Note: This page contains sample records for the topic tuberculosis oral from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

[Oral blastomycosis, laryngeal papillomatosis and esophageal tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Esophageal involvement is an extremely rare complication of tuberculosis even in countries with high prevalence of infection. We report the case of a 57 year-old hiv-seronegative patient with simultaneous diagnoses of oral blastomycosis and laryngeal papillomatosis. Both were confirmed by anatomopathological analysis. The esophageal biopsy revealed granulomatous esophagitis with necrosis and ziehl-neelsen stain showed acid-fast alcohol resistant bacilli suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient's history included pulmonary tuberculosis twice and previous abandonment of therapy. Thus, it was necessary to use oral itraconazole combined with second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs administered through a gastrostomy tube. The clinical development was favorable. PMID:22858774

Montoya, Manuel; Chumbiraico, Robert; Ricalde, Melvin; Cazorla, Ernesto; Hernández-Córdova, Gustavo

2012-06-01

2

Periodontal disease as the initial oral manifestation of abdominal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a chronic, specific granulomatous disease and a major cause of death in developing countries. We report a case of tuberculosis presenting first as periodontal loss of tooth support leading to loose teeth and gingival enlargement affecting a 17-year-old female patient without any pulmonary lesion. Diagnosis was based on histopathological examination and positive adenosine deaminase activity Mycobacterium tuberculosis test. The clinical presentation of tuberculosis may take many forms. However, with the decline in numbers, tuberculosis lesions of the oral cavity have become so rare that they are frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions. Also, this case report emphasizes the need for dental clinicians to be aware of the possibility of tuberculosis presenting first in the oral cavity, and contribute in control of tuberculosis through early detection and referring the patients to physicians for proper treatment. PMID:23559932

Javali, Mukhatar Ahmed; Patil, Vishwanath; Ayesha, Humera

2012-09-01

3

Periodontal disease as the initial oral manifestation of abdominal tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a chronic, specific granulomatous disease and a major cause of death in developing countries. We report a case of tuberculosis presenting first as periodontal loss of tooth support leading to loose teeth and gingival enlargement affecting a 17-year-old female patient without any pulmonary lesion. Diagnosis was based on histopathological examination and positive adenosine deaminase activity Mycobacterium tuberculosis test. The clinical presentation of tuberculosis may take many forms. However, with the decline in numbers, tuberculosis lesions of the oral cavity have become so rare that they are frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of oral lesions. Also, this case report emphasizes the need for dental clinicians to be aware of the possibility of tuberculosis presenting first in the oral cavity, and contribute in control of tuberculosis through early detection and referring the patients to physicians for proper treatment.

Javali, Mukhatar Ahmed; Patil, Vishwanath; Ayesha, Humera

2012-01-01

4

Primary Oral Tuberculosis as an Indicator of HIV Infection.  

PubMed

We present a case of primary oral tuberculosis that led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. Our patient had clinically nonspecific ulcers on the labial mucosa and on the ventral surface of the tongue which were diagnosed as being tuberculous only on histological examination. This raised the suspicion of HIV infection that was subsequently confirmed by blood tests. The oral lesions resolved after 4 weeks of antituberculosis treatment. Some aspects of the pathogenesis of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection are discussed. PMID:21209722

Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J; Raubenheimer, E J; Feller, Liviu

2010-01-01

5

Multiple oral ulcers leading to diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

We report a 47 year old man who presented with painful non-healing tongue ulcers of 3 months duration. Examination revealed an additional buccal ulcer that he was unaware of. Histopathology of the ulcers showed caseation necrosis. Following this report, chest radiography and sputum microscopy performed revealed pulmonary tuberculosis. From this case-study, one should be aware of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic non-healing oral ulcers, both for diagnosis as well as prevention of transmission through respiratory droplets.

Nagaraj, Vezhavendhan; Sashykumar, Shanthi; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Sathish

2013-01-01

6

Evaluation of albumin microspheres as oral delivery system for Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccines.  

PubMed

Mucosal immunization has been suggested to be the best option for preventing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The purpose of this study was to develop albumin microspheres containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens and to determine if oral administration of the microspheres can induce antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses. Albumin microspheres containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis dead cells and cell lysate were prepared. The physico-chemical characteristics of the formulations were determined and the microspheres were administered to animal models to evaluate the induction of immune responses to the antigens. The results showed that the particle sizes, zeta potential and dissolution pattern of the microspheres were ideal for oral delivery of vaccines. In vivo studies showed high production of antigen-specific antibody production in serum, nasal, salivary and faecal samples. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that oral administration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis microspheres was successful in inducing antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. PMID:18608796

Yeboah, Kwame G; D'souza, Martin J

2009-03-01

7

Oral Immunogenicity of plant-made Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CFP10.  

PubMed

Two lines of transgenic carrot plants producing Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins (ESAT6 and CFP10) have been constructed. The target proteins are present in carrot storage roots at a level not less than 0.056% of the total storage protein (TSP) for ESAT6 and 0.002% of TSP for CFP10. As has been shown, oral immunization of mice induces both the cell-mediated and humoral immunities. These data suggest that the proteins in question are appropriate as a candidate edible vaccine against tuberculosis. PMID:24455687

Uvarova, Elena A; Belavin, Pavel A; Permyakova, Natalya V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Kakimzhanova, Almagul A; Deineko, Elena V

2013-01-01

8

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest human diseases. Mummies from ancient Egypt show signs of tubercular ... his discovery that a microbe he called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes TB. He also demonstrated that TB ...

9

Clinical Validation of the Analysis of Linezolid and Clarithromycin in Oral Fluid of Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Linezolid plays an increasingly important role in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). However, patients should be carefully monitored due to time- and dose-dependent toxicity. Clarithromycin plays a more modest role. Therapeutic drug monitoring may contribute to assessment of treatment regimens, helping to reduce toxicity while maintaining adequate drug exposure. Oral fluid sampling could provide a welcome alternative in cases where conventional plasma sampling is not possible or desirable. The aim of this study was to clinically validate the analysis of linezolid and clarithromycin and its metabolite hydroxyclarithromycin in oral fluid of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Serum and oral fluid samples were simultaneously obtained and analyzed by using validated methods, after extensive cross-validation between the two matrices. Passing-Bablok regressions and Bland-Altman analysis showed that oral fluid analysis of linezolid and clarithromycin appeared to be suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring in MDR-TB patients. No correction factor is needed for the interpretation of linezolid oral fluid concentrations with a ratio of the linezolid concentration in serum to that in oral fluid of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.02). However, the clarithromycin concentration serum/clarithromycin concentration in oral fluid ratio is 3.07 (95% CI, 2.45 to 3.69). Analysis of hydroxyclarithromycin in oral fluid was not possible in this study due to a nonlinear relationship between the concentration in serum and that in oral fluid. In conclusion, the analysis of linezolid (no correction factor) and clarithromycin (correction factor of 3) in oral fluid is applicable for therapeutic drug monitoring in cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis as an alternative to conventional serum sampling. Easy sampling using a noninvasive technique may facilitate therapeutic drug monitoring for specific patient categories.

Bolhuis, M. S.; van Altena, R.; van Hateren, K.; de Lange, W. C. M.; Greijdanus, B.; Uges, D. R. A.; Kosterink, J. G. W.; van der Werf, T. S.

2013-01-01

10

Gingival tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a chronic specific granulomatous disease and a major cause of death in developing countries. The clinical presentation of tuberculosis lesions of oral cavity varies widely, including ulceration, diffuse inflammatory lesions, granulomas and fissures. Oral lesions usually appear as secondary to primary tuberculosis infection elsewhere, although primary infection of the oral mucosa by Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been described. We report a case of tuberculosis of gingiva, manifesting as gingival enlargement. Diagnosis was based on histopathological examination, complete blood count, X-ray chest and immunological investigations with detection of antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculous therapy was carried out for over six months. This case report emphasizes the need for dentists to include tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of various types of gingival enlargements.

Jain, Sanjeev; Vipin, Bharti; Khurana, Pankaj

2009-01-01

11

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... to address TB and HIV coinfection around the world? The Presidentâ??s U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS ... of those suffering from HIV/AIDS around the world. PEPFARâ??s Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and ...

12

Oral vaccination with heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis activates the complement system to protect against tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-? producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar. PMID:24842853

Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; de la Fuente, José; Garrido, Joseba M; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

2014-01-01

13

Oral Vaccination with Heat Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Activates the Complement System to Protect against Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-? producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar.

Garrido, Joseba M.; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C.; Perez de la Lastra, Jose M.; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Fernandez de Mera, Isabel G.; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Minguijon, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucia; Dominguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramon; Gortazar, Christian

2014-01-01

14

Naturally Attenuated, Orally Administered Mycobacterium microti as a Tuberculosis Vaccine Is Better than Subcutaneous Mycobacterium bovis BCG  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium microti is phylogenetically closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is a member of that complex of organisms. It is a curved, acid-fast bacillus that is naturally attenuated with a narrow host range for Microtus species only. In this study, we confirm the unique susceptibility of voles to infection with M. microti and the relative resistance of mice with a significantly lower organism burden after 8 weeks of infection. In addition, histopathologic examination of lungs reveals a lack of cellular, granulomatous aggregates characteristically seen in murine M. tuberculosis infection. In the past, M. microti has been used successfully in humans as a vaccine against tuberculosis but was associated with cutaneous reactions. In an attempt to circumvent this adverse effect, we report the efficacy of aerosol and oral vaccination with M. microti. High-dose orogastric vaccination with M. microti resulted in a statistically significant improvement in protection against aerosol challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis in the murine model compared with subcutaneous M. bovis BCG Pasteur vaccination.

Manabe, Yukari C.; Scott, Cherise P.; Bishai, William R.

2002-01-01

15

Community-based rapid oral human immunodeficiency virus testing for tuberculosis patients in Lima, Peru.  

PubMed

Among tuberculosis patients, timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and early antiretroviral treatment are crucial, but are hampered by a myriad of individual and structural barriers. Community-based models to provide counseling and rapid HIV testing are few but offer promise. During November 2009-April 2010, community health workers offered and performed HIV counseling and testing by using the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to new tuberculosis cases in 22 Ministry of Health establishments and their household contacts (n = 130) in Lima, Peru. Refusal of HIV testing or study participation was low (4.7%). Intervention strengths included community-based approach with participant preference for testing site, use of a rapid, non-invasive test, and accompaniment to facilitate HIV care and family disclosure. We will expand the intervention under programmatic auspices for rapid community-based testing for new tuberculosis cases in high incidence establishments. Other potential target populations include contacts of HIV-positive persons and pregnant women. PMID:22826481

Nelson, Adrianne K; Caldas, Adolfo; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Muñoz, Maribel; Bonilla, Cesear; Yamanija, Jose; Jave, Oswaldo; Magan, Christina; Saldivar, Judith; Espiritu, Betty; Rosell, Gustavo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya

2012-09-01

16

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchitis and Emphysema Tuberculosis Sinusitis If you have a respiratory condition, make ... dental office and make sure it is full. Tuberculosis Oral Effects If you have tuberculosis, you may ...

17

Activity of IQG-607, a new orally active compound, in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated a potent in vitro inhibitory activity for two pentacyano(isoniazid)ferrate(II) compounds, namely IQG-607 and IQG-639, against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme. In this study, the activity of these compounds was evaluated using an in vivo murine model of tuberculosis. Swiss mice were infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and then IQG-607 or IQG-639 (250 mg/kg) was administered for 28 days or 56 days. In addition, a dose-response study was performed with IQG-607 at 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 250 mg/kg. The activity of test compounds was compared with that of the positive control drug isoniazid (INH) (25 mg/kg). After 28 days or 56 days of treatment, both IQG-607 and INH significantly reduced M. tuberculosis-induced splenomegaly as well as significantly diminishing the colony-forming units in the spleen and lungs. IQG-607 and INH ameliorated the lung macroscopic aspect, reducing lung lesions to a similar extent. However, IQG-639 did not significantly modify any evaluated parameter. Experiments using early and late controls of infection revealed a bactericidal activity for IQG-607. IQG-607 might well represent a good candidate for clinical development as a new antimycobacterial agent. PMID:22748570

Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês S; Dos Santos Junior, André; Dos Santos, Anderson Jader; Schneider, Cristopher Zandoná; Calixto, João B; Sousa, Eduardo Henrique Silva; de França Lopes, Luiz Gonzaga; Souto, André Arigony; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago; Campos, Maria M

2012-08-01

18

Oral Delivery of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in a Lipid Formulation Induces Resistance to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lipid-based formulation has been developed for oral delivery of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette- Guerin (BCG) vaccine. The formulated M. bovis BCG was fed to BALB\\/c mice to test for immune responses and protection against M. bovis infection. The immune responses included antigen-specific cytokine responses, spleen cell proliferation, and lymphocyte-mediated macrophage inhibition of M. bovis. Oral delivery of formu- lated

Frank E. Aldwell; Ian G. Tucker; Geoffrey W. de Lisle; Bryce M. Buddle

2003-01-01

19

Oral vaccination of badgers (Meles meles) against tuberculosis: Comparison of the protection generated by BCG vaccine strains Pasteur and Danish.  

PubMed

Vaccination of badgers by the subcutaneous, mucosal and oral routes with the Pasteur strain of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has resulted in significant protection against experimental infection with virulent M. bovis. However, as the BCG Danish strain is the only commercially licensed BCG vaccine for use in humans in the European Union it is the vaccine of choice for delivery to badger populations. As all oral vaccination studies in badgers were previously conducted using the BCG Pasteur strain, this study compared protection in badgers following oral vaccination with the Pasteur and the Danish strains. Groups of badgers were vaccinated orally with 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) BCG Danish 1331 (n?=?7 badgers) or 10(8) CFU BCG Pasteur 1173P2 (n?=?6). Another group (n?=?8) served as non-vaccinated controls. At 12 weeks post-vaccination, the animals were challenged by the endobronchial route with 6?×?10(3) CFU M. bovis, and at 15 weeks post-infection, all of the badgers were euthanased. Vaccination with either BCG strain provided protection against challenge compared with controls. The vaccinated badgers had significantly fewer sites with gross pathology and significantly lower gross pathological severity scores, fewer sites with histological lesions and fewer sites of infection, significantly lower bacterial counts in the thoracic lymph node, and lower bacterial counts in the lungs than the control group. No differences were observed between either of the vaccine groups by any of the pathology and bacteriology measures. The ELISPOT analysis, measuring production of badger interferon - gamma (IFN-?), was also similar across the vaccinated groups. PMID:24792450

Murphy, Denise; Costello, Eamon; Aldwell, Frank E; Lesellier, Sandrine; Chambers, Mark A; Fitzsimons, Tara; Corner, Leigh A L; Gormley, Eamonn

2014-06-01

20

Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine oral administration on lymphocyte antibacterial activity and TNF-alpha levels in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. A randomized double blind versus placebo study.  

PubMed

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), a drug for the treatment of ageing-related neuroendocrine dysfunctions, was orally administered--2 gm/day for 30 days--to 10 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TBC). Lymphocyte-mediated antibacterial activity and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated before and after treatment, comparing the values with those of 10 TBC patients receiving placebo. Results show that by day 30, antibacterial activity remained unmodified or increased in ALC-treated subjects, while decreased in the placebo group. No influence of ALC on TNF-alpha levels was detectable. These data suggest that the host's immune responses to M. tuberculosis infection can be selectively modulated by drugs acting on the neuroendocrine axis. PMID:1770216

Jirillo, E; Altamura, M; Munno, I; Pellegrino, N M; Sabato, R; Di Fabio, S; De Simone, C

1991-01-01

21

Cutaneous Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous tuberculosis occurs rarely, despite a high and increasing prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterrium bovis, and the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine can cause tuberculosis involving the skin. Cutaneous tuberculosis can be acquired exogenously or endogenously and present as a multitude of differing clinical morphologies. Diagnosis of these lesions can be difficult, as they resemble many other dermatological conditions that are often primarily considered. Further, microbiological confirmation is poor, despite scientific advances, such as the more frequent use of polymerase chain reaction. The authors report a case that illustrates the challenges faced by dermatologists when considering a diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis.

Frankel, Amylynne; Penrose, Carolin

2009-01-01

22

Oral intake of phenylbutyrate with or without vitamin D3 upregulates the cathelicidin LL-37 in human macrophages: a dose finding study for treatment of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background We earlier showed that 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) can induce cathelicidin LL-37 expression synergistically with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in a lung epithelial cell line. We aimed to evaluate a therapeutic dose of PB alone or in combination with vitamin D3 for induction of LL-37 expression in immune cells and enhancement of antimycobacterial activity in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Methods Healthy volunteers were enrolled in an 8-days open trial with three doses of PB [250 mg (Group-I), 500 mg (Group-II) or 1000 mg (Group-III)] twice daily (b.d.) together with vitamin D3 {5000 IU once daily (o.d.)}, PB (500 mg b.d.) (Group-IV) or vitamin D3 (5000 IU o.d.) (Group-V), given orally for 4 days. Blood was collected on day-0, day-4 and day-8; plasma was separated, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), non-adherent lymphocytes (NAL) and MDM were cultured. LL-37 transcript in cells and peptide concentrations in supernatant were determined by qPCR and ELISA, respectively. In plasma, 25-hydorxyvitamin D3 levels were determined by ELISA. MDM-mediated killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) (H37Rv) was performed by conventional culture method. Results MDM from Group-II had increased concentration of LL-37 peptide and transcript at day-4, while Group-I showed increased transcript at day-4 and day-8 compared to day-0 (p?

2013-01-01

23

Global Oral Health Inequalities: Oral Infections–Challenges and Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four oral mucosal infections were identified as Global Oral Health Priorities: (a) HIV and associated viral, bacterial, and fungal infections; (b) tuberculosis; (c) NOMA; and (d) sexually transmitted diseases. Huge global inequalities exist in all four. HIV-associated infections constitute the major challenge. Oral manifestations of AIDS can be specifically diagnostic, indicating a significant role for dentists within health teams. The

S. Challacombe; M. Chidzonga; M. Glick; T. Hodgson; M. Magalhães; C. Shiboski; F. Owotade; R. Ranganathan; S. Naidoo

2011-01-01

24

Tuberculosis Fluoroscopy  

Cancer.gov

Follow-up though Dec 31, 2002 has been completed for a study of site-specific cancer mortality among tuberculosis patients treated with artificial lung collapse therapy in Massachusetts tuberculosis sanatoria (1930-1950).

25

Tuberculosis (TB)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Tuberculosis (TB) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... thought to be infected with TB bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). TB is a chronic bacterial infection. It ...

26

Hepatobiliary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Hepatobiliary tuberculosis is a rare manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and is usually secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs or gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is difficult pre-operatively in local (focal and tubular) forms because of its rarity and presentation in the form of non-specific symptoms and signs and lack of any defined criteria on imaging studies. Histopathological examination is necessary for definite diagnosis but in cases where there is suspicion of hepatobiliary tuberculosis, with PCR assay diagnosis it is possible pre-operatively. Recommended treatment is with conventional antituberculous drugs and surgical intervention in tuberculous abscess or granulomas. The disease is usually associated with good prognosis under complete antituberculous treatment. The author encountered 4 cases of hepatobiliary tuberculosis over 5 years. The aim of this article is to present current knowledge of hepatobiliary tuberculosis and to comprehensively review all the available literature.

Chaudhary, Poras

2014-01-01

27

Tuberculosis of odontogenic cyst.  

PubMed

Tuberculous infection of the oral tissues is a rare finding. An interesting case of primary tuberculosis of mouth is described, presenting as persistent discharge of pus from the lower wisdom tooth region. Incisional biopsy revealed features of an infected dentigerous cyst while histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed keratinizing cyst with secondary infection. Non-healing of the bony defect prompted curettage of the area and the submitted sample microscopically showed granuloma with characteristic Langhans' giant cells, raising the suspicion of underlying systemic tuberculosis. The importance to the dental surgeon in the recognition, especially by use of pathological examination, is emphasized and also the value of diagnosis for the patients and the community. PMID:23540089

Sharma, Preeti; Saxena, Susmita; Aggarwal, Pooja; Reddy, Vandana

2013-01-01

28

Sternal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis constitutes 15-20% of total tuberculosis (TB) case load in immuno-competent patients. Affliction of the skeletal system is rare with still rarer presentation of sternal osteomyelitis even in endemic countries. A patient with primary sternal TB presenting with multiple cutaneous sinuses over the anterior chest wall is being reported. A high element of suspicion is needed more so in resource limited setting for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24349840

Sachdeva, R; Sachdeva, S; Arora, S

2013-11-01

29

Primary tuberculosis of the palate.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is a life-threatening infectious disease with a high world incidence. However, TB with oral expression is considered rare. The importance of recognising this entity lies in its early diagnosis and treatment, as it can be easily confused with neoplastic or traumatic ulcers. We present a case of a primary TB located in the hard palate and gingiva in an 88-year-old woman. PMID:24925532

Rosado, Pablo; Fuente, Eduardo; Gallego, Lorena; Calvo, Nicolás

2014-01-01

30

Tuberculosis chemotherapy: current drug delivery approaches  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number of novel implant-, microparticulate-, and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems incorporating the principal anti-tuberculosis agents have been fabricated that either target the site of tuberculosis infection or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient outcomes. These developments in drug delivery represent attractive options with significant merit, however, there is a requisite to manufacture an oral system, which directly addresses issues of unacceptable rifampicin bioavailability in fixed-dose combinations. This is fostered by the need to deliver medications to patients more efficiently and with fewer side effects, especially in developing countries. The fabrication of a polymeric once-daily oral multiparticulate fixed-dose combination of the principal anti-tuberculosis drugs, which attains segregated delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid for improved rifampicin bioavailability, could be a step in the right direction in addressing issues of treatment failure due to patient non-compliance.

du Toit, Lisa Claire; Pillay, Viness; Danckwerts, Michael Paul

2006-01-01

31

Tuberculosis and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

TUBERCULOSIS & DIABETES COLLABORATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR CARE AND CONTROL OF TUBERCULOSIS AND DIABETES © WHO Sept 2011 For more information: ... increase by 50% by 2030 THE LINKS BETWEEN TUBERCULOSIS AND DIABETES • People with a weak immune system, ...

32

Tuberculosis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis (popularly known as "TB") is a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis . It mainly infects the lungs, although it also ... and Symptoms In older infants and children, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), which is the first infection with ...

33

Abdominal tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis has staged a global comeback and forms a dangerous combination with AIDS. The abdomen is one of the common sites of extrapulmonary involvement. Patients with abdominal tuberculosis have a wide range and spectrum of symptoms and signs; the disease is therefore a great mimic. Diagnosis, mainly radiological and supported by endoscopy, is difficult to make and laparotomy is required in a large number of patient. Management involves judicious combination of antitubercular therapy and surgery which may be required to treat complications such as intestinal obstruction and perforation. The disease, though potentially curable, carries a significant morbidity and mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13

Kapoor, V. K.

1998-01-01

34

Oesophageal tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The case discussed is that of a previously healthy 48-year-old female who presented with a week long history of epigastric pain and continuing weight loss. A series of investigations and supporting literature alluded to a diagnosis of oesophageal tuberculosis (TB), and antituberculous medication was commenced accordingly. An accompanying discussion considers the incidence, differential diagnoses, pathogenesis, clinical features, investigations and aspects of management of oesophageal TB.

Bonthala, Latha; Wood, Eleanor

2011-01-01

35

Lupus vulgaris of the Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 cases of lupus vulgaris of the oral mucosa were found to be associated with asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. The patients presented with single or multiple ulcerations of the mouth with an irregular periphery and a granular vegetative fundus. The diagnosis was established histologically and by the favorable and rapid response of the oral lesions to the antituberculosis therapy.Copyright © 1981

George C. Laskaris; George D. Nicolis

1981-01-01

36

Pulmonary embolism and tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis has a high prevalence in Tunisia, but pulmonary embolism is rarely reported in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We describe 3 cases of pulmonary embolism associated with severe pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary embolism occurred within 2 to 13 days of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. Clinical, bacteriological, and radiological evolutions were noted within 6 months for pulmonary tuberculosis, but controlling the international normalized ratio was difficult in 2 cases, and low-molecular-weight heparin was prescribed for 6 months in one case. The association between tuberculosis and pulmonary embolism is rare, but it should be systematically investigated, particularly in those with severe pulmonary or disseminated tuberculosis. PMID:24771743

Kwas, Hamida; Habibech, Sonia; Zendah, Ines; Elmjendel, Imen; Ghedira, Habib

2014-05-01

37

Herpes - oral  

MedlinePLUS

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

38

Brainstem tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 38-year-old-man who presented with 1-week history of developing weakness of peripheral and cranial nerves. His MRI scan of the brain showed a large cavitating lesion at the brainstem and two further lesions of the right cerebral cortex and his CT chest showed features of old tuberculosis (TB). The identification of acid-fast bacilli was confirmed by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage taken during bronchoscopy. He was started on anti-TB medications and repeat MRI 3 months later confirmed shrinkage of the cavitating lesion. PMID:23868024

Demetriou, George A

2013-01-01

39

Opportunistic microorganisms in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial therapy may cause changes in the resident oral microbiota, with the increase of opportunistic pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of Candida, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae in the oral cavity of fifty patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis and systemically healthy controls. Oral rinsing and subgingival samples were obtained, plated in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, mannitol agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated for 48 h at 37°C. Candida spp. and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified by phenotypic tests, C. dubliniensis, by multiplex PCR, and coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., by the API systems. The number of Candida spp. was significantly higher in tuberculosis patients, and C. albicans was the most prevalent specie. No significant differences in the prevalence of other microorganisms were observed. In conclusion, the antimicrobial therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis induced significant increase only in the amounts of Candida spp.

Querido, Silvia Maria Rodrigues; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; dos Santos, Silvana Soleo Ferreira; Leao, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2011-01-01

40

Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Iseman, MD Dept. of Medicine View full profile Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment Given the many effective medications available ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Tuberculosis Program National Jewish Health is a world-renowned ...

41

Play the Tuberculosis Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split Brain Experiments The Cell and its Organelles The Genetic Code ... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some ...

42

Trends in Tuberculosis, 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... Laws Publications & Products Fact Sheets General Fact sheets - Spanish TB - General Information The Difference Between Latent TB ... HIV Coinfection Patient Education Series English Only English/Spanish English/Tagalog Tuberculosis - Get the Facts Tuberculosis - La ...

43

Tuberculosis in Blacks  

MedlinePLUS

... Laws Publications & Products Fact Sheets General Fact sheets - Spanish TB - General Information The Difference Between Latent TB ... HIV Coinfection Patient Education Series English Only English/Spanish English/Tagalog Tuberculosis - Get the Facts Tuberculosis - La ...

44

[Tuberculosis as occupational disease].  

PubMed

There is enough evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among healthcare workers. In Peru, there are regulations granting employment rights regarding tuberculosis as an occupational disease, such as healthcare coverage for temporary or permanent disability. However, these rights have not been sufficiently socialized. This study presents information on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis in the workplace, and a review of the evidence to declare tuberculosis as an occupational disease among health care workers, presenting the current Peruvian law related. PMID:22858771

Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

2012-06-01

45

Bilateral Parotid Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of parotid is a rare clinical entity, and cases of bilateral tubercular parotitis are even rarer. We present a case of bilateral primary parotid tuberculosis in a 49-year-old female. The patient received anti-tuberculosis treatment for six months, resulting in complete resolution of the disease. We also review the theories related to the pathogenesis of tubercular parotitis, and propose a novel hypothesis about greater involvement of parotid gland as compared to other salivary glands in primary tuberculosis.

Thakur, JS; Thakur, A; Mohindroo, NK; Mohindroo, S; Sharma, DR

2011-01-01

46

Isolated colonic tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of isolated colonic tuberculosis are reported, and recent literature on this field is reviewed. Isolated colonic tuberculosis is defined as a tuberculosis which exists in the colon except for ileocaecum, without focus in any other organ. The morphological changes are tuberculous granulation primarily located to the submucosa layer of the colon with smooth surfaces of both mucous and

Y. A. Wang; W. Y. Yu

1987-01-01

47

Cutaneous tuberculosis in children.  

PubMed

Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that accounts for 1% to 2% of cases. Childhood skin tuberculosis represents 18% to 82% of all cutaneous tuberculosis cases. Scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris are the two most common clinical forms in children. An increase in the number of tuberculids, especially lichen scrofulosorum, has been observed in the last several years. Cutaneous tuberculosis in children can be severe and have a protracted course. Multiplicity of lesions and multifocal disseminated involvement in scrofuloderma and lupus vulgaris is common. Scrofuloderma progressing to gummatous lesions (scrofulous gumma) is mostly described in children. Morbidities and deformities are more severe in children. PMID:23173930

Sethuraman, Gomathy; Ramesh, Venkatesh

2013-01-01

48

Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

49

Tuberculosis in the lung (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...

50

Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

51

Tuberculosis in Hispanics/Latinos  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Tuberculosis (TB) Share Compartir Factsheet ( PDF - 672k) Spanish Tuberculosis in Hispanics/Latinos Tuberculosis (TB) is a ... Laws Publications & Products Fact Sheets General Fact sheets - Spanish TB - General Information The Difference Between Latent TB ...

52

Pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous rifampicin during chronic administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We investigated the pharmacokinetics of rifampicin and its major metabolites, 25-desacetylrifampicin and 3-formylrifampicin, in two groups of six patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, who received either multiple oral or intravenous rifampicin therapy in combination with intravenous isoniazid and ethambutol. Serum concentrations of rifampicin were each determined after a single oral and intravenous test dose of 600 mg rifampicin at

U. Loos; E. Musch; J. C. Jensen; G. Mikus; H. K. Schwabe; M. Eichelbaum

1985-01-01

53

Childhood Tuberculosis and Malnutrition  

PubMed Central

Despite the burden of both malnutrition and tuberculosis in children worldwide, there are few studies on the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. From available research, it appears that malnutrition is a predictor of tuberculosis disease and is associated with worse outcomes. This is supported through several lines of evidence, including the role of vitamin D receptor genotypes, malnutrition's effects on immune development, respiratory infections among malnourished children, and limited work specifically on pediatric tuberculosis and malnutrition. Nutritional supplementation has yet to suggest significant benefits on the course of tuberculosis in children. There is a critical need for research on childhood tuberculosis, specifically on how nutritional status affects the risk and progression of tuberculosis and whether nutritional supplementation improves clinical outcomes or prevents disease.

Jaganath, Devan; Mupere, Ezekiel

2012-01-01

54

Chemotherapeutic Interventions Against Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of infectious deaths globally. Many effective conventional antimycobacterial drugs have been available, however, emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has overshadowed the effectiveness of the current first and second line drugs. Further, currently available agents are complicated by serious side effects, drug interactions and long-term administration. This has prompted urgent research efforts in the discovery and development of new anti-tuberculosis agent(s). Several families of compounds are currently being explored for the treatment of tuberculosis. This review article presents an account of the existing chemotherapeutics and highlights the therapeutic potential of emerging molecules that are at different stages of development for the management of tuberculosis disease.

Shakya, Neeraj; Garg, Gaurav; Agrawal, Babita; Kumar, Rakesh

2012-01-01

55

Isolated Coccygeal Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Isolated tuberculosis of the coccyx is extremely rare. A 35-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of coccygeal and gluteal pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed osseous destruction and a large enhancing mass involving the coccyx with anterior and posterior extension. Pathologic examination of the surgical specimen revealed necrosis, chronic granulomatous inflammation, and multinucleated giant cells consistent with tuberculosis. This case highlights the importance of considering tuberculosis as a diagnosis even though unusual sites are involved.

Kim, Do Un; Ju, Chang IL

2012-01-01

56

TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL  

PubMed Central

Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto.

Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

2014-01-01

57

[Tuberculosis of the breast].  

PubMed

We report a case of granulomatous mastitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an immunocompetent woman with chronic inflammatory lesions of the breast. It was diagnosed by detection of mycobacteria DNA using polymerase chain reaction technique targeting IS6110 insertion element of M. tuberculosis complex in a paraffin-embedded histological specimen. The primary breast tuberculosis is rare, even in countries where the incidence and prevalence of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis are high. It should be suspected in female patients with chronic granulomatous mastitis with no apparent cause. The cornerstone of treatment is antituberculous chemotherapy, and surgery is rarely required. PMID:23715305

Cuervo, Sonia Isabel; Bonilla, Diego Andrés; Murcia, Martha Isabel; Hernández, Johana; Gómez, Julio César

2013-01-01

58

Unique Transcriptome Signature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tuberculosis remains a substantial global threat, the mechanisms that enable mycobacterial persistence and replication within the human host are ill defined. This study represents the first genome-wide expression analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical lung samples, which has enabled the identifi- cation of M. tuberculosis genes actively expressed during pulmonary tuberculosis. To obtain optimal informa- tion from our DNA

Helmy Rachman; Michael Strong; Timo Ulrichs; Leander Grode; Johannes Schuchhardt; Hans Mollenkopf; George A. Kosmiadi; David Eisenberg; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

2006-01-01

59

Therapeutic management of endobronchial tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree. Common symptoms are cough, haemoptysis, sputum production, wheezing, chest pain and fever in active disease and dyspnoea and wheezing in the fibrous stage. This form of tuberculosis is difficult to diagnose because the lesion is not evident in the chest radiograph, frequently delaying treatment. Computed tomography is very useful in evaluating bronchial lesions such as stenosis or obstruction. The most important goal of treatment in active EBTB is eradication of tubercle bacilli. The second most important goal is prevention of bronchial stenosis. Corticosteroid therapy for the prevention of bronchial stenosis in EBTB remains controversial. However, the healing time of ulcerous lesions was shorter and bronchial stenosis was less severe, in patients treated with aerosol therapy, consisting of streptomycin 100 mg, a corticosteroid (dexamethasone 0.5 mg) and naphazoline 0.1 mg administered twice-daily along with conventional oral therapy. In inactive disease, treatment to restore full patency is appropriate. As steroids or other medications are unable to reverse stenosis from fibrous disease, airway patency must be restored mechanically by surgery or endobronchial intervention. Effectiveness and complications remain important issues with the mechanical techniques as use and evaluation continue. Corticosteroid therapy for prevention of bronchial stenosis in EBTB remains controversial. Our observations suggest that progression of bronchial stenosis can be prevented in patients who are treated with aerosol therapy with corticosteroids. PMID:15212597

Rikimaru, Toru

2004-07-01

60

Antimicrobial therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis*  

PubMed Central

The discovery, some nine years ago, of the highly specific antituberculous drug, isoniazid, marked an important advance in the antimicrobial therapy of tuberculosis, first practised successfully with streptomycin and p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in the late 'forties. Isoniazid is relatively non-toxic and, unlike streptomycin, can be administered orally, so that it is eminently suitable for use, either alone or in combination with PAS, in the domiciliary treatment of tuberculous patients. The wisdom of employing it on a large scale in home-treatment programmes, however, has been questioned on the ground that such wide-spread use might result in a spread of tubercle bacilli resistant to the drug. This controversial subject is discussed in some detail in this general review of the chemotherapy of tuberculosis. The author is convinced that, so far, the benefits of isoniazid therapy have outweighed the disadvantages and, though well aware of the possible consequences in terms of isoniazid-resistance, sees no reason at the present time for not making full use of this valuable weapon in the antituberculosis armamentarium.

McDermott, Walsh

1960-01-01

61

Spinal tuberculosis: A review  

PubMed Central

Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good.

Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh

2011-01-01

62

"Tuberculosis Case Management" Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to isolated health providers with critical knowledge in tuberculosis (TB) case management prompted the development of "Tuberculosis Case Management" CD-ROM. Features include "Learning Center,""Examination Room," and "Library." The combination of audio, video, and graphics allows participants to practice acquired skills in a simulated…

Knebel, Elisa; Kolodner, Jennifer

2001-01-01

63

TNF and Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, responsible for 2 million deaths per year, can cause both primary disease and latent infections in humans. The factors responsible for control of M. tuberculosis include T cells, macrophages, and cytokines such as IFN-g and TNF. Formation of a granuloma, which consists of a spherical collection of macrophages and lymphocytes, is essential to the process of controlling infection

JoAnne L. Flynn

2006-01-01

64

Seasonality of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was designed to review previous studies and analyse the current knowledge and controversies related to seasonal variability of tuberculosis (TB) to examine whether TB has an annual seasonal pattern. Study Design and Methods: Systematic review of peer reviewed studies identified through literature searches using online databases belonging to PubMed and the Cochrane library with key words “Tuberculosis, Seasonal influence” and “Tuberculosis, Seasonal variation”. The search was restricted to articles published in English. The references of the identified papers for further relevant publications were also reviewed. Results: Twelve studies conducted between the period 1971 and 2006 from 11 countries/regions around the world (South Western Cameroon, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Kuwait, Spain, UK, Ireland, Russia, and Mongolia) were reviewed. A seasonal pattern of tuberculosis with a mostly predominant peak is seen during the spring and summer seasons in all of the countries (except South Western Cameroon and Russia). Conclusions: The observation of seasonality leads to assume that the risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis does appear to be the greatest during winter months. Vitamin D level variability, indoor activities, seasonal change in immune function, and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis are potential stimuli of seasonal tuberculosis disease. Additionally, seasonal variation in food availability and food intake, age, and sex are important factors which can play a role in the tuberculosis notification variability. Prospective studies regarding this topic and other related subjects are highly recommended.

Fares, Auda

2011-01-01

65

Tuberculosis: Latency and Reactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis is a major cause of death around the world, with most of the 1.5 million deaths per year attributable to the disease occurring in developing countries. This disease is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus that is transmitted primarily via the respiratory route. Infection occurs in the lungs, but the organism can seed any organ via hematogenous spread.

JOANNE L. FLYNN; JOHN CHAN

2001-01-01

66

New issues in tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains a major health problem worldwide. The disease is caused by Mycobacteriumtuberculosis whose preferred habitat is the host macrophage. The immune response against tuberculosis is mediated by different subsets of T cells including both conventional CD4 and CD8 T cells as well as unconventional CD1 restricted and ?? T cells. The CD1 restricted T cells are particularly remarkable because they recognise the glycolipids abundant in the mycobacterial cell wall. Although a vaccine, M.bovis BCG, is available which protects toddlers against miliary tuberculosis, it is ineffective in preventing pulmonary tuberculosis in adults. Therefore, a novel vaccine is urgently required. Knowledge about the functioning of different T cell populations during infection and disease provides the basis for rational vaccine design. We have constructed a recombinant BCG vaccine which, compared with wild-type BCG, induces superior protection not only against laboratory strains but also against clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis.

Kaufmann, S

2004-01-01

67

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2011 presents summary data for tuberculosis (TB) cases verified and counted in 2011. Reports of verified cases of tuberculosis (RVCT) are submitted to the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), Centers for...

2012-01-01

68

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2010 presents summary data for tuberculosis (TB) cases verified and counted in 2010. Reports of verified cases of tuberculosis (RVCT) are submitted to the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), Centers for...

2011-01-01

69

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2012 presents summary data for tuberculosis (TB) cases verified and counted in 2012. Reports of verified cases of tuberculosis (RVCT) are submitted to the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), Centers for...

2012-01-01

70

Indoleamides are active against drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Responsible for nearly two million deaths each year, the infectious disease tuberculosis remains a serious global health challenge. The emergence of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis confounds control efforts, and new drugs with novel molecular targets are desperately needed. Here we describe lead compounds, the indoleamides, with potent activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis by targeting the mycolic acid transporter MmpL3. We identify a single mutation in mmpL3 which confers high resistance to the indoleamide class while remaining susceptible to currently used first- and second-line tuberculosis drugs, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Importantly, an indoleamide derivative exhibits dose-dependent anti-mycobacterial activity when orally administered to M. tuberculosis-infected mice. The bioavailability of the indoleamides, combined with their ability to kill tubercle bacilli, indicates great potential for translational developments of this structure class for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Onajole, Oluseye K.; Pieroni, Marco; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Chen, Gang; Tipparaju, Suresh K.; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Bishai, William R.

2014-01-01

71

[Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].  

PubMed

Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower in poorly-controlled DM patients than that in well-controlled DM patients and healthy subjects. Thus, these clinical data suggest that the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM patients is due to the impaired production of Th1-related cytokines. However, direct evidences to prove this possibility remain to be obtained. In 1980, Saiki and co-workers reported that host defense and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to M. tuberculosis was hampered in a mouse DM model established by injecting streptozotocin (Infect Immun. 1980; 28: 127-131). We followed their investigation with the similar observations. Interestingly, levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12 in serum, lung, liver and spleen after infection were significantly reduced in DM mice when compared with those in control mice. Considered collectively, these results strongly suggest that the reduced production of Th1-related cytokines leads to the susceptibility of DM to mycobacterial infection. However, it remains to be understood how DM hampers the synthesis of Th1-related cytokines. In our preliminary study, the production of these cytokines by PBMC from DM patients and healthy subjects was not affected under a high glucose condition. Thus, it is not likely that the increased level of glucose directly suppresses the cell-mediated immune responses. Further investigations are needed to make these points clear. 2. A study of gastrectomy cases in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: Takenori YAGI (Division of Thoracic Disease, National Chiba-Higashi Hospital). Patients who have undergone gastric resection are considered at increased risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis. I have investigated the role played by gastrectomy in giving rise to pulmonary tuberculosis. Of 654 pulmonary tuberculosis patients admitted to National Chiba-Higashi Hospital from January 1999 to December 2001, 55 patients (31-84 years old, mean 63.5 +/- 12.5 years, 48 males and 7 females) had the history of gastric resection. The incidence of gastrectomy among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was 8.4 percent. The mean age of gastric resection

2003-11-01

72

Tuberculosis of the Spine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book deals with a disease which mainly occurs in economically under-developed countries, however even the affluent societies are not completely free from the disease. All aspects of tuberculosis of the spine including pathogenesis, clinical and radiol...

S. M. Tuli

1975-01-01

73

[Cutaneous tuberculosis: case report].  

PubMed

Cutaneous tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is not very frequent and particularly difficult to diagnose. It incidence ranges between 1.5 and 4% of all extrapulmonary tuberculosis, according to bibliography. The clinic presentations depend on the arrival via of the bacillus to the skin, the patient's immune state and the environment. We show a cutaneous tuberculosis on a child with chronic dermatologic lesions, with torpid evolution, without response to treatments; the skinbiopsy showed caseous granulomas. The aim is to show a patient with an infrequent clinic presentation of this disease, to emphasize the importance of an early recognition and treatment, avoiding the appearance of complications and sequels. PMID:24862824

Bisero, Elsa; Luque, Graciela; Melillo, Karina; Favier, María Inés; Zapata, Alejandra; Cuello, María Soledad

2014-06-01

74

Global Tuberculosis Report 2012  

MedlinePLUS

... promotes research; and facilitates partnerships, advocacy and communication. © World Health Organization 2013 WHO Global Tuberculosis Report 2013 ... HBCs) that account for about 80% of the world’s TB cases, seven have met all 2015 targets ...

75

Endobronchial tuberculosis: an overview.  

PubMed

Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB), of which the incidence has been increasing in recent years, is a special type of pulmonary tuberculosis. The endobronchial tuberculose focuses often injure the tracheobronchial wall and lead to tracheobronchial stenosis. The tracheobronchial stenosis may cause intractable tuberculosis and make patients become chronic infection sources of tuberculosis, or may even cause pulmonary complications and result in death. The etiological confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is most substantial for diagnosis. However, because the positive rate of acid-fast bacillus staining for sputum smears is low and the clinical and radiological findings are usually nondistinctive, the diagnosis of EBTB is often mistaken and delayed. For early diagnosis, a high index of awareness of this disease is required and the bronchoscopy should be performed as soon as possible in suspected patients. The eradication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the prevention of tracheobronchial stenosis are two most substantial treatment goals. To get treatment goals, the diagnosis must be established early and aggressive treatments must be performed before the disease progresses too far. PMID:21499709

Xue, Q; Wang, N; Xue, X; Wang, J

2011-09-01

76

[Population migration and tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Characteristic features of a migratory process of tuberculosis patients in the Republic of Moldova were subjected to study. Two tendencies have been revealed: growth of a number of the arriving subjects and deterioration of the structure of pulmonary tuberculosis among them. Patients who arrived from the places of confinement where morbidity persists on a high level constitute a particular hazard concerning tuberculosis dissemination. Certain organization measures have been taken. The epidemiologic situation for tuberculosis in the penitentiary-labour establishments at the republican Ministry of Internal Affairs was subjected to a comprehensive analysis with subsequent discussion of the results at a meeting of the staff of the Ministry of Public Health; instruction and plan of measures to be taken have been compiled by both ministries; a permanent board has been instituted for rendering help to medical workers of the penitentiary establishments; all law-protective organs have been involved in tuberculosis control; a specialized institution has been set up with a hospital for 200 beds intended for skilled examination and treatment of patients. As a result, the index of tuberculosis morbidity in the republican penitentiary-labour establishments reduced by more than half to promote an improvement of the epidemiologic situation in the republic. PMID:1409515

Degtiarev, V P; Evtodiev, V S; Bylich, F G

1992-01-01

77

Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

78

Tuberculosis of contralateral costotransverse joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case of multifocal tuberculosis of contralateral costo-transverse joints. Even in countries where tuberculosis\\u000a is common, extrapulmonary multifocal infection is uncommon. Furthermore, a bilateral, symmetric distribution is distinctly\\u000a unusual. The index of suspicion for tuberculosis should increase when the patient is from a country where tuberculosis is\\u000a endemic or when a history of AIDS is present.

S. M. Levine; E. B. Marianacci; S. V. Kattapuram

1997-01-01

79

Childhood Tuberculosis, Still with Us...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of this report on childhood tuberculosis in developed and developing countries discusses the epidemiology of tuberculosis in children. Information is presented on: (1) sources and prevalence of infection; (2) risks, frequency, and types of tuberculosis; (3) mortality rates; and (4) the relation of poverty and AIDS to…

Chaulet, Pierre; And Others

1992-01-01

80

Tuberculosis: A Problem for Lifeguards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifeguards run the risk of workplace infection by tuberculosis-carrying swimmers. Even if they work in ventilated, sunlit areas (which reduces risk), they can contract tuberculosis when performing respiratory resuscitation. Without appropriate precautions, lifeguards may be unnecessarily exposed. A tuberculosis infection control plan is needed in…

Skaros, Susan

1996-01-01

81

Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

Gessner, Bradford D.

1997-01-01

82

Tuberculosis simulating brain tumour.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to highlight the varied presentation of tuberculosis (TB) simulating a brain tumour. Headache and seizures are becoming frequent presenting complaints without any history of tuberculosis. The study comprises 1200 patients of both sexes with ages ranging from ten to sixty years. CT scan and MRI brain control with and without contrast medium were the investigations performed in these cases. In some patients Electroencephalography (EEG), cerebral angiography (DSA) and spectroscopy were also performed. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was made on the basis of craniotomy, stereotactic and burr hole biopsies with histopathology in most of the cases. Forty per cent of the patients were followed up for eight months. They were put on anti-tuberculosis treatment with symptomatic and anti-epileptic drugs. The incidence was 544 and 757 per 100,000 in Africa and Indo Pakistan respectively. The male to female ratio was 1:1. Tuberculosis, especially with CNS involvement, is not only common in immunosuppressed patients in our setting, but TB has been and remains an important public health problem. TB may involve the CNS either as meningitis or as parenchymal granulomas or abscesses. Patients with brain TB usually present with fever, multiple cranial nerve involvement and occasional behavioural changes. CSF findings remain non specific in most cases. The most common sites are the cerebral hemisphere and basal ganglion in adults and the cerebellum in children. Tuberculosis has unique findings on brain CT and MRI. Cortical and subcortical locations are typical whereas the brain stem is a less common site. Tuberculosis lesions are usually solitary but multiple in 10% to 35% of cases. In spite of all these facts some cases of brain TB still need aggressive neurointervention to reach the final diagnosis of brain TB. Tuberculosis in the CNS may manifest in many different ways. So one should always include tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis in the etiology of delayed onset epilepsy and acute on chronic headache. In case of a discrepancy between clinical manifestations and CT/MRI findings, one can always anticipate tuberculous lesion in the brain. PMID:24059657

Chaudhry, U R; Farooq, M; Rauf, F; Bhatti, S K

2011-06-30

83

The influence of tuberculosis treatment on efavirenz clearance in patients co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Drug interactions are of concern when treating patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis. Concomitant use of efavirenz (EFV) with the enzyme inducer rifampicin might be expected to increase EFV clearance. We investigated the influence of concomitant tuberculosis treatment on the plasma clearance of EFV. Methods Fifty-eight patients were randomized to receive their EFV-containing antiretroviral therapy either during or after tuberculosis treatment. Steady-state EFV plasma concentrations (n=209 samples) were measured, 83 in the presence of rifampicin. Data were analyzed using a non-linear mixed effects model, and the model was evaluated using non-parametric bootstrap and visual predictive checks. Results The patients had a median age of 32 (range 19–55) years and 43.1% were women. There was a bimodal distribution of apparent clearance, with slow EFV metabolizers accounting for 23.6% of the population and having a metabolic capacity 36.4% of that of the faster metabolizers. Apparent EFV clearance after oral administration in fast metabolizers was 12.9 L/h/70 kg whilst off tuberculosis treatment and 9.1 L/h/70 kg when on tuberculosis treatment. In slow metabolizers, the clearance estimates were 3.3 and 4.7 L/h/70 kg in the presence and absence of TB treatment, respectively. Overall there was a 29.5% reduction in EFV clearance during tuberculosis treatment. Conclusion Unexpectedly, concomitant rifampicin-containing tuberculosis treatment reduced apparent EFV clearance with a corresponding increase in EFV exposure. While the reasons for this interaction require further investigation, cytochrome P450 2B6 polymorphisms in the population studied may provide some explanation.

Holford, Nicholas H. G.; Botha, Julia H.; Gray, Andrew L.; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

2014-01-01

84

[The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infects all organs in the body; however, lung infection is the primary lesion. The total number of infections is decreasing, but the percentage of infections in older people is rising. Because this disease is due to infection with M. tuberculosis, the diagnosis requires the presence of M. tuberculosis. Chest X-ray and CT are very powerful tools to suggest the presence of M. tuberculosis infection. Pathological examination of the tissues also shows the typical findings of M. tuberculosis infection; however, the presence of the bacterium was not proven in certain cases of M. tuberculosis infection, and especially in cases of latent infection. Recently, the whole-blood interferon--gamma test (QuantiFERON-TB, QFT) became more popular than the tuberculin skin test. It is reported that the specificity and sensitivity of QFT are similar to or better than the tuberculin skin test. However, it should be noted that QFT positive does not automatically lead to a diagnosis of active M. tuberculosis infection and that QFT is one of the supplementary tests in the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection. Currently, massive infection with M. tuberculosis is increasing. The precise responsible linkage in massive infection with M. tuberculosis needs DNA polymorphism analysis using variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) or restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). PMID:23198540

Koyama, Sekiya; Sakaguchi, Nobuki; Hotta, Jyunnichi

2012-08-01

85

Oral tolerance.  

PubMed

Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral antigen. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral antigen induces T-helper 2 [interleukin (IL)-4/IL-10] and Th3 [transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta] T cells plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and latency-associated peptide+ T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-beta, cholera toxin B subunit, Flt-3 ligand, and anti-CD40 ligand. Oral (and nasal) antigen administration suppresses animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalitis, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis, and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, allergy, colitis, stroke, and models of Alzheimer's disease. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), arthritis, uveitis, and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and nickel allergy. Although positive results have been observed in phase II trials, no effect was observed in phase III trials of CII in rheumatoid arthritis or oral myelin and glatiramer acetate (GA) in MS. Large placebo effects were observed, and new trials of oral GA are underway. Oral insulin has recently been shown to delay onset of diabetes in at-risk populations, and confirmatory trials of oral insulin are being planned. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time, and antigen-specific mechanisms of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy, and early therapy. PMID:16048553

Faria, Ana M C; Weiner, Howard L

2005-08-01

86

Tuberculosis of the breast  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of the breast is an uncommon disease even in countries where the incidence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis is high. Clinical presentation is usually of a solitary, ill-defined, unilateral hard lump situated in the upper outer quadrant of the breast. This disease can present a diagnostic problem on radiological and microbiological investigations, and thus a high index of suspicion is needed. Incorporating a highly sensitive technique like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be helpful in establishing the usefulness of such technology and can aid in conforming the diagnosis early. The disease is curable with antitubercular drugs, and surgery is rarely required

Baharoon, Salim

2008-01-01

87

Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis (Second Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To address the training needs of health care providers about tuberculosis, the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Tuberculosis Control, Centers for Disease Control launched the National Tuberculosis Training Initiative (NTTI). Input from 22 nat...

1991-01-01

88

Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium ...

89

Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

90

Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

91

Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

92

Boosting Vaccine for Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective new vaccine for the control of tuberculosis is badly needed. While current research attempts to improve vaccination are concentrating on new prophylactic or immunotherapeutic vaccines, virtually no emphasis has been placed on boosting individuals already inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. It is shown here that mice vaccinated with BCG gradually lose their capacity to resist an aerosol challenge

JASON V. BROOKS; ANTHONY A. FRANK; MARC A. KEEN; JOHN T. BELLISLE; IAN M. ORME

2001-01-01

93

Global Tuberculosis (TB)  

MedlinePLUS

... Global Tuberculosis (TB) TB is one of the world’s deadliest diseases: One third of the world’s population are infected with TB. In 2012, 8. ... health problem in many other parts of the world. In 2013, 64% of all TB cases and ...

94

Unique transcriptome signature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Although tuberculosis remains a substantial global threat, the mechanisms that enable mycobacterial persistence and replication within the human host are ill defined. This study represents the first genome-wide expression analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical lung samples, which has enabled the identification of M. tuberculosis genes actively expressed during pulmonary tuberculosis. To obtain optimal information from our DNA array analyses, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes within the context of computationally inferred protein networks. Protein networks were constructed using functional linkages established by the Rosetta stone, phylogenetic profile, conserved gene neighbor, and operon computational methods. This combined approach revealed that during pulmonary tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis actively transcribes a number of genes involved in active fortification and evasion from host defense systems. These genes may provide targets for novel intervention strategies. PMID:16428773

Rachman, Helmy; Strong, Michael; Ulrichs, Timo; Grode, Leander; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Mollenkopf, Hans; Kosmiadi, George A; Eisenberg, David; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

2006-02-01

95

Multidrug resistant miliary tuberculosis during infliximab therapy despite tuberculosis screening.  

PubMed

We describe an unusual case of multidrug-resistant miliary tuberculosis diagnosed 9 months after the commencement of infliximab treatment for psoriasis despite negative pretreatment tuberculosis screening, including chest X-ray and interferon-gamma release assay. After 4 months' treatment with amikacin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and moxifloxacin, infliximab was restarted with concomitant anti-TB medications. No recurrence of tuberculosis has been detected 12 months after recommencing infliximab. PMID:23713793

Gin, Alexander; Dolianitis, Con

2014-05-01

96

Pulmonary intravascular talcosis mimicking miliary tuberculosis in an intravenous drug addict.  

PubMed

Pulmonary foreign body granulomatosis following intravenous administration of medications meant for oral use among drug addicts has been occasionally reported. This condition is often misdiagnosed because of its rarity, but rather due to its similarity to other pulmonary diseases that are more common. Here we report a case of pulmonary intravascular talcosis mimicking miliary tuberculosis in a young male intravenous drug addict from North-Eastern Estonia, known as a hotspot for tuberculosis and drug misuse. The condition was caused by intravenous administration of crushed tablets of diphenhydramine, but miliary tuberculosis was misdiagnosed on patient's demographical, clinical and radiological grounds and a decision to start treatment with four first-line antituberculosis drugs followed. The current report refers to the importance of considering rare causes of pulmonary disseminations with attempts to identify the causative agent and warns against the use of antituberculosis treatment without confirmation of microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:24713715

Altraja, Alan; Jürgenson, Katre; Roosipuu, Retlav; Laisaar, Tanel

2014-01-01

97

The immune response in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

There are 9 million cases of active tuberculosis reported annually; however, an estimated one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and remains asymptomatic. Of these latent individuals, only 5-10% will develop active tuberculosis disease in their lifetime. CD4(+) T cells, as well as the cytokines IL-12, IFN-?, and TNF, are critical in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, but the host factors that determine why some individuals are protected from infection while others go on to develop disease are unclear. Genetic factors of the host and of the pathogen itself may be associated with an increased risk of patients developing active tuberculosis. This review aims to summarize what we know about the immune response in tuberculosis, in human disease, and in a range of experimental models, all of which are essential to advancing our mechanistic knowledge base of the host-pathogen interactions that influence disease outcome. PMID:23516984

O'Garra, Anne; Redford, Paul S; McNab, Finlay W; Bloom, Chloe I; Wilkinson, Robert J; Berry, Matthew P R

2013-01-01

98

Psoriatic Disease and Tuberculosis Nowadays  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing and remitting inflammatory skin and joint disease that has a prevalence of 2-3% in the world's population, whereas of 1–2% in Europe. The traditional concept of psoriasis as the “healthy people's” disease has been recently revised because of ever-increasing reports of associations with various pathological conditions (hypertension, Crohn's disease, type II diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, infectious conditions). Particularly, advances in psoriasis therapies have introduced biologic agents. All the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are associated with an increased risk of developing active disease in patients with latent tuberculosis infection, because of TNF-? key role against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For this reason, exclusion of active tuberculosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection are clinical imperatives prior to starting this therapy. Moreover active surveillance for a history of untreated or partially treated tuberculosis or latent form has already been shown to be effective in reducing the number of incident tuberculosis cases.

Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Bocchino, Marialuisa

2012-01-01

99

Clofazimine Analogs with Efficacy against Experimental Tuberculosis and Reduced Potential for Accumulation?  

PubMed Central

The global tuberculosis crisis urgently demands new, efficacious, orally available drugs with the potential to shorten and simplify the long and complex treatments for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant disease. Clofazimine, a riminophenazine used for many years to treat leprosy, demonstrates efficacy in animal models of tuberculosis via a novel mode of action. However, clofazimine's physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties contribute to side effects that limit its use; in particular, an extremely long half-life and propensity for tissue accumulation together with clofazimine's dye properties leads to unwelcome skin discoloration. We recently conducted a systematic structure-activity study of more than 500 riminophenazine analogs for anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity. We describe here the characteristics of 12 prioritized compounds in more detail. The new riminophenazine analogs demonstrated enhanced in vitro activity compared to clofazimine against replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv, as well as panels of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant clinical isolates. The new compounds demonstrate at least equivalent activity compared to clofazimine against intracellular M. tuberculosis and, in addition, most of them were active against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. Eleven of these more water-soluble riminophenazine analogs possess shorter half-lives than clofazimine when dosed orally to mice, suggesting that they may accumulate less. Most importantly, the nine compounds that progressed to efficacy testing demonstrated inhibition of bacterial growth in the lungs that is superior to the activity of an equivalent dose of clofazimine when administered orally for 20 days in a murine model of acute tuberculosis. The efficacy of these compounds, along with their decreased potential for accumulation and therefore perhaps also for tissue discoloration, warrants further study.

Lu, Yu; Zheng, Meiqin; Wang, Bin; Fu, Lei; Zhao, Weijie; Li, Peng; Xu, Jian; Zhu, Hui; Jin, Haixia; Yin, Dali; Huang, Haihong; Upton, Anna M.; Ma, Zhenkun

2011-01-01

100

Tuberculosis of the Parotid Gland  

PubMed Central

Parotid gland involvement is extremely rare, even in countries in which tuberculosis is endemic. Clinically, it usually presents as a slow-growing mass indistinguishable from a malignancy. On imaging too, tuberculosis of the parotid may mimic neoplasm. The diagnosis of parotid tuberculosis needs a high degree of clinical suspicion. This paper highlights the clinical presentation, imaging findings, and importance of FNAC in diagnosis of this rare entity.

Gupta, Vivek; Patankar, Kiran; Shinde, Archana; Bhosale, Charu; Tamhane, Ajitey

2012-01-01

101

Surgical management of abdominal tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports suggest an increased incidence of abdominal tuberculosis in the United States, particularly in high-risk groups.\\u000a The aim of this study was to review the spectrum of abdominal tuberculosis and its surgical management at a tertiary referral\\u000a center in the United States. The medical records of patients treated for abdominal tuberculosis at our institution between\\u000a January 1992 and June

Imran Hassan; Emmanouil S. Brilakis; Rodney L. Thompson; Florencia G. Que

2002-01-01

102

Oral feeding.  

PubMed

Early nutrition can help to improve energy and protein intake and decrease the negative impact of the metabolic response to surgery. A key goal is to identify patients who exhibit increased respiration risk before beginning oral alimentation. Once a simple bedside 3-oz (90 ml) challenge, or early intervention in the oral care, administered by a trained provider is passed, specific diet recommendations can be made safely and confidently without the need for further objective dysphagia testing. Gastrointestinal motility disorders occur as part of the pathophysiology of diseases and critical illness, or are a result of medication therapies or enteral feeding complications. Inadequate energy intake in the first 7 days following extubation have recently been described. It would be highly beneficial to determine when it is best to initiate timely oral alimentation for recovering extubated intensive care unit (ICU) and more specifically surgical ICU patients to support the maintenance and rebuilding of lean body mass, maintain hydration, and permit the ingestion of oral medications. In a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 18 Spanish ICUs, within the scope of the 2007 European Nutrition Day, only 95 of 348 investigated patients (27.3%) received oral nutritional support. Constipation and diarrhea were common adverse effects. Unexpectedly, however, constipation episodes were more frequent than diarrhea in the patients not receiving oral nutritional support. PMID:23075585

Alvárez-Falcón, Ana; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio

2013-01-01

103

The dynamics of tuberculosis epidemiology.  

PubMed

A conceptual framework to study the epidemiologic basis of tuberculosis control is provided. The basic model to discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis is based on a classification of tuberculosis based on its pathogenesis with exposure, latent infection, tuberculosis, and death from tuberculosis, showing the conditional probabilities leading from one to the next step in the chain of events. Historical data are utilized to demonstrate how the dynamics of tuberculosis over multiple decades have contributed to shape the present. It is shown that the key concept to understand the dynamics is related to current and past incidence and prevalence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis. The dynamics of the epidemic are shaped both by the behaviour of the causative organism of tuberculosis as well as the population structure and changes that take place in parallel in which M. tuberculosis thrives. Both the present and the future shape of the epidemic, as well as the principles applied to its control lie very much in the past of a society. While new risk factors such as HIV or diabetes have been or are emerging more strongly, it is noted that the majority of all new cases emerging cannot be pinned to one or the other such factor. It is the historical experience of a population that offers the most valuable key to understanding the present and the future. PMID:24640341

Rieder, Hans L

2014-01-01

104

[Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection].  

PubMed

Latent tuberculosis infection is a key stage in the natural history of tuberculosis, and provides an important period where strategies to prevent the development of disease may be implemented. The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is well described in many national guidelines. In this review, we attempt to help pneumonologists to implement these guidelines accurately and appropriately, prescribing preventive treatment when the benefit-risk ratio is optimal, providing treatment most safely, performing therapeutic education and incorporating preventive treatment into the full array of measures against tuberculosis. PMID:22542415

Fraisse, P

2012-04-01

105

Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Renal involvement in tuberculosis occurs due to lympho-hematogenous dissemi-nation. However, glomerular involvement is an uncommon event. Crescentic nephritis compli-cating tuberculosis is a therapeutic dilemma and weighs the risk of worsening the infection after immunosuppressive therapy. We present here a case of miliary tuberculosis with immune com-plex crescentic nephritis with advanced renal injury requiring renal replacement therapy. A diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis was made on the basis of positive sputum AFB, lymph node biopsy showing caseating granulomas and urinary polymerase chain reaction being positive for mycobacterial antigens. The patient recovered renal function with anti-tuberculous therapy with-out requiring immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:24969205

Waikhom, Rajesh; Sarkar, Dipankar; Bennikal, Mahesh; Pandey, Rajendra

2014-01-01

106

Efficacy of Microencapsulated Rifampin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Mice  

PubMed Central

Rifampin is a first-line drug useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. By using biocompatible polymeric excipients of lactide and glycolide copolymers, two microsphere formulations were developed for targeted and sustained delivery of rifampin, with minimal dosing. A small-microsphere formulation, with demonstrated ability to inhibit intracellularly replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was tested along with a large-microsphere formulation in an infected mouse model. Results revealed that by using a single treatment of the large-microsphere formulation, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in M. tuberculosis H37Rv CFUs in the lungs of mice by 26 days postinfection. A combination of small (given as two injections on day 0 and day 7) and large (given as one injection at day 0) rifampin-loaded microsphere formulations resulted in significant reductions in CFUs in the lungs by 26 days, achieving a 1.23 log10 reduction in CFUs. By comparison, oral treatment with 5, 10, or 20 mg of rifampin/kg of body weight, administered every day, resulted in a reduction of 0.42, 1.7, or 1.8 log10 units, respectively. Thus the microsphere formulations, administered in one or two doses, were able to achieve results in mice similar to those obtained with a daily drug regimen within the range of the highest clinically tolerated dosage in humans. These results demonstrate that microsphere formulations of antimycobacterial drugs such as rifampin can be used for therapy of tuberculosis with minimal dosing.

Quenelle, Debra C.; Staas, Jay K.; Winchester, Gary A.; Barrow, Esther L. W.; Barrow, William W.

1999-01-01

107

[Antimicrobial resistance in tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Although drug resistance in tuberculosis is by no means a new problem, multiple drug resistance is a cause of increasing concern. This study investigated first-line drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in a hospital environment and strains submitted as the Reference Center from 2000 to 2010. A total of 650 cultures were tested against first-line using the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Resistance to first-line drugs was detected in 142 strains, (21.85%). A total of 2% were multiresistant (MDR). Of the strains resistant to first-line drugs, the greatest resistance was found to isoniazid (7.38 %) followed by rifampin and streptomycin (3.85%), pyracinamide (2%), and ethambutol 1.23%. Only one strain was resistant to four drugs. Values. In view of the resistance observed, careful surveillance of drug resistance is recommended. PMID:24399346

Gutiérrez-Aroca, Juan Bautista; Ruiz, Pilar; Casal, Manuel

2013-12-01

108

Diagnosing peritoneal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old male healthcare worker presented to the medical assessment unit complaining of a 3-month history of lethargy, weight loss, night sweats and intermittent abdominal discomfort. On examination there was some dullness to percussion at the right lung base and decreased breath sounds. He had mild generalised tenderness in his abdomen. Blood tests were normal. Chest x-ray and CT of the thorax showed small bilateral pleural effusions with no other abnormality. CT of the abdomen and pelvis however, showed ascites with extensive thickening of the peritoneum and marked induration of the mesentery and omentum. Mantoux test was positive. Laparoscopy was undertaken to outrule intra-abdominal malignancy and confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Peritoneal wall biopsies were taken from which Mycobacterium was isolated confirming peritoneal tuberculosis. He was started on rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol and completed a 6-month course without further complications. PMID:23784766

Clancy, C; Bokhari, Y; Neary, P M; Joyce, M

2013-01-01

109

Tuberculosis and infection control.  

PubMed

Against a background of rising tuberculosis (TB) rates, increasing incidence of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection, coupled with the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), the need for effective TB infection control has never been more vital (World Health Organization (WHO), 2009). TB infection control has been defined as 'a combination of measures aimed at minimizing the risk of TB transmission within populations' (WHO, 2009: p.ix). Health professionals are frequently confused about appropriate infection control measures when caring for patients affected by infectious respiratory tuberculosis (Mohandas and Cunniffe, 2009). This article aims to address the key infection control measures required to optimize patient care and reduce the risk of TB transmission within hospital and community settings. PMID:22067583

Karim, Kelvin

110

Tuberculosis of spine  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of the spine is one of the most common spine pathology in India. Over last 4 decades a lot has changed in the diagnosis, medical treatment and surgical procedures to treat this disorder. Further developments in diagnosis using molecular genetic techniques, more effective antibiotics and more aggressive surgical protocols have become essential with emergence of multidrug resistant TB. Surgical procedures such as single stage anterior and posterior stabilization, extrapleral dorsal spine anterior stabilization and endoscopic thoracoscopic surgeries have reduced the mortality and morbidity of the surgical procedures. is rapidly progressing. It is a challenge to treat MDR-TB Spine with late onset paraplegia and progressive deformity. Physicians must treat tuberculosis of spine on the basis of Culture and sensitivity.

Agrawal, Vinod; Patgaonkar, P. R.; Nagariya, S. P.

2010-01-01

111

Sensing the Killer - Tuberculosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty-fourth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. About 2 billion people are walking around infected by tuberculosis. But they don't it, because they don't have any symptoms of this terrible disease. The trick with TB is to catch it early and prevent ever-widening circles of infection.

2010-01-04

112

Surgery for Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. During the period 1990–1994 a total of 578 operations were performed in 502 patients with various forms of tuberculosis.\\u000a Most of the patients (68%) were men aged 20 to 50 years (70%). Sputum cultures were positive in 55% of the patients. More\\u000a than half of all patients were chronic smokers, and about 10% were alcoholics or drug addicts. There

Mikhail I. Perelman; Victor P. Strelzov

1997-01-01

113

Tuberculosis and BCG  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Tuberculosis occurred in humans probably as early as 8,000 bc in its sporadic form. Indeed, it is mentioned in India’s Vedas, the most sacred texts of Hinduism, and later by Hippocrates,\\u000a Celse D’Aretée de Cappadoce (170 bc), and Avicene (Calmette 1923; Calmette et al. 1928). Recently, genetic studies of the tubercle bacillus have found its progenitor\\u000a to come into existence

Marina Gheorghiu; Micheline Lagranderie; Anne-Marie Balazuc

114

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

...2014-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

2014-04-01

115

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

2012-04-01

116

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents...Identification. Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent...

2011-04-01

117

Shoulder joint tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Despite the fact that joint tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, it is a disease entity that is very rare in Poland (less than 100 cases a year in the last 10 years). The symptoms are non-specific, and thus the disease is rarely taken into account in preliminary differential diagnosis. Case Report: A 68-year-old female patient was admitted to the Internal Diseases Clinic due to oedema and pain of the right shoulder joint. The pain has been increasing for about 8 months. Physical examination revealed increased circumference and elevated temperature of the right shoulder joint. Limb function was retained. The full range of radiological and laboratory diagnostic examinations was performed, including the biopsy of the affected tissue which revealed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the bacterial culture. Clinical improvement was obtained after introduction of TB drugs. Conclusions: Radiological diagnostic methods (X-ray, CT scans, MRI scans) provide high precision monitoring of articular lesions. However, the decisive diagnosis requires additional laboratory tests as well as histopathological and bacteriological assays.

Ostrowska, Monika; Gietka, Jan; Nesteruk, Tomasz; Piliszek, Agnieszka; Walecki, Jerzy

2012-01-01

118

Primary tuberculosis in a malnourished adolescent  

PubMed Central

Although the overall prevalence of tuberculosis has decreased in the United States, with the increasing prevalence of tuberculosis globally, higher rates of tuberculosis in some states and localities have been reported, with some component probably related to immigrant populations. We report a case of primary pulmonary tuberculosis in a malnourished adolescent.

Zawaideh, Mazen; Chao, Cherng; Poole, Patricia; Naheedy, John

2012-01-01

119

Female genital tuberculosis: a review.  

PubMed

Female genital tuberculosis is an uncommon type of tuberculosis that can lead to infertility. The present review describes the disease, reports available epidemiological data, and focuses on examinations and procedures necessary for the early diagnosis and the management of this curable disease. PMID:21438789

Neonakis, Ioannis K; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Petinaki, Efthimia

2011-08-01

120

Tuberculosis-the great mimicker.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is an immense health problem in the developing world, and it remains a health care challenge in the developed world. It can affect virtually any organ system in the body. Diagnosis of tuberculosis is often difficult. Many patients with tuberculosis present with nonspecific symptoms, negative purified protein derivative skin test result, and negative findings on culture specimens. Cross-sectional imaging with ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis demonstrates a variety of radiologic features depending on the organ involved and can mimic a number of other disease entities. Cross-sectional imaging alone is insufficient in reaching a conclusive diagnosis. Tuberculosis is a great mimicker as its radiologic manifestations can simulate numerous other diseases across the body systems. However, recognition and understanding of the common and uncommon radiologic manifestations of tuberculosis should alert considering tuberculosis in the high-risk population and correct clinical setting to enable appropriate treatment. PMID:24929261

Prapruttam, Duangkamon; Hedgire, Sandeep S; Mani, Sunithi Elizabeth; Chandramohan, Anuradha; Shyamkumar, N K; Harisinghani, Mukesh

2014-06-01

121

Pathogenesis of tuberculosis in cattle.  

PubMed

There has been a renewed interest in the pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis in many countries, in an attempt to understand better its transmission, to improve diagnosis and assess the potential of vaccination. This paper, which overviews current knowledge of aspects of the pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis, draws from studies of field cases and experimental infections and highlights deficiencies in current understanding. The pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis has not received the same level of attention as with human tuberculosis, and in many instances, the processes involved in bovine tuberculosis have been drawn from studies of human tuberculosis or from small animal models of infection. This paper however, considers the successful emulation of naturally acquired tuberculosis using experimental cattle models and identifies the complex and integrated nature of microbiological, immunological and pathological events involved. Current understanding of the initiation of infection, immune responses, and subsequent pathology, which can vary significantly in individual animals are discussed. Whilst there are aspects of M. bovis that still remain elusive to scientific investigation, further studies on the pathogenesis of bovine tuberculosis are advocated as necessary to provide a better scientific basis on which to review control and eradication strategies, which are currently less than effective in many regions. PMID:11463227

Neill, S D; Bryson, D G; Pollock, J M

2001-01-01

122

Immune Thrombocytopenia Associated with Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombocytopenia associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection de veloped concurrently in a mother and son. Antiplatelet antibodies were dem onstrated in the serum of both patients. It is suggested that this and possibly other hematologic complications associated with tuberculosis are immune me diated.

Stephen S. Jurak; Richard Aster; Hadi Sawaf

1983-01-01

123

Non-human sources of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a successful pathogen responsible for the vast majority of deadly tuberculosis cases in humans. It rests in a dormant form in contaminated people who constitute the reservoir with airborne interhuman transmission during pulmonary tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis is therefore regarded majoritary as a human pathogen. Here, we review the evidence for anthroponotic M. tuberculosis infection in non-human primates, other mammals and psittacines. Some infected animals may be sources for zoonotic tuberculosis caused by M. tuberculosis, with wild life trade and zoos being amplifying factors. Moreover, living animals and cadavers can scatter M. tuberculosis in the environment where it could survive for extended periods of time in soil where amoebae could play a role. Although marginal in the epidemiology of human tuberculosis, these data indicate that M. tuberculosis is not uniquely adapted to humans. PMID:24119770

Ghodbane, Ramzi; Drancourt, Michel

2013-11-01

124

Identification and management of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Although the resurgence of tuberculosis in the early 1990s has largely been controlled, the risk of contracting this disease remains high in homeless persons, recent immigrants and persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Purified protein derivative testing should be targeted at these groups and at persons with known or suspected exposure to active tuberculosis. Most patients with latent tuberculosis are treated with isoniazid administered daily for nine months. In patients with active tuberculosis, the initial regimen should include four drugs for at least two months, with subsequent therapy determined by mycobacterial sensitivities and clinical response. To avoid harmful drug interactions, regimens that do not contain rifampin may be employed in HIV-infected patients who are taking protease inhibitors or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. To maximize compliance and minimize the emergence of mycobacterial drug resistance, family physicians should consider using directly observed therapy in all patients with tuberculosis. PMID:10821149

Jerant, A F; Bannon, M; Rittenhouse, S

2000-05-01

125

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

126

Oral Warts  

MedlinePLUS

... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

127

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... t heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

128

Oral Tumours  

PubMed Central

The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8

Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

1988-01-01

129

[New tuberculosis drugs in resistant and multiresistant tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a globally emerging problem with a rising incidence. According to the WHO in 2008, 17% of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in untreated cases were resistant to at least one drug and 3.6% were resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid, which is called multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The problem is greater in patients previously treated and in some countries, where rates of multidrug resistance reach 60%. Approximately 5% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients are also resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one injectable drug, being called extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. The treatment of these forms of tuberculosis requires the use of second-line drugs, which causes higher cost, higher toxicity and a longer duration of treatment. There is a need for new compounds with efficacy and safety profiles better than those currently used to treat these forms of tuberculosis. In the last decade different drugs have being reassessed and appeared, which are at different stages of development. PMID:23540388

Ramírez Lapausa, Marta; Pascual Pareja, José Francisco; Noguerado Asensio, Arturo

2013-10-01

130

Oral Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). Conditioning of gut dendritic cells by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces a CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent dendritic cell that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of oral tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and Foxp3 iTregs are induced by oral antigen and by oral administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Oral or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and oral or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces a LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.

Weiner, Howard L.; Cunha, Andre Pires da; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry

2011-01-01

131

Genitourinary and pulmonary multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).  

PubMed

A female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed vaginal and trunk discharge. Cultures were positive for pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally and monitored by serum levels. After being trained at 10 mo to accept oral dosing, treatment was changed and rifampin was added. Oral medications were administered for another 10 mo. A year after completion of therapy, the vaginal discharge increased and cultures yielded M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Treatment with oral ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and enrofloxacin and intramuscular amikacin was initiated. Although followup cultures became negative, adverse reactions to medications precluded treatment completion. Due to public health concerns related to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the elephant was euthanized. Postmortem smears from the lung, peribronchial, and abdominal lymph nodes yielded acid-fast bacteria, although cultures were negative. This case highlights important considerations in the treatment of M. tuberculosis in animals and the need for a consistent approach to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:22204067

Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; St Leger, Judy; Olsen, John H; Burton, Michael S; Ashkin, David; Maslow, Joel N

2011-12-01

132

Disparities in Oral Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Site Index Share Compartir Disparities in Oral Health Oral health disparities are profound in the United ... individual's ability to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

133

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2009, (Publication Year 2010).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2009 presents summary data for tuberculosis (TB) cases verified and counted in 2009. Reports of verified cases of tuberculosis (RVCT) are submitted to the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), Centers for...

2010-01-01

134

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Prevents Inflammasome Activation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mycobacterium tuberculosis parasitizes host macrophages and subverts host innate and adaptive immunity. A number of cytokines elicited by the tubercle bacilli have been recognized as mediators of mycobacterial clearance or pathology in tuberculosis. Surprisingly, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), a major pro-inflammatory cytokine activated by processing upon assembly of a specialized protein complex termed the inflammasome, has not been implicated in host-pathogen interactions in tuberculosis. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis prevents inflammasome activation and IL-1? processing, and that a functional M. tuberculosis zmp1 gene is required for this process. Infection of macrophages with the zmp1 null M. tuberculosis triggered activation of caspase-1/IL-1? inflammasome, resulting in increased secretion of IL-1?, enhanced mycobacterial phagosome maturation into phagolysosomes, improved mycobacterial clearance by macrophages, and lower bacterial burden in the lungs of aerosol-infected mice. Thus, we uncovered the previously masked role for IL-1? in control of M. tuberculosis, and the existence of a mycobacterial system that prevents IL-1?/inflammasome activation.

Master, Sharon S.; Davis, Alexander. S.; Rampini, Silvana K.; Keller, Christine; Ehlers, Stefan; Springer, Burkhardt; Sander, Peter; Deretic, Vojo

2013-01-01

135

Tuberculosis in the AIDS era.  

PubMed Central

A resurgence of tuberculosis has occurred in recent years in the United States and abroad. Deteriorating public health services, increasing numbers of immigrants from countries of endemicity, and coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have contributed to the rise in the number of cases diagnosed in the United States. Outbreaks of resistant tuberculosis, which responds poorly to therapy, have occurred in hospitals and other settings, affecting patients and health care workers. This review covers the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. In addition, public health and hospital infection control strategies are detailed. Newer approaches to epidemiologic investigation, including use of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, are discussed. Detailed consideration of the interaction between HIV infection and tuberculosis is given. We also review the latest techniques in laboratory evaluation, including the radiometric culture system, DNA probes, and PCR. Current recommendations for therapy of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, are given. Finally, the special problem of prophylaxis of persons exposed to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is considered.

Sepkowitz, K A; Raffalli, J; Riley, L; Kiehn, T E; Armstrong, D

1995-01-01

136

Tuberculosis: Past, Present and Future  

PubMed Central

Observation and statistics are offered on treatment of tuberculosis in sanatoria during the lifespan of those institutions with special reference to one where the first author's medical life was mainly spent as patient, physician, surgeon and superintendent. Despite the rapid decrease in morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis, the change in direction, and the change in treatment programs, vigilance is still required. It is only because of the commitment of those involved over the many years in the treatment of tuberculosis that we are now at this enviable position. Imagesp[57]-ap56-a

Paine, A. L.; Hershfield, Earl S.

1979-01-01

137

Tuberculosis - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tuberculosis educational game and related reading, are based on the 1905 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for investigations and discoveries concerning the disease tuberculosis, "TB". In this game you will try to repeat Robert Koch's remarkable successes. Carry out your own experiments using Koch's methods and discover the bacteria causing tuberculosis. Rather than scoring points and doing things quickly, this game rewards figuring out what to do in the correct order to allow you to move on and reach the end!

2009-01-01

138

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

139

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States: 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis', 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication, Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2005, presents summary data for TB cases reported to DTBE, verified, and counted in 2005. It is similar to previous publications and contains six major sections. The first section presents tren...

2006-01-01

140

Immunology of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

MTB ranks as the first worldwide pathogen latently infecting one third of the population and the second leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The development of vigorous and apparently appropriate immune response upon infection with M. tuberculosis in humans and experimental animals conflict with failure to eradicate the pathogen itself and with its ability to undergo clinical latency from which it may exit. From a clinical standpoint, our views on MTB infection may take advantage from updating the overall perspective, that has quite changed over the last decade, following remarkable advances in our understanding of the manipulation of the immune system by M. tuberculosis and of the role of innate components of the immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and NK cells in the initial spread of MTB and its exit from latency. Scope of this review is to highlight the major mechanisms of MTB escape from immune control and to provide a supplementary translational perspective for the interpretation of innate immune mechanisms with particular impact on clinical aspects.

Bozzano, Federica; Marras, Francesco; De Maria, Andrea

2014-01-01

141

Clinical peculiarities of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The ongoing spread of tuberculosis (TB) in poor resource countries and the recently increasing incidence in high resource countries lead to the need of updated knowledge for clinicians, particularly for pediatricians. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the most important peculiarities of TB in children. Children are less contagious than adults, but the risk of progression to active disease is higher in infants and children as compared to the subsequent ages. Diagnosis of TB in children is more difficult than in adults, because few signs are associated with primary infection, interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test are less reliable in younger children, M. tuberculosis is more rarely detected in gastric aspirates than in smears in adults and radiological findings are often not specific. Treatment of latent TB is always necessary in young children, whereas it is recommended in older children, as well as in adults, only in particular conditions. Antimycobacterial drugs are generally better tolerated in children as compared to adults, but off-label use of second-line antimycobacterial drugs is increasing, because of spreading of multidrug resistant TB worldwide. Given that TB is a disease which often involves more than one member in a family, a closer collaboration is needed between pediatricians and clinicians who take care of adults. PMID:24564419

Piccini, Paola; Chiappini, Elena; Tortoli, Enrico; de Martino, Maurizio; Galli, Luisa

2014-01-01

142

Clinical peculiarities of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The ongoing spread of tuberculosis (TB) in poor resource countries and the recently increasing incidence in high resource countries lead to the need of updated knowledge for clinicians, particularly for pediatricians. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the most important peculiarities of TB in children. Children are less contagious than adults, but the risk of progression to active disease is higher in infants and children as compared to the subsequent ages. Diagnosis of TB in children is more difficult than in adults, because few signs are associated with primary infection, interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test are less reliable in younger children, M. tuberculosis is more rarely detected in gastric aspirates than in smears in adults and radiological findings are often not specific. Treatment of latent TB is always necessary in young children, whereas it is recommended in older children, as well as in adults, only in particular conditions. Antimycobacterial drugs are generally better tolerated in children as compared to adults, but off-label use of second-line antimycobacterial drugs is increasing, because of spreading of multidrug resistant TB worldwide. Given that TB is a disease which often involves more than one member in a family, a closer collaboration is needed between pediatricians and clinicians who take care of adults.

2014-01-01

143

International Standards for Tuberculosis Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) is to describe a widely accepted level of care that all practitioners, public and private, should seek to achieve in managing patients who have, or are suspected of having, tuberculos...

2006-01-01

144

[Miliary tuberculosis after kidney transplantation].  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of tuberculosis after kidney transplantation. They discuss diagnostic and therapeutical problems arising from the specific course of this disease which appears in patients with chronic renal insufficiency treated with immunosuppressives after kidney transplantation. PMID:2790890

Nouza, M; Jirka, J; Reneltová, I; Chadimová, M; Dráb, K; Krofta, K

1989-07-14

145

CURRENT VIEWS ON GENITOURINARY TUBERCULOSIS  

PubMed Central

Tubercle bacilli are spread by the blood stream to the kidney in miliary fashion from the primary pulmonary lesion. Activation, followed by arrest, may delay development of the disease in the kidney for many years or “healing” may occur. Renal ulcerative lesions are the most frequent source of infection of other genitourinary organs. In pyelograms there is no particular characteristic of lesions of tuberculosis. Cellular elements in the urine of a patient with tuberculosis of other organs should lead to urine culture and guinea pig inoculation for mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treatment with streptomycin, isonicotinic acid and/or para-aminosalicylic acid should be started as soon as genitourinary tuberculosis is proved. Patients with advanced lesions usually receive great benefit from these medications; even though organisms may not be eliminated they are definitely diminished in activity. Excision of diseased organs or tissue may be necessary in a few cases.

Malcolm, Donald C.

1954-01-01

146

Drug Tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis is eradicated rapidly during therapy in some patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, it can persist for many months in others. This study examined the relationship between myco- bacterial drug tolerance (delayed killing in vitro), persistence, and relapse. It was performed with 39 fully drug-susceptible isolates from a prospective trial of standard short-course antituberculous therapy with sputum smear-positive, human

ROBERT S. WALLIS; SHRIPAD PATIL; SEON-HEE CHEON; KAY EDMONDS; MANIJEH PHILLIPS; MARK D. PERKINS; MOSES JOLOBA; ALICE NAMALE; JOHN L. JOHNSON; LUCILEIA TEIXEIRA; REYNALDO DIETZE; SALMAN SIDDIQI; ROY D. MUGERWA; KATHLEEN EISENACH

147

Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland.  

PubMed

We are reporting a case of thyroid gland tuberculosis presenting as a painless hard nodular swelling of the thyroid with concomitant pulmonarytuberculosis in a 53-year-old adult diabetic male. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed epitheloid cell granuloma without any acid fast bacillus. He made an uneventful recovery with anti tuberculous drugs. Though rare, tuberculosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of nodular or diffuse enlargement of thyroid gland. PMID:23236703

Das, S K; Bairagya, T D; Bhattacharya, S; Barman, D C

2012-01-01

148

Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has one of the lowest incidence of tuberculosis in the world. The crude annual notification rate for tuberculosis (TB) has remained stable at between 5 and 6 per 100,000 population since 1991. In 1999, there were a total of 1,159 TB notifications in Australia of which 1,117 were new TB cases, and 42 were relapsed cases. The corresponding annual

Paul Roche; Angela Merianos; John Carnie; Amanda Christensen; Justin Waring; Anastasios Konstantinos; Vicki Krause; Mark Hurwitz; Ivan Bastian

149

Endometrial tuberculosis: a clinical case.  

PubMed

Genital tuberculosis is a bacterial infection still frequent in less developed countries where lots of cases are not diagnosed nor treated. In this work we describe a rare case of primary endometrial tuberculosis in a woman of 50 years old. The diagnosis was confirmed by an ultrasonography of the pelvis and an endometrial biopsy followed by a histological examination. The patient after the diagnosis was put under antiturbecular treatment for six months with complete healing. PMID:21793289

Iovenitti, P; Ruggeri, G; Tatangelo, R; Palermo, P; Carta, G

2011-01-01

150

Engaging communities in tuberculosis research.  

PubMed

According to a growing consensus among biomedical researchers, community engagement can improve the ethics and outcomes of clinical trials. Although successful efforts to develop community engagement practices in HIV/AIDS research have been reported, little attention has been given to engagement with the community in tuberculosis research. This article aims to draw attention to some existing community engagement initiatives in tuberculosis research and to resources that might help tuberculosis researchers to establish and implement community engagement programmes for their trials. One of these resources-the good participatory practice guidelines for tuberculosis drug trials-offers a conceptual framework and practical guidance for community engagement in tuberculosis research. To build momentum and to improve community engagement, lessons need to be shared, and formal assessment strategies for community engagement initiatives need to be developed. To build successfully on the promising activities described in this personal view, research funders and sponsors should show leadership in allocation of resources for the implementation and assessment of community engagement programmes in tuberculosis trials. PMID:23531390

Boulanger, Renaud F; Seidel, Stephanie; Lessem, Erica; Pyne-Mercier, Lee; Williams, Sharon D; Mingote, Laia Ruiz; Scott, Cherise; Chou, Alicia Y; Lavery, James V

2013-06-01

151

[Tuberculosis after kidney transplantation].  

PubMed

The authors deal with the problem of tuberculosis in patients after transplantation of the kidney. They give an account of eight cases of the disease in 647 patients where during the last 22 years transplantations where performed in the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine. The lungs were affected in six patients, incl. three with miliary dissemination affecting also other organs incl. the graft. In one instance the patient's own kidney was affected and once the talar joint. The authors emphasize this atypical course of the disease and the necessity to search for BK in patients where the febrile condition does not recede after corresponding antibiotic treatment. In case of early antituberculotic treatment the prognosis is on the whole favourable. PMID:2790881

Nouza, M; Jirka, J; Dráb, K; Krofta, K

1989-07-01

152

Nosocomial tuberculosis in India.  

PubMed

Most high-income countries implement tuberculosis (TB) infection control programs to reduce the risk for nosocomial transmission. However, such control programs are not routinely implemented in India, the country that accounts for the largest number of TB cases in the world. Despite the high prevalence of TB in India and the expected high probability of nosocomial transmission, little is known about nosocomial and occupational TB there. The few available studies suggest that nosocomial TB may be a problem. We review the available data on this topic, describe factors that may facilitate nosocomial transmission in Indian healthcare settings, and consider the feasibility and applicability of various recommended infection control interventions in these settings. Finally, we outline the critical information needed to effectively address the problem of nosocomial transmission of TB in India. PMID:17073077

Pai, Madhukar; Kalantri, Shriprakash; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Menzies, Dick; Blumberg, Henry M

2006-09-01

153

Perforated tuberculosis lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

A 26-year-old man (human immunodeficiency virus-positive and not taking highly active antiretroviral treatment [HAART]) presented to the emergency room with 2 months of malaise, 20 kg weight loss, high spiking fevers, generalized lymph nodes, night sweats, dry cough, and chest pain when swallowing. On physical examination, he had multiple cervical lymphadenopathies. Suspecting a systemic opportunistic infection, a contrasted chest computed tomography (CT) was done, showing an esophageal to mediastinum fistulae. Two days after admission, a fluoroscopic contrasted endoscopy was done that showed two esophageal fistulae from scrofula to esophagus and then, to mediastinum. A bronchoalveolar lavage and a cervical lymphadenopathy biopsy were done, both showing multiple acid-fast bacillae, where cultures grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:23740190

Cataño, Juan; Cardeño, John

2013-06-01

154

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reports of verified cases of tuberculosis (RVCT) are submitted to the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), by 60 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico...

2008-01-01

155

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reports of verified cases of tuberculosis (RVCT) are submitted to the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), by 60 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico...

2009-01-01

156

Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

157

Global Alliance for Tuberculosis Drug Development  

MedlinePLUS

... and development of better, faster-acting, and affordable tuberculosis drugs that are available to those who need ... we are making progress in the fight against tuberculosis. Learn More About Our Work > Our Pipeline The ...

158

An Update on Global Tuberculosis (TB)  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis globally results in almost 2 million human deaths annually, with 1 in 4 deaths from tuberculosis being human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related. Primarily a pathogen of the respiratory system, aerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infects the lungs via the inhalation of infected aerosol droplets generated by people with pulmonary disease through coughing. This review focuses on M. tuberculosis transmission, epidemiology, detection methods and technologies.

Talip, Balkis A.; Sleator, Roy D.; Lowery, Colm J.; Dooley, James S.G.; Snelling, William J.

2013-01-01

159

Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted

Bruce M. Rothschild; Larry D. Martin

2006-01-01

160

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2010-01-01

161

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2009-01-01

162

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2013-07-01

163

Transmission of Tuberculosis Among the Urban Homeless  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions.\\\\p=m-\\\\Theminimum percentage of cases due to primary tuberculosis in the homeless was estimated to be 53%, compared with the traditional estimate of 10% in the general population. The results suggest that primary tuberculosis caused the majority of tuberculosis cases in this population of the urban homeless in central Los Angeles. (JAMA. 1996;275:305-307)

Peter F. Barnes; Hiyam El-Hajj; Susan Preston-Martin; M. Donald Cave; Brenda E. Jones; Michiko Otaya; Janice Pogoda; Kathleen D. Eisenach

2010-01-01

164

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2012-01-01

165

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2012-07-01

166

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2011-07-01

167

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2010-07-01

168

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2011-01-01

169

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculosis. 311.2 Section 311.2 Animals...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.2 Tuberculosis. The following principles shall...the difference in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep,...

2014-01-01

170

Present-day treatment of tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

The major objectives of tuberculosis (TB) control are to reduce morbidity and mortality via an early and appropriate treatment of the disease, to prevent carriers of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus from transmitting it to others, and to prevent latent tuberculosis infection (LTB) sufferers from progressing to the disease. To achieve these objectives, it is imperative to start an appropriate, effective antituberculosis treatment as early as possible, as well as identify contacts of the infected TB patient and others at risk of LTB progressing to TB, in order to establish an appropriate treatment for them. Here we review the bases for treating TB and LTB infections, including those produced by strains resistant to anti-TB drugs. PMID:21420566

Pérez-Camacho, Inés; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Kindelán, José María; Rivero, Antonio

2011-03-01

171

Pancreatic tuberculosis or autoimmune pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

Salahuddin, Ayesha; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

2014-01-01

172

Peritoneal tuberculosis in laparoscopic era.  

PubMed

Peritoneal tuberculosis is uncommon in developed countries, but as the general incidence of tuberculosis is on the rise in Romania so is the case with peritoneal localization of the disease. The present study retrospectively analyzed 18 patients (8 males and 10 females, mean age 50 years, range 17-74 years) diagnosed in our department with peritoneal tuberculosis between 1995 and 2007. Results: Ascites was present in all but one case. Other common findings were weight loss (12 cases), weakness (5 cases), abdominal pain (16 cases), anorexia (6 cases) and night sweat (3 cases). Abdominal ultrasound has been used to demonstrate ascites in 16 cases. Only two patients had chest radiography suggestive for active tuberculosis. Laparotomy was performed in four cases, laparoscopy in 14 cases (two conversions). Intraoperative findings included multiple diffuse involvements of the visceral and parietal peritoneum, white "miliary nodules" or plaques, enlarged lymph nodes, ascites, "violin string" fibrinous strands, and omental thickening. Biopsy specimens showed granulomas, while ascitic fluid showed numerous lymphocytes. We conclude that the symptoms of abdominal tuberculosis vary greatly, and laparoscopy can be essential for diagnosis and management. The operation is safe, reliable with few complications and permits a prompt diagnosis, necessary to cure the patient. PMID:19341199

Târcoveanu, E; Dimofte, G; Bradea, C; Lupa?cu, C; Moldovanu, R; Vasilescu, A

2009-01-01

173

Tuberculosis in Chronic Care Homes  

PubMed Central

Caucasian Canadians are in the tertiary phase of a 300-year tuberculosis epidemic. In this phase, the pattern of disease over the age spectrum is low in the young and middle-aged groups and rises to four times this rate in the elderly. The concentration of the elderly in chronic care homes (CCHs) magnifies the tuberculosis problem by increasing case rates another four times above the rate of elderly persons living separately, and 20 times above the overall Canadian rate. In spite of effective drugs with cure rates of over 95%, tuberculosis in the institutionalized elderly continues at an alarming rate. The difficulty lies in case finding. The prevailing attitude is that tuberculosis is no longer a problem. Surveillance programs are rudimentary. Between 35% and 40% of active cases in CCHs are the result of primary infection, mimicking bacterial pneumonia clinically and radiographically. In this target group of high-incidence tuberculosis, surveillance of residents is necessary, and the diagnosis needs to be considered in antibiotic-unresponsive pneumonia and in fever of unknown origin.

Hoeppner, Vernon H.; Ring, Edward D.

1987-01-01

174

Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis.

Saif, Muhammad Wasif

2014-01-01

175

Vaccine against tuberculosis: what's new?  

PubMed Central

Background one of the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goal is to reduce tuberculosis incidence by 2015. However, more of 8.5 million tuberculosis cases have been reported in 2011, with an increase of multidrug-resistant strains. Therefore, the World Health Organization target cannot be reach without the help of a vaccine able to limit the spread of tuberculosis. Nowadays, bacille Calmette-Guérin is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis. It prevents against meningeal and disseminated tuberculosis in children, but its effectiveness against pulmonary form in adolescents and adults is argued. Method a systematic review was performed by searches of Pubmed, references of the relevant articles and Aeras and ClinicalTrial.gov websites. Results 100 articles were included in this review. Three viral vectored booster vaccines, five protein adjuvant booster vaccines, two priming vaccines and two therapeutic vaccines have been analyzed. Conclusions Several vaccines are in the pipeline, but further studies on basic research, clinical trial and mass vaccination campaigns are needed to achieve the TB eradication target by 2050.

2014-01-01

176

A Case of Extensive Multifocal Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is probably as old as the human race itself. Cutaneous tuberculosis constitutes a very small proportion of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Extensive, multifocal involvement of cutaneous tuberculosis is a very rare manifestation. We report one such case of extensive, multifocal tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in a 30-year-old immunocompetent male patient in the absence of any primary tubercular focus.

Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Pragasam, Vijendran; Badad, Ambresh

2014-01-01

177

Burden of tuberculosis in Kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis in one of Uganda's poor peri-urban areas. METHODS: Multi-stage sampling was used to select a sample of households whose members were evaluated for presence of signs and/or symptoms of active tuberculosis; history of tuberculosis treatment; and relevant demographic, socioeconomic, and household environment characteristics. Patients with suspected tuberculosis underwent standardized evaluation for active disease. FINDINGS: A sample of 263 households with 1142 individuals was evaluated. Nineteen people were classified as having had tuberculosis during the one-year reference period (May 2001-April 2002): nine (47%) cases already had been diagnosed through the health care system, while 10 cases (53%) were diagnosed through the survey. The prevalences for all forms of tuberculosis and for sputum smear-positive tuberculosis were 14.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.8-20.3) and 4.4 (CI = 0.83-7.89) per thousand, respectively. The incidences for all forms of tuberculosis and for sputum smear-positive tuberculosis were 9.2 (CI = 3.97-14.4) and 3.7 (CI = 0.39-6.95) per thousand per year, respectively. CONCLUSION: The rate of tuberculosis in this peri-urban community was exceptionally high and may be underestimated by current surveillance systems. The need for interventions aimed at reducing tuberculosis transmission in this, and other similar communities with high case rates, is urgent.

Guwatudde, David; Zalwango, Sarah; Kamya, Moses R.; Debanne, Sara M.; Diaz, Mireya I.; Okwera, Alphonse; Mugerwa, Roy D.; King, Charles; Whalen, Christopher C.

2003-01-01

178

Surgical management of renal tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems that our country is facing today. Despite active interventions by our government, control of TB still remains to be achieved. The emergence and exponential growth of the human immunodeficiency virus and drug-resistant strains threaten to further complicate the TB situation in our country. Even in this era of advanced chemotherapy, many lives are lost every day in our country. Tuberculosis of the urinary tract, despite being one of the commonest forms of extra-pulmonary TB, is generally overlooked. Most patients present with vague lower urinary symptoms typical of urinary tract infection. In this article, we shall highlight the various issues related to the surgical management of renal and ureteral tuberculosis.

Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

2008-01-01

179

Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

2013-06-01

180

Pulmonary tuberculosis after lung transplantation.  

PubMed

During a 5-year study period, we diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis in two (2%) of 94 lung and heart-lung transplant recipients. Each infection occurred 3 months after bilateral lung transplantation in the presence of evidence implicating donor-to-recipient transmission of the pathogen. The radiographic patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis were subtle: narrowing of the middle lobe bronchus of the right lung caused by an endobronchial granulomatous mass (n = 1) and a focal cluster of small nodules in the upper lobe of the left lung and small bilateral pleural effusions (n = 1). Each patient achieved complete clinical and radiographic response after antituberculous therapy. We conclude that Mycobacterium tuberculosis may be transmitted directly by a donor lung and may involve bronchial mucosa, pulmonary parenchyma, and pleura. PMID:9149616

Schulman, L L; Scully, B; McGregor, C C; Austin, J H

1997-05-01

181

Field Friendly Tuberculosis Biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a fading threat in the United States, but in the developing world it is still a major health-care concern. Given the rising number of cases and lack of resources, there is a desperate need for an affordable, portable detection system. We are working towards the development of a field-friendly immunological biosensor that utilizes florescence microscopy to undertake this task. We observe fluorescently labeled antibodies/antigens as they bind to a glass slide treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to inhibit non-specific adsorption. Antibodies against the antigens of interest are bound to the PEGylated glass slides via biotin-streptavidin interactions. Then, fluorescently labeled antibodies are mixed with different concentrations of TB antigens and this solution is incubated on the treated glass slides for 30 minutes. The slides are thoroughly rinsed with water following the incubation period. The antigens are then detected by fluorescence using a low-cost biosensor. Our system includes a ``supermarket-scanner'' HeNe laser, home-built electronics, off-the-shelf optics and a Si photodiode. Work is underway to incorporate a flow-cell into the system, in a small portable box.

Proper, N.; Scherman, M. S.; Jevsevar, K. L.; Stone, J.; McNeil, M. R.; Krapf, D.

2009-10-01

182

Central nervous system tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients. PMID:24887691

Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy; Figueroa, Ramon; Gupta, Rakesh K

2014-06-01

183

Risk Factors for Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip

2013-01-01

184

Doing something about tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The phenomenal success public health officials enjoyed in controlling tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has not been mirrored in developing countries, where TB still accounts for 25% of preventable deaths in adults. The fact that there are 8 million new cases each year (95% in developing countries) and 3 million deaths (98% in developing countries) led to the 1993 declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO) that TB poses a global emergency. Because TB is predominantly a disease of impoverished people, indifference has led to the fallacious and naive view that eradication of TB simply requires socioeconomic development. In response to this indifference, the WHO is promoting a "Stop TB--Use DOTS" campaign. DOTS, a strategy based on directly observed therapy, also requires government commitment, a regular supply of drugs, effective diagnoses, and an audit of the efficacy of the strategy. While the treatment of TB is among the most cost-effective of all medical interventions in terms of years of healthy life saved, the DOTS campaign requires a considerable dedication of funds. Renewed interest in TB is leading the US and the UK to increase support for control programs. In addition, a new UK-based charity, "TB Alert," hopes to play a major role in advocating for political commitment to and funding for TB control. PMID:10195951

Zumla, A; Grange, J M

1999-04-10

185

Treatment guidelines for latent tuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been established as valid for patients at high risk for developing active tuberculosis. Treatment of LTBI is also considered an important strategy for eliminating tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. In recent years, interferon-gamma release assays have come into widespread use; isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy for HIV patients has come to be recommended worldwide; and there have been increases in both types of biologics used in the treatment of immune diseases as well as the diseases susceptible to treatment. In light of the above facts, the Prevention Committee and the Treatment Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis have jointly drafted these guidelines. In determining subjects for LTBI treatment, the following must be considered: 1) risk of TB infection/ development; 2) infection diagnosis; 3) chest image diagnosis; 4) the impact of TB development; 5) the possible manifestation of side effects; and 6) the prospects of treatment completion. LTBI treatment is actively considered when relative risk is deemed 4 or higher, including risk factors such as the following: HIV/AIDS, organ transplants (immunosuppressant use), silicosis, dialysis due to chronic renal failure, recent TB infection (within 2 years), fibronodular shadows in chest radiographs (untreated old TB), the use of biologics, and large doses of corticosteroids. Although the risk is lower, the following risk factors require consideration of LTBI treatment when 2 or more of them are present: use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids, use of other immunosuppressants, diabetes, being underweight, smoking, gastrectomy, and so on. In principle, INH is administered for a period of 6 or 9 months. When INH cannot be used, rifampicin is administered for a period of 4 or 6 months. It is believed that there are no reasons to support long-term LTBI treatment for immunosuppressed patients in Japan, where the risk of infection is not considered markedly high. For pregnant women, HIV-positive individuals, heavy drinkers, and individuals with a history of liver injury, regular liver function tests are necessary when treatment is initiated and when symptoms are present. There have been reports of TB developing during LTBI treatment; therefore, attention should be paid to TB development symptoms. When administering LTBI treatment, patients must be educated about side effects, the risk of developing TB onset, and the risks associated with discontinuing medication. Treatment outcomes and support for continuation of treatment are evaluated in cooperation with health centers. As stipulated by the Infectious Diseases Control Law, doctors are required to notify a health center when an individual develops TB. Based on this notification, the health center registers the patient, sends a public health nurse to visit the patient and give instructions, and provides medication adherence support. The patient applies at a health center for public expenses for medical care at a designated TB care facility. Pending approval in a review by an infectious disease examination council, the patient's copayment is reduced. PMID:24654427

2014-01-01

186

Oral leukoplakia.  

PubMed

Leukoplakia has evolved as a clinico-pathologic concept over many years, with the current clinical designation being accepted worldwide. Reflective of the biology of leukoplakia is the concept of cellular atypia and epithelial dysplasia. Adding to a better understanding of leukoplakia in general has been the definition of relevant clinical subsets which, in some cases, includes etiology (snuff), while in other cases a verrucous clinical appearance will suggest a more aggressive anticipated behavior pattern. Tobacco usage, in many of its forms, remains the prime etiologic factor; however, other considerations also apply. More recently, the potential etiologic role of Candida albicans has been stressed, as well as its possible role in carcinogenesis. So-called oral hairy leukoplakia has been defined in relation to a possible Epstein-Barr viral infection, usually in the immunosuppressed patient. Other viruses, human papilloma virus in particular, have been implicated in leukoplakia, while genetic alterations involving tumor suppressor elements (p53) have also been investigated. Finally, the management of this common condition remains a variable and includes local, topical, and systemic therapies such as anti-oxidants, carotenoids, and retinoids. PMID:7548621

Sciubba, J J

1995-01-01

187

New drugs to treat tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) has been a leading cause of death for more than a century. While effective therapies exist, treatment is long and cumbersome. Tuberculosis control is complicated by the overlapping problems created by global inadequacy of public health infrastructures, the interaction of the TB and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics, and the emergence of drug-resistant TB. After a long period of neglect, there is now significant progress in development of TB diagnostics and therapeutics. Focusing on treatment for active TB, we review the new pathways to TB regimen development, and the new and repurposed anti-TB agents in clinical development.

2012-01-01

188

Vulval tuberculosis - an unusual presentation of disseminated tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Extrapulmonary involvement can occur in isolation or along with a pulmonary focus as in the case of patients with disseminated tuberculosis. Vulval TB is very rare and the presentation can be quite variable, and may be misdiagnosed as sexually transmitted disease. We herein report a young lady with disseminated TB presenting as Vulval TB. PMID:23781671

Nanjappa, Veena; Suchismitha, R; Devaraj, H S; Shah, Mihir B; Anan, Anju; Rahim, Shani N

2012-12-01

189

Understanding Oral Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

190

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which are...prevent the transmission of tuberculosis, including the following...effective strategies for monitoring programs compliance with...State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, shall...

2010-10-01

191

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which are...prevent the transmission of tuberculosis, including the following...effective strategies for monitoring programs compliance with...State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, shall...

2009-10-01

192

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2013-10-01

193

76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings AGENCY...framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United...revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in...

2011-05-06

194

9 CFR 77.34 - Official tuberculosis tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Official tuberculosis tests. 77.34 Section 77.34...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.34 Official tuberculosis tests. (a) Single cervical...

2010-01-01

195

9 CFR 77.34 - Official tuberculosis tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Official tuberculosis tests. 77.34 Section 77.34...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.34 Official tuberculosis tests. (a) Single cervical...

2009-01-01

196

76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework...framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United...revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in...

2011-07-01

197

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2012-10-01

198

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2011-10-01

199

Postmenopausal Breast Tuberculosis - Report of 4 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon disease even in countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Case Report This is a case series concerning 4 postmenopausal breast tuberculosis cases encountered in Moulay Youssef Hospital between January 2007 and December 2010. Breast tuberculosis represents 0.25% of all hospitalized tuberculosis patients in our department. The mean age of our patients was 62.5 ± 5.8 years. Clinical findings were heterogeneous; 1 case was multifocal tuberculosis, and another case was coexistent tuberculosis and malignancy of the breast. Mammography and ultrasonography findings were suspicious for malignancy in all 4 cases. Fine needle aspiration was negative in 3 cases. The diagnosis was made in all patients by histological examination of biopsy specimens, which revealed typical tuberculous lesions. Anti-tuberculosis therapy formed the mainstay of treatment. Conclusion The clinical and radiological features of mammary tuberculosis can be very confusing and easily mistaken for breast cancer. Symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis warrant a biopsy to exclude possible cancer.

Bouti, Khalid; Soualhi, Mouna; Marc, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Iraqi, Ghali

2012-01-01

200

Tuberculosis IRIS: a mediastinal problem  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 39 year old male patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who developed Mycobacterium tuberculosis related Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) after initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) treatment. The inflammatory response resulted in mediastinal necrotic lymphadenopathy and subsequent perforation of the esophageal wall.

Valentin, Leonardo

2013-01-01

201

Tuberculosis vaccine development: recent progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen a renewed effort to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. As a result, several promising avenues of research have developed, including the production of recombinant vaccines, auxotrophic vaccines, DNA vaccines and subunit vaccines. In this article we briefly review this work, as well as consider the pros and cons of the animal models needed to test these

Ian M. Orme; David N. McMurray; John T. Belisle

2001-01-01

202

Tuberculosis Prevention in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help college health services in all parts of the country improve their approach to latent tuberculosis, two Listservs were provided for them to post their questions on dealing with TB infection. In this article, the authors present some of the questions posted in the Listservs and their corresponding answers. In their answers, the authors have…

Lerman, Stephen J.; Bernardo, John; Daly, Jennifer S.; Husson, Robert

2004-01-01

203

Tuberculosis: medico-legal aspects.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95%) of the latter - which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed - remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of "epidemic" and "disease," it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of "epidemic," and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily-and in some cases permanently-disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

Vetrugno, G; De-Giorgio, F; D'Alessandro, F; Scafetta, I; Berloco, F; Buonsenso, D; Abbate, F; Scalise, G; Pascali, V L; Valentini, P

2014-01-01

204

Tuberculosis: Medico-Legal Aspects  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90–95%) of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—and in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate.

Vetrugno, G.; De-Giorgio, F.; D'Alessandro, F.; Scafetta, I.; Berloco, F.; Buonsenso, D.; Abbate, F.; Scalise, G.; Pascali, V.L.; Valentini, P

2014-01-01

205

Cutaneous Tuberculosis of the Penis and Sexual Transmission of Tuberculosis Confirmed by Molecular Typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of culture-positive primary cutaneous Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the penis was diagnosed in a male patient; 1 year later, endometrial tuberculosis was diagnosed in the patient's wife. These organisms were confirmed to be indistinguishable by use of molecular techniques. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is a relatively uncommon condition in the developed world. It is occasionally associated with other serious underlying

Malcolm Yates; C. Conlon; I. Byren

2001-01-01

206

[Disseminated tuberculosis cutis colliquativa caused by hematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis].  

PubMed

We report on a female patient suffering from tuberculosis cutis colliquativa. The skin lesions were caused by hematogenic dissemination of mycobacteria tuberculosis spreading from the affected urogenital tract. The diagnosis was confirmed by culturing. Combined treatment with tuberculostatic agents for 5 months resulted in complete remission of the tuberculosis. PMID:2080654

Behrendt, H; Korting, H C; Ring, J

1990-11-01

207

Latent tuberculosis: what the host "sees"?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the most successful pathogen of mankind and remains a major threat to global health as the leading cause of death due to a bacterial pathogen. Yet 90–95% of those who are infected with MTB remain otherwise healthy. These people are classified as “latently infected,” but remain a reservoir from which active TB cases will continue to develop (“reactivation tuberculosis”). Latent infection is defined by the absence of clinical symptoms of TB in addition to a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the purified protein derivative of MTB used in tuberculin skin test or a T-cell response to MTB-specific antigens. In the absence of reliable control measures for tuberculosis, understanding latent MTB infection and subsequent reactivation is a research priority. This review aims to summarize the recent findings in human and non-human primate models of tuberculosis that have led to new concepts of latent tuberculosis.

Gideon, Hannah P.

2013-01-01

208

Individual trade-offs between nutrition and risk of interspecific transmission of disease by grazing: cows, badger latrines and bovine tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. We examine whether various measures of herbivore current physiological state (age, breed- ing and immune status) and genetic potential can be used as indicators of exposure to and risk from disease. We use dairy cattle and the risks of tuberculosis (TB) transmission posed to them by pasture contaminated with badger excreta (via the fecal-oral route) as a model

M. Scantlebury; S. Harris; D. J. Allcroft; M. R. Hutchings

2006-01-01

209

Rapid Determination of Ciprofloxacin in Cerebrospinal Fluid by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Direct Sample Injection and its Application in Tuberculosis Meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method with ultraviolet detection at 280 nm is described for analysis of ciprofloxacin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by direct injection without sample pretreatment. The proposed method was applied in one tuberculosis meningitis patient monitoring the concentration of ciprofloxacin in CSF after oral administration of 500 mg of ciprofloxacin after 12 hr. The separation of ciprofloxacin from the CSF

Ju-Yun Ko; Cheng-Ying Chang; Yuan-Han Yang; Su-Hwei Chen

2008-01-01

210

Tuberculosis Treatment in Patients with Comorbidities  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a significant infectious problem in elderly patients with comorbidities in Korea. The age-associated diseases such as malignancy and diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of tuberculosis in this population. The medication treatments of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities can cause adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs and inadequate treatment responses. Thus, clinicians must carefully monitor the toxicity of antituberculosis therapy and the efficacy of treatment in patients with comorbidities.

2014-01-01

211

[Genital tuberculosis--etiologically proved case report].  

PubMed

We report a clinical case of 36 year old woman with genital tuberculosis, who had no correct diagnosis and treatment for nine months. The etiological diagnosis was set after good collaboration between gynaecologists and microbiologists who had been looking for tuberculosis very active. The laboratory identification was based on conventional and new generation methods: fully automated system and modern molecular tests. The patient responded to anti-tuberculosis therapy and her condition improved. PMID:23234037

Bachiiska, E; Manev, S; Atanasova, Y; Jordanova, S; Kantardzhiev, T

2012-01-01

212

TUBERCULOSIS: TIME FOR A NEW PERSPECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues uninterrupted. Pre-exposure vaccination remains a central focus of tuberculosis research but 25 years of follow up is needed to determine whether a novel childhood vaccination regime protects from adult disease, or like BCG assists Mtb dissemination by preventing childhood illness but not infective adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, different strategies to interrupt the life cycle of Mtb need to be explored. This personal perspective discusses alternative approaches that may be delivered in a shorter time frame.

Elkington, Paul T

2013-01-01

213

Tuberculosis--are we missing the diagnosis?  

PubMed

We reviewed the 52 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed at Pusat Pakar Utara, Kedah in 1998. It was found that the majority of the patients had symptoms for many years. They had seen many doctors but were not diagnosed. In 40% of the patients, no investigations for tuberculosis were done and in the others tuberculosis was excluded because of negative sputum smear examination. Many had typical history and X-ray changes suggestive of tuberculosis but more sensitive investigations such as sputum culture for Mycobacterium or bronchoscopy were not performed. Cases are presented to illustrate the problems in the diagnosis. PMID:12188060

Ismail, Y

2002-04-01

214

Neurons Are Host Cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system. PMID:24566619

Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston; Jacobs, Muazzam

2014-05-01

215

[Tuberculosis of the thyroid. Diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

Thyroid tuberculosis is rare. We present the case of a 25 year-old woman with tuberculosis of the thyroid. Although seldom observed, tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nodular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis is made by histological examination and demonstration of the tubercle bacilli from biopsy or aspiration specimen. The efficacy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of tuberculosis of the thyroid is proved. Administration of antituberculous drugs is considered as the treatment of choice. Abscess drainage is sufficient. In rare cases surgery is necessary. The prognosis is good. PMID:12094423

el Malki, H O; el Absi, M; Mohsine, R; Aït Taleb, K; Chefchaouni, M C; Oulbacha, S; Ifrine, L; Belkouchi, A; el Alaoui, H; Maaouni, A; Balafrej, S

2002-05-01

216

Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen. PMID:24391302

Brigden, Grania; Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick P J; Balasegaram, Manica

2014-01-01

217

Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen.

Nyang'wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick PJ; Balasegaram, Manica

2014-01-01

218

Pentacyclic nitrofurans with in vivo efficacy and activity against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The reductively activated nitroaromatic class of antimicrobials, which include nitroimidazole and the more metabolically labile nitrofuran antitubercular agents, have demonstrated some potential for development as therapeutics against dormant TB bacilli. In previous studies, the pharmacokinetic properties of nitrofuranyl isoxazolines were improved by incorporation of the outer ring elements of the antitubercular nitroimidazole OPC-67683. This successfully increased stability of the resulting pentacyclic nitrofuran lead compound Lee1106 (referred to herein as 9a). In the current study, we report the synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 9a and panel of 9a analogs, which were developed to increase oral bioavailability. These hybrid nitrofurans remained potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with favorable selectivity indices (>150) and a narrow spectrum of activity. In vivo, the pentacyclic nitrofuran compounds showed long half-lives and high volumes of distribution. Based on pharmacokinetic testing and lack of toxicity in vivo, 9a remained the series lead. 9a exerted a lengthy post antibiotic effect and was highly active against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis grown under hypoxia. 9a showed a low potential for cross resistance to current antitubercular agents, and a mechanism of activation distinct from pre-clinical tuberculosis candidates PA-824 and OPC-67683. Together these studies show that 9a is a nanomolar inhibitor of actively growing as well as nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. PMID:24505329

Rakesh; Bruhn, David F; Scherman, Michael S; Woolhiser, Lisa K; Madhura, Dora B; Maddox, Marcus M; Singh, Aman P; Lee, Robin B; Hurdle, Julian G; McNeil, Michael R; Lenaerts, Anne J; Meibohm, Bernd; Lee, Richard E

2014-01-01

219

Tuberculosis of the tongue in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate and adalimumab.  

PubMed

In recent years Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF alfa) inhibitors have been highly effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, patients receiving these inhibitors have an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). We describe a rare case of tuberculosis of the tongue in an RA patient treated with methotrexate (MTX) and the TNF alfa inhibitor adalimumab (ADA) for the previous six years. Pretreatment tuberculin skin test (TST) was negative. The patient was admitted to our division complaining of a sore throat for months. Clinical examination revealed a swollen non-healing ulcer at the base of the tongue, which was suspected to be a squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathological assessment unexpectedly revealed a chronic granulomatous inflammation compatible with tuberculosis. TST was strongly positive and the T Spot TB test was also reactive. MTX and ADA were discontinued and the patient received antituberculous treatment with complete healing of the lesion. After three months our patient had a worsening RA that was treated with MTX and rituximab with no TB related adverse events. This case highlights the importance of considering tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions of the oral cavity, especially in immunocompromised patients treated with TNF alfa inhibitors. Rituximab can be a valid alternative therapy in such patients. PMID:24955803

Assante, Luca Rosario; Barra, Enrica; Bocchino, Marialuisa; Zuccarini, Giacomo; Ferrara, Gerardo; Sanduzzi, Alessandro

2014-06-01

220

Nicotine Oral Inhalation  

MedlinePLUS

Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

221

Oral Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Support - Advocacy Research... and Hope About About The Foundation About Us Bruce Paltrow Fund Press Releases TV ... Videos & Images OCF YouTube Channel | The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public ...

222

Oral Cancer Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... in a localized intra oral area. Besides the metastasis, at these later stages, the primary tumor has ... oral cancers. Added to decrease the possibility of metastasis, to sensitize the malignant cells to radiation, to ...

223

Improving protective efficacy of BCG vaccination for wildlife against bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Possums are a wildlife vector of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand. Vaccination of possums with BCG is being considered as a measure to control the spread of bovine tuberculosis to cattle and deer. Delivery via oral bait is feasible but BCG is degraded in the stomach. The aim was to determine whether ranitidine (Zantac) would reduce gastric acidity and enhance the efficacy of intragastrically administered BCG. A dose of 75 mg reduced gastric acidity for at least 4 h. Thus, possums were vaccinated intragastrically with BCG after receiving 75 mg ranitidine or ranitidine or BCG alone, as controls, before challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis. Proliferative responses of blood lymphocytes to M. bovis antigens after vaccination were significantly higher in possums given ranitidine/BCG compared to controls and seven weeks after challenge they had significantly lower lung weights and spleen bacterial counts than ranitidine alone controls. Vaccination with BCG alone only gave a reduction in loss in body weight. Agents that reduce gastric acidity may be useful in formulating BCG for oral bait delivery to wildlife for vaccination against bovine tuberculosis. PMID:15766942

Skinner, M A; Keen, D L; Parlane, N A; Hamel, K L; Yates, G F; Buddle, B M

2005-06-01

224

Development of vaccines against tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Development of an effective vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) hinges on an improved understanding of the human immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A successful vaccination strategy should be able to stimulate the appropriate arm of the immune system with concomitant generation of the memory cells. In the absence of a perfect strategy, while long term efforts of TB researchers continue to resolve the nature of protective immunity against TB and other related issues, the current approach, dictated by the urgency of a TB vaccine, employs available knowledge and technology to develop new TB vaccines and channel the promising ones to clinical trials. While Indian scientists have contributed in several areas towards the development of a TB vaccine, this review is an attempt to summarize their contributions mainly pertaining to the discovery of new antigens, immune responses elicited by antigens against TB and development of new vaccines and their evaluation in animal models. PMID:21334259

Tyagi, Anil K; Nangpal, Prachi; Satchidanandam, Vijaya

2011-09-01

225

Perforation of the hard palate due to tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) of the hard palate is rare and usually secondary to pulmonary TB. We present a case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with difficulty in swallowing solid foods, low-grade fever and loss of weight. Oral cavity examination showed perforation of the hard palate with an irregular, undermined margin and a necrotic base. Chest X-ray showed homogeneous opacity in the right upper zone. Fine-needle aspiration of the cervical lymph nodes showed granular caseous necrosis and granuloma composed of epitheliod cells and histiocytes. In view of the clinical presentation and evidence of pulmonary and lymph node TB, the palatal perforation was most likely due to TB. Patient was started on antituberculous therapy and is on regular follow-up.

Zaki, Syed Ahmed; Bhongade, Swapnil; Vartak, Shailesh S.

2012-01-01

226

Novel approaches in diagnosing tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Gibson, Tim; Anthony, Richard; Claassens, Mareli M.; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

2011-05-01

227

Instrumented stabilization in spinal tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal tuberculosis (TB) produces neurological complications and grotesque spinal deformity, which in children increases even\\u000a with treatment and after achieving healing. Long-standing, severe deformity leads to painful costo-pelvic impingement, respiratory\\u000a distress, risk of developing late-onset paraplegia and consequent reduction in quality and longevity of life. The treatment\\u000a objective is to avoid the sequelae of neural complications and achieve the healed

Anil Kumar Jain; Saurabh Jain

228

Public health aspects of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

This article covers public health aspects of the investigation and management of people who are infected with tuberculosis (TB). It contains a brief overview of the recent epidemiology of TB in Scotland, focusing on changes in Scottish TB incidence and describing some epidemiological associations. We then describe the initial public health assessment of those with suspected TB and responses that should be initiated. It does not address issues relating to the clinical treatment of patients with TB. PMID:22953320

Blatchford, O; Cameron, J C

2012-01-01

229

What Is an Oral Piercing?  

MedlinePLUS

... to your desktop! more... What Is an Oral Piercing? Article Chapters What Is an Oral Piercing? Oral ... strenuous activity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Oral Piercings A Fatal Fad? Tongue Studs Cause More Problems ...

230

[Pulmonary thromboembolism with pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Out of 77 patients who were admitted to our hospital because of pulmonary tuberculosis from January 2007 to October 2009, 3 patients (3.9%) suffered from pulmonary thrombotic embolism (PTE) and/or deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Case 1: An 80-year-old male with elevated D-dimer was diagnosed with PTE on the basis of an enhanced chest CT showing filling defects in the bilateral pulmonary arteries. Case 2: A 39-year-old male presented with prolonged high-grade fever even after administration of anti-tuberculosis drugs and complained of weakness. His D-dimer was high on admission and became still higher; then, edema was found on his left lower limb, and he was diagnosed with DVT on the basis of lower limb ultrasonography showing isoechoic thrombosis from the IVC to the left popliteal vein. An IVC filter was needed to treat his lesion. Case 3: A 69-year-old female with elevated D-dimer and edema on the right lower limb was diagnosed with PTE and DVT on the basis of chest CT findings. Since anti-coagulation therapy could not be continued due to intestinal bleeding, an IVC filter was placed. All 3 cases presented with no dyspnea and two of the three cases showed no hypoxemia. Even in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis without dyspnea, D-dimer seems to be useful for the early diagnosis of thromboembolism. PMID:21922781

Komazaki, Yoshitoshi; Sakakibara, Yumi; Sakashita, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yasunari; Inase, Naohiko

2011-07-01

231

Tuberculosis and female reproductive health.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world and is particularly relevant in developing countries like India where the disease is endemic. Female reproductive system is very vulnerable to this infection and clinical presentation of this disease in female reproductive tract is protean in nature and in a large majority of patients could be completely silent. This disease is an important cause of infertility, menstrual irregularity, pregnancy loss, and in association with pregnancy, morbidity to both the mother and child increases. Some of the effects of TB infection on female genital tract could be remote in nature due to infection elsewhere. Medicines used to treat TB infection can also have adverse effects on contraception and other areas of female reproductive health. HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and increased population migration from developed to developing countries have now added a whole new dimension to this infection. Though new, finer diagnostic tools of detection of TB are increasingly available in the form of bacterial cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostics, suspicion by clinicians remains the main tool for diagnosis of the condition. Hence, doctors need to be properly trained to become "Tuberculosis Minded". PMID:22120860

Ghosh, K; Ghosh, K; Chowdhury, J R

2011-01-01

232

Mandated tuberculosis screening in a community of homeless people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To examine the effects of a community program on tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and transmission requiring users of public facilities to carry cards certifying their compliance with a tuberculosis screening, prophylaxis, and treatment program. Community knowledge of tuberculosis and costs and benefits of the program are described.Setting: A West Coast “skid row” community with historically high rates of tuberculosis, homelessness,

Neal J Rendleman

1999-01-01

233

Early Events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known regarding the early events of infection of humans with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The cynomolgus macaque is a useful model of tuberculosis, with strong similarities to human tuberculosis. In this study, eight cynomolgus macaques were infected bronchoscopically with low-dose M. tuberculosis; clinical, immunologic, microbiologic, and pathologic events were assessed 3 to 6 weeks postinfection. Gross pathological abnormalities were observed

Philana Ling Lin; Santosh Pawar; Amy Myers; A. Pegu; C. Fuhrman; T. A. Reinhart; S. V. Capuano; E. Klein; J. L. Flynn

2006-01-01

234

Vegetarian diet and cobalamin deficiency: their association with tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether the high incidence of tuberculosis among Asiatic Indians in the United Kingdom was due to impaired killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages from patients deficient in cobalamin, a nutritional survey was carried out among 1187 Indians and the incidence of tuberculosis determined from medical records. The question asked was whether tuberculosis was significantly more common among life-long

I Chanarin; E Stephenson

1988-01-01

235

How can immunology contribute to the control of tuberculosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis poses a significant threat to mankind. Multidrug-resistant strains are on the rise, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Satisfactory control of tuberculosis can only be achieved using a highly efficacious vaccine. Tuberculosis is particularly challenging for the immune system. The intracellular location of the pathogen shields it from antibodies, and a variety of

Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

2001-01-01

236

Viability of stressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis and association with multidrug resistance  

PubMed Central

This study investigated biological characteristics of recovered stressed M. tuberculosis isolates that failed to grow in differential culture media for phenotypic identification and in culture media containing anti-tuberculosis drugs for drug-susceptibility testing, despite of having grown in primary culture. It represents an improvement in the diagnosis of MDR tuberculosis and tuberculosis control.

Martins, Maria Conceicao; Giampaglia, Carmen Maria Saraiva; Chimara, Erica; Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira; Vedovello, Danielle; Sakamoto, Sidnei Miyoshi; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine

2013-01-01

237

[Serum adenosine deaminase activity in pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been helpful for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy. However, there are few studies about the role of ADA in the diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary tuberculosis. In our study, serum ADA activity was determined in order to investigate the role of the enzyme in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and monitoring the efficiency of therapy. The ADA activity was (mean +/- SD) 21.77 +/- 8.51 U/L in pulmonary tuberculosis patients (n= 44), 6.24 +/- 3.25 U/L in old tuberculosis patients (n= 24), 8.58 +/- 4.38 U/L in healthy control subjects (n= 20), whereas the mean for the patients with bronchial cancer (n= 20) was 18.51 +/- 7.85 U/L. There was no statistical difference between the results of pulmonary tuberculosis patients and the patients with bronchial cancer. On the contrary, the result of these two group were significantly different from both old tuberculosis patients and healthy control subjects (p< 0.001 for both). In 10 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, ADA activities were determined both before and after treatment and a significant decrease was observed in ADA activities after treatment (p< 0.001). In conclusion, serum ADA activity is increased in pulmonary tuberculosis patients, therefore it may be a helpful parameter for monitoring therapy. PMID:15143406

Alata?, Füsun; Uslu, Sema; Moral, Hale; Alata?, Ozkan; Metinta?, Muzaffer; Erginel, Sinan; Uçgun, Irfan

2003-01-01

238

Prospects for new vaccines against tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectacular failure of the existing bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in recent tuberculosis-control trials has prompted a search for potential replacements. Imaginative approaches currently under development include the modulation of BCG by the production of auxotrophic mutants or cytokine-secreting recombinants, and the development of subunit vaccines based on the major proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Ian M Orme

1995-01-01

239

Chemokines shape the immune responses to tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the intracellular pathogen that causes the disease, tuberculosis. Chemokines and chemokine receptors are key regulators in immune cell recruitment to sites of infection and inflammation. This review highlights our recent advances in understanding the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in cellular recruitment of immune cells to the lung, role in granuloma formation and host defense against Mtb infection.

Slight, Samantha R.; Khader, Shabaana A.

2012-01-01

240

Tuberculosis: Art Therapy with Patients in Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tuberculosis is reappearing with increasing prevalence and presenting new treatment challenges. Art therapy, which partly originated in a tuberculosis sanatoria, again serves to assist patients in coping with their illness and confinement. Case examples illustrate aspects of the disease and related emotions and highlight the potential for such an…

Rosner-David, Irene; Ilusorio, Shereen

1995-01-01

241

Tuberculosis: will it infect wild elk?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tuberculosis! Just the name conjures up images of a devastating, chronic, debilitating disease. And so it is in both humans and animals. Tuberculosis (TB) is not known to be present to any significant degree in the free-ranging elk herds of North America. But increasing reports of TB in deer species-including elk-on game ranches prompt grave concern.

Roffe, T. J.; Smith, B.

1992-01-01

242

Using Peer Helpers for Tuberculosis Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a peer helper program initiated by the University of Iowa Student Health Services to prevent active tuberculosis development among foreign national students. Before instituting the program, compliance with tuberculosis prevention efforts for those students was less than 5%. Since the peer program was instituted, compliance has risen to…

McCue, Maureen; Afifi, Larry Anna

1996-01-01

243

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the host response  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances reported at a recent international meeting highlight insights and controversies in the genetics of M. tuberculosis and the infected host, the nature of protective immune responses, adaptation of the bacillus to host-imposed stresses, animal models, and new techniques.

Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Cole, Stewart T.; Mizrahi, Valerie; Rubin, Eric; Nathan, Carl

2005-01-01

244

Impact of HIV infection on tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is increasing in prevalence in many countries and is now the leading infectious cause of death world wide, being responsible for three million deaths annually. Infection with HIV, likewise increasing in prevalence, has emerged as the most important predisposing factor for developing overt tuberculosis in people co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Owing to the widespread geographical overlap of these two infections, it is estimated that in 1999, HIV related tuberculosis will reach one million cases and will cause 30% of the expected 2.5 million AIDS related deaths. Tuberculosis in HIV infected individuals may have unusual clinical features and can cause diagnostic difficulties. Despite the effectiveness of modern short course treatment, the mortality of HIV related tuberculosis during and after treatment remains high, and this may be due to other HIV related infections. The "cursed duet" of infection with both HIV and M tuberculosis is generating a threat to human health of unparalleled proportions which, if not taken seriously by health workers and decision makers, could become totally unmanageable.???Keywords: HIV; AIDS; tuberculosis

Zumla, A.; Malon, P.; Henderson, J.; Grange, J.

2000-01-01

245

Tuberculosis biomarkers discovery: developments, needs, and challenges.  

PubMed

Biomarkers are indispensable to the development of new tuberculosis therapeutics and vaccines. The most robust biomarkers measure factors that are essential to the underlying pathological process of the disease being treated, and thus can capture the full effects of many types of interventions on clinical outcomes in multiple prospective, randomised clinical trials. Many Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human biomarkers have been studied over the past decade. Present research focuses on three areas: biomarkers predicting treatment efficacy and cure of active tuberculosis, the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection, and the induction of protective immune responses by vaccination. Many older, non-specific markers of inflammation, when considered in isolation, do not have sufficient predictive values for clinical use in tuberculosis. Although no new accurate, tuberculosis-specific biomarkers have yet been discovered, substantial progress has been made in some areas. However, the qualification of biomarkers as a surrogate for a clinical endpoint in tuberculosis is very challenging, and, for biomarkers that are non-culture-based, impossible to pursue without the availability of well characterised biobanks containing biospecimens from patients who have had adequate follow-up to establish long-term treatment outcome. We review progress in tuberculosis biomarker development and efforts being made to harness resources to meet future challenges. PMID:23531389

Wallis, Robert S; Kim, Peter; Cole, Stewart; Hanna, Debra; Andrade, Bruno B; Maeurer, Markus; Schito, Marco; Zumla, Alimuddin

2013-04-01

246

Congenital Tuberculosis Complicated by Interstitial Pulmonary Emphysema  

PubMed Central

We report a case of congenital tuberculosis, a rare entity itself; complicated by pulmonary interstitial emphysema, thus leading to air entrapment in lungs and prolonged oxygen dependence. The diagnosis of congenital tuberculosis is often missed and under-reported due to low index of suspicion and less sensitivity of diagnostic tools.

Singh, Tarsem; Natt, Navreet Kaur; Sharma, Manu; Singh, Harmanjit

2014-01-01

247

Diagnosis and therapy for prostate tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

In its 2012 global report on tuberculosis, the World Health Organization estimated that 3–7% (range 2.1–5.2%) of new cases and 20% (range 13–26%) of previously treated cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (defined as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that are resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid). In many countries in Eastern Europe and central Asia, 9–32% of new patients and more than 50% of previously treated patients have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Ninety-three patients with suspected prostate tuberculosis were enrolled in this study and all underwent prostate biopsy. This method allowed confirmation of diagnosis in 32 patients (34.4%): 23 by histology, six by culture and five by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (among them, two also had positive culture). The efficiency of an optimized scheme for the therapy of prostate tuberculosis (the second part of the study) was estimated in 53 patients. The first group (25 patients) was treated with a standard scheme of chemotherapy; the second group (28 prostate tuberculosis patients) received ofloxacin in addition for 2 months during the intensive phase. The phase continuation in both groups was identical, with rifampicin and isoniazid administered for 6 months. Optimization of the standard therapy by additional administration of ofloxacin improved results of the treatment in 33.8% of patients.

Brizhatyuk, Elena; Khomyakov, Victor

2014-01-01

248

TBNET - Collaborative research on tuberculosis in Europe  

PubMed Central

Networking is a key feature of scientific success. The Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup (TBNET) was founded in 2006 as a non-profit, non-governmental peer-initiated scientific organization to collaboratively address research priorities in the area of tuberculosis in Europe. Today, TBNET is the largest tuberculosis research organization in Europe with nearly 500 members from 22 EU countries and 49 countries worldwide (www.tb-net.org). Apart from small multicenter basic research studies, a particular strength of TBNET is the performance of large collaborative projects, pan-European multicenter studies and database projects. In recent years, research from TBNET has substantially contributed to the understanding of the management, risk and prognosis of patients with multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis and led to a better understanding of the clinical value of novel tests for the identification of adults and children with tuberculosis and latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2009, two branches of TBNET were founded to specifically address tuberculosis in the pediatric population (ptbnet) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases (NTM-NET). In addition to the research activities, TBNET is developing expert consensus documents for clinical management and provides training and capacity building especially for members from Eastern European countries, where tuberculosis is still a prevalent health problem.

Giehl, C.; Duarte, R.; Bothamley, G.; Gerlach, C.; Cirillo, D.M.; Wagner, D.; Kampmann, B.; Goletti, D.; Juers, T.; Sester, M.

2012-01-01

249

[Tuberculosis of larynx--still current problem].  

PubMed

Article presents 4 cases of laryngeal tuberculosis hospitalized in ENT-department of K?odzko Hospital in years 2001-2003, being after-effect of advanced main process in lungs. Attention was turned onto shortcomings in Healt system reform after 1999, unfavourably influencing on early recognizing of new cases of tuberculosis. PMID:16471185

Doma?ska-Strycharska, Ma?gorzata; Czak, Wojciech

2005-01-01

250

Perforation Peritonitis in Primary Intestinal Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary intestinal tuberculosis is unusual in European and North American countries today. Its diagnosis is often surprising and differentiation from inflammatory bowel diseases is difficult. The authors present a rare case of severe stercoral peritonitis caused by multiple intestinal perforations in a patient with primary ileocecal tuberculosis. Initial clinical and laboratory investigations led to the suspicion of inflammatory bowel disease.

R. Šefr; P. Rotterová

2001-01-01

251

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cytochrome P450 System  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of human mortality. The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent, that are resistant to the major frontline antitubercular drugs increases the urgency for the development of new therapeutic agents. Sequencing of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed the existence of twenty cytochrome P450 enzymes, some of which are potential candidates for drug targeting. The recent burst of studies reporting microarray-based gene essentiality and transcriptome analyses under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo conditions highlight the importance of selected P450 isoforms for M. tuberculosis viability and pathogenicity. Current knowledge of the structural and biochemical properties of the M. tuberculosis P450 enzymes and their putative redox partners is reviewed, with an emphasis on findings related to their physiological function(s) as well as their potential as drug targets.

Ouellet, Hugues; Johnston, Jonathan B.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

2009-01-01

252

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome P450 system.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of human mortality. The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent, that are resistant to the major frontline antitubercular drugs increases the urgency for the development of new therapeutic agents. Sequencing of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed the existence of 20 cytochrome P450 enzymes, some of which are potential candidates for drug targeting. The recent burst of studies reporting microarray-based gene essentiality and transcriptome analyses under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo conditions highlight the importance of selected P450 isoforms for M. tuberculosis viability and pathogenicity. Current knowledge of the structural and biochemical properties of the M. tuberculosis P450 enzymes and their putative redox partners is reviewed, with an emphasis on findings related to their physiological function(s) as well as their potential as drug targets. PMID:19635450

Ouellet, Hugues; Johnston, Jonathan B; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

2010-01-01

253

Extrapulmonary disseminated tuberculosis with tuberculous adrenalitis: a stitch in time saves nine.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old manual labourer presented with easy fatiguability, recurrent vomiting and loss of weight of 3 months, duration. Upon examination, there was significant axillary and cervical lymphadenopathy. No pallor, icterus or clubbing was evident. There was generalised hyperpigmentation and multiple oral ulcers. The blood pressure 90/60 mm Hg in the right upper limb in the supine position. Investigations showed a low serum cortisol. Mantoux test was strongly positive (20 mm).A fine needle aspiration biopsy of the cervical lymph node revealed reactive changes. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were normal. Cervical lymph node biopsy showed caseating granulomas suggestive of tuberculous lymphadenitis. A CT scan of the abdomen showed bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands with hypodense areas suggestive of necrosis. He was diagnosed with extrapulmonary disseminated tuberculosis with tuberculous adrenalitis. He was started on directly observed therapy (DOTS) for disseminated tuberculosis and 40 mg of prednisolone. He is improving with treatment. PMID:23687365

Rajasekharan, Chandrasekharan; Ajithkumar, Sivasankarannair; Anto, Varghese; Parvathy, Rajasekharan

2013-01-01

254

Risk of Progression to Active Tuberculosis Following Reinfection With Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

(See the Editorial Commentary by Vernon and Villarino, on pages 792–3.) Background.?The risk of progression to active tuberculosis is greatest in the several years following initial infection. The extent to which latent tuberculosis infection reduces the risk of progressive disease following reexposure and reinfection is not known. Indirect estimates from population models have been highly variable. Methods.?We reviewed prospective cohort studies of persons exposed to individuals with infectious tuberculosis that were published prior to the widespread treatment of latent tuberculosis to estimate the incidence of tuberculosis among individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI group) and without latent tuberculosis (uninfected; UI group). We calculated the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of tuberculosis disease following infection between these 2 groups. We then adjusted incidence for expected reactivation, proportion of each group that was infected, and median time of observation following infection during the study. Results.?We identified 18 publications reporting tuberculosis incidence among 23 paired cohorts of individuals with and without latent infection (total N = 19 886). The weighted mean adjusted incidence rate of tuberculosis in the LTBI and UI groups attributable to reinfection was 13.5 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.0–26.2 per 1000 person-years) and that attributable to primary infection was 60.1 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 38.6–87.4 per 1000 person-years). The adjusted IRR for tuberculosis in the LTBI group compared with the UI group was 0.21 (95% CI: .14–.30). Conclusions.?Individuals with latent tuberculosis had 79% lower risk of progressive tuberculosis after reinfection than uninfected individuals. The risk reduction estimated in this study is greater than most previous estimates made through population models.

Noubary, Farzad; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Cerda, Rodrigo; Losina, Elena; Horsburgh, C. Robert

2012-01-01

255

Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa: a case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Eosinophilic Ulcer (EU) is a rare self-limiting chronic benign lesion of the oral mucosa with pathogenesis still unclear, however it may resemble malignancies, traumatic ulcerations and some infections such as deep fungal infections, tuberculosis and primary syphilis. This is a case report of a patient with EU in the lateral border of the tongue with no history of associated trauma and refractory to treatment with drugs. The ulcer rapidly healed after an incisional biopsy and the definite diagnosis was achieved only combining histologic findings and the clinical follow-up.

Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Capella, Diogo L.; Manfro, Gabriel; Nodari, Rudy Jose; Presta, Andreia Antoniuk

2012-01-01

256

Childhood tuberculosis in Lambaréné, Gabon: tuberculosis control in its infancy?  

PubMed

Central Africa is a region highly affected by the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic; however, data on local epidemiology are scarce. In the quest for gearing up towards tailored interventions, assessment of local baseline situations is mandatory. We conducted a retrospective study of 62 children registered in the TB register of a hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon. The evaluation revealed a discrepancy between the TB burden and the commitment to control TB. Extrapolation of the incidence suggests an unexpectedly high childhood TB burden, assuming that the official overall TB incidence is an underestimate of the true TB burden in Gabon. PMID:24037689

Flamen, A; Bélard, S; Kokou, C; Janssen, S; Grobusch, M P

2014-02-01

257

T-Cell Immunophenotyping Distinguishes Active From Latent Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background.?Changes in the phenotype and function of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to stage of infection may allow discrimination between active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. Methods.?A prospective comparison of M. tuberculosis-specific cellular immunity in subjects with active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection, with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to measure CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subset phenotype and secretion of interferon ? (IFN-?), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). Results.?Frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ cells secreting IFN-?-only, TNF-?-only and dual IFN-?/TNF-? were greater in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection. All M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ subsets, with the exception of IL-2-only cells, switched from central to effector memory phenotype in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection, accompanied by a reduction in IL-7 receptor ? (CD127) expression. The frequency of PPD-specific CD4+ TNF-?-only-secreting T cells with an effector phenotype accurately distinguished active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection with an area under the curve of 0.99, substantially more discriminatory than measurement of function alone. Conclusions.?Combined measurement of T-cell phenotype and function defines a highly discriminatory biomarker of tuberculosis disease activity. Unlocking the diagnostic and monitoring potential of this combined approach now requires validation in large-scale prospective studies.

Pollock, Katrina M.; Whitworth, Hilary S.; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J.; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S.; Kapembwa, Moses S.; Kon, Onn M.; Sampson, Robert D.; Taylor, Graham P.; Lalvani, Ajit

2013-01-01

258

Live Attenuated Salmonella Vaccines Displaying Regulated Delayed Lysis and Delayed Antigen Synthesis To Confer Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains have great potential to induce protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by delivering M. tuberculosis antigens. Recently, we reported that, in orally immunized mice, RASV strains delivering the M. tuberculosis early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa (ESAT-6) protein and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) antigens via the Salmonella type III secretion system (SopE amino-terminal region residues 1 to 80 with two copies of ESAT-6 and one copy of CFP-10 [SopENt80-E2C]) afforded protection against aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis. Here, we constructed and evaluated an improved Salmonella vaccine against M. tuberculosis. We constructed translational fusions for the synthesis of two copies of ESAT-6 plus CFP-10 fused to the OmpC signal sequence (OmpCSS-E2C) and amino acids 44 to 338 of antigen 85A (Ag85A294) flanked by the signal sequence (SS) and C-terminal peptide (CT) of ?-lactamase (BlaSS-Ag85A294-BlaCT) to enable delivery via the Salmonella type II secretion system. The genes expressing these proteins were cloned as an operon transcribed from Ptrc into isogenic Asd+/MurA+ pYA3681 lysis vector derivatives with different replication origins (pBR, p15A, pSC101), resulting in pYA4890, pYA4891, and pYA4892 for SopENt80-E2C/Ag85A294 synthesis and pYA4893 and pYA4894 for OmpCSS-E2C/Ag85A294 synthesis. Mice orally immunized with the RASV ?11021 strain engineered to display regulated delayed lysis and regulated delayed antigen synthesis in vivo and harboring pYA4891, pYA4893, or pYA4894 elicited significantly greater humoral and cellular immune responses, and the RASV ?11021 strain afforded a greater degree of protection against M. tuberculosis aerosol challenge in mice than RASVs harboring any other Asd+/MurA+ lysis plasmid and immunization with M. bovis BCG, demonstrating that RASV strains displaying regulated delayed lysis with delayed antigen synthesis resulted in highly immunogenic delivery vectors for oral vaccination against M. tuberculosis infection.

Juarez-Rodriguez, Maria Dolores; Yang, Jiseon; Kader, Rebin; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy

2012-01-01

259

[Case of tuberculosis-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in a hemodialysis patient under steroid therapy].  

PubMed

A 70-year-old woman was referred and admitted to our hospital with fever of unknown etiology. She had a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Ten weeks before admission she was diagnosed with acute renal failure caused by crescentic glomerulonephritis. Oral steroid therapy was not effective and she required dialysis. On admission, she was started on empiric antibiotic treatment, with the suspicion of bacterial infection. On the 3rd hospital day, she developed sudden hypotension and underwent direct hemoperfusion with a polymyxin B immobilized fiber. Soon after, her blood pressure normalised. Her inflammatory level apparently then improved in terms of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein, although severe fatigue and liver dysfunction persisted. On the 17th hospital day, her blood pressure went down again, accompanied by progressive pancytopenia and significant increase in serum vitamin B12, lactate dehydrogenase and uric acid. The patient was transmitted to the intensive care unit where she received bone marrow aspiration. The result revealed marked hemophagocytosis. Suspecting lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), we administered high-dose steroid and combination chemotherapy. The treatment had no effect, and the patient died on the 21st hospital day. The autopsy demonstrated a large number of tuberculous bacilli, marked hemophagocytosis and necrosis without granuloma formation in multiple organs, leading to the pathological diagnosis of tuberculosis-associated HPS. Tuberculosis in one of the major causes for morbidity and mortality in hemodialyzed patients. It often shows atypical clinical manifestation and is difficult to diagnose. HPS in general runs a mild course unless it is lymphoma or EB virus-associated. This case seemed like bacterial infection improved with antibiotics but turned out to be a rapidly progressive tuberculosis-associated HPS. A careful examination and extensive laboratory workup is necessary to rule out tuberculosis, particularly in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:19999590

Hori, Mayuko; Yoshida, Reiko; Aoyama, Isao; Ichida, Sizunori

2009-01-01

260

Pharmacokinetics and dose response of anti-TB drugs in rat infection model of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Robust and physiologically relevant infection models are required to investigate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) correlations for anti-tuberculosis agents at preclinical discovery. We have validated an inhalation-based rat infection model of tuberculosis harbouring mycobacteria in a replicating state, that is suitable for investigating pharmacokinetics and drug action of anti-tubercular agents. A reproducible and actively replicating lung infection was established in Wistar rats by inhalation of a series of graded inocula of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Following an initial instillation of ?10(5) log10 CFU/lung, M. tuberculosis grew logarithmically for the first 3 weeks, and then entered into a chronic phase with no net increase in pulmonary bacterial loads. Dose response of front-line anti-TB drugs was investigated following pharmacokinetic measurements in the plasma of infected rats. Rifampicin, Isoniazid, and Ethambutol dosed per orally exhibited bactericidality and good dose response with maximal effect of 5.66, 4.66, and 4.80 log10 CFU reductions in the lungs, respectively. In contrast, Pyrazinamide was merely bacteriostatic with 1.92 log10 CFU/lung reduction and did not reduce the bacterial burden beyond the initial bacterial loads present at beginning of treatment in spite of high Pyrazinamide blood levels. Rat infection model with actively replicating bacilli provides a physiologically distinct and pharmacologically relevant model that can be exploited to distinguish investigational compounds in to bacteriostatic or bactericidal scaffolds. We propose that this rat infection model though need more drug substance, can be used in early discovery settings to investigate pharmacology of novel anti-tubercular agents for the treatment of active pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:24629633

Kumar, Naveen; Vishwas, K G; Kumar, Mahesh; Reddy, Jitendar; Parab, Manish; Manikanth, C L; Pavithra, B S; Shandil, R K

2014-05-01

261

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will be held to have reached...complete arrestâ when a diagnosis of inactive is made...arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence...

2009-07-01

262

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had pulmonary tuberculosis will be held to have reached...complete arrestâ when a diagnosis of inactive is made...arrest of nonpulmonary tuberculosis requires absence...

2010-07-01

263

Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces pili during human infection  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for nearly 3 million human deaths worldwide every year. Understanding the mechanisms and bacterial factors responsible for the ability of M. tuberculosis to cause disease in humans is critical for the development of improved treatment strategies. Many bacterial pathogens use pili as adherence factors to colonize the host. We discovered that M. tuberculosis produces fine (2- to 3-nm-wide), aggregative, flexible pili that are recognized by IgG antibodies contained in sera obtained from patients with active tuberculosis, indicating that the bacilli produce pili or pili-associated antigen during human infection. Purified M. tuberculosis pili (MTP) are composed of low-molecular-weight protein subunits encoded by the predicted M. tuberculosis H37Rv ORF, designated Rv3312A. MTP bind to the extracellular matrix protein laminin in vitro, suggesting that MTP possess adhesive properties. Isogenic mtp mutants lost the ability to produce Mtp in vitro and demonstrated decreased laminin-binding capabilities. MTP shares morphological, biochemical, and functional properties attributed to bacterial pili, especially with curli amyloid fibers. Thus, we propose that MTP are previously unidentified host-colonization factors of M. tuberculosis.

Alteri, Christopher J.; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Hess, Sonja; Caballero-Olin, Guillermo; Giron, Jorge A.; Friedman, Richard L.

2007-01-01

264

Oral Delivery of Taxanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is tobe preferred as this administration routeis convenient to patients, reducesadministration costs and facilitates theuse of more chronic treatment regimens. Forthe taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel,however, low oral bioavailability haslimited development of treatment by theoral route. Preclinical studies with mdr1aP-glycoprotein knock-out mice, which lackfunctional P-glycoprotein activity in thegut, have shown significant bioavailabilityof orally administered paclitaxel.Additional studies

Mirte M. Malingré; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens

2001-01-01

265

Bovine tuberculosis vaccine research: historical perspectives and recent advances.  

PubMed

The emergence of wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle as well as increased inter-regional trade with associated spread of M. bovis has led to renewed interest in the use of vaccines for the control of bovine tuberculosis (TB). Field efficacy trials performed in the early 20th century demonstrated the partial effectiveness of bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for the control of bovine TB. Recent experimental trials with cattle have demonstrated that: (1) subunit vaccines may boost immunity elicited by BCG in cattle, (2) T cell central memory immune responses evoked by protective vaccines correlate with protection upon subsequent M. bovis challenge, (3) BCG is particularly protective when administered to neonates, and (4) differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is feasible in cattle using in vitro or in vivo methods. In regards to wildlife reservoirs, the efficacy of BCG delivered orally has been demonstrated for brushtail possums (in field trials) as well as Eurasian badgers, wild boar, and white-tailed deer (each in experimental challenge studies). Vaccine delivery to wildlife reservoirs will primarily be oral, although a parenteral route is being deployed for badgers in England. Vaccine efficacy trials, both experimental challenge and field studies, with cattle and their wildlife reservoirs represent a primary example of the one health approach, with outcomes relevant for both veterinary and medical applications. PMID:22342705

Waters, W Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V; Buddle, Bryce M; Vordermeier, H Martin

2012-03-30

266

[Diagnostic delay in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Delay in pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis prolongs the period of time in which a patient is infectious, promoting tuberculosis transmission. We quantified diagnostic delay and examined delay associated factors in a regional wide case-control study set in Emilia-Romagna. A total 55 days median delay, with no significant difference between native and foreign-born patients, was observed in this study. Longer delay was observed when a general practitioner was consulted as first provider and when clinical picture was not fully manifest. This study points out the need of improving physicians' awareness of tuberculosis disease especially when they care for elderly people and foreign-born patients. PMID:12677785

Moro, Maria Luisa; Resi, Davide; Mezzetti, Francesca; Borrini, Bianca Maria

2003-04-01

267

Obstructive jaundice: a manifestation of pancreatic tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of the pancreas is extremely rare and is most often associated with miliary tuberculosis or occurs in the immunocompromised patients. A case of isolated pancreatic tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient is presented with constitutional symptoms and obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computerised tomography showed a mass lesion in the head of pancreas. Histological examination of the peripancreatic lymph node and fine needle aspiration cytology from the head of pancreas confirmed the diagnosis following laparotomy. Patient recovered following the administration of antituberculosis chemotherapy. PMID:17824465

Pandya, Garvi; Dixit, Ramakant; Shelat, Vishal; Dixit, Kalpana; Shah, Nalin; Shah, Kusum

2007-03-01

268

Mycobacterium tuberculosis wears what it eats  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most pernicious of human pathogens. Current vaccines are ineffective and drugs, although efficacious, require prolonged treatment with constant medical oversight. Overcoming these problems requires a greater appreciation of M. tuberculosis in the context of its host. Upon infection of either macrophages in culture or animal models, the bacterium re-aligns its metabolism in response to the new environments it encounters. Understanding these environments, and the stresses that they place on M. tuberculosis, should provide insights invaluable for the development of new chemo- and immuno-therapeutic strategies.

Russell, David G.; VanderVen, Brian C.; Lee, Wonsik; Abramovitch, Robert B.; Kim, Mijeong; Homolka, Susanne; Niemann, Stefan; Rohde, Kyle H.

2010-01-01

269

Miliary tuberculosis in British Columbia  

PubMed Central

The case records were studied of all 48 patients with miliary tuberculosis registered by the British Columbia Division of Tuberculosis Control between 1967 and 1971. Two groups of patients were found, one group of 30 in whom the diagnosis was made during life and antituberculous therapy instituted, and a second group of 18 patients in whom the diagnosis was made only at autopsy and who had received no antituberculous therapy. In the latter group there was a particularly high incidence of concomitant disease; additionally, tuberculin testing, bacteriological search for acid-fast bacilli and chest radiography were frequently neglected. This group consisted mainly of elderly male Caucasians. The disease was characteristically insidious in onset, frequently with non-specific symptoms and physical findings. Fever was a common presenting symptom. Several patients presented with a fulminant illness which, although diagnosed, was not affected by antituberculous therapy and was rapidly fatal. North American Indians showed a high incidence of disease but a low mortality rate, probably owing to their younger age.

Campbell, Ian G.

1973-01-01

270

Peritoneal tuberculosis mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old male presented with fatigue, abdominal pain , and 30-pound weight loss over 3 months. Computerized tomography (CT) abdomen displayed ascites with thickening and enhancement of the peritoneum and mottled nodular appearing as soft tissue consistent with omental caking worrisome for peritoneal carcinomatosis. A paracentesis revealed white blood cell count of 2,500 with 98% lymphocytes and serum ascites albumin gradient of 0.9?g/L. No acid-fast bacilli were seen by microscopic exam and culture was negative. Purified protein derivative skin test (PPD) was negative and CXR did not reveal any infiltrates. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy were unrevealing. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with round ligament and peritoneal biopsies that revealed numerous necrotizing granulomas. Acid-fast bacteria Ziehl-Neelsen stain (AFB) of the biopsy specimen revealed single acid-fast bacilli. Treatment for M. tuberculosis was initiated and final culture revealed that mycobacterium tuberculosis was sensitive to Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. After 6 months of treatment, the ascites and peritoneal carcinomatosis resolved. PMID:24715911

Akce, Mehmet; Bonner, Sarah; Liu, Eugene; Daniel, Rebecca

2014-01-01

271

Tuberculosis among health care workers.  

PubMed

To assess the annual risk for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among health care workers (HCWs), the incidence rate ratio for tuberculosis (TB) among HCWs worldwide, and the population-attributable fraction of TB to exposure of HCWs in their work settings, we reviewed the literature. Stratified pooled estimates for the LTBI rate for countries with low (<50 cases/100,000 population), intermediate (50-100/100,000 population), and high (>100/100,000 population) TB incidence were 3.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0%-4.6%), 6.9% (95% CI 3.4%-10.3%), and 8.4% (95% CI 2.7%-14.0%), respectively. For TB, estimated incident rate ratios were 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-3.6), 2.4 (95% CI 1.0-3.8), and 3.7 (95% CI 2.9-4.5), respectively. Median estimated population-attributable fraction for TB was as high as 0.4%. HCWs are at higher than average risk for TB. Sound TB infection control measures should be implemented in all health care facilities with patients suspected of having infectious TB. PMID:21392441

Baussano, Iacopo; Nunn, Paul; Williams, Brian; Pivetta, Emanuele; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Scano, Fabio

2011-03-01

272

Pleural tuberculosis mimicking inflammatory pseudotumour.  

PubMed

A pseudotumour is a rare presentation of bronchopulmonary tuberculosis which occurs in immunocompetent patients, which can simulate malignancy, both clinically and radiologically, and may cause delay in its diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of bronchopulmonary pseudotumours was found to vary from 2-4%, as was seen in various studies. A mycobacterial pseudotumour of the pleura is a rare entity. We are reporting a case of a pleura based tubercular pseudotumour in a 59 years old patient who presented with a four month history of the nonspecific symptoms of cough and chest pain. The radiological investigations showed that a pleural based mass lesion was occupying the right lower hemithorax. The initial biopsy was suggestive of a hyalinizing variant of an inflammatory pseudotumour. The follow-up surgical resected mass was consistent with the features of a tubercular granuloma. The clinical presentation and the histopathological findings have been presented, with a brief review of the literature. Due to its varied and unusual presentation, bronchopulmonary tuberculosis should always be kept in mind when a patient with a similar clinical and a radiological picture is being evaluated. PMID:23730653

P, Arul; Varghese, Renu G'boy; Ramdas, Anita

2013-04-01

273

Pleural Tuberculosis Mimicking Inflammatory Pseudotumour  

PubMed Central

A pseudotumour is a rare presentation of bronchopulmonary tuberculosis which occurs in immunocompetent patients, which can simulate malignancy, both clinically and radiologically, and may cause delay in its diagnosis and treatment. The incidence of bronchopulmonary pseudotumours was found to vary from 2-4%, as was seen in various studies. A mycobacterial pseudotumour of the pleura is a rare entity. We are reporting a case of a pleura based tubercular pseudotumour in a 59 years old patient who presented with a four month history of the nonspecific symptoms of cough and chest pain. The radiological investigations showed that a pleural based mass lesion was occupying the right lower hemithorax. The initial biopsy was suggestive of a hyalinizing variant of an inflammatory pseudotumour. The follow-up surgical resected mass was consistent with the features of a tubercular granuloma. The clinical presentation and the histopathological findings have been presented, with a brief review of the literature. Due to its varied and unusual presentation, bronchopulmonary tuberculosis should always be kept in mind when a patient with a similar clinical and a radiological picture is being evaluated.

P., Arul; Varghese, Renu G'boy; Ramdas, Anita

2013-01-01

274

Epidemiological basis of tuberculosis eradication  

PubMed Central

It is a general clinical experience that prognosis varies not only from one disease to another, but also between different categories of patients suffering from the same disease. The object of the study reported was to demonstrate quantitatively how the prognosis of respiratory tuberculosis depends upon the patient's age and sex and upon the severity of disease at the time of diagnosis. Based as it is upon a follow-up through the years 1961-64 of all respiratory tuberculosis patients in Denmark, the study also provides an epidemiological characterization of the course of the disease in northern Europe today. Two aspects of prognosis are considered: the patients' mortality and their curability. A convenient prognosis index for a group of patients, combining the two aspects, is obtained by expressing the number of patients dying before cure as a percentage of the initial size of the group. The comparison between various patient-categories in the study material is made partly by means of this index and partly by means of annual death and cure rates.

Iversen, Erik

1967-01-01

275

Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin and levofloxacin for prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children.  

PubMed

Limited data on fluoroquinolone pharmacokinetics and cardiac effects in children exist. Among 22 children receiving drug-resistant tuberculosis prophylaxis or treatment, serum concentrations following oral doses of levofloxacin (15 mg/kg of body weight) and ofloxacin (20 mg/kg) were lower than those expected from existing pediatric data, possibly due to differences in the formulations (crushed tablets). Drug exposures were lower than those in adults following standard doses and below the proposed pharmacodynamic targets, likely due to more rapid elimination in children. No QT prolongation was observed. PMID:24550337

Thee, S; Garcia-Prats, A J; McIlleron, H M; Wiesner, L; Castel, S; Norman, J; Draper, H R; van der Merwe, P L; Hesseling, A C; Schaaf, H S

2014-05-01

276

Inhaled Microparticles Containing Clofazimine Are Efficacious in Treatment of Experimental Tuberculosis in Mice  

PubMed Central

Inhalable clofazimine-containing dry powder microparticles (CFM-DPI) and native clofazimine (CFM) were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocyte-derived macrophage cultures and in mice infected with a low-dose aerosol. Both formulations resulted in 99% killing at 2.5 ?g/ml in vitro. In mice, 480 ?g and 720 ?g CFM-DPI inhaled twice per week over 4 weeks reduced numbers of CFU in the lung by as much as log10 2.6; 500 ?g oral CFM achieved a log10 0.7 reduction.

Verma, Rahul Kumar; Germishuizen, Willem A.; Motheo, M. Portia; Agrawal, Atul Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mohan, Mradul; Gupta, Pushpa; Gupta, Umesh Datta; Cholo, Moloko; Anderson, Ronald

2013-01-01

277

Evaluating Tuberculosis Case Detection via Real-Time Monitoring of Tuberculosis Diagnostic Services  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Tuberculosis case-detection rates are below internationally established targets in high-burden countries. Real-time monitoring and evaluation of adherence to widely endorsed standards of tuberculosis care might facilitate improved case finding. Objectives: To monitor and evaluate the quality of tuberculosis case-detection and management services in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Methods: We prospectively evaluated tuberculosis diagnostic services at five primary health-care facilities in Uganda for 1 year, after introducing a real-time, electronic performance-monitoring system. We collected data on every clinical encounter, and measured quality using indicators derived from the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care. Measurements and Main Results: In 2009, there were 62,909 adult primary-care visits. During the first quarter of 2009, clinicians referred only 21% of patients with cough greater than or equal to 2 weeks for sputum smear microscopy and only 71% of patients with a positive sputum examination for tuberculosis treatment. These proportions increased to 53% and 84%, respectively, in the fourth quarter of 2009. The cumulative probability that a smear-positive patient with cough greater than or equal to 2 weeks would be appropriately evaluated and referred for treatment rose from 11% to 34% (P = 0.005). The quarterly number of tuberculosis cases identified and prescribed treatment also increased four-fold, from 5 to 21. Conclusions: Poor adherence to internationally accepted standards of tuberculosis care improved after introduction of real-time performance monitoring and was associated with increased tuberculosis case detection. Real-time monitoring and evaluation can strengthen health systems in low-income countries and facilitate operational research on the effectiveness and sustainability of interventions to improve tuberculosis case detection.

Davis, JLucian; Katamba, Achilles; Vasquez, Josh; Crawford, Erin; Sserwanga, Asadu; Kakeeto, Stella; Kizito, Fred; Dorsey, Grant; den Boon, Saskia; Vittinghoff, Eric; Huang, Laurence; Adatu, Francis; Kamya, Moses R; Hopewell, Philip C; Cattamanchi, Adithya

2011-01-01

278

Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: molecular perspectives.  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis seriously threaten tuberculosis (TB) control and prevention efforts. Molecular studies of the mechanism of action of antitubercular drugs have elucidated the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is attributed primarily to the accumulation of mutations in the drug target genes; these mutations lead either to an altered target (e.g., RNA polymerase and catalase-peroxidase in rifampicin and isoniazid resistance, respectively) or to a change in titration of the drug (e.g., InhA in isoniazid resistance). Development of specific mechanism-based inhibitors and techniques to rapidly detect multidrug resistance will require further studies addressing the drug and drug-target interaction.

Rattan, A.; Kalia, A.; Ahmad, N.

1998-01-01

279

Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication, Reported Tuberculosis in the United States, 2006, presents summary data for TB cases reported to DTBE, verified, and counted in 2006. It is similar to previous publications and contains six major sections. The first section presents tren...

2006-01-01

280

[Tuberculosis of the breast. A case report].  

PubMed

Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis, in developed nations its prevalence is 0.1%. In undeveloped nations it is between 3 and 4%. Less frequently breast tuberculosis cases are presented. Some texts deals with simple mastectomy cases understood as breast cancer (6, 8, 9). There is a case. She is a 35 years old woman; she is from Piedras Clavadas, Tihuatlán. She belongs to high prevalence tuberculosis community, and she has not received BCG vaccine. She presents painful tumor which has developed during 3 months in her left breast, and armpit adenomegaly. The ultrasonography report presents back breast abscesses and low response to antibiotic treatment. Chronic granulomatous mastitis with focal cheesy necrosis and isoleted Langhans' giant cells responding positively to antituberculosis treatment are reported by the biopsy. PMID:19681369

Ochoa Aguilar, Manuel Antonio; Ortiz Martínez, Juan David

2009-06-01

281

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB)  

MedlinePLUS

... or more of the primary drugs (isoniazied and rifampin) used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Extensively drug- ... is TB resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin among the first-line anti-TB drugs and ...

282

Virulence factors of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex  

PubMed Central

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) consists of closely related species that cause tuberculosis in both humans and animals. This illness, still today, remains to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The mycobacteria enter the host by air, and, once in the lungs, are phagocytated by macrophages. This may lead to the rapid elimination of the bacillus or to the triggering of an active tuberculosis infection. A large number of different virulence factors have evolved in MTBC members as a response to the host immune reaction. The aim of this review is to describe the bacterial genes/proteins that are essential for the virulence of MTBC species, and that have been demonstrated in an in vivo model of infection. Knowledge of MTBC virulence factors is essential for the development of new vaccines and drugs to help manage the disease toward an increasingly more tuberculosis-free world.

Forrellad, Marina A.; Klepp, Laura I.; Gioffre, Andrea; Sabio y Garcia, Julia; Morbidoni, Hector R.; Santangelo, Maria de la Paz; Cataldi, Angel A.; Bigi, Fabiana

2013-01-01

283

Adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

Although tuberculosis is a recognised cause of adrenal insufficiency, little is known about adrenal function in patients with active tuberculosis. Ninety Melanesian adults with active tuberculosis (30 pulmonary, 30 miliary, 30 extrapulmonary) had adrenal function assessed prospectively before and three to four weeks after starting antituberculous chemotherapy. Basal serum cortisol concentrations were normal in 55 (61%) and raised in 35 (39%) of the subjects. No patient had a low basal cortisol concentration. After Synacthen stimulation, cortisol responses were normal in 81 (92%) of the patients and subnormal in seven (8%). After antituberculous chemotherapy the response to Synacthen stimulation was normal in all but one patient. It is concluded that adrenal dysfunction is an uncommon problem in patients with active tuberculosis, and that, contrary to recent reports, antituberculous chemotherapy regimens that include rifampicin do not have an adverse effect on adrenal function.

Barnes, D J; Naraqi, S; Temu, P; Turtle, J R

1989-01-01

284

Sarcoidosis in tuberculosis-endemic regions: India  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. Earlier reports suggested that sarcoidosis was a disease of the developed world. However, recent reports suggest that the disease is found in the developing countries as well. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis pose a great challenge in countries endemic for tuberculosis. Mantoux test, high resolution computed tomography, and transbronchial lymph node and lung biopsies are diagnostic modalities, which play an important role in the diagnosis of sarcoid. In this review, we look at the epidemiology of sarcoid in tuberculosis-endemic regions, the sarcoidosis-tuberculosis link, clinical profile, diagnostic modalities, dilemma in the diagnosis, and the treatment of this disease.

2013-01-01

285

Cutaneous tuberculosis and squamous-cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The incidence of all forms of cutaneous tuberculosis, including lupus vulgaris (the most common form) decreased progressively in developed countries during the twentieth century, this change being attributed to improved living standards and specific therapy. Despite the decrease in cutaneous tuberculosis, some cases are still found and correct diagnosis and management are fundamental, both for the patients and for public health. Long lasting, misdiagnosed or untreated cutaneous tuberculosis may lead to different forms of cancer. This case report involves a 74-year old male farmer with lupus vulgaris on his face. During anti-tuberculosis treatment he developed a tumor on his forehead, which was histologically confirmed as a squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:21738972

Ljubenovic, Milanka S; Ljubenovic, Dragisa B; Binic, Ivana I; Jankovic, Aleksandar S; Jancic, Snezana A

2011-01-01

286

Materiality and oral documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available orally. As a strategy to increase understanding of oral information, Turner asserted that it can emerge

Deborah Turner; Warren Allen

2011-01-01

287

Parotid tuberculosis associated with cutaneous tuberculosis on a medial epicanthus.  

PubMed

An 83-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a gradually enlarging, reddish, crusted papule on her left medial epicanthus. Her medical history did not reveal any systemic disease. She gave no personal history of tuberculosis or any systemic symptoms, such as night sweat, weight loss, and pulmonary abnormalities. Her husband had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis 30 years ago. A dermatologic examination revealed a 2.5 x 1.2-cm nontender, erythematous plaque with fine, white adherent scales on the left medial epicanthus (figure 1A). All laboratory values were within the normal range. Results from a tuberculin skin test were initially negative. A skin biopsy was performed, and a pathological examination demonstrated multiple noncaseating granulomas with various diameters in the reticular dermis and an infiltrate of neutrophils and lymphocytes in the surrounding dermis (figure 2). Periodic acid-Schiff, Ziehl-Nilsen, gram, and giemsa stains were negative for any microorganism. Leishman-Donovan-like bodies were observed within the epitheloid histiocytes that formed the granulomas. The pathological diagnosis was granulomatous dermatitis. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) based on her clinical appearance and histopathological findings, although the parasite was not detected in the tissue specimens. Treatment with intralesional glucantime for 5 consecutive weeks did not improve her condition. By the end of the fifth week, the patient developed asymptomatic facial swelling and a 1.5 x 1.2-cm erythematous plaque in the left parotid area (figure 1B). An ultrasonographic examination demonstrated a 13 x 11 x 17-mm hypoechoic mass, which suggested pleomorphic adenoma. In addition, lymph nodes, the largest of which were 9 x 10 mm, were noted in the left cervical area. A skin biopsy from the erythematous plaque of the left parotid area demonstrated diffuse neutrophilic infiltration with formation of focal granulomas. Tuberculosis was suspected, and mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) was isolated from the culture. A tuberculin skin test was performed again, which was positive (12 mm). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 35 mm/h, and all other laboratory tests were within normal limits. Pulmonary radiography and thoracic computerized tomography findings were normal. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and ultrasonographic examination of the parotid mass were performed, which revealed necrotic material with neutrophils and lymphocytes (figure 3). We treated the patient with a standard antituberculous regimen, comprising isoniazid 300 mg/d, rifampin 600 mg/d, ethambutol 1200 mg/d, and pyrazinamide 1500 mg/d. By the end of the second month of treatment, the patient improved considerably. There was a marked reduction in facial swelling, and the lesion on the left medial epicanthus regressed dramatically (Figure 4A and Figure 4B). No adverse effects of the medication occurred. An additional 7 months of therapy with isoniazid and rifampin was planned. PMID:23163079

Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Altunay, Ilknur Kivanç; Merto?lu, Eda; Sakiz, Damlanur

2012-01-01

288

Genes and oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today.

Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

2014-01-01

289

75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board...hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U. Aguzie...or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Hyginus U....

2010-10-12

290

75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board...hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers...or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K....

2010-09-15

291

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

292

[Abdominal tuberculosis--a surgical reality].  

PubMed

Abdominal tuberculosis is a rare disease, with non-specific findings. Peritoneal tuberculosis is a frequent cause of low gradient ascites. The records of 22 patients (Il males, 11 females, mean age 41,17 years, and range 17-74 years) diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis (TBC) in First Surgical Clinic, "St. Spiridon" University Hospital Ia?i between 1995 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively and the literature was reviewed. From these 22 patients diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis, there were: peritoneal TBC in 16 cases, intestinal TBC in 5 cases, mesenteric lymph nodes TBC in 1 case. The patients with intestinal TBC, were presented with complications, 2 perforations with peritonitis, 1 intestinal obstruction, and 2 as ileo-cecal "tumors" solved by right colectomy, 4 enterectomy (3 entero-enterostomies and 1 ileo-colic anastomosis). The patients with peritoneal TBC were diagnosed by laparoscopy and peritoneal biopsy in 13 cases, and by laparotomy in 3 cases. In peritoneal tuberculosis ascites was present in 15 cases. Other common findings were weight loss (12 cases), weakness (5 cases), abdominal pain (15 cases), anorexia (5 cases) and night sweat (2 cases). Only two patients had chest radiography suggestive of a new TBC lesion. In those patients with peritoneal tuberculosis, subjected to operation, the findings were multiple diffuse involvements of the visceral and parietal peritoneum, white "miliary nodules" or plaques, enlarged lymph nodes, ascites, "violin string" fibrinous strands, and omental thickening. Biopsy specimens showed granulomas, while ascitic fluid showed numerous lymphocytes. Post operatory evolution and management were applied by the TBC Medical System and the patients were treated 6 months by tuberculostatics, with favorable evolution. Abdominal tuberculosis should be considered for diagnosis, in patients with non-specific symptoms of abdominal pain, fever, loss of appetite, abdominal distension and even symptoms of acute abdomen. Laparoscopy is the best approach for peritoneal tuberculosis, and emergency surgery is necessary for acute complication like obstruction and peritonitis. Specific antituberculosis drugs are indicated in postoperative period. PMID:17687859

Târcoveanu, E; Filip, V; Moldovanu, R; Dimofte, G; Lupa?cu, C; Vlad, N; Vasilescu, A; Epure, Oana

2007-01-01

293

Simultaneous Ocular and Systemic Cysticercosis and Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cysticercosis and tuberculosis are endemic diseases in developing countries. Both these diseases have certain common\\u000a factors of origin. We would like to present the co-existence of these infections in a 20-year-old female. She was a known\\u000a case of pulmonary and ocular tuberculosis and she acquired cysticercosis of the eye and brain.

A. Rani; N. Pushker; A. Kulkarni; Rajpal; R. Balasubramanya; M. S. Bajaj

2006-01-01

294

Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug-drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis. PMID:22287857

Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker

2011-01-01

295

The Enduring Hypoxic Response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA significant body of evidence accumulated over the last century suggests a link between hypoxic microenvironments within the infected host and the latent phase of tuberculosis. Studies to test this correlation have identified the M. tuberculosis initial hypoxic response, controlled by the two-component response regulator DosR. The initial hypoxic response is completely blocked in a dosR deletion mutant.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe show

Tige R. Rustad; Maria I. Harrell; Reiling Liao; David R. Sherman; Jürg Bähler

2008-01-01

296

Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis, immune response, and host genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease that predominantly affects the lungs. The hallmark of tuberculosis infection\\u000a is the formation of granulomas in the vicinity of infectious foci. Tuberculous granulomas are highly organized bodies with\\u000a a complex cell composition and well-orchestrated biochemical pathways. Granuloma development plays a dual role. The process\\u000a restricts the infection dissemination and forms a battlefield for protective

A. Apt; T. K. Kondratieva

2008-01-01

297

Computational models for tuberculosis drug discovery.  

PubMed

The search for small molecules with activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis increasingly uses -high-throughput screening and computational methods. Previously, we have analyzed recent studies in which computational tools were used for cheminformatics. We have now updated this analysis to illustrate how they may assist in finding desirable leads for tuberculosis drug discovery. We provide our thoughts on strategies for drug discovery efforts for neglected diseases. PMID:23568475

Ekins, Sean; Freundlich, Joel S

2013-01-01

298

Prurigo nodularis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a rare chronic skin disorder of unknown origin. Here we describe what is believed to be the first case of PN associated with tuberculosis. For the first time, culture and PCR analysis of skin biopsy confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in PN skin lesions. The pruritus and skin lesions resolved following antitubercular therapy. Our case provides further evidence in favour of a link between PN and mycobacterial infection. PMID:19661207

Saporito, Laura; Florena, Ada Maria; Colomba, Claudia; Pampinella, Diego; Di Carlo, Paola

2009-12-01

299

Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis.

Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker

2011-01-01

300

Exploring prospects of novel drugs for tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains a disease with an enormous impact on public health worldwide. With the continuously increasing epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis, new drugs are desperately needed. However, even for the treatment of drug-sensitive tuberculosis, new drugs are required to shorten the treatment duration and thereby prevent development of drug resistance. Within the past ten years, major advances in tuberculosis drug research have been made, leading to a considerable number of antimycobacterial compounds which are now in the pipeline. Here we discuss a number of these novel promising tuberculosis drugs, as well as the discovery of two new potential drug targets for the development of novel effective drugs to curb the tuberculosis pandemic, ie, the coronin 1 and protein kinase G pathways. Protein kinase G is secreted by mycobacteria and is responsible for blocking lysosomal delivery within the macrophage. Coronin 1 is responsible for activating the phosphatase, calcineurin, and thereby preventing phagosome-lysosome fusion within the macrophage. Blocking these two pathways may lead to rapid killing of mycobacteria.

Janssen, Saskia; Jayachandran, Rajesh; Khathi, Lulama; Zinsstag, Jakob; Grobusch, Martin P; Pieters, Jean

2012-01-01

301

Chronic conjunctivitis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

To report the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome in six patients with chronic conjunctivitis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this retrospective observational case series, all patients with a diagnosis of conjunctival tuberculosis seen in our clinics between January 2000 and January 2010 were reviewed. The clinical presentation, diagnostic investigations and response to medical therapy and outcomes were analyzed. Six patients (age range 15-47 years) were diagnosed with conjunctival tuberculosis. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 6.5 months (range 1-12 months). Of the six patients, two had ulceration, one had a nodulo-ulcerative lesion, one had bilateral nodular epibulbar masses, and one had a hypertrophied papillary lesion. Systemic signs of tuberculosis were noted in two patients-pleural effusion in one and preauricular and submandibular lymph node involvement in the other. All patients had resolution of symptoms after treatment with four-drug anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). None had ocular or systemic recurrences after completion of ATT. Tuberculosis of the conjunctiva can have varied clinical presentation. Although a rare entity, it should be suspected in non-responding chronic conjunctivitis. A high index of suspicion and clinical examination aided by appropriate microbiological and histopathological testing can help in early diagnosis and management. PMID:23928944

Chaurasia, Sunita; Ramappa, Muralidhar; Murthy, Somasheila I; Vemuganti, Geeta K; Fernandes, Merle; Sharma, Savitri; Sangwan, Virender

2014-06-01

302

Gamma delta T lymphocytes in human tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The manifestations of tuberculous infection reflect the immune response to infection. Most healthy tuberculin reactors develop protective immunity; tuberculous pleuritis reflects a resistant response manifest by mild disease, whereas advanced pulmonary and miliary tuberculosis reflect ineffective immunity. The role of gamma delta T cells was assessed in tuberculous infection by evaluating expansion of these cells from blood mononuclear cells after stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After culture in vitro, the percentages of gamma delta+ cells were significantly greater in patients with protective and resistant immunity (tuberculin reactors, 25% +/- 4%; tuberculous pleuritis, 30% +/- 7%) than in those with ineffective immunity (advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, 9% +/- 3%; miliary tuberculosis, 2% +/- 1%). In leprosy, expansion of gamma delta+ cells was greater in immunologically resistant tuberculoid patients (32% +/- 4%) than in Mycobacterium leprae-unresponsive lepromatous patients (9% +/- 2%). M. tuberculosis-reactive gamma delta T cell lines produced interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, cytokines that activate macrophages and may contribute to mycobacterial elimination. These findings suggest that gamma delta T cells contribute to immune resistance against M. tuberculosis. PMID:1538155

Barnes, P F; Grisso, C L; Abrams, J S; Band, H; Rea, T H; Modlin, R L

1992-03-01

303

Identification of small RNAs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

In spite of being one of our most prominent bacterial pathogens, the presence of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) has not previously been investigated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by sRNA molecules has been demonstrated in a wide range of pathogenic bacteria and has been shown to play a significant role in the control of virulence. By screening cDNA libraries prepared from low-molecular weight RNA from M. tuberculosis we have identified nine putative sRNA molecules, including cis-encoded antisense transcripts from within open reading frames and trans-encoded transcripts from intergenic regions. sRNAs displayed differential expression between exponential and stationary phase, and during a variety of stress conditions. Two of the cis-encoded sRNAs were associated with genes encoding enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, desA1 and pks12. These sRNAs showed complementarity to multiple M. tuberculosis genes, suggesting the potential to act as both cis-encoded and trans-encoded sRNAs. Overexpression of selected trans-encoded sRNAs had profound impact on growth of M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis. This is the first experimental evidence of sRNAs in M. tuberculosis and it will be important to consider the potential influence of sRNA regulation when studying the transcriptome and the proteome of M. tuberculosis during infection.

Arnvig, Kristine B; Young, Douglas B

2009-01-01

304

Porins Increase Copper Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Copper resistance mechanisms are crucial for many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, during infection because the innate immune system utilizes copper ions to kill bacterial intruders. Despite several studies detailing responses of mycobacteria to copper, the pathways by which copper ions cross the mycobacterial cell envelope are unknown. Deletion of porin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to a severe growth defect on trace copper medium but simultaneously increases tolerance for copper at elevated concentrations, indicating that porins mediate copper uptake across the outer membrane. Heterologous expression of the mycobacterial porin gene mspA reduced growth of M. tuberculosis in the presence of 2.5 ?M copper by 40% and completely suppressed growth at 15 ?M copper, while wild-type M. tuberculosis reached its normal cell density at that copper concentration. Moreover, the polyamine spermine, a known inhibitor of porin activity in Gram-negative bacteria, enhanced tolerance of M. tuberculosis for copper, suggesting that copper ions utilize endogenous outer membrane channel proteins of M. tuberculosis to gain access to interior cellular compartments. In summary, these findings highlight the outer membrane as the first barrier against copper ions and the role of porins in mediating copper uptake in M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis.

Speer, Alexander; Rowland, Jennifer L.; Haeili, Mehri; Niederweis, Michael

2013-01-01

305

Peptide mimotopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis carbohydrate immunodeterminants  

PubMed Central

Cell-surface saccharides of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appear to be crucial factors in tuberculosis pathogenicity and could be useful antigens in tuberculosis immunodiagnosis. In the present study, we report the successful antigenic and immunogenic mimicry of mannose-containing cell-wall compounds of M. tuberculosis by dodecamer peptides identified by phage-display technology. Using a rabbit antiserum raised against M. tuberculosis cell-surface saccharides as a target for biopanning, peptides with three different consensus sequences were identified. Phage-displayed and chemically synthesized peptides bound to the anticarbohydrate antiserum. Rabbit antibodies elicited against the peptide QEPLMGTVPIRAGGGS recognize the mannosylated M. tuberculosis cell-wall antigens arabinomannan and lipoarabinomannan, and the glycosylated recombinant protein alanine/proline-rich antigen. Furthermore, antibodies were also able to react with mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not with phosphatidylinositol dimannosides or arabinogalactan from mycobacteria. These results suggest that the immunogenic peptide mimics oligomannosidic epitopes. Interestingly, this report provides evidence that, in contrast with previously known carbohydrate mimotopes, no aromatic residues are necessary in a peptide sequence for mimicking unusual glycoconjugates synthesized by mycobacteria. The possible usefulness of the identified peptide mimotopes as surrogate reagents for immunodiagnosis and for the study of functional roles of the native non-peptide epitopes is discussed.

2004-01-01

306

Profiling Antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Multiplex Microbead Suspension Arrays for Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 29 August 2007\\/Returned for modification 20 September 2007\\/Accepted 26 November 2007 Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious global disease. The fatality rate attributed to TB is among the highest of infectious diseases, with approximately 2 million deaths occurring per year worldwide. Identification of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and screening of their immediate contacts is crucial for controlling the spread

Imran H. Khan; Resmi Ravindran; JoAnn Yee; Melanie Ziman; David M. Lewinsohn; Marila L. Gennaro; JoAnne L. Flynn; Celia W. Goulding; Kathryn DeRiemer; Nickolas W. Lerche; Paul A. Luciw

2008-01-01

307

DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Honduras.  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 84 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Honduras were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Seventy-three different IS6110 patterns were found; 63 of these were unique and 10 were shared by two to three strains each. Thus, no ongoing spread of any specific clone of bacteria could be demonstrated.

Pineda-Garcia, L; Ferrera, A; Hoffner, S E

1997-01-01

308

Unexpectedly High Proportion of Ancestral Manu Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Cultured from Tuberculosis Patients in Egypt ?  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is one of the important public health problems in Egypt. However, limited information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Egypt is available. A total of 151 M. tuberculosis strains were characterized by spoligotyping. The results revealed that 74.8% of M. tuberculosis isolates grouped into 13 different clusters, while 25.2% had unique spoligotype patterns. Comparison with an international spoligotyping database (the SITVIT2 database) showed that types SIT53 (T1 variant) and SIT54 (Manu2 variant) were the most common types between cluster groups. In addition, new shared types SIT2977, SIT2978, and SIT2979 were observed. The results identified for the first time an unusually high proportion of ancestral Manu strains of M. tuberculosis from patients in Egypt. The percentage of the Manu clade in this study (27.15%) was significantly higher than its overall representation of 0.4% in the SITVIT2 database. We show that in Egypt tuberculosis is caused by a predominant M. tuberculosis genotype belonging to the ancestral Manu lineage which could be a missing link in the split between ancestral and modern tubercle bacilli during the evolution of M. tuberculosis.

Helal, Zeinab H.; El-Din Ashour, Mohamed Seif; Eissa, Somaia A.; Abd-Elatef, Ghanem; Zozio, Thierry; Babapoor, Sankhiros; Rastogi, Nalin; Khan, Mazhar I.

2009-01-01

309

New tuberculosis vaccines based on attenuated strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world urgently needs a better tuberculosis vaccine. Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, has been very widely used as a vaccine for many years but has had no major effect on reducing the incidence of tuberculosis. A number of alternative living and non-living vaccines are being investigated. Live vaccine candidates include genetically modified forms of BCG,

Desmond M Collins

2000-01-01

310

Novel N-linked aminopiperidine-based gyrase inhibitors with improved hERG and in vivo efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

DNA gyrase is a clinically validated target for developing drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Despite the promise of fluoroquinolones (FQs) as anti-tuberculosis drugs, the prevalence of pre-existing resistance to FQs is likely to restrict their clinical value. We describe a novel class of N-linked aminopiperidinyl alkyl quinolones and naphthyridones that kills Mtb by inhibiting the DNA gyrase activity. The mechanism of inhibition of DNA gyrase was distinct from the fluoroquinolones, as shown by their ability to inhibit the growth of fluoroquinolone-resistant Mtb. Biochemical studies demonstrated this class to exert its action via single-strand cleavage rather than double-strand cleavage, as seen with fluoroquinolones. The compounds are highly bactericidal against extracellular as well as intracellular Mtb. Lead optimization resulted in the identification of potent compounds with improved oral bioavailability and reduced cardiac ion channel liability. Compounds from this series are efficacious in various murine models of tuberculosis. PMID:24809953

Hameed P, Shahul; Patil, Vikas; Solapure, Suresh; Sharma, Umender; Madhavapeddi, Prashanti; Raichurkar, Anandkumar; Chinnapattu, Murugan; Manjrekar, Praveena; Shanbhag, Gajanan; Puttur, Jayashree; Shinde, Vikas; Menasinakai, Sreenivasaiah; Rudrapatana, Suresh; Achar, Vijayashree; Awasthy, Disha; Nandishaiah, Radha; Humnabadkar, Vaishali; Ghosh, Anirban; Narayan, Chandan; Ramya, V K; Kaur, Parvinder; Sharma, Sreevalli; Werngren, Jim; Hoffner, Sven; Panduga, Vijender; Kumar, C N Naveen; Reddy, Jitendar; Kumar K N, Mahesh; Ganguly, Samit; Bharath, Sowmya; Bheemarao, Ugarkar; Mukherjee, Kakoli; Arora, Uma; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Coulson, Michelle; Waterson, David; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K; de Sousa, Sunita M

2014-06-12

311

Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.  

PubMed

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

2013-09-01

312

Bedaquiline for the treatment of pulmonary, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in adults.  

PubMed

After AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading killer worldwide due to a single infectious agent. Recently, drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis elicited even more severe versions of TB. Bedaquiline inhibits mycobacterial ATP synthase. It shows potent and selective activity in vitro against M. tuberculosis, and in vivo against murine models of TB. Bedaquiline can be combined with antituberculosis and antiretroviral agents. The product displays good oral absorption, has a long terminal half-life and is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 3A4. In a phase II clinical trial in patients with multidrug-resistant TB, bedaquiline (combined with the standard five-drug, second-line TB regimen), showed a time to 50% culture negative conversion of 78 days, with 81.0% and 52.4% efficacy at weeks 24 and 104, respectively. Bedaquiline was generally safe and well tolerated. At the end of 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved bedaquiline (Sirturo®) as part of a combination therapy to treat adults with multidrug-resistant TB. PMID:23807939

Gras, J

2013-06-01

313

[The registered nurse and the battle against tuberculosis in Brazil: 1961-1966].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances that promoted the implementation of the new Program for Action Against Tuberculosis in Brazil (Programa de Ação na Luta contra a Tuberculose no Brasil) and discuss the strategies used by registered nurses from the Santa Maria State Hospital, Guanabara State, to adjust nursing care to the new program against tuberculosis. This was performed through document research, interviews, and statements from nurses working at the time of the reorganization. Documents were analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic power by Pierre Bourdieu, and included written and oral documents as well as secondary sources. The reorganization of the nursing service was performed under the leadership of a nurse whose symbolic capital assigned power and prestige to implement the necessary changes. It is concluded that the work of that nurse made it possible to implement the new program and contributed to establishing the position and importance of the registered nurse in providing care to individuals with tuberculosis, for prevention and cure. PMID:20085168

Montenegro, Hercília Regina do Amaral; de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Lourenço, Lucia Helena Silva Corrêa

2009-12-01

314

Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis: mimicker of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Infection caused by the lung fluke is endemic in north eastern parts of India. Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus heterotremus are known to be endemic in eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland. The infection is related to eating habits of the locals and is acquired by ingestion of raw, inadequately cooked crabs or crayfish containing encysted metacercariae which act as second intermediate hosts during the life cycle of the lung fluke. Diagnosis is generally delayed due to lack of suspicion and presentation similar to tuberculosis which is endemic in the population. We report pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis in a soldier from eastern India who presented with chest pain, haemoptysis, and eosinophilia. He gave history of consumption of raw crabs while on leave at his native village in Nagaland. Ova morphologically resembling Paragonimus heterotremus were detected in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Symptoms resolved with praziquantel treatment. PMID:23432864

Lall, Mahima; Sahni, Ajay Kumar; Rajput, A K

2013-01-01

315

Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis: mimicker of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Infection caused by the lung fluke is endemic in north eastern parts of India. Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus heterotremus are known to be endemic in eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland. The infection is related to eating habits of the locals and is acquired by ingestion of raw, inadequately cooked crabs or crayfish containing encysted metacercariae which act as second intermediate hosts during the life cycle of the lung fluke. Diagnosis is generally delayed due to lack of suspicion and presentation similar to tuberculosis which is endemic in the population. We report pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis in a soldier from eastern India who presented with chest pain, haemoptysis, and eosinophilia. He gave history of consumption of raw crabs while on leave at his native village in Nagaland. Ova morphologically resembling Paragonimus heterotremus were detected in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Symptoms resolved with praziquantel treatment.

Lall, Mahima; Sahni, Ajay Kumar; Rajput, A K

2013-01-01

316

Drugs in development for tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) drug research and development efforts have resurged in the past 10 years to meet urgent medical needs, but enormous challenges remain. These urgent needs are largely driven by the current long and arduous multidrug regimens, which have significant safety, tolerability and compliance issues; rising and disturbing rates of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB; the existence of approximately 2 billion individuals already latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative pathogen of TB; and a global TB-HIV co-epidemic. Stakeholders in TB drug development are moving to enable and streamline development and registration of novel, multidrug treatment regimens, comprised of multiple new chemical entities with novel mechanisms of action that do not demonstrate cross-resistance to current first- and second-line TB drugs. Ideally, these new regimens will ultimately provide a short, simple treatment suitable for essentially all TB patients, whether sensitive or resistant to the current anti-TB agents, whether HIV-positive or -negative, and irrespective of patient age. This article reviews the challenges faced by those trying to develop these novel regimens and the key agents currently in clinical testing for TB; the latter are organized for discussion into three categories: (i) novel drugs (TMC207, SQ109, sudoterb [LL3858]); (ii) present first-line TB drugs being re-evaluated to optimize their efficacy (rifampicin, rifapentine); and (iii) currently licensed drugs for other indications and 'next-generation' compounds of the same chemical class being repurposed for TB (gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin; linezolid, PNU100480 and AZD5847; metronidazole, OPC-67683 and PA-824). PMID:21080738

Ginsberg, Ann M

2010-12-01

317

Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ... to recognize the signs and symptoms of TB. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...

318

Huli oral health.  

PubMed

The Tari oral health study was conducted in 1985 and aimed to provide an oral health profile of a rural highlands community. The sample was selected from the database of the Tari Research Unit, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea and consisted of 815 Huli people aged from 3 to 64 years, in seven age groups, who were examined for oral health status and had completed an interview-questionnaire. A wide range of oral health status was seen, ranging from excellent to very poor. Dental caries and periodontal disease were common in the population. Oral habits such as smoking and betelnut chewing were associated with an increase in leukoplakia, which may lead to oral cancer in some people. Dental caries varied in prevalence and severity. Higher decayed, missing and filled teeth scores in the primary teeth of young children were associated with defective tooth formation (hypoplasia) linked to maternal and childhood illnesses and nutritional deficiencies. Older adults had the worst oral health, with the 45-64 year old group having a caries prevalence of 95% and a decayed, missing and filled teeth score of 14.7. Root surface caries, seen as a consequence of poor oral hygiene and gum recession, was the major site of caries attack in the older Hull. The public oral health services are unable to reach a large proportion of the rural population, and people continue to use traditional herbal and folk remedies. Many seek the skills of local tooth extractors who use six-inch nails with no anaesthetic. PMID:14658829

Newell, Paul L

2002-01-01

319

Molecular analysis of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis remains a global threat to public health. Considerable efforts have been made to combat this disease. However,\\u000a the emergence ofMycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs especially multidrug resistant (MDR) strains poses a deadly\\u000a threat to control programs. The present study aims to identify the most common mutations within multidrug-resistantM. tuberculosis Moroccan isolates in order to

Radia Sabouni; Moussa Kourout; Imane Chaoui; Annemarie Jordaan; Mohammed Akrim; Thomas C. Victor; Karim Maltouf Filali; Mohammed El Mzibri; Ouafae Lahlou; Rajae El Aouad

2008-01-01

320

Potential drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis through metabolic pathway analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of multidrug resistant varieties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to a search for novel drug targets. We have performed an insilico comparative analysis of metabolic pathways of the host Homo sapiens and the pathogen M. tuberculosis. Enzymes from the biochemical pathways of M. tuberculosis from the KEGG metabolic pathway database were compared with proteins from the hostH. sapiens,

Sharmila Anishetty; Mrudula Pulimi; Pennathur Gautam

2005-01-01

321

Tuberculosis of the patella masquerading as prepatellar bursitis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis of bone is an uncommon entity in the western world. We present a case of tuberculosis of the patella mimicking prepatellar bursitis in an otherwise fit and well woman of Bangladeshi origin. We believe tuberculosis of bone should form a differential diagnosis of the swollen knee in high-risk patients. PMID:23317718

MacLean, S; Kulkarni, S

2013-01-01

322

Tuberculosis of the patella masquerading as prepatellar bursitis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of bone is an uncommon entity in the Western world. We present a case of tuberculosis of the patella mimicking prepatellar bursitis in an otherwise fit and well woman of Bangladeshi origin. We believe tuberculosis of bone should form a differential diagnosis of the swollen knee in high risk patients.

Kulkarni, S

2013-01-01

323

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Triggers Formation of Lymphoid Structure in Murine Lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis is the granuloma, which consists predominantly of lymphocytes and macrophages and promotes immune-cell interaction with the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Granuloma formation is a highly organized process, which depends on leukocyte recruitment facilitated by adhesion molecules and chemokines. Thus, during chronic experimental tuberculosis, granulomata display characteristics of lymphoid structures comprising follicular aggregation of B cells,

Antje Kahnert; Maik Stein; Silke Bandermann; Martin Lipp

2007-01-01

324

Imaging Features of Calvarial Tuberculosis: A Study of 42 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tuberculosis of the calvaria is a rare entity, and only anecdotal reports describing its imaging features have been previously published in the literature. We report the role of conventional radiography and CT findings on in the evaluation of calvarial tuberculosis in 42 cases. METHODS: Forty-two cases of pathologically verified calvarial tuberculosis were analyzed retrospectively by using conventional

Abhijit A. Raut; Arpit M. Nagar; Datta Muzumdar; Ashish J. Chawla; Ranjeet S. Narlawar; Sudhir Fattepurkar; Veena L. Bhatgadde

325

Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa.

Firdessa, Rebuma; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Schelling, Esther; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Kiros, Teklu; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Robertson, Brian D.; Ameni, Gobena; Lohan, Amanda J.; Loftus, Brendan; Comas, Inaki; Gagneux, Sebastien; Tschopp, Rea; Yamuah, Lawrence; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Young, Douglas B.

2013-01-01

326

Extraction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA: a Question of Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis requires substantial high-quality DNA. We demonstrated that, despite extraction treatments that might be expected to inactivate this organism, M. tuberculosis remained viable during this process. These data suggest that the extraction of M. tuberculosis DNA should be performed within containment until complete. The standard method employed for DNA

Wendy Somerville; Louise Thibert; Kevin Schwartzman; Marcel A. Behr

2005-01-01

327

High prevalence of tuberculosis in AIDS patients in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 67 cases of tuberculosis was diagnosed in the first 100 cases of AIDS, diagnosed according to the former CDC criteria, at a hospital in Madrid, Spain. This is the highest known prevalence of tuberculosis in AIDS patients both within and outside Spain. The clinical manifestations of tuberculosis were very variable and atypical. The rate of isolation ofMycobacterium

E. Bouza; C. Martín-Scapa; J. C. L. Bernaldo de Quirós; D. Martínez-Hernández; J. Menarguez; J. Gómez-Rodrigo; J. Cosín; M. J. Sagues-Cifuentes

1988-01-01

328

Plan to Combat Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Recommendations of the Federal Tuberculosis Task Force. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 58, February 12, 2009, No. RR-3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An estimated one third of the worlds population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and nearly 9 million persons develop disease caused by M. tuberculosis each year. Although tuberculosis (TB) occurs predominantly in resource-limited countries, i...

2009-01-01

329

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part I  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide scourge and its incidence appears to be increasing due to various factors, such as the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The insidious onset and non-specific constitutional symptoms of genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) often lead to delayed diagnosis and rapid progression to a non-functioning kidney. Due to hematogenous dissemination of TB, there is a potential risk of involvement of the contralateral kidney too. Imaging plays an important role in the making of a timely diagnosis and in the planning of treatment, and thus helps to avoid complications such as renal failure. Imaging of GUTB still remains a challenge, mainly on account of the dearth of literature, especially related to the use of the newer modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This two-part article is a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and imaging findings in renal TB. Various imaging features of GUTB are outlined, from the pathognomonic lobar calcification on plain film, to finer early changes such as loss of calyceal sharpness and papillary necrosis on intravenous urography (IVU); to uneven caliectasis and urothelial thickening, in the absence of renal pelvic dilatation, as well as the hitherto unreported ‘lobar caseation’ on ultrasonography (USG). Well-known complications of GUTB such as sinus tracts, fistulae and amyloidosis are described, along with the relatively less well-known complications such as tuberculous interstitial nephritis (TIN), which may remain hidden because of its ‘culture negative’ nature and thus lead to renal failure. The second part of the article reviews the computed tomography (CT) and MRI features of GUTB and touches upon future imaging techniques along with imaging of TB in transplant recipients and in immunocompromised patients.

Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

2013-01-01

330

What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Oral cavity cancer, or just ... parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

331

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... initial infection can be diagnosed with a skin test called a Mantoux test. This test can identify most people infected with tubercle bacilli ... the disease is not necessarily active. A blood test known as QuantiFERON® -TB can also show if ...

332

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... of the yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida albicans . Candida overgrowth can lead to vaginal (yeast) infections, diaper ... oral thrush. Most people (including infants) naturally have Candida in their mouths and digestive tracts, which is ...

333

Dehydration and Oral Rehydration  

MedlinePLUS

... v Oral rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...

334

Oral Cancer Exam  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes HIV/AIDS Order Free Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

335

Epilepsy and Oral Contraception  

PubMed Central

A controlled cross-over trial in 20 epileptic women, receiving regular anticonvulsant therapy showed that an oral contraceptive with a low oestrogen/ progestogen content had no significant effect on the average frequency of fits compared with identical dummy tablets.

Espir, Michael; Walker, M. E.; Lawson, June P.

1969-01-01

336

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

337

Duration of Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy and Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: Association with Mortality in HIV-Related Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreases mortality risk in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients, but the effect of the duration of anti-tuberculosis therapy and timing of anti-tuberculosis therapy initiation in relation to ART initiation on mortality, is unclear. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational multi-center cohort study among HIV-infected persons concomitantly treated with Rifamycin-based anti-tuberculosis therapy and ART in Latin America. The study population included persons for whom 6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy is recommended. Results Of 253 patients who met inclusion criteria, median CD4+ lymphocyte count at ART initiation was 64 cells/mm3, 171 (68%) received >180 days of anti-tuberculosis therapy, 168 (66%) initiated anti-tuberculosis therapy before ART, and 43 (17%) died. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model that adjusted for CD4+ lymphocytes and HIV-1 RNA, tuberculosis diagnosed after ART initiation was associated with an increased risk of death compared to tuberculosis diagnosis before ART initiation (HR 2.40; 95% CI 1.15, 5.02; P = 0.02). In a separate model among patients surviving >6 months after tuberculosis diagnosis, after adjusting for CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV-1 RNA, and timing of ART initiation relative to tuberculosis diagnosis, receipt of >6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy was associated with a decreased risk of death (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.08, 0.66; P=0.007). Conclusions The increased risk of death among persons diagnosed with tuberculosis after ART initiation highlights the importance of screening for tuberculosis before ART initiation. The decreased risk of death among persons receiving > 6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy suggests that current anti-tuberculosis treatment duration guidelines should be re-evaluated.

Cortes, Claudia P.; Wehbe, Firas H.; McGowan, Catherine C.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Duda, Stephany N.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Gonzalez, Elsa; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Schechter, Mauro; Padgett, Denis; Cesar, Carina; Madero, Juan Sierra; Pape, Jean W.; Masys, Daniel R.; Sterling, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

338

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria have diverse effects on BCG efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Summary The efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in protection against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is highly variable between populations. One possible explanation for this variability is increased exposure of certain populations to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This study used a murine model to determine the effect that exposure to NTM after BCG vaccination had on the efficacy of BCG against aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. The effects of administering live Mycobacterium avium (MA) by an oral route and killed MA by a systemic route on BCG-induced protection were evaluated. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were profiled to define the immunological mechanisms underlying any effect on BCG efficacy. BCG efficacy was enhanced by exposure to killed MA administered by a systemic route; T helper 1 and T helper 17 responses were associated with increased protection. BCG efficacy was reduced by exposure to live MA administered by the oral route; T helper 2 cells were associated with reduced protection. These findings demonstrate that exposure to NTM can induce opposite effects on BCG efficacy depending on route of exposure and viability of NTM. A reproducible model of NTM exposure would be valuable in the evaluation of novel TB vaccine candidates.

Poyntz, Hazel C.; Stylianou, Elena; Griffiths, Kristin L.; Marsay, Leanne; Checkley, Anna M.; McShane, Helen

2014-01-01

339

Oral and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

2014-01-01

340

Risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a tuberculosis unit in Madrid, Spain.  

PubMed

The setting for this retrospective cohort study was a specialised tuberculosis unit in Madrid, Spain. The objective was to describe the risk factors for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The medical records of all patients admitted to the unit were reviewed retrospectively to identify factors associated with multidrug resistance. Patients with positive culture for M. tuberculosis and with available drug-susceptibility tests were included. The variables assessed were age, gender, country of origin, homelessness, alcohol consumption, intravenous drug use, methadone substitution therapy, contact with a tuberculosis patient, sputum smear, site of disease, previous tuberculosis treatment, HIV infection, history of imprisonment, diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty patients with MDR-TB and 666 patients with non-MDR-TB were included from the years 1997 to 2006. The only factors associated with MDR-TB in multivariate analysis were previous tuberculosis treatment (OR: 3.44; 95% CI: 1.58-7.50; p = 0.003), age group 45-64 years (OR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.34-7.81; p = 0.009) and alcohol abuse (OR: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.55; p = 0.003). In our study, patients who had had previous treatment for tuberculosis, who were 45-64 years of age or who had no history of alcohol abuse were more likely to have MDR-TB. PMID:18830725

Suárez-García, I; Rodríguez-Blanco, A; Vidal-Pérez, J L; García-Viejo, M A; Jaras-Hernández, M J; López, O; Noguerado-Asensio, A

2009-04-01

341

Optimizing tuberculosis testing for basic laboratories.  

PubMed

Optimal tuberculosis testing usually involves sputum centrifugation followed by broth culture. However, centrifuges are biohazardous and scarce in the resource-limited settings where most tuberculosis occurs. To optimize tuberculosis testing for these settings, centrifugation of 111 decontaminated sputum samples was compared with syringe-aspiration through polycarbonate membrane-filters that were then cultured in broth. To reduce the workload of repeated microscopic screening of broth cultures for tuberculosis growth, the colorimetric redox indicator 2,3-diphenyl-5-(2-thienyl) tetrazolium chloride was added to the broth, which enabled naked-eye detection of culture positivity. This combination of filtration and colorimetric growth-detection gave similar results to sputum centrifugation followed by culture microscopy regarding mean colony counts (43 versus 48; P = 0.6), contamination rates (0.9% versus 1.8%; P = 0.3), and sensitivity (94% versus 95%; P = 0.7), suggesting equivalency of the two methods. By obviating centrifugation and repeated microscopic screening of cultures, this approach may constitute a more appropriate technology for rapid and sensitive tuberculosis diagnosis in basic laboratories. PMID:20889887

Ramos, Eric; Schumacher, Samuel G; Siedner, Mark; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Alvarado, Jessica; Montoya, Rosario; Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Sherman, Jonathan M; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton A

2010-10-01

342

Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a dog.  

PubMed

An uncommon disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is described in a 12-year-old female dog presenting with fever, dyspnea, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, melena, epistaxis, and emesis. The dog had a history of close contact with its owner, who died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic examination revealed diffuse radio-opaque images in both lung lobes, diffuse visible masses in abdominal organs, and hilar and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Bronchial washing samples and feces were negative for acid-fast organisms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based species identification of bronchial washing samples, feces, and urine revealed M. tuberculosis using PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis-PRA. Because of public health concerns, which were worsened by the physical condition of the dog, euthanasia of the animal was recommended. Rough and tough colonies suggestive of M. tuberculosis were observed after microbiological culture of lung, liver, spleen, heart, and lymph node fragments in Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. The PRA analysis enabled diagnosis of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from organs. PMID:23339199

Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito; Franco, Marília Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Perrotti, Isabella Belletti Mutt; Mangia, Simone Henriques; Megid, Jane; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Carvalho Sanches, Osimar; Paes, Antonio Carlos

2013-03-01

343

Ancestral antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapeutic options to treat tuberculosis are severely restricted by the intrinsic resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the majority of clinically applied antibiotics. Such resistance is partially provided by the low permeability of their unique cell envelope. Here we describe a complementary system that coordinates resistance to drugs that have penetrated the envelope, allowing mycobacteria to tolerate diverse classes of antibiotics that inhibit cytoplasmic targets. This system depends on whiB7, a gene that pathogenic Mycobacterium shares with Streptomyces, a phylogenetically related genus known as the source of diverse antibiotics. In M. tuberculosis, whiB7 is induced by subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics (erythromycin, tetracycline, and streptomycin) and whiB7 null mutants (Streptomyces and Mycobacterium) are hypersusceptible to antibiotics in vitro. M. tuberculosis is also antibiotic sensitive within a monocyte model system. In addition to antibiotics, whiB7 is induced by exposure to fatty acids that pathogenic Mycobacterium species may accumulate internally or encounter within eukaryotic hosts during infection. Gene expression profiling analyses demonstrate that whiB7 transcription determines drug resistance by activating expression of a regulon including genes involved in ribosomal protection and antibiotic efflux. Components of the whiB7 system may serve as attractive targets for the identification of inhibitors that render M. tuberculosis or multidrug-resistant derivatives more antibiotic-sensitive.

Morris, Rowan P.; Nguyen, Liem; Gatfield, John; Visconti, Kevin; Nguyen, Kien; Schnappinger, Dirk; Ehrt, Sabine; Liu, Yang; Heifets, Leonid; Pieters, Jean; Schoolnik, Gary; Thompson, Charles J.

2005-01-01

344

Assessment of Diagnostic Techniques of Urinary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA) test. Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence rate of 2.6%). The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis.

Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad

2013-01-01

345

Pyrimidine salvage pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, infects one-third of the world population. TB remains the leading cause of mortality due to a single bacterial pathogen. The worldwide increase in incidence of M. tuberculosis has been attributed to the high proliferation rates of multi and extensively drug-resistant strains, and to co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. There is thus a continuous requirement for studies on mycobacterial metabolism to identify promising targets for the development of new agents to combat TB. Singular characteristics of this pathogen, such as functional and structural features of enzymes involved in fundamental metabolic pathways, can be evaluated to identify possible targets for drug development. Enzymes involved in the pyrimidine salvage pathway might be attractive targets for rational drug design against TB, since this pathway is vital for all bacterial cells, and is composed of enzymes considerably different from those present in humans. Moreover, the enzymes of the pyrimidine salvage pathway might have an important role in the mycobacterial latent state, since M. tuberculosis has to recycle bases and/or nucleosides to survive in the hostile environment imposed by the host. The present review describes the enzymes of M. tuberculosis pyrimidine salvage pathway as attractive targets for the development of new antimycobacterial agents. Enzyme functional and structural data have been included to provide a broader knowledge on which to base the search for compounds with selective biological activity. PMID:21366534

Villela, A D; Sánchez-Quitian, Z A; Ducati, R G; Santos, D S; Basso, L A

2011-01-01

346

Diagnostic value of PCR in genitourinary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Genitourinary tuberculosis is a disease of the genitourinary system which includes the entire urinary tract and reproductive system. Genital tuberculosis is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing nations like India. In the present study, a total of 257 clinical specimens comprising of endometrial biopsy (109), endometrial curetting (42), menstrual blood (8), semen (17), placenta (11) and urine (70) were collected from patients and subjected for PCR, Culture and AFB detection. The endometrial biopsy, endometrial curetting, menstrual blood, semen, placenta, urine showed 30.2, 45.2,12.5, 5.8, 27.2, 31.4 %, positivity rate for tuberculosis by PCR, 7.3, 9.5, 25.0, 0, 9, 8.5 % by culture and 1.8, 2.3, 0, 0, 0, 2.8 % respectively by AFB smear. Being a novel, rapid technique, PCR is the method of choice for rapid diagnosis and management of genitourinary tuberculosis shared with the other concerned tests. This study reveals that genital tuberculosis can occur in any age group, however, the majority of patients were from reproductive age (nearly 75 % of them were from 20-45 years of age) group. PMID:24426229

Sharma, Narotam; Sharma, Veena; Singh, Prem Raj; Sailwal, Shivani; Kushwaha, Rajeev S; Singh, Rajesh K; Nautiyal, Satish C; Mishra, Pankaj; Masood, Tariq; Singh, R K

2013-07-01

347

Experimental Ocular Tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop an animal model of intraocular tuberculosis (TB) with features of pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary dissemination to the eye. Methods Hartley strain guinea pigs were infected via an aerosol route with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One group of guinea pigs was infected with a relatively low bacterial inoculum and received no treatment. A second group of guinea pigs received high-dose infection and were treated with the first-line anti-TB drugs isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide. Development of ocular TB lesions was documented by histological analysis, acid-fast staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction for M tuberculosis DNA. Results Untreated guinea pigs developed pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. Ocular TB, primarily involving the uvea, developed in 5 of 12 eyes (42%). Uveal granulomatous lesions showed the presence of acid-fast organisms and M tuberculosis DNA. In treated animals, none of the 8 eyes examined revealed the presence of acid-fast organisms; however, there was mild nongranulomatous uveitis in 4 eyes. Conclusions Mycobacterium tuberculosis delivered via aerosol to guinea pigs results in extrapulmonary dissemination to the eye. Of significance, intraocular changes in this model include granulomatous inflammation and the presence of acid-fast organisms, as seen in human cases of ocular TB. Clinical Relevance The guinea pig model may provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of intraocular TB and assist in the development of novel modalities to treat this global infectious disease.

Rao, Narsing A.; Albini, Thomas A.; Kumaradas, Mirnalini; Pinn, Michael L.; Fraig, Mostafa M.; Karakousis, Petros C.

2010-01-01

348

Disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Dog  

PubMed Central

An uncommon disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is described in a 12-year-old female dog presenting with fever, dyspnea, cough, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, melena, epistaxis, and emesis. The dog had a history of close contact with its owner, who died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiographic examination revealed diffuse radio-opaque images in both lung lobes, diffuse visible masses in abdominal organs, and hilar and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Bronchial washing samples and feces were negative for acid-fast organisms. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based species identification of bronchial washing samples, feces, and urine revealed M. tuberculosis using PCR-restriction enzyme pattern analysis-PRA. Because of public health concerns, which were worsened by the physical condition of the dog, euthanasia of the animal was recommended. Rough and tough colonies suggestive of M. tuberculosis were observed after microbiological culture of lung, liver, spleen, heart, and lymph node fragments in Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. The PRA analysis enabled diagnosis of M. tuberculosis strains isolated from organs.

Martinho, Anna Paula Vitirito; Franco, Marilia Masello Junqueira; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Perrotti, Isabella Belletti Mutt; Mangia, Simone Henriques; Megid, Jane; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Carvalho Sanches, Osimar; Paes, Antonio Carlos

2013-01-01

349

Fertility control as a means of controlling bovine tuberculosis in badger (Meles meles) populations in south-west England: predictions from a spatial stochastic simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to assess the potential of fertility control, based on a yet-to- be-developed oral bait-delivered contraceptive directed at females, for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in south-west England.The contraceptive had a lifelong e¡ect so that females rendered sterile in any particular year remained so for the rest of their lives.

PIRAN C. L. WHITE; ALEX J. G. LEWIS; STEPHEN HARRIS

1997-01-01

350

Fertility Control as a Means of Controlling Bovine Tuberculosis in Badger (Meles meles) Populations in South-West England: Predictions from a Spatial Stochastic Simulation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to assess the potential of fertility control, based on a yet-to-be-developed oral bait-delivered contraceptive directed at females, for the control of bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in south-west England. The contraceptive had a lifelong effect so that females rendered sterile in any particular year remained so for the rest of their lives. The

Piran C. L. White; Alex J. G. Lewis; Stephen Harris

1997-01-01

351

Bovine Tuberculosis in Badger (Meles meles) Populations in Southwest England: An Assessment of Past, Present and Possible Future Control Strategies Using Simulation Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatial stochastic simulation model was used to compare the efficacy of different badger control policies and to determine the theoretical requirements for the control of endemic bovine tuberculosis in badger populations in southwest England. Culling-based strategies for controlling endemic disease were compared with strategies employing a yet-to-be-developed oral vaccine which would provide uninfected badgers with immunity to the infection.

Piran C. L. White; Stephen Harris

1995-01-01

352

Mixed-Strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections and the Implications for Tuberculosis Treatment and Control  

PubMed Central

Summary: Numerous studies have reported that individuals can simultaneously harbor multiple distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To date, there has been limited discussion of the consequences for the individual or the epidemiological importance of mixed infections. Here, we review studies that documented mixed infections, highlight challenges associated with the detection of mixed infections, and discuss possible implications of mixed infections for the diagnosis and treatment of patients and for the community impact of tuberculosis control strategies. We conclude by highlighting questions that should be resolved in order to improve our understanding of the importance of mixed-strain M. tuberculosis infections.

van Helden, Paul D.; Wilson, Douglas; Colijn, Caroline; McLaughlin, Megan M.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Warren, Robin M.

2012-01-01

353

Risk of Tuberculosis Reactivation With Tofacitinib (CP-690550)  

PubMed Central

Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) live with a risk of reactivation, and several treatments for chronic inflammatory conditions are highly associated with such reactivation. A new Janus kinase inhibitor, tofacitinib (CP-690550), has shown promising results for treatment of inflammatory disorders, thus raising concerns of risk of active tuberculosis. Our goal was to characterize the impact of tofacitinib on LTBI using a mouse model of contained tuberculosis. Our data indicate that tofacitinib reduces host containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and promotes bacterial replication in the lungs, suggesting tuberculosis reactivation. Tofacitinib may carry a significant risk for LTBI reactivation in humans.

Maiga, Mamoudou; Lun, Shichun; Guo, Haidan; Winglee, Kathryn; Ammerman, Nicole C.; Bishai, William R.

2012-01-01

354

Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis and host RNA expression in Africa.  

PubMed

Background Improved diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in children are needed. We hypothesized that transcriptional signatures of host blood could be used to distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children who either were or were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods The study population comprised prospective cohorts of children who were undergoing evaluation for suspected tuberculosis in South Africa (655 children), Malawi (701 children), and Kenya (1599 children). Patients were assigned to groups according to whether the diagnosis was culture-confirmed tuberculosis, culture-negative tuberculosis, diseases other than tuberculosis, or latent tuberculosis infection. Diagnostic signatures distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases and from latent tuberculosis infection were identified from genomewide analysis of RNA expression in host blood. Results We identified a 51-transcript signature distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases in the South African and Malawian children (the discovery cohort). In the Kenyan children (the validation cohort), a risk score based on the signature for tuberculosis and for diseases other than tuberculosis showed a sensitivity of 82.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.6 to 94.3) and a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI, 74.6 to 92.7) for the diagnosis of culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Among patients with cultures negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis who were treated for tuberculosis (those with highly probable, probable, or possible cases of tuberculosis), the estimated sensitivity was 62.5 to 82.3%, 42.1 to 80.8%, and 35.3 to 79.6%, respectively, for different estimates of actual tuberculosis in the groups. In comparison, the sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for molecular detection of M. tuberculosis DNA in cases of culture-confirmed tuberculosis was 54.3% (95% CI, 37.1 to 68.6), and the sensitivity in highly probable, probable, or possible cases was an estimated 25.0 to 35.7%, 5.3 to 13.3%, and 0%, respectively; the specificity of the assay was 100%. Conclusions RNA expression signatures provided data that helped distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children with and those without HIV infection. (Funded by the European Union Action for Diseases of Poverty Program and others). PMID:24785206

Anderson, Suzanne T; Kaforou, Myrsini; Brent, Andrew J; Wright, Victoria J; Banwell, Claire M; Chagaluka, George; Crampin, Amelia C; Dockrell, Hazel M; French, Neil; Hamilton, Melissa S; Hibberd, Martin L; Kern, Florian; Langford, Paul R; Ling, Ling; Mlotha, Rachel; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Pienaar, Sandy; Pillay, Vashini; Scott, J Anthony G; Twahir, Hemed; Wilkinson, Robert J; Coin, Lachlan J; Heyderman, Robert S; Levin, Michael; Eley, Brian

2014-05-01

355

The Social Determinants of Tuberculosis: From Evidence to Action  

PubMed Central

Growing consensus indicates that progress in tuberculosis control in the low- and middle-income world will require not only investment in strengthening tuberculosis control programs, diagnostics, and treatment but also action on the social determinants of tuberculosis. However, practical ideas for action are scarcer than is notional support for this idea. We developed a framework based on the recent World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health and on current understanding of the social determinants of tuberculosis. Interventions from outside the health sector—specifically, in social protection and urban planning—have the potential to strengthen tuberculosis control.

Boccia, Delia; Evans, Carlton A.; Adato, Michelle; Petticrew, Mark; Porter, John D. H.

2011-01-01

356

Multifocal childhood cutaneous tuberculosis: report of two interesting cases from Sikkim, India.  

PubMed

Cutaneous tuberculosis is an important health problem in developing countries such as India. Poverty, overcrowding, malnutrition, and ignorance are predisposing factors. The commonly seen variants of cutaneous tuberculosis are scrofuloderma, lupus vulgaris, and tuberculosis verrucosa cutis. Malnourished children may present with unusual forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. Herein we report two interesting cases of multifocal cutaneous tuberculosis in malnourished children. PMID:22957927

Verma, Shikha; Thakur, Binod Kumar; Gupta, Amlan

2013-01-01

357

DNA fingerprinting as an indicator of active transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To use genetic fingerprinting to investigate the epidemiology of tuberculosis (FB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Poland, a country with a relatively high incidence of tuberculosis, to improve TB control.Design: One hundred M. tuberculosis isolates from 98 patients in the Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Warsaw from 1993 to 1995 and 85 isolates obtained from 50 patients

Anna Sajduda; Jaroslav Dziadek; Agnieszka Dela; Natalia Zalewska-Schdnthaler; Zofia Zwolska; Johnjoe McFadden

1998-01-01

358

A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex  

PubMed Central

The distribution of 20 variable regions resulting from insertion-deletion events in the genomes of the tubercle bacilli has been evaluated in a total of 100 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canettii, Mycobacterium microti, and Mycobacterium bovis. This approach showed that the majority of these polymorphisms did not occur independently in the different strains of the M. tuberculosis complex but, rather, resulted from ancient, irreversible genetic events in common progenitor strains. Based on the presence or absence of an M. tuberculosis specific deletion (TbD1), M. tuberculosis strains can be divided into ancestral and “modern” strains, the latter comprising representatives of major epidemics like the Beijing, Haarlem, and African M. tuberculosis clusters. Furthermore, successive loss of DNA, reflected by region of difference 9 and other subsequent deletions, was identified for an evolutionary lineage represented by M. africanum, M. microti, and M. bovis that diverged from the progenitor of the present M. tuberculosis strains before TbD1 occurred. These findings contradict the often-presented hypothesis that M. tuberculosis, the etiological agent of human tuberculosis evolved from M. bovis, the agent of bovine disease. M. canettii and ancestral M. tuberculosis strains lack none of these deleted regions, and, therefore, seem to be direct descendants of tubercle bacilli that existed before the M. africanum?M. bovis lineage separated from the M. tuberculosis lineage. This observation suggests that the common ancestor of the tubercle bacilli resembled M. tuberculosis or M. canettii and could well have been a human pathogen already.

Brosch, R.; Gordon, S. V.; Marmiesse, M.; Brodin, P.; Buchrieser, C.; Eiglmeier, K.; Garnier, T.; Gutierrez, C.; Hewinson, G.; Kremer, K.; Parsons, L. M.; Pym, A. S.; Samper, S.; van Soolingen, D.; Cole, S. T.

2002-01-01

359

Discriminating between latent and active tuberculosis with multiple biomarker responses  

PubMed Central

Summary We sought to identify biomarker responses to tuberculosis specific antigens which could 1) improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection and 2) allow the differentiation of active and latent infections. Seventy subjects with active tuberculosis (N=12), latent tuberculosis (N=32), or no evidence of tuberculosis infection (N=26) were evaluated. We used the Luminex Multiplexed Bead Array platform to simultaneously evaluate 25 biomarkers in the supernatant of whole blood samples following overnight stimulation using the Quantiferon® Gold In-Tube kit. We defined the response to stimulation as the difference (within an individual patient) between the response to the pooled tuberculosis antigens and the negative control. IP-10 response was significantly higher in tuberculosis-infected (active or latent) subjects compared to the uninfected group (p <0.0001). Among the 25 parameters, expression levels of IL-15 and MCP-1 were found to be significantly higher in the active tuberculosis group compared to the latent tuberculosis group (p = 0.0006 and 0.0030, respectively). When combined, IL-15 and MCP-1 accurately identified 83% of active and 88% of latent infections. The combination of IL-15 and MCP-1 responses was accurate in distinguishing persons with active tuberculosis from persons with latent tuberculosis in this study.

Frahm, Marc; Goswami, Neela D.; Owzar, Kouros; Hecker, Emily; Mosher, Ann; Cadogan, Emily; Nahid, Payam; Ferrari, Guido; Stout, Jason E.

2011-01-01

360

Discriminating between latent and active tuberculosis with multiple biomarker responses.  

PubMed

We sought to identify biomarker responses to tuberculosis specific antigens which could 1) improve the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection and 2) allow the differentiation of active and latent infections. Seventy subjects with active tuberculosis (N = 12), latent tuberculosis (N = 32), or no evidence of tuberculosis infection (N = 26) were evaluated. We used the Luminex Multiplexed Bead Array platform to simultaneously evaluate 25 biomarkers in the supernatant of whole blood samples following overnight stimulation using the Quantiferon(®) Gold In-Tube kit. We defined the response to stimulation as the difference (within an individual patient) between the response to the pooled tuberculosis antigens and the negative control. IP-10 response was significantly higher in tuberculosis-infected (active or latent) subjects compared to the uninfected group (p < 0.0001). Among the 25 parameters, expression levels of IL-15 and MCP-1 were found to be significantly higher in the active tuberculosis group compared to the latent tuberculosis group (p = 0.0006 and 0.0030, respectively). When combined, IL-15 and MCP-1 accurately identified 83% of active and 88% of latent infections. The combination of IL-15 and MCP-1 responses was accurate in distinguishing persons with active tuberculosis from persons with latent tuberculosis in this study. PMID:21393062

Frahm, Marc; Goswami, Neela D; Owzar, Kouros; Hecker, Emily; Mosher, Ann; Cadogan, Emily; Nahid, Payam; Ferrari, Guido; Stout, Jason E

2011-05-01

361

Tuberculosis diagnostics and biomarkers: needs, challenges, recent advances, and opportunities.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within communities. Currently recommended gold-standard diagnostic tests for tuberculosis are laboratory based, and multiple investigations may be necessary over a period of weeks or months before a diagnosis is made. Several new diagnostic tests have recently become available for detecting active tuberculosis disease, screening for latent M. tuberculosis infection, and identifying drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. However, progress toward a robust point-of-care test has been limited, and novel biomarker discovery remains challenging. In the absence of effective prevention strategies, high rates of early case detection and subsequent cure are required for global tuberculosis control. Early case detection is dependent on test accuracy, accessibility, cost, and complexity, but also depends on the political will and funder investment to deliver optimal, sustainable care to those worst affected by the tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics. This review highlights unanswered questions, challenges, recent advances, unresolved operational and technical issues, needs, and opportunities related to tuberculosis diagnostics. PMID:22496353

McNerney, Ruth; Maeurer, Markus; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Marais, Ben; McHugh, Timothy D; Ford, Nathan; Weyer, Karin; Lawn, Steve; Grobusch, Martin P; Memish, Ziad; Squire, S Bertel; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Casenghi, Martina; Migliori, Giovanni-Batista; Mwaba, Peter; Zijenah, Lynn; Hoelscher, Michael; Cox, Helen; Swaminathan, Soumya; Kim, Peter S; Schito, Marco; Harari, Alexandre; Bates, Matthew; Schwank, Samana; O'Grady, Justin; Pletschette, Michel; Ditui, Lucica; Atun, Rifat; Zumla, Alimuddin

2012-05-15

362

[Lessons learned from tuberculosis outbreak cases].  

PubMed

Most TB outbreaks were caused by exposure of many people to tuberculosis bacilli due to delayed detection of initial cases who had long-lasting severe coughs and excretion of massive tuberculosis bacilli. They were also affected by several other factors, such as socio-environmental factors of the initial case; time and place of infection; and host factors of the infected persons such as immune status, infectivity, and/or pathogenicity of the bacilli. In this symposium, we learned the seriousness of infection and disease among immune-suppressed groups, special environmental factors with regard to the spread of infection, disease after treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, diagnostic specification of IGRA, and bacteriological features including genotyping of the bacilli. We reaffirmed that countermeasures for the case are important, but outbreaks can provide excellent opportunities to learn important information about infection, disease progression, etc. 1. Tuberculosis outbreak in a cancer ward: Katsuhiro KUWABARA (Division of Respiratory Diseases, National Hospital Organization Nishi-Niigata Chuo National Hospital) There was an outbreak of tuberculosis in a cancer ward of a highly specialized medical center. Outbreak cases included eight hospitalized patients and two medical staff members over a 1.5-year observation period after initial contact. Three immune-compromised patients including the index patent died of cancer and tuberculosis. Community hospitals and highly specialized medical centers, such as cancer centers, should carefully prepare a proper system to prevent nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis. 2. Sixty-one cases of TB exposures in hospital settings and contact investigations of the hospital staff, with special reference to the application of QFT: Hiroko Yoshikawa NIGORIKAWA (The Division of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation, Toshima Hospital; present: Division of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Teishin Hospital), Toru MORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) The index case was a patient who was admitted to a general hospital where she was treated with pulsed corticosteroid therapy and then put on a respirator. Soon after, she developed tuberculosis (TB) and died. Immediately after her death, the healthcare workers who had close contact with the index case were given the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT) test, which indicated that all staff except one were negative. However, a QFT test administered eight weeks later had a positive rate of 18.6%. Subsequently, a total of five workers, including a doctor, nurses, and radiology technicians, developed TB. The bacterial isolates from five of them exhibited an RFLP pattern identical to that of the index case. These secondary cases of TB included a case who had contact of less than 5 minutes, a case whose QFT was negative ("doubtful" in the Japanese criterion of the QFT), and a case who was QFT-positive but declined to be treated for latent TB infection (LTBI). No other workers nor hospitalized patients developed TB. The healthcare worker contacts were further examined with the QFT 6, 9 and 12 months after the contact. The QFT results revealed four additional positive reactors and four "doubtful" reactors who were indicated for LTBI treatment. Among them were seven subjects who turned positive six months after the contact. TB prevention in hospital settings and contact investigations were discussed with the hospital staff, with special reference to the application of QFT. 3. Summary and issues of concern relating to a tuberculosis outbreak in a prison: Mitsunobu HOMMA, Takefumi ITOH (Department of Respiratory Medicine, Akita City Hospital) We report a tuberculosis outbreak that occurred in a prison in the spring of 2011, resulting in 11 cases of active disease and 40 cases of infection. The primary cause of the outbreak is thought to be the delay in identifying the index case, where the screening result interpretation might have contributed to the delay. However, w

Kato, Seiya; Kuwabara, Katsuhiro

2014-02-01

363

Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis facts and controversies  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are both important health issues. A bidirectional association between them has been demonstrated by many researchers. The link of DM and TB is more prominent in developing countries where TB is endemic and the burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing. The association between diabetes and tuberculosis may be the next challenge for global tuberculosis control worldwide. Proper planning and collaboration are necessary to reduce the dual burden of diabetes and TB. One model similar to the TB-HIV program for prevention, screening and treatment of both diseases can be the best approach. In this paper, we review existing data and discuss the matters of controversy that would be helpful for determining research priorities in different countries.

2013-01-01

364

Targeting Persisters for Tuberculosis Control  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterial persisters, the survivors from antibiotic exposure, necessitate the lengthy treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and pose a significant challenge for our control of the disease. We suggest that persisters in TB are heterogeneous in nature and comprise various proportions of the population depending on the circumstances; the mechanisms of their formation are complex and may be related to those required for persistence in chronic infection. Results from recent studies implicate multiple pathways for persister formation, including energy production, the stringent response, global regulators, the trans-translation pathway, proteasomal protein degradation, toxin-antitoxin modules, and transporter or efflux mechanisms. A combination of specifically persister-targeted approaches, such as catching them when active and susceptible either by stimulating them to “wake up” or by intermittent drug dosing, the development of new drugs, the use of appropriate drug combinations, and combined chemotherapy and immunotherapy, may be needed for more effective elimination of persisters and better treatment of TB. Variations in levels of persister formation and in host genetics can play a role in the outcome of clinical treatment, and thus, these may entail personalized treatment regimens.

Yew, Wing Wai; Barer, Michael R.

2012-01-01

365

Diabetes and immunity to tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes has attracted much attention in the past decade as diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in countries already afflicted with a high burden of TB. The confluence of these two major diseases presents a serious threat to global public health; at the same time it also presents an opportunity to learn more about the key elements of human immunity to TB that may be relevant to the general population. Some effects of diabetes on innate and adaptive immunity that are potentially relevant to TB defense have been identified, but have yet to be verified in humans and are unlikely to fully explain the interaction of these two disease states. This review provides an update on the clinical and epidemiological features of TB in the diabetic population and relates them to recent advances in understanding the mechanistic basis of TB susceptibility and other complications of diabetes. Issues that merit further investigation - such as geographic host and pathogen differences in the diabetes/TB interaction, the role of hyperglycemia-induced epigenetic reprogramming in immune dysfunction, and the impact of diabetes on lung injury and fibrosis caused by TB - are highlighted in this review. PMID:24448841

Martinez, Nuria; Kornfeld, Hardy

2014-03-01

366

Cryopreservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Cells  

PubMed Central

Successful long-term preservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells is important for sample transport, research, biobanking, and the development of new drugs, vaccines, biomarkers, and diagnostics. In this report, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and M. tuberculosis H37Ra were used as models of M. tuberculosis complex strains to study cryopreservation of M. tuberculosis complex cells in diverse sample matrices at different cooling rates. Cells were cryopreserved in diverse sample matrices, namely, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Middlebrook 7H9 medium with or without added glycerol, and human sputum. The efficacy of cryopreservation was quantified by microbiological culture and microscopy with BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. In all sample matrices examined, the microbiological culture results showed that the cooling rate was the most critical factor influencing cell viability. Slow cooling (a few degrees Celsius per minute) resulted in much higher M. tuberculosis complex recovery rates than rapid cooling (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen) (P < 0.05). Among the three defined cryopreservation media (PBS, 7H9, and 7H9 plus glycerol), there was no significant differential effect on viability (P = 0.06 to 0.87). Preincubation of thawed M. tuberculosis complex cells in 7H9 broth for 20 h before culture on solid Middlebrook 7H10 plates did not help the recovery of the cells from cryoinjury (P = 0.14 to 0.71). The BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining kit, based on Syto 9 and propidium iodide (PI), was also applied to assess cell envelope integrity after cryopreservation. Using the kit, similar percentages of “live” cells with intact envelopes were observed for samples cryopreserved under different conditions, which was inconsistent with the microbiological culture results. This implies that suboptimal cryopreservation might not cause severe damage to the cell wall and/or membrane but instead cause intracellular injury, which leads to the loss of cell viability.

Shu, Zhiquan; Weigel, Kris M.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Lakey, Annie; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

2012-01-01

367

Communication among Oral Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities.

Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

2002-01-01

368

[RS3PE associated with tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema of the elderly patient with edema and fovea (RS3PE), characterizes for the appearance of one polyarthritis symmetrical with fovea in the back of the hands, and negative reumatoideal factor. The association to tuberculosis had not been described before. One presents the case of a 89-year-old patient who consulted for anorexia of month and a half of evolution accompanied of edema in hands and feet, with negative reumatoideal factor. He was presenting a pulmonary infiltrated, which microbiological study revealed the infection for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:18271654

Nicolás-Sánchez, F J; Rozadilla Sacanell, J R; Gort Oromí, A M; Torres Cortada, G; Soler Rosell, T; Sarrat-Nuevo, R M; Nicolás-Sánchez, M E; Cabau-Rubies, J

2007-10-01

369

Tuberculosis among never-jailed drug abusers.  

PubMed

The best way to control tuberculosis in a community is active case-finding and treatment among high-risk groups. Upon admission to a correctional centre in 1997, 319 never-jailed drug addicts were enrolled in the present study. Statistically significant differences in skin-test positivity were found among males over 40 years old, those unemployed and injecting drug abusers. Among the sample, 8 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were found. This is approximately 170 times the rate in the general population. Because of cost and time, we recommend the screening of drug addicts by mini-radiography instead of tuberculin skin test at admission. PMID:12690767

Askarian, M; Karmi, A; Sadeghi-Hassanabadi, A

2001-05-01

370

Risk factors for post-transplant tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for post-transplant tuberculosis.BackgroundPost-transplant tuberculosis (post-TxTB) occurs in 12 to 20% of patients in India and results in the death of 20 to 25% of those patients. Prospective studies on post-TxTB are few.MethodsRenal allograft recipients were studied prospectively for 3.1 (0 to 13.9) median (range) years for incidence, manifestations, risk factors, and prognosis for post-TxTB. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used

George Tharayil John; Viswanathan Shankar; Abi Mookanottle Abraham; Uma Mukundan; Paulose Punnakuzhathil Thomas; Chakko Korula Jacob

2001-01-01

371

[Central nervous system tuberculosis in adult patients].  

PubMed

Central nervous system tuberculosis is the fifth most frequent and at the same time most severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis diseases. It presents with no typical signs, thus early diagnosis and treatment is of high importance concerning the outcome. Authors present the characteristics, diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives of central nervous system tuberculosis through a case report and a retrospective study of 15 patients. Patients and methods: Authors performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients with central nervous system tuberculosis in an academic teaching hospital (Department of Neurology and Infectious Diseases, United Szent István-Szent László Hospital, Budapest, Hungary). Results: Median age of patients was 54.5 years, and 6 (40%) were females. Cerebrospinal fluid findings at admission showed elevated protein (1.54 g/l; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.05), cell count (mean: 337/?l; CI: 171.9-502.5), and decreased glucose index (0.32; CI: 0.15-0.52). 14 patients (93.3%) had hyponatremia. Average duration of symptoms were 16.3 days (1-40). On physical examination meningeal irritation was absent in 9 patients (60%). On admission headache and altered consciousness was present in 53%, while headache, fever, nuchal rigidity was present in only 33.3%. Diagnosis was culture and/or PCR confirmed in 46.7% of the cases. Two third of patients were followed-up at least for one year, and nine patients presented neurological sequel. Authors found that patients with central nervous system tuberculosis present with unspecific symptoms, but later progressive disorientation, cranial nerve palsies and convulsions may develop. Headache and altered consciousness proved to be the leading symptoms among these patients. Even today, diagnostic gold standard procedure is cultivating M. tuberculosis on solid and liquid medium. The polymerase chain reaction, which is known to have sensitivity between 27% and 86%, was positive in two of eight samples. Revealing predisposing factors (immunodeficiency, HIV infection, previous tuberculosis exposure) promotes setting up early diagnosis. Co-administration of four antituberculotic drugs for 12 months cured all patients, but authors note that even in cases with early diagnosis and optimal treatment various neurological impairment and seldom death can occur. Conclusions: Central nervous system tuberculosis is a rare but regularly emerging disease with unspecific signs and symptoms. The diagnosis may be difficult. It should be considered as a differential diagnostic issue in patients with uncharacteristic subacute conditions with headache, disorientation, elevated protein and low glucose in cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:21436023

Lakatos, Botond; Prinz, Géza; Sárvári, Csilla; Kamotsay, Katalin; Molnár, Péter; Abrahám, Anita; Budai, József

2011-04-10

372

Scrotal lump: do not forget tuberculosis!  

PubMed

Scrotal tuberculosis (TB) is rare. Lack of awareness may lead to a misdiagnosis and/or delayed diagnosis of scrotal TB. Clinicians should have a high suspicion index for scrotal TB when facing a patient with a chronic scrotal lump. Since scrotal TB can be medically cured, biopsy of the scrotal lump for pathology study and/or urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for M. tuberculosis should be performed first for rapid diagnostic purposes, and therefore unnecessary surgery may thereby be circumvented. PMID:24770814

Ho, C C K; Rusdi, A R M

2014-01-01

373

Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis masquerading as pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) remains a rarity despite the high incidence of tuberculosis in many of the African and Asian countries. Presentation as discrete pancreatic mass often masquerades as pancreatic neoplasm and diagnosis may require histology. Extra-hepatic portal hypertension due to splenic vein thrombosis complicating pancreatic TB has been reported in the literature. We report here a case of isolated pancreatic TB with pancreatic head mass mimicking neoplasm with extra-hepatic portal hypertension. The possibility of TB should be considered in the list of differential diagnoses of pancreatic mass and an endoscopic, ultrasound-guided biopsy might help to clinch the diagnosis of this potentially curable disease.

Zacharia, George S.; Antony, Rajany; Kolassery, Sandesh; Ramachandran, Thazhath M.

2014-01-01

374

Cardiac tamponade as a manifestation of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis has been increasing in incidence in recent years. Pericardial involvement and pericardial effusions are well-documented and may result in pericardial tamponade. Despite this, large pericardial effusions are uncommon, and manifestation as cardiac tamponade is rare. We report two cases of tuberculous pericarditis in which the initial feature was tamponade. Since the diagnosis of tuberculosis may be delayed due to the slow-growing nature of the bacterium, physicians need to be aware of this possibility and consider the use of modern diagnostic techniques that may permit an earlier diagnosis. PMID:11372808

Gladych, E; Goland, S; Attali, M; Somin, M; Malnick, S D

2001-05-01

375

Oral Lesion as the first Clinical Presentation in Sarcoidosis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a common multi-system disease characterized histolopathologically by the formation of non-caseating granulomas in the affected tissues. The oral involvement of sarcoidosis is relatively rare with less than 70 reported cases in literature while an oral lesion as the initial presenting sign is even less common. Oral lesions of sarcoidosis may mimic the lesions of other serious systemic diseases including Crohn’s disease and tuberculosis as well as lesions localized to the orofacial region such as orofacial granulomatosis. This report presents a case of non-progressive sarcoidosis where the initial presenting symptom was a lesion in the buccal vestibule attached to the gingivae. A brief review of the pathology and clinical features is also presented.

Al-Azri, Abdul Rahman S.; Logan, Richard M.; Goss, Alastair N.

2012-01-01

376

First Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Second-line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  

PubMed Central

We performed drug susceptibility testing on first- and second-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the first time in Ghana to obtain preliminary data on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of 21 isolates (4 new cases and 17 treated cases), 5 (23.8%) were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 19 (90.5%) were resistant to at least one drug, but no extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was identified. Since the target patients were Category II, IV or smear positive at follow-up microscopy, it is understandable that there were many drug-resistant TB cases. Six isolates were resistant to one or two second-line drugs, but the second-line drugs were not approved in Ghana. It is considered that the bacilli were imported from abroad. Preventing the import of drug-resistant TB bacilli is probably one of best ways to control TB in Ghana.

Kato, Tomoko; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Nartey, Naomi; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank Adae; Mitarai, Satoshi

2014-01-01

377

[Progress in management of severe tuberculosis or tuberculosis with severe complication].  

PubMed

The management and therapy of miliary tuberculosis: Nobuharu OHSHIMA (Asthma and Allergy Center, National Hospital Organization Tokyo National Hospital). Treatment and management of severe pulmonary tuberculosis: Yuta HAYASHI, Kenji OGAWA (Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Higashi Nagoya National Hospital). Death of a young (non-elderly) patient may become a large psychological burden not only for patient's family but also for medical staff. We analyzed non-elderly cases with severe pulmonary tuberculosis by comparing 13 patients who died of tuberculosis in the hospital (death group) and 31 patients who survived and were discharged from hospital (survivor group). The mean age was older and there were more patients who were out of employment in the death group compared to the survivor group. Among the factors related to the general condition evaluated on the admission, disturbance of consciousness, respiratory insufficiency, impairment in the ADL, poor dietary intake, and decubitus ulcer were more observed in the death group. Chest X-ray finding was not a predictive factor of poor prognosis. Among the laboratory findings, the numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes, red blood cells, and thrombocytes significantly decreased in the death group. Serum level of total cholesterol, cholinesterase, and albumin were also significantly lower in the death group, indicating that malnutrition was related to the death of severe tuberculosis. Further studies are needed to establish the optimal nutritional management and evaluate the effectiveness of adjunctive use of steroid for severe tuberculosis patients. Invasive fungal infection complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis: Akira WATANABE, Katsuhiko KAMEI (Division of Clinical Research, Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University). Among the invasive mycoses, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is the most frequent disease as a sequel to pulmonary tuberculosis. However, identifying CPA early in patient with persistent pulmonary shadows from pulmonary tuberculosis is difficult. Serum microbiological tests such as Aspergillus precipitans (principally for Aspergillus IgG antibodies) are useful but sensitivity and specificity of this test are not high. Even treated, CPA has a case mortality rate of 50% over a span of 5 years. Morbidity is marked by both systemic and respiratory symptom and hemoptysis. Loss of lung function and life-threatening hemoptysis are common. As invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, early diagnosis and treatment of CPA might improve the outcome. Regarding the treatment, concomitant use of some anti-tubercular agents and antifungals is contradicted. Treatment and management for pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with COPD and interstitial pneumonia: Shinji TAMAKI, Takashi KUGE, Midori TAMURA, Sayuri TANAKA, Eiko YOSHINO, Mouka TAMURA (National Hospital Organization Nara Medical Center), Hiroshi KIMURA (Second Department of Internal Medicine and Respiratory Medicine, Nara Medical University) Recently, patients of pulmonary tuberculosis have many complications especially in the elderly population. It is recognized that patients with COPD and interstitial pneumonia (IP) have an increased risk for developing active tuberculosis. The aim of this report is to describe the clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with COPD and IP. We reviewed 327 patients who were diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-six cases were complicated with COPD. All patients were male, and had smoking history. Cavitary lesions were observed only in 5 cases. Acute exacerbation of COPD occurred in one fatal case. Ten cases were complicated with IP. Cavitary lesions were observed in 3 cases. Acute exacerbation of IP were observed in 7 cases, and 4 patients died during the anti-tuberculosis treatment. Careful evaluation and treatment are necessary for tuberculosis patients complicated with COPD and IP. PMID:24979949

Kimura, Hiroshi; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi

2014-05-01

378

Isoxyl Aerosols for Tuberculosis Treatment: Preparation and Characterization of Particles  

PubMed Central

Isoxyl is a potent antituberculosis drug effective in treating various multidrug-resistant strains in the absence of known side effects. Isoxyl has been used exclusively, but infrequently, via the oral route and has exhibited very poor and highly variable bioavailability due to its sparing solubility in water. These properties resulted in failure of some clinical trials and, consequently, isoxyl’s use has been limited. Delivery of isoxyl to the lungs, a major site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, is an attractive alternative route of administration that may rescue this abandoned drug for a disease that urgently requires new therapies. Particles for pulmonary delivery were prepared by antisolvent precipitation. Nanofibers with a width of 200 nm were obtained by injecting isoxyl solution in ethanol to water at a volume ratio of solvent to antisolvent of 1:5. Based on this preliminary result, a well-controlled method, involving nozzle mixing, was employed to prepare isoxyl particles. All the particles were 200 to 400 nm in width but had different lengths depending on properties of the solvents. However, generating these nanoparticles by simultaneous spray drying produced isoxyl microparticles (Feret’s diameter, 1.19–1.77 ?m) with no discernible nanoparticle substructure. The bulking agent, mannitol, helped to prevent these nanoparticles from agglomeration during process and resulted in nanoparticle aggregates in micron-sized superstructures. Future studies will focus on understanding difference of these isoxyl microparticles and nanoparticles/nanoparticle aggregates in terms of in vivo disposition and efficacy.

Wang, Chenchen

2010-01-01

379

Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

380

Oral heparin: status review.  

PubMed

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials. PMID:16686945

Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai

2006-01-01

381

Oral heparin: status review  

PubMed Central

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.

Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai

2006-01-01

382

Risk of tuberculosis among healthcare workers: can tuberculosis be considered as an occupational disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the incidence of tuberculosis among hospital employees in four major urban institutions, which employ nearly 90% of all hospital workers caring for adult patients in a city of 2.5 million inhabitants. It also had the objective of finding out whether this incidence changes according to the in-hospital setting, i.e. the departments, and thus, whether tuberculosis

O. KILINC; E. S. UCAN; M. D. A. CAKAN; M. D. H. ELLIDOKUZ; M. D. D. OZOL; A. SAYINER; M. D. A. OZSOZ

2002-01-01

383

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease.

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

384

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part II  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of renal tuberculosis (TB), including TB in transplant recipients and immunocompromised patients. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) forms the mainstay of cross-sectional imaging in renal TB. It can easily identify calcification, renal scars, mass lesions, and urothelial thickening. The combination of uneven caliectasis, with urothelial thickening and lack of pelvic dilatation, can also be demonstrated on MDCT. MRI is a sensitive modality for demonstration of features of renal TB, including tissue edema, asymmetric perinephric fat stranding, and thickening of Gerota's fascia, all of which may be clues to focal pyelonephritis of tuberculous origin. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may help in differentiating hydronephrosis from pyonephrosis. ADC values also have the potential to serve as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of renal fibrosis. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of renal TB. In transplant patients, renal TB, including tuberculous interstitial nephritis, is an important cause of graft dysfunction. Renal TB in patients with HIV more often shows greater parenchymal affection, with poorly formed granulomas and relatively less frequent findings of caseation and stenosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are also more common in immunocompromised patients.

Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

2013-01-01

385

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part II.  

PubMed

This article reviews the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of renal tuberculosis (TB), including TB in transplant recipients and immunocompromised patients. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) forms the mainstay of cross-sectional imaging in renal TB. It can easily identify calcification, renal scars, mass lesions, and urothelial thickening. The combination of uneven caliectasis, with urothelial thickening and lack of pelvic dilatation, can also be demonstrated on MDCT. MRI is a sensitive modality for demonstration of features of renal TB, including tissue edema, asymmetric perinephric fat stranding, and thickening of Gerota's fascia, all of which may be clues to focal pyelonephritis of tuberculous origin. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may help in differentiating hydronephrosis from pyonephrosis. ADC values also have the potential to serve as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of renal fibrosis. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of renal TB. In transplant patients, renal TB, including tuberculous interstitial nephritis, is an important cause of graft dysfunction. Renal TB in patients with HIV more often shows greater parenchymal affection, with poorly formed granulomas and relatively less frequent findings of caseation and stenosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are also more common in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986619

Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

2013-01-01

386

Oral myiasis in children  

PubMed Central

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.

2012-01-01

387

Oral myiasis: case report.  

PubMed

Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of dipteran flies. Houseflies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically are the root cause for disease organisms. A case of oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in the maxillary anterior region in a 40-year-old patient is presented. Manual removal of maggots, and surgical debridement of wound was done followed by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications. A note on the identification of the larva and histopathology of the tissue is also highlighted here. PMID:24552939

Jimson, S; Prakash, C A; Balachandran, C; Raman, M

2013-01-01

388

[Sensitivity of PCR method for detection of mycobacteria tuberculosis in patients with lung tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Both hospitalized patients and outpatient clinic patients at the National Centre of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases of Georgia have been investigated. The group of patients with the tuberculosis of urogenital system, has been studied (newly detected cases), 70 cases in total. The examination of the urine was carried out by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method in order to detect Kochi bacillus and by three-time bacterioscopy of urine on acid resistant bacterium. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine has been detected in 57 (81,43%) patients by PCR method, and by urine bacterioscopy acid fast bacilli (AFB)(+) in 36 (51,43%) patients. 50 hospitalized patients were examined as a separate group. They had the tuberculosis of lungs and insignificant pathological changes in urogenital system. Among them there was active bacillus secretion in 45 cases by phlegm bacterioscopy AFB(+). Out of 50 patients the mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine was detected in 30 (60%) cases by PCR method. It should be mentioned that according to the urine two-time bacterioscopy, carried out on 50 patients, has not been detected AFB(-) bacillus secretion. It may be concluded that the PCR method is advantageous in detecting of Kochi bacillus in urine. Introduction of this method in medical practice will give us the possibility to determine the risk-group for development of tubercular changes in urinary system associated with lung tuberculosis, in order to control such patients and to carry out the adequate urological examinations. PMID:15821317

Dochviri, T Z; Salakaia, A I; Katsitadze, V A; Chigogidze, T G

2005-01-01

389

Genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from household contacts of tuberculosis patients in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background The Philippines has an extremely high rate of tuberculosis but little is known about M. tuberculosis genotypes and transmission dynamics in this country. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of household contacts who develop active TB due to direct transmission from an index case in that household. Methods Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from household contacts of tuberculosis patients in the Philippines were characterized using restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis, spoligotyping, and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units – variable number tandem repeats typing (12-loci) to determine their utility in elucidating transmission in an area of high tuberculosis prevalence. Drug susceptibility patterns for these isolates were also determined. Results Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing results matched in 10 (62.5%) of 16 index patient-household contact pairs while IS6110 fingerprints matched in only six (37.5%) pairs. Only 3/16 (18.8%) index patient-household contact pairs had identical drug susceptibility results. Conclusions Strain typing of M. tuberculosis isolates from household contacts in the Philippines indicates that transmission of strains does not necessarily occur directly from the index patient living in close proximity in the same household but rather that community-based transmission also frequently occurs. Accurate susceptibility testing of all isolates is necessary to insure optimal care of both the index patients and any culture-positive household contacts.

2013-01-01

390

Peptides of a Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Cell Wall Protein for Immunodiagnosis of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome revealed the existence of several genes encoding novel proteins with unknown functions, one of which is the proline-threonine repetitive protein (PTRP; Rv0538). Genomic studies of various mycobacterial species and M. tuberculosis clinical isolates demonstrate that ptrp is specific to the M. tuberculosis complex and ubiquitous in clinical isolates. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis, and electron microscopic evaluation of M. tuberculosis subcellular fractions and intact bacteria confirm that PTRP is a cell wall protein. Antibodies to PTRP are present in serum specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative, tuberculosis (TB)–positive and HIV-positive, TB-positive patients but not purified protein derivative (PPD)–negative or PPD-positive healthy control subjects, demonstrating its diagnostic potential. Epitope mapping of PTRP delineated 4 peptides that can identify >80% of sputum smear–positive and >50% of smear-negative, HIV-negative, TB-positive patients and >80% of HIV-positive, TB-positive patients. These results demonstrate that immunodominant epitopes of carefully selected M. tuberculosis–specific proteins can be used to devise a simple peptide-based serodiagnostic test for TB.

Singh, Krishna K.; Sharma, Naresh; Vargas, Diana; Liu, Zhentong; Belisle, John T.; Potharaju, Visalakshi; Wanchu, Ajay; Behera, Digambar; Laal, Suman

2010-01-01

391

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

392

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2010-01-01

393

Tuberculosis Stays in U.S. Hospitals, 2006. Statistical Brief No. 60.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is estimated that one-third of the worlds population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the airborne bacteria that causes tuberculosis. While prevalence is much lower in the United States than in other countries, tuberculosis is still a signi...

A. Elixhauser C. A. Russo L. Holmquist

2008-01-01

394

76 FR 27327 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-05-11

395

75 FR 15443 - Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop; Request for Comments...Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis (TB).'' The purpose of the workshop...Ending Neglect: The Elimination of Tuberculosis in the United States, Committee...

2010-03-29

396

78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-11-07

397

75 FR 63496 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-10-15

398

76 FR 61253 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Minnesota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0100] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone...SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations regarding State and zone...as modified accredited advanced for tuberculosis. DATES: This interim rule is...

2011-10-04

399

76 FR 56635 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2011-0075] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone...SUMMARY: We are amending the bovine tuberculosis regulations to adjust the boundaries...accredited advanced, and accredited-free tuberculosis risk classification zones for the...

2011-09-14

400

77 FR 8877 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2012-02-15

401

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2013-07-01

402

78 FR 66744 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guidance for Industry on Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Developing Drugs for Treatment...for industry entitled ``Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Developing Drugs for Treatment...drugs for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. This guidance applies to the...

2013-11-06

403

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2010-01-01

404

38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When service connection is granted...claim for pulmonary or nonpulmonary tuberculosis and there is...

2013-07-01

405

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. 3.374 Section 3.374 Pensions...374 Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. (a) Service diagnosis. Service...department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless a...

2013-07-01

406

38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968. 4... Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968...provided graduated ratings for inactive tuberculosis. The repealed section,...

2013-07-01

407

77 FR 65555 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-10-29

408

77 FR 27776 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-05-11

409

76 FR 67459 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-11-01

410

75 FR 6402 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-02-09

411

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had...

2013-07-01

412

78 FR 9925 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to Be Discussed:...

2013-02-12

413

78 FR 28221 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-05-14

414

77 FR 16661 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2008-0124] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and...interim rule that amended the bovine tuberculosis regulations by establishing two separate zones with different tuberculosis risk classifications for the...

2012-03-22

415

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2009-01-01

416

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2009-01-01

417

75 FR 33316 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-06-11

418

76 FR 18220 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis; Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis; Notice of Charter Renewal This gives...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human Services...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human...

2011-04-01

419

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic...known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...subsequently develops a tuberculosis infection, as evidenced...positive skin test or diagnosis by a physician or...

2010-07-01

420

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic...known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...subsequently develops a tuberculosis infection, as evidenced...positive skin test or diagnosis by a physician or...

2009-07-01

421

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2014-01-01

422

38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968. 4... Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968...provided graduated ratings for inactive tuberculosis. The repealed section,...

2012-07-01

423

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2012-01-01

424

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2014-01-01

425

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2010-01-01

426

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2014-01-01

427

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. 3.374 Section 3.374 Pensions...374 Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. (a) Service diagnosis. Service...department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless a...

2010-07-01

428

38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...direct service connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under...

2010-07-01

429

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2011-07-01

430

38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When service connection is granted...claim for pulmonary or nonpulmonary tuberculosis and there is...

2011-07-01

431

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2012-07-01

432

38 CFR 4.89 - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968. 4... Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis in effect on August 19, 1968...provided graduated ratings for inactive tuberculosis. The repealed section,...

2011-07-01

433

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2012-01-01

434

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had...

2012-07-01

435

38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When service connection is granted...claim for pulmonary or nonpulmonary tuberculosis and there is...

2012-07-01

436

38 CFR 3.375 - Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. 3.375 Section 3.375 Pensions...Determination of inactivity (complete arrest) in tuberculosis. (a) Pulmonary tuberculosis. A veteran shown to have had...

2011-07-01

437

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2011-01-01

438

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. 3.374 Section 3.374 Pensions...374 Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. (a) Service diagnosis. Service...department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless a...

2012-07-01

439

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2012-01-01

440

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2011-01-01

441

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. 3.374 Section 3.374 Pensions...374 Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis. (a) Service diagnosis. Service...department diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will be accepted unless a...

2011-07-01

442

38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...direct service connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under...

2012-07-01

443

38 CFR 3.370 - Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...Specific Diseases § 3.370 Pulmonary tuberculosis shown by X-ray in active service...direct service connection for pulmonary tuberculosis. When under...

2011-07-01

444

38 CFR 3.372 - Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. 3.372 Section 3.372 Pensions...Initial grant following inactivity of tuberculosis. When service connection is granted...claim for pulmonary or nonpulmonary tuberculosis and there is...

2010-07-01

445

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2011-01-01

446

Revisiting Rates of Reactivation Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Reactivation tuberculosis (TB) occurs as a result of reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI), and was reported to occur in the United States at a rate of 0.10 to 0.16 cases per 100 person-years in the 1950s; it has not been measured since. Objectives: To calculate the rate of reactivation TB in a U.S. community. Methods: A population-based tuberculin skin test survey for LTBI was performed in western Palm Beach County, Florida, from 1998 to 2000 along with a cluster analysis of TB case isolates in the same area from 1997 to 2001. Reactivation (unclustered) TB was presumed to have arisen from the population with LTBI. Measurements and Main Results: The rate of reactivation TB among persons with LTBI without HIV infection was 0.040 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.024–0.067) using the n method and 0.058 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 0.038–0.089) using the n-1 method. HIV infection was the strongest risk factor for reactivation (rate ratio [RR], 57; 95% CI, 27–120; P < 0.001). Among persons without HIV infection, reactivation was increased among those older than 50 years (RR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3–11) and among those born in the United States (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1–9.3). Conclusions: Rates of reactivation TB in this area have declined substantially since the 1950s. The greatest part of this decline may be attributed to the disappearance of old, healed TB in the population. If similar declines are seen in other areas of the United States, the cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment of LTBI may be substantially less than previously estimated.

Horsburgh, C. Robert; O'Donnell, Max; Chamblee, Sandra; Moreland, Janet L.; Johnson, Johnny; Marsh, Bryan J.; Narita, Masahiro; Johnson, Linda Scoles; von Reyn, C. Fordham

2010-01-01

447

Diagnosis of tuberculosis in children.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children is usually based on presumptions from several elements: clinical picture and course, x-rays, tuberculin test, and culture of pathology later on. TB is usually found in a child because of symptoms of primary disease, or through case-finding of a contact. TB is children is often a primary infection and may be gradual or acute in onset. Some of the symptoms of primary TB are low-grade fever, pallor, fatigue, and anorexia. The child may have erythema nodosum, a yellow module on the conjunctiva, hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy, a primary TB complex on the lung (3-10 mm), segmental density, or a positive PPD test. Children with pulmonary disease do not have adult-type cavity lesions, but may have a primary cavity that drains into the bronchi, mechanical complications, fistulas, or atelectasis. Acute TB often appears as meningitis. The pathognomonic signs are cerebrospinal fluid high in lymphocytes with very high albumin (0.6-2 g) and low glucose (0.4-0.2 g/l). TB organisms are rarely seen, but may be cultured. TB meningitis is also notable for choroidal tubercles, which are yellow nodules visible in the fundus. These presumptive signs, as well as increasing neurological findings, prompt immediate treatment. Children also may have acute miliary TB, marked by high fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, dyspnea, cyanosis, and respiratory distress, with characteristic diffuse grainy spots on the chest x-ray. A child may have both conditions and may also have localized TB infection elsewhere. Thus, clinical findings may point to possible cultures of urine, gastric lavage, pleural fluid or biopsy, pericardial fluid, bone marrow, or ascitic fluid, any of which should be cultured to rule out other causes. The most common sites for extra-pulmonary TB are cervical nodes, spine, knee. shoulder, hip and peritoneum. Pelvic and urinary tract infections are rare in children. PMID:12345139

Anane, T; Grangaud, J P

1992-01-01

448

Redox biology of tuberculosis pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most successful human pathogens. Mtb is persistently exposed to numerous oxidoreductive stresses during its pathogenic cycle of infection and transmission. The distinctive ability of Mtb, not only to survive the redox stress manifested by the host but also to use it for synchronizing the metabolic pathways and expression of virulence factors, is central to its success as a pathogen. This review describes the paradigmatic redox and hypoxia sensors employed by Mtb to continuously monitor variations in the intracellular redox state and the surrounding microenvironment. Two component proteins, namely, DosS and DosT, are employed by Mtb to sense changes in oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide levels, while WhiB3 and anti-sigma factor RsrA are used to monitor changes in intracellular redox state. Using these and other unidentified redox sensors, Mtb orchestrates its metabolic pathways to survive in nutrient-deficient, acidic, oxidative, nitrosative, and hypoxic environments inside granulomas or infectious lesions. A number of these metabolic pathways are unique to mycobacteria and thus represent potential drug targets. In addition, Mtb employs versatile machinery of the mycothiol and thioredoxin systems to ensure a reductive intracellular environment for optimal functioning of its proteins even upon exposure to oxidative stress. Mtb also utilizes a battery of protective enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (KatG), alkyl hydroperoxidase (AhpC), and peroxiredoxins, to neutralize the redox stress generated by the host immune system. This chapter reviews the current understanding of mechanisms employed by Mtb to sense and neutralize redox stress and their importance in TB pathogenesis and drug development. PMID:22633061

Trivedi, Abhishek; Singh, Nisha; Bhat, Shabir Ahmed; Gupta, Pawan; Kumar, Ashwani

2012-01-01

449

Optimization of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase expression and purification.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the human pathogen that causes tuberculosis, warrants enormous attention due to the emergence of multi drug resistant and extremely drug resistant strains. RNA polymerase (RNAP), the key enzyme in gene regulation, is an attractive target for anti-TB drugs. Understanding the structure-function relationship of M. tuberculosis RNAP and the mechanism of gene regulation by RNAP in conjunction with different ? factors and transcriptional regulators would provide significant information for anti-tuberculosis drug development targeting RNAP. Studies with M. tuberculosis RNAP remain tedious because of the extremely slow-growing nature of the bacteria and requirement of special laboratory facility. Here, we have developed and optimized recombinant methods to prepare M. tuberculosis RNAP core and RNAP holo enzymes assembled in vivo in Escherichia coli. These methods yield high amounts of transcriptionally active enzymes, free of E. coli RNAP contamination. The recombinant M. tuberculosis RNAP is used to develop a highly sensitive fluorescence based in vitro transcription assay that could be easily adopted in a high-throughput format to screen RNAP inhibitors. These recombinant methods would be useful to set a platform for M. tuberculosis RNAP targeted anti TB drug development, to analyse the structure/function of M. tuberculosis RNAP and to analyse the interactions among promoter DNA, RNAP, ? factors, and transcription regulators of M. tuberculosis in vitro, avoiding the hazard of handling of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24832563

Banerjee, Rajdeep; Rudra, Paulami; Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Sengupta, Shreya; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

2014-07-01

450

Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus.  

PubMed

Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB) is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpinography has been considered as the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and as a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG) from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and the "leopard skin tube". Part II will describe adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings, such as "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudo-unicornuate "uterus, "collar-stud abscess" and "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases. PMID:24696765

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam Shahrzad

2014-04-01

451

Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus  

PubMed Central

Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB) is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpinography has been considered as the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and as a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG) from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and the "leopard skin tube". Part II will describe adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings, such as "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudo-unicornuate "uterus, "collar-stud abscess" and "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases.

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam Shahrzad

2014-01-01

452

Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis and Clinical Aspects  

PubMed Central

Summary: Tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is a highly devastating form of tuberculosis, which, even in the setting of appropriate antitubercular therapy, leads to unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Despite the development of promising molecular diagnostic techniques, diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis relies largely on microbiological methods that are insensitive, and as such, CNS tuberculosis remains a formidable diagnostic challenge. Insights into the basic neuropathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the development of an appropriate animal model are desperately needed. The optimal regimen and length of treatment are largely unknown, and with the rising incidence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, the development of well-tolerated and effective antibiotics remains a continued need. While the most widely used vaccine in the world largely targets this manifestation of tuberculosis, the BCG vaccine has not fulfilled the promise of eliminating CNS tuberculosis. We put forth this review to highlight the current understanding of the neuropathogenesis of M. tuberculosis, to discuss certain epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of CNS tuberculosis, and also to underscore the many unmet needs in this important field.

Rock, R. Bryan; Olin, Michael; Baker, Cristina A.; Molitor, Thomas W.; Peterson, Phillip K.

2008-01-01

453

Isoniazid-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Isoniazid resistance is an obstacle to the treatment of tuberculosis disease and latent tuberculosis infection in children. We aim to summarize the literature describing the risk of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis among children with tuberculosis disease. Methods We did a systematic review of published reports of children with tuberculosis disease who had isolates tested for susceptibility to isoniazid. We searched PubMed, Embase and LILACS online databasesuptoJanuary 12, 2012. Results Our search identified 3,403 citations, of which 95 studies met inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated 8,351 children with tuberculosis disease for resistance to isoniazid. The median proportion of children found to have isoniazid-resistant strains was 8%; the distribution was right-skewed (25th percentile: 0% and 75th percentile: 18%). Conclusions High proportions of isoniazid resistance among pediatric tuberculosis patients have been reported in many settings suggesting that diagnostics detecting only rifampin resistance are insufficient to guide appropriate treatment in this population. Many children are likely receiving sub-standard tuberculosis treatment with empirical isoniazid-based regimens, and treating latent tuberculosis infection with isoniazid may not be effective in large numbers of children. Work is needed urgently to identify effective regimens for the treatment of children sick with or exposed to isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis and to better understand the scope of this problem.

Yuen, Courtney M.; Tolman, Arielle W.; Cohen, Ted; Parr, Jonathan B.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Becerra, Mercedes C.

2013-01-01

454

Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1987

1987-01-01

455

Oral biofilms, oral and periodontal infections, and systemic disease.  

PubMed

Purpose: Oral biofilms harbor several hundreds of species of bacteria as well as spirochetes, protozoa, fungi and viruses. The composition of the oral biofilm varies from health to disease. It is the source of microorganisms that cause dental and periodontal infections. Oral infections and periodontal disease have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of several important chronic systemic diseases. PMID:24479275

Maddi, Abhiram; Scannapieco, Frank A

2013-10-01

456

Advancing the development of tuberculosis therapy.  

PubMed

Although the development of novel drugs and combination regimens for tuberculosis has accelerated in recent years, the pipeline remains thin and major challenges remain to be addressed in efficiently evaluating newer drugs to improve treatment outcomes, shorten duration of therapy and tackle drug resistance. PMID:22378254

Zumla, Alimuddin; Hafner, Richard; Lienhardt, Christian; Hoelscher, Michael; Nunn, Andrew

2012-03-01

457

Universal stress proteins and Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis expresses universal stress proteins (USPs) when its growth is retarded by oxygen depletion. This class of proteins is emerging as being important in the resistance of bacteria to stress and prolonged growth arrest. Here we assess the properties of USPs and their relevance to mycobacteria.

Ronan O'Toole; Huw D. Williams

2003-01-01

458

Isolated splenic tuberculosis: A case report  

PubMed Central

We present a rare case of a 36 year old man who presented with recurrent fever but no other symptoms. Laboratory data provided no specific information for diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed splenomegaly with multiple small hypoechoic lesions within the spleen. Computed tomography of abdomen showed a hypodense diffuse lesion. A diagnosis of isolated splenic tuberculosis was confirmed after a splenic puncture and histopathological examination.

Zhan, Feng; Wang, Chang-Jun; Lin, Ju-Ze; Zhong, Pei-Jin; Qiu, Wei-Zhong; Lin, Hua-Huan; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Zhen-Jun

2010-01-01

459

HIV and tuberculosis coinfection: inextricably linked liaison.  

PubMed Central

In sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa has seen the woeful failure of World Health Organization (WHO) targets of detecting 70% of the infectious cases of tuberculosis and curing > or =85%. Current treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in most resource limited settings is comprised of a four-drug initial antituberculosis regimen for two months, followed by either a two-drug continuation phase of antituberculosis regimen for four months or six months depending on the medications. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa are scaling up with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), using one of the first-line regimens that consist of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Our current HAART regimen and antituberculosis drugs continue to give us a therapeutic challenge in terms of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes. Scientific research is needed in the areas of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Such research could be facilitated due to greater availability of funding than a decade ago.

Idemyor, Vincent

2007-01-01

460

Tuberculosis Surveillance Using a Hidden Markov Model  

PubMed Central

Background: Routinely collected data from tuberculosis surveillance system can be used to investigate and monitor the irregularities and abrupt changes of the disease incidence. We aimed at using a Hidden Markov Model in order to detect the abnormal states of pulmonary tuberculosis in Iran. Methods: Data for this study were the weekly number of newly diagnosed cases with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis reported between April 2005 and March 2011 throughout Iran. In order to detect the unusual states of the disease, two Hidden Markov Models were applied to the data with and without seasonal trends as baselines. Consequently, the best model was selected and compared with the results of Serfling epidemic threshold which is typically used in the surveillance of infectious diseases. Results: Both adjusted R-squared and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) reflected better goodness-of-fit for the model with seasonal trends (0.72 and ?1336.66, respectively) than the model without seasonality (0.56 and ?1386.75). Moreover, according to the Serfling epidemic threshold, higher values of sensitivity and specificity suggest a higher validity for the seasonal model (0.87 and 0.94, respectively) than model without seasonality (0.73 and 0.68, respectively). Conclusion: A two-state Hidden Markov Model along with a seasonal trend as a function of the model parameters provides an effective warning system for the surveillance of tuberculosis.

Rafei, A; Pasha, E; Jamshidi Orak, R

2012-01-01

461

62 FR 54160 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...would be effective in controlling...would be effective for verifying...protected against exposures to M. tuberculosis...hamper pilot communication. Have other...employee exposure in these...essential to an effective overall hazard communication program and...presented and are aware of the actions...minimize exposure. OSHA...

1997-10-17

462

Concurrent gout and Mycobacterium tuberculosis arthritis.  

PubMed

Concurrent joint infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and demonstration of intraarticular monosodium urate (MSU) crystals has not previously been reported. We describe a patient with chronic tophaceous gout from whose joints both TB and MSU crystals were isolated. We propose a mechanism to explain this condition. PMID:9002033

Lorenzo, J P; Csuka, M E; Derfus, B A; Gotoff, R A; McCarthy, G M

1997-01-01

463

[Diaskintest for tuberculosis in children and adolescents].  

PubMed

To study whether Diaskintest might be used as a criterion for the activity of local tuberculous changes in children and adolescents, the authors examined three groups of patients aged 0 to 17 years: 1) 20 patients with new-onset tuberculosis in the progression phase; 2) 25 patients with new-onset tuberculosis in the regression phase with the signs of consolidation and calcification; 3) 18 tuberculosis dispensary Group IIIB patients who received the basic course of therapy and had residual posttuberculous changes as calcinates and compact foci. Group 3 was found to greatly differ from Groups 1 and 2 in the lower rates of positive reactions, the higher rate of negative reactions, and smaller papulae while the Mantoux test with 2 TE indicated that in Group 3, the papulae were smaller than those in Group 2. Responses to the Diaskintest test versus the Mantoux 2TE test were significantly more pronounced in patients with progressive tuberculosis and less marked in dispensary Group IIB patients who received the basic course of antituberculous therapy. Diaskintest was ascertained to be used in the complex examination of children and adolescents as a criterion for the activity of tuberculous changes in order to choose the tactics of treatment and follow-up of children and adolescents. The application of Diaskintest will allow more objective formation of dispensary Group IIIA of children served by a local phthisiatrician. PMID:20050055

Aksenova, V A; Klevno, N I; Baryshnikova, L A; Dolzhenko, E N; Iliasova, E V; Medvedev, S Iu; Lapshina, V N; Kavtarashvili, S M

2009-01-01

464

Tuberculosis in the homeless. A prospective study.  

PubMed

We set out to determine tuberculosis incidence and risk factors in the homeless population in San Francisco. We also examined the transmission of tuberculosis by molecular methods. We followed a cohort of 2,774 of the homeless first seen between 1990 and 1994. There were 25 incident cases during the period 1992 to 1996, or 270 per 100,000 per year (350/100,000 in African Americans, 450/100,000 in other nonwhites, 60/100,000 in whites). Ten cases were persons with seropositive H