the increased level of glucose directly suppresses the cell-mediated immune responses. Further investigations are needed to make these points clear. 2. A study of gastrectomy cases in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: Takenori YAGI (Division of Thoracic Disease, National Chiba-Higashi Hospital). Patients who have undergone gastric resection are considered at increased risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis. I have investigated the role played by gastrectomy in giving rise to pulmonary tuberculosis. Of 654 pulmonary tuberculosis patients admitted to National Chiba-Higashi Hospital from January 1999 to December 2001, 55 patients (31-84 years old, mean 63.5 +/- 12.5 years, 48 males and 7 females) had the history of gastric resection. The incidence of gastrectomy among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was 8.4 percent. The mean age of gastric resection

2003-11-01

51

Tuberculosis in tropical Africa  

PubMed Central

Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere. In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another. Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes. PMID:14178027

Roelsgaard, E.; Iversen, E.; Bløcher, C.

1964-01-01

52

[Oral ulcers].  

PubMed

Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

2005-10-29

53

Tuberculosis part 3: HIV-tuberculosis co-infection.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-seropositive persons. Tuberculosis may occur at any stage of HIV disease but the prevalence of TB increases with the progressive diminution of CD4+ T cell numbers. There is a synergistic relationship between tuberculosis and HIV infection as each accelerates the progression of the other. PMID:20034289

Feller, L; Wood, N H; Chikte, U M E; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2009-09-01

54

Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

Gessner, Bradford D.

1997-01-01

55

Tuberculosis: A Problem for Lifeguards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifeguards run the risk of workplace infection by tuberculosis-carrying swimmers. Even if they work in ventilated, sunlit areas (which reduces risk), they can contract tuberculosis when performing respiratory resuscitation. Without appropriate precautions, lifeguards may be unnecessarily exposed. A tuberculosis infection control plan is needed in…

Skaros, Susan

1996-01-01

56

Development of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis during Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Treatment  

E-print Network

Development of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis during Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; 6 Tomsk Oblast Tuberculosis Services, Tomsk, Russian Federation; 7 Siberia State Medical University, Tomsk, Russian Federation; 8 Tomsk Oblast Tuberculosis Hospital, Tomsk

Cohen, Ted

57

EXPERIMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TUBERCULOSIS  

PubMed Central

1. Ultraviolet irradiation of the air of a room exercises a protective influence against natural air-borne contagion of tuberculosis in rabbits. 2. When the radiant energy is of low intensity it reduces considerably the incidence of tuberculosis. (a) It completely protects rabbits of high natural resistance from acquiring demonstrable disease though they become tuberculin sensitive. (b) It fails to protect a small proportion of rabbits of low natural resistance from fatal tuberculosis. 3. When the radiant energy is of high intensity all rabbits, whether of high or of low natural resistance, are almost completely protected from a contagion so severe that it is fatal to the great majority of rabbits of the same genetic constitution not protected by these rays. The protected rabbits do not develop tuberculin sensitivity. 4. The contagion of tuberculosis in these studies is air-borne and the radiant energy exercises its protective influence by its bactericidal properties. It is probable that ultraviolet irradiation may control air-borne contagion of human tuberculosis. PMID:19871387

Lurie, Max B.

1944-01-01

58

CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment. PMID:22212637

Lee, W-K; Van Tonder, F; Tartaglia, C J; Dagia, C; Cazzato, R L; Duddalwar, V A; Chang, S D

2012-06-01

59

Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

1 Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND Since 1985, the rate of new cases of tuberculosis, more than 26,000 new cases of active tuberculosis were reported in the US. In New York City alone, 3,700 cases of active tuberculosis were reported in 1991. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that causes

de Lijser, Peter

60

Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

61

Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

62

Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

63

Unique transcriptome signature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Although tuberculosis remains a substantial global threat, the mechanisms that enable mycobacterial persistence and replication within the human host are ill defined. This study represents the first genome-wide expression analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical lung samples, which has enabled the identification of M. tuberculosis genes actively expressed during pulmonary tuberculosis. To obtain optimal information from our DNA array analyses, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes within the context of computationally inferred protein networks. Protein networks were constructed using functional linkages established by the Rosetta stone, phylogenetic profile, conserved gene neighbor, and operon computational methods. This combined approach revealed that during pulmonary tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis actively transcribes a number of genes involved in active fortification and evasion from host defense systems. These genes may provide targets for novel intervention strategies. PMID:16428773

Rachman, Helmy; Strong, Michael; Ulrichs, Timo; Grode, Leander; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Mollenkopf, Hans; Kosmiadi, George A; Eisenberg, David; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

2006-02-01

64

[Tuberculosis in Iceland. 1976].  

PubMed

Because of signs of tuberculous lesions in old skeletons it can be stated with certainty that tuberculosis has occurred in the country shortly after the settlement. From that time and up to the seventeenth century, little or nothing is known about the occurrence of the disease. A few preserved descriptions of diseases and deaths indicate that tuberculosis has existed in the country before the advent of qualified physicians in 1760. On the basis of papers and reports from the first physicians and the first tuberculosis registers the opinions is set forth that the disease has been rare up to the latter part of the nineteenth century. During the two last decades of that century the disease began to spread more rapidly and increased steadily up to the turn of the century. Although reporting of the disease was started in the last decade of the nineteenth century the reporting was first ordered by law with the passage of the first tuberculosis Act in the year 1903. With this legislation official measures for tuberculosis control work really started in the country. The first sanatorium was built in 1910. In 1921 the tuberculosis Act was revised and since then practically all the expenses for the hospitalization and treatment of tuberculous cases has been defrayed by the state. In the year 1935 organized tuberculosis control work was begun and a special physician appointed to direct it. From then on systematic surveys were made, partly in health centers i.e. tuberculosis clinics, which were established in the main towns, and partly by means of transportable X ray units in outlying rural areas of the country. In 1939 the tuberculosis Act was again revised with special reference to the surveys and the activities of the tuberculosis clinics. This act is still in force. Some items of it are described. The procedure of the surveys and the methods of examination are described. The great majority of subjects were tuberculin tested and all positive reactors X rayed. Furthermore, X ray examination was made in all cases where tuberculin examination had not been made or was incomplete. The negative reactors were not X rayed. The tuberculin tests were percutaneous, cutaneous and intracutaneous. The X ray examination during the first years was performed by means of fluoroscopy and roentgenograms were made in all doubtful cases. In 1945 when the survey of the capital city of Reykjavík was made and comprised a total of 43,595 persons photoroentgenograms were made. After 1948 only this method together with tuberculin testing was used in all the larger towns in the country. During the period 1940-1945 such surveys were carried out in 12 medical districts, or parts thereof and included 58,837 persons or 47 percent of the entire population. The attendance in these surveys ranged from 89.3 percent to 100 percent of those considered able to attend. In the capital city, Reykjavík, the attendance was 99.32 percent. The course and prevalence of tuberculosis in Iceland from 1911 to 1970 are traced on the basis of tuberculosis reporting registers, mortality records which were ordered by law in 1911, tuberculin surveys and post mortem examinations. The deficiencies of these sources are pointed out. Since 1939 the morbidity rates are accurate. The number of reported cases of tuberculosis increases steadily up to the year 1935, when 1.6 percent of the population is reported to have active tuberculosis at the end of that year. Thereafter it begins to decline gradually the first years but abruptly in 1939, then without doubt because of the revision of the tuberculosis legislation and more exact reporting regulations. After that year the fall is almost constant with rather small fluctuations as regards new cases, relapses and total number of reported cases remaining on register at the end of each year. In 1950 the new cases are down to 1.6 per thousand and at the end of the year the rate for those remaining on register is 6.9 per thousand. In the year 1954 there is a noteworthy drop both in new cases and the total number reported, doubtless because of the ne

Sigurdsson, Sigurdur

2005-01-01

65

Inhalable Microparticles Containing Drug Combinations to Target Alveolar Macrophages for Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Drug therapy of tuberculosis (TB) requires long-term oral administration of multiple drugs for curing as well as preventing and\\/or combating multi-drug resistance. Persistent, high blood levels of antitubercular drugs resulting from prolonged oral administration of anti-TB drugs may be neither necessary nor sufficient to kill mycobacteria residing in macrophages (Mf). Inhalable biodegradable microparticles containing two of the first-line anti-TB

Rolee Sharma; Deepali Saxena; Anil K. Dwivedi; Amit Misra

2001-01-01

66

Alcohol Exacerbates Murine Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption has been described as a risk factor for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its contribution to tuberculosis has been difficult to isolate from other adverse socioeconomic factors. Our objec- tive was to evaluate the impact of alcohol consumption on pulmonary infection with M. tuberculosis in a murine model. BALB\\/c mice were maintained on the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet

Carol M. Mason; Elizabeth Dobard; Ping Zhang; Steve Nelson

2004-01-01

67

Clofazimine Analogs with Efficacy against Experimental Tuberculosis and Reduced Potential for Accumulation?  

PubMed Central

The global tuberculosis crisis urgently demands new, efficacious, orally available drugs with the potential to shorten and simplify the long and complex treatments for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant disease. Clofazimine, a riminophenazine used for many years to treat leprosy, demonstrates efficacy in animal models of tuberculosis via a novel mode of action. However, clofazimine's physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties contribute to side effects that limit its use; in particular, an extremely long half-life and propensity for tissue accumulation together with clofazimine's dye properties leads to unwelcome skin discoloration. We recently conducted a systematic structure-activity study of more than 500 riminophenazine analogs for anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity. We describe here the characteristics of 12 prioritized compounds in more detail. The new riminophenazine analogs demonstrated enhanced in vitro activity compared to clofazimine against replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv, as well as panels of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant clinical isolates. The new compounds demonstrate at least equivalent activity compared to clofazimine against intracellular M. tuberculosis and, in addition, most of them were active against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. Eleven of these more water-soluble riminophenazine analogs possess shorter half-lives than clofazimine when dosed orally to mice, suggesting that they may accumulate less. Most importantly, the nine compounds that progressed to efficacy testing demonstrated inhibition of bacterial growth in the lungs that is superior to the activity of an equivalent dose of clofazimine when administered orally for 20 days in a murine model of acute tuberculosis. The efficacy of these compounds, along with their decreased potential for accumulation and therefore perhaps also for tissue discoloration, warrants further study. PMID:21844321

Lu, Yu; Zheng, Meiqin; Wang, Bin; Fu, Lei; Zhao, Weijie; Li, Peng; Xu, Jian; Zhu, Hui; Jin, Haixia; Yin, Dali; Huang, Haihong; Upton, Anna M.; Ma, Zhenkun

2011-01-01

68

When Tuberculosis Comes Back: Who Develops Recurrent Tuberculosis in California?  

PubMed Central

Background Recurrent tuberculosis suggests potentially modifiable gaps in tuberculosis treatment and control activities. The frequency of late recurrences following treatment completion has not been well-studied. We determined the frequency of, and risk factors associated with, tuberculosis that recurs at least one year after completion of anti-tuberculosis therapy in California. Methods The study population included culture-positive, pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported to the California tuberculosis case registry from 1993 to 2007 who completed anti-tuberculosis therapy. A person with late recurrent tuberculosis was defined as an individual that appeared in the registry more than once, determined by match on name and date-of-birth, with at least one year between treatment completion of the first episode and treatment initiation of the second episode. Results Among 23,517 tuberculosis patients, 148 (0.63%) had a late recurrence. Independent risk factors for recurrence included: infection with a pyrazinamide mono-resistant isolate (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.93; p?=?0.019); initiation of an isoniazid- and rifampin-only treatment regimen (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.55; p?=?0.0412); sputum smear-positive disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.96; p?=?0.0003); human immunodeficiency virus infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.81; p?=?0.0149); and birth in the United States (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.88; p?=?0.0002). Infection with an isoniazid mono-resistant isolate was protective (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.25; p?=?0.0171). Conclusions The low frequency of late recurrent tuberculosis in California suggests that local TB control programs are largely successful at preventing this adverse outcome. Nonetheless, we identified subpopulations at increased risk of late tuberculosis recurrence that may benefit from additional medical or public health interventions. PMID:22069456

Pascopella, Lisa; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Watt, James P.; Flood, Jennifer M.

2011-01-01

69

Matrix metalloproteinases in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health pandemic. Infection is spread by the aerosol route and Mycobacterium tuberculosis must drive lung destruction to be transmitted to new hosts. Such inflammatory tissue damage is responsible for morbidity and mortality in patients. The underlying mechanisms of matrix destruction in TB remain poorly understood but consideration of the lung extracellular matrix predicts that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) will play a central role, owing to their unique ability to degrade fibrillar collagens and other matrix components. Since we proposed the concept of a matrix degrading phenotype in TB a decade ago, diverse data implicating MMPs as key mediators in TB pathology have accumulated. We review the lines of investigation that have indicated a critical role for MMPs in TB pathogenesis, consider regulatory pathways driving MMPs and propose that inhibition of MMP activity is a realistic goal as adjunctive therapy to limit immunopathology in TB. PMID:21659415

Elkington, P T; Ugarte-Gil, C A; Friedland, J S

2011-08-01

70

[Antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Although drug resistance in tuberculosis is by no means a new problem, multiple drug resistance is a cause of increasing concern. This study investigated first-line drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in a hospital environment and strains submitted as the Reference Center from 2000 to 2010. A total of 650 cultures were tested against first-line using the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Resistance to first-line drugs was detected in 142 strains, (21.85%). A total of 2% were multiresistant (MDR). Of the strains resistant to first-line drugs, the greatest resistance was found to isoniazid (7.38 %) followed by rifampin and streptomycin (3.85%), pyracinamide (2%), and ethambutol 1.23%. Only one strain was resistant to four drugs. Values. In view of the resistance observed, careful surveillance of drug resistance is recommended. PMID:24399346

Gutiérrez-Aroca, Juan Bautista; Ruiz, Pilar; Casal, Manuel

2013-12-01

71

Sensing the Killer - Tuberculosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty-fourth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. About 2 billion people are walking around infected by tuberculosis. But they don't it, because they don't have any symptoms of this terrible disease. The trick with TB is to catch it early and prevent ever-widening circles of infection.

2010-01-04

72

Chemotherapy of tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to fit the sulphonamides and sulphones out better for use in the chemotherapy of tuberculosis and leprosy, synthesis\\u000a has been effected of a series ofo-phthalic ando-toluic acid derivatives of well-known sulphonamides and disubstituted diphenyl sulphones as possible mycobacterial antagonists.\\u000a \\u000a Phthalic ando-toluic acid derivatives were chosen for synthesis in view of the recent theory advanced by Shemiakin that the

C. V. Deliwala; S. Rajagopalan

1950-01-01

73

Tuberculosis in children.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major, but often unrecognised, cause of disease and death in young children from countries with high TB incidence rates among adults. It is also relevant to paediatricians in low-incidence countries, such as Australia, because of increased international travel, immigration and refugee resettlement. This manuscript provides a brief overview of the global TB disease burden, the natural history of disease in children, and offers guidance on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB in children. PMID:24548085

Marais, Ben J

2014-10-01

74

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the frequency of speech/swallowing treatment, and the motivation of the patient. In some cases, reconstructive plastic ... consistency to exercises for weak oral muscles to learning totally new ways to swallow. In many cases, ...

75

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral ...

76

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

2011-04-01

77

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

...2014-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

2014-04-01

78

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretory proteins  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretory proteins CFP-10, ESAT-6 and the CFP10:ESAT6, Dinakar M Salunke2 and Pawan Sharma1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes death of 2­3 million people; lipopolysaccharide; NF-kB; ROS Tuberculosis is a global health problem caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb

Cai, Long

79

Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst  

PubMed Central

Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature. Here we report the case of a 23-year-old male who presented with an infra-umbilical mass that turned out to be tuberculosis of the urachal cyst. PMID:23346004

Kamal, Mir Reza; Jha, Jayesh Kumar

2013-01-01

80

Molecular evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis continues to be the main cause of death from a single infectious agent in developing countries. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is thought to have diverged from its common ancestor as recently as 15 000 years ago. Subsequently, various genetic elements have evolved over time at different rates and can be used to elucidate patterns of infection. When individual

C. Arnold

2006-01-01

81

Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.  

PubMed

Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions. PMID:22842360

Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

2012-01-01

82

Tuberculosis pharmacotherapy: strategies to optimize patient care  

PubMed Central

The treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is a mature discipline, with over 60 years of clinical experience accrued across the globe. The requisite multidrug treatment of drug-susceptible TB, however, lasts six months and has never been optimized according to current standards. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis in individuals coinfected with HIV present additional treatment challenges. This article reviews the role that existing drugs and new compounds could have in shortening or improving treatment for tuberculosis. The key to treatment shortening appears to be sterilizing activity, or the ability of drugs to kill mycobacteria that persist after the initial days of multidrug treatment. Among existing anti-TB drugs, the rifamycins hold the greatest potential for shortening treatment and improving outcomes, in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected populations, without dramatic increases in toxicity. Clinical studies underway or being planned, are supported by in vitro, animal, and human evidence of increased sterilizing activity–without significant increases in toxicity–at elevated daily doses. Fluoroquinolones also appear to have significant sterilizing activity. At least two class members are currently under evaluation for treatment shortening with different combinations of first-line drugs. However, in light of apparent rapid selection for fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants, relative frequency of serious adverse events, and a perceived need to ‘reserve’ fluoroquinolones for the treatment of drug-resistant TB, their exact role in TB treatment remains to be determined. Other possible improvements may come from inhaled delivery or split dosing (linezolid) of anti-TB drugs for which toxicity (ethionamide) or lack of absorption (aminoglycosides and polypeptides) precludes delivery of maximally effective, oral doses, once daily. New classes of drugs with novel mechanisms of action, nitroimidazopyrans and a diarylquinoline, among others, may soon provide opportunities for improving treatment of drug-resistant TB and/or shortening treatment of drug-susceptible TB. More potential options for improved TB treatment currently exist than at any other time in the last 30 years. The challenge in TB pharmacotherapy is to devise well-tolerated, efficacious, short-duration regimens that can be used successfully against drug-resistant and drug-resistant TB in a heterogeneous population of patients. PMID:19191677

Mitnick, Carole D.; McGee, Bryan; Peloquin, Charles A.

2009-01-01

83

Moyamoya syndrome in a known case of pulmonary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual association of pulmonary tuberculosis with moyamoya syndrome in a 30-year-old Filipino female who was admitted to our hospital with a 1-week history of fever and cough. Chest X-ray showed widespread bilateral consolidation with cavity, whereas sputum was positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB). Two weeks after starting antituberculous treatment, the patient developed two episodes of loss of consciousness, which were unwitnessed. Urgent brain computed tomography (CT) showed multiple infarctions, suggesting vasculitis. The electroencephalogram showed epileptic discharges. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a picture consistent with moyamoya disease. Brain CT angiography was performed and it showed the same pictures. The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis-associated moyamoya syndrome. On the following days, she was discharged on antituberculous medications, antiepileptic and oral hypoglycemic treatment. After 1 year, the patient was seen in the clinic, she was well and seizure-free. PMID:21808515

Khan, Fahmi Yousef; Kamal, Hussain; Musa, Rania; Hayati, Ahmed

2010-01-01

84

Highly structured genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in  

E-print Network

Highly structured genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Djibouti S, Djibouti Ville, Djibouti Abstract Djibouti is an East African country with a high tuberculosis incidence with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were included. Genetic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using

Choisy, Marc

85

Tuberculosis in the AIDS era.  

PubMed Central

A resurgence of tuberculosis has occurred in recent years in the United States and abroad. Deteriorating public health services, increasing numbers of immigrants from countries of endemicity, and coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have contributed to the rise in the number of cases diagnosed in the United States. Outbreaks of resistant tuberculosis, which responds poorly to therapy, have occurred in hospitals and other settings, affecting patients and health care workers. This review covers the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. In addition, public health and hospital infection control strategies are detailed. Newer approaches to epidemiologic investigation, including use of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, are discussed. Detailed consideration of the interaction between HIV infection and tuberculosis is given. We also review the latest techniques in laboratory evaluation, including the radiometric culture system, DNA probes, and PCR. Current recommendations for therapy of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, are given. Finally, the special problem of prophylaxis of persons exposed to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is considered. PMID:7621399

Sepkowitz, K A; Raffalli, J; Riley, L; Kiehn, T E; Armstrong, D

1995-01-01

86

Tuberculosis - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tuberculosis educational game and related reading, are based on the 1905 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for investigations and discoveries concerning the disease tuberculosis, "TB". In this game you will try to repeat Robert Koch's remarkable successes. Carry out your own experiments using Koch's methods and discover the bacteria causing tuberculosis. Rather than scoring points and doing things quickly, this game rewards figuring out what to do in the correct order to allow you to move on and reach the end!

2009-01-01

87

Nasal tuberculosis: a forgotten entity.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of the nose has become so infrequent that it is virtually a forgotten disease entity among younger practitioners in this country. Nevertheless, it can occur in all segments of our population and may present a confusing diagnostic problem. Two cases of primary nasal tuberculosis have been diagnosed and treated at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation since 1975. The differential diagnosis of nasal granulomatous disease usually includes Wegener's granulomatosis, midline malignant reticulosis, and sarcoidosis. We point out the necessity of including tuberculosis in this differential diagnosis. The definitive work-up and treatment are also discussed. PMID:7453457

Waldman, S R; Levine, H L; Sebek, B A; Parker, W; Tucker, H M

1981-01-01

88

Oral tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the mucosal immune system to distinguish between harmful and harmless antigens is essential for mounting protective immune responses and preventing the induction of mucosal pathology yet the basis for this remains unclear. As fed antigen can also exert systemic effects understanding oral tolerance and priming will also have important consequences for therapy and vaccination. Here we will

P Garside; A. McI Mowat

2001-01-01

89

Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.

2014-01-01

90

Immunology of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

MTB ranks as the first worldwide pathogen latently infecting one third of the population and the second leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The development of vigorous and apparently appropriate immune response upon infection with M. tuberculosis in humans and experimental animals conflict with failure to eradicate the pathogen itself and with its ability to undergo clinical latency from which it may exit. From a clinical standpoint, our views on MTB infection may take advantage from updating the overall perspective, that has quite changed over the last decade, following remarkable advances in our understanding of the manipulation of the immune system by M. tuberculosis and of the role of innate components of the immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and NK cells in the initial spread of MTB and its exit from latency. Scope of this review is to highlight the major mechanisms of MTB escape from immune control and to provide a supplementary translational perspective for the interpretation of innate immune mechanisms with particular impact on clinical aspects. PMID:24804000

Bozzano, Federica; Marras, Francesco; De Maria, Andrea

2014-01-01

91

Clinical peculiarities of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The ongoing spread of tuberculosis (TB) in poor resource countries and the recently increasing incidence in high resource countries lead to the need of updated knowledge for clinicians, particularly for pediatricians. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the most important peculiarities of TB in children. Children are less contagious than adults, but the risk of progression to active disease is higher in infants and children as compared to the subsequent ages. Diagnosis of TB in children is more difficult than in adults, because few signs are associated with primary infection, interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test are less reliable in younger children, M. tuberculosis is more rarely detected in gastric aspirates than in smears in adults and radiological findings are often not specific. Treatment of latent TB is always necessary in young children, whereas it is recommended in older children, as well as in adults, only in particular conditions. Antimycobacterial drugs are generally better tolerated in children as compared to adults, but off-label use of second-line antimycobacterial drugs is increasing, because of spreading of multidrug resistant TB worldwide. Given that TB is a disease which often involves more than one member in a family, a closer collaboration is needed between pediatricians and clinicians who take care of adults. PMID:24564419

2014-01-01

92

[Tuberculosis and traveling].  

PubMed

The traveler faces two types of specific risks for tuberculosis: that of a possible contagion through the unexpected contact with an infected person during a commercial flight (the available studies dealing mostly with cases of transmission during flights, the chapter will deal mainly with this question) and that of a possible contamination during a stay in a country with strong prevalence of TB. The ventilation in airliners is designed to limit movements of air to the front or the back of the aircraft. Moreover, studies have shown that the transmission of M. tuberculosis from passenger to passenger was observed only within the same cabin. Consequently, it is usually admitted that only passengers sitting next to the patient (3 rows ahead and behind, and 3 seats on the right and on the left of the infected passenger, depending on the aircraft's seat set-up) as well as the members of crew working in this same cabin must be warned of the potential risk a posteriori. The recommendations which follow are to be considered all the more carefully that the duration of stay is long, that the country or the geographical area is more at the risk (for example urban environment in a highly endemic zone), that the traveler is more fragile (infants and elderly people, immunodepression, etc.) and that activities during the stay will be more at risk. PMID:15622988

2004-01-01

93

[Abdominal tuberculosis: clinical and therapeutic evaluation].  

PubMed

In this paper we present our experience concerning abdominal tuberculosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate various methods and to establish therapeutic approach to patients with abdominal tuberculosis. There were six patients (3 males and 3 females), aged between 22 and 67 years old, such as: 2 patients developed peritoneal tuberculosis, 3 patients developed intestinal tuberculosis and one patient developed mesenteric lymph node tuberculosis. We concluded that early diagnosis is often impossible and laboratory report was non-specific. Because surgical treatment in abdominal tuberculosis was made in complicate forms, we concluded that enterostomy "a minima" is the best therapeutic method. PMID:15675286

Me?in?, C; Pa?alega, M; Vâlcea, D; Vasile, I

2004-01-01

94

Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Mutation Database  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death from a largely preventable and curable infectious disease, with an estimated 1.7 million deaths in 2006. Global prospects for TB control are challenged by the emergence ...

Church, George M.

95

Oral calcitonin  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N

2012-01-01

96

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

97

Global epidemiology of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

With 1.4 million deaths in 2011 and 8.7 million new cases, tuberculosis (TB) disease remains a global scourge. Global targets for reductions in the epidemiological burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by the Stop TB Partnership. Achieving these targets is the focus of national and international efforts in TB control, and demonstrating whether or not they are achieved is of major importance to guide future and sustainable investments.This paper discusses the methods used to estimate the global burden of TB; estimates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality for 2011, combined with assessment of progress toward the 2015 targets for reductions in these indicators based on trends since 1990 and projections up to 2015; trends in TB notifications and in the implementation of the Stop TB Strategy; and prospects for elimination of TB by 2050. PMID:23460002

Glaziou, Philippe; Falzon, Dennis; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario

2013-02-01

98

HIV-Associated Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6. PMID:20871843

Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

2011-01-01

99

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Despite the efforts made worldwide to reduce the number of cases of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) constitutes an important public health issue. Around 440,000 new cases of MDR-TB are estimated annually, although in 2008 only 7% of these (29,423 cases) were notified. The laboratory tests for diagnosing resistance may be phenotypic (based on culture growth in the presence of drugs) or genotypic (i.e. identification of the presence of mutations that confer resistance). The urgent need for a rapid means of detecting resistance to anti-TB drugs has resulted in the development of many genotypic methods over recent years. The treatment of MDR-TB is expensive, complex, prolonged (18-24 months) and associated with a higher incidence of adverse reactions. Some basic principles must be observed when prescribing an adequate treatment regimen for MDR-TB: (a) the association of at least four drugs (three of which should not have been used previously); (b) use of a fluoroquinolone; and (c) use of an injectable anti-TB drug. In Brazil, the therapeutic regimen for MDR-TB has been standardized and consists of five drugs: terizidone, levofloxacin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and an aminoglycoside (streptomycin or amikacin). Pulmonary resection is an important tool in the coadjuvant treatment of MDR-TB. While a recent meta-analysis revealed an average cure rate of MDR-TB of 69%, clinical studies are currently being conducted with new drugs and with drugs already available on the market but with a new indication for TB, with encouraging results that will enable more effective treatment regimens to be planned in the future. PMID:23477764

Lemos, Antônio Carlos Moreira; Matos, Eliana Dias

2013-01-01

100

INHIBITOR STUDIES ON MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS MALATE SYNTHASE  

E-print Network

The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has intensified efforts to discover novel drugs for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Targeting the persistent state of Mtb, a condition in which Mtb is resistant...

Owen, Joshua

2008-08-03

101

Global Alliance for Tuberculosis Drug Development  

MedlinePLUS

... and development of better, faster-acting, and affordable tuberculosis drugs that are available to those who need ... we are making progress in the fight against tuberculosis. Learn More About Our Work > Our Pipeline The ...

102

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: are statistical reports accurate?  

PubMed Central

Before discussing the epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and particularly urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB), unification of the terminology is necessary. The term ‘urogenital tuberculosis’ is preferable to ‘genitourinary tuberculosis’, as renal and urinary tract tuberculosis is more common than genital tuberculosis. Some understand the term ‘extrapulmonary tuberculosis’ as a specific tuberculosis (TB) lesion of all organs excluding the bronchus, lungs, pleura and intrathoracic bronchopulmonary lymph nodes, but others consider pleural TB as one form of EPTB – and it is a reason for very different proportions in the spectrum of EPTB. Enigmatic tendencies have also been revealed in patients' distribution – in neighbouring regions the incidence rate may differ significantly. Although there is no clear explanation for these tendencies, careful study of the epidemiology of EPTB in different conditions will improve early diagnosis. PMID:25165556

2014-01-01

103

Tuberculosis disease diagnosis using artificial neural networks.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, caused in most cases by microorganisms called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a great problem in most low income countries; it is the single most frequent cause of death in individuals aged fifteen to forty-nine years. Tuberculosis is important health problem in Turkey also. In this study, a study on tuberculosis diagnosis was realized by using multilayer neural networks (MLNN). For this purpose, two different MLNN structures were used. One of the structures was the MLNN with one hidden layer and the other was the MLNN with two hidden layers. A general regression neural network (GRNN) was also performed to realize tuberculosis diagnosis for the comparison. Levenberg-Marquardt algorithms were used for the training of the multilayer neural networks. The results of the study were compared with the results of the pervious similar studies reported focusing on tuberculosis diseases diagnosis. The tuberculosis dataset were taken from a state hospital's database using patient's epicrisis reports. PMID:20503614

Er, Orhan; Temurtas, Feyzullah; Tanrikulu, A Cetin

2010-06-01

104

Primary Perianal Tuberculosis in a Diabetic Patient  

PubMed Central

Primary perianal tuberculosis is a rare form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. We present a case of perianal tuberculosis without any pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement in a diabetic patient. Histopathological examination of perianal lesion demonstrated loose granulomas and positive staining for Erlich-Ziehl-Neelsen (EZN) stain. PMID:24404369

Chadha, Tandra; Adlekha, Shashikant

2013-01-01

105

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis  

E-print Network

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis Direct lung delivery of para-aminosalicylic acid potentially be used for the delivery of additional anti- tuberculosis agents such as rifampicin, aminoglucosides or fluoroquinolones. & 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS Tuberculosis treatment

106

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2010-07-01

107

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2011-07-01

108

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2012-07-01

109

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2010-01-01

110

Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer  

E-print Network

Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer Denise Kirschner and Simeone Marino of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the immune system. Different mathematical models were formulated on the basis that contribute to the success of M. tuberculosis as a human pathogen. Our goal is to stimulate experimentation

Kirschner, Denise

111

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2013-01-01

112

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2013-07-01

113

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis  

E-print Network

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis Visualization of microarray results to assist on Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used to develop and evaluate the visualization tool and initiate the development. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2003.12.012 Tuberculosis (2004) 84, 275­281 #12;define

Sergot, Marek

114

[Variability and diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Five hundred-ninety new cases of tuberculosis were analyzed in Republic Santariskiu Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital during 06 1997-06 2001. Mean age of patients - 47+/-30 years. All cases were classified based on international tuberculosis classification: pulmonary tuberculosis (A15, A16) - 409 cases; tuberculosis pleurisy (A15.6, A16.5) - 169; miliary tuberculosis (A19) - 11; generalized tuberculous lymphadenitis (A18.5) - 1. Pulmonary tuberculosis confirmed by sputum smear (A15.0) was prevalent in the structure of new tuberculosis cases (26.4%); pulmonary tuberculosis was confirmed by culture (A15.1) in 14.1%; by histology (A15.2) - in 10.3%. Unconfirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (A16) and tuberculous pleurisy (A16.5) amounted to 28.5%. Liver biopsy and positive sputum cultures for mycobacterias mostly confirmed tuberculosis diagnosis in miliary tuberculosis cases. From all tuberculous pleurisy cases in 65% the diagnosis was confirmed by bacteriology and/or histology. PMID:12552162

Kaminskaite, Ausra

2002-01-01

115

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female. PMID:22431929

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

116

Efficacy of Microencapsulated Rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Mice  

PubMed Central

Rifampin is a first-line drug useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. By using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers, two microsphere formulations were developed for targeted and sustained delivery of rifampin, with minimal dosing. A small-microsphere formulation, with demonstrated ability to inhibit intracellularly replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was tested along with a large-microsphere formulation in an infected mouse model. Results revealed that by using a single treatment of the large-microsphere formulation, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in M. tuberculosis H37Rv CFUs in the lungs of mice by 26 days postinfection. A combination of small (given as two injections on day 0 and day 7) and large (given as one injection at day 0) rifampin-loaded microsphere formulations resulted in significant reductions in CFUs in the lungs by 26 days, achieving a 1.23 log10 reduction in CFUs. By comparison, oral treatment with 5, 10, or 20 mg of rifampin/kg of body weight, administered every day, resulted in a reduction of 0.42, 1.7, or 1.8 log10 units, respectively. Thus the microsphere formulations, administered in one or two doses, were able to achieve results in mice similar to those obtained with a daily drug regimen within the range of the highest clinically tolerated dosage in humans. These results demonstrate that microsphere formulations of antimycobacterial drugs such as rifampin can be used for therapy of tuberculosis with minimal dosing. PMID:10223927

Quenelle, Debra C.; Staas, Jay K.; Winchester, Gary A.; Barrow, Esther L. W.; Barrow, William W.

1999-01-01

117

Natural history of tuberculosis. Epidemiology.  

PubMed

This Symposium honours the achievements of Dr Karel Styblo. In this presentation, specific epidemiologic insights are reviewed. Studies of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Eskimos showed a picture of tuberculosis at the height of the epidemic. Very high incidence was observed in young people who experienced a high fatality rate. Application of specific control measures were accompanied by rapid decline in rates, greater than observed in any other human population, demonstrating that tuberculosis could be brought under control by specific intervention. Studies of the natural trend of tuberculosis in South India showed that, even in the absence of intervention, a decline was observed in the rates of this disease. In the absence of chemotherapy, 50 per cent of cases die within 5 years, 30 per cent recover spontaneously and 20 per cent remain sputum positive. Studies of the efficacy of BCG in Madras, enabled to study the impact of efficient case-finding associated with poor treatment results showing that such a situation multiplies the number of surviving, infectious cases in the community and, thus, actually deteriorates the epidemiological situation. These various basic studies have shown both how to create success and how to create failure in tuberculosis programmes. PMID:1687514

Grzybowski, S

1991-12-01

118

Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

Saif, Muhammad Wasif

2014-01-01

119

Tuberculosis in the elderly.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) today remains one of the world's most lethal infectious diseases. An estimated one-third of the world's population is infected with the tubercle bacillus-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and 7 to 8 million people develop TB disease each year (27). For purpose of clarity, TB infection (latent TB) is defined as harboring Mtb without evidence of active infection, and TB disease is active infection without Mtb based on clinical and laboratory findings. Recognizing that TB has been one of the most neglected international health problems and that the TB epidemic is rampant in many parts of the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared TB to be a global health emergency in 1993 (23). Despite the steady decline in TB cases since this time resulting from the overall implementation of more effective infection control practices, directly observed therapy (DOT), and efforts to control the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic, preventive and control strategies among other high-risk populations such as the elderly evidently remain a clinical and epidemiological challenge. The geriatric population among all ethnic groups and both genders, represent the largest reservoir of TB infection, particularly in developed nations (9). Clinical features of TB in older adults may be atypical, non-specific, and confused with concomitant age-related diseases (28). Underlying acute or chronic diseases, malnutrition, and the biological changes with aging, can disrupt integumental barriers, impair microbial clearance mechanisms, and contribute to the expected age-associated decline in cellular immune responses to infecting agents such as Mtb. Diagnosis of TB can be difficult and consequently overlooked; this treatable infection may unfortunately be recognized only at autopsy. Furthermore, therapy of TB in the elderly is challenging because of the increased incidence of adverse drug reactions. Optimal treatment of associated chronic diseases, minimization of invasive procedures, limitation of polypharmacy, and adequate nutritional support are essential for this vulnerable population. The institutionalized elderly in addition are especially at high risk for reactivation of latent TB as well as susceptible to new TB infection. This article will discuss the global epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunologic aspects, unique clinical consideration, treatment and prevention of TB, briefly inclusive of the recent published guidelines for targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent TB infection as it pertains to the elderly. PMID:11130191

Rajagopalan, S; Yoshikawa, T T

2000-10-01

120

Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

2013-06-01

121

A case of extensive multifocal tuberculosis verrucosa cutis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is probably as old as the human race itself. Cutaneous tuberculosis constitutes a very small proportion of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Extensive, multifocal involvement of cutaneous tuberculosis is a very rare manifestation. We report one such case of extensive, multifocal tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in a 30-year-old immunocompetent male patient in the absence of any primary tubercular focus. PMID:25071280

Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Pragasam, Vijendran; Badad, Ambresh

2014-07-01

122

A Case of Extensive Multifocal Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is probably as old as the human race itself. Cutaneous tuberculosis constitutes a very small proportion of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Extensive, multifocal involvement of cutaneous tuberculosis is a very rare manifestation. We report one such case of extensive, multifocal tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in a 30-year-old immunocompetent male patient in the absence of any primary tubercular focus. PMID:25071280

Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Pragasam, Vijendran; Badad, Ambresh

2014-01-01

123

Evaluation of Oral Antiseptic Rinsing before Sputum Collection To Reduce Contamination of Mycobacterial Cultures?  

PubMed Central

To assess whether rinsing with oral antiseptics before sputum collection would reduce contamination of mycobacterial cultures, 120 patients with suspected tuberculosis were randomly assigned to rinse with chlorhexidine or cetylpyridinium mouthwash before collection. The culture contamination rate was significantly lower after rinsing with chlorhexidine before collection, especially for cultures grown in MGIT medium. PMID:21677070

Peres, Renata L.; Palaci, Moises; Loureiro, Rafaela B.; Dietze, Reynaldo; Johnson, John L.; Golub, Jonathan E.; Ruffino-Netto, A.; Maciel, Ethel L.

2011-01-01

124

New drugs to treat tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) has been a leading cause of death for more than a century. While effective therapies exist, treatment is long and cumbersome. Tuberculosis control is complicated by the overlapping problems created by global inadequacy of public health infrastructures, the interaction of the TB and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics, and the emergence of drug-resistant TB. After a long period of neglect, there is now significant progress in development of TB diagnostics and therapeutics. Focusing on treatment for active TB, we review the new pathways to TB regimen development, and the new and repurposed anti-TB agents in clinical development. PMID:22719795

2012-01-01

125

Oral dirofilariasis.  

PubMed

Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic. PMID:24992859

Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

2014-01-01

126

Oesophageal tuberculosis mimicking a tumour during treatment for nodal tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

A patient with cervical lymph node tuberculosis developed a tubercular ulcer in the oesophagus eight weeks after starting treatment. This was probably due to a drug related hypersensitivity reaction in an adjacent mediastinal lymph node and subsided with continued treatment. Images PMID:8153930

Kaur, U; Katariya, S; Bhusnurmath, S R; Bambery, P; Dilawari, J B

1993-01-01

127

Forum in immunology Live attenuated mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Forum in immunology Live attenuated mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as candidate vaccines against tuberculosis Vasan K. Sambandamurthy, William R. Jacobs Jr. * Department of Microbiology to manipulate Mycobacterium tuberculosis have led to the construction of defined mutants and to the study

128

The Guinea-Bissau Family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Revisited  

E-print Network

The Guinea-Bissau Family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Revisited Ramona Groenheit1, 8 WHO Supranational TB Reference Laboratory, Tuberculosis and Mycobacteria Unit, Institut Pasteur de of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that, although genotypically closely related, phenotypically demonstrates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence?  

E-print Network

Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence? Olivier Neyrolles1 of Electron Microscopy, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), has the ability to persist in its human host for exceptionally long

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Truman State University Student Health Center Tuberculosis Screening Form  

E-print Network

Truman State University Student Health Center Tuberculosis Screening Form Name been exposed to Tuberculosis since your last TB skin test? Yes No If yes, when and where did the exposure occur? ________________________________________ Have you ever been treated for Tuberculosis? Yes

Gering, Jon C.

131

Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Montreal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the epidemiologic caracteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in Mon- treal and the patterns of resistance to antituberculous drugs in order to improve TB control in the region. Design: Descriptive analysis of surveillance data for TB cases reported in Montreal by physicians and laboratories between 1992 and 1995. Setting: Region of Montreal, population 1 775 899. Participants: All cases

Paul Rivest; Terry Tannenbaum; Lucie Bédard

132

Acid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to acid have been studied extensively in enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Heli- cobacter pylori that encounter the extremely low pH (pH 2 to 3) of the stomach during ingestion. In contrast, much less is known about how obligate or facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis respond, resist, and persist in the moderately acid

Omar H. Vandal; Carl F. Nathan; Sabine Ehrt

2009-01-01

133

A Recombinant Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis Vaccine Strain Is Safe in Immunosuppressed Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Infant Macaques  

PubMed Central

Many resource-poor countries are faced with concurrent epidemics of AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively. Dual infections with HIV and M. tuberculosis are especially severe in infants. There is, however, no effective HIV vaccine, and the only licensed TB vaccine, the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, can cause disseminated mycobacterial disease in HIV-infected children. Thus, a pediatric vaccine to prevent HIV and M. tuberculosis infections is urgently needed. We hypothesized that a highly attenuated M. tuberculosis strain containing HIV antigens could be safely administered at birth and induce mucosal and systemic immune responses to protect against HIV and TB infections, and we rationalized that vaccine safety could be most rigorously assessed in immunocompromised hosts. Of three vaccine candidates tested, the recombinant attenuated M. tuberculosis strain mc26435 carrying a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag expression plasmid and harboring attenuations of genes critical for replication (panCD and leuCD) and immune evasion (secA2), was found to be safe for oral or intradermal administration to non-SIV-infected and SIV-infected infant macaques. Safety was defined as the absence of clinical symptoms, a lack of histopathological changes indicative of M. tuberculosis infection, and a lack of mycobacterial dissemination. These data represent an important step in the development of novel TB vaccines and suggest that a combination recombinant attenuated M. tuberculosis-HIV vaccine could be a safe alternative to BCG for the pediatric population as a whole and, more importantly, for the extreme at-risk group of HIV-infected infants. PMID:22695156

Jensen, Kara; Ranganathan, Uma Devi K.; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Canfield, Don R.; Khan, Imran; Ravindran, Resmi; Luciw, Paul A.; Jacobs, William R.; Fennelly, Glenn; Larsen, Michelle H.

2012-01-01

134

RIFAMYCIN-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1998-2008; an Analysis of the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System.  

E-print Network

??RIFAMYCIN-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1998-2008; an Analysis of the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System By Lisa Sharling Background: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in the… (more)

Sharling, Lisa

2011-01-01

135

Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence  

E-print Network

by diabetes are fully exposed to the tuberculosis risk. One underlying risk factor for tuberculosis that may not be equally distributed between those with and without dia- betes in India is poverty. Consistent with this a recent case control study from India... the death rate from tuberculo- sis, and improving its detection and treatment. It is widely recognised that HIV makes a substantial contribution to the global tuberculosis crisis. It is also known that cooper- ation to target HIV and tuberculosis...

Stevenson, Catherine R; Forouhi, Nita G; Roglic, Gojka; Williams, Brian G; Lauer, Jeremy A; Dye, Christopher; Unwin, Nigel

2007-09-06

136

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Casablanca, Morocco Loubna Tazi a,*, Ralf Reintjes b,c , Anne-Laure Ban in most developing countries, tuberculosis represents a major public health problem in Morocco. This paper

137

Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis in Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis persists as a public health problem in Honduras. A better knowledge of the molecular characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains will contribute to understand the transmission dynamics of the disease within the country. The aim of this study was to provide an insight of the genetic biodiversity of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Honduras between 1994 and 2002.

Senia Rosales; Lelany Pineda-García; Solomon Ghebremichael; Nalin Rastogi; Sven E Hoffner

2010-01-01

138

Revisiting the Natural History of Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects a person it can persist for a long time in a process called latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). LTBI has traditionally\\u000a been considered to involve the bacilli remaining in a non-replicating state (dormant) in old lesions but still retaining their\\u000a ability to induce reactivation and cause active tuberculosis (TB) once a disruption of the immune response takes

Pere-Joan Cardona

2010-01-01

139

Pulmonary Tuberculoma and Miliary Tuberculosis in Silicosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a disease with protean manifestations. We present a case which was initially suspected as bronchogenic carcinoma with lymphangitic carcinomatosis, based on radiological appearance but later diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculoma with military tuberculosis and silicosis after thoracotomy and open lung biopsy. The patient was treated successfully with Antituberculosis Therapy (ATT). Rarity of presentation in form of pulmonary tuberculoma co-existing with histological features of miliary tuberculosis and silicosis, led us to report this case. PMID:23543249

Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Karmakar, Saurabh

2013-01-01

140

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

141

Tuberculosis, bronchiectasis and chronic airflow obstruction.  

PubMed

Both tuberculosis and bronchiectasis carry a significant burden worldwide in terms of morbidity and mortality, as well as financial, especially in the developing world. Epidemiological data for tuberculosis are now more readily available since the World Health Organisation declared it 'a global emergency' in 1993. The global prevalence of bronchiectasis, a recognized sequel of tuberculosis, is unknown, but is by no means insignificant. The pathophysiology of chronic airflow obstruction in both of these diseases is poorly understood, but it is associated with an accelerated rate of loss in pulmonary function. This article examines the global burden of tuberculosis and bronchiectasis, and focuses on the interrelation with chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:20409028

Jordan, Toni S; Spencer, Elspeth M; Davies, Peter

2010-05-01

142

Neurons Are Host Cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system. PMID:24566619

Randall, Philippa J.; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M.; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagne, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston

2014-01-01

143

[Development of a serological test for tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Antigens secreted by M. tuberculosis in the culture medium and antigens obtained from sonicated M. tuberculosis were characterized, at the laboratory of Tropical Hygiene of the Royal Tropical Institute and the division of Pulmonary Medicine at the Academic Medical Centre, in order to explore which antigens could be valuable in the development of a serological test for tuberculosis. Using murine monoclonal antibodies in immunoblot, a pattern of protein bands distinct from that of the corresponding M. tuberculosis sonicate was found in the culture medium. The major protein bands of the culture medium, of 24 and 12 kD, and the major protein band of 16 kD in sonicate were purified. These antigens were tested in ELISA with sera from 20 patients with tuberculosis, diagnosed by a positive culture of M. tuberculosis, and from 21 control subjects. The ELISA results obtained with these 3 antigens were combined and the mean value obtained in the control group plus 2 times the standard deviation was chosen as the cut-off level. Sixteen of the 20 patients with tuberculosis had antibodies against 1 of the purified antigens, while none of the control subjects had. By combining the results, obtained with these 3 antigens, 17 of the 20 patients with tuberculosis were positive in this serological test and none of the control subjects. The 24, 12 and 16 kD antigens may be valuable for the development of a serological test for tuberculosis. PMID:1900580

Verbon, A; Kuijper, S; Jansen, H M; Speelman, P; Kolk, A H

1991-01-26

144

Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen. PMID:24391302

Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick PJ; Balasegaram, Manica

2014-01-01

145

BALToma masquerading as pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A 53-year-old man with a significant smoking history presented with chronic cough, exertional breathlessness, intermittent fever, weight loss and anorexia. A review of his past medical records revealed he was diagnosed to have sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis 5?years earlier, for which he had received multiple courses of incomplete antitubercular therapy. This time, though he was primarily suspected to have active pulmonary tuberculosis, lack of microbiological evidence and further investigations including histopathological evaluation of lung lesions confirmed a diagnosis of Marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALToma/BALToma). The patient was managed with radical radiation therapy to which he responded well. PMID:25398919

Magazine, Rahul; Shahul, Hameed Aboobackar; Monappa, Vidya; Chogtu, Bharti

2014-01-01

146

Pharmacotherapy for multidrug resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The current global concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is the emergence of resistance to the two most potent drugs namely, isoniazid and rifampicin. Emergence of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is now a health problem faced by most of the developing countries as well as developed countries across the globe. MDR-TB is a man-made disease that is caused by improper treatment, inadequate drug supplies, and poor patient supervision. HIV infection and AIDS have been implicated as important cause for this. The review of a published literature suggests that the most powerful predictor of treatment of MDR-TB is a history of treatment of TB. Although the treatment is efficacious, there are also a number of adverse effects caused by drugs used in the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:22629081

Chhabra, Naveen; Aseri, M L; Dixit, Ramakant; Gaur, S

2012-04-01

147

Pharmacotherapy for multidrug resistant tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The current global concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is the emergence of resistance to the two most potent drugs namely, isoniazid and rifampicin. Emergence of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is now a health problem faced by most of the developing countries as well as developed countries across the globe. MDR-TB is a man-made disease that is caused by improper treatment, inadequate drug supplies, and poor patient supervision. HIV infection and AIDS have been implicated as important cause for this. The review of a published literature suggests that the most powerful predictor of treatment of MDR-TB is a history of treatment of TB. Although the treatment is efficacious, there are also a number of adverse effects caused by drugs used in the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:22629081

Chhabra, Naveen; Aseri, M. L.; Dixit, Ramakant; Gaur, S.

2012-01-01

148

Rapid microbiologic and pharmacologic evaluation of experimental compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The assessment of physiochemical and pharmacological properties at early stages of drug discovery can accelerate the conversion of hits and leads into candidates for further development. A strategy for streamlined evaluation of compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the early preclinical stage is presented in this report. As a primary assay to rapidly select experimental compounds with sufficient in vitro activity, the growth inhibition microtiter plate assay was devised as an alternative to current methods. This microdilution plate assay is a liquid culture method based on spectrophotometric readings of the bacillary growth. The performance of this method was compared to the performance of two established susceptibility methods using clinical available tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Data generated from all three assays were similar for all of the tested compounds. A second simple bioassay was devised to assess the oral bioavailability of compounds prior to extensive in vivo efficacy testing. The bioassay estimates drug concentrations in collected serum samples by a microdilution MIC plate method using M. tuberculosis. In the same assay, the MIC of the compound is also determined in the presence of 10% mouse serum as an indication of protein binding. The method was validated using different clinically available TB drugs, and results are discussed in this report. With these methodological advances, screening of compounds against tuberculosis in the preclinical phase will be rapid, can be adapted to semi-high-throughput screening, and will add relevant physicochemical and basic pharmacological criteria to the decision process of drug discovery. PMID:16569835

Gruppo, Veronica; Johnson, Christine M; Marietta, Karen S; Scherman, Hataichanok; Zink, Erin E; Crick, Dean C; Adams, Linda B; Orme, Ian M; Lenaerts, Anne J

2006-04-01

149

Best drug treatment for multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are generally thought to have high mortality rates. However, many cases can be treated with the right combination and rational use of available antituberculosis drugs. This Review describes the evidence available for each drug and discusses the basis for recommendations for the treatment of patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis. The recommended regimen is the combination of at least four drugs to which the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolate is likely to be susceptible. Drugs are chosen with a stepwise selection process through five groups on the basis of efficacy, safety, and cost. Among the first group (the oral first-line drugs) high-dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are thought of as an adjunct for the treatment of MDR and XDR tuberculosis. The second group is the fluoroquinolones, of which the first choice is high-dose levofloxacin. The third group are the injectable drugs, which should be used in the following order: capreomycin, kanamycin, then amikacin. The fourth group are called the second-line drugs and should be used in the following order: thioamides, cycloserine, then aminosalicylic acid. The fifth group includes drugs that are not very effective or for which there are sparse clinical data. Drugs in group five should be used in the following order: clofazimine, amoxicillin with clavulanate, linezolid, carbapenems, thioacetazone, then clarithromycin. PMID:20797644

Caminero, José A; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Zumla, Alimuddin; Migliori, Giovanni Battista

2010-09-01

150

Tuberculosis of the tongue in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate and adalimumab.  

PubMed

In recent years Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF alfa) inhibitors have been highly effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, patients receiving these inhibitors have an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). We describe a rare case of tuberculosis of the tongue in an RA patient treated with methotrexate (MTX) and the TNF alfa inhibitor adalimumab (ADA) for the previous six years. Pretreatment tuberculin skin test (TST) was negative. The patient was admitted to our division complaining of a sore throat for months. Clinical examination revealed a swollen non-healing ulcer at the base of the tongue, which was suspected to be a squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathological assessment unexpectedly revealed a chronic granulomatous inflammation compatible with tuberculosis. TST was strongly positive and the T Spot TB test was also reactive. MTX and ADA were discontinued and the patient received antituberculous treatment with complete healing of the lesion. After three months our patient had a worsening RA that was treated with MTX and rituximab with no TB related adverse events. This case highlights the importance of considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity, especially in immunocompromised patients treated with TNF alfa inhibitors. Rituximab can be a valid alternative therapy in such patients. PMID:24955803

Assante, Luca Rosario; Barra, Enrica; Bocchino, Marialuisa; Zuccarini, Giacomo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Sanduzzi, Alessandro

2014-06-01

151

Drug tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis is eradicated rapidly during therapy in some patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, it can persist for many months in others. This study examined the relationship between mycobacterial drug tolerance (delayed killing in vitro), persistence, and relapse. It was performed with 39 fully drug-susceptible isolates from a prospective trial of standard short-course antituberculous therapy with sputum smear-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis in Brazil and Uganda. The rate of killing in vitro was determined by monitoring the growth index (GI) in BACTEC 12B medium after addition of drug to established cultures and was measured as the number of days required for 99% sterilization. Drugs differed significantly in bactericidal activity, in the following order from greatest to least, rifampin > isoniazid-ethambutol > ethambutol (P < 0.001). Isolates from subjects who had relapses (n = 2) or in whom persistence was prolonged (n = 1) were significantly more tolerant of isoniazid-ethambutol and rifampin than isolates from other subjects (P < 0.01). More generally, the duration of persistence during therapy was predicted by strain tolerance to isoniazid and rifampin (P = 0.012 and 0.026, respectively). Tolerance to isoniazid-ethambutol and tolerance to rifampin were highly correlated (P < 0.001). Tolerant isolates did not differ from others with respect to the MIC of isoniazid; the rate of killing of a tolerant isolate by isoniazid-ethambutol was not increased at higher drug concentrations. These observations suggest that tolerance may not be due to drug-specific mechanisms. Tolerance was of the phenotypic type, although increased tolerance appeared to emerge after prolonged drug exposure in vivo. This study suggests that drug tolerance may be an important determinant of the outcome of therapy for tuberculosis. PMID:10543735

Wallis, R S; Patil, S; Cheon, S H; Edmonds, K; Phillips, M; Perkins, M D; Joloba, M; Namale, A; Johnson, J L; Teixeira, L; Dietze, R; Siddiqi, S; Mugerwa, R D; Eisenach, K; Ellner, J J

1999-11-01

152

Update on latent tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

Latent tuberculosis infection refers to an asymptomatic, nontransmissible infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, carrying a 5% to 10% lifetime risk of progressing to active disease. One-half of this risk occurs within the first two years after infection. High-risk groups include recent immigrants from high-incidence countries, health care professionals, persons living or working in institutional settings, and homeless persons. Risk factors for progression to active disease include immunodeficiency, recent exposure to tuberculosis, and chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis. Tuberculin skin testing has several limitations, including the need for multiple office visits and the potential for false-positive results in patients who have received the bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine or been exposed to environmental mycobacteria. Interferon-gamma release assays address these deficiencies but are limited by their cost and requirement for blood processing. Interferon-gamma release assays are preferred in immigrants exposed to bacillus Calmette-Guérin and in patients who are not likely to return for interpretation of skin test results. Tuberculin skin testing is preferred for children younger than five years. Active disease should be excluded before initiating treatment. The newest treatment option of 12 weekly doses of isoniazid and rifapentine has similar or better effectiveness than standard nine-month therapy with daily isoniazid. A four-month regimen of daily rifampin is another alternative. PMID:25077395

Hartman-Adams, Holly; Clark, Karen; Juckett, Gregory

2014-06-01

153

Section three: oral cancers.  

PubMed

Oral cancers are uncommon in the United States. Risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and high-risk oral human papillomavirus infection. Precancerous lesions, such as leukoplakia, may lead to oral cancers, but the majority of precancerous lesions never undergo malignant transformation. Management and prognosis for oral cancers vary widely depending on the site of the cancer. Lip cancers typically are detected early and have the greatest likelihood for cure and long-term patient survival. Cancers of the pharynx and tonsil have poor survival rates even when diagnosed in early stages. The best approach to preventing oral cancers is to control risk factors. PMID:24328950

Hueston, William J; Kaur, Dipinpreet

2013-12-01

154

How can immunology contribute to the control of tuberculosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis poses a significant threat to mankind. Multidrug-resistant strains are on the rise, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Satisfactory control of tuberculosis can only be achieved using a highly efficacious vaccine. Tuberculosis is particularly challenging for the immune system. The intracellular location of the pathogen shields it from antibodies, and a variety of

Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

2001-01-01

155

Tuberculosis: Art Therapy with Patients in Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tuberculosis is reappearing with increasing prevalence and presenting new treatment challenges. Art therapy, which partly originated in a tuberculosis sanatoria, again serves to assist patients in coping with their illness and confinement. Case examples illustrate aspects of the disease and related emotions and highlight the potential for such an…

Rosner-David, Irene; Ilusorio, Shereen

1995-01-01

156

Tuberculosis: will it infect wild elk?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tuberculosis! Just the name conjures up images of a devastating, chronic, debilitating disease. And so it is in both humans and animals. Tuberculosis (TB) is not known to be present to any significant degree in the free-ranging elk herds of North America. But increasing reports of TB in deer species-including elk-on game ranches prompt grave concern.

Roffe, T. J.; Smith, B.

1992-01-01

157

Diagnosis and therapy for prostate tuberculosis.  

PubMed

In its 2012 global report on tuberculosis, the World Health Organization estimated that 3-7% (range 2.1-5.2%) of new cases and 20% (range 13-26%) of previously treated cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (defined as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that are resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid). In many countries in Eastern Europe and central Asia, 9-32% of new patients and more than 50% of previously treated patients have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Ninety-three patients with suspected prostate tuberculosis were enrolled in this study and all underwent prostate biopsy. This method allowed confirmation of diagnosis in 32 patients (34.4%): 23 by histology, six by culture and five by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (among them, two also had positive culture). The efficiency of an optimized scheme for the therapy of prostate tuberculosis (the second part of the study) was estimated in 53 patients. The first group (25 patients) was treated with a standard scheme of chemotherapy; the second group (28 prostate tuberculosis patients) received ofloxacin in addition for 2 months during the intensive phase. The phase continuation in both groups was identical, with rifampicin and isoniazid administered for 6 months. Optimization of the standard therapy by additional administration of ofloxacin improved results of the treatment in 33.8% of patients. PMID:25083162

Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Brizhatyuk, Elena; Khomyakov, Victor

2014-08-01

158

Using Peer Helpers for Tuberculosis Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a peer helper program initiated by the University of Iowa Student Health Services to prevent active tuberculosis development among foreign national students. Before instituting the program, compliance with tuberculosis prevention efforts for those students was less than 5%. Since the peer program was instituted, compliance has risen to…

McCue, Maureen; Afifi, Larry Anna

1996-01-01

159

TBNET - Collaborative research on tuberculosis in Europe  

PubMed Central

Networking is a key feature of scientific success. The Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup (TBNET) was founded in 2006 as a non-profit, non-governmental peer-initiated scientific organization to collaboratively address research priorities in the area of tuberculosis in Europe. Today, TBNET is the largest tuberculosis research organization in Europe with nearly 500 members from 22 EU countries and 49 countries worldwide (www.tb-net.org). Apart from small multicenter basic research studies, a particular strength of TBNET is the performance of large collaborative projects, pan-European multicenter studies and database projects. In recent years, research from TBNET has substantially contributed to the understanding of the management, risk and prognosis of patients with multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis and led to a better understanding of the clinical value of novel tests for the identification of adults and children with tuberculosis and latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2009, two branches of TBNET were founded to specifically address tuberculosis in the pediatric population (ptbnet) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases (NTM-NET). In addition to the research activities, TBNET is developing expert consensus documents for clinical management and provides training and capacity building especially for members from Eastern European countries, where tuberculosis is still a prevalent health problem. PMID:24265908

Giehl, C.; Duarte, R.; Bothamley, G.; Gerlach, C.; Cirillo, D.M.; Wagner, D.; Kampmann, B.; Goletti, D.; Juers, T.; Sester, M.

2012-01-01

160

Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis in Military Recruits  

PubMed Central

We conducted a tuberculosis contact investigation for a female military recruit with an unreported history of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) and subsequent recurrence. Pertinent issues included identification of likely contacts from separate training phases, uncertainty on latent MDRTB infection treatment regimens and side effects, and subsequent dispersal of the contacts after exposure. PMID:16704832

Freier, Grace; Wright, Allen; Nelson, Gregory; Brenner, Eric; Mase, Sundari; Tasker, Sybil; Matthews, Karen L.

2006-01-01

161

Clinicopathological Study of Intestinal Tuberculosis & its Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal tuberculosis is still a common abdominal problems in developing countries like us. Sixty cases of intestinal tuberculosis admitted in the surgical wards of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital over 2 years with different presentations have been studied here. All of them under went through surgical procedures for their management. The age range of the patients was 13 to 55 years

MB Islam; MK Rahman; MK Islam; SM Mahmudul Haq

2009-01-01

162

Diagnosis and therapy for prostate tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

In its 2012 global report on tuberculosis, the World Health Organization estimated that 3–7% (range 2.1–5.2%) of new cases and 20% (range 13–26%) of previously treated cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (defined as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that are resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid). In many countries in Eastern Europe and central Asia, 9–32% of new patients and more than 50% of previously treated patients have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Ninety-three patients with suspected prostate tuberculosis were enrolled in this study and all underwent prostate biopsy. This method allowed confirmation of diagnosis in 32 patients (34.4%): 23 by histology, six by culture and five by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (among them, two also had positive culture). The efficiency of an optimized scheme for the therapy of prostate tuberculosis (the second part of the study) was estimated in 53 patients. The first group (25 patients) was treated with a standard scheme of chemotherapy; the second group (28 prostate tuberculosis patients) received ofloxacin in addition for 2 months during the intensive phase. The phase continuation in both groups was identical, with rifampicin and isoniazid administered for 6 months. Optimization of the standard therapy by additional administration of ofloxacin improved results of the treatment in 33.8% of patients. PMID:25083162

Brizhatyuk, Elena; Khomyakov, Victor

2014-01-01

163

Evidence for Recombination in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its mostly isolated living environment, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is generally believed to be highly clonal, and thus recombination between different strains must be rare and is not critical for the survival of the species. To investigate the roles recombination could have possibly played in the evolution of M. tuberculosis, an analysis was conducted on previously determined genotypes of 36

Xiaoming Liu; Michaela M. Gutacker; James M. Musser; Yun-Xin Fu

2006-01-01

164

Nicotine Oral Inhalation  

MedlinePLUS

Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with ... you understand why you were not able to stop smoking and make plans to try again.

165

Osteomyelitis affecting mandible in tuberculosis patients  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is a frequent health problem in developing nations. It has two forms pulmonary and secondary causing other kinds of TB, collectively denoted extra pulmonary tuberculosis. The prevalence of extra pulmonary TB has increased in the last couple of years. Maxillofacial manifestations of tuberculosis form nearly 10% of all extra pulmonary manifestations of the disease. Extra pulmonary TB involving maxillofacial region is our prime concern. Very few cases of TB of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and mandible have been reported in literature. The clinical appearance of TB infection of the TMJ has been described as unspecific, resembling arthritis, osteomyelitis, cancer or any kind of chronic joint diseases. This article describes two cases where the bone, namely TMJ and angle of mandible are affected by tuberculosis. In addition to conventional radiographs we used Cone Beam Computed tomography (CBCT) to explore the third dimension of the lesion. Key words:Tuberculosis, bone, osteomyelitis, CBCT. PMID:24558529

Saxena, Vasu S.; Maideo, Anuradha; Sontakke, Subodh

2012-01-01

166

Leprosy and tuberculosis: an insight-review.  

PubMed

A quick glance at this review article provides an insight into the common and different features of M. leprae and M. tuberculosis and the diseases caused by these organisms. Table I provides the popular names, history, stigma, description of the disease, clinical features, classification and the types of disease manifestations, who are affected, Signs and Symptoms, Clinical examination, treatment regimens, reactions, relapses, immunity, infectiousness, risk groups, deformities, sequelae, transmission, prevention, complications, vaccination, laboratory studies, days of importance for both the diseases. Table II provides information regarding the causative organisms, M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, their size, genome, protein coding region, lost genes, pseudogenes, classification, predilection, incubation period, ecology, cell structure, metabolism, resistance, bacterial index, growth in vitro, experimental animals, etc. Table III provides figures of M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, their genome, Lepromin and Tuberculin testing, Global scenario, Indian scenario, colonies of M. leprae and M. tuberculosis, drugs for treatment of tuberculosis and leprosy (MDT blister pack), and so on. PMID:17453929

Hussain, Tahziba

2007-01-01

167

Epidemiological models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infections  

PubMed Central

The resurgence of tuberculosis in the 1990s and the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the first decade of the 21st century increased the importance of epidemiological models for the disease. Due to slow progression of tuberculosis, the transmission dynamics and its long-term effects can often be better observed and predicted using simulations of epidemiological models. This study provides a review of earlier study on modeling different aspects of tuberculosis dynamics. The models simulate tuberculosis transmission dynamics, treatment, drug resistance, control strategies for increasing compliance to treatment, HIV/TB co-infection, and patient groups. The models are based on various mathematical systems, such as systems of ordinary differential equations, simulation models, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The inferences from the models are justified by case studies and statistical analysis of TB patient datasets. PMID:22387570

Ozcaglar, Cagri; Shabbeer, Amina; Vandenberg, Scott L.; Yener, Bulent; Bennett, Kristin P.

2012-01-01

168

Tuberculosis control in India: why are we failing?  

PubMed

In spite of being the pioneer-leader of research into epidemiology and prevention of tuberculosis among low-income countries, India has the highest population-based burden of tuberculosis among all nations. Children with latent tuberculosis are the pool from which adult pulmonary tuberculosis emerges many years later. In the absence of primary prevention of infection by BCG, sociologic/behavioral interventions must be applied to reduce air-borne transmission. In addition to maximizing passive surveillance of adult disease, pediatric tuberculosis must also be brought under surveillance. Those with latent tuberculosis must be detected and treated to remove them from the pool. Epidemiologically, the realistic monitoring method of tuberculosis control trajectory is documenting progressive reduction of the short incubation period pediatric disease through surveillance, and not the reduction of long incubation period adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Application of scientific tools for the detection and management of pediatric tuberculosis infection - latent and active - holds the key to effective tuberculosis control. PMID:25031127

John, T Jacob

2014-07-01

169

Prevalence of Tuberculosis, HIV and Respiratory Symptoms in Two Zambian Communities: Implications for Tuberculosis Control in the Era of HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Stop TB Partnership target for tuberculosis is to have reduced the prevalence of tuberculosis by 50% comparing 2015 to 1990. This target is challenging as few prevalence surveys have been conducted, especially in high burden tuberculosis and HIV countries. Current tuberculosis control strategies in high HIV prevalent settings are therefore based on limited epidemiological evidence and more evidence is

Helen Ayles; Albertus Schaap; Amos Nota; Charalambos Sismanidis; Ruth Tembwe; Petra de Haas; Monde Muyoyeta; Nulda Beyers; Madhukar Pai

2009-01-01

170

Rich Crank Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Rich Crank Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin December 7, 2008 http..., Transgender, Intersex and Queer People and Kansas Copyright and permissions All oral histories in the Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright...

Crank, Rich; Albin, Tami

2010-11-24

171

Moxifloxacin (BAY12-8039), a New 8-Methoxyquinolone, Is Active in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moxifloxacin (BAY12-8039) is a new 8-methoxyquinolone shown to be active against Mycobacterium tubercu- losis in vitro. We tested moxifloxacin for activity in mice against M. tuberculosis CSU93, a highly virulent, re- cently isolated clinical strain. The MIC of moxifloxacin for the CSU93 strain was 0.25 mg\\/ml. The serum moxi- floxacin concentration after oral administration in mice peaked within 0.25 h,

EISHI MIYAZAKI; MIKI MIYAZAKI; JONG MIN CHEN; RICHARD E. CHAISSON; WILLIAM R. BISHAI

1999-01-01

172

Short communication How dormant is Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latency? A study  

E-print Network

Short communication How dormant is Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latency? A study integrating. Boulevard, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark 1. Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading infectious cause infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) represent

Rosenberg, Noah

173

Genetic engineering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a review.  

PubMed

Genetic engineering has been used for decades to mutate and delete genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome with the translational goal of producing attenuated mutants with conserved susceptibility to antituberculous antibiotics. The development of plasmids and mycobacteriophages that can transfer DNA into the M. tuberculosis chromosome has effectively overcome M. tuberculosis slow growth rate and the capsule and mycolic acid wall, which limit DNA uptake. The use of genetic engineering techniques has shed light on many aspects of pathogenesis mechanisms, including cellular growth, mycolic acid biosynthesis, metabolism, drug resistance and virulence. Moreover, such research gave clues to the development of new vaccines or new drugs for routine clinical practice. The use of genetic engineering tools is mainly based on the underlying concept that altering or reducing the M. tuberculosis genome could decrease its virulence. A contrario, recent post-genomic analyses indicated that reduced bacterial genomes are often associated with increased bacterial virulence and that M. tuberculosis acquired genes by lateral genetic exchange during its evolution. Therefore, ancestors utilizing genetic engineering to add genes to the M. tuberculosis genome may lead to new vaccines and the availability of M. tuberculosis isolates with increased susceptibility to antituberculous antibiotics. PMID:22789498

Lamrabet, Otmane; Drancourt, Michel

2012-09-01

174

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases  

PubMed Central

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis.

PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

2014-01-01

175

Mycobacterium tuberculosis mammalian cell entry operon ( mce) homologs in Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis (MOTT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cloned mammalian cell entry gene mce1a from Mycobacterium tuberculosis confers to non-pathogenic Escherichia coli the ability to invade and survive inside macrophages and HeLa cells. The aim of this work was to search for and characterize homologs of the four M. tuberculosis mammalian cell entry operons (mce1, mce2, mce3 and mce4) in mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT). The dot-blot

Yoseph Haile; Dominique A. Caugant; Gunnar Bjune; Harald G. Wiker

2002-01-01

176

Tuberculosis and liver disease: management issues.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is one of the most common diseases in India and has attained epidemic proportions. Tuberculosis and liver are related in many ways. Liver disease can occur due to hepatic tuberculosis or the treatment with various anti-tubercular drugs may precipitate hepatic injury or patients with chronic liver disease may develop tuberculosis and pose special management problems. Tuberculosis per se can affect liver in three forms. The most common form is the diffuse hepatic involvement, seen along with pulmonary or miliary tuberculosis. The second is granulomatous hepatitis and the third, much rarer form presents as focal/local tuberculoma or abscess. Tubercular disease of liver occurring along with pulmonary involvement as in disseminated tuberculosis is treated with standard regimen for pulmonary tuberculosis. Granulomatous hepatitis and tubercular liver abscess are treated like any other extra-pulmonary tubercular lesions without any extra risk of hepatotoxicity by anti-tubercular drugs. Treatment of tuberculosis in patients who already have a chronic liver disease poses various clinical challenges. There is an increased risk of drug induced hepatitis in these patients and its implications are potentially more serious in these patients as their hepatic reserve is already depleted. However, hepatotoxic anti-tubercular drugs can be safely used in these patients if the number of drugs used is adjusted appropriately. Thus, the main principle is to closely monitor the patient for signs of worsening liver disease and to reduce the number of hepatotoxic drugs in the anti-tubercular regimen according to the severity of underlying liver disease. PMID:23025055

Sonika, Ujjwal; Kar, Premashis

2012-01-01

177

Hematological Profile in Pulmonary Tuberculosis ORIGINAL RESEARCH Hematological Profile in Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Background: Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in India. There is a paucity of literature in the hematological changes associated with tuberculosis, though tuberculosis is a common condition. Objective: To evaluate the hematological parameters in pulmonary tuberculosis patients who are positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in sputum. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients of fresh pulmonary tuberculosis with sputum positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB) were included and AIDS patients, disseminated tuberculosis and patients receiving ATT drugs were excluded in this study. The various hematological parameters were studied by means of hemogram by automated cell counter and peripheral smear examination. Results: Anemia was seen in 74 % of patients. In spite of the infection, 71 patients had a normal leukocyte count. Leucocytosis as a response to infection was observed in 26 patients. Three patients had leucopenia. Thrombocytosis was observed in 24 patients while thrombocytopenia was observed in 9 patients. 99 % patients had increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Two patients had pancytopenia. Conclusion: Variety of hematological abnormalities has been demonstrated in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in the present study. While many of them are consistent with reported literature and reinforce the fact that they can be valuable tools in monitoring pulmonary tuberculosis such as anemia and increased ESR. Other findings such as thrombocytosis and pancytopenia suggest the need for further studied in this field.

Toolhally Umashankar; Sadula Govindareddy

178

[Conclusive pleuropulmonectomy in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The results of performance of conclusive pleuropulmonectomy (CPPE) in 2004-2012 yrs in 16 patients, suffering multiresistant pulmonary tuberculosis are presented. In 75% patients during the first operation the atypical (using apparatuses) pulmonary resection was performed. CPPE was done for fibrous-cavernous tuberculosis in 11 (68.8%) patients, for cirrhotic tuberculosis - in 4 (25.0%), caseous pneumonia - in 1 (6.3%). Intraoperative complications rate was 12.5%. Early postoperative complications have had occurred in 5 (31.3%) patients, and the late - in 3 (18.8%). Total efficacy of CPPE have had constituted 81.3%. PMID:24923119

Opanasenko, M S; Konik, B M; Kshanovs'ky?, O E; Tereshkovych, O V; Obrems'ka, O K; Levanda, L I; Klymets', Ie V

2014-02-01

179

TUBERCULOSIS: TIME FOR A NEW PERSPECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues uninterrupted. Pre-exposure vaccination remains a central focus of tuberculosis research but 25 years of follow up is needed to determine whether a novel childhood vaccination regime protects from adult disease, or like BCG assists Mtb dissemination by preventing childhood illness but not infective adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, different strategies to interrupt the life cycle of Mtb need to be explored. This personal perspective discusses alternative approaches that may be delivered in a shorter time frame. PMID:23415730

Elkington, Paul T

2013-01-01

180

Tuberculosis: time for a new perspective?  

PubMed

Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues uninterrupted. Pre-exposure vaccination remains a central focus of tuberculosis research but 25 years of follow up is needed to determine whether a novel childhood vaccination regime protects from adult disease, or like BCG assists Mtb dissemination by preventing childhood illness but not infective adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, different strategies to interrupt the life cycle of Mtb need to be explored. This personal perspective discusses alternative approaches that may be delivered in a shorter time frame. PMID:23415730

Elkington, Paul T

2013-04-01

181

[A new case of pseudotumoral renal tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The incidence of urogenital tuberculosis is still frequent and constitutes a current public health problem in Morocco, a country in which tuberculosis is endemic. The clinical presentation of this form of the disease may be misleading. The pseudotumoral type of renal tuberculosis is extremely uncommon, and in this study this disease has been described in a young patient. The radiological findings suggested the possibility of this lesion being renal cancer. The preliminary diagnosis was corrected and a definitive diagnosis of pseudotumor was made following pathological examination of the surgically-removed kidney. PMID:11233318

Sarf, I; Dahami, Z; Dakir, M; Aboutaeib, R; el Moussaoui, A; Joual, A; El Mrini, M; Meziane, F; Benjelloun, S

2001-01-01

182

Obstructive jaundice: a manifestation of pancreatic tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of the pancreas is extremely rare and is most often associated with miliary tuberculosis or occurs in the immunocompromised patients. A case of isolated pancreatic tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient is presented with constitutional symptoms and obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computerised tomography showed a mass lesion in the head of pancreas. Histological examination of the peripancreatic lymph node and fine needle aspiration cytology from the head of pancreas confirmed the diagnosis following laparotomy. Patient recovered following the administration of antituberculosis chemotherapy. PMID:17824465

Pandya, Garvi; Dixit, Ramakant; Shelat, Vishal; Dixit, Kalpana; Shah, Nalin; Shah, Kusum

2007-03-01

183

Tuberculosis: New Aspects of an Old Disease  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is an ancient infectious disease that remains a threat for public health around the world. Although the etiological agent as well as tuberculosis pathogenesis is well known, the molecular mechanisms underlying the host defense to the bacilli remain elusive. In this paper we focus on the innate immunity of this disease reviewing well-established and consensual mechanisms like Mycobacterium tuberculosis interference with phagosome maturation, less consensual mechanism like nitric oxide production, and new mechanisms, such as mycobacteria translocation to the cytosol, autophagy, and apoptosis/necrosis proposed mainly during the last decade. PMID:21760796

Jordao, Luisa; Vieira, Otilia V.

2011-01-01

184

Mycobacterium tuberculosis wears what it eats  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most pernicious of human pathogens. Current vaccines are ineffective and drugs, although efficacious, require prolonged treatment with constant medical oversight. Overcoming these problems requires a greater appreciation of M. tuberculosis in the context of its host. Upon infection of either macrophages in culture or animal models, the bacterium re-aligns its metabolism in response to the new environments it encounters. Understanding these environments, and the stresses that they place on M. tuberculosis, should provide insights invaluable for the development of new chemo- and immuno-therapeutic strategies. PMID:20638643

Russell, David G.; VanderVen, Brian C.; Lee, Wonsik; Abramovitch, Robert B.; Kim, Mijeong; Homolka, Susanne; Niemann, Stefan; Rohde, Kyle H.

2010-01-01

185

Genitourinary Tuberculosis: An Atypical Clinical Presentation  

PubMed Central

Genitourinary tuberculosis is one of the common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We report a case of atypical genitourinary tuberculosis: massive uterovaginal prolapse with cervical lesion mimicking cervical carcinoma. This particular case highlights the problem of healthcare in most of the developing countries. Lack of patient education, awareness, and access to a healthcare system resulted in a complicated situation. In an endemic area or in an immunocompromised individual, a higher index of suspicion would allow early recognition and treatment institution to minimise its late consequences as well as spreading of the disease. Though anti-TB is the mainstay of treatment, surgical intervention might be needed in selected cases. PMID:23320216

Lim, Pei Shan; Atan, Ixora Kamisan; Naidu, Aruku

2012-01-01

186

Isolated appendicular tuberculosis (TB) presented as peritonitis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is very common entity in both developing and under developed countries. Each year 3 million people worldwide died of the disease. Among extra pulmonary TB, alimentary system accounts for about 3.0% cases. The Commonest presentation of alimentary tuberculosis is Ileo-caecal disease, but isolated appendicular involvement is very rarely seen. Although some cases have been reported from our neighboring countries, there is still no such report from Bangladesh. We are here for the first time reporting a case of isolated appendicular tuberculosis which presented to us with peritonitis. PMID:20677612

Chowdhury, F R; Amin, M R; Khan, K H; Alam, M B; Ahasan, H A M N

2010-03-01

187

Improving oral health and oral health care delivery for children.  

PubMed

National and state-level evidence has documented ongoing disparities in children's health and utilization of oral health care services, prompting a re-examination of factors associated with poor oral health and low use of oral health services. These efforts have yielded a wide array of proposals for improving children's oral health and oral health care delivery. This paper offers a perspective on the current context of efforts to improve children's oral health and oral health care delivery. PMID:21485933

Crall, James J

2011-02-01

188

Risk for Tuberculosis among Children  

PubMed Central

Contacts of adults with tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection. Tests based on interferon-? (IFN-?) expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens may be more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk for infection was assessed by using TST and an IFN-?-based assay (QuantiFERON Gold in Tube [QFT-IT] test) for 207 children in Nigeria in 1 of 3 groups: contact with adults with smear-positive TB, contact with adults with smear-negative TB, and controls. For these 3 groups, respectively, TST results were >10 mm for 38 (49%) of 78, 13 (16%) of 83, and 6 (13%) of 46 and QFT-IT positive for 53 (74%) of 72, 8 (10%) of 81, and 4 (10.3%) of 39 (p<0.01). Most test discrepancies were TST negative; QFT-IT positive if in contact with TB-positive persons; and TST positive, QFT-IT negative if in contact with TB-negative persons or controls. TST may underestimate risk for infection with TB in children. PMID:17073087

Nakaoka, Hiroshi; Lawson, Lovett; Squire, S. Bertel; Coulter, Brian; Ravn, Pernille; Brock, Inger; Hart, C. Anthony

2006-01-01

189

Tuberculosis and leprosy in perspective.  

PubMed

Two of humankind's most socially and psychologically devastating diseases, tuberculosis and leprosy, have been the subject of intensive paleopathological research due to their antiquity, a presumed association with human settlement and subsistence patterns, and their propensity to leave characteristic lesions on skeletal and mummified remains. Despite a long history of medical research and the development of effective chemotherapy, these diseases remain global health threats even in the 21st century, and as such, their causative agents Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae, respectively, have recently been the subject of molecular genetics research. The new genome-level data for several mycobacterial species have informed extensive phylogenetic analyses that call into question previously accepted theories concerning the origins and antiquity of these diseases. Of special note is the fact that all new models are in broad agreement that human TB predated that in other animals, including cattle and other domesticates, and that this disease originated at least 35,000 years ago and probably closer to 2.6 million years ago. In this work, we review current phylogenetic and biogeographic models derived from molecular biology and explore their implications for the global development of TB and leprosy, past and present. In so doing, we also briefly review the skeletal evidence for TB and leprosy, explore the current status of these pathogens, critically consider current methods for identifying ancient mycobacterial DNA, and evaluate coevolutionary models. PMID:19890861

Stone, Anne C; Wilbur, Alicia K; Buikstra, Jane E; Roberts, Charlotte A

2009-01-01

190

Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin and levofloxacin for prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children.  

PubMed

Limited data on fluoroquinolone pharmacokinetics and cardiac effects in children exist. Among 22 children receiving drug-resistant tuberculosis prophylaxis or treatment, serum concentrations following oral doses of levofloxacin (15 mg/kg of body weight) and ofloxacin (20 mg/kg) were lower than those expected from existing pediatric data, possibly due to differences in the formulations (crushed tablets). Drug exposures were lower than those in adults following standard doses and below the proposed pharmacodynamic targets, likely due to more rapid elimination in children. No QT prolongation was observed. PMID:24550337

Thee, S; Garcia-Prats, A J; McIlleron, H M; Wiesner, L; Castel, S; Norman, J; Draper, H R; van der Merwe, P L; Hesseling, A C; Schaaf, H S

2014-05-01

191

An Unusual Gross Appearance of Vulval Tuberculosis Masquerading as Tumor  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of the vulva is very rare. It is found in about 0.2% of the cases of genital tract tuberculosis. It usually presents as small shallow ulcers and multiple sinus tracts or rarely as elephantiasis of vulva. Except for very rare cases of primary tuberculosis in the vulva, it is usually associated with tuberculosis elsewhere in the body leading to secondary tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of secondary vulval tuberculosis which presented as a vulval mass in a 40-year-old female patient. The rarity of this presentation in the female genital tract is emphasized. PMID:25298898

Arakeri, Surekha U.

2014-01-01

192

Evaluating Tuberculosis Case Detection via Real-Time Monitoring of Tuberculosis Diagnostic Services  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Tuberculosis case-detection rates are below internationally established targets in high-burden countries. Real-time monitoring and evaluation of adherence to widely endorsed standards of tuberculosis care might facilitate improved case finding. Objectives: To monitor and evaluate the quality of tuberculosis case-detection and management services in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Methods: We prospectively evaluated tuberculosis diagnostic services at five primary health-care facilities in Uganda for 1 year, after introducing a real-time, electronic performance-monitoring system. We collected data on every clinical encounter, and measured quality using indicators derived from the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care. Measurements and Main Results: In 2009, there were 62,909 adult primary-care visits. During the first quarter of 2009, clinicians referred only 21% of patients with cough greater than or equal to 2 weeks for sputum smear microscopy and only 71% of patients with a positive sputum examination for tuberculosis treatment. These proportions increased to 53% and 84%, respectively, in the fourth quarter of 2009. The cumulative probability that a smear-positive patient with cough greater than or equal to 2 weeks would be appropriately evaluated and referred for treatment rose from 11% to 34% (P = 0.005). The quarterly number of tuberculosis cases identified and prescribed treatment also increased four-fold, from 5 to 21. Conclusions: Poor adherence to internationally accepted standards of tuberculosis care improved after introduction of real-time performance monitoring and was associated with increased tuberculosis case detection. Real-time monitoring and evaluation can strengthen health systems in low-income countries and facilitate operational research on the effectiveness and sustainability of interventions to improve tuberculosis case detection. PMID:21471088

Davis, JLucian; Katamba, Achilles; Vasquez, Josh; Crawford, Erin; Sserwanga, Asadu; Kakeeto, Stella; Kizito, Fred; Dorsey, Grant; den Boon, Saskia; Vittinghoff, Eric; Huang, Laurence; Adatu, Francis; Kamya, Moses R; Hopewell, Philip C; Cattamanchi, Adithya

2011-01-01

193

Tuberculosis of sacrum mimicking as malignancy.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis has always been a menace for both clinicians and radiologists due to its often non-specific and protean manifestations. Isolated tubercular involvement of sacrum is very rare. The authors present the case of a 38-year-old man with history of low-grade fever, pain and swelling in the sacral region. Skiagram revealed an osteolytic lesion of sacrum leading to the provisional diagnosis of chordoma and osteoclastoma. However, MRI was suggestive of a chronic infective condition like tuberculosis and fine needle aspiration cytology was positive for acid-fast bacilli and revealed epitheloid granulomas with caseous necrosis. Culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy was commenced and surgical decompression of cold abscess was done and with good clinical response. This case highlights the importance of remaining cognisant of the manifestations and the importance of considering tuberculosis as a diagnosis at unusual sites of involvement. PMID:22605808

Shantanu, Kumar; Sharma, Vineet; Kumar, Santosh; Jain, Sonal

2012-01-01

194

Tuberculosis of sacrum mimicking as malignancy  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis has always been a menace for both clinicians and radiologists due to its often non-specific and protean manifestations. Isolated tubercular involvement of sacrum is very rare. The authors present the case of a 38-year-old man with history of low-grade fever, pain and swelling in the sacral region. Skiagram revealed an osteolytic lesion of sacrum leading to the provisional diagnosis of chordoma and osteoclastoma. However, MRI was suggestive of a chronic infective condition like tuberculosis and fine needle aspiration cytology was positive for acid-fast bacilli and revealed epitheloid granulomas with caseous necrosis. Culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy was commenced and surgical decompression of cold abscess was done and with good clinical response. This case highlights the importance of remaining cognisant of the manifestations and the importance of considering tuberculosis as a diagnosis at unusual sites of involvement. PMID:22605808

Shantanu, Kumar; Sharma, Vineet; Kumar, Santosh; Jain, Sonal

2012-01-01

195

Priorities for tuberculosis research: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Summary Reliable and relevant research can help to improve tuberculosis control worldwide. In recent years, various organisations have assessed research needs and proposed priorities for tuberculosis. We summarise existing priority statements and assess the rigour of the methods used to generate them. We found 33 documents that specifically outline priorities in tuberculosis research. The top priority areas were drug development (28 articles), diagnosis and diagnostic tests (27), epidemiology (20), health services research (16), basic research (13), and vaccine development and use (13). The most focused questions were on the treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in people co-infected with HIV. Methods used to identify these priorities were varied. Improvements can be made to ensure the process is more rigorous and transparent, and to use existing research or systematic reviews more often. WHO, Stop TB Partnership, and other organisations could adopt an incremental process of priority development, building on the existing knowledge base. PMID:21050822

Rylance, Jamie; Pai, Madhukar; Lienhardt, Christian; Garner, Paul

2010-01-01

196

Virulence factors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex  

PubMed Central

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) consists of closely related species that cause tuberculosis in both humans and animals. This illness, still today, remains to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The mycobacteria enter the host by air, and, once in the lungs, are phagocytated by macrophages. This may lead to the rapid elimination of the bacillus or to the triggering of an active tuberculosis infection. A large number of different virulence factors have evolved in MTBC members as a response to the host immune reaction. The aim of this review is to describe the bacterial genes/proteins that are essential for the virulence of MTBC species, and that have been demonstrated in an in vivo model of infection. Knowledge of MTBC virulence factors is essential for the development of new vaccines and drugs to help manage the disease toward an increasingly more tuberculosis-free world. PMID:23076359

Forrellad, Marina A.; Klepp, Laura I.; Gioffre, Andrea; Sabio y Garcia, Julia; Morbidoni, Hector R.; Santangelo, Maria de la Paz; Cataldi, Angel A.; Bigi, Fabiana

2013-01-01

197

[Glutoxim in the complex treatment of tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Results of Glutoxim investigation are presented. Glutoxim is the the drug of the new class--thiopoietins. It is considered to be immunorehabilitator as it modulates intracellular process of thiols metabolism, initiates cytokins system, activates phagocytosis etc. Results of the glutoxim administration at the 42 patients with tuberculosis using traditional treatment regimes are presented. Results of the randomized study at the patients with severe disseminated drug-sensitive and drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis demonstrated high efficacy of the glutoxim and its good tolerability. Glutoxim administration allowed to shorten the period of tuberculosis intoxication signs disappearance, to shorten the period of sputum negativation and shortened the period of pulmonary inflammation reverse process. Glutoxim application was specially favorable at the patients with severe tuberculosis complicated by viral or medicamental hepatitis. PMID:12087719

Sokolova, G B; Sinitsyn, M V; Kozhemiakin, L A; Perel'man, M I

2002-01-01

198

Tuberculosis vaccines: current status and future prospects.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to develop more effective tuberculosis vaccines as chemotherapy and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have failed to control the current epidemic. BCG does have some protective effect in childhood, so using a second vaccine to boost BCG would be the most ethical and logistically feasible strategy. The cost of tuberculosis efficacy trials will be high and return on investment into the development of a tuberculosis vaccine will be low. Incentives such as orphan drug status could encourage industrial interest. As more vaccines enter into early clinical trials, there is an urgent need for the identification of correlates of protection to aid decisions about which vaccines should go forward into efficacy testing. Research efforts that focus on reducing the cost and risk of conducting clinical trials will be of direct benefit to tuberculosis vaccine development. PMID:16634697

Fletcher, Helen; McShane, Helen

2006-05-01

199

Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying size that run together (coalesce). Arrows ... ray on the left clearly shows that the opacities are located in the upper area of the ...

200

Oral cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world, and it continues to represent a serious public health problem. Oral\\u000a cancer is a preventable disease, related to behavioral and lifestyle factors, including tobacco and alcohol. Prevention and\\u000a early detection of oral cancer remain the goals of national efforts to reduce the impact of this disease on the

Terry A. Day; Betsy K. Davis; M. Boyd Gillespie; John K. Joe; Megan Kibbey; Bonnie Martin-Harris; Brad Neville; Susan G. Reed; Mary S. Richardson; Steven Rosenzweig; Anand K. Sharma; Michelle M. Smith; Stacy Stewart; Robert K. Stuart

2003-01-01

201

Pat Miller Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Pat Miller Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin March 21, 2008 http...://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/handle/1808/5558 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual...

Miller, Pat; Albin, Tami

2009-10-28

202

Kelly Barth Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Kelly Barth Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 5, 2008 http://hdl.handle.net/1808.../13170 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer...

Barth, Kelly; Albin, Tami

2014-03-13

203

Gilbert Baker Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Gilbert Baker Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin June 19, 2008 http... law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond “fair use” from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ...

Baker, Gilbert; Albin, Tami

2010-11-24

204

Current chemotherapy for tuberculosis in children.  

PubMed

Antituberculosis medications are extremely well tolerated by children and have proved to be very successful. The newer regimens of intensive short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis have several advantages over traditional two-drug regimens, including faster sterilization and bactericidal action, shorter duration over which patient noncompliance can occur, less expenditure of resources for monitoring treatment, lower failure and relapse rates, and broader coverage for possible drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The currently recommended regimen for pulmonary and most extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis in children is 6 months of isoniazid and rifampin supplemented during the first 2 months by pyrazinamide. Treatment during the first 1 to 2 months should, if possible, be daily but the last 4 to 5 months of therapy can be either daily or twice weekly under direct observation of a health-care professional. For patients in whom social or other constraints prevent reliable self-administration of daily treatment in the initial phase, medications may be given twice weekly from the beginning under close observation. For these situations, a total duration of treatment of 6 to 9 months is reasonable. Non-life-threatening forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis can be treated in the same manner as pulmonary tuberculosis. Although tuberculous meningitis probably will respond to these regimens, the relative lack of data at present leads most experts to recommend total durations of between 6 and 12 months for this form of tuberculosis. The major limitation to controlling tuberculosis in the United States is noncompliance or nonadherence to medications by patients. The physician and other health-care providers must devote a great deal of their time and energy to ensuring adherence with medications and take whatever steps are necessary to make sure that the child with tuberculosis is adequately treated. PMID:1578119

Starke, J R

1992-03-01

205

[A rare cause of anosmia: nasosinusal tuberculosis].  

PubMed

We report the case of a 46-year-old-woman who presented with anosmia and nasal obstruction. Primary nasal tuberculosis was discovered. Primary nasal tuberculosis is very rare. Women are more touched than men. Symptomatology is often unilateral with nasal obstruction, anterior rhinorrhea or epistaxis. Diagnosis relies on the anatomopathologic and bacteriological examinations. The treatment is mainly medical based on antituberculosis drugs. In the light of this case report, a review of the literature was made. PMID:24878190

Hemmaoui, B; Fejjal, N; Errami, N; Temsamani, H; Benchafai, I; Jahidi, A; Benariba, F

2014-10-01

206

Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis. PMID:22287857

Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker

2011-01-01

207

Switching between oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Until about 4 years ago, warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant approved in the United States, and switching between oral anticoagulants has become an option since the emergence of the novel oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. What are the reasons one may switch between the agents and how is this done? Discussed in this article are the 4 agents approved in the United States, their characteristics, reasons one may switch, and methods for conversion. After a thorough search of original trial data and recent expert review articles, we have summarized the most recent recommendations below and briefly discuss upcoming oral anticoagulants that show promise. PMID:25255408

Strasser, Kristen M; Qasem, Abdulraheem; Madhusudhana, Sheshadri

2014-08-01

208

David Ollington Oral History  

E-print Network

's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library University of Kansas 1301 Hoch Auditoria Drive Lawrence, KS 66045 Phone: 785-691-5748 All oral histories... this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library 1301 Hoch Auditoria Dr. University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 Requestors must...

Ollington, David; Albin, Tami

2010-01-11

209

[Situation of tuberculosis in the world and the role expected of Japan in the global fight against tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The whole world is divided into 3 groups by the magnitude of tuberculosis problem: namely, developed countries in which tuberculosis is already a minor health problem and continues to decline; NIES and some oil-producing countries in which tuberculosis started to decline significantly; and most developing countries in which tuberculosis is still highly prevalent and no or only a slow decline. Number of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the whole world in a year is estimated at about 4.5 million, and adding smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, total number of new tuberculosis patients amounts to 9 to 10 million, and nearly 3 million persons die every year from tuberculosis, and 97% of these cases occur in developing countries. Failure of tuberculosis control in most developing countries could be explained by slow economic development of financial crisis, which caused poor allocation of budget for health including tuberculosis programme and slow development of primary health care. Activities of tuberculosis supervisory teams are weak. Tuberculosis programmes succeeded in developed countries could not be implemented easily in developing countries. New obstacles to the rapid decline of tuberculosis are the epidemic of AIDS, movement of population and lowering concern on tuberculosis problems, and tuberculosis will remain as one of serious global health problems at least for coming several decades. Maintenance of research and training facilities for tuberculosis is needed, however, they have been disappearing in developed countries. Facilities in developing countries might have difficulties to maintain unless financial and technical support is given from developed countries. Japan is the second biggest economic power in the world, and it is our duty to increase ODA for developing countries. In the field of health, Dr. Nakajima started to work as the director-general of WHO since 1988. We have to intensify our technical cooperation in health. As we succeeded to control tuberculosis in the past 40 years and still maintain research and training facilities for tuberculosis, they should be used for the sake of developing countries. Multi-and bi-lateral cooperation in tuberculosis control should also be intensified. The author would like to urge members of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis to talk about the importance of tuberculosis problem and role expected to Japan in the global fight against tuberculosis to people outside the society so as to have appropriate understanding on global tuberculosis problems. PMID:2593463

Shimao, T

1989-11-01

210

Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio Pleistocene) North American mammals, including 114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely “culprits” in its spread.

Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.

2006-11-01

211

Genetic Biodiversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains from Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 16 December 2002\\/Returned for modification 5 February 2003\\/Accepted 7 March 2003 We analyzed DNA polymorphisms in 455 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from 455 patients to evaluate the biodiversity of tubercle bacilli in Ouest province, Cameroon. The phenotypic and genotypic identification methods gave concordant results for 99.5% of M. tuberculosis isolates (413 strains) and for 90% of Mycobacterium africanum isolates

Sara Ngo Niobe-Eyangoh; Christopher Kuaban; Philippe Sorlin; Patrick Cunin; Jocelyn Thonnon; Christophe Sola; Nalin Rastogi; Veronique Vincent; M. Cristina Gutierrez

2003-01-01

212

Profiling Antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Multiplex Microbead Suspension Arrays for Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 29 August 2007\\/Returned for modification 20 September 2007\\/Accepted 26 November 2007 Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global disease. The fatality rate attributed to TB is among the highest of infectious diseases, with approximately 2 million deaths occurring per year worldwide. Identification of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and screening of their immediate contacts is crucial for controlling the spread

Imran H. Khan; Resmi Ravindran; JoAnn Yee; Melanie Ziman; David M. Lewinsohn; Marila L. Gennaro; JoAnne L. Flynn; Celia W. Goulding; Kathryn DeRiemer; Nickolas W. Lerche; Paul A. Luciw

2008-01-01

213

Unexpectedly high proportion of ancestral Manu genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains cultured from tuberculosis patients in Egypt.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is one of the important public health problems in Egypt. However, limited information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Egypt is available. A total of 151 M. tuberculosis strains were characterized by spoligotyping. The results revealed that 74.8% of M. tuberculosis isolates grouped into 13 different clusters, while 25.2% had unique spoligotype patterns. Comparison with an international spoligotyping database (the SITVIT2 database) showed that types SIT53 (T1 variant) and SIT54 (Manu2 variant) were the most common types between cluster groups. In addition, new shared types SIT2977, SIT2978, and SIT2979 were observed. The results identified for the first time an unusually high proportion of ancestral Manu strains of M. tuberculosis from patients in Egypt. The percentage of the Manu clade in this study (27.15%) was significantly higher than its overall representation of 0.4% in the SITVIT2 database. We show that in Egypt tuberculosis is caused by a predominant M. tuberculosis genotype belonging to the ancestral Manu lineage which could be a missing link in the split between ancestral and modern tubercle bacilli during the evolution of M. tuberculosis. PMID:19553569

Helal, Zeinab H; Ashour, Mohamed Seif El-Din; Eissa, Somaia A; Abd-Elatef, Ghanem; Zozio, Thierry; Babapoor, Sankhiros; Rastogi, Nalin; Khan, Mazhar I

2009-09-01

214

Unexpectedly High Proportion of Ancestral Manu Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Cultured from Tuberculosis Patients in Egypt ?  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is one of the important public health problems in Egypt. However, limited information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Egypt is available. A total of 151 M. tuberculosis strains were characterized by spoligotyping. The results revealed that 74.8% of M. tuberculosis isolates grouped into 13 different clusters, while 25.2% had unique spoligotype patterns. Comparison with an international spoligotyping database (the SITVIT2 database) showed that types SIT53 (T1 variant) and SIT54 (Manu2 variant) were the most common types between cluster groups. In addition, new shared types SIT2977, SIT2978, and SIT2979 were observed. The results identified for the first time an unusually high proportion of ancestral Manu strains of M. tuberculosis from patients in Egypt. The percentage of the Manu clade in this study (27.15%) was significantly higher than its overall representation of 0.4% in the SITVIT2 database. We show that in Egypt tuberculosis is caused by a predominant M. tuberculosis genotype belonging to the ancestral Manu lineage which could be a missing link in the split between ancestral and modern tubercle bacilli during the evolution of M. tuberculosis. PMID:19553569

Helal, Zeinab H.; El-Din Ashour, Mohamed Seif; Eissa, Somaia A.; Abd-Elatef, Ghanem; Zozio, Thierry; Babapoor, Sankhiros; Rastogi, Nalin; Khan, Mazhar I.

2009-01-01

215

Severe tuberculosis requiring ICU admission.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a curable disease that can evolve to severe forms, requiring the treatment of the patients in an ICU, especially if there is a delay in the diagnosis or if it affects elderly patients, those on dialysis, or those with HIV infection or other states of immunosuppression, as well as in cases of multidrug resistant disease. Knowledge of the radiological presentation of the cases can help diagnose these severe forms, as can the introduction of new tests, such as the early detection of the etiological agent by PCR and chest CT, which favors the early initiation of treatment. In addition, the use of regimens without isoniazid and rifampin, as well as uncertain enteral absorption and low serum concentrations of antituberculosis drugs, can reduce the efficacy of treatment. For such patients, the prognosis is generally poor and mortality rates are high. PMID:22782610

Silva, Denise Rossato; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso Roth

2012-01-01

216

[The registered nurse and the battle against tuberculosis in Brazil: 1961-1966].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances that promoted the implementation of the new Program for Action Against Tuberculosis in Brazil (Programa de Ação na Luta contra a Tuberculose no Brasil) and discuss the strategies used by registered nurses from the Santa Maria State Hospital, Guanabara State, to adjust nursing care to the new program against tuberculosis. This was performed through document research, interviews, and statements from nurses working at the time of the reorganization. Documents were analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic power by Pierre Bourdieu, and included written and oral documents as well as secondary sources. The reorganization of the nursing service was performed under the leadership of a nurse whose symbolic capital assigned power and prestige to implement the necessary changes. It is concluded that the work of that nurse made it possible to implement the new program and contributed to establishing the position and importance of the registered nurse in providing care to individuals with tuberculosis, for prevention and cure. PMID:20085168

Montenegro, Hercília Regina do Amaral; de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Lourenço, Lucia Helena Silva Corrêa

2009-12-01

217

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents are devices that consist of antisera conjugated with a fluorescent dye used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the...

2010-04-01

218

Understanding and Targeting Lipid Metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) contains a wide array of genes responsible for the synthesis and secretion of a variety of bioactive lipids. The genes represent attractive drug-targets due to their involvement in essential cell cycles...

Liu, Zhen

2013-12-09

219

78 FR 1718 - Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...77 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0087] Approved Tests for Bovine Tuberculosis in Cervids AGENCY: Animal...CervidTB Stat-Pak[supreg] and DPP[supreg] tests as official tuberculosis tests for the following species of captive cervids:...

2013-01-09

220

Steven Brown Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Steven Brown Oral History Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 5 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 6 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video...

Brown, Steven; Albin, Tami

2010-11-24

221

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

222

La Tuberculosis Cmo recuperar su salud y mantenerse saludable  

E-print Network

La Tuberculosis Cómo recuperar su salud y mantenerse saludable Departamento de Salud y Servicios Enfermedades Infecciosas #12;La Tuberculosis Cómo recuperar su salud y mantenerse saludable Departamento de.niaid.nih.gov #12;Tabla de contenido 1 ¿Qué es la tuberculosis? 3 ¿Qué es la infección de la tuberculosis? 4 ¿Puedo

Bandettini, Peter A.

223

Thyroid Tuberculosis in a Child: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Thyroid tuberculosis is a rare disease even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic. Clinically tuberculosis is not often suspected in cases of thyroid nodule or swelling. We report a case of 11 years female child who presented with a thyroid swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed caseating epithelioid granulomas and acid fast bacilli. Patient improved with antitubercular drugs. Tuberculosis may be considered as differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling. PMID:24696559

Bodh, Anita; Sharma, Neelam; Negi, Lalita; Chandel, Suman S

2014-01-01

224

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... States today — particularly among the homeless, those in prison, and people whose immune systems have been weakened ... the patient is an infant there are severe drug reactions there are other diseases along with TB ...

225

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... are being tested in the laboratory and in animals. Researchers are evaluating shorter treatment regimens that may make it easier for people to complete drug therapy. Several antibiotics that are already approved by the ...

226

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... AIDS.gov Mission and Team • Contact Us • Privacy Policy • Disclaimer Network blog.aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • facing.aids.gov • providertools.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator ... & Viewers HHS 508 Privacy Policy White House USA.gov This is an official ...

227

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part I  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide scourge and its incidence appears to be increasing due to various factors, such as the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The insidious onset and non-specific constitutional symptoms of genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) often lead to delayed diagnosis and rapid progression to a non-functioning kidney. Due to hematogenous dissemination of TB, there is a potential risk of involvement of the contralateral kidney too. Imaging plays an important role in the making of a timely diagnosis and in the planning of treatment, and thus helps to avoid complications such as renal failure. Imaging of GUTB still remains a challenge, mainly on account of the dearth of literature, especially related to the use of the newer modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This two-part article is a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and imaging findings in renal TB. Various imaging features of GUTB are outlined, from the pathognomonic lobar calcification on plain film, to finer early changes such as loss of calyceal sharpness and papillary necrosis on intravenous urography (IVU); to uneven caliectasis and urothelial thickening, in the absence of renal pelvic dilatation, as well as the hitherto unreported ‘lobar caseation’ on ultrasonography (USG). Well-known complications of GUTB such as sinus tracts, fistulae and amyloidosis are described, along with the relatively less well-known complications such as tuberculous interstitial nephritis (TIN), which may remain hidden because of its ‘culture negative’ nature and thus lead to renal failure. The second part of the article reviews the computed tomography (CT) and MRI features of GUTB and touches upon future imaging techniques along with imaging of TB in transplant recipients and in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986618

Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

2013-01-01

228

Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

McAlpine, Dave

229

Paradoxical response to disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis treatment in a patient receiving tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitor: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Biological agents such as tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors are known to cause mycobacterium infections. Here, we report a disseminated non-tuberculosis case caused by TNF-? inhibitor therapy and a probable paradoxical response to antimycobacterial therapy. Case presentation A 68-year-old man with relapsing polychondritis was refractory to glucocorticoid therapy; adalimumab was therefore administered in combination with oral glucocorticoids. Treatment with 40 mg of adalimumab led to rapid improvement of his clinical manifestations. The administration of tacrolimus (1 mg) was started as the dosage of oral glucocorticoids was tapered. However, the patient developed an intermittent high fever and productive cough 15 months after starting adalimumab treatment. A chest computed tomography scan revealed new granular shadows and multiple nodules in both lung fields with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and Mycobacterium intracellulare was isolated from 2 sputum samples; based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis. Tacrolimus treatment was discontinued and oral clarithromycin (800 mg/day), rifampicin (450 mg/day), and ethambutol (750 mg/day) treatment was initiated. However, his condition continued to deteriorate despite 4 months of treatment; moreover, paravertebral and subcutaneous abscesses developed and increased the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a subcutaneous abscess of the right posterior thigh indicated the presence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), and the diagnosis of disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis was confirmed. Despite 9 months of antimycobacterial therapy, the mediastinal lymphadenopathy and paravertebral and subcutaneous abscesses had enlarged and additional subcutaneous abscesses had developed, although microscopic examinations and cultures of sputum and subcutaneous abscess samples yielded negative results. We considered this a paradoxical reaction similar to other reports in tuberculosis patients who had discontinued biological agent treatments, and increased the dose of oral glucocorticoids. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved with this increased dose and his lymph nodes and abscesses began to decrease in size. Conclusions Clinicians should consider the possibility of a paradoxical response when the clinical manifestations of non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis worsen in spite of antimycobacterial therapy or after discontinuation of tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors. However, additional evidence is needed to verify our findings and to determine the optimal management strategies for such cases. PMID:24576098

2014-01-01

230

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Transmission and Resistance Amplification within Families  

PubMed Central

Drug-resistant tuberculosis is caused by transmission of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and by acquisition of resistance through inadequate treatment. We investigated the clinical and molecular features of the disease in 2 families after drug-resistant tuberculosis was identified in 2 children. The findings demonstrate the potential for resistance to be transmitted and amplified within families. PMID:22840848

Warren, Rob M.; Enarson, Donald A.; Beyers, Nulda; Schaaf, H. Simon

2012-01-01

231

Life and death in the granuloma: immunopathology of tuberculosis  

E-print Network

REVIEW Life and death in the granuloma: immunopathology of tuberculosis Bernadette M Saunders1,2 and Warwick J Britton1,2 During tuberculosis (TB) infection, the granuloma provides the microenvironment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the granuloma is the site for mycobacterial killing, virulent mycobacteria

Cai, Long

232

Amplification Dynamics: Predicting the Effect of HIV on Tuberculosis Outbreaks  

E-print Network

Amplification Dynamics: Predicting the Effect of HIV on Tuberculosis Outbreaks *Travis C. Porco, U.S.A. Summary: HIV affects the pathogenesis and the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We the probability and the expected severity of tuberculosis out- breaks. Our predictions reveal that an HIV epidemic

Blower, Sally

233

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED)  

E-print Network

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED) Date: _______________ ID: If yes to any question, a TB skin test and completed Tuberculosis Skin Testing Form is required. 1 into contact with a person who has Tuberculosis? ____ No ____ Yes 3. Have you ever used any illegal

Buehrer, R. Michael

234

Origin, Spread and Demography of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex  

E-print Network

Origin, Spread and Demography of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Thierry Wirth1,2 *, Falk of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), one of the most successful groups of bacterial pathogens, remains that the MTBC consists of two independent clades, one composed exclusively of M. tuberculosis lineages from

Wirth, Thierry

235

A Cooperative Oxygen Binding Hemoglobin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

A Cooperative Oxygen Binding Hemoglobin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis STABILIZATION OF HEME, G1K 7P4, Canada The homodimeric hemoglobin (HbN) from Mycobacte- rium tuberculosis displays from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that adds a new twist to the scope of the properties of invertebrate

Yeh, Syun-Ru

236

Tuberculosis eorgeOrwell,FranzKafka,CharlotteBrontandFrederic  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis G eorgeOrwell,FranzKafka,CharlotteBrontëandFrederic Chopin all had something in common of the discovery, by Robert Koch, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,the infectious agent of the disease we now call TB. The word`consumption' conjures images of bygone eras, but the word `tuberculosis' is synonymous

Cai, Long

237

Cell Host & Microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis MycP1 Protease  

E-print Network

Cell Host & Microbe Article Mycobacterium tuberculosis MycP1 Protease Plays a Dual Role tuberculosis uses the ESX-1 secre- tion system to deliver virulence proteins during infec- tion of host cells. Here we report a mechanism of posttranscriptional control of ESX-1 mediated by MycP1, a M. tuberculosis

Craik, Charles S.

238

Comparison of Three Methods for the Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to compare three methods, culture and morphology of colonies, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using well characterized clinical specimens from patients who were assessed according to standard parameters for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Seventy seven isolated Mycobacterium species from patient's samples suspected to have tuberculosis from March 2003 till

TAVAKKOL AFSHARI; KHODADOOST MA

239

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The dynamics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Colima, Mexico  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The dynamics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Colima, Mexico (1999Á/2002) GERARDO Abstract Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Mexico. From 1999 to 2002, we assessed retrospectively the epidemiological, clinical, and treatment characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in the hospitals of the Mexican

Chowell, Gerardo

240

[François Calot's concepts about the treatment of osteoarticular tuberculosis].  

PubMed

François Calot proposed to cure the articular tuberculosis by punctures of the tuberculosis abscess and by immobilisation of the joint. He succeeded in many cases which had not to undergo surgery and his method was recognized as the best one till the arrival of the antibiotic (streptomycine) in 1948 which allowed to carry out surgery in the tuberculosis of bones and joints. PMID:17152776

Mounier-Kuhn, Alain; Sutter, Bruno

2005-01-01

241

Eicosanoid pathways regulate adaptive immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of infected macrophages has an essential role in protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by regulating innate and adaptive immunity. M. tuberculosis exploits cell necrosis to exit from macrophages and spread. In contrast, apoptosis, which is characterized by an intact plasma membrane, is an innate mechanism that results in lower bacterial viability. Virulent M. tuberculosis inhibits apoptosis and promotes necrotic

Maziar Divangahi; Danielle Desjardins; Cláudio Nunes-Alves; Heinz G Remold; Samuel M Behar

2010-01-01

242

The radiological diagnosis of tuberculosis of the adult spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis remains endemic in the United States with an estimated incidence of 15.9 cases per 100,000 population. In North America and Saudi Arabia tuberculosis of the spine is primarily a disease of adults. In Saudi Arabia the average age on presentation is 41 years. Spinal tuberculosis begins classically in the anterior inferior portion of a vertebral body. The infection spreads

P. Weaver; R. M. Lifeso

1984-01-01

243

Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa. PMID:23622814

Firdessa, Rebuma; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Schelling, Esther; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Kiros, Teklu; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Robertson, Brian D.; Ameni, Gobena; Lohan, Amanda J.; Loftus, Brendan; Comas, Inaki; Gagneux, Sebastien; Tschopp, Rea; Yamuah, Lawrence; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Young, Douglas B.

2013-01-01

244

Social clustering and the transmission and dynamics of tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Social clustering and the transmission and dynamics of tuberculosis Juan P. Aparicio 1 , Angel F Biology Institute Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853­7801, USA April 9, 1999 Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, social clusters, tuberculosis, dynam­ ical systems. Running Head: Social clustering and the dynamics

245

Brief report Tuberculosis following initiation of antiretroviral therapy  

E-print Network

1 Brief report Tuberculosis following initiation of antiretroviral therapy in low-income and high-income countries Running title: Tuberculosis on antiretroviral therapy The ART-LINC Collaboration words, 1 table, 1 figure, 13 references Key words: tuberculosis; antiretroviral therapy; HIV/AIDS; low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strain Families using Spoligotypes  

E-print Network

Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strain Families using Spoligotypes Inna Vitola-6899, Fax: (518) 276-4824, PhD (Corresponding Author) #12;Key Words: Tuberculosis; Pattern Recognition for analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strain genotyping data. Our work presents a first step

Varela, Carlos

247

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Bayesian mapping of pulmonary tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Bayesian mapping of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo, Madagascar Bicout2 Abstract Background: Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic in Madagascar. The capital, Antananarivo is the most seriously affected area. TB had

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Review article Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors  

E-print Network

Review article Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle: a stratified Tilman, Belgium 2 National and OIE/FAO Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratories, Bacterial Zoonoses ­ The worldwide status of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) as a zoonosis remains of great concern. This article reviews

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Miliary tuberculosis as a cause of acute empyema.  

PubMed

Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis are known, life-threatening complications of miliary tuberculosis. This report describes a patient with miliary tuberculosis who rapidly developed an acute tuberculous empyema. She had a fulminant course culminating in ARDS, sepsis and subsequent death. This case highlights the rare association of acute empyema with miliary tuberculosis. PMID:14665781

Runo, James R; Welch, Derek C; Ness, Erik M; Robbins, Ivan M; Milstone, Aaron P

2003-01-01

250

Factors and Global Gene Regulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis remains a worldwide threat despite the avail- ability of the BCG vaccine and antibiotic treatment. It is esti- mated that its etiologic agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in- fects almost a third of the human population and kills two million people every year (27). The recent human immunode- ficiency virus pandemic, the selection of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, and the

Riccardo Manganelli; Roberta Proveddi; Sebastien Rodrigue; Jocelyn Beaucher; Luc Gaudreau; Issar Smith

2004-01-01

251

Myths and misconceptions: the origin and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much effort has been spent trying to work out the origin and history of tuberculosis. Understanding these concepts could have important consequences for the development of vaccines and therapies that are effective against all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We discuss a series of misconceptions about the origin of both M. tuberculosis and the disease it causes that have arisen over

R. Glyn Hewinson; Kristin Kremer; Roland Brosch; Stephen V. Gordon; Noel H. Smith

2009-01-01

252

Mycobacterial lineages causing pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa. PMID:23622814

Firdessa, Rebuma; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Schelling, Esther; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Kiros, Teklu; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Robertson, Brian D; Ameni, Gobena; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan; Comas, Iñaki; Gagneux, Sebastien; Tschopp, Rea; Yamuah, Lawrence; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V; Young, Douglas B; Aseffa, Abraham

2013-03-01

253

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop-ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop- ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in many developed countries suggests that current control strategies are suboptimal. The increase tuberculosis. We describe and discuss a theoretical framework based upon mathematical transmission models

Blower, Sally

254

Deletion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resuscitation-Promoting Factor Rv1009 Gene Results in Delayed Reactivation from Chronic Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately one-third of the human population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, comprising a critical reservoir for disease reactivation. Despite the importance of latency in maintaining M. tuberculosis in the human population, little is known about the mycobacterial factors that regulate persistence and reactivation. Previous in vitro studies have implicated a family of five related M. tuberculosis proteins, called resuscitation

JoAnn M. Tufariello; K. Mi; J. Xu; Y. C. Manabe; A. K. Kesavan; J. Drumm; K. Tanaka; W. R. Jacobs; J. Chan

2006-01-01

255

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Casablanca, a Moroccan City with High Incidence of Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although lower-resource countries have by far the highest burden of tuberculosis, knowledge of Mycobacte- rium tuberculosis population structure and genetic diversity in these regions remains almost nonexistent. In this paper, 150 Moroccan M. tuberculosis isolates circulating in Casablanca were genotyped by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis using 10 different primers and by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units- variable number of tandem

Loubna Tazi; Jamila El Baghdadi; Sarah Lesjean; Camille Locht; Philip Supply; Michel Tibayrenc; Anne-Laure Banuls

2004-01-01

256

Mycobacterial tuberculosis superimposed on a Warthin tumor.  

PubMed

The concomitant occurrence of tuberculosis infection within a Warthin tumor is extremely rare, as only 6 cases have been previously reported in the English-language literature. We report a new case in a 92-year-old man, who presented with a 20-year history of a painless swelling in the right infra-auricular area that had recently become painful and larger. The patient had no history of tuberculosis, weight loss, or chronic cough. The fluctuant mass was aspirated, but histopathology and routine culture were negative. Computed tomography identified a 5-cm, heterogeneous, enhancing mass with multiple, variably sized, low-density areas without surrounding edema in the area of the right parotid gland. Complete excision was performed to relieve the patient's symptoms. Histopathology diagnosed an acid-fast bacillus infection within a Warthin tumor. On polymerase chain reaction testing, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was negative for tuberculosis, but subsequent culture identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Initially, the patient refused antituberculosis therapy, but he relented when miliary pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed 11 weeks postoperatively. PMID:22614566

Wu, Kang-Chao; Chen, Bo-Nien

2012-05-01

257

Optimizing Tuberculosis Testing for Basic Laboratories  

PubMed Central

Optimal tuberculosis testing usually involves sputum centrifugation followed by broth culture. However, centrifuges are biohazardous and scarce in the resource-limited settings where most tuberculosis occurs. To optimize tuberculosis testing for these settings, centrifugation of 111 decontaminated sputum samples was compared with syringe-aspiration through polycarbonate membrane-filters that were then cultured in broth. To reduce the workload of repeated microscopic screening of broth cultures for tuberculosis growth, the colorimetric redox indicator 2,3-diphenyl-5-(2-thienyl) tetrazolium chloride was added to the broth, which enabled naked-eye detection of culture positivity. This combination of filtration and colorimetric growth-detection gave similar results to sputum centrifugation followed by culture microscopy regarding mean colony counts (43 versus 48; P = 0.6), contamination rates (0.9% versus 1.8%; P = 0.3), and sensitivity (94% versus 95%; P = 0.7), suggesting equivalency of the two methods. By obviating centrifugation and repeated microscopic screening of cultures, this approach may constitute a more appropriate technology for rapid and sensitive tuberculosis diagnosis in basic laboratories. PMID:20889887

Ramos, Eric; Schumacher, Samuel G.; Siedner, Mark; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Alvarado, Jessica; Montoya, Rosario; Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Sherman, Jonathan M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

2010-01-01

258

Diagnostic value of PCR in genitourinary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Genitourinary tuberculosis is a disease of the genitourinary system which includes the entire urinary tract and reproductive system. Genital tuberculosis is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing nations like India. In the present study, a total of 257 clinical specimens comprising of endometrial biopsy (109), endometrial curetting (42), menstrual blood (8), semen (17), placenta (11) and urine (70) were collected from patients and subjected for PCR, Culture and AFB detection. The endometrial biopsy, endometrial curetting, menstrual blood, semen, placenta, urine showed 30.2, 45.2,12.5, 5.8, 27.2, 31.4 %, positivity rate for tuberculosis by PCR, 7.3, 9.5, 25.0, 0, 9, 8.5 % by culture and 1.8, 2.3, 0, 0, 0, 2.8 % respectively by AFB smear. Being a novel, rapid technique, PCR is the method of choice for rapid diagnosis and management of genitourinary tuberculosis shared with the other concerned tests. This study reveals that genital tuberculosis can occur in any age group, however, the majority of patients were from reproductive age (nearly 75 % of them were from 20-45 years of age) group. PMID:24426229

Sharma, Narotam; Sharma, Veena; Singh, Prem Raj; Sailwal, Shivani; Kushwaha, Rajeev S; Singh, Rajesh K; Nautiyal, Satish C; Mishra, Pankaj; Masood, Tariq; Singh, R K

2013-07-01

259

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

2006-11-10

260

Ryan Campbell Oral History  

E-print Network

Return to Ryan Campbell's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library University of Kansas 1301 Hoch Auditoria Drive Lawrence, KS 66045 Phone: 785-691-5748 All... beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Anschutz Library 1301 Hoch Auditoria Dr. University of Kansas...

Campbell, Ryan; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

261

Diagnosis of Childhood Tuberculosis and Host RNA Expression in Africa  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Improved diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in children are needed. We hypothesized that transcriptional signatures of host blood could be used to distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children who either were or were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS The study population comprised prospective cohorts of children who were undergoing evaluation for suspected tuberculosis in South Africa (655 children), Malawi (701 children), and Kenya (1599 children). Patients were assigned to groups according to whether the diagnosis was culture-confirmed tuberculosis, culture-negative tuberculosis, diseases other than tuberculosis, or latent tuberculosis infection. Diagnostic signatures distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases and from latent tuberculosis infection were identified from genomewide analysis of RNA expression in host blood. RESULTS We identified a 51-transcript signature distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases in the South African and Malawian children (the discovery cohort). In the Kenyan children (the validation cohort), a risk score based on the signature for tuberculosis and for diseases other than tuberculosis showed a sensitivity of 82.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.6 to 94.3) and a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI, 74.6 to 92.7) for the diagnosis of culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Among patients with cultures negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis who were treated for tuberculosis (those with highly probable, probable, or possible cases of tuberculosis), the estimated sensitivity was 62.5 to 82.3%, 42.1 to 80.8%, and 35.3 to 79.6%, respectively, for different estimates of actual tuberculosis in the groups. In comparison, the sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for molecular detection of M. tuberculosis DNA in cases of culture-confirmed tuberculosis was 54.3% (95% CI, 37.1 to 68.6), and the sensitivity in highly probable, probable, or possible cases was an estimated 25.0 to 35.7%, 5.3 to 13.3%, and 0%, respectively; the specificity of the assay was 100%. CONCLUSIONS RNA expression signatures provided data that helped distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children with and those without HIV infection. (Funded by the European Union Action for Diseases of Poverty Program and others). PMID:24785206

Banwell, Claire M.; Chagaluka, George; Crampin, Amelia C.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; French, Neil; Hamilton, Melissa S.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Kern, Florian; Langford, Paul R.; Ling, Ling; Mlotha, Rachel; Ottenhoff, Tom H.M.; Pienaar, Sandy; Pillay, Vashini; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Twahir, Hemed; Wilkinson, Robert J.

2014-01-01

262

What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Oral cavity cancer, or just ... parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

263

Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know Oral chemo is any drug you take by mouth to treat cancer. ... be ready for oral chemo. What is oral chemotherapy? There are many types of chemotherapy (chemo). Oral ...

264

[Future prospects of molecular epidemiology in tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Before the availability of high-resolution genotyping tools in 1990s, there was a prevailing dogma of little genomic sequence diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Due to the low levels of genetic variation, it was assumed that M. tuberculosis exhibit very little phenotypic variation in immunologic and virulence factors. The fingerprinting method based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of IS6110 insertion sequences had unveiled the underestimation of the sequence variation in M. tuberculosis and the importance of strain-to-strain variation for understanding pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, bacterial evolution, and host adaptation. This method became a gold standard for strain differentiation in the molecular epidemiological study. It had lead to a profusion of studies in molecular epidemiology such as the detection of unsuspected transmission, the estimation of the extent of recent transmission, the identification of laboratory cross-contamination, the identification of outbreaks, and distinction between reinfection and relapse. This, in 1990s, is the opening of the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. After the completion of genome project of the M. tuberculosis laboratory strain H37Rv, some of the clinical isolates were completely sequenced. This prompted the in silico genome comparison and identified various genomic markers which can give a unifying framework for both epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of M. tuberculosis population. Of them, variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) was found as the most promising PCR-based method which can provide adequate discrimination of M. tuberculosis strains in many cases, including the estimation of M. tuberculosis transmission and the identification of genetic lineages. PCR-based VNTR analysis is easy, rapid, and highly specific and can generate portable digit-based data, unlike the analog information obtained from IS6110 RFLP which is labor intensive. In this regards, investigators can easily compare the genotypic data of independent studies between different laboratories. With the advantages, VNTR surpassed IS6110 RFLP and became the first line genotyping method in molecular epidemiology. One of the most attractive potentials on this method is its applicability for establishment of the database of M. tuberculosis genotype which covers not only local area but also world wide scale. This would open the door to "in silico epidemiology" which brings a breakthrough on the current TB control program. The optimization and standardization of the combination of VNTR loci for strain genotyping is the only but hard issue for the development of global database system. Road to the global Mtb genotype database is hard, but we believe, "Yes, We Can!". Another attractive potential of VNTR is its use for phylogenetic analysis, although more intensive research on this with using comprehensive marker sets, such as large sequence polymorphisms and single-nucleotide polymorphisms are required. Again, with the advantages of VNTR analysis, i.e., easy, rapid, specific, and digit-based data, VNTR became the first line method in molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis is expanding its research field from the investigation of TB transmission to more basic science such as evolution and phylogeographic distribution. In this symposium, we have invited four opinion leaders in molecular epidemiology of TB in Japan who are talking about each title as followed. 1. Establishment of the standard VNTR analysis systems for Tuberculosis (TB) and preparation of databases for TB genotyping: Shinji MAEDA and Yoshiro MURASE (Department of Mycobacterium Reference and Research, Research Institute of Tuberculosis, JATA). We have already reported the JATA (12)-VNTR system for TB genotyping in Japan. However, by comparison of cluster formation rate, the discrimination power of JATA (12)-VNTR was lower than that of IS6110 RFLP analysis. Therefore, we improved the JATA (12)-VNTR system for developing discrimination power. By addition of 3 loci (ETR-A, V

Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Iwamoto, Tomotada

2009-12-01

265

[Tuberculosis control programme in Tunisia: efficacy assessment].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the national Tuberculosis Control Programme in Tunisia, by applying the 8-stage model proposed by Piot (1967). Two retrospective cohorts of tuberculosis cases, including all new smear-positive cases detected by all laboratories in the study area during the study period, were selected at least 2 years after treatment began. The real number of new active cases during the study period was estimated at 142, the case detection rate at 61%. In all, 70% of patients started tuberculosis treatment, and regular use of the home treatment varied from 87% (including irregular use) to 71% (excluding irregular use). The low global efficacy of the program, which ranged from 26 to 31%, indicates the need for improved application of the strategy by programme managers. PMID:20685638

Kouni Chahed, Mohamed; Bellali, Hédia; Dhouibi, Sassia; Ben Alaya, Nissaf; Zouari, Béchir

2010-01-01

266

Database resources for the Tuberculosis community  

PubMed Central

Summary Access to online repositories for genomic and associated “-omics” datasets is now an essential part of everyday research activity. It is important therefore that the Tuberculosis community is aware of the databases and tools available to them online, as well as for the database hosts to know what the needs of the research community are. One of the goals of the Tuberculosis Annotation Jamboree, held in Washington DC on March 7th–8th 2012, was therefore to provide an overview of the current status of three key Tuberculosis resources, TubercuList (tuberculist.epfl.ch), TB Database (www.tbdb.org), and Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, www.patricbrc.org). Here we summarize some key updates and upcoming features in TubercuList, and provide an overview of the PATRIC site and its online tools for pathogen RNA-Seq analysis. PMID:23332401

Lew, Jocelyne M.; Mao, Chunhong; Shukla, Maulik; Warren, Andrew; Will, Rebecca; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Xenarios, Ioannis; Robertson, Brian D.; Gordon, Stephen V.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Cole, Stewart T.; Sobral, Bruno

2013-01-01

267

Abdominal tuberculosis of the gastrointestinal tract: Revisited  

PubMed Central

Abdominal tuberculosis is an increasingly common disease that poses diagnostic challenge, as the nonspecific features of the disease which may lead to diagnostic delays and development of complications. This condition is regarded as a great mimicker of other abdominal pathology. A high index of suspicion is an important factor in early diagnosis. Abdominal involvement may occur in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lymphnodes or solid viscera. Various investigative methods have been used to aid in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis. Early diagnosis and initiation of antituberculous therapy and surgical treatment are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. Most of the patients respond very well to standard antitubercular therapy and surgery is required only in a minority of cases. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis because early recognition of this condition is important. We reviewed our experience with the findings on various imaging modalities for diagnosis of this potentially treatable disease.

Debi, Uma; Ravisankar, Vasudevan; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Sharma, Arun Kumar

2014-01-01

268

Garrett Fugate Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Garrett Fugate conducted by Jeremy Adkison in 2010. In this interview, University of Kansas student Garrett Fugate discusses his childhood experiences as a member of the Greek Orthodox community, ...

Fugate, Garrett; Adkison, Jeremy

2010-01-01

269

Edith Bogart Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Edith Bogart conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 14, 2010. In this interview, Edith Bogart discusses her experiences with a variety of denominations, including Episcopalian, Jehovah's Witnesses...

Bogart, Edith; Miller, Timothy

2010-09-14

270

Kansas Lawsonians Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with John and Paula Mook and George Hunergaaurd conducted by Jamie Reeve in Wichita, Kansas, on December 8, 2009. In this interview, John and Paul Mook and George Hunergaaurd discuss the biography ...

Mook, John; Mook, Paula; Hunergaaurd, George; Reeve, Jamie

2009-12-08

271

Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, ...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

272

Barnabas Senecal Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Abbot Barnabas Senecal of St. Benedict’s Abbey in Atchison, Kansas, conducted by Ben Nelson on December 9, 2009. In this interview, Abbot Barnabas discusses his childhood ties with the Catholic Church, the history...

Senecal, Barnabas; Nelson, Ben

2009-12-09

273

Communication (Oral & Written) Leadership  

E-print Network

Team Work Communication (Oral & Written) Leadership Decision Making Creativity Ethics Computer Organization REQUIRED SKILLS Sport Teams Public Recreation Facilities Health/Fitness Centers and Event Management POSSIBLE EMPLOYERS EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES What Can I Do With a Major in... Sport

Jiang, Huiqiang

274

Oral compound nevus.  

PubMed

The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24612575

Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

2014-02-01

275

Leni Salkind Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leni Salkind conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. In this interview, Leni Salkind describes her experiences as a member of the Jewish community in Lawrence. She discusses the issue...

Salkind, Leni; Miller, Timothy

2009-11-11

276

Phil Friedl Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Phil Friedl conducted by Sara Vestal and Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Delia, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. Phil Friedl is a follower of David Bawden, who is also known as Pope Michael. In this interview, ...

Friedl, Phil; Vestal, Sara; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-11-11

277

Justin Jenkins Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Justin Jenkins conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 6, 2013. Justin Jenkins is the founder and lead pastor of Velocity Church. Velocity Church is a recent non-denominational ...

Jenkins, Justin; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-06

278

Virgil Dean Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Virgil Dean conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas on November 9, 2010. In this interview, Virgil Dean, director for publications for the Kansas State Historical Society and editor of ...

Dean, Virgil; Miller, Timothy

2010-11-09

279

Oral Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... partners of people with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer . Sun exposure Being exposed to sunlight may increase the risk of lip cancer. Lip ... factors, such as drinking alcohol, HPV infection, and sun exposure, increase the risk of oral cancer. It ...

280

Eleanor Symons Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Eleanor Symons conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 14, 2009. In this interview, Eleanor Symons, a retired University of Kansas librarian, discusses the history of the ...

Symons, Eleanor; Miller, Timothy

2009-10-14

281

Naomi Nelson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Naomi Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Naomi Nelson describes her early childhood experiences attending church in Wilsey, ...

Nelson, Naomi; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

282

Oral Cancer Exam  

MedlinePLUS

... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral ...

283

Tuberculosis diagnostics and biomarkers: needs, challenges, recent advances, and opportunities.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within communities. Currently recommended gold-standard diagnostic tests for tuberculosis are laboratory based, and multiple investigations may be necessary over a period of weeks or months before a diagnosis is made. Several new diagnostic tests have recently become available for detecting active tuberculosis disease, screening for latent M. tuberculosis infection, and identifying drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. However, progress toward a robust point-of-care test has been limited, and novel biomarker discovery remains challenging. In the absence of effective prevention strategies, high rates of early case detection and subsequent cure are required for global tuberculosis control. Early case detection is dependent on test accuracy, accessibility, cost, and complexity, but also depends on the political will and funder investment to deliver optimal, sustainable care to those worst affected by the tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics. This review highlights unanswered questions, challenges, recent advances, unresolved operational and technical issues, needs, and opportunities related to tuberculosis diagnostics. PMID:22496353

McNerney, Ruth; Maeurer, Markus; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Marais, Ben; McHugh, Timothy D; Ford, Nathan; Weyer, Karin; Lawn, Steve; Grobusch, Martin P; Memish, Ziad; Squire, S Bertel; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Casenghi, Martina; Migliori, Giovanni-Batista; Mwaba, Peter; Zijenah, Lynn; Hoelscher, Michael; Cox, Helen; Swaminathan, Soumya; Kim, Peter S; Schito, Marco; Harari, Alexandre; Bates, Matthew; Schwank, Samana; O'Grady, Justin; Pletschette, Michel; Ditui, Lucica; Atun, Rifat; Zumla, Alimuddin

2012-05-15

284

Cryopreservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Cells  

PubMed Central

Successful long-term preservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells is important for sample transport, research, biobanking, and the development of new drugs, vaccines, biomarkers, and diagnostics. In this report, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and M. tuberculosis H37Ra were used as models of M. tuberculosis complex strains to study cryopreservation of M. tuberculosis complex cells in diverse sample matrices at different cooling rates. Cells were cryopreserved in diverse sample matrices, namely, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Middlebrook 7H9 medium with or without added glycerol, and human sputum. The efficacy of cryopreservation was quantified by microbiological culture and microscopy with BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. In all sample matrices examined, the microbiological culture results showed that the cooling rate was the most critical factor influencing cell viability. Slow cooling (a few degrees Celsius per minute) resulted in much higher M. tuberculosis complex recovery rates than rapid cooling (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen) (P < 0.05). Among the three defined cryopreservation media (PBS, 7H9, and 7H9 plus glycerol), there was no significant differential effect on viability (P = 0.06 to 0.87). Preincubation of thawed M. tuberculosis complex cells in 7H9 broth for 20 h before culture on solid Middlebrook 7H10 plates did not help the recovery of the cells from cryoinjury (P = 0.14 to 0.71). The BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining kit, based on Syto 9 and propidium iodide (PI), was also applied to assess cell envelope integrity after cryopreservation. Using the kit, similar percentages of “live” cells with intact envelopes were observed for samples cryopreserved under different conditions, which was inconsistent with the microbiological culture results. This implies that suboptimal cryopreservation might not cause severe damage to the cell wall and/or membrane but instead cause intracellular injury, which leads to the loss of cell viability. PMID:22933596

Shu, Zhiquan; Weigel, Kris M.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Lakey, Annie; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

2012-01-01

285

Oral Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv

2014-09-01

286

Hypertension and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Large prospective epidemiologic studies have shown that long-term use of oral contraceptives containing estrogen induce an increase in blood pressure and sharply increase the risk of hypertension. Susceptibility to the hypertensive effects of oral contraceptives is heightened where risk factors such as age, family history of hypertension, preexisting or occult renal disease, parity and obesity exist. Hypertension among pill users usually develops within the first 6 months of usage and occasionally is delayed for as long as 6 years. Anitihypertensive therapy is seldom needed as the hypertension that developes is generally mild and uncomplicated, and rapidly reverses when the pills are discontinued. However, a small percentage of patients develop severe, even life-threatening hypertension and the hypertensive effects are felt long after the pills are discontinued. Cases of malignant hypertension and irreversible renal failure requiring maintenance hemodialysis, bilateral nephrectomy, and renal transplantation have occurred following administration of oral contraceptive pills. The mechanism by which oral pills induce hypertension in susceptible women is not known and needs further research. Before oral contraceptives are prescribed, physicians should take a careful history and perform a detailed physicial examination with special attention to the cardiovascular system. Multiple blood pressure measurements should be made and routine laboratory studies including urinalysis, blood urea and nitrogen and serum creatinine should be performed. It is preferable to start with a relatively low (50 mcg) estrogenic content preparation. Patients who develop hypertension (diastolic pressure, 90 mm Hg) on oral contraceptives should stop taking the pills immediately, and should be considered to have estrogen-induced hypertension. They should never again receive estrogen-containing oral pills, although they can try pills containing only progestogen. There is no contraindication to pregnancy in these patients, as most women who become hypertensive on oral pills go on to have normotensive pregnancies. Pregnancy in women who are susceptible to essential hypertension however should be treated as high risk. PMID:12263383

Oparil, S

1981-04-01

287

Oral Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

2014-01-01

288

George Paris Oral History  

E-print Network

management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Return to George Paris's Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People... are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow...

Paris, George; Albin, Tami

2010-01-11

289

[Tuberculosis Annual Report 2012. (1). Summary of tuberculosis notification statistics and foreign-born tuberculosis patients].  

PubMed

This brief summary report is the first of a series of reports based on the Tuberculosis Annual Report 2012. It includes a summary of tuberculosis (TB) statistics, and an overview of foreign-born TB patients notified and registered in 2012 in Japan. A total of 21,283 patients with all forms of TB were notified in 2012, a rate of 16.7 per 100,000 population. Since 2000, the TB notification rates continued to decline until 2012. A total of 8,237 sputum-smear positive pulmonary TB patients were notified in 2012, a rate of 6.5 per 100,000 population. The number of patients with latent TB infection drastically increased from 4,930 in 2010 to 10,046 in 2011, and declined to 8,771 in 2012. The number of foreign-born TB patients increased from 739 in 1998 to 1,069 in 2012. These patients accounted for 2.1% of all new TB patients in 1998, and this percentage increased to 5.2% in 2012. New foreign-born TB patients aged 20-29 years accounted for 37.0% of all new TB patients of the same age group in 2012. Among the foreign-born TB patients, more than half were from China (27.5%) and the Philippines (27.1%). In most cases, foreign-born TB patients entered Japan within 5 years, including 66.7% of those aged 10-19 years, and 57.9% of those aged 20-29 years. These foreign-born TB patients were largely regular employees (28%) other than service workers, health care workers, and teachers, followed by unemployed persons (21%) and students (20%). With an increase in the number of immigrants in Japan, the proportion of foreign-born TB patients is also expected to increase, particularly that of young adults and those from countries with a high TB burden. Comprehensive programs are required to ensure that these patients adhere to their anti-TB treatment. PMID:25095647

2014-06-01

290

ORAL HYGIENE AND INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral hygiene of institutionalized elders is poor. This population exhibits an increased risk of oral infections such as periodontal disease, caries, inflammatory mucosal disorders, and denture-related problems. Poor oral health has been associated with systemic infections, such as respiratory infections, and nutritional inadequa- cies. Thus the maintenance of oral health among institu- tionalized elders is of significant value as

ALNAR ALTANI; C. C. L. WYATT

2002-01-01

291

Menopause and oral health.  

PubMed

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-07-01

292

Menopause and oral health  

PubMed Central

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-01-01

293

Oral and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

2014-01-01

294

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

295

Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis of the Bactericidal Activities of Sutezolid (PNU-100480) and Its Major Metabolite against Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ex Vivo Whole-Blood Cultures of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Sutezolid (PNU-100480 [U-480]) is an oxazolidinone antimicrobial being developed for the treatment of tuberculosis. An active sulfoxide metabolite (PNU-101603 [U-603]), which reaches concentrations in plasma several times those of the parent, has been reported to drive the killing of extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis by sutezolid in hollow-fiber culture. However, the relative contributions of the parent and metabolite against intracellular M. tuberculosis in vivo are not fully understood. The relationships between the plasma concentrations of U-480 and U-603 and intracellular whole-blood bactericidal activity (WBA) in ex vivo cultures were examined using a direct competitive population pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic 4-parameter sigmoid model. The data set included 690 PK determinations and 345 WBA determinations from 50 tuberculosis patients enrolled in a phase 2a sutezolid trial. The model parameters were solved iteratively. The median U-603/U-480 concentration ratio was 7.1 (range, 1 to 28). The apparent 50% inhibitory concentration of U-603 for intracellular M. tuberculosis was 17-fold greater than that of U-480 (90% confidence interval [CI], 9.9- to 53-fold). Model parameters were used to simulate in vivo activity after oral dosing with sutezolid at 600 mg twice a day (BID) and 1,200 mg once a day (QD). Divided dosing resulted in greater cumulative activity (?0.269 log10 per day; 90% CI, ?0.237 to ?0.293 log10 per day) than single daily dosing (?0.186 log10 per day; 90% CI, ?0.160 to ?0.208 log10 per day). U-480 accounted for 84% and 78% of the activity for BID and QD dosing, respectively, despite the higher concentrations of U-603. Killing of intracellular M. tuberculosis by orally administered sutezolid is mainly due to the activity of the parent compound. Taken together with the findings of other studies in the hollow-fiber model, these findings suggest that sutezolid and its metabolite act on different mycobacterial subpopulations. PMID:24687496

Zhu, Tong; Friedrich, Sven O.; Diacon, Andreas

2014-01-01

296

Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis masquerading as pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) remains a rarity despite the high incidence of tuberculosis in many of the African and Asian countries. Presentation as discrete pancreatic mass often masquerades as pancreatic neoplasm and diagnosis may require histology. Extra-hepatic portal hypertension due to splenic vein thrombosis complicating pancreatic TB has been reported in the literature. We report here a case of isolated pancreatic TB with pancreatic head mass mimicking neoplasm with extra-hepatic portal hypertension. The possibility of TB should be considered in the list of differential diagnoses of pancreatic mass and an endoscopic, ultrasound-guided biopsy might help to clinch the diagnosis of this potentially curable disease. PMID:24759351

Zacharia, George S.; Antony, Rajany; Kolassery, Sandesh; Ramachandran, Thazhath M.

2014-01-01

297

HPV-associated oral warts.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts. PMID:21608502

Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2011-03-01

298

First Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Second-line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  

PubMed Central

We performed drug susceptibility testing on first- and second-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the first time in Ghana to obtain preliminary data on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of 21 isolates (4 new cases and 17 treated cases), 5 (23.8%) were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 19 (90.5%) were resistant to at least one drug, but no extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was identified. Since the target patients were Category II, IV or smear positive at follow-up microscopy, it is understandable that there were many drug-resistant TB cases. Six isolates were resistant to one or two second-line drugs, but the second-line drugs were not approved in Ghana. It is considered that the bacilli were imported from abroad. Preventing the import of drug-resistant TB bacilli is probably one of best ways to control TB in Ghana. PMID:24808747

Kato, Tomoko; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Nartey, Naomi; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank Adae; Mitarai, Satoshi

2014-01-01

299

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part II  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of renal tuberculosis (TB), including TB in transplant recipients and immunocompromised patients. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) forms the mainstay of cross-sectional imaging in renal TB. It can easily identify calcification, renal scars, mass lesions, and urothelial thickening. The combination of uneven caliectasis, with urothelial thickening and lack of pelvic dilatation, can also be demonstrated on MDCT. MRI is a sensitive modality for demonstration of features of renal TB, including tissue edema, asymmetric perinephric fat stranding, and thickening of Gerota's fascia, all of which may be clues to focal pyelonephritis of tuberculous origin. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may help in differentiating hydronephrosis from pyonephrosis. ADC values also have the potential to serve as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of renal fibrosis. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of renal TB. In transplant patients, renal TB, including tuberculous interstitial nephritis, is an important cause of graft dysfunction. Renal TB in patients with HIV more often shows greater parenchymal affection, with poorly formed granulomas and relatively less frequent findings of caseation and stenosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are also more common in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986619

Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

2013-01-01

300

Spatial Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Antananarivo Madagascar: Tuberculosis-Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis infection may remain latent, but the disease is nevertheless a serious public health issue. Various epidemiological studies on pulmonary tuberculosis have considered the spatial component and taken it into account, revealing the tendency of this disease to cluster in particular locations. The aim was to assess the contribution of Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) to the distribution of tuberculosis and to provide information for the improvement of the National Tuberculosis Program. Methods We investigated the role of KAP to distribution patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo. First, we performed spatial scanning of tuberculosis aggregation among permanent cases resident in Antananarivo Urban Township using the Kulldorff method, and then we carried out a quantitative study on KAP, involving TB patients. The KAP study in the population was based on qualitative methods with focus groups. Results The disease still clusters in the same districts identified in the previous study. The principal cluster covered 22 neighborhoods. Most of them are part of the first district. A secondary cluster was found, involving 18 neighborhoods in the sixth district and two neighborhoods in the fifth. The relative risk was respectively 1.7 (p<10?6) in the principal cluster and 1.6 (p<10?3) in the secondary cluster. Our study showed that more was known about TB symptoms than about the duration of the disease or free treatment. Knowledge about TB was limited to that acquired at school or from relatives with TB. The attitude and practices of patients and the population in general indicated that there is still a stigma attached to tuberculosis. Conclusion This type of survey can be conducted in remote zones where the tuberculosis-related KAP of the TB patients and the general population is less known or not documented; the findings could be used to adapt control measures to the local particularities. PMID:25386655

Rakotosamimanana, Sitraka; Mandrosovololona, Vatsiharizandry; Rakotonirina, Julio; Ramamonjisoa, Joselyne; Ranjalahy, Justin Rasolofomanana; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa

2014-01-01

301

Associations between national tuberculosis program budgets and tuberculosis outcomes: an ecological study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of this study is to explore the associations between national tuberculosis program (NTP) budget allocation and tuberculosis related outcomes in the World Health Organization's 22 high burden countries from 2007–2009. Methods This ecological study used mixed effects and generalized estimating equation models to identify independent associations between NTP budget allocations and various tuberculosis related outcomes. Models were adjusted for a number of independent variables previously noted to be associated with tuberculosis incidence. Results Increasing the percent of the NTP budget for advocacy, communication and social mobilization was associated with an increase in the case detection rate. Increasing TB-HIV funding was associated with an increase in HIV testing among TB patients. Increasing the percent of the population covered by the Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) program was associated with an increase in drug susceptibility testing. Laboratory funding was positively associated with tuberculosis notification. Increasing the budgets for first line drugs, management and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was associated with a decrease in smear positive deaths. Conclusion Effective TB control is a complex and multifaceted challenge. This study revealed a number of budget allocation related factors associated with improved TB outcome parameters. If confirmed with future longitudinal studies, these findings could help guide NTP managers with allocation decisions. PMID:23024825

Chapple, Will; Katz, Alan Roy; Li, Dongmei

2012-01-01

302

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

303

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.374 Effect...diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...accepted to show the disease was initially...

2010-07-01

304

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.374 Effect...diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...accepted to show the disease was initially...

2012-07-01

305

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.374 Effect...diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...accepted to show the disease was initially...

2011-07-01

306

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.374 Effect...diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...accepted to show the disease was initially...

2013-07-01

307

77 FR 65555 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-10-29

308

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2012-01-01

309

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2013-01-01

310

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2010-01-01

311

76 FR 18220 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis; Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis; Notice of Charter Renewal This gives...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human Services...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human...

2011-04-01

312

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2014-01-01

313

78 FR 9925 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to Be Discussed:...

2013-02-12

314

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2012-01-01

315

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2013-01-01

316

78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-11-07

317

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2010-01-01

318

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2011-01-01

319

75 FR 6402 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-02-09

320

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2014-01-01

321

75 FR 33316 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-06-11

322

77 FR 27776 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-05-11

323

76 FR 67459 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-11-01

324

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2011-01-01

325

Improving the estimation of the tuberculosis burden in India  

PubMed Central

Abstract Although India is considered to be the country with the greatest tuberculosis burden, estimates of the disease’s incidence, prevalence and mortality in India rely on sparse data with substantial uncertainty. The relevant available data are less reliable than those from countries that have recently improved systems for case reporting or recently invested in national surveys of tuberculosis prevalence. We explored ways to improve the estimation of the tuberculosis burden in India. We focused on case notification data – among the most reliable data available – and ways to investigate the associated level of underreporting, as well as the need for a national tuberculosis prevalence survey. We discuss several recent developments – i.e. changes in national policies relating to tuberculosis, World Health Organization guidelines for the investigation of the disease, and a rapid diagnostic test – that should improve data collection for the estimation of the tuberculosis burden in India and elsewhere. We recommend the implementation of an inventory study in India to assess the underreporting of tuberculosis cases, as well as a national survey of tuberculosis prevalence. A national assessment of drug resistance in Indian strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis should also be considered. The results of such studies will be vital for the accurate monitoring of tuberculosis control efforts in India and globally. PMID:25378743

Cowling, Krycia; Dandona, Rakhi

2014-01-01

326

Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Isoniazid resistance is an obstacle to the treatment of tuberculosis disease and latent tuberculosis infection in children. We aim to summarize the literature describing the risk of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis among children with tuberculosis disease. Methods We did a systematic review of published reports of children with tuberculosis disease who had isolates tested for susceptibility to isoniazid. We searched PubMed, Embase and LILACS online databasesuptoJanuary 12, 2012. Results Our search identified 3,403 citations, of which 95 studies met inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated 8,351 children with tuberculosis disease for resistance to isoniazid. The median proportion of children found to have isoniazid-resistant strains was 8%; the distribution was right-skewed (25th percentile: 0% and 75th percentile: 18%). Conclusions High proportions of isoniazid resistance among pediatric tuberculosis patients have been reported in many settings suggesting that diagnostics detecting only rifampin resistance are insufficient to guide appropriate treatment in this population. Many children are likely receiving sub-standard tuberculosis treatment with empirical isoniazid-based regimens, and treating latent tuberculosis infection with isoniazid may not be effective in large numbers of children. Work is needed urgently to identify effective regimens for the treatment of children sick with or exposed to isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis and to better understand the scope of this problem. PMID:23348808

Yuen, Courtney M.; Tolman, Arielle W.; Cohen, Ted; Parr, Jonathan B.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Becerra, Mercedes C.

2013-01-01

327

Optimization of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase expression and purification.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the human pathogen that causes tuberculosis, warrants enormous attention due to the emergence of multi drug resistant and extremely drug resistant strains. RNA polymerase (RNAP), the key enzyme in gene regulation, is an attractive target for anti-TB drugs. Understanding the structure-function relationship of M. tuberculosis RNAP and the mechanism of gene regulation by RNAP in conjunction with different ? factors and transcriptional regulators would provide significant information for anti-tuberculosis drug development targeting RNAP. Studies with M. tuberculosis RNAP remain tedious because of the extremely slow-growing nature of the bacteria and requirement of special laboratory facility. Here, we have developed and optimized recombinant methods to prepare M. tuberculosis RNAP core and RNAP holo enzymes assembled in vivo in Escherichia coli. These methods yield high amounts of transcriptionally active enzymes, free of E. coli RNAP contamination. The recombinant M. tuberculosis RNAP is used to develop a highly sensitive fluorescence based in vitro transcription assay that could be easily adopted in a high-throughput format to screen RNAP inhibitors. These recombinant methods would be useful to set a platform for M. tuberculosis RNAP targeted anti TB drug development, to analyse the structure/function of M. tuberculosis RNAP and to analyse the interactions among promoter DNA, RNAP, ? factors, and transcription regulators of M. tuberculosis in vitro, avoiding the hazard of handling of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24832563

Banerjee, Rajdeep; Rudra, Paulami; Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Sengupta, Shreya; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

2014-07-01

328

[Genitourinary tuberculosis in Germany: diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) usually results from the reactivation of old, dormant tuberculous diseases by pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The diagnosis of tuberculosis of the urinary tract is based on the case history, the finding of pyuria in the absence of infection as judged by culture on routine media and by radiological imaging. A positive yellow egg culture and/or histological analysis of biopsy specimens possibly combined with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required in most patients to establish a definitive diagnosis of GUTB. Antituberculous drug treatment is based on an initial 2 month intensive phase with three or four drugs daily followed by a 4 month continuation phase with only two drugs. Surgery as a treatment option in GUTB might be indicated in complicated urinary tuberculosis. After antituberculous treatment of GUTB a follow-up surveillance over 5 years is recommended. Although the incidence of GUTB in Germany is relatively low, it is still necessary to impart and deepen scientific knowledge of the diagnosis and therapy of GUTB. PMID:22120191

Lenk, S

2011-12-01

329

Abdominal cocoon secondary to disseminated tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Abdominal cocoon, also known as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, represents a rare entity where a variable length of the small bowel is enveloped by a fibrocollagenous membrane giving the appearance of a cocoon. It may be asymptomatic and is often diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. We present a rare case of abdominal cocoon due to abdominal tuberculosis. PMID:25239980

Puppala, Radha; Sripathi, Smiti; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Koteshwar, Prakashini; Singh, Jyoti

2014-01-01

330

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: here today, and here tomorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly successful pathogen that parasitizes the macrophages of its host. Its success can be attributed directly to its ability to manipulate the phagosome that it resides in and to prevent the normal maturation of this organelle into an acidic, hydrolytic compartment. As the macrophage is key to clearing the infection, the interplay between the pathogen and

David G. Russell

2001-01-01

331

[False diagnosis of tuberculosis by culture].  

PubMed

A remarkable input to the epidemiology of tuberculosis was not the only benefit of the molecular tools developed in the early nineties for Mycobacterium tuberculosis intra-species differentiation. These genotyping methods served also to unveil specimen cross-contamination, which was until then overlooked in laboratories culturing mycobacteria. This error consists in the accidental carry-over of bacilli from a specimen with high bacterial load to that, or those, processed subsequently. The ensuing detection of falsely positive cultures can result in a wrong diagnosis of tuberculosis and the initiation of a long-lasting treatment with potentially toxic drugs. This series of errors implies the mismanagement of patients, the distraction of public health system resources, and the distortion of epidemiological data. M. tuberculosis laboratory cross-contamination was detected wherever investigated systematically, with a median rate of 3% of all positive cultures. The confirmation of this error requires a critical appraisal of bacteriological, clinical, epidemiological and genotyping results. We present here a review of national and international information on laboratory cross-contamination and describe measures recommended for minimizing the risk, surveying the occurrence, and avoiding clinical consequences of this laboratory error that raises a question on the reliability of a positive culture. PMID:17628920

Alonso, Valeria; Paul, Roxana; Barrera, Lucia; Ritacco, Viviana

2007-01-01

332

Tuberculosis Surveillance Using a Hidden Markov Model  

PubMed Central

Background: Routinely collected data from tuberculosis surveillance system can be used to investigate and monitor the irregularities and abrupt changes of the disease incidence. We aimed at using a Hidden Markov Model in order to detect the abnormal states of pulmonary tuberculosis in Iran. Methods: Data for this study were the weekly number of newly diagnosed cases with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis reported between April 2005 and March 2011 throughout Iran. In order to detect the unusual states of the disease, two Hidden Markov Models were applied to the data with and without seasonal trends as baselines. Consequently, the best model was selected and compared with the results of Serfling epidemic threshold which is typically used in the surveillance of infectious diseases. Results: Both adjusted R-squared and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) reflected better goodness-of-fit for the model with seasonal trends (0.72 and ?1336.66, respectively) than the model without seasonality (0.56 and ?1386.75). Moreover, according to the Serfling epidemic threshold, higher values of sensitivity and specificity suggest a higher validity for the seasonal model (0.87 and 0.94, respectively) than model without seasonality (0.73 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusion: A two-state Hidden Markov Model along with a seasonal trend as a function of the model parameters provides an effective warning system for the surveillance of tuberculosis. PMID:23304666

Rafei, A; Pasha, E; Jamshidi Orak, R

2012-01-01

333

Ongoing tuberculosis transmission to children in Greenland.  

PubMed

Inuit in the Arctic are experiencing an increase in tuberculosis cases, reaching levels in Greenland comparable to high-incidence countries. This prompted us to study the level of tuberculosis transmission to Greenlandic children. Specifically, we estimated the current prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) and the underlying annual risk of MTI. 2,231 Greenlandic school children aged 5-17 yrs (?25% of the Greenlandic population in the relevant age group) were tested for MTI using the tuberculin skin test and the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in-tube test. Subjects with dual-positive results were considered infected and subjects with dual-negative results uninfected. The children with discordant test results were classified as probably having MTI and analysed separately. 8.1% of the children had dual-positive test results. The annual risk of MTI was estimated as 0.80% (95% CI 0.67-0.92%) giving a cumulative risk at the 18th birthday of 13.4%. The annual risk of MTI varied substantially by ethnicity (0.87% in Inuit children, 0.02% in non-Inuit children; p<0.001) and by location (0.13% on the west coast, 1.68% on the south coast; p<0.001). M. tuberculosis transmission occurs at a very high level in Inuit children with pronounced geographic differences emphasising the need for immediate public health interventions. PMID:20516050

Soborg, B; Koch, A; Thomsen, V Ø; Ladefoged, K; Andersson, M; Wohlfahrt, J; Melbye, M; Andersen, A B

2010-10-01

334

Tuberculosis control in the era of HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without HIV, the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic would now be in decline almost everywhere. However, instead of looking forward to the demise of TB, countries that are badly affected by HIV are struggling against a rising tide of HIV-infected patients with TB. As a consequence, global TB control policies have had to be revised and control of TB now demands increased

Brian Williams; Katherine Floyd; Christopher Dye; Gijs Elzinga; Mario Raviglione; Paul Nunn

2005-01-01

335

Human leukocyte antigens in tuberculosis and leprosy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human mycobacterial infections are characterized by a spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations. Specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) factors are associated with the subtypes of leprosy that develop and the course of tuberculosis after infection. The identification of protective mycobacterial antigens presented by a broad variety of HLA molecules will have important implications for the design of vaccines.

Christian G Meyer; Jürgen May; Klaus Stark

1998-01-01

336

[Pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis in children].  

PubMed

The occurrence of tuberculosis in children is dependent on a contagious bacillus carrying adult. Among 500 cases notified annually, perhaps 5 or 6% of the total infectious reservoir in France, 75% have parenchymal pulmonary disease and/or lymph nodes. These tuberculous diseases only represent 10% of the pulmonary disorders: 90% remain primary infections (PI active) or latent infections. These are most often asymptomatic (PI Latent) or of low grade activity (PI active). The CT scanner and fibreoptic bronchoscopy are indispensable complementary investigations in tuberculous disease. Whatever the clinical picture the diagnosis rests on bacteriological confirmation (but only 30% of cultures are positive) and most often rests on a body of evidence: for example a contagious adult living in proximity or a contagious family, or other risk factors are present. The evidence of a child with whatever form of pulmonary tuberculosis, even a latent primary infection, requires treatment which is adapted in such a way to enable a cure and to protect against subsequent endogenous re-activation. A coherent system of co-operation between the hospital and community service and between paediatricians and adult physicians is indispensable to find the index adult case to break the chain of contagion. There are two specific aspects in children, first congenital tuberculosis when a diagnosis is difficult and secondly tuberculosis in a child who is HIV positive when the management can be delicate. PMID:9496592

Olivier, C

1997-12-01

337

Abdominal tuberculosis--a disease revived.  

PubMed Central

Abdominal tuberculosis was common in the United Kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries and in the first half of the 20th century. During the 1950's the recognition of Crohn's disease, the use of streptomycin and other drugs, and the pasteurisation of milk led to the virtual disappearance of abdominal tuberculosis in the western world. During the last two decades a new type, mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis, has appeared mainly in the immigrant population, especially in those from the Indian subcontinent. A retrospective review of 68 patients with abdominal tuberculosis is presented. The pathology, diagnosis and management of these cases is discussed, together with the differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease. It is suggested that the immigrant brings the disease into the United Kingdom in his mesenteric glands and that the disease is reactivated or 'revived' at some later date due to some modification of the immune process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6338801

Addison, N. V.

1983-01-01

338

UNCORRECTEDPROOF Comparing epidemic tuberculosis in demographically  

E-print Network

25 is estimated to infect roughly one-third of the world's population resulting in 2­3 million deaths including elimination of TB control programs, IV drug use, poverty, and immigration 30 [3,4]. 31 TB/yr, respectively [8,10,11]. 39 Humans are the natural reservoir for M. tuberculosis, which is spread from person

Kirschner, Denise

339

Social scientists and the new tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In much of the world, tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading killer of young adults, in spite of the fact that effective chemotherapy has existed for 50 years. The epidemiology of TB, with its persistence in poor countries and resurgence among the poor of many industrialized nations, causes consternation among those charged with protecting the public's health. Two factors, ostensibly biological

Paul Farmer

1997-01-01

340

Tuberculosis in Quebec: a Review of Trends  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this research was to conduct a thorough review on the literature of tuberculosis in Canada and the Province of Quebec. To achieve this aim, an exhaustive literature review of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec was undertaken. Data was collected with the goal of creating an epidemiological and public health evidence base to forecast the spread of tuberculosis. A keyword search strategy was used to find relevant articles from the peer-reviewed literature using the electronic search engine PubMed and a search of other relevant federal and provincial government databases. Twenty-nine peer-reviewed publications and twenty government reports containing information about the incidence or prevalence of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec were included in the analysis. An analysis of the data revealed that while tuberculosis rates have been decreasing in both Canada and Quebec with an overall incidence below 3 per 100,000 of population in 2007, among immigrants and the Inuit communities in Quebec, the incidence and prevalence of the disease still remains high and reached 18 per 100,000 and 100 per 100,000, respectively in 2007. In general, while tuberculosis does not pose a significant burden to the general population, it does continue to affect certain sub-groups disproportionately, including select immigrants and Inuit communities in Quebec. Efforts to ensure that cost-effective healthcare interventions are delivered in a timely fashion should be pursued to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis in the Province of Quebec. Acknowledgments Funding for this research was provided to Medmetrics Inc., by McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Génome Québec and the Ministère de Développement Economique, Innovation et Exportation du Gouvernement du Québec. The authors also wish to thank Drs. John White and Marcel Behr, both of McGill University and Dr Suneil Malik of the Infectious Disease Program in the Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health at the Public Health Agency of Canada for comments and suggestions on earlier drafts of this manuscript.

Klotz, Alexander; Harouna, Abdoulaye; Smith, Andrew F.

2012-01-01

341

Specificities and Functions of the recA and pps1 Intein Genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Application for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide recrudescence of tuberculosis and the widespread appearance of antibiotic resistance have strengthened the need for rapid and specific diagnostic tools. The prevailing microbiological identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, which implies the use of in vitro cultures and acid-fast staining microscopy, is time-consuming. Detection of M. tuberculosis directly in clinical samples through PCR amplification of

Isabelle Saves; Lee-Ann Lewis; Fabrice Westrelin; Robin Warren; Mamadou Daffé; Jean-Michel Masson

2002-01-01

342

The epidemiology of tuberculosis in South Africa.  

PubMed

Reports by reliable observers indicate that tuberculous disease did not occur to any great extent amongst South Africa's indigenous peoples prior to European colonization. Colonization introduced sources of infection and caused rapid urbanization for purposes of commerce and trade. By the start of the 20th century tuberculosis was recognized as a common health problem amongst the Black and Coloured peoples of South Africa. National notification commenced in 1921 and an incidence of 43 per 100,000 rose to 365 per 100,000 in 1958 and declined to 162 per 100,000 in 1986 before rising again to 221 per 100,000 in 1993. High incidences have been consistently recorded amongst the Coloured population of the Western Cape Province: in 1993 713 per 100,000 compared to the national incidence of 225 per 100,000. Using a computerized geographical information system the precise distribution of tuberculosis in two adjacent underprivileged, mainly Coloured communities, with a combined population of 34,000, is being studied. From 1985 to 1994 4044 notified tuberculosis cases gave an incidence of about 1200 per 100,000, varying from 78 to 3150 per 100,000 for the 39 enumerator subdistricts used for census purposes, and was highest in those with the lowest income. Of 5345 housing units 1835 (34%) housed at least one case of tuberculosis and 483 (9%) three or more cases. IS6110 DNA fingerprinting of strains from this community has shown a high degree of strain diversity (209 out of 334 strains evaluated). Clustering, indicative of recent transmission, was found in only 30% of isolates in this high tuberculosis incidence community. PMID:9949799

Donald, P R

1998-01-01

343

Ethnic Variation in Inflammatory Profile in Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Distinct phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cause disease in patients of particular genetic ancestry, and elicit different patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion when cultured with human macrophages in vitro. Circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of these inflammatory mediators might therefore be expected to vary significantly between tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. Studies to characterise such variation, and to determine whether it relates to host or bacillary factors, have not been conducted. We therefore compared circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of 43 inflammatory mediators and 14 haematological parameters (inflammatory profile) in 45 pulmonary tuberculosis patients of African ancestry vs. 83 patients of Eurasian ancestry in London, UK, and investigated the influence of bacillary and host genotype on these profiles. Despite having similar demographic and clinical characteristics, patients of differing ancestry exhibited distinct inflammatory profiles at presentation: those of African ancestry had lower neutrophil counts, lower serum concentrations of CCL2, CCL11 and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) but higher serum CCL5 concentrations and higher antigen-stimulated IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-12 secretion. These differences associated with ethnic variation in host DBP genotype, but not with ethnic variation in MTB strain. Ethnic differences in inflammatory profile became more marked following initiation of antimicrobial therapy, and immunological correlates of speed of elimination of MTB from the sputum differed between patients of African vs. Eurasian ancestry. Our study demonstrates a hitherto unappreciated degree of ethnic heterogeneity in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis patients that associates primarily with ethnic variation in host, rather than bacillary, genotype. Candidate immunodiagnostics and immunological biomarkers of response to antimicrobial therapy should be derived and validated in tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. PMID:23853590

Coussens, Anna K.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Elkington, Paul T.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Islam, Kamrul; Timms, Peter M.; Bothamley, Graham H.; Claxton, Alleyna P.; Packe, Geoffrey E.; Darmalingam, Mathina; Davidson, Robert N.; Milburn, Heather J.; Baker, Lucy V.; Barker, Richard D.; Drobniewski, Francis A.; Mein, Charles A.; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Nuamah, Rosamond A.; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Martineau, Adrian R.

2013-01-01

344

Ethnic variation in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Distinct phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cause disease in patients of particular genetic ancestry, and elicit different patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion when cultured with human macrophages in vitro. Circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of these inflammatory mediators might therefore be expected to vary significantly between tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. Studies to characterise such variation, and to determine whether it relates to host or bacillary factors, have not been conducted. We therefore compared circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of 43 inflammatory mediators and 14 haematological parameters (inflammatory profile) in 45 pulmonary tuberculosis patients of African ancestry vs. 83 patients of Eurasian ancestry in London, UK, and investigated the influence of bacillary and host genotype on these profiles. Despite having similar demographic and clinical characteristics, patients of differing ancestry exhibited distinct inflammatory profiles at presentation: those of African ancestry had lower neutrophil counts, lower serum concentrations of CCL2, CCL11 and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) but higher serum CCL5 concentrations and higher antigen-stimulated IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-12 secretion. These differences associated with ethnic variation in host DBP genotype, but not with ethnic variation in MTB strain. Ethnic differences in inflammatory profile became more marked following initiation of antimicrobial therapy, and immunological correlates of speed of elimination of MTB from the sputum differed between patients of African vs. Eurasian ancestry. Our study demonstrates a hitherto unappreciated degree of ethnic heterogeneity in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis patients that associates primarily with ethnic variation in host, rather than bacillary, genotype. Candidate immunodiagnostics and immunological biomarkers of response to antimicrobial therapy should be derived and validated in tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. PMID:23853590

Coussens, Anna K; Wilkinson, Robert J; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Elkington, Paul T; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Islam, Kamrul; Timms, Peter M; Bothamley, Graham H; Claxton, Alleyna P; Packe, Geoffrey E; Darmalingam, Mathina; Davidson, Robert N; Milburn, Heather J; Baker, Lucy V; Barker, Richard D; Drobniewski, Francis A; Mein, Charles A; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Nuamah, Rosamond A; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R

2013-01-01

345

Miconazole in oral candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four patients were treated with oral miconazole (250 mg) for a total of 35 episodes of oral candidiasis. Sixteen had various forms of leukaemia and all were massively predisposed to fungal infection because of granulocytopenia and treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics. Clinical cure was observed in all 35 of the treated episodes, with a mean treatment time of five days, cure being observed in two to three days. When patients violating the protocol were excluded, the mycological cure rate was 97%. In 21 episodes there was a recurrence less than one month after miconazole treatment, probably because of reinfection. No side-effects ascribable to miconazole were observed, even in the severely debilitated patients, and the orally administered drug appeared to be superior to other commercially available antimycotic preparations. Images p29-a PMID:122644

Brincker, H

1977-01-01

346

Christopher Draven Oral History  

E-print Network

is and they should just accept me for who and what I am. But when I was growing up if someone would come to me after I came out—if they would come to me and say, Are you gay, then I wouldn't deny it, I would tell them the truth. But I never brought it up in class... Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Christopher Draven Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 9, 2008 http...

Draven, Christopher; Albin, Tami

2010-01-12

347

Immunology of oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M.; Udayakumar, P.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Kesavan, G.

2014-01-01

348

Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

349

Genomic analysis identifies targets of convergent positive selection in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

M. tuberculosis is evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely ...

Farhat, Maha R

350

Quantifying Reproducibility in Computational Biology: The Case of the Tuberculosis Drugome  

E-print Network

Quantifying Reproducibility in Computational Biology: The Case of the Tuberculosis Drugome Daniel. (2013) Quantifying Reproducibility in Computational Biology: The Case of the Tuberculosis Drugome. PLo

Gil, Yolanda

351

Genetic Diversity and Dynamic Distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Thailand.  

PubMed

This study examined the genetic diversity and dynamicity of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Thailand using nearly neutral molecular markers. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotypes of 1,414 culture-positive M. tuberculosis isolates from 1,282 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 132 extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients collected from 1995 to 2011 were characterized. Among the eight SNP cluster groups (SCG), SCG2 (44.1%), which included the Beijing (BJ) genotype, and SCG1 (39.4%), an East African Indian genotype, were dominant. Comparisons between the genotypes of M. tuberculosis isolates causing PTB and EPTB in HIV-negative cases revealed similar prevalence trends although genetic diversity was higher in the PTB patients. The identification of 10 reported sequence types (STs) and three novel STs was hypothesized to indicate preferential expansion of the SCG2 genotype, especially the modern BJ ST10 (15.6%) and ancestral BJ ST19 (13.1%). An association between SCG2 and SCG1 genotypes and particular patient age groups implies the existence of different genetic advantages among the bacterial populations. The results revealed that increasing numbers of young patients were infected with M. tuberculosis SCGs 2 and 5, which contrasts with the reduction of the SCG1 genotype. Our results indicate the selection and dissemination of potent M. tuberculosis genotypes in this population. The determination of heterogeneity and dynamic population changes of circulating M. tuberculosis strains in countries using the Mycobacterium bovis BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine are beneficial for vaccine development and control strategies. PMID:25297330

Srilohasin, Prapaporn; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nishida, Nao; Prammananan, Therdsak; Smittipat, Nat; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Chaiyasirinroje, Boonchai; Yanai, Hideki; Palittapongarnpim, Prasit

2014-12-01

352

Tuberculosis spine: Therapeutically refractory disease  

PubMed Central

Background: India ranks second amongst the high-burden multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) countries, with an estimated incidence of 2.3% MDR-TB cases amongst the new cases and 17.2% amongst the previously treated cases. The diagnosis and treatment protocol for MDR-TB of the spine are not clearly established. We report outcome of a series of 15 cases of TB spine who were suspected to be therapeutically refractory cases (MDR-TB) on the basis of clinicoradiological failures of initial treatment. Materials and Methods: Fifteen cases of TB spine from C2 to L5 spine were suspected to be the cases of MDR-TB (therapeutically refractory cases) on the basis of failures of adequate clinicoradiological healing response at 5 months or more on antitubercular treatment (ATT). None of the patient was immunocompromised. Thirteen out of 15 patients had tissue samples sent for histopathology, culture and sensitivity, smear, BACTEC, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All patients were put on second line ATT and followed up fortnightly with regular liver and kidney function tests, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and plain X-ray. Healing was documented as subjective improvement of symptoms, reduction in ESR, and observations on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) such as resolution of marrow edema, fatty replacement of bone marrow and resolution of abscesses. Ambiguous MRI observations in a few patients were resolved on positron emission tomography (PET) scan. Patients were monitored continuously for 2 years after stopping ATT. Results: We could demonstrate a positive culture in three cases. Two of them had multi drug resistance. We could achieve healing status in 13 out of 14 patients after starting second line drugs, one patient is still on treatment while other patient with no drug resistance is responding well on ATT. Conclusions: The suspicion of therapeutically refractory case is of paramount importance. Once suspected, surgery to procure tissue for diagnosis and culture is to be undertaken. The demonstration of drug resistance on culture may not be achieved in all TB spine cases and empiric drug regimen for MDR-TB is to be started. We have achieved the healed status with immunomodulation and second line ATT. The length of treatment needs to be monitored with MRI and PET scan. PMID:22448055

Jain, Anil K; Dhammi, Ish K; Modi, Prashant; Kumar, Jaswant; Sreenivasan, Ravi; Saini, Namita Singh

2012-01-01

353

Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Diagnosis of Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis of tubercle bacilli by antigen-presenting cells in human lung alveoli initiates a complex infection process by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a potentially protective immune response by the host. M. tuberculosis has devoted a large part of its genome towards functions that allow it to successfully establish latent or progressive infection in the majority of infected individuals. The failure of immune-mediated clearance is due to multiple strategies adopted by M. tuberculosis that blunt the microbicidal mechanisms of infected immune cells and formation of distinct granulomatous lesions that differ in their ability to support or suppress the persistence of viable M. tuberculosis. In this paper, current understanding of various immune processes that lead to the establishment of latent M. tuberculosis infection, bacterial spreading, persistence, reactivation, and waning or elimination of latent infection as well as new diagnostic approaches being used for identification of latently infected individuals for possible control of tuberculosis epidemic are described. PMID:21234341

Ahmad, Suhail

2011-01-01

354

Tuberculosis in indigenous communities of Antioquia, Colombia: epidemiology and beliefs.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality caused by tuberculosis are increased in most of the Latin-American indigenous communities. Factors that could explain this situation are poverty and limited health services access due to social conflicts and geographical isolation. We determined the frequency of tuberculosis in Colombian indigenous communities and described their knowledge related to transmission and control. We developed a descriptive study and health survey. Interviews were performed to find ancestral knowledge about tuberculosis. Sputum samples from patients with respiratory symptoms were analyzed. 10 indigenous communities were studied, which tuberculosis incidence was 291/100,000. Communities believe that tuberculosis is a body and spirit disease, which transmission is by direct contact or by witchcraft. Tuberculosis incidence in the studied communities was ninefold higher than that of the general population from Antioquia Department. Knowledge exchange could facilitate the community empowerment and implementation of educational activities which might improve the control of the disease. PMID:22825464

Hernández Sarmiento, José Mauricio; Dávila Osorio, Victoria Lucia; Martínez Sánchez, Lina María; Restrepo Serna, Laura; Grajales Ospina, Diana Carolina; Toro Montoya, Andrés Eduardo; Arango Urrea, Verónica; Vargas Grisales, Natalia; Estrada Gómez, Manuela; Lopera Valle, Johan Sebastián; García Gil, Juan José; Restrepo, Lady; Mejía, Gloria; Zapata, Elsa; Gómez, Verónica; Lopera, Diver; Domicó Domicó, José Leonardo; Robledo, Jaime

2013-02-01

355

Multicentric Spinal Tuberculosis with Sternoclavicular Joint Involvement: A Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

Background. Tuberculosis is a chronic disease which may have varied presentations. Though pulmonary tuberculosis is the commonest, extrapulmonary tuberculosis involving skeletal system is often seen. Individuals with poor nourishment and immunological status are especially susceptible for disseminated and multicentric tuberculosis. Case Report. We here present a case of tuberculosis involving multiple anatomical locations in an immune-competent patient which was diagnosed with radiological studies and confirmed with histological examination. Patient was put on multidrug antitubercular therapy and responded well to the treatment with improvement in clinical and radiological picture. Clinical Relevance. This report of a rare case makes us aware of the varied presentations which tuberculosis can present with. It should be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients with cough and fever but not responding to conventional treatment. This is even more important in countries with poor socioeconomic conditions. PMID:25389505

Meena, Umesh Kumar; Meena, Ramesh Chand

2014-01-01

356

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY. (2) Thiscoursepresentsthebasicprinciplesoforalandmaxillofacialradiology. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith

357

Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1987

1987-01-01

358

Mammalian cell entry gene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Knowledge of virulence factors is important to understand the microbial pathogenesis and find better antibiotics. Mammalian cell entry (mce) is a crucial protein family for the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). This review summarized the advances on mce genes. The genomic organization, characteristics of mce genes, phylogeny of this family, and their roles in M. tuberculosis virulence are emphasized in this review. PMID:21258845

Zhang, Fan; Xie, Jian-Ping

2011-06-01

359

Incidence of tuberculosis among Scandinavian immigrants in Canada.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis incidence in Finland is at least five times higher than in the other Scandinavian countries. A study of the incidence of tuberculosis in immigrants to Canada from Finland and the other Scandinavian countries shows a remarkable similarity between the rates of the immigrants and those who remained in their country of origin, even after 40 years of residence in the new country. The early experience of tuberculosis thus predetermines future susceptibility throughout the life span of the group. PMID:7439278

Enarson, D A; Sjögren, I; Grzybowski, S

1980-06-01

360

The Impact of HIV Infection on Tuberculosis in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) notification rates in Africa have doubled since the early 1980s, with the largest rises in countries most\\u000a affected by the HIV epidemic. HIV increases the risk of TB in those latently infected with M tuberculosis and increases the risk of active disease soon after new infection or re-infection with M tuberculosis. Overall, the risk of TB in those

Judith R. Glynn

361

[A rare cause of urinary obstruction: urogenital tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The authors reported a rare cause of urogenital tuberculosis complicated by an obstructive acute renal failure in 44 years old man with solitary anatomic kidney. The authors insisted of using the upper urinary tract opacification by percutaneous nephrostomy for diagnosis, the urogenital tuberculosis with this exploration, we can suspected the tuberculosis by abnormalities of the radiologic imagine, and confirmed the koch bacilli urinary into urinary tract. The upper chance of positives of finding koch bacilli in higher than urinary bladder. PMID:12741196

Fekak, H; Rabii, R; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Debbagh, A; Bennani, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

2003-04-01

362

Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulated in Moscow, Russian Federation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates epidemiological diversity and multidrug resistance spreading among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in Moscow, Russian Federation. Among 115 M. tuberculosis strains selected randomly from the sputum of epidemiologically unrelated tuberculosis (TB) patients, multidrug-resistant\\u000a (MDR) strains predominated. Mutations in the RRDR of the rpoB gene were detected in 64 (83.1%) of 77 rifampicin (RIF)-resistant strains. The Ser531?Leu substitution

M. V. Afanas’ev; L. N. Ikryannikova; E. N. Il’ina; A. V. Kuz’min; E. E. Larionova; T. G. Smirnova; L. N. Chernousova; V. M. Govorun

2011-01-01

363

Prevalence of oral lesions in hospitalized patients with infectious diseases in northern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in infectious-contagious diseases patients being treated in the University Hospital of the Federal University of Pará, northern Brazil. One hundred seven patients with infectious diseases were clinically investigated for oral lesions at the University Hospital of Pará, northern Brazil. From total sample, most patients were men (65.7%) with a mean age of 45.4 years. About prevalence of systemic diseases, tuberculosis was the most frequent illness, followed by AIDS, hepatitis types B and C, leishmaniasis, and meningitis. Analyzing oral manifestations, periodontal diseases and candidiasis were the most prevalent diseases in both genders, followed by recurrent aphthous ulcers, saburral tongue, simplex herpes, and squamous cell carcinoma. Of all 107 patients, only 10 males and 6 females did not present any oral manifestation. There was no statistical difference between genders with any systemic condition (P>0.05). The great prevalence of oral manifestations in hospitalized patients with systemic disorder emphasizes the need of integral dental care in this context, aiming at a multidisciplinary approach of patients. Therefore, presence of some oral conditions, such as candidiasis, should be an alert to different systemic conditions, once in assistance with physicians; dentists can influence the early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24550713

Gemaque, Karina; Giacomelli Nascimento, Gustavo; Cintra Junqueira, José Luiz; Cavalcanti de Araújo, Vera; Furuse, Cristiane

2014-01-01

364

Prevalence of Oral Lesions in Hospitalized Patients with Infectious Diseases in Northern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in infectious-contagious diseases patients being treated in the University Hospital of the Federal University of Pará, northern Brazil. One hundred seven patients with infectious diseases were clinically investigated for oral lesions at the University Hospital of Pará, northern Brazil. From total sample, most patients were men (65.7%) with a mean age of 45.4 years. About prevalence of systemic diseases, tuberculosis was the most frequent illness, followed by AIDS, hepatitis types B and C, leishmaniasis, and meningitis. Analyzing oral manifestations, periodontal diseases and candidiasis were the most prevalent diseases in both genders, followed by recurrent aphthous ulcers, saburral tongue, simplex herpes, and squamous cell carcinoma. Of all 107 patients, only 10 males and 6 females did not present any oral manifestation. There was no statistical difference between genders with any systemic condition (P > 0.05). The great prevalence of oral manifestations in hospitalized patients with systemic disorder emphasizes the need of integral dental care in this context, aiming at a multidisciplinary approach of patients. Therefore, presence of some oral conditions, such as candidiasis, should be an alert to different systemic conditions, once in assistance with physicians; dentists can influence the early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24550713

Gemaque, Karina; Giacomelli Nascimento, Gustavo; Cintra Junqueira, Jose Luiz; Cavalcanti de Araujo, Vera; Furuse, Cristiane

2014-01-01

365

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

communication Introduction 4 Dysarthria #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Automatic speech processing and oral communication Dysarthria Neuro-motor articulatory difficulties resulting Dysarthria and ASR word accuracy Non-dysarthric Dysarthric Background 7 #12;SPOClab signal processing

Penn, Gerald

366

Kidney Disease (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney Disease Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects People with kidney disease often have other health issues. They often have ... body cannot absorb calcium properly. Therefore, people with kidney disease are at risk for losing bone from their ...

367

Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

368

Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

369

Ann Cobb Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Ann Cobb conducted by Dr. Timothy Miller in Smith Hall on the University of Kansas campus on November 18, 2009. In this interview, Ann Cobb discusses growing up as a Catholic in Seneca, Kansas, and her later conversion...

Cobb, Ann; Miller, Timothy

2009-11-18

370

Oral Health Presentation Objectives  

E-print Network

and mouth care we can develop dental caries or tooth decay. This is caused by bacteria in our mouths and direction, amount of tooth paste, and timing (2 times per day and after sugary snack). 2. Flossing Teeth, increase calcium intake, tobacco prevention (chew r/t oral cancer and dental decay). 4. Dental Decay

Maxwell, Bruce D.

371

Learning Oral Presentation Skills  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oral presentation skills are central to physician-physician communication; however, little is known about how these skills are learned. Rhetoric is a social science which studies communication in terms of context and explores the action of language on knowledge, attitudes, and values. It has not previously been applied to medical discourse. We used rhetorical principles to qualitatively study how students learn oral presentation skills and what professional values are communicated in this process. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Inpatient general medicine service in a university-affiliated public hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twelve third-year medical students during their internal medicine clerkship and 14 teachers. MEASUREMENTS One-hundred sixty hours of ethnographic observation. including 73 oral presentations on rounds. Discoursed-based interviews of 8 students and 10 teachers. Data were qualitatively analyzed to uncover recurrent patterns of communication. MAIN RESULTS Students and teachers had different perceptions of the purpose of oral presentation, and this was reflected in performance. Students described and conducted the presentation as a rule-based, data-storage activity governed by “order” and “structure.” Teachers approached the presentation as a flexible means of “communication” and a method for “constructing” the details of a case into a diagnostic or therapeutic plan. Although most teachers viewed oral presentations rhetorically (sensitive to context), most feedback that students received was implicit and acontextual, with little guidance provided for determining relevant content. This led to dysfunctional generalizations by students, sometimes resulting in worse communication skills (e.g., comment “be brief” resulted in reading faster rather than editing) and unintended value acquisition (e.g., request for less social history interpreted as social history never relevant). CONCLUSIONS Students learn oral presentation by trial and error rather than through teaching of an explicit rhetorical model. This may delay development of effective communication skills and result in acquisition of unintended professional values. Teaching and learning of oral presentation skills may be improved by emphasizing that context determines content and by making explicit the tacit rules of presentation. PMID:11359549

Haber, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei A

2001-01-01

372

Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Mozambique*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mozambique. METHODS: We analyzed secondary data from the National Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Maputo, Mozambique, and from the Beira Regional Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Beira, Mozambique. The data were based on culture-positive samples submitted to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) between January and December of 2011. We attempted to determine whether the frequency of DST positivity was associated with patient type or provenance. RESULTS: During the study period, 641 strains were isolated in culture and submitted to DST. We found that 374 (58.3%) were resistant to at least one antituberculosis drug and 280 (43.7%) were resistant to multiple antituberculosis drugs. Of the 280 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases, 184 (65.7%) were in previously treated patients, most of whom were from southern Mozambique. Two (0.71%) of the cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were confirmed to be cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was most common in males, particularly those in the 21-40 year age bracket. CONCLUSIONS: M. tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs is high in Mozambique, especially in previously treated patients. The frequency of M. tuberculosis strains that were resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin in combination was found to be high, particularly in samples from previously treated patients. PMID:24831398

Pires, Germano Manuel; Folgosa, Elena; Nquobile, Ndlovu; Gitta, Sheba; Cadir, Nureisha

2014-01-01

373

Predominance of modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in North India.  

PubMed

Although India accounts for the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden in the world, the diversity in prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is very poorly documented. Tuberculosis specific deletion 1 (TbD1) is a marker that has been used to differentiate ancient from modern strains. We report for the first time TbD1-based diversity in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates circulating in the North Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The present study documents a very high prevalence of modern strains in North India, which is in contrast to earlier studies that emphasised the predominance of ancestral strains for the majority of TB cases in India. PMID:24429312

Prakash, O; Sharma, R; Sehajpal, P K

2014-02-01

374

Clavicular osteomyelitis: a rare presentation of extra pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Clavicular tuberculosis is a rare entity, an unusual case of skeletal tuberculosis. We report a case of rare presentation of clavicular tuberculosis as a non-healing ulcer in the medial two-third and lateral one-third of the clavicle. The clinical picture was confusing because of the development of foul-smelling discharge due to secondary infection. The diagnosis is rarely suspected before biopsies because tumours are much more frequent than infections in this bone. With worldwide resurgence of tuberculosis, clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion as more infection at unusual sites is being reported. PMID:24964439

Dugg, Pankaj; Shivhare, Pankaj; Mittal, Sushil; Singh, Harnam; Tiwari, Punit; Sharma, Ankur

2013-01-01

375

Initiating antiretrovirals during tuberculosis treatment: a drug safety review.  

E-print Network

??Introduction: Integrating HIV and tuberculosis (TB) treatment can reduce mortality substantially. Practical barriers to treatment integration still exist and include safety concerns related to concomitant… (more)

Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.

2011-01-01

376

Current management options for latent tuberculosis: a review  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains the world’s second leading infectious cause of death, with nearly one-third of the global population latently infected. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a mainstay of tuberculosis-control efforts in low-to medium-incidence countries. Isoniazid monotherapy has been the standard of care for decades, but its utility is impaired by poor completion rates. However, new, shorter-course regimens using rifamycins improve completion rates and are cost-saving compared with standard isoniazid monotherapy. We review the currently available therapies for latent tuberculosis infection and their toxicities and include a brief economic comparison of the different regimens. PMID:23226700

Norton, Brianna L; Holland, David P

2012-01-01

377

The Road to Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) Elimination in Arkansas; a Re-Examination of Risk Groups  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to generate knowledge useful for developing public health interventions for more effective tuberculosis control in Arkansas. Methods The study population included 429 culture-confirmed reported cases (January 1, 2004–December 31, 2010). Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping data were used to identify cases likely due to recent transmission (clustered) versus reactivation (non-clustered). Poisson regression models estimated average decline rate in incidence over time and assessed the significance of differences between subpopulations. A multinomial logistic model examined differences between clustered and non-clustered incidence. Results A significant average annual percent decline was found for the overall incidence of culture-confirmed (9%; 95% CI: 5.5%, 16.9%), clustered (6%; 95% CI: 0.5%, 11.6%), and non-clustered tuberculosis cases (12%; 95% CI: 7.6%, 15.9%). However, declines varied among demographic groups. Significant declines in clustered incidence were only observed in males, non-Hispanic blacks, 65 years and older, and the rural population. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Arkansas tuberculosis control program must target both traditional and non-traditional risk groups for successful tuberculosis elimination. The present study also demonstrates that a thorough analysis of TB trends in different population subgroups of a given geographic region or state can lead to the identification of non-traditional risk factors for TB transmission. Similar studies in other low incidence populations would provide beneficial data for how to control and eventually eliminate TB in the U.S. PMID:24618839

Berzkalns, Anna; Bates, Joseph; Ye, Wen; Mukasa, Leonard; France, Anne Marie; Patil, Naveen; Yang, Zhenhua

2014-01-01

378

Implication of the RD(Rio) Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineage in multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Portugal.  

PubMed

Multidrug and extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis are a threat to tuberculosis control programs. Genotyping methods, such as spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units), are useful in monitoring potentially epidemic strains and estimating strain phylogenetic lineages and/or genotypic families. M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) family is a major worldwide contributor to tuberculosis (TB). LAM specific molecular markers, Ag85C(103) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and RD(Rio) long-sequence polymorphism (LSP), were used to characterize spoligotype signatures from 859 patient isolates from Portugal. LAM strains were found responsible for 57.7% of all tuberculosis cases. Strains with the RD(Rio) deletion (referred to as RD(Rio)) were estimated to represent 1/3 of all the strains and over 60% of the multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. The major spoligotype signature SIT20 belonging to the LAM1 RD(Rio) sublineage, represented close to 1/5th of all the strains, over 20% of which were MDR. Analysis of published datasets according to stipulated 12loci MIRU-VNTR RD(Rio) signatures revealed that 96.3% (129/134) of MDR and extensively drug resistant (XDR) clusters were RD(Rio). This is the first report associating the LAM RD(Rio) sublineage with MDR. These results are an important contribution to the monitoring of these strains with heightened transmission for future endeavors to arrest MDR-TB and XDR-TB. PMID:22569099

David, Susana; Duarte, Elsa L; Leite, Clarice Queico Fugimura; Ribeiro, João-Nuno; Maio, José-Nuno; Paixão, Eleonora; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; Germano de Sousa, José

2012-10-01

379

Probiotics and oral health.  

PubMed

Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

2012-01-01

380

A History of Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

381

Minor Oral Injuries in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic injuries involving the oral cavity in children often result from falls or collisions with stationary objects. Repair of lacerations involving the soft tissue structures within the oral cavity is described. These injuries often can be managed by emergency department personnel, with referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for follow-up care. Initial management of more extensive injuries such as

KATHY BANKS; PHYLLIS G. MERLINO

382

New tools and emerging technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis: Part II. Active tuberculosis and drug resistance.  

E-print Network

of drug resistance. These include simplified nucleic aciddrug resistance. Diagnostics for active tuberculosis Nucleic aciddrug resistance. For diagnosis, new tools include newer versions of nucleic acid

Pai, Madhukar; Kalantri, Shriprakash; Dheda, Keertan

2006-01-01

383

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting with Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 58-year-old immunocompetent man presenting with fever, cough, anorexia, weight loss, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Blood investigations revealed severe neutropenia with monocytosis. Chest imaging showed bilateral reticular infiltrates with mediastinal widening. Bronchoalveolar lavage culture and molecular test were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol was started. Although pulmonary tuberculosis could explain this clinical presentation we suspected associated blood dyscrasias in view of significant monocytosis and mild splenomegaly. Bone marrow aspiration revealed acute myeloid leukemia. Thereafter the patient received induction chemotherapy and continued antituberculous treatment. After first induction of chemotherapy patient was in remission and successfully completed 6 months antituberculosis therapy without any complications. To our knowledge there has been no such case reported from the State of Qatar to date. PMID:24987539

Thomas, Merlin; AlGherbawe, Mushtak

2014-01-01

384

Tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus - an underappreciated association  

PubMed Central

The current review presents up-to-date knowledge on tuberculosis (TB) in diabetic patients. On the basis of available literature, there is little doubt about the close relationship between these two conditions. Diabetes mellitus in this association may still contribute substantially to the burden of TB and negatively affect control of the latter. Chronic hyperglycemia at least to some extent may alter the clinical manifestation, radiological appearance, treatment outcome and prognosis of TB. Although the pathogenesis is not clear, diabetes may impair both innate and adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eventually, effective screening and dual management of the diseases have to be addressed both in low- and high-income countries in order to limit the negative effects of the forthcoming global diabetes epidemic.

Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Dorota; Barinow-Wojewodzki, Aleksander

2014-01-01

385

Epidemiology and Treatment of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistant tuberculosis is now thought to afflict between 1 and 2 million patients annually. Although significant regional variability in the distribution of disease has been recorded, surveillance data are limited by several factors. The true burden of disease is likely underestimated. Nevertheless, the estimated burden is substantial enough to warrant concerted action. A range of approaches is possible, but all appropriate interventions require scale-up of laboratories and early treatment with regimens containing a sufficient number of second-line drugs. Ambulatory treatment for most patients, and improved infection control, can facilitate scale-up with decreased risk of nosocomial transmission. Several obstacles have been considered to preclude worldwide scale-up of treatment, mostly attributable to inadequate human, drug, and financial resources. Further delays in scale-up, however, risk continued generation and transmission of resistant tuberculosis, as well as associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:18810684

Mitnick, Carole D.; Appleton, Sasha C.; Shin, Sonya S.

2010-01-01

386

Cerebral Toxoplasmosis Combined with Disseminated Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old man presented with mental change, fever, abdominal pain, tenderness and palpable mass on the lower abdomen. He was a non-Korean engineer and did not accompany a legal guardian, so medical history taking was difficult due to his mental status. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple rim-enhanced lesions of the brain, and abdominal computed tomography showed huge paraspinal abscess. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed poorly defined nodular opacities. We initially thought that this patient was infected with toxoplasmosis with typical cerebral image finding and immunoglobulin laboratory finding of cerebrospinal fluid and serum study. The abdominal abscess was confirmed as tuberculosis through the pathologic finding of caseous necrosis. We used anti-tuberculosis medication and anti-toxoplasmosis medication for almost 4 months, and then his clinical state and radiological findings were considerably improved. PMID:22792433

Ahn, Poong Gi; Lee, Dong Min; Kim, Hyeok Su

2012-01-01

387

Anal tuberculosis complicating anti-TNF? therapy.  

PubMed

A 42-year-old man receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor ? (anti-TNF?) therapy with adalimumab due to psoriatic arthritis presented with a 2-month-old anal ulcer. An apical right lung infiltrate was found in his chest X-ray, although he had no pulmonary symptoms. Two biopsies of the ulcer were taken and reported as granulomatous, necrotising, with chronic inflammation (first), and as hyperplasic epidermis with linfocitary infiltrate and the presence of plenty of plasmatic cells (second). Histochemical techniques, including Ziehl-Neelsen, Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff stains, and PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on both biopsies were negative. Serology for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis were also negative. In the second biopsy culture, moderate colonies of M. tuberculosis finally grew. The patient started a four-drug antituberculosis regimen. Adalimumab was discontinued and etanercept introduced after 2?months of antituberculosis therapy. The patient remained on therapy for 9?months with complete ulcer resolution. PMID:25422341

Luquín, Nuria; Masiá, Mar; Noguera, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Félix

2014-01-01

388

Mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis using inert bioparticles.  

PubMed

Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective immune response in humans. Here, we report on a novel biotechnological approach for mucosal vaccination against TB that overcomes some of the current limitations. This is achieved by coating protective TB antigens onto the surface of inert bacterial spores, which are then delivered to the respiratory tract. Our data showed that mice immunized nasally with coated spores developed humoral and cellular immune responses and multifunctional T cells and, most importantly, presented significantly reduced bacterial loads in their lungs and spleens following pathogenic challenge. We conclude that this new vaccine delivery platform merits further development as a mucosal vaccine for TB and possibly also other respiratory pathogens. PMID:23959722

Reljic, Rajko; Sibley, Laura; Huang, Jen-Min; Pepponi, Ilaria; Hoppe, Andreas; Hong, Huynh A; Cutting, Simon M

2013-11-01

389

Hypercalcaemia: atypical presentation of miliary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of miliary tuberculosis in a 77-year-old Filipino man with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nephrolithiasis status-post left nephrectomy, presenting with 1 month of fever, generalised weakness and weight loss. Laboratory data were significant for anaemia, hypercalcaemia and acute kidney injury. Chest radiograph showed ground glass opacities and interstitial infiltrates. Extensive workup was performed to evaluate fever and hypercalcaemia. Malignancy, hormonal and septic workup were all unremarkable. Tuberculin skin test was negative. Sputum, pleural fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage and cerebrospinal fluid were acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear negative. Remarkably, urine AFB smear was positive. Caseating granulomas were seen on transbronchial biopsy. Antituberculosis therapy was initiated which lead to defervescence and initial clinical improvement. However, hospital course became complicated by small bowel obstruction and respiratory failure. He subsequently developed pulseless electrical activity and expired. An autopsy confirmed the presence of tuberculosis in multiple organs including his remaining kidney. PMID:24569260

So, Edison; Bolger, Dennis Thomas

2014-01-01

390

Web tools for molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

In this study we explore publicly available web tools designed to use molecular epidemiological data to extract information that can be employed for the effective tracking and control of tuberculosis (TB). The application of molecular methods for the epidemiology of TB complement traditional approaches used in public health. DNA fingerprinting methods are now routinely employed in TB surveillance programs and are primarily used to detect recent transmissions and in outbreak investigations. Here we present web tools that facilitate systematic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotype information and provide a view of the genetic diversity in the MTBC population. These tools help answer questions about the characteristics of MTBC strains, such as their pathogenicity, virulence, immunogenicity, transmissibility, drug-resistance profiles and host-pathogen associativity. They provide an integrated platform for researchers to use molecular epidemiological data to address current challenges in the understanding of TB dynamics and the characteristics of MTBC. PMID:21903179

Shabbeer, Amina; Ozcaglar, Cagri; Yener, Bülent; Bennett, Kristin P

2012-06-01

391

Association-rule-based tuberculosis disease diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It usually spreads through the air and attacks low immune bodies such as patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This work focuses on finding close association rules, a promising technique in Data Mining, within TB data. The proposed method first normalizes of raw data from medical records which includes categorical, nominal and continuous attributes and then determines Association Rules from the normalized data with different support and confidence. Association rules are applied on a real data set containing medical records of patients with TB obtained from a state hospital. The rules determined describes close association between one symptom to another; as an example, likelihood that an occurrence of sputum is closely associated with blood cough and HIV.

Asha, T.; Natarajan, S.; Murthy, K. N. B.

2010-02-01

392

Nanoparticle Delivery of Anti-Tuberculosis Chemotherapy as a Potential Mediator Against Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Drug-resistant tuberculosis is quickly emerging as one of the largest threats to the global health community. Current chemotherapy for tuberculosis dates back to the 1950s and is arduous, lengthy, and remains extremely difficult to complete in many of the highest burdened areas. This causes inadequate or incomplete treatment, resulting in genetic selection of drug-resistant strains. With a dearth of novel anti-TB drug candidates in the development pipeline, nanoparticle technology allows us to take current chemotherapies and deliver them more efficaciously, reducing the frequency and duration of treatment and increasing bioavailability. This approach can improve patient adherence, reduce pill burden, and shorten time to completion, all which are at the heart of drug resistance. This review examines the multiple advantages of nanoparticle drug delivery of tuberculosis chemotherapy and summarizes the challenges in implementation. PMID:22180674

Smith, Jonathan Paul

2011-01-01

393

Tuberculosis risk after exposure on airplanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting: Domestic and international air-flights.Objective: To estimate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) transmission aboard aircraft.Design: A contact investigation of passengers and crew from two flights was conducted following identification of a fellow passenger with pulmonary TB. Immediate post-exposure and follow-up tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) were obtained.Results: Of 120 contacts, 86 (72%) had a negative TST (<5 mm); 29 (24%) a

M. A. Miller; S. Valway; I. M. Onorato

1996-01-01

394

The Past and Future of Tuberculosis Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed efforts in tuberculosis (TB) research have led to important new insights into the biology and epidemiology of this devastating disease. Yet, in the face of the modern epidemics of HIV\\/AIDS, diabetes, and multidrug resistance—all of which contribute to susceptibility to TB—global control of the disease will remain a formidable challenge for years to come. New high-throughput genomics technologies are

Iñaki Comas; Sebastien Gagneux

2009-01-01

395

Anemia in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of anemia and of its types in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a descriptive, longitudinal study involving pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients at one of two tuberculosis referral hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), arm muscle area (AMA), ESR, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), as well as the levels of C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin. RESULTS: We included 166 patients, 126 (75.9%) of whom were male. The mean age was 39.0 ± 10.7 years. Not all data were available for all patients: 18.7% were HIV positive; 64.7% were alcoholic; the prevalences of anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia were, respectively, 75.9% and 2.4%; and 68.7% had low body weight (mean BMI = 18.21 kg/m2). On the basis of TST and AMA, 126 (78.7%) of 160 patients and 138 (87.9%) of 157 patients, respectively, were considered malnourished. Anemia was found to be associated with the following: male gender (p = 0.03); low weight (p = 0.0004); low mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.03);high RDW (p = 0; 0003); high ferritin (p = 0.0005); and high ESR (p = 0.004). We also found significant differences between anemic and non-anemic patients in terms of BMI (p = 0.04), DCT (p = 0.003), and ESR (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, high proportions of pulmonary tuberculosis patients were classified as underweight and malnourished, and there was a high prevalence of anemia of chronic disease. In addition, anemia was associated with high ESR and malnutrition. PMID:25210963

Oliveira, Marina Gribel; Delogo, Karina Neves; de Oliveira, Hedi Marinho de Melo Gomes; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Kritski, Afranio Lineu; Oliveira, Martha Maria

2014-01-01

396

Skeletal muscle tuberculosis simultaneously involving multiple sites.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. TB of the skeletal muscle is very rare. We present a case of the simultaneous involvement of skeletal muscles in multiple sites in an 11-year-old immune-competent female patient. All physicians should have adequate knowledge of TB and awareness of its atypical presentations to ensure the proper management of such patients. PMID:22561909

Neogi, Devdatta S; Bandekar, Shivanand M; Chawla, Lokesh

2013-03-01

397

Intestinal tuberculosis: return of an old disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Tuberculosis (TB) can no longer be considered a rare disease in the United States due, in part, to the AIDS epidemic. Because the signs and symptoms of intestinal TB are nonspecific, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to ensure a timely diagnosis. The aim of this article is to review the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of TB.Methods:This

Karen D. Horvath; Richard L. Whelan

1998-01-01

398

Drug Resistance Assays for Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of antimicrobial therapy of tuberculosis during the second half of the last century was a turning point in\\u000a the millennium-old history of this disease. However, the problem of drug resistance emerged, and with it, two levels of concern.\\u000a First, such resistance not only poses a public health threat to successful control of TB epidemics, but it also complicates

Leonid Heifets; Gerard Cangelosi

399

Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Allied Mycobacterial Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Tuberculosis, leprosy, the ``skin lesion'' disease of cattle, Johne's disease, rat ``leprosy'' and a series of ill-defined ailments of rodents, cold-blooded animals and birds, constitute a group of diseases of spontaneous natural occurrence, with two distinctive features in common: (1) causation by mycobacteria, i.e., bacteria distinguished by the staining property of acid-fastness, due in turn apparently to mutual possession

Esmond R. Long

1938-01-01

400

Population Structure among Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogeographic composition of M. tuberculosis populations reveals associations between lineages and human populations that might have implications for the development of strategies to control the disease. In Latin America, lineage 4 or the Euro-American, is predominant with considerable variations among and within countries. In Colombia, although few studies from specific localities have revealed differences in M. tuberculosis populations, there are still areas of the country where this information is lacking, as is a comparison of Colombian isolates with those from the rest of the world. Principal Findings A total of 414 M. tuberculosis isolates from adult pulmonary tuberculosis cases from three Colombian states were studied. Isolates were genotyped using IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spoligotyping, and 24-locus Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs). SIT42 (LAM9) and SIT62 (H1) represented 53.3% of isolates, followed by 8.21% SIT50 (H3), 5.07% SIT53 (T1), and 3.14% SIT727 (H1). Composite spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU- VNTR minimum spanning tree analysis suggest a recent expansion of SIT42 and SIT62 evolved originally from SIT53 (T1). The proportion of Haarlem sublineage (44.3%) was significantly higher than that in neighboring countries. Associations were found between M. tuberculosis MDR and SIT45 (H1), as well as HIV-positive serology with SIT727 (H1) and SIT53 (T1). Conclusions This study showed the population structure of M. tuberculosis in several regions from Colombia with a dominance of the LAM and Haarlem sublineages, particularly in two major urban settings (Medellín and Cali). Dominant spoligotypes were LAM9 (SIT 42) and Haarlem (SIT62). The proportion of the Haarlem sublineage was higher in Colombia compared to that in neighboring countries, suggesting particular conditions of co-evolution with the corresponding human population that favor the success of this sublineage. PMID:24747767

Realpe, Teresa; Correa, Nidia; Rozo, Juan Carlos; Ferro, Beatriz Elena; Gomez, Verónica; Zapata, Elsa; Ribon, Wellman; Puerto, Gloria; Castro, Claudia; Nieto, Luisa María; Diaz, Maria Lilia; Rivera, Oriana; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Arbelaez, Maria Patricia; Robledo, Jaime

2014-01-01

401

Drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from tuberculosis lymphadenitis patients in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: The emergence of drug resistance tuberculosis (TB) is a significant challenge for TB control and prevention programmes, and the major problem is multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The present study was carried out to determine the frequency of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates among newly and retreated TB lymphadenitis patients and risk factors for acquiring this infection. Methods: Two hundred twenty five M. tuberculosis isolates from TB lymphadenitis patients who were diagnosed as new and retreated tuberculosis cases between April 2012 and May 2012 were included in this study. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to isoniazed (INH), rifampicin (RMP), streptomycin (SM), ethambutol (EMB) and pyrazinamide (PZA) using the BacT/AlerT 3D system protocol. Results: Among 225 isolates, 15 (6.7%) were resistant to at least one first line anti-TB drug. Three (1.3%) were MDR-TB. Resistance to INH, RMP, SM, and EMB was found in 8 (3.6%), 4 (1.8%), 10 (4.4%), and 4 (1.8%) isolates, respectively. Of the 212 new TB lymphadenitis cases three (1.4%) were MDR-TB. A rifampicin resistant M. tuberculosis isolate was diagnosed from smear and culture negative newly treated cases. All isolates were susceptible to PZA. Matted cervical lymph nodes were the prominent sites involved. Newly treated TB lymphadenitis patients had a greater risk for presenting resistance to anti-TB drugs (P=0.046). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed that TB lymphadenitis patients harboured drug resistant TB and MDR-TB, although at a low rate. Resistance was not associated with age, sex, patients’ education and contact history. Further research is required to determine transmission dynamics of drug resistant strains. PMID:25222786

Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tessema, Belay; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.

2014-01-01

402

The Effect of Garcin® in Preventing AntiTB-Induced Hepatitis in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients.  

PubMed

Adverse effects of antituberculosis agents such as hepatotoxicity may reduce treatment effectiveness, because they significantly contribute to nonadherence and eventually result in treatment failure, relapse or the emergence of drug resistance. Garlic is an ancient herbal substance, which its effectiveness on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in animal models has been demonstrated (1). In the present study a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial was designed to assess the effect(s) of garlic tablets (1000 mg daily) administered for two weeks orally. Fifty eight newly diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, with age ranges between 18-65 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups. Each patient received either garlic or placebo tablets for the first two weeks of tuberculosis treatment. Of total 58 patients, 31 received garlic tablets while 27 received placebo. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding age, sex, nationality, smoking, underlying diseases and opium usage. During 8 weeks of anti-TB (antituberculosis) treatment, 8 (13.0%) patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). Of them, 6 (75%) occurred in the first two weeks of treatment. Fifty percent of the patients who developed DIH were in garlic group. Results indicated no significant difference between groups in developing DIH (p=1.000). We could not show a significant role in preventing DIH by 1000 mg daily garlic administration. PMID:24711843

Tabarsi, Payam; Fahimi, Fanak; Heidarzadeh, Nader; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Kazempour, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

403

Oral health policies in Brazil.  

PubMed

Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply. PMID:19838553

Pucca, Gilberto Alfredo; Costa, José Felipe Riani; Chagas, Luciana de Deus; Sivestre, Rosa Maria

2009-01-01

404

[Tuberculosis microepidemic in a commuter bus].  

PubMed

A tuberculosis microepidemic in a commuter bus was reported. Index patient was a 22-year-old woman who was an employee of an electronic company. An abnormal shadow was found on her chest roentgenogram during an annual medical check-up in June, 1996. As her sputum smear was Gaffky 6, she was admitted to our hospital for medication. Extraordinary examinations including PPD skin test and chest X-ray were carried out on 49 employees of the company in October, 1996. As the result of these examinations, the distribution of maximum diameters of erythema in PPD skin test showed bimodal distribution, and tuberculosis was discovered in two patients by Chest X-ray examination. Moreover, preventive administration of Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) was indicated for 3 employees based on very strong skin reaction to PPD. These five employees were working separately from the index patient and had little contact with the patient in the work places, but using a same commuter bus. Therefore, we strongly suspect that they were infected from the index patient not in the work place but in the commuter bus. The air-conditioning of the bus used a closed recirculation system, hence insufficient ventilation in the bus contributed to the spread of tuberculosis infection. PMID:10423962

Yagi, T; Sasaki, Y; Yamagishi, F; Mizutani, F; Wada, A; Kuroda, F

1999-06-01

405

Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

2012-06-01

406

Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights  

PubMed Central

Molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis (TB) have focused largely on utilizing molecular techniques to address short- and long-term epidemiologic questions, such as in outbreak investigations and in assessing the global dissemination of strains, respectively. This is done primarily by examining the extent of genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When molecular methods are used in conjunction with classical epidemiology, their utility for TB control has been realized. For instance, molecular epidemiologic studies have added much-needed accuracy and precision in describing transmission dynamics, and they have facilitated investigation of previously unresolved issues, such as estimates of recent-versus-reactive disease and the extent of exogenous reinfection. In addition, there is mounting evidence to suggest that specific strains of M. tuberculosis belonging to discrete phylogenetic clusters (lineages) may differ in virulence, pathogenesis, and epidemiologic characteristics, all of which may significantly impact TB control and vaccine development strategies. Here, we review the current methods, concepts, and applications of molecular approaches used to better understand the epidemiology of TB. PMID:17041139

Mathema, Barun; Kurepina, Natalia E.; Bifani, Pablo J.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

2006-01-01

407

[Tuberculosis treatment. A practical guide elaborated by the tuberculosis section, Argentine Association of Respiratory Medicine].  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a worldwide prevalent disease. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains spurred the search for new drugs. There are several tuberculosis treatment guidelines, international and local in a programmatic approach. An Argentinean specialists panel draw practical guidelines based in clinical criteria and the local and international bibliography through consensus meetings, including issues as: antituberculosis drugs available in Argentina, initial and re-treatement modalities, special situations treatment, adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, current indications of surgical treatment and new drugs under study for the treatment of the disease. PMID:17628921

Abbate, Eduardo H; Palmero, Domingo J; Castagnino, Jorge; Cufre, Monica; Doval, Alejandra; Estevan, Rosa; Kuriger, Adriana; Limongi, Leticia; Moraña, Eduardo; Musella, Rosa; Pibida, Carlos; Putruele, Ana Maria; Tanco, Susana; Vescovo, Marisa

2007-01-01

408

Immunopharmacology of oral betalactams.  

PubMed

Among the oral beta-lactam antibiotics only cefaclor has demonstrated a consistent in vitro and in vivo immunopharmacological effect which favors phagocytic chemotaxis and antimicrobial potential by inducing a T-helper 1 or pro-inflammatory response. Together with cefpimizole, cefaclor significantly reduces the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against some bacterial species when cultured together with a suspension of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, as opposed to some other oral beta-lactams, co-amoxiclav and cefixime, which do not show this effect. The pro-inflammatory component of cefaclor's activity explains the clinical success of this antibiotic in a high percentage of cases, even when laboratory tests indicate in vitro resistance by the pathogen. PMID:9603632

Periti, P

1998-04-01

409

Kristi Parker Oral History  

E-print Network

before she goes into the system. So that's kind of how that all happened. And so they snagged me before I went into the adoption process. And it was all done through a private attorney with contracts and whatnot. And I asked my mom just recently... level of 1 Added and edited by narrator during the review process. 2 Added and edited by narrator during the review process. 2 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Kristi...

Parker, Kristi; Albin, Tami

2012-09-15

410

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

411

Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, in the year 2000, there were approx 450,000 new cases of and 240,000 deaths attributable to cancer of the lip,\\u000a oral cavity, pharynx, and salivary glands (ICD-9 140–149) (1). A diagnosis of cancer at these sites is important because it can result in facial disfigurement, speech impairment, chewing\\u000a and\\/or swallowing difficulties, mental anguish, a decreased quality of life, and

Douglas E. Morse

412

Kristie Stremel Oral History  

E-print Network

Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Return to Kristie Stremel Oral History in KU ScholarWorks Tami Albin, Director for Under the Rainbow..., Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin...

Stremel, Kristie; Albin, Tami

2009-10-27

413

Skylab oral health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

1977-01-01

414

Integration of Antiretroviral Therapy with Tuberculosis Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background We previously reported that integrating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with tuberculosis treatment reduces mortality. However, optimal time to initiate ART during tuberculosis treatment remains contentious. Methods To address this, we conducted a 3-arm, open-label randomized controlled trial in South Africa in acid-fast bacilli smear positive patients (n=642) with HIV and CD4+ counts <500 cells/mm3. Findings on the early therapy group (ART initiated within 4 weeks of tuberculosis treatment initiation, n=214) and late therapy group (ART initiated within the first 4 weeks of the continuation phase of tuberculosis treatment, n=215) are presented here. Results Median CD4+ count and viral load at baseline was 150 cells/mm3 and 161000 copies/ml, being similar in both groups. Incidence rate of AIDS or death was 6.9 (18/259.4) and 7.8 (19/244.2) per 100 person-years in the early and late therapy groups respectively (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=0.89; 95%Confidence Interval (95%CI): 0.44,1.79; P=0.73). However, in patients with CD4+ counts <50 cells/mm3, the incidence rates of AIDS or death were 8.5 (early) and 26.3 (late) per 100 person-years (IRR=0.32; 95%CI: 0.07,1.13; P=0.06). Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) incidence rates were 20.2 (early) and 7.7 (late) per 100 person-years (IRR=2.62; 95%CI: 1.48,4.82; P<0.001). Adverse events requiring antiretroviral drug switches occurred in 10 (early) and 1 (late) patients (P=0.006). Conclusions The benefits of AIDS-free survival balanced against the risks of IRIS and ART-related adverse events, support early ART initiation in patients with CD4+ counts <50 cells/mm3 and deferred ART initiation to the continuation phase of tuberculosis treatment when CD4+ counts are higher. PMID:22010915

Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Grobler, Anneke; Padayatchi, Nesri; Baxter, Cheryl; Gray, Andrew L.; Gengiah, Tanuja; Gengiah, Santhanalakshmi; Naidoo, Anushka; Jithoo, Niraksha; Nair, Gonasagrie; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Friedland, Gerald; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

2011-01-01

415

Gender-related factors influencing tuberculosis control in shantytowns: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that female gender is associated with reduced likelihood of tuberculosis diagnosis and successful treatment. This study aimed to characterize gender-related barriers to tuberculosis control in Peruvian shantytowns. METHODS: We investigated attitudes and experiences relating gender to tuberculosis using the grounded theory approach to describe beliefs amongst key tuberculosis control stakeholders. These issues were explored in 22

Dami A Onifade; Angela M Bayer; Rosario Montoya; Marie Haro; Jessica Alva; Jessica Franco; Rosario Sosa; Betty Valiente; Enit Valera; Carolyn M Ford; Colleen D Acosta; Carlton A Evans

2010-01-01

416

severe meningeal tuberculosis. By contrast, Caws et al. report that the Euro-American lin-  

E-print Network

severe meningeal tuberculosis. By contrast, Caws et al. report that the Euro-American lin- eage of M. tuberculosis mainly induces the less complicated pulmonary tuberculosis. TheBeijingstrainsalsoseemtohaveevolved additional virulence mechanisms to induce meningeal tuberculosis. These strains produce abundant phenolic

417

Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Nonhuman Primates  

E-print Network

1 Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Nonhuman Primates I. Introduction Because tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease that can be devastating and terminal in nonhuman primates (NHPs that may be harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC - M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and M. africanum

Bandettini, Peter A.

418

Modeling Phenotypic Metabolic Adaptations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv under Hypoxia  

E-print Network

Modeling Phenotypic Metabolic Adaptations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv under Hypoxia Xin to different conditions is key for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB or eradicating this disease. Direct knowledge of the metabolic states of M. tuberculosis in patients would aid

419

Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Depending on the Age and Sex of Source Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimated to what extent tuberculosis transmission in the Netherlands depends on the age and sex of source cases. DNA fingerprints of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were matched to patient information in the Netherlands Tuberculosis Register for 1993-1998. Clusters were defined as groups of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis whose isolates had identical DNA fingerprints. Source cases were assigned by using

Martien W. Borgdorff; Nico J. D. Nagelkerke; Petra E. W. de Haas; Dick van Soolingen

420

Nanobead-based interventions for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most devastating bacterial diseases to affect humans. M. tuberculosis is a robust pathogen that has evolved the capacity to survive and grow inside macrophage phagosomes. A cocktail of antibiotics has long been successfully used against M. tuberculosis but is becoming less effective owing to the emergence of multidrug resistance. The

Bo Nyström; Suraj B. Sable; Gopal K. Khuller; Gareth Griffiths

2010-01-01

421

A Case Report of Primary Duodenal Tuberculosis Mimicking a Malignant Tumor  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains a serious infectious disease with primary features of pulmonary manifestation in Korea. However, duodenal tuberculosis is rare in gastrointestinal cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of primary duodenal tuberculosis mistaken as a malignant tumor and diagnosed with QuantiFERON-TB GOLD (Cellestis Ltd.) in an immunocompetent male patient. PMID:25133123

Jung, Ji Hye; Kim, Min Jeong; Cho, Young Kwan; Ahn, Sang Bong; Son, Byoung Kwan; Jo, Yun Ju; Park, Young Sook

2014-01-01

422

1464 www.thelancet.com Vol 370 October 27, 2007 Controlling extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis  

E-print Network

-resistant tuberculosis Recent successes in the fight against tuberculosis1 rely on short-course chemotherapy with our two of people or more still die every year of curable tuberculosis,1 but inadequate treatment has also contributed to the origination of strains of tuberculosis resistant to these two drugs, (ie, multidrug

Getz, Wayne M.

423

Tuberculosis Cases Reported Among Migrant Farm Workers in the United States, 1993-97  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Migrant farm workers (MFWs) are considered a high-risk group for tuberculosis. MFW tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention represented 1 percent of all reported tuberculosis cases from 1993 to 1997. Most of these cases (70 percent) were reported from Florida, Texas, and California. MFW tuberculosis cases were more likely to be male, foreign-born, or Hispanic

Joann M. Schulte; Sarah E. Valway; Eugene McCray; Ida M. Onorato

2001-01-01

424

Tuberculosis Cases Reported Among Migrant Farm Workers in the United States, 1993-97  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrant farm workers (MFWs) are considered a high-risk group for tuberculosis. MFW tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention represented 1 percent of all reported tuberculosis cases from 1993 to 1997. Most of these cases (70 percent) were reported from Florida, Texas, and California. MFW tuberculosis cases were more likely to be male, foreign-born, or Hispanic

2001-01-01

425

9 CFR 77.34 - Official tuberculosis tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS...either found negative for tuberculosis...veterinarian, the testing veterinarian...herd has tested negative to at least...classified as negative if it has a response...Unless the testing veterinarian...a tuberculous animal, a captive...

2010-01-01

426

9 CFR 77.34 - Official tuberculosis tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS...either found negative for tuberculosis...veterinarian, the testing veterinarian...herd has tested negative to at least...classified as negative if it has a response...Unless the testing veterinarian...a tuberculous animal, a captive...

2011-01-01

427

9 CFR 77.34 - Official tuberculosis tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS...either found negative for tuberculosis...veterinarian, the testing veterinarian...herd has tested negative to at least...classified as negative if it has a response...Unless the testing veterinarian...a tuberculous animal, a captive...

2012-01-01

428

9 CFR 77.34 - Official tuberculosis tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS...either found negative for tuberculosis...veterinarian, the testing veterinarian...herd has tested negative to at least...classified as negative if it has a response...Unless the testing veterinarian...a tuberculous animal, a captive...

2013-01-01

429

Why doesn't bovine tuberculosis transmit between humans?  

PubMed

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important bacterial pathogen of man. This human-adapted pathogen was ancestral to a lineage of animal-adapted strains which cause similar disease in many different mammals but are unable to transmit between humans. How did the animal-adapted strains lose the ability to transmit between humans? PMID:25174642

Berg, Stefan; Smith, Noel H

2014-10-01

430

A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of 20 variable regions resulting from insertion-deletion events in the genomes of the tubercle bacilli has been evaluated in a total of 100 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium microti, and Mycobacterium bovis. This approach showed that the majority of these polymorphisms did not occur independently in the different strains of the M. tuberculosis complex

R. Brosch; S. V. Gordon; M. Marmiesse; P. Brodin; C. Buchrieser; K. Eiglmeier; T. Garnier; C. Gutierrez; G. Hewinson; K. Kremer; L. M. Parsons; A. S. Pym; S. Samper; D. van Soolingen; S. T. Cole

2002-01-01

431

Pulmonary tuberculosis in Harare, Zimbabwe: analysis by spoligotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDOver the last 10 years there has been a fourfold increase in cases of tuberculosis in Harare, Zimbabwe. The use of molecular epidemiology to understand tuberculosis transmission in this epidemic has been hampered by the availability of suitable culture facilities. A study was therefore undertaken to explore the potential of spoligotyping, a polymerase chain reaction based technique that does not

R S Heyderman; M Goyal; P Roberts; S Ushewokunze; S Zizhou; B G Marshall; Robert Makombe; J D A Van Embden; P R Mason; R J Shaw

1998-01-01

432

Old and new selective pressures on Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) has been affecting humans for millennia. There is increasing indication that human-adapted Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) has been co-evolving with different human populations. Some of the most important drivers of MTBC evolution have been the host immune response and human demography. These old selective forces have shaped many of the features of human TB we see today. Two

Daniela Brites; Sebastien Gagneux

433

A High-Throughput Screen for Tuberculosis Progression  

PubMed Central

One-third of the world population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant strains are rapidly evolving. The noticeable absence of a whole organism high-throughput screening system for studying the progression of tuberculosis is fast becoming the bottleneck in tuberculosis research. We successfully developed such a system using the zebrafish Mycobacterium marinum infection model, which is a well-characterized model for tuberculosis progression with biomedical significance, mimicking hallmarks of human tuberculosis pathology. Importantly, we demonstrate the suitability of our system to directly study M. tuberculosis, showing for the first time that the human pathogen can propagate in this vertebrate model, resulting in similar early disease symptoms to those observed upon M. marinum infection. Our system is capable of screening for disease progression via robotic yolk injection of early embryos and visual flow screening of late-stage larvae. We also show that this system can reliably recapitulate the standard caudal vein injection method with a throughput level of 2,000 embryos per hour. We additionally demonstrate the possibility of studying signal transduction leading to disease progression using reverse genetics at high-throughput levels. Importantly, we use reference compounds to validate our system in the testing of molecules that prevent tuberculosis progression, making it highly suited for investigating novel anti-tuberculosis compounds in vivo. PMID:21390204

Stockhammer, Oliver W.; Savage, Nigel D. L.; Veneman, Wouter J.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Dirks, Ron P.; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Spaink, Herman P.

2011-01-01

434

Fighting tuberculosis: An old disease with new challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a slow growing bacterium, evolved from soil bacterium more than 10,000 years ago is a respiratory transmission infectious disease. It is a single largest infectious disease in the world infecting nearly 32% of the world's population is infected with TB. Among the infected individuals approximately 8 million develop active TB, and almost 2 million

Rama P. Tripathi; Neetu Tewari; Namrata Dwivedi; Vinod K. Tiwari

2005-01-01

435

Interactions between Naïve and Infected Macrophages Reduce Mycobacterium tuberculosis Viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high intracellular bacillary load of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages induces an atypical lysosomal cell death with early features of apoptosis that progress to necrosis within hours. Unlike classical apoptosis, this cell death mode does not appear to diminish M. tuberculosis viability. We previously reported that culturing heavily infected macrophages with naïve macrophages produced an antimicrobial effect, but only if

Michelle L. Hartman; Hardy Kornfeld

2011-01-01

436

Prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in patients with tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the prevalence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoanti- bodies (ANCA) in sera of patients with tuberculosis compared with healthy control subjects and a group of patients with atopic asthma. Methods. The presence of ANCA was examined in patients with tuberculosis, and in asthmatic patients and healthy subjects as control groups, by means of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent

L. F. Flores-Suarez; J. Cabiedes; A. R. Villa; F. J. van der Woude; J. Alcocer-Varela

2003-01-01

437

Sarcoidosis following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: Coincidence or consequence  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a 47-year-old Caucasian male patient who developed sarcoidosis 18 months after he was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis for which he was treated according to guidelines. The presentation of sarcoidosis was very similar to his first presentation when he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a possible aetiological agent in sarcoidosis has been point of debate since many years and has been studied thoroughly. Recent advances in immunologic and molecular techniques have strengthened the association between mycobacteria and sarcoidosis.1 Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by the presence of non-caseating epitheloid cell granulomas. It is generally agreed that this is a tissue reaction to environmental agents in a genetically susceptible individual.2 Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by M. tuberculosis and characterised by caseating granulomas. In both clinical and histopathological features sarcoidosis is remarkably similar to tuberculosis and therefore can be difficult to distinguish. First, this case report demonstrates the need of diagnostic testing when reactivation of tuberculosis is suspected. And second the role of M. tuberculosis in the aetiology of sarcoidosis will be discussed.

van Enschot, J.W.T.; van Balkom, R.H.H.

2013-01-01

438

Insights into ancient leprosy and tuberculosis using metagenomics.  

PubMed

Leprosy and tuberculosis were widespread in the past and remain significant diseases today. Comparison of ancient and modern genomes of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis gives insight into their evolution and a calibration of the timescale for observed changes. Recently, whole genome sequencing has revealed genotypes and mixed-strain infections. PMID:23932433

Donoghue, Helen D

2013-09-01

439

Tuberculosis among American Indians of the contiguous United States.  

PubMed

Paleopathologic findings provide strong evidence for the existence of tuberculosis in Andean populations of pre-Columbian America. Indirect evidence is available also to suggest its possible endemicity among some American Indian tribes who lived within the present-day contiguous United States before the arrival of Europeans. The available data suggest that tuberculosis became a major health problem in some tribes with increased population density and cultural changes after increased contact with European civilization, paralleling the deterioration in living conditions after relocation of the tribes to reservations. By 1900, tuberculosis had become one of the most serious health problems among North American Indians. Tuberculosis control was hampered by the lack of a specific treatment, and only the advent of specific chemotherapy in an ambulatory setting brought a breakthrough. Mortality, morbidity, and risk of infection have all sharply decreased over the past three decades. However, tuberculosis incidence rates among American Indians remain well above rates in the white population. An intensified effort to identify those with tuberculosis and those at risk of tuberculosis as well as to develop compliance-enhancing strategies with treatment regimens will be necessary to eliminate tuberculosis from Indian reservations. PMID:2511601

Rieder, H L

1989-01-01

440

Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Buenos Aires, Argentina  

PubMed Central

To analyze the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains at a hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and mutations related to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, we conducted a prospective case–control study. Our findings reinforce the value of incorporating already standardized molecular methods for rapidly detecting resistance. PMID:21392451

Ambroggi, Marta; Cordova, Ezequiel; Brown, Tim; Poggi, Susana; Drobniewski, Francis

2011-01-01

441

Initiation and regulation of T-cell responses in tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) poses a great challenge to immunologists, as it represents a chronic infection characterized by persistence of the pathogen despite development of antigen-specific immune responses. Among the characteristics of adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a delay in the onset of detectable T-cell responses, in both humans and experimental animals. Recent studies have revealed mechanisms that contribute to

K B Urdahl; S Shafiani; J D Ernst

2011-01-01

442

IMMUNE MODULATION OF THE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS GRANULOMATOUS RESPONSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health burden. The immunocompetant host responds to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection by the formation of granulomas, which initially prevent uncontrolled bacterial proliferation and dissemination. However, increasing evidence suggests that granuloma formation promotes persistence of the organism by physically separating infected cells from effector lymphocytes and by inducing a state of non-replicating persistence in the

Kerry J Welsh

2011-01-01

443

Bovine Tuberculosis in a Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.  

PubMed

Abstract Poland is officially tuberculosis free and bovine tuberculosis (BTB) cases are rarely found except in bovids. We found BTB in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the Bieszczady Mountains, southeastern Poland. Studies suggest possible transmission of infection between free-living European bison (Bison bonasus caucasicus) and wild boar in this area. PMID:25075538

Krajewska, Monika; Lipiec, Marek; Zabost, Anna; Augustynowicz-Kope?, Ewa; Szulowski, Krzysztof

2014-10-01

444

Immunology of tuberculosis and implications in vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a very successful pathogen that can survive and persist in the human host in the face of a robust immune response. This immune response is sufficient to prevent disease in the majority of infected persons, providing compelling evidence that immunity to tuberculosis is possible. However, it is more striking that the strong immune response is not generally

JoAnne L Flynn

2004-01-01

445

Characterization of Mycobacterium orygis as M. tuberculosis complex subspecies.  

PubMed

The oryx bacilli are Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms for which phylogenetic position and host range are unsettled. We characterized 22 isolates by molecular methods and propose elevation to subspecies status as M. orygis. M. orygis is a causative agent of tuberculosis in animals and humans from Africa and South Asia. PMID:22469053

van Ingen, Jakko; Rahim, Zeaur; Mulder, Arnout; Boeree, Martin J; Simeone, Roxane; Brosch, Roland; van Soolingen, Dick

2012-04-01

446

Origin, Spread and Demography of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary timing and spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), one of the most successful groups of bacterial pathogens, remains largely unknown. Here, using mycobacterial tandem repeat sequences as genetic markers, we show that the MTBC consists of two independent clades, one composed exclusively of M. tuberculosis lineages from humans and the other composed of both animal and human

Thierry Wirth; Falk Hildebrand; Caroline Allix-Béguec; Florian Wölbeling; Tanja Kubica; Kristin Kremer; Dick van Soolingen; Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes; Camille Locht; Sylvain Brisse; Axel Meyer; Philip Supply; Stefan Niemann

2008-01-01

447

Evolutionary bottlenecks in the agents of tuberculosis, leprosy, and paratuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic mycobacteria cause important human and animal diseases including tuberculosis, leprosy, and paratuberculosis. Several methods demonstrate a high degree of sequence conservation in three parasitic mycobacterial species (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. Ieprae, andM. aviumsubspeciesparatuberculosis). Each of these species has completely conserved deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence in an internal transcribed spacer. In contrast, several species of environmental mycobacteria (M. intracellulare, M. kansasii,

R. Frothingham

1999-01-01

448

Improved understanding of pathogenesis from protein interactions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Comprehensive mapping and analysis of protein-protein interactions provide not only systematic approaches for dissecting the infection and survival mechanisms of pathogens but also clues for discovering new antibacterial drug targets. Protein interaction data on Mycobacterium tuberculosis have rapidly accumulated over the past several years. This review summarizes the current progress of protein interaction studies on M. tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. These efforts improve our knowledge on the stress response, signaling regulation, protein secretion and drug resistance of the bacteria. M. tuberculosis-host protein interaction studies, although still limited, have recently opened a new door for investigating the pathogenesis of the bacteria. Finally, this review discusses the importance of protein interaction data on identifying and screening new anti-tuberculosis targets and drugs, respectively. PMID:25327725

Cui, Tao; He, Zheng-Guo

2014-12-01

449

Ongoing transmission of tuberculosis in Aboriginal communities in NSW.  

PubMed

This report describes the ongoing transmission of tuberculosis in Aboriginal communities in NSW. From October 2000 to July 2012 there were 30 linked cases of tuberculosis diagnosed in Aboriginal people - 22 in the North Coast area of NSW, with a further three cases in Sydney and five in southern Queensland. It is likely that a range of factors have contributed to this ongoing transmission, including delayed diagnosis, the extensive social connections within the communities affected, and the highly mobile living arrangements of many of those affected. Cases have continued to emerge despite implementation of tuberculosis control measures in line with state and international protocols. Tuberculosis control staff are working in partnership with Aboriginal communities to identify and implement appropriate tuberculosis control strategies. PMID:23849029

Devlin, Sue; Passmore, Erin

2013-07-01

450

Transforming the fight against tuberculosis: targeting catalysts of transmission.  

PubMed

The global tuberculosis control community has committed itself to ambitious 10-year targets. To meet these targets, biomedical advances alone will be insufficient; a more targeted public health tuberculosis strategy is also needed. We highlight the role of "tuberculosis transmission catalysts," defined as variabilities in human behavior, bacillary properties, and host physiology that fuel the propagation of active tuberculosis at the local level. These catalysts can be categorized as factors that increase contact rates, infectiousness, or host susceptibility. Different catalysts predominate in different epidemiological and sociopolitical settings, and public health approaches are likely to succeed only if they are tailored to target the major catalysts driving transmission in the corresponding community. We argue that global tuberculosis policy should move from a country-level focus to a strategy that prioritizes collection of data on key transmission catalysts at the local level followed by deployment of "catalyst-targeted" interventions, supported by strengthened health systems. PMID:24982034

Dowdy, David W; Azman, Andrew S; Kendall, Emily A; Mathema, Barun

2014-10-15

451

Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection: an update  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that more than two billion people have latent M. tuberculosis infection, and this population serves as an important reservoir for future tuberculosis cases. Prevalence estimates are limited by difficulties in diagnosing the infection, including the lack of an ideal test, and an incomplete understanding of latency. Current tests include the tuberculin skin test and two interferon-? release assays: QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB. This update focuses on recent publications regarding the ability of these tests to predict tuberculosis disease, their reproducibility over serial tests, and discordance between tests. We also discuss recent advances in the treatment of latent M. tuberculosis infection, including the three-month regimen of once-weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid, and prolonged isoniazid therapy for HIV-infected persons living in high-tuberculosis-incidence settings. We provide an update on the tolerability of the three-month regimen. PMID:25298921

Pettit, April C.

2014-01-01

452

Saudi guidelines for testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in Saudi Arabia. As most cases of tuberculosis are due to reactivation of latent infection, identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) who are at increased risk of progression to active disease, is a key element of tuberculosis control programs. Whereas general screening of individuals for LTBI is not cost-effective, targeted testing of individuals at high risk of disease progression is the right approach. Treatment of those patients with LTBI can diminish the risk of progression to active tuberculosis disease in the majority of treated patients. This statement is the first Saudi guideline for testing and treatment of LTBI and is a result of the cooperative efforts of four local Saudi scientific societies. This Guideline is intended to provide physicians and allied health workers in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care for testing and treatment of LTBI. PMID:20103957

Al Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Baharoon, Salim; Abba, Abdullah A.; Memish, Ziad A.; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; AlBarrak, Ali; Haddad, Qais A.; Al Hajjaj, Mohammad; Pai, Madhukar; Menzies, Dick

2010-01-01

453

Bowel obstruction caused by intestinal tuberculosis: an update  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is one of the most important communicable diseases worldwide, with an increasing incidence within the UK. The abdomen is involved in 11% of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, and can provide a diagnostic challenge if not suspected. The authors report the case of a 31-year-old Sudanese female who presented with intestinal obstruction due to a mass caused by abdominal tuberculosis. Imaging revealed evidence of multifocal tuberculosis involving the ileo-caecal region with abdominal and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. She went on to have a limited right hemicolectomy and completed antitubercular therapy. It is important to consider abdominal tuberculosis when conditions such as Crohn’s disease or gastrointestinal malignancy are being entertained in those from a high-risk background. Since diagnosis can be difficult, if clinical suspicion is strong, surgery is a safe option. Recommended management combines up to 12 months of antitubercular therapy with conservative surgery. PMID:22673714

Patel, Nimesh; Ondhia, Chandni; Ahmed, Shabbir

2011-01-01

454

Colonic tuberculosis or Crohn's disease? An important differential diagnosis.  

PubMed

Abdominal tuberculosis can mimic any disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract such as infectious processes, tumors, periappendiceal abscess, and Crohn's disease. The differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease and intestinal tuberculosis is a dilemma to clinicians and pathologists as both are chronic granulomatous disorders with similar clinical features. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding is an infrequent presentation of both intestinal tuberculosis and Crohn's disease. Herein, we report a 56-year-old woman presenting with massive hematochezia due to isolated colon tuberculosis in whom the initial diagnostic work-up suggested Crohn's disease and review the current literature. Our report highlights the need for awareness of colonic tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of massive hematochezia from Crohn's disease, especially before initiating treatment with immunosuppressive agents. PMID:23650785

Arhan, Mehmet; Köksal, Aydin Seref; Ozin, Yasemin; Kiliç, Z Mesut Yalin; Tunç, Bilge; Ulker, Aysel

2013-03-01

455

Surveillance of Elderly Hospital Patients for Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A restrospective study of pulmonary tuberculosis in a general hospital showed that the diagnosis had been frequently overlooked in the middleaged or elderly because the patient also suffered from a more acute condition which preoccupied the attention of the doctor. The commonest error was to discount chest x-ray abnormalities by omitting sputum culture or serial radiography. Surveillance was carried out on all patients aged 60 or over admitted to a large general hospital whose routine chest radiograph showed signs of possible pulmonary tuberculosis whether apparently active or inactive. Three sputum samples from each patient were examined for Mycobacterium tuberculosis without reference to the clinical presentation. In a nine-month period six out of 81 patients proved to have active pulmonary tuberculosis (7·4%). It is suggested that this may be a useful method of screening the elderly hospital population for pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:4203692

Cole, R. B.; Balmer, J. P.; Wilson, T. S.

1974-01-01

456

Biosensing Technologies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Detection: Status and New Developments  

PubMed Central

Biosensing technologies promise to improve Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) detection and management in clinical diagnosis, food analysis, bioprocess, and environmental monitoring. A variety of portable, rapid, and sensitive biosensors with immediate “on-the-spot” interpretation have been developed for M. tuberculosis detection based on different biological elements recognition systems and basic signal transducer principles. Here, we present a synopsis of current developments of biosensing technologies for M. tuberculosis detection, which are classified on the basis of basic signal transducer principles, including piezoelectric quartz crystal biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, and magnetoelastic biosensors. Special attention is paid to the methods for improving the framework and analytical parameters of the biosensors, including sensitivity and analysis time as well as automation of analysis procedures. Challenges and perspectives of biosensing technologies development for M. tuberculosis detection are also discussed in the final part of this paper. PMID:21437177

Zhou, Lixia; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Dinggeng; Wang, Kemin; Qin, Dilan

2011-01-01

457

Insights into redox sensing metalloproteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen that causes tuberculosis, has evolved sophisticated mechanisms for evading assault by the human host. This review focuses on M. tuberculosis regulatory metalloproteins that are sensitive to exogenous stresses attributed to changes in the levels of gaseous molecules (i.e., molecular oxygen, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide) to elicit an intracellular response. In particular, we highlight recent developments on the subfamily of Whi proteins, redox sensing WhiB-like proteins that contain iron-sulfur clusters, sigma factors and their cognate anti-sigma factors of which some are zinc-regulated, and the dormancy survival regulon DosS/DosT-DosR heme sensory system. Mounting experimental evidence suggests that these systems contribute to a highly complex and interrelated regulatory network that controls M. tuberculosis biology. This review concludes with a discussion of strategies that M. tuberculosis has developed to maintain redox homeostasis, including mechanisms to regulate endogenous nitric oxide and carbon monoxide levels. PMID:24314844

Chim, Nicholas; Johnson, Parker M; Goulding, Celia W

2014-04-01

458

[Preventive measures against tuberculosis in working facilities and companies].  

PubMed

The health care program in working facilities and companies have played a significant part in prevention of tuberculosis. However, the ordinary national tuberculosis survey policy was abolished in April, 2005 and the tuberculosis survey for salary-earners is on the brink of drastic change. In this symposium the current status of the prevailing survey of tuberculosis in working facilities and companies was reviewed and the future direction of the tuberculosis survey in comparison to that in lung cancer survey was discussed. 1. Epidemiological trends of tuberculosis from the tuberculosis surveillance data: Masako OHMORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). The estimated rate of tuberculosis case discovery by periodical mass screening in the working facilities was 0.033% and it was higher than that in general adult population. The detection rate of tuberculosis in nurses who suffered from tuberculosis reached 40.4% by an aid of mass X-ray screening and 8.7% by contact tracing. The risk of onset of the disease was 4.3 times higher nurses than in general at the same years of age. The importance of infection control measures in the medical facilities was emphasized. 2. Current status and problems in tuberculosis control in a large-sized company: Yusuke NAKAOKA (Department of Occupational Health, Osaka Railway Hospital, West Japan Railway Company). Some preventive modalities against TB such as periodical medical check-up and awareness programs have been done for the purpose of prevention in our company. The prevalence of the disease has significantly reduced in number. The specific circumstances in large-sized company should be taken into consideration, and it is important for company workers and health professionals to recognize their roles in preventing the infectious disease. 3. Are there any differences between clinical cases and control people working for small-sized companies in the onset of tuberculosis?: Osamu NAKASHIMA, Kohei IMOTO (Taito Health Center, Tokyo) and Toru MORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, JATA). We surveyed environmental conditions in working places and domestic conditions of employees who were working for small-sized companies located in Taito ward, based on written questionnaires. The companies were selected as those which had the patients of tuberculosis in the past one-year period, and the number of employees was less than ten. Compared with control people, TB patients had more frequent smoking habit (p < 0.05), and tended to have been less exposed to the sunshine at their residency and to have nutritionally poor meals and deficits of their meals. These results suggest that these factors alone or in combination may contribute to accelerated onset of tuberculosis. 4. Current status and problems in tuberculosis management among high prevalence population and in health check-up for personnel with unspecified and high occupational contact with tuberculosis patients: Hidetoshi IGARI (Division of Control and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Chiba University Hospital), Kiminori SUZUKI (Chiba Foundation for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention). Tuberculosis prevalence is as high as 500-1500 per 100,000 peoples among the homeless and construction workers living in "Hanba", a bunkhouse. We surveyed their medical conditions through periodical or extraperiodical health check-up. We retrospectively analyzed some medical factors contributing to successful treatment of the disease. Hospital admission and enhancement of counseling opportunities were two factors leading to the success of the treatment. The ambulance attendants have a significant possibility to contact patients with TB and are high at risk of acquiring the infection. As there are often limited information on TB in patients in an emergency condition, it is difficult to protect themselves from its contagion properly. Periodical and extraperiodical health check-up is important for these personnel and application of QuantiFERON-TB 2nd generation to the personnel is new and useful for diagnosis

Suzuki, Kiminori; Satou, Ken

2007-03-01

459

The spectrum of latent tuberculosis: rethinking the goals of prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Immunological tests provide evidence of latent tuberculosis in one third of the global population, more than two billion individuals. Latent tuberculosis is defined by the absence of clinical symptoms but carries a risk of subsequent progression to clinical disease, particularly in the context of co-infection with HIV. Here we discuss the biology of latent tuberculosis as part of a broad spectrum of responses that occur following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulting in formation of a range of physiologically distinct granulomatous lesions that provide environments with differential ability to support or suppress persistence of viable bacteria. We go on to show how this model can be used to inform a rational programme to discover drugs that will be effective in the eradication of M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:19855401

Barry, Clifton E; Boshoff, Helena; Dartois, Veronique; Dick, Thomas; Ehrt, Sabine; Flynn, JoAnne; Schnappinger, Dirk; Wilkinson, Robert J; Young, Douglas

2013-01-01

460

Silent nucleotide polymorphisms and a phylogeny for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Much remains unknown of the phylogeny and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an organism that kills 2 million people annually. Using a population-based approach that analyzes multiple loci around the chromosome, we demonstrate that neutral genetic variation in genes associated with antimicrobial drug resistance has sufficient variation to construct a robust phylogenetic tree for M. tuberculosis. The data describe a clonal population with a minimum of four distinct M. tuberculosis lineages, closely related to M. bovis. The lineages are strongly geographically associated. Nucleotide substitutions proven to cause drug resistance are distributed throughout the tree, whereas nonsynonymous base substitutions unrelated to drug resistance have a restricted distribution. The phylogenetic structure is concordant with all the previously described genotypic and phenotypic groupings of M. tuberculosis strains and provides a unifying framework for both epidemiologic and evolutionary analysis of M. tuberculosis populations. PMID:15498158

Baker, Lucy; Brown, Tim; Maiden, Martin C; Drobniewski, Francis

2004-09-01

461

Oral burn contractures in children.  

PubMed

Oral burn contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral burns. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical burns and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar area and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182

Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra

2003-11-01

462

Evaluation of Gene Mutations Involved in Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strains Derived from Tuberculosis Patients in Mazandaran, Iran, 2013  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance (especially multiple drug resistance) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis makes global concerns in treatment and control of tuberculosis. Rapid diagnosis of drug resistant strains of the bacteria has vital importance in the prognosis of the disease. The aim of this study was to identify the mutations responsible for drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains derived from patients with tuberculosis using line probe assay (LPA) method which rapidly detect drug resistant strains and respective mutations. Sputum samples from tuberculosis patients were collected and cultured on Lowenstein– Jensen medium, and then the colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from cultures of 54 bacterial positive cases were randomly chosen for DNA extraction. Bacterial DNA was extracted using standard Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) method. In order to identify drug resistant strains and related mutations, LPA method was applied. Three subjects out of 54 investigated cases were resistant to quinolone (5.5%), and resistance to kanamycin/ amikacin, streptomycin, rifampin, and isoniazid were observed in 3 (5.5%), 4 (7.4%), 3 (5.5%), and 2 (3.7%) of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, respectively. In the present study, 4 cases (7.4%) were detected to be resistant to more than one drug. Since LPA is a rapid method that simultaneously detects mutations involved in drug resistance, applying this method in the prediction of drug resistance and selecting appropriate treatment in tuberculosis patients is recommended.

Babamahmoodi, Farhang; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Jalali, Hossein; Talebi, Bita; Roshan, Payam; Mahdavi, Mehrad

2014-01-01

463

Tuberculosis and subsequent risk of lung cancer in Xuanwei, China  

SciTech Connect

Tobacco and indoor air pollution from smoky coal are major causes of lung cancer in rural Xuanwei County, China. Tuberculosis has been suggested to increase lung cancer risk, but data from prior studies are limited. We conducted an analysis of data from a retrospective cohort study of 42,422 farmers in Xuanwei. In 1992, interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire that included lifetime medical history, including tuberculosis. Subjects were followed from 1976, with deaths from lung cancer ascertained through 1996. We used proportional hazards regression to assess the association between tuberculosis and subsequent lung cancer mortality. Tuberculosis was reported by 246 subjects (0.6%), and 2,459 (5.8%) died from lung cancer during follow-up. Lung cancer mortality was substantially higher in subjects with tuberculosis than in those without (25 vs. 3.1 per 1,000 person-years). The association was especially pronounced in the first 5 years after tuberculosis diagnosis (hazard ratios (HRs) ranging 6.7-13) but remained strong 5-9.9 years (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-9.1) and 10+ years (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-7.3) after tuberculosis. These associations were similar among men and women and among smoky coal users (70.5% of subjects). Adjustment for demographic characteristics, lung disease and tobacco use did not affect results. In Xuanwei, China, tuberculosis is an important risk factor for lung cancer. The increased lung cancer risk, persisting years after a tuberculosis diagnosis, could reflect the effects of chronic pulmonary inflammation and scarring arising from tuberculosis.

Engels, E.A.; Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Pfeiffer, R.M.; Yu, Y.Y.; He, X.Z.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Rockville, MD (USA). Infectious and Immunoepidemiology Branch

2009-03-15

464

Influence of M. tuberculosis Lineage Variability within a Clinical Trial for Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that M. tuberculosis lineage and host genetics interact to impact how active tuberculosis presents clinically. We determined the phylogenetic lineages of M. tuberculosis isolates from participants enrolled in the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 28, conducted in Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Spain, Uganda and the United States, and secondarily explored the relationship between lineage, clinical presentation and response to treatment. Large sequence polymorphisms and single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed to determine lineage and sublineage of isolates. Of 306 isolates genotyped, 246 (80.4%) belonged to the Euro-American lineage, with sublineage 724 predominating at African sites (99/192, 51.5%), and the Euro-American strains other than 724 predominating at non-African sites (89/114, 78.1%). Uneven distribution of lineages across regions limited our ability to discern significant associations, nonetheless, in univariate analyses, Euro-American sublineage 724 was associated with more severe disease at baseline, and along with the East Asian lineage was associated with lower bacteriologic conversion after 8 weeks of treatment. Disease presentation and response to drug treatment varied by lineage, but these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for other variables associated with week-8 culture status. PMID:20505778

Nahid, Payam; Bliven, Erin E.; Kim, Elizabeth Y.; Mac Kenzie, William R.; Stout, Jason E.; Diem, Lois; Johnson, John L.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Hopewell, Philip C.; Kato-Maeda, Midori

2010-01-01

465

Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for tuberculosis in young adults: A casecontrol study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting: The association between smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis has not often been studied.Objective: To assess the influence of cigarette smoking on the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis in young people who were close contacts of new cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.Design: A case-control study in which 46 ‘cases’ (patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis: isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or clinical and\\/or

J. Alcaide; M. N. Altet; P. Plans; I. Parrón; Ll. Folguera; E. Saltó; A. Dominguez; H. Pardell; Ll. Salleras

1996-01-01