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1

Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings  

PubMed Central

Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized. PMID:21493882

Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

2011-01-01

2

Atypical presentation of oral tuberculosis ulcer.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease that can affect any part of the body, including the mouth. An upsurge in the number of tuberculosis cases, with a strong association with HIV infection, has been noted. We present a case of tuberculosis that clinically resembles a malignant chronic ulcer in the retromolar trigone-an uncommon site of occurrence. Histologically, the case demonstrated an atypical epitheloid granuloma with reduced lymphocyte count. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed following sputum culture of M tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy improved the patient's condition. Although rare, tuberculosis must be considered as a differential diagnosis in chronic ulcers in the oral region; and its association with HIV must not be overlooked. PMID:18265771

Mahajan, Sumita; Srikant, Natarajan; George, Thomas

2007-11-01

3

Oral Manifestations of Tuberculosis: Step towards Early Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis, as known universally, is a chronic infectious disease that can affect any part of the body including mouth. It usually affects the lungs, TB bacilli can spread hematogenously to other parts of the body and this also includes mandible or maxilla. It can occur in the mouth involving the tongue with very unusual features and forms. So oral lesions, although rare, are very important for early diagnosis and interception of primary tuberculosis. PMID:25654056

Jain, Isha

2014-01-01

4

Multiple oral ulcers leading to diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

We report a 47 year old man who presented with painful non-healing tongue ulcers of 3 months duration. Examination revealed an additional buccal ulcer that he was unaware of. Histopathology of the ulcers showed caseation necrosis. Following this report, chest radiography and sputum microscopy performed revealed pulmonary tuberculosis. From this case-study, one should be aware of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic non-healing oral ulcers, both for diagnosis as well as prevention of transmission through respiratory droplets. PMID:24883035

Nagaraj, Vezhavendhan; Sashykumar, Shanthi; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Sathish

2013-01-01

5

Oral Immunogenicity of Plant-Made Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT6 and CFP10  

PubMed Central

Two lines of transgenic carrot plants producing Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins (ESAT6 and CFP10) have been constructed. The target proteins are present in carrot storage roots at a level not less than 0.056% of the total storage protein (TSP) for ESAT6 and 0.002% of TSP for CFP10. As has been shown, oral immunization of mice induces both the cell-mediated and humoral immunities. These data suggest that the proteins in question are appropriate as a candidate edible vaccine against tuberculosis. PMID:24455687

Uvarova, Elena A.; Belavin, Pavel A.; Permyakova, Natalya V.; Zagorskaya, Alla A.; Nosareva, Olesya V.; Kakimzhanova, Almagul A.; Deineko, Elena V.

2013-01-01

6

Oral bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine against tuberculosis: why not?  

PubMed

The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine for human use against tuberculosis (TB). Although controversy exists about its efficacy, the BCG vaccine is able to protect newborns and children against disseminated forms of TB, but fails to protect adults against active forms of TB. In the last few years, interest in the mucosal delivery route for the vaccine has been increasing owing to its increased capacity to induce protective immune responses both in the mucosal and the systemic immune compartments. Here, we show the importance of this route of vaccination in newly developed vaccines, especially for vaccines against TB. PMID:25317714

Monteiro-Maia, Renata; de Pinho, Rosa Teixeira

2014-09-01

7

Oral bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine against tuberculosis: why not?  

PubMed

The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is the only licensed vaccine for human use against tuberculosis (TB). Although controversy exists about its efficacy, the BCG vaccine is able to protect newborns and children against disseminated forms of TB, but fails to protect adults against active forms of TB. In the last few years, interest in the mucosal delivery route for the vaccine has been increasing owing to its increased capacity to induce protective immune responses both in the mucosal and the systemic immune compartments. Here, we show the importance of this route of vaccination in newly developed vaccines, especially for vaccines against TB. PMID:25119394

Monteiro-Maia, Renata; Pinho, Rosa Teixeira de

2014-08-13

8

Development and characterization of guar gum nanoparticles for oral immunization against tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Abstract The main aim of this study was to develop an effective carrier system containing Ag85A-loaded guar gum nanoparticles for oral vaccination against tuberculosis. Nanoparticles were prepared by Nanoprecipitation method. The developed particles with mean diameter 895.5?±?14.73?nm and high antigen entrapment seem to be optimum for oral vaccine delivery. The acid protection assay, Peyer's patch uptake study and in-vitro antigen study confirmed that the developed formulations can protect the antigen from harsh gastric environment and can safely deliver the antigen to the intestinal region. In vivo studies data indicated that the developed nanocarriers can induce a strong mucosal as well as systemic immune response. Therefore, the experimental evidence suggests that guar-gum nanoparticle findings indicated that the guar gum nanoparticles can be utilized for safe and effective vaccine delivery via oral route. PMID:24611942

Kaur, Mandeep; Malik, Basant; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

2014-03-10

9

Boosting of Cellular Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Modulation of Skin Cytokine Responses in Healthy Human Volunteers by Mycobacterium bovis BCG Substrain Moreau Rio de Janeiro Oral Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Oral immunization of healthy adults with 107 CFU BCG Moreau Rio de Janeiro was well tolerated and significantly boosted gamma interferon responses to purified protein derivative, Ag85, and MPB70 from previous childhood intradermal BCG immunization. Oral BCG offers the possibility of a needle-free tuberculosis vaccine and of boosting the protective immunity from intradermal tuberculosis vaccines. PMID:16552077

Cosgrove, Catherine A.; Castello-Branco, Luiz R. R.; Hussell, Tracy; Sexton, Amy; Giemza, Rafaela; Phillips, Richard; Williams, Andrew; Griffin, George E.; Dougan, Gordon; Lewis, David J. M.

2006-01-01

10

Development of Oral Fomulation of SCV-07 for Use in Tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the immunomodulatory peptide SCV-07 was conducted as a possible therapeutic treatment for tuberculosis. This evaluation included mouse models, clinical trials and various forms of the drug such as liquid injection and development of an oral pill. It was found that SCV-07 significantly increased the survival rate of animals infected with lethal doses of Mycobacterium bovis. It enhanced the functional activity of macrophages in a dose-dependent fashion. The combination of SCV-07 with bacteriostatic drugs, such as izoniazid, was particularly effective. Phase II clinical trials in a TB clinic demonstrated that the usage of the injection form of SCV-07 for lung TB treatment in combination with standard chemotherapy decreased the quantity of patients with positive sputum assays for Mycobacteria, promoted healing of cavities in lungs, stabilized parameters of cell immunity, and resulted in a significant improvement in the general condition of patients. Clinical trials results of the oral drug form are still being evaluated.

None

2007-11-16

11

Rapid Cytolysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Faropenem, an Orally Bioavailable ?-Lactam Antibiotic.  

PubMed

Recent clinical studies indicate that meropenem, a ?-lactam antibiotic, is a promising candidate for therapy of drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, meropenem is chemically unstable, requires frequent intravenous injection, and must be combined with a ?-lactamase inhibitor (clavulanate) for optimal activity. Here, we report that faropenem, a stable and orally bioavailable ?-lactam, efficiently kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis even in the absence of clavulanate. The target enzymes, l,d-transpeptidases, were inactivated 6- to 22-fold more efficiently by faropenem than by meropenem. Using a real-time assay based on quantitative time-lapse microscopy and microfluidics, we demonstrate the superiority of faropenem to the frontline antituberculosis drug isoniazid in its ability to induce the rapid cytolysis of single cells. Faropenem also showed superior activity against a cryptic subpopulation of nongrowing but metabolically active cells, which may correspond to the viable but nonculturable forms believed to be responsible for relapses following prolonged chemotherapy. These results identify faropenem to be a potential candidate for alternative therapy of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25421469

Dhar, Neeraj; Dubée, Vincent; Ballell, Lluis; Cuinet, Guillaume; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel; Signorino-Gelo, François; Barros, David; Arthur, Michel; McKinney, John D

2015-02-01

12

Controlled Comparison of Oral Twice-weekly and Oral Daily Isoniazid plus PAS in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A controlled clinical trial was undertaken in 247 patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis to assess the relative efficacies of a fully supervised twice-weekly oral regimen of isoniazid plus PAS (para-aminosalicylic acid) and a standard self-administered daily regimen of the same drugs following an initial intensive phase of two weeks of daily streptomycin, PAS, and isoniazid. Among patients who had isoniazid-sensitive cultures initially and who attended the clinic regularly the numbers with a favourable bacteriological response at the end of the year of chemotherapy were 79 (88%) out of 90 for the twice-weekly regimen and 72 (87%) out of 83 for the daily regimen; the numbers of patients with considerable radiographic improvement were 54 (60%) and 53 (64%) respectively. Complaints of vomiting or diarrhoea that did not require a reduction of the PAS dosage were made on one or two occasions by 23(21%) out of 109 twice-weekly and 25 (23%) out of 108 daily patients, and on at least three occasions by 4 (4%) and 12 (11%) respectively. Finally, all five patients who had chemotherapy changed on account of hypersensitivity to PAS had been receiving the daily regimen, as also had one patient who died of agranulocytosis. PMID:4633061

1973-01-01

13

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG Danish Strain 1331) in Protecting White-tailed Deer (Odecoileus Virginianus) against Bovine Tuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wildlife Disease Association Annual Conference, August 6-10, 2006 Terry Amundson Student Presentation Award Oral Presentation EFFICACY OF ORAL AND PARENTERAL BACILLE CALMETTE-GUERIN (BCG DANISH STRAIN 1331) IN PROTECTING WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODECOILEUS VIRGINIANUS) AGAINST BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS Paulin...

14

Oral Vaccination with Heat Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis Activates the Complement System to Protect against Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-? producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar. PMID:24842853

Garrido, Joseba M.; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian

2014-01-01

15

Progress in Oral Vaccination against Tuberculosis in Its Main Wildlife Reservoir in Iberia, the Eurasian Wild Boar  

PubMed Central

Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wildlife reservoir for tuberculosis (TB) in Iberia. This review summarizes the current knowledge on wild boar vaccination including aspects of bait design, delivery and field deployment success; wild boar response to vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and inactivated Mycobacterium bovis; and wild boar vaccination biosafety issues as well as prospects on future research. Oral vaccination with BCG in captive wild boar has shown to be safe with significant levels of protection against challenge with virulent M. bovis. An oral vaccination with a new heat-killed M. bovis vaccine conferred a protection similar to BCG. The study of host-pathogen interactions identified biomarkers of resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in wild boar such as complement component 3 (C3) and methylmalonyl coenzyme A mutase (MUT) that were used for vaccine development. Finally, specific delivery systems were developed for bait-containing vaccines to target different age groups. Ongoing research includes laboratory experiments combining live and heat-killed vaccines and the first field trial for TB control in wild boar. PMID:22848869

Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Cristina; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

2012-01-01

16

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchitis and Emphysema Tuberculosis Sinusitis If you have a respiratory condition, make ... dental office and make sure it is full. Tuberculosis Oral Effects If you have tuberculosis, you may ...

17

Naturally Attenuated, Orally Administered Mycobacterium microti as a Tuberculosis Vaccine Is Better than Subcutaneous Mycobacterium bovis BCG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium microti is phylogenetically closely related to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is a member of that complex of organisms. It is a curved, acid-fast bacillus that is naturally attenuated with a narrow host range for Microtus species only. In this study, we confirm the unique susceptibility of voles to infection with M. microti and the relative resistance of mice with a

Yukari C. Manabe; Cherise P. Scott; William R. Bishai

2002-01-01

18

Oral intake of phenylbutyrate with or without vitamin D3 upregulates the cathelicidin LL-37 in human macrophages: a dose finding study for treatment of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background We earlier showed that 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) can induce cathelicidin LL-37 expression synergistically with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in a lung epithelial cell line. We aimed to evaluate a therapeutic dose of PB alone or in combination with vitamin D3 for induction of LL-37 expression in immune cells and enhancement of antimycobacterial activity in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Methods Healthy volunteers were enrolled in an 8-days open trial with three doses of PB [250 mg (Group-I), 500 mg (Group-II) or 1000 mg (Group-III)] twice daily (b.d.) together with vitamin D3 {5000 IU once daily (o.d.)}, PB (500 mg b.d.) (Group-IV) or vitamin D3 (5000 IU o.d.) (Group-V), given orally for 4 days. Blood was collected on day-0, day-4 and day-8; plasma was separated, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), non-adherent lymphocytes (NAL) and MDM were cultured. LL-37 transcript in cells and peptide concentrations in supernatant were determined by qPCR and ELISA, respectively. In plasma, 25-hydorxyvitamin D3 levels were determined by ELISA. MDM-mediated killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) (H37Rv) was performed by conventional culture method. Results MDM from Group-II had increased concentration of LL-37 peptide and transcript at day-4, while Group-I showed increased transcript at day-4 and day-8 compared to day-0 (p?

2013-01-01

19

Tuberculosis Fluoroscopy  

Cancer.gov

Follow-up though Dec 31, 2002 has been completed for a study of site-specific cancer mortality among tuberculosis patients treated with artificial lung collapse therapy in Massachusetts tuberculosis sanatoria (1930-1950).

20

Bovine Tuberculosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tuberculosis (TB) in animals and humans may result from exposure to bacilli within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (i.e., M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, M. microti, M. caprae, or M. canetti). Mycobacterium bovis is the species most often isolated from tuberculous catt...

21

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Twenty-two white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One group (n=5) received 109 colony-forming units (cfu) BCG via a lipid-formulated oral bait; one group (n=5) received 109 cfu

P. Nol; M. V. Palmer; W. R. Waters; F. E. Aldwell; B. M. Buddle; J. M. Triantis; L. M. Linke; G. E. Phillips; T. C. Thacker; J. C. Rhyan; M. D. Salman; M. R. Dunbar

2008-01-01

22

Novel, potent, orally bioavailable and selective mycobacterial ATP synthase inhibitors that demonstrated activity against both replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The mycobacterial F0F1-ATP synthase (ATPase) is a validated target for the development of tuberculosis (TB) therapeutics. Therefore, a series of eighteen novel compounds has been designed, synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATPase. The observed ATPase inhibitory activities (IC50) of these compounds range between 0.36 and 5.45?M. The lead compound 9d [N-(7-chloro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-N-(3-((diethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dichlorobenzenesulfonamide] with null cytotoxicity (CC50>300?g/mL) and excellent anti-mycobacterial activity and selectivity (mycobacterium ATPase IC50=0.51?M, mammalian ATPase IC50>100?M, and selectivity >200) exhibited a complete growth inhibition of replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv at 3.12?g/mL. In addition, it also exhibited bactericidal effect (approximately 2.4log10 reductions in CFU) in the hypoxic culture of non-replicating M. tuberculosis at 100?g/mL (32-fold of its MIC) as compared to positive control isoniazid [approximately 0.2log10 reduction in CFU at 5?g/mL (50-fold of its MIC)]. The pharmacokinetics of 9d after p.o. and IV administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats indicated its quick absorption, distribution and slow elimination. It exhibited a high volume of distribution (Vss, 0.41L/kg), moderate clearance (0.06L/h/kg), long half-life (4.2h) and low absolute bioavailability (1.72%). In the murine model system of chronic TB, 9d showed 2.12log10 reductions in CFU in both lung and spleen at 173?mol/kg dose as compared to the growth of untreated control group of Balb/C male mice infected with replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The in vivo efficacy of 9d is at least double of the control drug ethambutol. These results suggest 9d as a promising candidate molecule for further preclinical evaluation against resistant TB strains. PMID:25614114

Singh, Supriya; Roy, Kuldeep K; Khan, Shaheb R; Kashyap, Vivek Kr; Sharma, Abhisheak; Jaiswal, Swati; Sharma, Sandeep K; Krishnan, Manju Yasoda; Chaturvedi, Vineeta; Lal, Jawahar; Sinha, Sudhir; Gupta, Arnab D; Srivastava, Ranjana; Saxena, Anil K

2015-02-15

23

[Extrapulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Each year, there are more than eight million new cases of tuberculosis and 1.3 million deaths. There is a renewed interest in extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis as its relative frequency increases. Among extrapulmonary organs, pleura and lymph nodes are the most common. Their diagnosis is often difficult and is based on clinical, radiological, bacteriological and histological findings. Extrapulmonary lesions are paucibacillary and samplings, in most cases, difficult to obtain, so diagnosis is often simply presumptive. Nucleic acid amplification tests, which are fast and specific, have greatly facilitated the diagnosis of some forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, their sensitivity is poor and a negative test does not eliminate the diagnosis. Treatment is the same as for pulmonary forms, but its duration is nine to 12 months for central nervous system and for bone tuberculosis. Corticosteroids are indicated in meningeal and pericardial localizations. Complementary surgery is used for certain complicated forms. PMID:25131362

Ketata, W; Rekik, W K; Ayadi, H; Kammoun, S

2014-08-14

24

Efficacy of Oral and Parenteral Routes of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccination Against Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis in White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): A Feasibility Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the efficacy of oral and parenteral Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin Danish strain 1331 (BCG) in its ability to protect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against disease caused by M. bovis infection. Thirty white-tailed deer were divided into four groups. One gr...

25

Sternal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis constitutes 15-20% of total tuberculosis (TB) case load in immuno-competent patients. Affliction of the skeletal system is rare with still rarer presentation of sternal osteomyelitis even in endemic countries. A patient with primary sternal TB presenting with multiple cutaneous sinuses over the anterior chest wall is being reported. A high element of suspicion is needed more so in resource limited setting for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24349840

Sachdeva, R; Sachdeva, S; Arora, S

2013-11-01

26

Population pharmacokinetics of ethionamide in patients with tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Setting: Three US referral hospitals.Objective: Determine the population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of ethionamide (ETA) following multiple oral doses.Design: Fifty-five patients with tuberculosis (TB) participated. Patients received multiple oral doses of ETA as part of their treatment. They also received other anti-tuberculosis medications based upon in vitro susceptibility data. Serum samples were collected over 12 h post-dose, and concentrations were determined

M. Zhu; R. Namdar; J. J. Stambaugh; J. R. Starke; A. E. Bulpitt; S. E. Berning; C. A. Peloquin

2002-01-01

27

Abdominal Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Throughout the world tuberculosis is\\u000a \\u000a associated with poverty, deprivation, and human immunodeficiency virus\\u000a \\u000a infection. Abdominal tuberculosis is usually of insidious onset with\\u000a \\u000a diverse symptoms and signs. A few present with acute complications of\\u000a \\u000a perforation, obstruction, or bleeding. The diagnosis is difficult,\\u000a \\u000a especially in areas where the disease is less common, as many patients\\u000a \\u000a do not have evidence of pulmonary

Niall O. Aston

1997-01-01

28

Tuberculosis and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

TUBERCULOSIS & DIABETES COLLABORATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR CARE AND CONTROL OF TUBERCULOSIS AND DIABETES © WHO Sept 2011 For more information: ... Recommended collaborative activities for prevention and care of diabetes and tuberculosis • Indicators for evaluating collaborative activities • Implementing collaborative activities ...

29

Hepatobiliary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Hepatobiliary tuberculosis refers to the localized form of hepatic tuberculosis and is a distinct entity in which hepatobiliary involvement overwhelmingly dominates the clinical picture. Presentations are often delayed, and manifestations can be nonspecific. Fever is the most common symptom followed by abdominal pain, and hepatomegaly is the most common abnormality found on clinical examination. Abnormalities of the liver function tests are non-specific and hence not diagnostic. Ultrasound or computed tomography reveals single or complex masses, and guided biopsy is diagnostic either by demonstrating caseating granuloma or the organism by staining and culture. Treatment is with standard first-line antituberculous drugs. Endoscopic stenting gives an excellent outcome for symptomatic biliary strictures. The outcome in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency virus depends on the level of underlying immunosuppression. PMID:24640207

Bandyopadhyay, Sanjay; Maity, Pranab K

2013-06-01

30

Atypical isolated epiglottic tuberculosis: a case report and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a systemic disease and its occurrence in the larynx and in the oral cavity is well-documented in the literature. Tuberculosis of the larynx involves mainly the vocal folds and the ventricular band and is associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in 80% of cases. Isolated epiglottic tuberculosis has rarely been described, and it is always associated with pulmonary lesions. The authors report a case of isolated epiglottic tuberculosis in a 72-year-old woman that presented as a laryngeal carcinoma and discuss the diagnostic problems related to its atypical clinical, endoscopic, and radiologic presentation. PMID:12105790

Galli, Jacopo; Nardi, Cristiano; Contucci, Alessia M; Cadoni, Gabriella; Lauriola, Libero; Fantoni, M

2002-01-01

31

Play the Tuberculosis Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

32

Oral health Oral health  

E-print Network

Prams asks about the care of teeth during pregnancy: whether the mother had a dental problem, went to a dentist or dental clinic or discussed oral hygiene with a dentist or other healthcare worker. Public health importance A pregnant woman’s oral health affects the woman, her fetus and infant. In pregnant women, periodontal disease, which affects the gums and adjacent bone, is associated with pre-term and/or low birth-weight delivery. 1, 2, 3 After delivery, infants or young children may develop cavities from maternal oral bacteria. 4 All health care providers can promote oral health through oral examinations; advising patients about oral hygiene, diet and smoking cessation; and by making referrals to oral health practitioners. 5 Access to oral health services during pregnancy may be constrained by the American Dental Association recommendations to avoid elective dental care during the first trimester and last half of the third trimester. 6 In four PRAMS states, among mothers who reported having a dental problem, about one-half did not go for care. 7 NM PRAMS findings In 2002, 25 % of mothers recalled discussion of oral hygiene during prenatal care (Table 56 / Figure 28), 13% had a dental problem and 33 % had dental care (Table 57 / Figure 29). Among women with a dental problem, 56% had dental care (Table 58 / Figure 30). In 2001-2002, women who were more likely to have dental care included those with insurance, without public assistance or with more than high school education. Use of oral health

unknown authors

33

Male breast tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of the breast is rare and tuberculosis of the male breast is not a recognised entity. We describe a man with tuberculosis of the breast which was clinically thought to be a malignancy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9338032

Jaideep, C.; Kumar, M.; Khanna, A. K.

1997-01-01

34

PERSPECTIVE Candidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes  

E-print Network

PERSPECTIVE Candidate Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes targeted by human microRNAs WeiRui Guo1-wu@northwestern.edu (J. Y. Wu), weilp@mail.cbi.pku.edu.cn (L. Wei) Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health issue in 1882, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), the causative agent for tuberculosis, remains one

Wu, Jane Y.

35

Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

36

Tuberculosis in the lung (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis is caused by a group of organisms Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum and a few other rarer subtypes. Tuberculosis usually appears as a lung (pulmonary) infection. However, ...

37

Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

38

Women and tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death in women worldwide. The disease poses a major threat to women's health security. Population growth, the HIV epidemic, increasing poverty and rising levels of drug resistance will inevitably increase the burden of this disease in women. Women are at increased risk of progression to disease during their reproductive years. However, in most low-income countries, twice as many men are notified with tuberculosis as women. Biological mechanisms may account for most of this difference but socioeconomic and cultural factors leading to barriers in accessing health care may cause under-notification in women. Tuberculosis control programmes should be sensitive to the constraints faced by women in accessing health care, in order to empower women to commence and complete treatment. The fear and stigma associated with tuberculosis have a greater impact on women than on men, often leaving them in a more precarious social and economic position. Tuberculosis in women creates orphans, impoverished families and reduces the economic development of society. Tuberculosis is a major cause of preventable suffering and death in women. WHO's recommended tuberculosis control strategy, DOTS, represents a cost-effective response to the problem of tuberculosis in women. Tuberculosis is a major women's health issue. It is a global health priority that tuberculosis treatment be made available to women, particularly to those in low-income countries who are bearing the brunt of this epidemic. PMID:9050189

Connolly, M; Nunn, P

1996-01-01

39

Control strategies for wildlife tuberculosis in Ireland.  

PubMed

The principal domestic maintenance host for Mycobacterium bovis is infected cattle. In countries where comprehensive surveillance schemes have been applied, tuberculosis rarely affects an animal to the extent that it presents with clinical disease. In the latter stages of an eradication campaign, the aim is to maintain the disease-free status of clear herds and eliminate foci of infection in herds as well as restricting movement of infected animals from these herds, other than to slaughter. However, the eradication of tuberculosis from cattle herds may be compromised if infected wildlife species, such as Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), share the same environment and contribute to transmission of infection. The options for dealing with tuberculosis in the wildlife reservoir hosts are limited to segregation of domestic animals from the wildlife, culling of the wildlife host or vaccination. Options are further limited by conservation and social reasons, particularly where culling is concerned. In Ireland and the UK, vaccination of badgers against M. bovis, if successfully employed, could directly facilitate the completion of bovine tuberculosis eradication. Programmes of research into vaccination of badgers are being undertaken in both countries, and there is clear evidence that vaccination induces protection. Vaccine trials in captive badgers have established that the M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine can induce a protective response that limits the distribution and severity of tuberculosis disease following experimental challenge. In Ireland, a large-scale field trial of oral BCG vaccination is being conducted to measure the protection generated in wild badgers subjected to natural transmission of infection and to estimate vaccine efficacy. The results will provide a framework for the development and implementation of a national strategy to address the disease in badger populations and if successful will remove this major impediment to tuberculosis eradication from cattle. PMID:24171858

Gormley, E; Corner, L A L

2013-11-01

40

TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL  

PubMed Central

Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

2014-01-01

41

Unique Transcriptome Signature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tuberculosis remains a substantial global threat, the mechanisms that enable mycobacterial persistence and replication within the human host are ill defined. This study represents the first genome-wide expression analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical lung samples, which has enabled the identifi- cation of M. tuberculosis genes actively expressed during pulmonary tuberculosis. To obtain optimal informa- tion from our DNA

Helmy Rachman; Michael Strong; Timo Ulrichs; Leander Grode; Johannes Schuchhardt; Hans Mollenkopf; George A. Kosmiadi; David Eisenberg; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

2006-01-01

42

TUBERCULOSIS 1 Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Populations in Canada  

E-print Network

TUBERCULOSIS 1 Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Populations in Canada: The Role of Health Care, PhD March 27, 2013 #12;TUBERCULOSIS 2 Abstract The persistent presence of infectious and increasingly). Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which is far more common in the Aboriginal population than the Canadian

Peak, Derek

43

Tuberculosis: Latency and Reactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis is a major cause of death around the world, with most of the 1.5 million deaths per year attributable to the disease occurring in developing countries. This disease is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an acid-fast bacillus that is transmitted primarily via the respiratory route. Infection occurs in the lungs, but the organism can seed any organ via hematogenous spread.

JOANNE L. FLYNN; JOHN CHAN

2001-01-01

44

"Tuberculosis Case Management" Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to isolated health providers with critical knowledge in tuberculosis (TB) case management prompted the development of "Tuberculosis Case Management" CD-ROM. Features include "Learning Center,""Examination Room," and "Library." The combination of audio, video, and graphics allows participants to practice acquired skills in a simulated…

Knebel, Elisa; Kolodner, Jennifer

2001-01-01

45

Myths of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Myths, or misconceptions, of disease and therapy are not confined to patients; they also affect those who practice medicine. Myths are particularly evident in a "dogma" that concerns diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. If the elimination of tuberculosis is to be achieved, we must first eliminate the myths, which impede prevention and control of the disease. PMID:1645402

Lanphear, B P; Snider, D E

1991-04-01

46

Spinal tuberculosis: A review  

PubMed Central

Spinal tuberculosis is a destructive form of tuberculosis. It accounts for approximately half of all cases of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is more common in children and young adults. The incidence of spinal tuberculosis is increasing in developed nations. Genetic susceptibility to spinal tuberculosis has recently been demonstrated. Characteristically, there is destruction of the intervertebral disk space and the adjacent vertebral bodies, collapse of the spinal elements, and anterior wedging leading to kyphosis and gibbus formation. The thoracic region of vertebral column is most frequently affected. Formation of a ‘cold’ abscess around the lesion is another characteristic feature. The incidence of multi-level noncontiguous vertebral tuberculosis occurs more frequently than previously recognized. Common clinical manifestations include constitutional symptoms, back pain, spinal tenderness, paraplegia, and spinal deformities. For the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive imaging technique than x-ray and more specific than computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging frequently demonstrates involvement of the vertebral bodies on either side of the disk, disk destruction, cold abscess, vertebral collapse, and presence of vertebral column deformities. Neuroimaging-guided needle biopsy from the affected site in the center of the vertebral body is the gold standard technique for early histopathological diagnosis. Antituberculous treatment remains the cornerstone of treatment. Surgery may be required in selected cases, e.g. large abscess formation, severe kyphosis, an evolving neurological deficit, or lack of response to medical treatment. With early diagnosis and early treatment, prognosis is generally good. PMID:22118251

Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh

2011-01-01

47

[HIV infection and tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is gradually increasing in Japan, and the morbidity rate from tuberculosis in the Japanese people is high. Accordingly, the number of cases with both infections is considered to increase in the future. Our hospital has already encountered 31 cases of HIV associated tuberculosis. HIV infects mainly CD4-positive cells. The extreme decrease in the cell count results in serious cellular immunological disorder. CD4-positive cell disorder induces disorders of B lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophage functions. These destructive conditions show the state of immunodeficiency including macrophage that are most important for defense of acid-fast bacterial infection. Migration and activation of macrophages with cytokines derived from T cells are impaired to induce the following phenomena: hypoplasia of granuloma, failure of tubercule bacillus suppression, the spread to regional lymph nodes (hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes), and hematogenous dissemination. On this occasion, caseous necrosis and cavitation are unlikely to occur, and false-negative tuberculin reaction is often observed. The incidence of severe cases, which include miliary tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis, etc., and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, are high among acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated tuberculosis cases. HIV-infected tuberculosis cases are generally regarded as endogenous exacerbation, but they include primary infection and reinfection as well. Even during the treatment for drug-sensitive strains particularly, some cases may have reinfection with multidrug-resistant bacteria, suggesting that caution should be taken against this point. Conversely, the association of tuberculosis is a factor for the poor prognosis of HIV infection, since it facilitates the development of HIV infection. If the bacteria belong to a drug-sensitive strain, the infection with them responds well to antituberculous drugs, the same as in tuberculosis cases without HIV infection, showing a favorable prognosis. However, the mortality rate of infection with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis is extremely high. The combined use of a protease inhibitor, i.e., anti-HIV drug, with rifampicin is regarded as contraindication for the treatment because rifampicin strongly induces hepatic cytochrome P-450 and increases the metabolism of protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptases to markedly decrease the blood concentrations. Accordingly, the treatment for tuberculosis should take priority over that for HIV infection in HIV-infected tuberculosis, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be administered after the treatment of tuberculosis. When HAART is necessary for the treatment during the tuberculosis treatment, rifampicin had better be exchanged to rifabutin because the effect of rifabutin to induce cytochrome P-450 is less potent than that of rifampicin. A report has recently shown that the exacerbation of pyrexia and chest X-ray findings was transiently observed approximately 2 weeks after potent anti-HIV therapy for HIV-infected tuberculosis, which included a protease inhibitor. The reason for the exacerbation has been believed to be that the impaired function of CD4-positive cells is improved by the administration of anti-HIV drugs to raise temporarily the reaction of the vital part to M. tuberculosis. A tuberculin skin test (TST) reaction size of > or = 5 mm of induration is considered positive (i.e., indicative of M. tuberculosis infection) in persons who are infected with HIV. Persons with a TST reaction size > or = 5 mm who have not previously received treatment for M. tuberculosis infection should receive tuberculosis preventive treatment. Prevention by BCG vaccination is regarded as contraindications for HIV-infected patients, because disseminated M. bovis infection may be associated with them. Many HIV-positive patients infected with tuberculosis show uneventful healing, when M. tuberculosis is the sensitive strain. However, since

Nagai, Hideaki

2003-01-01

48

Oral Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

Sanjay Kalra; Bharti Kalra; Navneet Agrawal

2010-01-01

49

Oral Insulin  

PubMed Central

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

2010-01-01

50

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and ... Options? Is There a Danger of Interactions? How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? We Can Help (Long) - we-can-help-long. ...

51

Hyperferritinemia in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

High ferritin levels have been found to be associated with non infectious as well as infectious causes including tuberculosis. This is one case report of 41 year old male who presented with cough with expectoration. The patient had Multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The laboratory findings showed Iron 280 ?g/dl, Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) 61 ?g/dl, and ferritin 92,945 ng/ml which indicates that iron is an essential nutrient for the survival of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24426230

D'Souza, Benedicta; Sinha, Sulekha; Manjrekar, Poornima; D'Souza, Vivian

2013-07-01

52

Tuberculosis of the hand.  

PubMed

There has been recent interest in tuberculosis of the hand because of a rising incidence owing to increasing numbers of immigration, an aging population, and immunosuppressed people including affected patients with human immunodeficiency virus. In this article, we review the epidemiology, bacteriology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and principles of treatment of tuberculosis of the hand. The second part of the report emphasizes the classification of hand tuberculosis (cutaneous lesions, tenosynovitis, bursitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, and tuberculous hypersensitivity reactions) along with the classic presentations of each of these hand lesions. PMID:21764526

Al-Qattan, M M; Al-Namla, A; Al-Thunayan, A; Al-Omawi, M

2011-08-01

53

Genomic insights into tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Prevalent since pre-history, human tuberculosis - caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis - remains a major source of death worldwide. Moreover, increasing drug resistance poses the threat of disease resurgence. However, the expanding application of genomic techniques is providing new avenues for combating this old foe. Whole-genome sequencing, comparative genomics and systems biology are generating new insights into the origins and ongoing evolution of M. tuberculosis, as well as the molecular basis for its pathogenicity. These have important implications for our perspective of the disease, development of new drugs and vaccines, and treatment of patients using existing therapeutics. PMID:24662221

Galagan, James E

2014-05-01

54

Tuberculosis of paranasal sinuses.  

PubMed

Nasal tuberculosis is very rare but much rarer is tuberculosis of paranasal sinuses. It involves especially the maxillary sinus and is usually unilateral. We report an unusual case of tuberculosis of frontal and maxillary sinus in a 68 years old male, who presented with a swelling above left medial canthus, with no other eye or nasal complaints. Clinical and radiological findings on our initial evaluation suggested that the patient had left frontal mucocoele with bilateral maxillary haziness. Diagnosis was established on FNAC report and subsequent Ziehl - Neelsen staining of nasal swabs and tuberculin skin test. Later chest x-ray examination was suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis, which was the primary cause. Patient responded well to antituberculosis drug therapy. PMID:23120511

Sanehi, S; Dravid, Chandrashekhar; Chaudhary, Neena; Venkatachalam, V P

2008-03-01

55

[Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].  

PubMed

Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower in poorly-controlled DM patients than that in well-controlled DM patients and healthy subjects. Thus, these clinical data suggest that the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM patients is due to the impaired production of Th1-related cytokines. However, direct evidences to prove this possibility remain to be obtained. In 1980, Saiki and co-workers reported that host defense and delayed-type hypersensitivity response to M. tuberculosis was hampered in a mouse DM model established by injecting streptozotocin (Infect Immun. 1980; 28: 127-131). We followed their investigation with the similar observations. Interestingly, levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12 in serum, lung, liver and spleen after infection were significantly reduced in DM mice when compared with those in control mice. Considered collectively, these results strongly suggest that the reduced production of Th1-related cytokines leads to the susceptibility of DM to mycobacterial infection. However, it remains to be understood how DM hampers the synthesis of Th1-related cytokines. In our preliminary study, the production of these cytokines by PBMC from DM patients and healthy subjects was not affected under a high glucose condition. Thus, it is not likely that the increased level of glucose directly suppresses the cell-mediated immune responses. Further investigations are needed to make these points clear. 2. A study of gastrectomy cases in pulmonary tuberculosis patients: Takenori YAGI (Division of Thoracic Disease, National Chiba-Higashi Hospital). Patients who have undergone gastric resection are considered at increased risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis. I have investigated the role played by gastrectomy in giving rise to pulmonary tuberculosis. Of 654 pulmonary tuberculosis patients admitted to National Chiba-Higashi Hospital from January 1999 to December 2001, 55 patients (31-84 years old, mean 63.5 +/- 12.5 years, 48 males and 7 females) had the history of gastric resection. The incidence of gastrectomy among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was 8.4 percent. The mean age of gastric resection

2003-11-01

56

Tuberculosis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... resolves on its own as a child develops immunity over a 6- to 10-week period. But ... conditions become favorable (for instance, due to lowered immunity), the bacteria become active. Tuberculosis in older kids ...

57

Multifocal tuberculosis verrucosa cutis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis (TBVC), a verrucous form of cutaneous tuberculosis, occurs from inoculation of tubercle bacilli into the skin of a previously sensitized patient with moderate to high degree of immunity. This disease is now rare in western countries and in India; the incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis has fallen from 2% to 0.15%. However two recent studies from the Indian subcontinent have reported the prevalence of cutaneous tuebrculosis as 0.7% (Varshney et al) and 0.26% (Patra et al) This case is reported to demonstrate the indolent and extensive nature of tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in an immunocompetent individual and to highlight the importance of histopathology and empirical antitubercular therapy as an adjunct diagnostic tool. PMID:25612118

Chahar, Monica; Dhali, Tapan Kumar; D'souza, Paschal

2015-01-01

58

Tuberculosis in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Tuberculosis (TB) today remains one of the world’s most lethal infectious diseases. An estimated one-third of the world’s\\u000a population is infected with the tubercle bacillus-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and 7 to 8 million people develop TB disease each year (27). For purpose of clarity, TB infection (latent TB) is defined\\u000a as harboring Mtb without evidence of active infection, and TB

S. Rajagopalan; T. T. Yoshikawa

2000-01-01

59

Update on Veterinary Tuberculosis Vaccines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Educational Objective: At the conclusion of this presentation, the participant will know the current status of veterinary tuberculosis vaccine research and development, and understand the challenges which remain for the future introduction of tuberculosis vaccines intended for wildlife and livestock...

60

Inhaled Dry Powder Formulations for Treating Tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious diseases. Although anti-tubercular drugs have been traditionally administered orally, there is a growing interest in delivering drugs via the pulmonary route using nebulisers or dry powder inhalers. Drugs in dry powder inhalers (DPI) are stable and DPI are user-friendly compared to nebulisation which is time consuming, inconvenient and inefficient and requires special equipment. For tuberculosis treatment, drugs should target alveolar macrophages that harbour microorganisms and/or maintain high drug concentration at the infection site in the lung. Drug particles include micro-particles or nanoparticles. Powders can be engineered by micronisation, crystallisation, spray drying, freeze drying and particle coating approaches. The formulation may contain single or combination drugs. This paper will provide an update on current status of TB, its pathogenesis, current treatment strategies, shortcomings of current oral or parenteral delivery strategies, pulmonary delivery devices, advantages of pulmonary delivery of powder formulations, formulation approaches and pharmacokinetic studies of pulmonary delivery of powders for inhalation. PMID:25030114

Das, Shyamal; Tucker, Ian; Stewart, Peter

2014-07-16

61

Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

Gessner, Bradford D.

1997-01-01

62

Tuberculosis: A Problem for Lifeguards?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lifeguards run the risk of workplace infection by tuberculosis-carrying swimmers. Even if they work in ventilated, sunlit areas (which reduces risk), they can contract tuberculosis when performing respiratory resuscitation. Without appropriate precautions, lifeguards may be unnecessarily exposed. A tuberculosis infection control plan is needed in…

Skaros, Susan

1996-01-01

63

Primary tuberculosis of the retina.  

PubMed Central

A case of pseudoglioma diagnosed on histopathology to be retinal tuberculosis is presented with a general review of the literature on ocular tuberculosis. The case is peculiar in that retinal tuberculosis occurred without concomitant involvement of the choroid. Images PMID:3718917

Saini, J S; Mukherjee, A K; Nadkarni, N

1986-01-01

64

Childhood Tuberculosis, Still with Us...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of this report on childhood tuberculosis in developed and developing countries discusses the epidemiology of tuberculosis in children. Information is presented on: (1) sources and prevalence of infection; (2) risks, frequency, and types of tuberculosis; (3) mortality rates; and (4) the relation of poverty and AIDS to…

Chaulet, Pierre; And Others

1992-01-01

65

Development of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis during Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Treatment  

E-print Network

Development of Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis during Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; 6 Tomsk Oblast Tuberculosis Services, Tomsk, Russian Federation; 7 Siberia State Medical University, Tomsk, Russian Federation; 8 Tomsk Oblast Tuberculosis Hospital, Tomsk

Cohen, Ted

66

Pharmacokinetics of Antituberculosis Drugs in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients with Type 2 Diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Altered pharmacokinetics of antituberculosis drugs may contribute to an increased risk of tuberculosis treatment failure for diabetic patients. We previously found that rifampin exposure was 2-fold lower in diabetic than in nondiabetic tuberculosis patients during the continuation phase of treatment. We now examined the influence of diabetes on the pharmacokinetics of antituberculosis drugs in the intensive phase of tuberculosis treatment, and we evaluated the effect of glycemic control. For this purpose, 18 diabetic and 18 gender- and body weight-matched nondiabetic tuberculosis patients were included in an Indonesian setting. Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was performed for rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol at steady state. The bioavailability of rifampin was determined by comparing rifampin exposure after oral versus intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetic assessments were repeated for 10 diabetic tuberculosis patients after glycemic control. No differences in the areas under the concentration-time curves of the drugs in plasma from 0 to 24 h postdose (AUC0-24), the maximum concentrations of the drugs in plasma (Cmax), the times to Cmax (Tmax), and the half-lives of rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol were found between diabetic and nondiabetic tuberculosis patients in the intensive phase of tuberculosis treatment. For rifampin, oral bioavailability and metabolism were similar in diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The pharmacokinetic parameters of antituberculosis drugs were not correlated with blood glucose levels or glucose control. We conclude that diabetes does not alter the pharmacokinetics of antituberculosis drugs during the intensive phase of tuberculosis treatment. The reduced exposure to rifampin of diabetic patients in the continuation phase may be due to increased body weight and possible differences in hepatic induction. Further research is needed to determine the cause of increased tuberculosis treatment failure among diabetic patients. PMID:20038625

Ruslami, Rovina; Nijland, Hanneke M. J.; Adhiarta, I. Gusti N.; Kariadi, Sri H. K. S.; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; van Crevel, Reinout

2010-01-01

67

Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND  

E-print Network

1 Tuberculosis Exposure Control 1.0 BACKGROUND Since 1985, the rate of new cases of tuberculosis, more than 26,000 new cases of active tuberculosis were reported in the US. In New York City alone, 3,700 cases of active tuberculosis were reported in 1991. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that causes

de Lijser, Peter

68

[The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infects all organs in the body; however, lung infection is the primary lesion. The total number of infections is decreasing, but the percentage of infections in older people is rising. Because this disease is due to infection with M. tuberculosis, the diagnosis requires the presence of M. tuberculosis. Chest X-ray and CT are very powerful tools to suggest the presence of M. tuberculosis infection. Pathological examination of the tissues also shows the typical findings of M. tuberculosis infection; however, the presence of the bacterium was not proven in certain cases of M. tuberculosis infection, and especially in cases of latent infection. Recently, the whole-blood interferon--gamma test (QuantiFERON-TB, QFT) became more popular than the tuberculin skin test. It is reported that the specificity and sensitivity of QFT are similar to or better than the tuberculin skin test. However, it should be noted that QFT positive does not automatically lead to a diagnosis of active M. tuberculosis infection and that QFT is one of the supplementary tests in the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection. Currently, massive infection with M. tuberculosis is increasing. The precise responsible linkage in massive infection with M. tuberculosis needs DNA polymorphism analysis using variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) or restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). PMID:23198540

Koyama, Sekiya; Sakaguchi, Nobuki; Hotta, Jyunnichi

2012-08-01

69

Classification of intraocular tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Abstract Tuberculosis in the TB endemic countries commonly manifests in the eye as tuberculous uveitis. There is a wide spectrum of the clinical manifestations of intraocular tuberculosis (IOTB). For want of any gold standard diagnostic tests or diagnostic criteria, the estimates of IOTB prevalence have varied greatly. None of the previously suggested guidelines for diagnosis of IOTB have been validated. We give definitions of clinical signs and diagnostic tests that have been used in the literature. Based on these, we propose a classification of IOTB comprising "confirmed IOTB," "probable IOTB," and "possible IOTB." This of necessity needs consensus among experts before carrying out studies to validate this classification. PMID:25314361

Gupta, Amod; Sharma, Aman; Bansal, Reema; Sharma, Kusum

2015-02-01

70

Oral vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

2013-01-01

71

Oral pathology.  

PubMed

Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706

Niemiec, Brook A

2008-05-01

72

Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

73

Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

74

Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated  

MedlinePLUS

... STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ...

75

Genetic vaccination against tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

New weapons are needed in the fight against tuberculosis. Recent research indicates that a vaccine better than BCG may be within reach. A diverse range of protein antigens can give encouragingly high levels of protective immunity in animal models when administered with adjuvants or as DNA vaccines. Accelerated arrest of bacterial multiplication followed by sustained decline in bacterial numbers are

Douglas B. Lowrie; Celio L. Silvan; Ricardo E. Tascon

1997-01-01

76

Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s, after a steady decline during preceding decades, there was a resurgence in the rate of tuberculosis in the United States that coincided with the acquired immunodeficiency syn- drome epidemic. Disease patterns since have changed, with a higher incidence of disseminated and extrapulmonary disease now found. Extrapulmonary sites of infection commonly include lymph nodes, pleura, and osteoarticular areas,

MARJORIE P. GOLDEN; R. VIKRAM

77

Cervico-Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy as a Paradoxical Response to Chemotherapy in Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis who developed tuberculous mediastinal and later cervical lymphadenopathy while on antituberculous chemotherapy. She responded to the addition of oral corticosteroids to her regimen. The relevant literature regarding the pathogenesis, varied manifestations and the clinical importance of recognising a paradoxical response is discussed.

A. K. Janmeja; S. K. Das

2003-01-01

78

Direct molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suspected to be the specific infection in a case of recurrent tonsillitis.  

PubMed

We report a case of a 21-year-old man with recurrent tonsillitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For a period of 5 months, the patient had tonsillitis seven times and was treated with several oral or parenteral antibiotics. On one of these occasions, tonsillitis was complicated with a peritonsillar abscess that was treated by incision. According to relevant bibliographic data, this is the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis confirmed by direct molecular microbiology methods from the tonsillar tissue of a young immunocompetent male reported in Europe. In a case of recurrent tonsillitis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection should be considered as a possible cause. PMID:23591525

Lukši?, Boris; Kljaji?, Zlatko; Roje, Zeljka; Forempoher, Gea; Grgi?, Duška; Jankovi?-Katalini?, Vera; Goi?-Bariši?, Ivana

2013-12-01

79

Clinical aspects of tonsillar tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A clinical analysis of 6 patients with pathologically confirmed tonsillar tuberculosis was carried out retrospectively. The subjects comprised three men and three women, ranging in age from 20 to 74 years. All of the patients presented with a sore throat and 5 had lymphadenopathy. Ulcerations, masses and white patches characterized the tonsillar lesions; the pathological findings included caseous granuloma with positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in 5 patients and chronic granulomatous inflammation with negative AFB in one patient. Four of the six patients had pulmonary tuberculosis. The three patients who received complete treatment responded well. The presenting symptoms and abnormal tonsillar findings associated with tonsillar tuberculosis are similar to those of malignant tumors and therefore it is difficult to differentiate the two pathologies; moreover, tonsillar tuberculosis often occurs with pulmonary tuberculosis and AIDS and therefore, a chest X-ray and HIV-screening are recommended for all patients with tonsillar tuberculosis. PMID:12118442

Srirompotong, Somchai; Yimtae, Kwanchanok; Srirompotong, Supaporn

2002-03-01

80

resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a significant threat to the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The current susceptibility testing for the first-line TB drug pyrazinamide (PZA) is not only time-consuming but also difficult, due to the requirement for acid pH for drug activity. Predominantly, resistance to PZA in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in the pncA gene, and the detection of

Ying Zhang; Steven Denkin; Dmitriy Volokhov; Vladimir Chizhikov

81

Alcohol Exacerbates Murine Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption has been described as a risk factor for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its contribution to tuberculosis has been difficult to isolate from other adverse socioeconomic factors. Our objec- tive was to evaluate the impact of alcohol consumption on pulmonary infection with M. tuberculosis in a murine model. BALB\\/c mice were maintained on the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet

Carol M. Mason; Elizabeth Dobard; Ping Zhang; Steve Nelson

2004-01-01

82

Tuberculosis in camelids: a review.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a chronic, contagious, granulomatous disease caused by mycobacterial species belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Camelids were not considered highly susceptible to tuberculosis, but in recent years increased numbers of cases have been experienced in some countries. In most of the cases, transmission probably occurs through contact with infected cattle or wildlife. None of the ante-mortem tests currently available can consistently provide accurate diagnosis of the infection in live camelids. Recently developed serological assays have the potential for rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis but still need to be validated. PMID:23520743

Wernery, U; Kinne, J

2012-12-01

83

The dynamics of tuberculosis epidemiology.  

PubMed

A conceptual framework to study the epidemiologic basis of tuberculosis control is provided. The basic model to discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis is based on a classification of tuberculosis based on its pathogenesis with exposure, latent infection, tuberculosis, and death from tuberculosis, showing the conditional probabilities leading from one to the next step in the chain of events. Historical data are utilized to demonstrate how the dynamics of tuberculosis over multiple decades have contributed to shape the present. It is shown that the key concept to understand the dynamics is related to current and past incidence and prevalence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis. The dynamics of the epidemic are shaped both by the behaviour of the causative organism of tuberculosis as well as the population structure and changes that take place in parallel in which M. tuberculosis thrives. Both the present and the future shape of the epidemic, as well as the principles applied to its control lie very much in the past of a society. While new risk factors such as HIV or diabetes have been or are emerging more strongly, it is noted that the majority of all new cases emerging cannot be pinned to one or the other such factor. It is the historical experience of a population that offers the most valuable key to understanding the present and the future. PMID:24640341

Rieder, Hans L

2014-01-01

84

Dermatomyositis masquerading musculoskeletal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Dermatomyositis is a rare rheumatic disease which predominantly affects the muscles and skin requiring a protracted course of immunosuppressants which may predispose the patients to opportunistic infections. A 49-year-old lady was diagnosed to have dermatomyositis in August 2010 based on history, significantly raised creatine kinase level and muscle biopsy findings. She had recurrent admissions due to fever, myalgia and muscle weakness. She had spiking temperature despite high dose steroids, broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents. This prompted extensive investigation which leads us to the additional diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis involving the lungs, muscles and bones. This case demonstrates the challenge in controlling the disease activity of dermatomyositis with immunosuppressants in the setting of disseminated tuberculosis. PMID:22675098

Rajalingham, Sakthiswary; Said, Mohd Shahrir Mohd; Shaharir, Syahrul Sazliyana; AbAziz, Aini; Periyasamy, Petrick; Anshar, Fauzi Md

2011-01-01

85

Dermatomyositis masquerading musculoskeletal tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Dermatomyositis is a rare rheumatic disease which predominantly affects the muscles and skin requiring a protracted course of immunosuppressants which may predispose the patients to opportunistic infections. A 49-year-old lady was diagnosed to have dermatomyositis in August 2010 based on history, significantly raised creatine kinase level and muscle biopsy findings. She had recurrent admissions due to fever, myalgia and muscle weakness. She had spiking temperature despite high dose steroids, broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents. This prompted extensive investigation which leads us to the additional diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis involving the lungs, muscles and bones. This case demonstrates the challenge in controlling the disease activity of dermatomyositis with immunosuppressants in the setting of disseminated tuberculosis. PMID:22675098

Rajalingham, Sakthiswary; Mohd Said, Mohd Shahrir; Shaharir, Syahrul Sazliyana; AbAziz, Aini; Periyasamy, Petrick; Md Anshar, Fauzi

2011-01-01

86

Tuberculosis of spine  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of the spine is one of the most common spine pathology in India. Over last 4 decades a lot has changed in the diagnosis, medical treatment and surgical procedures to treat this disorder. Further developments in diagnosis using molecular genetic techniques, more effective antibiotics and more aggressive surgical protocols have become essential with emergence of multidrug resistant TB. Surgical procedures such as single stage anterior and posterior stabilization, extrapleral dorsal spine anterior stabilization and endoscopic thoracoscopic surgeries have reduced the mortality and morbidity of the surgical procedures. is rapidly progressing. It is a challenge to treat MDR-TB Spine with late onset paraplegia and progressive deformity. Physicians must treat tuberculosis of spine on the basis of Culture and sensitivity. PMID:21572628

Agrawal, Vinod; Patgaonkar, P. R.; Nagariya, S. P.

2010-01-01

87

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks or months to complete. This includes examination, evaluation to determine the most appropriate oral appliance, fitting, maximizing adaptation of the appliance, and the function. Ongoing care, including short- and long-term follow-up is an essential step in the ...

88

Ampicillin Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney or liver disease, allergies, asthma, blood disease, colitis, stomach problems, or hay fever.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan ...

89

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size of the ... or push food back toward the throat during swallowing. A growth on the roof of the mouth ( ...

90

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tuberculosis and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the common causative organism in human tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease characterized by formation of tubercles (small...

2013-04-01

91

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tuberculosis and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the common causative organism in human tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease characterized by formation of tubercles (small...

2010-04-01

92

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tuberculosis and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the common causative organism in human tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease characterized by formation of tubercles (small...

2012-04-01

93

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

...tuberculosis and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the common causative organism in human tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease characterized by formation of tubercles (small...

2014-04-01

94

21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tuberculosis and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the common causative organism in human tuberculosis, a chronic infectious disease characterized by formation of tubercles (small...

2011-04-01

95

Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Molecular Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis seriously threaten tuberculosis (TB) control and prevention efforts. Molecular studies of the mechanism of action of antitubercular drugs have elucidated the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is attributed primarily to the accumulation of mutations in the drug target genes; these mutations lead either to an altered target

Ashok Rattan; Awdhesh Kalia; Nishat Ahmad

1998-01-01

96

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretory proteins  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretory proteins CFP-10, ESAT-6 and the CFP10:ESAT6, Dinakar M Salunke2 and Pawan Sharma1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes death of 2­3 million people; lipopolysaccharide; NF-kB; ROS Tuberculosis is a global health problem caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb

Cai, Long

97

Tuberculosis in association with travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout history, tuberculosis has been spread by the movement of human populations. Modern travel continues to be associated with risk of tuberculosis infection and disease. TB transmission has been documented on commercial aircraft, from personnel or passengers to other personnel and passengers, but the risk of transmission is low. As in other settings, the likelihood of transmission is proportional to

Hamdan Al-Jahdali; Ziad A Memish; Dick Menzies

2003-01-01

98

Thyroid Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: It was the aim of this study to report clinical characteristics and treatment of thyroid tuberculosis (TT). Methods: During 16 years, 2,426 patients have been operated on the thyroid in the surgical department ‘A’ in Ibn Sina Hospital, Rabat, Morocco. Anatomopathological results of the removed thyroid were analyzed for evidence of tuberculosis. Results: Eight cases of TT were diagnosed.

H. O. El Malki; R. Mohsine; K. Benkhraba; M. Amahzoune; A. Benkabbou; M. El Absi; L. Ifrine; A. Belkouchi; S. Balafrej

2006-01-01

99

Tuberculosis pharmacotherapy: strategies to optimize patient care  

PubMed Central

The treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is a mature discipline, with over 60 years of clinical experience accrued across the globe. The requisite multidrug treatment of drug-susceptible TB, however, lasts six months and has never been optimized according to current standards. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis in individuals coinfected with HIV present additional treatment challenges. This article reviews the role that existing drugs and new compounds could have in shortening or improving treatment for tuberculosis. The key to treatment shortening appears to be sterilizing activity, or the ability of drugs to kill mycobacteria that persist after the initial days of multidrug treatment. Among existing anti-TB drugs, the rifamycins hold the greatest potential for shortening treatment and improving outcomes, in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected populations, without dramatic increases in toxicity. Clinical studies underway or being planned, are supported by in vitro, animal, and human evidence of increased sterilizing activity–without significant increases in toxicity–at elevated daily doses. Fluoroquinolones also appear to have significant sterilizing activity. At least two class members are currently under evaluation for treatment shortening with different combinations of first-line drugs. However, in light of apparent rapid selection for fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants, relative frequency of serious adverse events, and a perceived need to ‘reserve’ fluoroquinolones for the treatment of drug-resistant TB, their exact role in TB treatment remains to be determined. Other possible improvements may come from inhaled delivery or split dosing (linezolid) of anti-TB drugs for which toxicity (ethionamide) or lack of absorption (aminoglycosides and polypeptides) precludes delivery of maximally effective, oral doses, once daily. New classes of drugs with novel mechanisms of action, nitroimidazopyrans and a diarylquinoline, among others, may soon provide opportunities for improving treatment of drug-resistant TB and/or shortening treatment of drug-susceptible TB. More potential options for improved TB treatment currently exist than at any other time in the last 30 years. The challenge in TB pharmacotherapy is to devise well-tolerated, efficacious, short-duration regimens that can be used successfully against drug-resistant and drug-resistant TB in a heterogeneous population of patients. PMID:19191677

Mitnick, Carole D.; McGee, Bryan; Peloquin, Charles A.

2009-01-01

100

Non-human sources of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a successful pathogen responsible for the vast majority of deadly tuberculosis cases in humans. It rests in a dormant form in contaminated people who constitute the reservoir with airborne interhuman transmission during pulmonary tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis is therefore regarded majoritary as a human pathogen. Here, we review the evidence for anthroponotic M. tuberculosis infection in non-human primates, other mammals and psittacines. Some infected animals may be sources for zoonotic tuberculosis caused by M. tuberculosis, with wild life trade and zoos being amplifying factors. Moreover, living animals and cadavers can scatter M. tuberculosis in the environment where it could survive for extended periods of time in soil where amoebae could play a role. Although marginal in the epidemiology of human tuberculosis, these data indicate that M. tuberculosis is not uniquely adapted to humans. PMID:24119770

Ghodbane, Ramzi; Drancourt, Michel

2013-11-01

101

Genitourinary and pulmonary multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).  

PubMed

A female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) developed vaginal and trunk discharge. Cultures were positive for pan-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally and monitored by serum levels. After being trained at 10 mo to accept oral dosing, treatment was changed and rifampin was added. Oral medications were administered for another 10 mo. A year after completion of therapy, the vaginal discharge increased and cultures yielded M. tuberculosis, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin. Treatment with oral ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and enrofloxacin and intramuscular amikacin was initiated. Although followup cultures became negative, adverse reactions to medications precluded treatment completion. Due to public health concerns related to multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB), the elephant was euthanized. Postmortem smears from the lung, peribronchial, and abdominal lymph nodes yielded acid-fast bacteria, although cultures were negative. This case highlights important considerations in the treatment of M. tuberculosis in animals and the need for a consistent approach to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. PMID:22204067

Dumonceaux, Genevieve A; St Leger, Judy; Olsen, John H; Burton, Michael S; Ashkin, David; Maslow, Joel N

2011-12-01

102

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

103

Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript.

Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

2015-01-01

104

Highly structured genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in  

E-print Network

Highly structured genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Djibouti S, Djibouti Ville, Djibouti Abstract Djibouti is an East African country with a high tuberculosis incidence with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were included. Genetic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using

Choisy, Marc

105

Activity of 5-chloro-pyrazinamide in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Pyrazinamide is an essential component of first line anti-tuberculosis regimen as well as most of the second line regimens. This drug has a unique sterilizing activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its unique role in tuberculosis treatment has lead to the search and development of its structural analogues. One such analogue is 5-chloro-pyrazinamide (5-Cl-PZA) that has been tested under in vitro conditions against M. tuberculosis. The present study was designed with an aim to assess the activity of 5-Cl-PZA, alone and in combination with first-line drugs, against murine tuberculosis. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5-Cl-PZA in Middlebrook 7H9 broth (neutral pH) and the inhibitory titre of serum from mice that received a 300 mg/kg oral dose of 5-Cl-PZA 30 min before cardiac puncture were determined. To test the tolerability of orally administered 5-Cl-PZA, uninfected mice received doses up to 300 mg/kg for 2 wk. Four weeks after low-dose aerosol infection either with M. tuberculosis or M. bovis, mice were treated 5 days/wk with 5-Cl-PZA, at doses ranging from 37.5 to 150 mg/kg, either alone or in combination with isoniazid and rifampicin. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by colony-forming unit counts in lungs after 4 and 8 wk of treatment. Results: The MIC of 5-Cl-PZA against M. tuberculosis was between 12.5 and 25 ?g/ml and the serum inhibitory titre was 1:4. Under the same experimental conditions, the MIC of pyrazinamide was >100 ?g/ml and mouse serum had no inhibitory activity after a 300 mg/kg dose; 5-Cl-PZA was well tolerated in uninfected and infected mice up to 300 and 150 mg/kg, respectively. While PZA alone and in combination exhibited its usual antimicrobial activity in mice infected with M. tuberculosis and no activity in mice infected with M. bovis, 5-Cl-PZA exhibited antimicrobial activity neither in mice infected with M. tuberculosis nor in mice infected with M. bovis. Interpretation & conclusion: Our findings showed that 5-Cl-PZA at doses up to 150 mg/kg was not active in chronic murine TB model. Further studies need to be done to understand the mechanism and mode of inactivation in murine model of tuberculosis. PMID:23287128

Ahmad, Zahoor; Tyagi, Sandeep; Minkowski, Austin; Almeida, Deepak; Nuermberger, Eric L.; Peck, Kaitlin M.; Welch, John T.; Baughn, Anthony D.; Jacobs, Williams R.; Grosset, Jacques H.

2012-01-01

106

Hypercholesterolemia Impairs Immunity to Tuberculosis ?  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that apolipoprotein E -deficient (ApoE?/?) mice are highly susceptible to tuberculosis and that their susceptibility depends on the severity of hypercholesterolemia. Wild-type (WT) mice and ApoE?/? mice fed a low-cholesterol (LC) or high-cholesterol (HC) diet were infected with ?50 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman by aerosol. ApoE?/? LC mice were modestly more susceptible to tuberculosis than WT LC mice. In contrast, ApoE?/? HC mice were extremely susceptible, as evidenced by 100% mortality after 4 weeks with tuberculosis. The lung pathology of ApoE?/? HC mice was remarkable for giant abscess-like lesions, massive infiltration by granulocytes, elevated inflammatory cytokine production, and a mean bacterial load ?2 log units higher than that of WT HC mice. Compared to WT HC mice, the gamma interferon response of splenocytes restimulated ex vivo with M. tuberculosis culture filtrate protein was delayed in ApoE?/? HC mice, and they failed to control M. tuberculosis growth in the lung. OT-II cells adoptively transferred into uninfected ApoE?/? HC mice had a weak proliferative response to their antigen, indicating impaired priming of the adaptive immune response. Our studies show that ApoE?/? deficiency is associated with delayed expression of adaptive immunity to tuberculosis caused by defective priming of the adaptive immune response and that elevated serum cholesterol is responsible for this effect. PMID:18505807

Martens, Gregory W.; Arikan, Meltem Cevik; Lee, Jinhee; Ren, Fucheng; Vallerskog, Therese; Kornfeld, Hardy

2008-01-01

107

Tuberculosis in the AIDS era.  

PubMed Central

A resurgence of tuberculosis has occurred in recent years in the United States and abroad. Deteriorating public health services, increasing numbers of immigrants from countries of endemicity, and coinfection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have contributed to the rise in the number of cases diagnosed in the United States. Outbreaks of resistant tuberculosis, which responds poorly to therapy, have occurred in hospitals and other settings, affecting patients and health care workers. This review covers the pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. In addition, public health and hospital infection control strategies are detailed. Newer approaches to epidemiologic investigation, including use of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, are discussed. Detailed consideration of the interaction between HIV infection and tuberculosis is given. We also review the latest techniques in laboratory evaluation, including the radiometric culture system, DNA probes, and PCR. Current recommendations for therapy of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, are given. Finally, the special problem of prophylaxis of persons exposed to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is considered. PMID:7621399

Sepkowitz, K A; Raffalli, J; Riley, L; Kiehn, T E; Armstrong, D

1995-01-01

108

Tuberculosis: Past, Present and Future  

PubMed Central

Observation and statistics are offered on treatment of tuberculosis in sanatoria during the lifespan of those institutions with special reference to one where the first author's medical life was mainly spent as patient, physician, surgeon and superintendent. Despite the rapid decrease in morbidity and mortality of tuberculosis, the change in direction, and the change in treatment programs, vigilance is still required. It is only because of the commitment of those involved over the many years in the treatment of tuberculosis that we are now at this enviable position. Imagesp[57]-ap56-a PMID:21301581

Paine, A. L.; Hershfield, Earl S.

1979-01-01

109

T lymphocytes in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

T cells and their sub-populations were evaluated with respect to reactive, intermediate and unreactive forms of tuberculosis as classified by Lenzini. Significant CD4 lymphopenia and a reduction of CD4/CD8 ratios were found in patients with reactive tuberculosis. It was observed that there was a B lymphocytosis, CD8 lymphocytosis and a reduction of CD4/CD8 ratio in patients with intermediate and unreactive forms of tuberculosis. The T lymphocytes and CD4 subset were unchanged. There was no significant difference in the lymphocytes and sub-populations among the intermediate and unreactive groups. PMID:8486403

Ashtekar, M D; Samuel, A M; Kadival, G V; Sakhalkar, V; Rajadhyaksha, S; Virdi, S S

1993-01-01

110

Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in technically advanced and economically well-developed countries is decreasing, and the disease has become more subtle in presentation. In a recent study from British Columbia, about half the deaths from tuberculosis were diagnosed at autopsy. Most of these patients had died in hospital and their mean duration of stay was 14.5 days. The chemotherapeutic agents available today can cure most cases and prevent further spread of infection. The appropriate use of chemoprophylaxis can substantially reduce the size of the infected pool at risk of developing tuberculosis. PMID:21286560

Ahmad, Dildar

1982-01-01

111

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female. PMID:22431929

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

112

Clinical peculiarities of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The ongoing spread of tuberculosis (TB) in poor resource countries and the recently increasing incidence in high resource countries lead to the need of updated knowledge for clinicians, particularly for pediatricians. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the most important peculiarities of TB in children. Children are less contagious than adults, but the risk of progression to active disease is higher in infants and children as compared to the subsequent ages. Diagnosis of TB in children is more difficult than in adults, because few signs are associated with primary infection, interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test are less reliable in younger children, M. tuberculosis is more rarely detected in gastric aspirates than in smears in adults and radiological findings are often not specific. Treatment of latent TB is always necessary in young children, whereas it is recommended in older children, as well as in adults, only in particular conditions. Antimycobacterial drugs are generally better tolerated in children as compared to adults, but off-label use of second-line antimycobacterial drugs is increasing, because of spreading of multidrug resistant TB worldwide. Given that TB is a disease which often involves more than one member in a family, a closer collaboration is needed between pediatricians and clinicians who take care of adults. PMID:24564419

2014-01-01

113

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Crisp Choosing Safe Toys Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Oral Thrush KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Oral Thrush Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a very ...

114

Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Mutation Database  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death from a largely preventable and curable infectious disease, with an estimated 1.7 million deaths in 2006. Global prospects for TB control are challenged by the emergence ...

Church, George M.

115

Tuberculosis care: an evaluability study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the tuberculosis control program (TCP) is evaluable and to examine the feasibility of building an evaluation model in apriority municipality for the control of tuberculosis. METHOD: this evaluability study was conducted in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. For data collection, documental analysis and interviews with key informants were performed. For indicator validation, the nominal group technique was adopted. RESULTS: the details of TCP were described, and both the logical model and the classification framework for indicators were developed and agreed up on, with the goal of characterizing the structural elements of the program, defining the structure and process indicators, and formulating the evaluation questions. CONCLUSION: TCP is evaluable. Based on logical operational analysis, it was possible to evaluate the adequacy of the program goals for the control of tuberculosis. Therefore, the performance of a summative evaluation is recommended, with a focus on the analysis of the effects of tuberculosis control interventions on decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:25493675

Coelho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Cláudia Santos; Brito, Ewerton Willian Gomes; Negrão, Oswaldo Gomes Corrêa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa

2014-01-01

116

Complete tuberculosis treatment for all.  

PubMed

Lead nurse Hanna Kaur has seen her priorities develop in the 18 months since she joined the Birmingham and Solihull tuberculosis (TB) service, part of Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust. PMID:25408051

2014-11-19

117

Unusual locations of osteoarticular tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis continues to occur frequently in some underdeveloped regions. Bone and joint tuberculosis is less common than the pulmonary form. Fourteen cases of bone and joint tuberculosis in unusual locations are presented. Tuberculostatic treatment and surgical approach were associated in all the patients. In 6 cases an arthrodesis of the affected joint was carried out. A surgical debridement was done in 6 patients and a needle biopsy in 2 patients in order to obtain samples for pathology and bacteriology. Twelve of the 14 patients recovered. One patient who was affected by atlanto-axial tuberculosis died within the immediate postoperative period. A second one affected by the acquired immunodefiency syndrome died 4 months after surgery. PMID:9266032

García, S; Combalía, A; Serra, A; Segur, J M; Ramón, R

1997-01-01

118

Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis biofilms.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis, has an extraordinary ability to survive against environmental stresses including antibiotics. Although stress tolerance of M. tuberculosis is one of the likely contributors to the 6-month long chemotherapy of tuberculosis (1), the molecular mechanisms underlying this characteristic phenotype of the pathogen remain unclear. Many microbial species have evolved to survive in stressful environments by self-assembling in highly organized, surface attached, and matrix encapsulated structures called biofilms (2-4). Growth in communities appears to be a preferred survival strategy of microbes, and is achieved through genetic components that regulate surface attachment, intercellular communications, and synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (5,6). The tolerance to environmental stress is likely facilitated by EPS, and perhaps by the physiological adaptation of individual bacilli to heterogeneous microenvironments within the complex architecture of biofilms (7). In a series of recent papers we established that M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis have a strong propensity to grow in organized multicellular structures, called biofilms, which can tolerate more than 50 times the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin (8-10). M. tuberculosis, however, intriguingly requires specific conditions to form mature biofilms, in particular 9:1 ratio of headspace: media as well as limited exchange of air with the atmosphere (9). Requirements of specialized environmental conditions could possibly be linked to the fact that M. tuberculosis is an obligate human pathogen and thus has adapted to tissue environments. In this publication we demonstrate methods for culturing M. tuberculosis biofilms in a bottle and a 12-well plate format, which is convenient for bacteriological as well as genetic studies. We have described the protocol for an attenuated strain of M. tuberculosis, mc(2)7000, with deletion in the two loci, panCD and RD1, that are critical for in vivo growth of the pathogen (9). This strain can be safely used in a BSL-2 containment for understanding the basic biology of the tuberculosis pathogen thus avoiding the requirement of an expensive BSL-3 facility. The method can be extended, with appropriate modification in media, to grow biofilm of other culturable mycobacterial species. Overall, a uniform protocol of culturing mycobacterial biofilms will help the investigators interested in studying the basic resilient characteristics of mycobacteria. In addition, a clear and concise method of growing mycobacterial biofilms will also help the clinical and pharmaceutical investigators to test the efficacy of a potential drug. PMID:22371116

Kulka, Kathleen; Hatfull, Graham; Ojha, Anil K

2012-01-01

119

High Rates of Potentially Infectious Tuberculosis and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among  

E-print Network

High Rates of Potentially Infectious Tuberculosis and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR, Massachusetts, United States of America, 3 KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV Research (K) and multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) tuberculosis at Church of Scotland Hospital (CoSH), in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN

Cohen, Ted

120

Pre-Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strain Associated with Disseminated Tuberculosis in a Pet Dog  

PubMed Central

Resistance to isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin was detected in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, belonging to the Beijing family lineage, isolated from two nodule exudates of a Yorkshire terrier with generalized tuberculosis. This report alerts medical practitioners to the risk of dissemination of pre-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (preMDR-TB) through exposure to M. tuberculosis-shedding pets. PMID:24153119

Perdigão, João; Canto, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Leal, Nuno; Macedo, Rita; Portugal, Isabel; Cunha, Mónica V.

2014-01-01

121

Tuberculosis information on the Web.  

PubMed

After years of decline, tuberculosis has reemerged as a serious public health problem worldwide. Factors contributing to this resurgence include the HIV epidemic and immigration of people from countries with a high incidence of tuberculosis. In 1993, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it to be a 'global emergency' and according to a recent WHO report, there were 7.96 million new cases in 1996, with two million deaths. Comprehensive up-to-date information is available via the Internet, which has emerged as an essential tool for information on a wide variety of subjects including tuberculosis. However, looking for the right information on tuberculosis can be laborious, especially with the enormous number of tuberculosis websites established. It is always helpful to know which ones to visit to avoid wasting valuable time. This article provides readers with a list of websites that provide information on tuberculosis. All sites quoted here have been tested and proven to be valuable and informative for both the public and scientific community alike. PMID:12134772

Abu-Amero, K

2002-06-01

122

Tuberculosis pathogenesis and immunity.  

PubMed

Despite the development of potentially curative chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) continues to cause increasing worldwide morbidity and is a leading cause of human mortality in the developing world. Recent advances in bacterial molecular genetics, immunology, and human genetics have yielded insight into the molecular determinants of virulence, the immune responses that are essential for restricting progressive disease, and the determinants of immunopathology in TB. Despite these advances, a large knowledge gap still exists that limits the development and testing of new interventions, including novel drugs and efficacious vaccines. This review focuses on our current knowledge of TB pathogenesis and immunity that has been derived from in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, it highlights topics that need to be better understood to provide improved means of controlling TB worldwide. PMID:22054143

Philips, Jennifer A; Ernst, Joel D

2012-01-01

123

Tuberculosis: 11. Nosocomial  

E-print Network

The tuberculosis (TB) series, which has been running in CMAJ sinceMarch 1999, has already reviewed the changes in populations at risk1and the emergence of HIV-related2 and multidrug-resistant3 TB in Canada. Since the occurrence of several highly publicized outbreaks of mul-tidrug-resistant TB in US hospitals,4 the transmission of TB within hospitals and other institutions has been increasingly recognized as a hazard for patients and workers. Using a fictitious case for illustration, this article reviews the major de-terminants of nosocomial transmission of TB, as well as the key administrative, engineering and personal measures that can be taken to minimize transmission of the disease in health care facilities.

Kevin Schwartzman; Mph Dick Menzies

124

Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

125

An Update on Global Tuberculosis (TB)  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis globally results in almost 2 million human deaths annually, with 1 in 4 deaths from tuberculosis being human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related. Primarily a pathogen of the respiratory system, aerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infects the lungs via the inhalation of infected aerosol droplets generated by people with pulmonary disease through coughing. This review focuses on M. tuberculosis transmission, epidemiology, detection methods and technologies. PMID:24847176

Talip, Balkis A.; Sleator, Roy D.; Lowery, Colm J.; Dooley, James S.G.; Snelling, William J.

2013-01-01

126

An update on lower urinary tract tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary tract presents with atypical manifestations. Only 20% to 30% of patients with genitourinary\\u000a tuberculosis have a history of pulmonary infection. Tuberculosis often affects the lower genitourinary system rather than\\u000a the kidney. Tuberculosis of the lower genitourinary tract most commonly affects the epididymis and the testis, followed by\\u000a bladder, ureter, prostate, and penis. Use of bacillus Calmette-Guérin

Gilbert J. Wise; Alex Shteynshlyuger

2007-01-01

127

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2014-07-01

128

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis  

E-print Network

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis Direct lung delivery of para-aminosalicylic acid potentially be used for the delivery of additional anti- tuberculosis agents such as rifampicin, aminoglucosides or fluoroquinolones. & 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS Tuberculosis treatment

129

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2012-07-01

130

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2013-07-01

131

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2010-07-01

132

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis  

E-print Network

www.elsevierhealth.com/journals/tube Tuberculosis Visualization of microarray results to assist on Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used to develop and evaluate the visualization tool and initiate the development. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tube.2003.12.012 Tuberculosis (2004) 84, 275­281 #12;define

Sergot, Marek

133

Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer  

E-print Network

Mycobacterium tuberculosis as viewed through a computer Denise Kirschner and Simeone Marino of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the immune system. Different mathematical models were formulated on the basis that contribute to the success of M. tuberculosis as a human pathogen. Our goal is to stimulate experimentation

Kirschner, Denise

134

38 CFR 3.959 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tuberculosis. 3.959 Section 3.959 Pensions...Compensation Protection § 3.959 Tuberculosis. Any veteran who, on August...for active or inactive (arrested) tuberculosis may receive compensation under...

2011-07-01

135

Surgical Management of Tuberculosis-Related Hemoptysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTuberculosis is a disease that is often treated with chemotherapy. However, medical treatment usually fails in the management of tuberculosis-related hemoptysis. In this paper, we review our experience in the surgical treatment of tuberculosis-related hemoptysis.

Abdullah Erdogan; Arif Yegin; Gülsüm Gürses; Abid Demircan

2005-01-01

136

Miliary tuberculosis and adult respiratory distress syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although, miliary tuberculosis is an unusual cause of severe acute respiratory failure, we describe nine patients with miliary tuberculosis who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome. This complication occurred in seven patients despite treatment with antituberculous drugs. In two patients who developed the syndrome, miliary tuberculosis was diagnosed only at postmortem. The presence of pulmonary hypertension in all cases and disseminated

A. Roglan Piqueras; L. Marruecos; A. Artigas; C. Rodriguez

1987-01-01

137

Effect of water extract of Turkish propolis on tuberculosis infection in guinea-pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv)-infected guinea-pig model was used to investigate the effect of water extract of propolis (WEP). After subcutaneous inoculation of tubercle bacilli, each animal received oral WEP (n=9), isoniazid (n=5) or saline (n=6) as placebo and were sacrificed 30 days later. Formation of necrosis was less prominent in the group treated with WEP, but was not statistically significant (P>0.05).

Zeki Yildirim; Süleyman Hacievliyagil; Nurettin Onur Kutlu; Nasuhi Engin Aydin; Mine Kurkcuoglu; Mustafa Iraz; Riza Durmaz

2004-01-01

138

Understanding Oral Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

139

[Tuberculosis--a neverending story].  

PubMed

It is estimated that over one third of the human population is now exposed or has been exposed in the past to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and new infections occur in the world at a rate of one per second. The history of tuberculosis is long and very interesting, because before the isolation of mycobacteria and the finding of a cure, the disease mercilessly killed thousands of people and deprived doctors of hope. Robert Koch's momentous discovery was a major breakthrough in the fight against tuberculosis. Unfortunately, the disease has never been fully controlled. Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease localized in 90-95% of cases in the lungs, and therefore it is extremely difficult to diagnose unequivocally in paleopathological material. Only the form of osteo-arthritis leaves traces in archaeological material. The earliest evidence of tuberculosis (the location of the spine, Pott's disease) in the form of fossils is dated to before 8000 BC. Another very old trace is considered to be human remains from the Neolithic period (ca 5000 BC), found near Heidelberg, where changes in the thoracic spine are typical for spondylitis in tuberculosa. Constant growth in the incidence of new cases in the world can be observed today. Not everyone infected will develop the full-blown disease. The infection may remain dormant. However, one in ten latent infections will subsequently be activated, leading, if not treated, to the death of almost half of the patients. PMID:25026769

Dziecio?owska-Baran, Edyta; Gawlikowska-Sroka, Aleksandra

2013-01-01

140

[Choroidal tuberculosis: reports of 3 cases].  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a chronic infection with a high incidence in Morocco. Ocular involvement is rare. We report three cases of choroidal tuberculosis. Case no 1: A 24-year-old female with tuberculous meningitis, multifocal choroiditis in the right eye and choroidal granuloma in the left eye. Case no 2: A 22-year-old female with multifocal tuberculosis. The ocular examination showed a choroidal granuloma. Case no 3: A 25-year-old male with HIV infection and miliary tuberculosis. Ocular involvement consisted in a choroidal granuloma. Ocular involvement in tuberculosis is uncommon. Choroidal granuloma is a characteristic manifestation. PMID:20108570

Baha Ali, T; Benhaddou, R; Hajj, I; Khoumiri, R; Guelzim, H; Moutaouakil, A

2009-01-01

141

Primary gastric tuberculosis – report of 5 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric tuberculosis is rare, and usually associated with pulmonary tuberculosis or an immunodeficient state. Here, we report five cases of gastric tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients without evidence of pulmonary involvement. Case presentation Three patients presented with gastric outlet obstruction that required surgery to relieve the obstruction as well as to confirm the diagnosis. The remaining two had involvement of gastroesophageal junction. All of them responded well to standard antitubercular treatment. Conclusion Though gastric tuberculosis is rare, it should be considered a possibility when patients present with gastric outlet obstruction or with endoscopic evidence of diffuse chronic inflammatory activity, particularly in areas endemic for tuberculosis. PMID:12703983

Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Patel, Nikhil D; Amarapurkar, Anjali D

2003-01-01

142

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

143

Spinal tuberculosis: with reference to the children of northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Tuberculosis is a necrotizing bacterial infection with protean manifestation and wide distribution. There has been a great fall in the prevalence of tuberculosis in the United States since 1990, although the impact of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has increased the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB). Spinal tuberculosis is the commonest form of skeletal tuberculosis. In this article, an overview of

Raj Kumar

2005-01-01

144

Optimal intervention strategies for tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the problem of optimal control of a deterministic model of tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus). We first present and analyze an uncontrolled tuberculosis model which incorporates the essential biological and epidemiological features of the disease. The model is shown to exhibit the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where a stable disease-free equilibrium co-exists with one or more stable endemic equilibria when the associated basic reproduction number is less than the unity. Based on this continuous model, the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how control terms on the chemoprophylaxis and detection should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. Results provide a framework for designing the cost-effective strategies for TB with two intervention methods.

Bowong, Samuel; Aziz Alaoui, A. M.

2013-06-01

145

[Job's syndrome and miliary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The hyper Immunoglobulin E syndrome, also known as Job's syndrome, is a rare primary immunodeficiency, its mechanisms of inheritance maybe recessive or dominant autosomal. It is characterized by high levels of IgE, eosinophilia, skin abscesses, eczema, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and recurrent pulmonary infections all of which contribute to the development of pneumatoceles and bronchiectasis. The most frequently isolated bacteria is Staphylococcus aureus. Currently, despite the highest survival of patients, lymphomas and other opportunistic infections have been reported. There are few reports of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection associated with hyper IgE syndrome. Therefore it is relevant that we report a case history of a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis, presenting miliary tuberculosis and severe respiratory compromise, who responded positively to standard anti-tuberculous treatment with first line drugs. PMID:25188660

Gamberale, Ana; Moreira, Ileana; Bartoletti, Bruno; Cruz, Víctor; Bezrodnik, Liliana; Alberti, Federico; Catro Zorrilla, Liliana; Palmero, Domingo

2014-01-01

146

Tuberculosis in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy and in the perinatal period was once considered to be an infrequent event in the United States. After a decade of steady decline, however, the disease has begun a resurgence. According to the CDC, a 20% increase in the number of reported cases occurred between 1985 and 1992. The factors associated with this increase are the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the development of drug-resistant organisms, substance abuse, homelessness, and immigration. Environmental factors promoting transmission can be found in overcrowded areas such as correctional facilities, nursing homes, hospitals, and migrant-worker camps. For a large number of medically underserved women, the obstetrician is the only interface with medical care, as most of these patients do not have primary-care providers. It is important, therefore, that health-care providers recognize the clinical symptoms of TB and follow the recognized guidelines for antenatal screening for TB because the omission of these steps can lead to potentially disastrous sequelae in the fetus and neonate. PMID:18476074

Apuzzio, Joseph J.

1996-01-01

147

Field Friendly Tuberculosis Biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tuberculosis (TB) is a fading threat in the United States, but in the developing world it is still a major health-care concern. Given the rising number of cases and lack of resources, there is a desperate need for an affordable, portable detection system. We are working towards the development of a field-friendly immunological biosensor that utilizes florescence microscopy to undertake this task. We observe fluorescently labeled antibodies/antigens as they bind to a glass slide treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to inhibit non-specific adsorption. Antibodies against the antigens of interest are bound to the PEGylated glass slides via biotin-streptavidin interactions. Then, fluorescently labeled antibodies are mixed with different concentrations of TB antigens and this solution is incubated on the treated glass slides for 30 minutes. The slides are thoroughly rinsed with water following the incubation period. The antigens are then detected by fluorescence using a low-cost biosensor. Our system includes a ``supermarket-scanner'' HeNe laser, home-built electronics, off-the-shelf optics and a Si photodiode. Work is underway to incorporate a flow-cell into the system, in a small portable box.

Proper, N.; Scherman, M. S.; Jevsevar, K. L.; Stone, J.; McNeil, M. R.; Krapf, D.

2009-10-01

148

Central nervous system tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients. PMID:24887691

Torres, Carlos; Riascos, Roy; Figueroa, Ramon; Gupta, Rakesh K

2014-06-01

149

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2010-10-01

150

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2011-10-01

151

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2012-10-01

152

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2013-10-01

153

Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence?  

E-print Network

Is Adipose Tissue a Place for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence? Olivier Neyrolles1 of Electron Microscopy, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), has the ability to persist in its human host for exceptionally long

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

Truman State University Student Health Center Tuberculosis Screening Form  

E-print Network

Truman State University Student Health Center Tuberculosis Screening Form Name been exposed to Tuberculosis since your last TB skin test? Yes No If yes, when and where did the exposure occur? ________________________________________ Have you ever been treated for Tuberculosis? Yes

Gering, Jon C.

155

45 CFR 96.127 - Requirements regarding tuberculosis.  

...2014-10-01 false Requirements regarding tuberculosis. 96.127 Section 96.127 Public...96.127 Requirements regarding tuberculosis. (a) States shall require...with the State Department of Health/Tuberculosis Control Officer, which address how...

2014-10-01

156

New tuberculosis vaccines.  

PubMed

The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568

Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte

2011-03-01

157

Dermatomyositis and chest radiography leading to the diagnosis of lung cancer and subsequent confusions in staging due to the presence of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

This clinical scenario describes dermatomyositis as a presenting feature of carcinoma of the lung. However, the coincident existence of tuberculosis in the opposite lung gave rise to a false impression of contralateral lung metastasis and hence confusions with regard to staging ensued, which were clarified after further investigation confirmed a unilateral lung adenocarcinoma and contralateral tuberculosis. The patient was initiated on oral antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapy with erlotinib, as well as on multi-drug therapy for tuberculosis. This report intends to illustrate that paraneoplastic syndromes such as dermatomyositis can be the presenting feature of lung cancer, and also that the co-incident presence of carcinoma and tuberculosis can cause confusions with regard to staging and management. PMID:22602825

Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Rastogi, Madhup; Kesari, Avinash Arjun Rao; Seam, Rajeev Kumar; Gupta, Manish; Chauhan, Suneel; Madabhavi, Irappa

2012-01-01

158

Dermatomyositis and chest radiography leading to the diagnosis of lung cancer and subsequent confusions in staging due to the presence of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

This clinical scenario describes dermatomyositis as a presenting feature of carcinoma of the lung. However, the coincident existence of tuberculosis in the opposite lung gave rise to a false impression of contralateral lung metastasis and hence confusions with regard to staging ensued, which were clarified after further investigation confirmed a unilateral lung adenocarcinoma and contralateral tuberculosis. The patient was initiated on oral antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapy with erlotinib, as well as on multi-drug therapy for tuberculosis. This report intends to illustrate that paraneoplastic syndromes such as dermatomyositis can be the presenting feature of lung cancer, and also that the co-incident presence of carcinoma and tuberculosis can cause confusions with regard to staging and management. PMID:22602825

Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Rastogi, Madhup; Kesari, Avinash Arjun Rao; Seam, Rajeev Kumar; Gupta, Manish; Chauhan, Suneel; Madabhavi, Irappa

2012-01-01

159

HIV and tuberculosis in India.  

PubMed

The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the major public health challenges of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports 9.2 million new cases of TB in 2006 of whom 7.7% were HIV-infected. Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients as well as the leading cause of death. Further,there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDRTB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. The diagnosis of TB is based on sputum smear microscopy, a 100-year old technique and chest radiography,which has problems of specificity. Extra-pulmonary, disseminated and sputum smear negative manifestations are more common in patients with advanced immunosuppression. Newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resourc-poor settings. Treatment of HIV-TB co-infection is complex and associated with high pill burden, overlapping drug toxicities,risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and challenges related to adherence. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for tuberculosis and vice-versa will help identify co-infected patients who require treatment for both infections. This requires good coordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programs, in India. PMID:19208978

Swaminathan, Soumya; Nagendran, G

2008-11-01

160

Epidemiological basis of tuberculosis eradication  

PubMed Central

As knowledge of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Greenland has increased, it has become evident that the majority of cases develop long after the primary infection and that it would therefore be valuable from the public health point of view if the disease rate among naturally infected persons could be reduced. To examine the possibility of achieving this, a double-blind drug trial with isoniazid and a placebo was conducted among some 70% of the adult population of western Greenland. The results show that throughout the six years of the study the incidence of tuberculosis was lower in the group treated with isoniazid and that this reduction occurred whether the initial X-rays pictures were normal or showed suspicious or healed lesions. It is concluded that chemoprophylaxis programmes should probably be administered only to selected groups of the population. The delimitation of such groups is discussed on the basis of their tuberculosis risk and of the expected yield in terms of reduction in tuberculosis prevalence. PMID:5335457

Horwitz, Ole; Payne, Penelope G.; Wilbek, Erik

1966-01-01

161

[Recent advances in tuberculosis immunity].  

PubMed

Primary tuberculosis infection is acquired by the inhalation of droplets containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacilli. Only 5-10% of those individuals infected by MTB develop clinical diseases, and disease presentation itself is heterogeneous, suggesting that host factors play a large role in disease susceptibility. Protective immunity in the lung against MTB consist of the innate immunity in which alveolar macrophages play an central role, and the acquired immunity including various type of effector T cells. Recent studies show that the important roles of the receptors which recognize MTB for the development of protective immunity, the difference in the anti-MTB activity of macrophages between human and mice, the macrophage-heterogeneity that affects the anti-MTB activity, the role of IL-10 in the activation of anti-MTB activity of human macrophages, and the role of Th17/IL-17, Th22/ IL-22 and TNF in the protective immunity against human tuberculosis. In this review, these recent advances in tuberculosis immunity will be described. PMID:22514942

Akagawa, Kiyoko S

2012-02-01

162

Tuberculosis Prevention in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help college health services in all parts of the country improve their approach to latent tuberculosis, two Listservs were provided for them to post their questions on dealing with TB infection. In this article, the authors present some of the questions posted in the Listservs and their corresponding answers. In their answers, the authors have…

Lerman, Stephen J.; Bernardo, John; Daly, Jennifer S.; Husson, Robert

2004-01-01

163

A tuberculosis survey in Kenya*  

PubMed Central

The Government of Kenya, wanting to assess the extent of the tuberculosis problem in the Colony and Protectorate as an essential preliminary to a control programme, requested the assistance of WHO in carrying out a survey. The purpose was to establish the over-all prevalence for Kenya of tuberculous infection and pulmonary tuberculosis. From a population of about six million people, 8700 were selected at random for tuberculin testing, chest X-ray and bacteriological examination. The results of examination of this small sample indicate that among the 3.5 million Africans aged 10 years and over there are approximately 110 000 cases and suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, and that 3% of the children aged 0-4 years and 13% of those aged 5-9 are infected. The problem of tuberculosis control in Kenya is undoubtedly a big one, the population being scattered over vast areas. However, the excellent co-operation of the population throughout the present survey suggests that mass control measures might meet with considerable success. PMID:14493266

Roelsgaard, E.; Nyboe, J.

1961-01-01

164

Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field. PMID:22919166

Nema, Vijay

2012-07-01

165

[An unusual presentation of tuberculosis].  

PubMed

A 67-year-old male was hospitalized because of nonspecific symptoms and bilateral pleural effusions. He gave no history of cough, dyspnea or thoracic pain. The blood counts showed moderate anemia and high-grade lymphopenia. The tuberculin test and the anergy-panel were both negative. Testing for HIV was negative. Analysis of pleural fluid showed an exudate with 47% lymphocytes and absence of acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen smear. On histologic examination, the pleural tissue showed no evidence of granuloma. However, cultures for mycobacteria of pleural tissue yielded M. tuberculosis. In this case of pleural tuberculosis, leading symptoms were absent and the tuberculin test was negative in the presence of active tuberculosis. In addition, the cells in the pleural effusion were not predominantly lymphocytic. Patients presenting with unclear effusion should undergo extensive investigations, including a tuberculin test, and anergy panel, pleural fluid cultures, and pleural biopsy with cultures for microorganisms, with the object of establishing or ruling out pleural tuberculosis. PMID:9011935

Lefkovits, M; Reusser, P

1996-12-28

166

Childhood Tuberculosis in General Practice.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) in children is a common cause of morbidity. Diagnosis is difficult because of paucibacillary nature of illness and difficulty in obtaining appropriate samples. Children presenting with poor weight gain, fever with or without cough for more than two weeks or contact with an adult in family with pulmonary tuberculosis should be investigated for TB. In all suspected cases of tuberculosis initial investigations include radiograph of chest (CXR) and Mantoux test. If CXR is suggestive of TB, an ambulatory gastric aspirate and induced sputum for acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear may be carried out in two days. Children with AFB positive or abnormal CXR with positive Mantoux test should be started on Antitubercular therapy (ATT). Rest of the patients require more investigations and should be referred to a specialist. All children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis should be treated with 6 mo of ATT (two months with 4 drugs, followed by four months with 2 drugs). Children on ATT should be monitored for improvement in symptoms and weight gain along with side effects of medications. CXR should be done after completion of treatment. PMID:25280927

Kumar, Prawin; Kumar, Amber; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

2014-10-01

167

Multidrug resistant to extensively drug resistant tuberculosis: What is next?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug resistant tuberculosis is a man made problem. While tuberculosis is hundred percent curable, multidrug resistant tuberculosis\\u000a (MDR-TB) is difficult to treat. Inadequate and incomplete treatment and poor treatment adherence has led to a newer form of\\u000a drug resistance known as extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). XDR-TB is defined as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, which is resistant to

Amita Jain; Pratima Dixit

2008-01-01

168

Tuberculosis: Medico-Legal Aspects  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90–95%) of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—and in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

Vetrugno, G.; De-Giorgio, F.; D’Alessandro, F.; Scafetta, I.; Berloco, F.; Buonsenso, D.; Abbate, F.; Scalise, G.; Pascali, V.L.; Valentini, P

2014-01-01

169

CCL2 Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Are Associated with Disease Severity in Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLeucocyte activating chemokines such as CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL8 together with proinflammatory IFN?, TNF? and downmodulatory IL10 play a central role in the restriction of M. tuberculosis infections, but is unclear whether these markers are indicative of tuberculosis disease severity.MethodologyWe investigated live M. tuberculosis- and M. bovis BCG- induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses in patients with tuberculosis (TB) and

Zahra Hasan; Jacqueline M. Cliff; Hazel M. Dockrell; Bushra Jamil; Muhammad Irfan; Mussarat Ashraf; Rabia Hussain; T. Mark Doherty

2009-01-01

170

Genomics and the evolution, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis kills nearly 2 million people annually, and current approaches to tuberculosis control are expensive, have limited efficacy, and are vulnerable to being overcome by extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Determination of the genome sequence of M. tuberculosis has revolutionized tuberculosis research, contributed to major advances in the understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis, and facilitated development of new diagnostic tests with increased specificity for tuberculosis. In this review, we describe some of the major progress in tuberculosis research that has resulted from knowledge of the genome sequence and note some of the problems that remain unsolved. PMID:17607348

Ernst, Joel D.; Trevejo-Nuñez, Giraldina; Banaiee, Niaz

2007-01-01

171

Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in countries with high tuberculosis burdens: individual  

E-print Network

Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in countries with high tuberculosis burdens: individual risks of type 2 diabetes as an individual-level risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), though evi- dence from the poor, in whom diabetes may be less common. We assessed the relationship between individual-level risk

Cohen, Ted

172

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Casablanca, Morocco Loubna Tazi a,*, Ralf Reintjes b,c , Anne-Laure Ban in most developing countries, tuberculosis represents a major public health problem in Morocco. This paper

173

Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

Troiano, Claire A.

2010-01-01

174

Testing a molasses-based bait for oral vaccination of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) against Mycobacterium bovis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, USA are wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) with documented spread to cattle. In vaccine efficacy trials, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) administered orally reduces colonization and bTB-associated lesions in whi...

175

Tuberculosis treatment in patients with comorbidities.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a significant infectious problem in elderly patients with comorbidities in Korea. The age-associated diseases such as malignancy and diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of tuberculosis in this population. The medication treatments of tuberculosis in patients with comorbidities can cause adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs and inadequate treatment responses. Thus, clinicians must carefully monitor the toxicity of antituberculosis therapy and the efficacy of treatment in patients with comorbidities. PMID:25024718

Kang, Young Ae

2014-06-01

176

[History and perspective of reemerging tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The concepts of infectious emergency, the microbial virulence stimulatory factors, the genetic basis (pathogenicity islands and type III secretion factors) of the microbial variation and adaptation, the interest of animal reservoirs in the infection and transmission cycles, and the reemergence of human and animal tuberculosis are reviewed. In reference to the tuberculosis, the finding of a new species or subspecies of mycobacteria isolated by the authors laboratory from goats and belonging to the important M. tuberculosis group is reported. PMID:10682395

Suárez Fernández, G

1999-01-01

177

Prevalent tuberculosis and mortality among HAART initiators  

PubMed Central

The effect of tuberculosis on mortality in people initiating highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) remains unclear; here, we strengthened a previous cohort analysis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of baseline tuberculosis and time to all-cause mortality among HAART initiators. In reanalysis, treatment for tuberculosis at time of HAART initiation remained unassociated with increased risks of all-cause mortality, with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.00 to 1.09. PMID:22313956

Westreich, Daniel; Fox, Matthew P.; Van Rie, Annelies; Maskew, Mhairi

2012-01-01

178

Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fewer than 20% of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis are receiving treatment and there is an urgent need to scale up treatment programmes. One of the biggest barriers to scale-up is the treatment regimen, which is lengthy, complex, ineffective, poorly tolerated and expensive. For the first time in over 50 years, new drugs have been developed specifically to treat tuberculosis, with bedaquiline and potentially delamanid expected to be available soon for treatment of MDR cases. However, if the new drugs are merely added to the current treatment regimen, the new regimen will be at least as lengthy, cumbersome and toxic as the existing one. There is an urgent need for strategy and evidence on how to maximize the potential of the new drugs to improve outcomes and shorten treatment. We devised eight key principles for designing future treatment regimens to ensure that, once they are proven safe in clinical trials, they will be clinically effective and programmatically practicable. Regimens should contain at least one new class of drug; be broadly applicable for use against MDR and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains; contain three to five effective drugs, each from a different drug class; be delivered orally; have a simple dosing schedule; have a good side-effect profile that allows limited monitoring; last a maximum of 6 months; and have minimal interaction with antiretrovirals. Following these principles will maximize the potential of new compounds and help to overcome the clinical and programmatic disadvantages and scale-up constraints that plague the current regimen. PMID:24391302

Nyang’wa, Bern-Thomas; du Cros, Philipp; Varaine, Francis; Hughes, Jennifer; Rich, Michael; Horsburgh, C Robert; Mitnick, Carole D; Nuermberger, Eric; McIlleron, Helen; Phillips, Patrick PJ; Balasegaram, Manica

2014-01-01

179

Neurons Are Host Cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system. PMID:24566619

Randall, Philippa J.; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M.; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston

2014-01-01

180

Neurons are host cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is thought to be initiated once the bacilli have breached the blood brain barrier and are phagocytosed, primarily by microglial cells. In this study, the interactions of M. tuberculosis with neurons in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The data obtained demonstrate that neurons can act as host cells for M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis bacilli were internalized by murine neuronal cultured cells in a time-dependent manner after exposure, with superior uptake by HT22 cells compared to Neuro-2a cells (17.7% versus 9.8%). Internalization of M. tuberculosis bacilli by human SK-N-SH cultured neurons suggested the clinical relevance of the findings. Moreover, primary murine hippocampus-derived neuronal cultures could similarly internalize M. tuberculosis. Internalized M. tuberculosis bacilli represented a productive infection with retention of bacterial viability and replicative potential, increasing 2- to 4-fold within 48 h. M. tuberculosis bacillus infection of neurons was confirmed in vivo in the brains of C57BL/6 mice after intracerebral challenge. This study, therefore, demonstrates neurons as potential new target cells for M. tuberculosis within the central nervous system. PMID:24566619

Randall, Philippa J; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Lang, Dirk; Cooper, Susan; Sebesho, Boipelo; Allie, Nasiema; Keeton, Roanne; Francisco, Ngiambudulu M; Salie, Sumayah; Labuschagné, Antoinette; Quesniaux, Valerie; Ryffel, Bernhard; Kellaway, Lauriston; Jacobs, Muazzam

2014-05-01

181

Mycobacterium tuberculosis in zoo and wildlife species.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. tuberculosis-like organisms has been identified in a wide range of species, including non-human primates, elephants and other exotic ungulates, carnivores, marine mammals and psittacine birds. Disease associated with M. tuberculosis has occurred mostly within captive settings and does not appear to occur naturally in free-living mammals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis probably originated as an infection of humans, but from the zoonotic standpoint, non-human primates, Asian elephants and psittacine birds have the potential to transmit this disease to humans. However, the overall prevalence of disease in these susceptible species is low and documented transmissions of M. tuberculosis between animals and humans are uncommon. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes progressive pulmonary disease in mammals and a muco-cutaneous disease in parrots. In all cases, the disease can disseminate and be shed into the environment. Diagnosis in living animals is based on intradermal tuberculin testing in non-human primates, culturing trunk secretions in elephants, and biopsy and culture of external lesions in parrots. Ancillary testing with deoxyribonucleic acid probes and nucleic acid amplification, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays have been adapted to some of these species with promising results. Additionally, new guidelines for controlling tuberculosis in elephants in the United States of America, and programmes for tuberculosis prevention in animal handlers have been established. PMID:11288517

Montali, R J; Mikota, S K; Cheng, L I

2001-04-01

182

[Unusual locations of tuberculosis: three case reports].  

PubMed

We report three cases of tuberculosis of unusual location in Malagasy patients. The first patient presented with intracardiac tuberculoma during pulmonary tuberculosis. The second patient who had no significant musculoskeletal past medical history presented with tuberculous polymyositis. The remaining one presented with tuberculous epididymitis without involvement of the urinary tract. Diagnosis was histopathological. The outcome was favorable in the two last patients with antituberculous therapy. This report emphasizes the necessary awareness of tuberculosis even in the presence of unusual manifestations in hyper-endemic area of tuberculosis. PMID:19233520

Ralandison, S; Rakotoarivelo, R; Rakotovao, M; Raobison, R; Andrianteloasy, S; Rakotoarimanana, S; Rapelanoro Rabenja, F

2009-10-01

183

[Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].  

PubMed

The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka City Institute Laboratory of Health and Environment) DNA fingerprinting establishes the genetic relatedness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and has become a powerful tool in tuberculosis epidemiology. To use DNA fingerprinting to assess the efficacy of current tuberculosis infection-control practices. Combining conventional epidemiologic techniques with DNA fingerprinting of M. tuberculosis can improve the understanding of how tuberculosis is transmitted. Patients were assigned to clusters based on mycobacterial isolates with identical DNA fingerprints. Clusters were assumed to have arisen from recent transmission. We analyzed M. tuberculosis isolates from patients reported to the tuberculosis registry by RFLP techniques. These results were interpreted along with demographic data. Patients infected with the same strains were identified according to their RFLP patterns, and patients with identical patterns were grouped in clusters. RFLP patterns of high incidence districts have more variations than other areas. This suggests that the source of tuberculosis infection are quite diverse and complicated. Tuberculosis patients may accumulate to high incidence districts from other places after infection. 4. Structure of High Incidence of Tuberculosis and Control Plan in Osaka City: Yoichi TATSUMI (Bureau of Infection Control, Osaka City Office) The case notification rate in Osaka City is the highest in Japan. That of all TB cases and smear positive TB cases was 1573 and 216 per 100,000 population in 1997 at Airin District in Osaka City. The main reason for this highest incidence rate is that there are many homeless people and it is a mobile population. Most of residents are daily laborers. They come from all over Japan and stay there, mainly in rented rooms, to look for jobs. Thousands of homeless people also live in tents on streets or in parks. We are making to new strategic plan to intensify tuberculosis control measures throughout the city. Osaka city government h PMID:11109777

2000-10-01

184

Pentacyclic Nitrofurans with In Vivo Efficacy and Activity against Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The reductively activated nitroaromatic class of antimicrobials, which include nitroimidazole and the more metabolically labile nitrofuran antitubercular agents, have demonstrated some potential for development as therapeutics against dormant TB bacilli. In previous studies, the pharmacokinetic properties of nitrofuranyl isoxazolines were improved by incorporation of the outer ring elements of the antitubercular nitroimidazole OPC-67683. This successfully increased stability of the resulting pentacyclic nitrofuran lead compound Lee1106 (referred to herein as 9a). In the current study, we report the synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 9a and panel of 9a analogs, which were developed to increase oral bioavailability. These hybrid nitrofurans remained potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with favorable selectivity indices (>150) and a narrow spectrum of activity. In vivo, the pentacyclic nitrofuran compounds showed long half-lives and high volumes of distribution. Based on pharmacokinetic testing and lack of toxicity in vivo, 9a remained the series lead. 9a exerted a lengthy post antibiotic effect and was highly active against nonreplicating M. tuberculosis grown under hypoxia. 9a showed a low potential for cross resistance to current antitubercular agents, and a mechanism of activation distinct from pre-clinical tuberculosis candidates PA-824 and OPC-67683. Together these studies show that 9a is a nanomolar inhibitor of actively growing as well as nonreplicating M. tuberculosis. PMID:24505329

Scherman, Michael S.; Woolhiser, Lisa K.; Madhura, Dora B.; Maddox, Marcus M.; Singh, Aman P.; Lee, Robin B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; McNeil, Michael R.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Meibohm, Bernd; Lee, Richard E.

2014-01-01

185

Microevolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Tuberculosis Patient?  

PubMed Central

Five Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were obtained from three body sites from a Dutch patient. The isolates displayed a single genotype by 24-locus MIRU-VNTR typing (except for a single locus not amplified from one isolate) but were differentiated by small variations in IS6110 fingerprints, spoligotypes, 6 hypervariable MIRU-VNTR loci, and/or DiversiLab profiles, revealing patterns of microevolution in a clonal infection. PMID:20686077

Al-Hajoj, Sahal A. M.; Akkerman, Onno; Parwati, Ida; al-Gamdi, Saad; Rahim, Zeaur; van Soolingen, Dick; van Ingen, Jakko; Supply, Philip; van der Zanden, Adri G. M.

2010-01-01

186

Pharmacotherapy for multidrug resistant tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The current global concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is the emergence of resistance to the two most potent drugs namely, isoniazid and rifampicin. Emergence of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is now a health problem faced by most of the developing countries as well as developed countries across the globe. MDR-TB is a man-made disease that is caused by improper treatment, inadequate drug supplies, and poor patient supervision. HIV infection and AIDS have been implicated as important cause for this. The review of a published literature suggests that the most powerful predictor of treatment of MDR-TB is a history of treatment of TB. Although the treatment is efficacious, there are also a number of adverse effects caused by drugs used in the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:22629081

Chhabra, Naveen; Aseri, M. L.; Dixit, Ramakant; Gaur, S.

2012-01-01

187

Pharmacotherapy for multidrug resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The current global concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) is the emergence of resistance to the two most potent drugs namely, isoniazid and rifampicin. Emergence of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is now a health problem faced by most of the developing countries as well as developed countries across the globe. MDR-TB is a man-made disease that is caused by improper treatment, inadequate drug supplies, and poor patient supervision. HIV infection and AIDS have been implicated as important cause for this. The review of a published literature suggests that the most powerful predictor of treatment of MDR-TB is a history of treatment of TB. Although the treatment is efficacious, there are also a number of adverse effects caused by drugs used in the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:22629081

Chhabra, Naveen; Aseri, M L; Dixit, Ramakant; Gaur, S

2012-04-01

188

Tuberculosis in domestic animal species.  

PubMed

M. bovis and M. caprae, members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), are the major causative agents of tuberculosis in domestic animals. Notably, M. bovis exhibits a wide host range; the infection has been reported in many domesticated animals and free or captive wildlife. Despite most of them acting as spill-over hosts in particular epidemiological scenarios, some domesticated species as pigs, camelids and goats may display high rates of infection and possibly play a role in the inter-species transmission of the disease. The aim of this review is to make an updated overview of the susceptibility and the role in the transmission of the disease of the most common domesticated animals species such as small ruminants, pigs, horses, camelids, dogs and cats. An overview of the diagnostic approaches to detect the infection in each of the species included in the review is also presented. PMID:25151859

Pesciaroli, M; Alvarez, J; Boniotti, M B; Cagiola, M; Di Marco, V; Marianelli, C; Pacciarini, M; Pasquali, P

2014-10-01

189

Tuberculosis of the triceps muscle.  

PubMed

A tubercular swelling of the triceps muscle in a 25-year-old immunocompetent man is described in this report. He presented with hard, fixed swelling at the lower end of the triceps muscle. Confirmatory diagnosis was established by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the swelling with subsequent PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the FNAC specimen. The patient was completely cured with antitubercular therapy. PMID:25564636

Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Vijayakandeepan Kumaresan, Sabarigirivasan Harish

2015-01-01

190

Novel approaches in diagnosing tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The WHO declared tuberculosis (TB) a global emergency. An estimated 8-9 million new cases occur each year with 2-3 million deaths. Currently, TB is diagnosed mostly by chest-X ray and staining of the mycobacteria in sputum with a detection limit of 1x104 bacteria /ml. There is an urgent need for better diagnostic tools for TB especially for developing countries. We have validated the electronic nose from TD Technology for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by headspace analysis of 284 sputum samples from TB patients. We used linear discriminant function analysis resulting in a sensitivity of 75% a specificity of 67% and an accuracy of 69%. Further research is still required to improve the results by choosing more selective sensors and sampling techniques. We used a fast gas chromatography- mass spectrometry method (GC-MS). The automated procedure is based on the injection of sputum samples which are methylated inside the GC injector using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS). Hexacosanoic acid in combination with tuberculostearic acid was found to be specific for the presence of M. tuberculosis. The detection limit was similar to microscopy. We found no false positives, all microscopy and culture positive samples were also found positive with the THM-GC-MS method. The detection of ribosomal RNA from the infecting organism offers great potential since rRNA molecules outnumber chromosomal DNA by a factor 1000. It thus may possible to detect the organism without amplification of the nucleic acids (NA). We used a capture and a tagged detector probe for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum. So far the detection limit is 1x106 bacteria / ml. Currently we are testing a Lab-On-A-Chip Interferometer detection system.

Kolk, Arend H. J.; Dang, Ngoc A.; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Gibson, Tim; Anthony, Richard; Claassens, Mareli M.; Kaal, Erwin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

2011-06-01

191

[Pulmonary thromboembolism with pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

Out of 77 patients who were admitted to our hospital because of pulmonary tuberculosis from January 2007 to October 2009, 3 patients (3.9%) suffered from pulmonary thrombotic embolism (PTE) and/or deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Case 1: An 80-year-old male with elevated D-dimer was diagnosed with PTE on the basis of an enhanced chest CT showing filling defects in the bilateral pulmonary arteries. Case 2: A 39-year-old male presented with prolonged high-grade fever even after administration of anti-tuberculosis drugs and complained of weakness. His D-dimer was high on admission and became still higher; then, edema was found on his left lower limb, and he was diagnosed with DVT on the basis of lower limb ultrasonography showing isoechoic thrombosis from the IVC to the left popliteal vein. An IVC filter was needed to treat his lesion. Case 3: A 69-year-old female with elevated D-dimer and edema on the right lower limb was diagnosed with PTE and DVT on the basis of chest CT findings. Since anti-coagulation therapy could not be continued due to intestinal bleeding, an IVC filter was placed. All 3 cases presented with no dyspnea and two of the three cases showed no hypoxemia. Even in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis without dyspnea, D-dimer seems to be useful for the early diagnosis of thromboembolism. PMID:21922781

Komazaki, Yoshitoshi; Sakakibara, Yumi; Sakashita, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Yasunari; Inase, Naohiko

2011-07-01

192

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex-Restricted Gene cfp32 Encodes an Expressed Protein That Is Detectable in Tuberculosis Patients and Is Positively Correlated with Pulmonary Interleukin10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a subspecies of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) of mycobacteria. Postgenomic dissection of the M. tuberculosis proteome is ongoing and critical to furthering our understanding of factors mediating M. tuberculosis pathobiology. Towards this end, a 32-kDa putative glyoxalase in the culture filtrate (CF) of growing M. tuberculosis (originally annotated as

Richard C. Huard; Sadhana Chitale; Mary Leung; Luiz Claudio Oliveira Lazzarini; Hongxia Zhu; Elena Shashkina; Suman Laal; Marcus B. Conde; Afranio L. Kritski; John T. Belisle; Barry N. Kreiswirth; J. R. Lapa e Silva; J. L. Ho

2003-01-01

193

The pharmacokinetics of a single oral or rectal dose of concurrently administered isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).  

PubMed

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a disease of concern in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Treatment for tuberculosis in elephants utilizes multidrug protocols combining isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and/or ethambutol. In this study, a single, coformulated dose of isoniazid 5 mg/kg, rifampin 10 mg/kg, pyrazinamide 30 mg/kg, and ethambutol 30 mg/kg was administered orally to six Asian elephants, and rectally to five elephants using a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected serially over 24 h. Pyrazinamide and ethambutol concentrations were determined using validated gas chromatography assays. Isoniazid and rifampin concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography assays. Rectal isoniazid produced an earlier Tmax compared with oral administration. Oral isoniazid resulted in a comparatively lower Cmax , but higher AUC values compared with rectal isoniazid. Oral rifampin and oral ethambutol were well absorbed while rectal rifampin was not. Oral pyrazinamide produced comparatively higher Cmax and AUC values compared with rectal pyrazinamide. Results of this study indicate that currently recommended therapeutic monitoring sample collection times for rectal isoniazid and oral rifampin do not provide an accurate assessment of exposure for these drugs. This study demonstrates notable individual variability, indicating that dosing of these medications requires individual monitoring and provides additional information to guide the clinician when treating elephants. PMID:24684601

P Brock, A; Isaza, R; Egelund, E F; Hunter, R P; Peloquin, C A

2014-10-01

194

How can immunology contribute to the control of tuberculosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis poses a significant threat to mankind. Multidrug-resistant strains are on the rise, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Satisfactory control of tuberculosis can only be achieved using a highly efficacious vaccine. Tuberculosis is particularly challenging for the immune system. The intracellular location of the pathogen shields it from antibodies, and a variety of

Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

2001-01-01

195

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of AZD5847 in a mouse model of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

AZD5847, a novel oxazolidinone with an MIC of 1 ?g/ml, exhibits exposure-dependent killing kinetics against extracellular and intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Oral administration of AZD5847 to mice infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv in a chronic-infection model resulted in a 1.0-log10 reduction in the lung CFU count after 4 weeks of treatment at a daily area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 105 to 158 ?g · h/ml. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameter that best predicted success in an acute-infection model was an AUC for the free, unbound fraction of the drug/MIC ratio of ? 20. The percentage of time above the MIC in all of the efficacious regimens was 25% or greater. PMID:24820085

Balasubramanian, V; Solapure, Suresh; Shandil, Radha; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Mahesh, K N; Reddy, Jitender; Deshpande, Abhijeet; Bharath, Sowmya; Kumar, Naveen; Wright, Lindsay; Melnick, David; Butler, Scott L

2014-07-01

196

[Tuberculosis treatment drop out and relations of bonding to the family health team].  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyze the relation between the singularities of the sick subject with the history of dropping out of the tuberculosis treatment and the care given by the family health team in light of the bonding concept. The empirical material was built through recorded interviews, in the period from July to September of 2008, using the Thematic Oral History methodology. Interviews were taken with nine users whose drop out was the criteria for closing the treatment to tuberculosis in two municipalities of the metropolitan region of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The analysis was performed according to the discourse analysis technique. The study identified that a therapeutic relation, sharing commitments and the user's valuation, strengthens the bonding and produces the care management democratization. On the other hand, a vertical relation, with fragile bonding, is opposed to the purpose of an intersubjective practice in the perspective of the care co-management. PMID:21337770

de Souza, Káren Mendes Jorge; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; de Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Figueiredo, Danielle Alves

2010-12-01

197

A review of tuberculosis research in malaysia.  

PubMed

One hundred seventy four articles related to tuberculosis were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. One hundred fifty three articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Topics related to epidemiology, clinical presentation, detection methods and treatment were well researched. However, limited information was available on screening and behavioural interventions. The younger population were more vulnerable to tuberculosis infection and had higher prevalence of risk factors that reactivate tuberculosis infection. Screening of tuberculosis was conducted primarily on healthcare workers, tuberculosis contacts, prisoners and foreign workers. Data on the clinical presentation of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis was comprehensive. There was a general focus on related risk factors such as HIV and diabetes mellitus. A great degree of information was available on the treatment and various detection methods to identify tuberculosis. The efficacy and the practicality of investigative methods was analysed in this review. In conclusion, the direction of research should be aimed at novel preventive and control measures of tuberculosis. There should be emphasis on the screening of high risk groups (other than HIV) within the population namely diabetic patients, smokers and immunosuppressed individuals. The design of health policies should be guided by information gathered from research evaluation of communitybased behavioural interventions. PMID:25417956

Swarna Nantha, Y

2014-08-01

198

Tuberculosis immunity: Opportunities from studies with cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis are closely related (>99% genetic identity), inducing similar host responses and disease expression upon infection. There is a rich history of co-discovery in the development of control measures applicable to both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB) including s...

199

Using Peer Helpers for Tuberculosis Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a peer helper program initiated by the University of Iowa Student Health Services to prevent active tuberculosis development among foreign national students. Before instituting the program, compliance with tuberculosis prevention efforts for those students was less than 5%. Since the peer program was instituted, compliance has risen to…

McCue, Maureen; Afifi, Larry Anna

1996-01-01

200

Tuberculosis: Art Therapy with Patients in Isolation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tuberculosis is reappearing with increasing prevalence and presenting new treatment challenges. Art therapy, which partly originated in a tuberculosis sanatoria, again serves to assist patients in coping with their illness and confinement. Case examples illustrate aspects of the disease and related emotions and highlight the potential for such an…

Rosner-David, Irene; Ilusorio, Shereen

1995-01-01

201

TBNET – Collaborative research on tuberculosis in Europe  

PubMed Central

Networking is a key feature of scientific success. The Tuberculosis Network European Trialsgroup (TBNET) was founded in 2006 as a non-profit, non-governmental peer-initiated scientific organization to collaboratively address research priorities in the area of tuberculosis in Europe. Today, TBNET is the largest tuberculosis research organization in Europe with nearly 500 members from 22 EU countries and 49 countries worldwide (www.tb-net.org). Apart from small multicenter basic research studies, a particular strength of TBNET is the performance of large collaborative projects, pan-European multicenter studies and database projects. In recent years, research from TBNET has substantially contributed to the understanding of the management, risk and prognosis of patients with multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis and led to a better understanding of the clinical value of novel tests for the identification of adults and children with tuberculosis and latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2009, two branches of TBNET were founded to specifically address tuberculosis in the pediatric population (ptbnet) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases (NTM-NET). In addition to the research activities, TBNET is developing expert consensus documents for clinical management and provides training and capacity building especially for members from Eastern European countries, where tuberculosis is still a prevalent health problem. PMID:24265908

Giehl, C.; Duarte, R.; Bothamley, G.; Gerlach, C.; Cirillo, D.M.; Wagner, D.; Kampmann, B.; Goletti, D.; Juers, T.; Sester, M.

2012-01-01

202

Diagnosis and therapy for prostate tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

In its 2012 global report on tuberculosis, the World Health Organization estimated that 3–7% (range 2.1–5.2%) of new cases and 20% (range 13–26%) of previously treated cases had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (defined as tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that are resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid). In many countries in Eastern Europe and central Asia, 9–32% of new patients and more than 50% of previously treated patients have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Ninety-three patients with suspected prostate tuberculosis were enrolled in this study and all underwent prostate biopsy. This method allowed confirmation of diagnosis in 32 patients (34.4%): 23 by histology, six by culture and five by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (among them, two also had positive culture). The efficiency of an optimized scheme for the therapy of prostate tuberculosis (the second part of the study) was estimated in 53 patients. The first group (25 patients) was treated with a standard scheme of chemotherapy; the second group (28 prostate tuberculosis patients) received ofloxacin in addition for 2 months during the intensive phase. The phase continuation in both groups was identical, with rifampicin and isoniazid administered for 6 months. Optimization of the standard therapy by additional administration of ofloxacin improved results of the treatment in 33.8% of patients. PMID:25083162

Brizhatyuk, Elena; Khomyakov, Victor

2014-01-01

203

Tuberculosis: will it infect wild elk?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tuberculosis! Just the name conjures up images of a devastating, chronic, debilitating disease. And so it is in both humans and animals. Tuberculosis (TB) is not known to be present to any significant degree in the free-ranging elk herds of North America. But increasing reports of TB in deer species-including elk-on game ranches prompt grave concern.

Roffe, T.J.; Smith, B.

1992-01-01

204

Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

2009-01-01

205

Peripartum disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis simulating ovarian carcinoma.  

PubMed

Disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis is an uncommon complication of pregnancy. We present a 26-year-old multiparous immigrant from Haiti who was admitted following an extramural preterm delivery. Marked ascites was confirmed by computerized tomography, which also revealed a thickened greater omentum. These findings were considered suggestive of advanced ovarian carcinoma, although extrapulmonary tuberculosis was also considered despite negative tuberculin skin test screening. Image-guided omental biopsy demonstrated caseating granulomas substantiating the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, which was later confirmed by cultures. The patient responded well to antituberculosis medications. This case describes the unusual peripartum presentation of abdominal tuberculosis simulating advanced ovarian carcinoma, and demonstrates the importance of considering extrapulmonary tuberculosis when encountering ascites and omental thickening during pregnancy despite negative tuberculin skin test screening. PMID:16215926

Sherer, David M; Osho, Joseph A; Zinn, Harry; Demetus, Spiro; Huang, Jennifer; Temkin, Sarah; Abulafia, Ovadia

2005-10-01

206

Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Glutamine Synthetase as a Novel Antibiotic Strategy against Tuberculosis: Demonstration of Efficacy In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis remains one of humankind's greatest killers, and new therapeutic strategies are needed to combat the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is rapidly developing resistance to conventional antibiotics. Using the highly demanding guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis, we have investigated the feasibility of inhibiting M. tuberculosis glutamine synthetase (GS), an enzyme that plays a key role in both nitrogen

Gunter Harth; Marcus A. Horwitz

2003-01-01

207

Shari T. Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Shari T. Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 25, 2009 http...://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/handle/1808/5631 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian...

T., Shari; Albin, Tami

2009-12-17

208

Tuberculosis infections of the central nervous system.  

PubMed

The causative agent of Tuberculosis meningitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the bacteria that causes pulmonary tuberculosis. Proliferating into the central nervous system occurs from other sites of infection within the body. Brain damage can result from the infection that may lead to abnormal behavior, mental impairments, motor type paralysis, and seizures. Tuberculosis infections of the central nervous system are a serious and often fatal disease predominantly impacting young children, and is thought to be the most devastating form of the disease. Isoniazid is the only first line bactericidal agent that easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and achieves concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid similar to those in serum. Rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin all penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid poorly, and even in the setting of meningeal inflammation. As much as one-third of the current world's population may be infected with tuberculosis. Tuberculosis infection of the central nervous system is a serious type of extrapulmonary proliferation of this disease . In developing countries, it has high predominance in children. Pathological manifestations of cerebral tuberculosis occur, of which the most common is tuberculous meningitis, followed by tuberculoma, tuberculous abscess, cerebral miliary tuberculosis, tuberculous encephalopathy, tuberculous encephalitis, and tuberculous arteritis. Brain abscesses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can induce seizures and coma leading to death and complicated due to multiorgan failure. Rapid diagnosis and early intervention is vital for successful outcome for patients. Further studies are required to understand the proliferation of tuberculosis meningitis in addition to the elucidation of new therapeutic drugs for the successful clinical treatment of this deadly disease. PMID:22384992

Bartzatt, Ronald

2011-12-01

209

Oral hypoglycemics overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on the specific drug. The main (active) ingredient in sulfonylurea-based oral hypoglycemics stimulates cells in the pancreas to produce more insulin.

210

Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.  

PubMed

Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, ?? T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. PMID:24118267

Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

2014-09-01

211

Tuberculosis of the head and neck – epidemiological and clinical presentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of our retrospective study was to review the clinical and epidemiological presentation of head and neck tuberculosis. Material and methods We analyzed the history of 73 patients with head and neck tuberculosis hospitalized in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, between 1983 and 2009. Results We found that 26 (35.6%) patients presented with lymph node tuberculosis, 20 (27.4%) with laryngeal tuberculosis, 10 (13.7%) with oropharyngeal tuberculosis, 9 (12.3%) with salivary gland tuberculosis, 3 (4.1%) with tuberculosis of paranasal sinuses, 3 (4.1%) with aural tuberculosis, and 2 (2.7%) with skin tuberculosis in the head and neck region. Within the group of patients with lymph node tuberculosis in 15 cases there were infected lymph nodes of the 2nd and 3rd cervical region and in 11 infected lymph nodes of the 1st cervical region. In 5 cases of laryngeal tuberculosis there was detected coexistence of cancer. Oropharyngeal tuberculosis in 7 cases was localized in tonsils, where in 1 case coexisting cancer was diagnosed. Chest X-ray was performed in all cases and pulmonary tuberculosis was identified in 26 (35.6%) cases. Conclusions We conclude that tuberculosis still remains a problem and must be taken into consideration in the diagnostic process. The coincidence of tuberculosis and cancer is remarkable in the head and neck region.

Bruzgielewicz, Antoni; Osuch-Wójcikewicz, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Chmielewski, Rafa?

2013-01-01

212

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith

213

Oral sarcoidosis: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a chronic multi-system immuno-inflammatory disorder characterized by non-caseating granulomatous infiltration of affected tissues that may result in fibrosis and organ dysfunction. It generally affects genetically predisposed young adults who develop a local dysregulated cell-mediated immune response towards an undefined 'sarcoidal antigen'. From recent data, it has become evident that Propionibacterium acnes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the probable antigenic agents which initiate sarcoidosis. Oral sarcoidosis is rare with only about 70 cases having been reported in the literature. The purpose of this report is to present a case of oral and cutaneous sarcoidosis in a black female that was probably triggered by mycobacteria. PMID:24862235

Motswaledi, M H; Khammissa, R A G; Jadwat, Y; Lemmer, J; Feller, L

2014-09-01

214

Variability in the population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in South African tuberculosis patients  

PubMed Central

AIM This study was designed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in South African pulmonary tuberculosis patients. METHODS Concentration–time measurements obtained from 235 patients receiving oral doses of isoniazid as part of routine tuberculosis chemotherapy in two clinical studies were pooled and subjected to nonlinear mixed-effects analysis. RESULTS A two-compartmental model, including first-order absorption and elimination with allometric scaling, was found to describe the observed dose-exposure relationship for oral isoniazid adequately. A mixture model was used to characterize dual rates of isoniazid elimination. Estimates of apparent clearance in slow and fast eliminators were 9.70 and 21.6 l h?1, respectively. The proportion of fast eliminators in the population was estimated to be 13.2%. Central volume of distribution was estimated to be 10% smaller in female patients and clearance was found to be 17% lower in patients with HIV. Variability in absorption rate (90%) was completely interoccasional in nature, whereas in relative bioavailability, interoccasional variability (8.4%) was lower than interindividual variability (26%). Oral doses, given once daily according to dosing policies at the time, were sufficient to reach therapeutic concentrations in the majority of the studied population, regardless of eliminator phenotype. Simulations suggested that current treatment guidelines (5 mg kg?1) may be suboptimal in fast eliminators with low body weight. CONCLUSIONS A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to characterize the highly variable pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in a South African pulmonary tuberculosis patient population. Current treatment guidelines may lead to underexposure in rapid isoniazid eliminators. PMID:21320152

Wilkins, Justin J; Langdon, Grant; McIlleron, Helen; Pillai, Goonaseelan; Smith, Peter J; Simonsson, Ulrika S H

2011-01-01

215

Oral Transliterating. NETAC Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the deaf person, inaudibly repeats the spoken message for the deaf person, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called…

Troiano, Claire A.

2005-01-01

216

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases.  

PubMed

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

Prisic, Sladjana; Husson, Robert N

2014-10-01

217

Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly elevated lesions on the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as ...

218

75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection...Notice is hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U...MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Hyginus...

2010-10-12

219

Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

220

Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

Journal of Dental Education, 1984

1984-01-01

221

GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS  

E-print Network

GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS THESIS, DISSERTATION/MUSIC DOCUMENT, PROFESSIONAL: Phone: MEANS OF PUBLICIZING ORAL DEFENSE Department email Posted flyer UNLV Today Department website GPSA/GPSA Lounge Other (specify): Date: ORAL DEFENSE

Cho, Hokwon

222

Genes and oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today. PMID:24959008

Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

2014-01-01

223

Inhaled microparticles containing clofazimine are efficacious in treatment of experimental tuberculosis in mice.  

PubMed

Inhalable clofazimine-containing dry powder microparticles (CFM-DPI) and native clofazimine (CFM) were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocyte-derived macrophage cultures and in mice infected with a low-dose aerosol. Both formulations resulted in 99% killing at 2.5 ?g/ml in vitro. In mice, 480 ?g and 720 ?g CFM-DPI inhaled twice per week over 4 weeks reduced numbers of CFU in the lung by as much as log(10) 2.6; 500 ?g oral CFM achieved a log(10) 0.7 reduction. PMID:23183441

Verma, Rahul Kumar; Germishuizen, Willem A; Motheo, M Portia; Agrawal, Atul Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mohan, Mradul; Gupta, Pushpa; Gupta, Umesh Datta; Cholo, Moloko; Anderson, Ronald; Fourie, P Bernard; Misra, Amit

2013-02-01

224

Tuberculosis: New Aspects of an Old Disease  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is an ancient infectious disease that remains a threat for public health around the world. Although the etiological agent as well as tuberculosis pathogenesis is well known, the molecular mechanisms underlying the host defense to the bacilli remain elusive. In this paper we focus on the innate immunity of this disease reviewing well-established and consensual mechanisms like Mycobacterium tuberculosis interference with phagosome maturation, less consensual mechanism like nitric oxide production, and new mechanisms, such as mycobacteria translocation to the cytosol, autophagy, and apoptosis/necrosis proposed mainly during the last decade. PMID:21760796

Jordao, Luisa; Vieira, Otilia V.

2011-01-01

225

Mycobacterium tuberculosis wears what it eats  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most pernicious of human pathogens. Current vaccines are ineffective and drugs, although efficacious, require prolonged treatment with constant medical oversight. Overcoming these problems requires a greater appreciation of M. tuberculosis in the context of its host. Upon infection of either macrophages in culture or animal models, the bacterium re-aligns its metabolism in response to the new environments it encounters. Understanding these environments, and the stresses that they place on M. tuberculosis, should provide insights invaluable for the development of new chemo- and immuno-therapeutic strategies. PMID:20638643

Russell, David G.; VanderVen, Brian C.; Lee, Wonsik; Abramovitch, Robert B.; Kim, Mijeong; Homolka, Susanne; Niemann, Stefan; Rohde, Kyle H.

2010-01-01

226

Isolated appendicular tuberculosis (TB) presented as peritonitis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is very common entity in both developing and under developed countries. Each year 3 million people worldwide died of the disease. Among extra pulmonary TB, alimentary system accounts for about 3.0% cases. The Commonest presentation of alimentary tuberculosis is Ileo-caecal disease, but isolated appendicular involvement is very rarely seen. Although some cases have been reported from our neighboring countries, there is still no such report from Bangladesh. We are here for the first time reporting a case of isolated appendicular tuberculosis which presented to us with peritonitis. PMID:20677612

Chowdhury, F R; Amin, M R; Khan, K H; Alam, M B; Ahasan, H A M N

2010-03-01

227

TUBERCULOSIS: TIME FOR A NEW PERSPECTIVE?  

PubMed Central

Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues uninterrupted. Pre-exposure vaccination remains a central focus of tuberculosis research but 25 years of follow up is needed to determine whether a novel childhood vaccination regime protects from adult disease, or like BCG assists Mtb dissemination by preventing childhood illness but not infective adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, different strategies to interrupt the life cycle of Mtb need to be explored. This personal perspective discusses alternative approaches that may be delivered in a shorter time frame. PMID:23415730

Elkington, Paul T

2013-01-01

228

Tuberculosis: time for a new perspective?  

PubMed

Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) continues uninterrupted. Pre-exposure vaccination remains a central focus of tuberculosis research but 25 years of follow up is needed to determine whether a novel childhood vaccination regime protects from adult disease, or like BCG assists Mtb dissemination by preventing childhood illness but not infective adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, different strategies to interrupt the life cycle of Mtb need to be explored. This personal perspective discusses alternative approaches that may be delivered in a shorter time frame. PMID:23415730

Elkington, Paul T

2013-04-01

229

[Tuberculosis in León. An epidemiological approach].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was an approach to the epidemiological status of tuberculosis in the León province. To this end, we studied the morbidity through the EDOs and we carried out two tuberculin surveys during 1988-1989 to assess RAI. The results showed infection prevalences of 1.19 and 1.09 at six years of age for the two study years, respectively, with a RAI between 0.118 and 0.079. We conclude that tuberculosis still is an important health problem. The RAI indicates that our level is that of a developed country. We also discuss the supposed increase in the frequency of tuberculosis. PMID:2104114

Alvarez Guisasola, F; Franch Nadal, J; Diego Domínguez, F; Alvarez Torices, J C; Alvarez Fernández, J L

1990-11-01

230

A decade of skeletal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight of 58 patients with skeletal tuberculosis (TB) reviewed were immigrants and 20 were of British indigenous origin. Spinal involvement i 28 cases was less common than involvement of peripheral joints, bones, or tendon sheaths (30 cases). Predisposing factors, including previous TB, were present in 70% of British patients and 31% of immigrants. Follow-up study of 23 cases showed that a complete clinical recovery of the skeletal disease was more likely in immigrants than indigenous cases and also in cases referred to hospital early. Immigrants presented usually within 5 years after arrival in Britain and at a younger age than indigenous cases; a quarter had within 5 sites of infection outside the skeletal system. Skeletal tuberculosis in the indigenous population remains very uncommon, and in half of these cases a history of previous TB was given. The need for continued awareness of skeletal TB is stressed, especially in immigrants, and also the importance of early diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy. PMID:7065732

Halsey, J P; Reeback, J S; Barnes, C G

1982-02-01

231

Risk for Tuberculosis among Children  

PubMed Central

Contacts of adults with tuberculosis (TB) are at risk for infection. Tests based on interferon-? (IFN-?) expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens may be more sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST). Risk for infection was assessed by using TST and an IFN-?-based assay (QuantiFERON Gold in Tube [QFT-IT] test) for 207 children in Nigeria in 1 of 3 groups: contact with adults with smear-positive TB, contact with adults with smear-negative TB, and controls. For these 3 groups, respectively, TST results were >10 mm for 38 (49%) of 78, 13 (16%) of 83, and 6 (13%) of 46 and QFT-IT positive for 53 (74%) of 72, 8 (10%) of 81, and 4 (10.3%) of 39 (p<0.01). Most test discrepancies were TST negative; QFT-IT positive if in contact with TB-positive persons; and TST positive, QFT-IT negative if in contact with TB-negative persons or controls. TST may underestimate risk for infection with TB in children. PMID:17073087

Nakaoka, Hiroshi; Lawson, Lovett; Squire, S. Bertel; Coulter, Brian; Ravn, Pernille; Brock, Inger; Hart, C. Anthony

2006-01-01

232

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Success through dormancy  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health threat, killing near to 2 million individuals around this globe, annually. The sole vaccine developed almost a century ago, provides limited protection only during childhood. After decades without the introduction of new antibiotics, several candidates are currently undergoing clinical investigation. Curing TB requires prolonged combination chemotherapy with several drugs. Moreover, monitoring the success of therapy is questionable due to the lack of reliable biomarkers. To substantially improve the situation, a detailed understanding of the crosstalk between human host and the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is vital. Principally, Mtb’s enormous success is based on three capacities: First, reprogramming of macrophages after primary infection/phagocytosis in order to prevent its own destruction; second, initiating the formation of well-organized granulomas, comprising different immune cells to create a confined environment for the host–pathogen standoff; third, the capability to shut down its own central metabolism, terminate replication and thereby transit into a stage of dormancy rendering itself extremely resistant to host defense and drug treatment. Here we review the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, draw conclusions in a working model of mycobacterial dormancy and highlight gaps in our understanding to be addressed in future research. PMID:22320122

Gengenbacher, Martin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.

2012-01-01

233

An Unusual Gross Appearance of Vulval Tuberculosis Masquerading as Tumor  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of the vulva is very rare. It is found in about 0.2% of the cases of genital tract tuberculosis. It usually presents as small shallow ulcers and multiple sinus tracts or rarely as elephantiasis of vulva. Except for very rare cases of primary tuberculosis in the vulva, it is usually associated with tuberculosis elsewhere in the body leading to secondary tuberculosis. Here, we report a case of secondary vulval tuberculosis which presented as a vulval mass in a 40-year-old female patient. The rarity of this presentation in the female genital tract is emphasized. PMID:25298898

Arakeri, Surekha U.

2014-01-01

234

Oral health and nutrition.  

PubMed

The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders. PMID:8197250

Pla, G W

1994-03-01

235

Genetic heterogeneity revealed by sequence analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem. Clinical tuberculosis manifests often as pulmonary and occasionally as extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. The emergence of drug resistant tubercle bacilli and its association with HIV is a formidable challenge to curb the spread of tuberculosis. There have been concerted efforts by whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to identify genomic patterns and to establish a relationship between the genotype of the organism and clinical manifestation of tuberculosis. Extra-pulmonary TB constitutes 15–20 percent of the total clinical cases of tuberculosis reported among immunocompetent patients, whereas among HIV patients the incidence is more than 50 percent. Genomic analysis of M. tuberculosis isolates from extra pulmonary patients has not been explored. Results The genomic DNA of 5 extra-pulmonary clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis derived from cerebrospinal fluid, lymph node fine needle aspirates (FNAC) / biopsies, were sequenced. Next generation sequencing approach (NGS) was employed to identify Single Nucleotide Variations (SNVs) and computational methods used to predict their consequence on functional genes. Analysis of distribution of SNVs led to the finding that there are mixed genotypes in patient isolates and that many SNVs are likely to influence either gene function or their expression. Phylogenetic relationship between the isolates correlated with the origin of the isolates. In addition, insertion sites of IS elements were identified and their distribution revealed a variation in number and position of the element in the 5 extra-pulmonary isolates compared to the reference M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Conclusions The results suggest that NGS sequencing is able to identify small variations in genomes of M. tuberculosis isolates including changes in IS element insertion sites. Moreover, variations in isolates of M. tuberculosis from non-pulmonary sites were documented. The analysis of our results indicates genomic heterogeneity in the clinical isolates. PMID:23773324

2013-01-01

236

Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Cambodian children.  

PubMed

SUMMARY We analysed Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from children, hospitalized from January 2004 to July 2008 in the largest paediatric hospital complex in Cambodia. Specimens were tested for drug susceptibility and genotypes. From the 260 children, 161 strains were available. The East African-Indian genotype family was the most common (59·0%), increasing in frequency with distance from the Phnom Penh area, while the frequency of the Beijing genotype family strains decreased. The drug resistance pattern showed a similar geographical gradient: lowest in the northwest (4·6%), intermediate in the central (17·1%), and highest in the southeastern (30·8%) parts of the country. Three children (1·9%) had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The Beijing genotype and streptomycin resistance were significantly associated (P < 0·001). As tuberculosis in children reflects recent transmission patterns in the community, multidrug resistance levels inform about the current quality of the tuberculosis programme. PMID:25050615

Schopfer, K; Rieder, H L; Steinlin-Schopfer, J F; van Soolingen, D; Bodmer, T; Chantana, Y; Studer, P; Laurent, D; Zwahlen, M; Richner, B

2014-07-22

237

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses... The entire carcass of swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines shall be condemned...organ or other part of a swine, cattle, sheep, goat, or equine carcass affected...

2013-01-01

238

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses... The entire carcass of swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines shall be condemned...organ or other part of a swine, cattle, sheep, goat, or equine carcass affected...

2010-01-01

239

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

...pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses... The entire carcass of swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines shall be condemned...organ or other part of a swine, cattle, sheep, goat, or equine carcass affected...

2014-01-01

240

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses... The entire carcass of swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines shall be condemned...organ or other part of a swine, cattle, sheep, goat, or equine carcass affected...

2012-01-01

241

9 CFR 311.2 - Tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pathogenesis of tuberculosis in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines. (a) Carcasses... The entire carcass of swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and equines shall be condemned...organ or other part of a swine, cattle, sheep, goat, or equine carcass affected...

2011-01-01

242

Autophagy in the fight against tuberculosis  

E-print Network

tuberculosis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella enterica) to protozoa and viruses (Gomes and Dikic 2014). In the specific case of bacteria, after invading host cells, they reside within vacuoles or phagosomes, whose maturation tends...

Bento, Carla F.; Empadinhas, Nuno; Mendes, Vítor

2015-01-21

243

Sarcoidosis in tuberculosis-endemic regions: India  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. Earlier reports suggested that sarcoidosis was a disease of the developed world. However, recent reports suggest that the disease is found in the developing countries as well. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological similarities with tuberculosis pose a great challenge in countries endemic for tuberculosis. Mantoux test, high resolution computed tomography, and transbronchial lymph node and lung biopsies are diagnostic modalities, which play an important role in the diagnosis of sarcoid. In this review, we look at the epidemiology of sarcoid in tuberculosis-endemic regions, the sarcoidosis-tuberculosis link, clinical profile, diagnostic modalities, dilemma in the diagnosis, and the treatment of this disease. PMID:23803558

2013-01-01

244

[A tuberculosis epidemic in one hospital].  

PubMed

A Tuberculosis epidemic occurred in a hospital in Fukushima prefecture, 1993. It was detected after the diagnosis of two tuberculosis cases among nurses working in the hospital. A contact survey in the hospital revealed two another cases of tuberculosis, one from the nurse, and the other one from the patient admitted to the hospital. In addition, two more nurses in the same hospital were suspected of having tuberculosis, but they do not yet started treatment by the time of the survey. Though the source of the infection could not be identified, the doctor's delay in detecting cases was suspected on the background of the epidemic. Deficiency in the health care system of nursing school was also suspected. PMID:8523850

Yamaguchi, Y; Suzuki, S

1995-10-01

245

Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: molecular perspectives.  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis seriously threaten tuberculosis (TB) control and prevention efforts. Molecular studies of the mechanism of action of antitubercular drugs have elucidated the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is attributed primarily to the accumulation of mutations in the drug target genes; these mutations lead either to an altered target (e.g., RNA polymerase and catalase-peroxidase in rifampicin and isoniazid resistance, respectively) or to a change in titration of the drug (e.g., InhA in isoniazid resistance). Development of specific mechanism-based inhibitors and techniques to rapidly detect multidrug resistance will require further studies addressing the drug and drug-target interaction. PMID:9621190

Rattan, A.; Kalia, A.; Ahmad, N.

1998-01-01

246

Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candi- diasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral adminis- tration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly reduced the number of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the score of lesions on

Natsuko Takakura; Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Hiroko Ishibashi; Susumu Teraguchi; Yoshitaka Tamura; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe

2003-01-01

247

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT  

E-print Network

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT NEIL A. ARMSTRONG history with Neil Armstrong was conducted on September 19, 2001, for the Johnson Space Center Oral History of that? 19 September 2001 1 #12;Johnson Space Center Oral History Project Neil A. Armstrong ARMSTRONG: I

248

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

249

Novel N-linked aminopiperidine-based gyrase inhibitors with improved hERG and in vivo efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

DNA gyrase is a clinically validated target for developing drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Despite the promise of fluoroquinolones (FQs) as anti-tuberculosis drugs, the prevalence of pre-existing resistance to FQs is likely to restrict their clinical value. We describe a novel class of N-linked aminopiperidinyl alkyl quinolones and naphthyridones that kills Mtb by inhibiting the DNA gyrase activity. The mechanism of inhibition of DNA gyrase was distinct from the fluoroquinolones, as shown by their ability to inhibit the growth of fluoroquinolone-resistant Mtb. Biochemical studies demonstrated this class to exert its action via single-strand cleavage rather than double-strand cleavage, as seen with fluoroquinolones. The compounds are highly bactericidal against extracellular as well as intracellular Mtb. Lead optimization resulted in the identification of potent compounds with improved oral bioavailability and reduced cardiac ion channel liability. Compounds from this series are efficacious in various murine models of tuberculosis. PMID:24809953

Hameed P, Shahul; Patil, Vikas; Solapure, Suresh; Sharma, Umender; Madhavapeddi, Prashanti; Raichurkar, Anandkumar; Chinnapattu, Murugan; Manjrekar, Praveena; Shanbhag, Gajanan; Puttur, Jayashree; Shinde, Vikas; Menasinakai, Sreenivasaiah; Rudrapatana, Suresh; Achar, Vijayashree; Awasthy, Disha; Nandishaiah, Radha; Humnabadkar, Vaishali; Ghosh, Anirban; Narayan, Chandan; Ramya, V K; Kaur, Parvinder; Sharma, Sreevalli; Werngren, Jim; Hoffner, Sven; Panduga, Vijender; Kumar, C N Naveen; Reddy, Jitendar; Kumar K N, Mahesh; Ganguly, Samit; Bharath, Sowmya; Bheemarao, Ugarkar; Mukherjee, Kakoli; Arora, Uma; Gaonkar, Sheshagiri; Coulson, Michelle; Waterson, David; Sambandamurthy, Vasan K; de Sousa, Sunita M

2014-06-12

250

Pulmonary tuberculosis with atypical histopathological manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a case of pulmonary tuberculosis with atypical histopathological manifestations in an immunocompetent\\u000a patient. A 37-year-old Japanese man was admitted due to multiple small nodules on chest computed tomography (CT). He was diagnosed\\u000a with pulmonary tuberculosis following a culture of acid-fast bacterium from suction sputum specimens obtained by bronchoscopy.\\u000a The histopathological findings from video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed small, sporadically

Hirokazu Taniguchi; Akio Uchiyama; Hideki Shinno; Hitoshi Abo; Saburo Izumi

2010-01-01

251

Recent progress in bacterial vaccines: Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most widely used vaccine worldwide. However, its efficacy varies from 80% to zero among studies. Meta-analysis of all the published prospective trials and case-control studies indicates approximately 50% efficacy against all forms of tuberculosis, but it is even more effective against the invasive forms of the disease, meningitis and miliary tuberculosis. Geographic latitude accounts for

Keith P. W. J. McAdam

1997-01-01

252

Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in the Southeastern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Zabol, situated in the Southeast of Iran, this study was performed. Two thousand seven hundred and twenty-nine cases of tuberculosis disease were identified during 1998–2002. The notification rate was 135\\/100,000 population in 2002, which was higher than this rate in previous years. The notification rate of TB in Afghan population

Hossein Ali Khazaei; Nima Rezaei; Gholam Reza Bagheri; Mohammad Ali Dankoub; Khalil Shahryari; Amir Tahai; Maryam Mahmoudi

2005-01-01

253

Primary/local hepatic tuberculosis without dissemination.  

PubMed

We present a rare case of primary hepatic tuberculosis in a 50-year-old man who presented with pain at the right hypochondrium. The diagnosis was established by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the primary hepatic lesions in both lobes of the liver, which was further supported by histopathological examination and tissue PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the FNAC specimens. PMID:25628318

Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Meena, Lalit Prashant; Samaria, Jai Kumar

2015-01-01

254

Mathematical modeling of tuberculosis data of China.  

PubMed

This paper concentrates on the tuberculosis data of China from January 2005 to December 2012. We set up a mathematical model to fit those data with the goodness of fit and obtain the optimal parameter values of the model. By the Chi-square test of the statistical inference, the optimal parameter values of the model are reasonable. We get the effective reproductive number of the disease for each year, and also investigate the preventive measures to control the tuberculosis. PMID:25451959

Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Yong; Zhang, Xinan

2015-01-21

255

Detection of Multidrug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a DNA sequencing-based method to detect mutations in the genome of drug-resistant Myco- bacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in restricted regions of the genome. Eight genome regions associated with drug resistance, including rpoB for rifampin (RIF), katG and the mabA (fabG1)-inhA promoter for isoniazid (INH), embB for ethambutol (EMB), pncA for pyrazinamide

Jun-ichiro Sekiguchi; Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama; Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec; Zofia Zwolska; Fumiko Kirikae; Emiko Toyota; Intetsu Kobayashi; Koji Morita; Koichiro Kudo; Seiya Kato; Tadatoshi Kuratsuji; Toru Mori; Teruo Kirikae

256

Detection of Multidrug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a DNA sequencing-based method to detect mutations in the genome of drug-resistant Myco- bacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in restricted regions of the genome. Eight genome regions associated with drug resistance, including rpoB for rifampin (RIF), katG and the mabA (fabG1)-inhA promoter for isoniazid (INH), embB for ethambutol (EMB), pncA for pyrazinamide

Jun-ichiro Sekiguchi; Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama; Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopec; Zofia Zwolska; Fumiko Kirikae; Emiko Toyota; Intetsu Kobayashi; Koji Morita; Koichiro Kudo; Seiya Kato; Tadatoshi Kuratsuji; Toru Mori; Teruo Kirikae

2007-01-01

257

Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis, immune response, and host genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease that predominantly affects the lungs. The hallmark of tuberculosis infection\\u000a is the formation of granulomas in the vicinity of infectious foci. Tuberculous granulomas are highly organized bodies with\\u000a a complex cell composition and well-orchestrated biochemical pathways. Granuloma development plays a dual role. The process\\u000a restricts the infection dissemination and forms a battlefield for protective

A. Apt; T. K. Kondratieva

2008-01-01

258

Secreted transcription factor controls Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial pathogens trigger specialized virulence factor secretion systems on encountering host cells. The ESX-1 protein secretion system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-the causative agent of the human disease tuberculosis-delivers bacterial proteins into host cells during infection and is critical for virulence, but how it is regulated is unknown. Here we show that EspR (also known as Rv3849) is a key regulator of

Sridharan Raghavan; Paolo Manzanillo; Kaman Chan; Cole Dovey; Jeffery S. Cox

2008-01-01

259

Latent tuberculosis: what the host “sees”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the most successful pathogen of mankind and remains a major threat to\\u000a global health as the leading cause of death due to a bacterial pathogen. Yet 90–95% of those who are infected with MTB remain\\u000a otherwise healthy. These people are classified as “latently infected,” but remain a reservoir from which

Hannah P. GideonJoAnne; JoAnne L. Flynn

2011-01-01

260

Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis. PMID:22287857

Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker

2011-01-01

261

Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis?  

PubMed

Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio-Pleistocene) North American mammals, including 114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely "culprits" in its spread. PMID:16896974

Rothschild, Bruce M; Martin, Larry D

2006-11-01

262

Did ice-age bovids spread tuberculosis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pathognomonic metacarpal undermining is a skeletal pathology that has been associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovids. Postcranial artiodactyl, perissodactyl, and carnivore skeletons were examined in major university and museum collections of North America and Europe for evidence of this and other pathology potentially attributable to tuberculosis. Among nonproboscidean mammals from pre-Holocene North America, bone lesions indicative of tuberculosis were restricted to immigrant bovids from Eurasia. No bone lesions compatible with diagnosis of tuberculosis were found in large samples of other pre-Holocene (164 Oligocene, 397 Miocene, and 1,041 Plio Pleistocene) North American mammals, including 114 antilocaprids. Given the unchanged frequency of bovid tubercular disease during the Pleistocene, it appears that most did not die from the disease but actually reached an accommodation with it (as did the mastodon) (Rothschild and Laub 2006). Thus, they were sufficiently long-lived to assure greater spread of the disease. The relationships of the proboscidean examples need further study, but present evidence suggests a Holarctic spread of tuberculosis during the Pleistocene, with bovids acting as vectors. While the role of other animals in the transmission of tuberculosis could be considered, the unique accommodation achieved by bovids and mastodons makes them the likely “culprits” in its spread.

Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.

2006-11-01

263

Direct inhibitors of InhA are active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

New chemotherapeutic agents are urgently required to combat the global spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The mycobacterial enoyl reductase InhA is one of the few clinically validated targets in tuberculosis drug discovery. We report the identification of a new class of direct InhA inhibitors, the 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones, using phenotypic high-throughput whole-cell screening. This class of orally active compounds showed potent bactericidal activity against common isoniazid-resistant TB clinical isolates. Biophysical studies revealed that 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones bound specifically to InhA in an NADH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)-dependent manner and blocked the enoyl substrate-binding pocket. The lead compound NITD-916 directly blocked InhA in a dose-dependent manner and showed in vivo efficacy in acute and established mouse models of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Collectively, our structural and biochemical data open up new avenues for rational structure-guided optimization of the 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone class of compounds for the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:25568071

Manjunatha, Ujjini H; S Rao, Srinivasa P; Kondreddi, Ravinder Reddy; Noble, Christian G; Camacho, Luis R; Tan, Bee H; Ng, Seow H; Ng, Pearly Shuyi; Ma, Ng L; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B; Herve, Maxime; Barnes, Susan W; Yu, Weixuan; Kuhen, Kelli; Blasco, Francesca; Beer, David; Walker, John R; Tonge, Peter J; Glynne, Richard; Smith, Paul W; Diagana, Thierry T

2015-01-01

264

Pope Michael Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Pope Michael (David Bawden) conducted by Torang Asadi in Delia, Kansas, on September 2, 2010. In this interview, Pope Michael describes how his family came to be in Kansas, how he came to believe ...

Pope Michael; Bawden, David; Asadi, Torang

2010-09-02

265

Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions  

MedlinePLUS

... Million NIDCR/NIH Grant 2015 AAOM Call for Abstract Submissions Upcoming Events 2015 Annual Conference Registration is Now Open 2016 Annual Meeting in Atlanta - Save the Date! Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions ...

266

Oral Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... available from the NCI Web site . There is no standard or routine screening test for oral cancer. ... other areas by the time they are found. No studies have shown that screening would decrease the ...

267

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

268

Children's Oral Health  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Oral Health home School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation Fluoridation Basics Benefits Guidelines ... Health Engineering & Operations Infection Control School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation FAQs Community Water Fluoridation ...

269

[Risk of oral piercing].  

PubMed

Oral and facial piercing with different kinds of body art are being observed more frequently in medical and dental practices. Principally, piercing is not a new form of body art and is traditional in different geographical areas. Various materials are used. Besides tongue and lip piercing, different locations of the face such as the eyebrows and the nose are anatomical areas of piercing. The aim of this article is to demonstrate different forms of oral piercing, illustrated by own observations. The piercing procedure is briefly described. Piercing is usually performed without local anaesthesia and stepwise. In a literature review, the possible risks and complications are summarised. Postprocedural complications are oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Other complications are foreign body granulomas or allergies, particularly against nickel. Dentists, and oral- and maxillofacial surgeons should be in a position to advise patients with oral or facial piercings or those who plan to have this type of body art performed. PMID:10234960

Bethke, G; Reichart, P A

1999-03-01

270

Mike Rose Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mike Rose conducted by Lauren Helmer in Salina, Kansas, on December 31, 2010. In this interview, Mike Rose, pastor of the University United Methodist Church in Salina, describes his experiences ...

Rose, Mike; Helmer, Lauren

2010-12-31

271

Rose Stokes Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Rose Stokes conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Nicodemus, Kansas, on November 14, 2009. In this interview, Rose Stokes discusses her involvement with the First Baptist Church in Nicodemus, Kansas, ...

Stokes, Rose; Heidrick, Sarah

2009-11-14

272

Gene Carlson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Gene Carlson conducted by Clint Shriner on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Gene Carlson, lead pastor at Westlink Christian Church, discusses the formative experiences that resulted in his ...

Carlson, Gene; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-10

273

Matt Cox Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Matt Cox conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on July 16, 2013. This interview features Matt Cox, the planter and lead pastor of EastLake Community Church. EastLake Community Church ...

Cox, Matt; Stratton, Emily

2013-07-16

274

David Frech Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with David Frech conducted by Emily Stratton in Olathe, Kansas, on July 10, 2013. David Frech is the senior pastor at the Church of the Harvest in Olathe, Kansas. Church of the Harvest started up in ...

Frech, David; Stratton, Emily

2013-07-10

275

Deacon Godsey Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Deacon Godsey conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 21, 2013. Deacon Godsey is the lead pastor at Vintage Church in Lawrence. Vintage Church is one of Lawrence’s newer ...

Godsey, Deacon; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-21

276

Mary Miller Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mary Miller conducted by Dr. Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 16, 2009. In this interview, Mary Miller describes her journey from a her Presbyterian upbringing and education to the decision that she was a...

Miller, Mary; Miller, Timothy

2009-09-16

277

Gregg Hall Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Gregg Hall conducted by Emily Stratton in Olathe, Kansas, on June 24, 2013. Gregg Hall is the pastor for the Ottawa, Kansas, branch of Life Church. Life Church is a non-denominational church ...

Hall, Gregg; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-24

278

Kacey Carlson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Kacey Carlson conducted by Kaitlin Dosier and Jeremy Adkison in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 25, 2010. In this interview, Kacey Carlson, owner of the store Village Witch in Lawrence, Kansas, describes the history...

Carlson, Kacey; Adkison, Jeremy; Dosier, Kaitlin

2010-10-25

279

Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, Kansas. This interview...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

280

Dan Chaverin Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...

Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-06

281

Leona Anderson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leona Anderson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Burdick, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Leona Anderson discusses her experiences as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church in Lattimer, Kansas...

Anderson, Leona; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

282

Garrett Fugate Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Garrett Fugate conducted by Jeremy Adkison in 2010. In this interview, University of Kansas student Garrett Fugate discusses his childhood experiences as a member of the Greek Orthodox community, and his eventual decision...

Fugate, Garrett; Adkison, Jeremy

2010-01-01

283

Joseph Luben Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Joseph Luben conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Joseph Luben discusses being raised with both Pentecostal and Jewish influences in Galena, Kansas. He also describes...

Luben, Joseph; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

284

Evelyn Forsberg Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Evelyn Forsberg conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Evelyn Forsberg discusses the experience of growing up Catholic in the Herrington, Kansas, area, and, after her marriage to a...

Forsberg, Evelyn; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

285

[A case of gallbladder tuberculosis diagnosed by positive tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction].  

PubMed

Gallbladder tuberculosis is an extremely rare disease that is rarely reported in the literature. Arriving at the correct diagnosis of gallbladder tuberculosis is difficult, and it is usually made by histopathologic examination after cholecystectomy. However, due to the low sensitivity of acid-fast stain and culture result, diagnosing gallbladder tuberculosis is still demanding even after tissue acquisition. To overcome this problem, tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR) is performed on the resected specimen, which has high sensitivity and specificity. A 70-year-old female who had previously undergone total gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer was admitted with right upper quadrant pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed acute cholecystitis without gallstones or sludge. She underwent cholecystectomy and the histopathologic finding of the specimen showed chronic active cholecystitis without gallstones or sludge. Because she was suspected to have pulmonary tuberculosis, TB-PCR was also performed on the resected gallbladder. TB-PCR showed positive reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and we could diagnose it as gallbladder tuberculosis. Herein, we present a case of gallbladder tuberculosis diagnosed by TB-PCR from resected gallbladder. PMID:24463290

Ryu, Mi Jin; Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Ji Young; Choi, Yena; Baek, Seung Suk; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Oh, Tae Hoon; Kim, Jung Yeon

2014-01-25

286

Unexpectedly High Proportion of Ancestral Manu Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Cultured from Tuberculosis Patients in Egypt ?  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is one of the important public health problems in Egypt. However, limited information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Egypt is available. A total of 151 M. tuberculosis strains were characterized by spoligotyping. The results revealed that 74.8% of M. tuberculosis isolates grouped into 13 different clusters, while 25.2% had unique spoligotype patterns. Comparison with an international spoligotyping database (the SITVIT2 database) showed that types SIT53 (T1 variant) and SIT54 (Manu2 variant) were the most common types between cluster groups. In addition, new shared types SIT2977, SIT2978, and SIT2979 were observed. The results identified for the first time an unusually high proportion of ancestral Manu strains of M. tuberculosis from patients in Egypt. The percentage of the Manu clade in this study (27.15%) was significantly higher than its overall representation of 0.4% in the SITVIT2 database. We show that in Egypt tuberculosis is caused by a predominant M. tuberculosis genotype belonging to the ancestral Manu lineage which could be a missing link in the split between ancestral and modern tubercle bacilli during the evolution of M. tuberculosis. PMID:19553569

Helal, Zeinab H.; El-Din Ashour, Mohamed Seif; Eissa, Somaia A.; Abd-Elatef, Ghanem; Zozio, Thierry; Babapoor, Sankhiros; Rastogi, Nalin; Khan, Mazhar I.

2009-01-01

287

Unexpectedly high proportion of ancestral Manu genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains cultured from tuberculosis patients in Egypt.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is one of the important public health problems in Egypt. However, limited information on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Egypt is available. A total of 151 M. tuberculosis strains were characterized by spoligotyping. The results revealed that 74.8% of M. tuberculosis isolates grouped into 13 different clusters, while 25.2% had unique spoligotype patterns. Comparison with an international spoligotyping database (the SITVIT2 database) showed that types SIT53 (T1 variant) and SIT54 (Manu2 variant) were the most common types between cluster groups. In addition, new shared types SIT2977, SIT2978, and SIT2979 were observed. The results identified for the first time an unusually high proportion of ancestral Manu strains of M. tuberculosis from patients in Egypt. The percentage of the Manu clade in this study (27.15%) was significantly higher than its overall representation of 0.4% in the SITVIT2 database. We show that in Egypt tuberculosis is caused by a predominant M. tuberculosis genotype belonging to the ancestral Manu lineage which could be a missing link in the split between ancestral and modern tubercle bacilli during the evolution of M. tuberculosis. PMID:19553569

Helal, Zeinab H; Ashour, Mohamed Seif El-Din; Eissa, Somaia A; Abd-Elatef, Ghanem; Zozio, Thierry; Babapoor, Sankhiros; Rastogi, Nalin; Khan, Mazhar I

2009-09-01

288

Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE55 (Rv3347c) Protein during Incipient and Clinical Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical tuberculosis (TB), whether noncavitary or cavitary, is the late stage of a chronic disease process, since Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a slowly growing organism. Our studies have shown that the profiles of antigenic proteins expressed by the in vivo bacteria that elicit antibodies differ in cavitary and noncavitary TB (K. Samanich, J. T. Belisle, and S. Laal, Infect. Immun. 69:4600-4609,

Krishna K. Singh; Yuxin Dong; Sai A. Patibandla; David N. McMurray; Vijay K. Arora; Suman Laal

2005-01-01

289

Relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype and the clinical phenotype of pulmonary and meningeal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We used large sequence polymorphisms to determine the genotypes of 397 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected Vietnamese adults with pulmonary (n = 235) or meningeal (n = 162) tuberculosis. We compared the pretreatment radiographic appearances of pulmonary tuberculosis and the presentation, response to treatment, and outcome of tuberculous meningitis between the genotypes. Multivariate analysis identified variables independently associated with genotype and outcome. A higher proportion of adults with pulmonary tuberculosis caused by the Euro-American genotype had consolidation on chest X-ray than was the case with disease caused by other genotypes (P = 0.006). Multivariate analysis revealed that meningitis caused by the East Asian/Beijing genotype was independently associated with a shorter duration of illness before presentation and fewer cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes. Older age, fewer CSF leukocytes, and the presence of hemiplegia (but not strain lineage) were independently associated with death or severe disability, although the East Asian/Beijing genotype was strongly associated with drug-resistant tuberculosis. The genotype of M. tuberculosis influenced the presenting features of pulmonary and meningeal tuberculosis. The association between the East Asian/Beijing lineage and disease progression and CSF leukocyte count suggests the lineage may alter the presentation of meningitis by influencing the intracerebral inflammatory response. In addition, increased drug resistance among bacteria of the East Asian/Beijing lineage might influence the response to treatment. This study suggests the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis has important clinical consequences. PMID:18287322

Thwaites, Guy; Caws, Maxine; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; D'Sa, Anthony; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Huyen, Mai Nguyet Thu; Gagneux, Sebastien; Anh, Phan Thi Hoang; Tho, Dau Quang; Torok, Estee; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Duyen, Nguyen Thi Hong; Duy, Phan Minh; Richenberg, Jonathan; Simmons, Cameron; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy

2008-04-01

290

DNA Vaccination against Tuberculosis: Expression of a Ubiquitin-Conjugated Tuberculosis Protein Enhances Antimycobacterial Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic immunization is a promising new technology for developing vaccines against tuberculosis that are more effective. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of intracellular turnover of antigens expressed by DNA vaccines on the immune response induced by these vaccines in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The mycobacterial culture filtrate protein MPT64 was expressed as a chimeric protein

GIOVANNI DELOGU; ANGELA HOWARD; FRANK M. COLLINS; SHELDON L. MORRIS

2000-01-01

291

Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica  

E-print Network

sociedades pasaron de la oralidad primaria a la escritura, y de la escritura a la oralidad secundaria (escritura y oralidad audiovisual), avanzaron, pero la oralidad retrocedió. No ignoro que nuestras sociedades de oralidad secundaria coexisten con... sociedades de oralidad primaria y con otras en tránsito entre las dos a través de la escritura. Pero mi propuesta de la narración oral escénica (NOE) se centra en las sociedades a las que pertenezco: en las sociedades de oralidad secundaria, marcadas por...

Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

1995-10-01

292

Ryan Campbell Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Ryan Campbell Oral History Part 1 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Lawrence, KS 66045 Requestors must identify: 1. Type of publication 2. Proposed title 3. Specific passages to be quoted 4. Anticipated uses of the passages 5. Publisher's name 6. Expected date of publication ...

Campbell, Ryan; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

293

[Extensively drug resistant and extremely drug resistant tuberculosis forms after multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: new faces of the old disease].  

PubMed

Drug resistance in tuberculosis is a growing global problem. The emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases, particularly in the 1990s, has become an important health problem and threatens tuberculosis control worldwide. Resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, two of the most potent anti-tuberculosis drugs currently available, in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases is clinically quite important. The treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis requires prolonged use of costly second-line drugs with significant toxic potentials under supervision and long-term hospitalization of patients. The appropriate management of tuberculosis, clinical/radiological and bacteriological follow-up, and surgery when needed are essential factors in the successful treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patients. An extensively drug resistant tuberculosis outbreak seen in KwaZulu-Natal region of the Republic of South Africa in 2005 led to certain doubts worldwide; this outbreak, introduced the importance and emergence of the counter measures against multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases. Extensively drug resistant tuberculosis is defined as resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin from the first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (the definition of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis) in addition to resistance to any fluoroquinolone, and to at least one of the three injectable second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (kanamycin, capreomycin and amikacin) used in tuberculosis treatment. Mistreatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases by physicians, the use of anti-tuberculosis drugs with low quality, poor experience in management, lack of laboratories to perform second-line anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing and problems in adherence of patients to treatment are factors associated to the development of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis. With the emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, World Health Organization gives importance to the mycobacteriology laboratory improvement, better multi-drug resistant tuberculosis case management, adequate drug supply, prevention of tuberculosis transmission and development of new drugs and diagnostics. Recently, a new form of tuberculosis, resistant to all first-and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs seen in just a few number of cases, has been defined as extremely drug resistant tuberculosis and this is the end point in resistance problem in tuberculosis. In the view of this situation the stages of tuberculosis in terms of developing resistance are as follows: drugsensitive tuberculosis, mono-drug resistant tuberculosis, poly-drug resistant tuberculosis, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis. In this review, the recent information about drug resistant tuberculosis forms, particularly extremely drug resistant tuberculosis that has been popular since 2005, has been discussed. PMID:21341173

Baylan, Orhan

2011-01-01

294

Paradoxical response to disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis treatment in a patient receiving tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitor: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Biological agents such as tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors are known to cause mycobacterium infections. Here, we report a disseminated non-tuberculosis case caused by TNF-? inhibitor therapy and a probable paradoxical response to antimycobacterial therapy. Case presentation A 68-year-old man with relapsing polychondritis was refractory to glucocorticoid therapy; adalimumab was therefore administered in combination with oral glucocorticoids. Treatment with 40 mg of adalimumab led to rapid improvement of his clinical manifestations. The administration of tacrolimus (1 mg) was started as the dosage of oral glucocorticoids was tapered. However, the patient developed an intermittent high fever and productive cough 15 months after starting adalimumab treatment. A chest computed tomography scan revealed new granular shadows and multiple nodules in both lung fields with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and Mycobacterium intracellulare was isolated from 2 sputum samples; based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis. Tacrolimus treatment was discontinued and oral clarithromycin (800 mg/day), rifampicin (450 mg/day), and ethambutol (750 mg/day) treatment was initiated. However, his condition continued to deteriorate despite 4 months of treatment; moreover, paravertebral and subcutaneous abscesses developed and increased the size of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy and a subcutaneous abscess of the right posterior thigh indicated the presence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), and the diagnosis of disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis was confirmed. Despite 9 months of antimycobacterial therapy, the mediastinal lymphadenopathy and paravertebral and subcutaneous abscesses had enlarged and additional subcutaneous abscesses had developed, although microscopic examinations and cultures of sputum and subcutaneous abscess samples yielded negative results. We considered this a paradoxical reaction similar to other reports in tuberculosis patients who had discontinued biological agent treatments, and increased the dose of oral glucocorticoids. The patient’s symptoms gradually improved with this increased dose and his lymph nodes and abscesses began to decrease in size. Conclusions Clinicians should consider the possibility of a paradoxical response when the clinical manifestations of non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis worsen in spite of antimycobacterial therapy or after discontinuation of tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors. However, additional evidence is needed to verify our findings and to determine the optimal management strategies for such cases. PMID:24576098

2014-01-01

295

Melatonin and oral cavity.  

PubMed

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

296

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

297

Menopause and oral health  

PubMed Central

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-01-01

298

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

299

Menopause and oral health.  

PubMed

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-07-01

300

High initial bacillary load in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: an indicator of drug resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

This study conducted to evaluate the role of pretreatment bacillary load in predicting multi drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Sputum smear positive cases of all pulmonary tuberculosis, who received standard short course chemotherapy under direct observation, were studied with pretreatment absolute acid fast bacilli (AFB) counts per 100 oil immersion fields and culture-sensitivity assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pretreatment count of > or = 850 bacilli per oil immersion field in category II cases and > or = 1200 bacilli per oil immersion field in category I cases was found to be a predictor of MDR-TB with sensitivity and specificity of 88.89% and 87.04% in category II; and 100% and 84.13% in category I subjects respectively. In conclusion, high bacillary count (3+) can be taken as a marker of MDR-TB, specially in treated cases of tuberculosis and requiring further investigation as well management of these cases on lines of multi drug resistance tuberculosis. PMID:22471192

Sunita, Singh; Amita, Jain; Prasad, R; Santosh, Kumar

2010-12-01

301

Tuberculosis vaccine development: recent progress.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen a renewed effort to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. As a result, several promising avenues of research have developed, including the production of recombinant vaccines, auxotrophic vaccines, DNA vaccines and subunit vaccines. In this article we briefly review this work, as well as consider the pros and cons of the animal models needed to test these new vaccines. Screening to date has been carried out in mouse and guinea pig models, which have been used to obtain basic information such as the effect of the vaccine on bacterial load, and whether the vaccine can prevent or reduce lung pathology. The results to date lead us to be optimistic that new candidate vaccines could soon be considered for evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:11239788

Orme, I M; McMurray, D N; Belisle, J T

2001-03-01

302

Newer diagnostic tools in tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem. Multi Drug Resistant TB (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant TB (XDR-TB) cause high mortality. There are obstacles to the diagnosis of TB due to lack of accurate, cost effective and rapid diagnostic tools. The delay in diagnostic process is an unresolved bottleneck impeding access to treatment. Presently available diagnostic tools for TB except some liquid culture and molecular tests take long time. TB culture and drug susceptibility test (DST) need specialized laboratory setup and are also very expensive. The New Diagnostics Working Group (NDWG) on TB is supporting development of new tools and also provides information to World Health Organization (WHO) for endorsement. Globally, TB control programmes need rapid and accurate diagnostic tools, which are to be implemented in peripheral health centers as well. In this review, we describe development of newer diagnostic tools, their endorsement status and usage in TB diagnosis. PMID:25145058

Anbarasu, S; Selvakumar, N; Vanaja, Kumar

2012-09-01

303

Lung remodeling in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a global public health catastrophe responsible for >8 million cases of illness and 2 million deaths annually. Pulmonary cavitation with cough-generated aerosol is the principle means of spread, and lung remodeling (healed cavitation, fibrosis, and bronchiectasis) is a major cause of lung disability, surpassing all other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases combined. Efficient granuloma turnover is mycobactericidal, and extracellular matrix is disbanded without scarring. In many with progressive disease, however, there is dysregulated granuloma turnover, liquefactive necrosis, and pathological scarring. The pathological mechanisms and the related immunological pathways underpinning these phenomena are reviewed in the present article. Further studies are needed to identify and develop specific immunotherapeutic interventions that target immunopathology, since they have the potential to substantially reduce spread. PMID:16136463

Dheda, Keertan; Booth, Helen; Huggett, Jim F; Johnson, Margaret A; Zumla, Alimuddin; Rook, Graham A W

2005-10-01

304

Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that are spread through the air from person ... TB. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that are spread through the air from person ...

305

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

306

Can we control tuberculosis in high HIV prevalence settings?  

PubMed

The overlap between the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis and consequent rapid rise in numbers of patients with tuberculosis in many African countries has put a huge burden on health systems. The stigma of HIV has increased the existing stigma surrounding tuberculosis. There are three mechanisms by which we may reduce the number of cases of tuberculosis in a community: reducing transmission of tuberculosis, reducing reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection and reducing HIV transmission. Reinforcing the existing health service to find more cases, active case-finding in communities or enhanced case-finding in specific groups will reduce transmission of tuberculosis. However, health services that find it difficult to find cases efficiently will also find it difficult to support patients throughout treatment to achieve a cure. Partnership with traditional healers, community-based organizations and private practitioners could reduce this burden. Reactivation of tuberculosis among people living with HIV can be reduced by tuberculosis preventive therapy or by antiretroviral therapy. Programmes that identify people living with HIV can also implement enhanced tuberculosis case-finding increasing the benefits of the programme. However, the impact of widespread use of antiretroviral therapy may be to increase the number of people in a community who are mildly immunocompromised and the incidence of tuberculosis at a community level might rise. Any strategy that successfully reduces HIV transmission will benefit tuberculosis control, since around a third of all HIV-positive individuals will develop tuberculosis before they die. To control tuberculosis in high HIV prevalence settings, we must strengthen health systems to include not only expansion of the DOTS strategy but also full-blooded implementation of voluntary counselling and testing, enhanced and active tuberculosis case-finding, preventive therapy and better care for people living with HIV including antiretroviral therapy. The approach needed to control tuberculosis needs also to be integrated into broader development and poverty reduction goals. PMID:12758192

Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Ayles, Helen

2003-01-01

307

La Tuberculosis Cmo recuperar su salud y mantenerse saludable  

E-print Network

La Tuberculosis Cómo recuperar su salud y mantenerse saludable Departamento de Salud y Servicios Enfermedades Infecciosas #12;La Tuberculosis Cómo recuperar su salud y mantenerse saludable Departamento de.niaid.nih.gov #12;Tabla de contenido 1 ¿Qué es la tuberculosis? 3 ¿Qué es la infección de la tuberculosis? 4 ¿Puedo

Bandettini, Peter A.

308

Thyroid Tuberculosis in a Child: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Thyroid tuberculosis is a rare disease even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic. Clinically tuberculosis is not often suspected in cases of thyroid nodule or swelling. We report a case of 11 years female child who presented with a thyroid swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed caseating epithelioid granulomas and acid fast bacilli. Patient improved with antitubercular drugs. Tuberculosis may be considered as differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling. PMID:24696559

Bodh, Anita; Sharma, Neelam; Negi, Lalita; Chandel, Suman S

2014-01-01

309

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria have diverse effects on BCG efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Summary The efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination in protection against pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is highly variable between populations. One possible explanation for this variability is increased exposure of certain populations to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This study used a murine model to determine the effect that exposure to NTM after BCG vaccination had on the efficacy of BCG against aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. The effects of administering live Mycobacterium avium (MA) by an oral route and killed MA by a systemic route on BCG-induced protection were evaluated. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were profiled to define the immunological mechanisms underlying any effect on BCG efficacy. BCG efficacy was enhanced by exposure to killed MA administered by a systemic route; T helper 1 and T helper 17 responses were associated with increased protection. BCG efficacy was reduced by exposure to live MA administered by the oral route; T helper 2 cells were associated with reduced protection. These findings demonstrate that exposure to NTM can induce opposite effects on BCG efficacy depending on route of exposure and viability of NTM. A reproducible model of NTM exposure would be valuable in the evaluation of novel TB vaccine candidates. PMID:24572168

Poyntz, Hazel C.; Stylianou, Elena; Griffiths, Kristin L.; Marsay, Leanne; Checkley, Anna M.; McShane, Helen

2014-01-01

310

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

311

Mycobacterial Lineages Causing Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa. PMID:23622814

Firdessa, Rebuma; Berg, Stefan; Hailu, Elena; Schelling, Esther; Gumi, Balako; Erenso, Girume; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Kiros, Teklu; Habtamu, Meseret; Hussein, Jemal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Robertson, Brian D.; Ameni, Gobena; Lohan, Amanda J.; Loftus, Brendan; Comas, Iñaki; Gagneux, Sebastien; Tschopp, Rea; Yamuah, Lawrence; Hewinson, Glyn; Gordon, Stephen V.; Young, Douglas B.

2013-01-01

312

Tuberculosis in domestic livestock: pathogenesis, transmission, and vaccination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex includes agents such as M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, the cause of tuberculosis in most animals and a zoonotic pathogen. Mycobacterium bovis has one of the broadest host ranges of any pathogen, infecting most mammals, including humans. Models are used to study ...

313

Potential drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis through metabolic pathway analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of multidrug resistant varieties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to a search for novel drug targets. We have performed an insilico comparative analysis of metabolic pathways of the host Homo sapiens and the pathogen M. tuberculosis. Enzymes from the biochemical pathways of M. tuberculosis from the KEGG metabolic pathway database were compared with proteins from the hostH. sapiens,

Sharmila Anishetty; Mrudula Pulimi; Pennathur Gautam

2005-01-01

314

Cell Host & Microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis MycP1 Protease  

E-print Network

Cell Host & Microbe Article Mycobacterium tuberculosis MycP1 Protease Plays a Dual Role tuberculosis uses the ESX-1 secre- tion system to deliver virulence proteins during infec- tion of host cells. Here we report a mechanism of posttranscriptional control of ESX-1 mediated by MycP1, a M. tuberculosis

Craik, Charles S.

315

Brief report Tuberculosis following initiation of antiretroviral therapy  

E-print Network

1 Brief report Tuberculosis following initiation of antiretroviral therapy in low-income and high-income countries Running title: Tuberculosis on antiretroviral therapy The ART-LINC Collaboration words, 1 table, 1 figure, 13 references Key words: tuberculosis; antiretroviral therapy; HIV/AIDS; low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strain Families using Spoligotypes  

E-print Network

Identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strain Families using Spoligotypes Inna Vitola-6899, Fax: (518) 276-4824, PhD (Corresponding Author) #12;Key Words: Tuberculosis; Pattern Recognition for analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strain genotyping data. Our work presents a first step

Varela, Carlos

317

Social clustering and the transmission and dynamics of tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Social clustering and the transmission and dynamics of tuberculosis Juan P. Aparicio 1 , Angel F Biology Institute Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853­7801, USA April 9, 1999 Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, social clusters, tuberculosis, dynam­ ical systems. Running Head: Social clustering and the dynamics

318

Amplification Dynamics: Predicting the Effect of HIV on Tuberculosis Outbreaks  

E-print Network

Amplification Dynamics: Predicting the Effect of HIV on Tuberculosis Outbreaks *Travis C. Porco, U.S.A. Summary: HIV affects the pathogenesis and the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We the probability and the expected severity of tuberculosis out- breaks. Our predictions reveal that an HIV epidemic

Blower, Sally

319

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED)  

E-print Network

SCHIFFERT HEALTH CENTER TUBERCULOSIS RISK ASSESSMENT FORM (REQUIRED) Date: _______________ ID: If yes to any question, a TB skin test and completed Tuberculosis Skin Testing Form is required. 1 into contact with a person who has Tuberculosis? ____ No ____ Yes 3. Have you ever used any illegal

Buehrer, R. Michael

320

Review article Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors  

E-print Network

Review article Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle: a stratified Tilman, Belgium 2 National and OIE/FAO Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratories, Bacterial Zoonoses ­ The worldwide status of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) as a zoonosis remains of great concern. This article reviews

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Bayesian mapping of pulmonary tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Bayesian mapping of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo, Madagascar Bicout2 Abstract Background: Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic in Madagascar. The capital, Antananarivo is the most seriously affected area. TB had

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

Origin, Spread and Demography of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex  

E-print Network

Origin, Spread and Demography of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Thierry Wirth1,2 *, Falk of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), one of the most successful groups of bacterial pathogens, remains that the MTBC consists of two independent clades, one composed exclusively of M. tuberculosis lineages from

Wirth, Thierry

323

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis in Honduras Senia Rosales1,2,3* , Lelany Pineda-García1 , Solomon Ghebremichael3,4 , Nalin Rastogi5 , Sven E Hoffner3,4 Abstract Background: Tuberculosis persists as a public health problem

Boyer, Edmond

324

A Cooperative Oxygen Binding Hemoglobin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

A Cooperative Oxygen Binding Hemoglobin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis STABILIZATION OF HEME, G1K 7P4, Canada The homodimeric hemoglobin (HbN) from Mycobacte- rium tuberculosis displays from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that adds a new twist to the scope of the properties of invertebrate

Yeh, Syun-Ru

325

Tuberculosis eorgeOrwell,FranzKafka,CharlotteBrontandFrederic  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis G eorgeOrwell,FranzKafka,CharlotteBrontëandFrederic Chopin all had something in common of the discovery, by Robert Koch, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,the infectious agent of the disease we now call TB. The word`consumption' conjures images of bygone eras, but the word `tuberculosis' is synonymous

Cai, Long

326

DIAGNOSTICO DE LA TUBERCULOSIS INFANTIL EN PROVINCIAS DE LA ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of tuberculosis in children in provinces of Argentina. Confirming the diagnosis of pedia- tric tuberculosis is cumbersome, due to the clinical features (generally paucibacillary forms) of the disease. This national study was undertaken in order to establish: the features of childhood tuberculosis at the time of diagnosis, the criteria on which the pediatricians based the diagnosis, the bacteriologic contribution

MARIA DELFINA SEQUEIRA; MARIA SUSANA IMAZ; LUCIA BARRERA; GRACIELA H. POGGIO; OMAR A. LATINI

327

The Journal of Immunology Differential Risk of Tuberculosis Reactivation among  

E-print Network

The Journal of Immunology Differential Risk of Tuberculosis Reactivation among Anti-TNF Therapies. Linderman,* and Denise E. Kirschner Increased rates of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation have been reported. The Journal of Immunology, 2012, 188: 3169­3178. M ycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent

Kirschner, Denise

328

Structural and functional characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis uridine monophosphate  

E-print Network

Structural and functional characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis uridine monophosphate tuberculosis, which remains a major public health issue. Current treatment requires a therapy involving four to drug resistance (2). Indeed, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) emerged in the early 1990s

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The dynamics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Colima, Mexico  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The dynamics of pulmonary tuberculosis in Colima, Mexico (1999Á/2002) GERARDO Abstract Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Mexico. From 1999 to 2002, we assessed retrospectively the epidemiological, clinical, and treatment characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in the hospitals of the Mexican

Chowell, Gerardo

330

Nude rat (F344/N-rnu) tuberculosis.  

PubMed

As many mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected lung tissues are not available for fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis and the tuberculin test is not feasible in a mouse tuberculosis model, we attempted to develop a rat tuberculosis model. We have previously reported that rat tuberculosis is associated with granulomas that lack central necrosis. In order to develop a better animal model of tuberculosis in immunocompromised humans (tuberculosis associated with HIV infection or tuberculosis of the elderly), we infected F344/N-rnu nude rats with M. tuberculosis via the airborne route. The animals developed pulmonary granulomas with central necrosis encapsulated by dense collagen fibres, closely resembling those of human tuberculosis. The nude rats died of disseminated tuberculosis by the 85th day after aerosol infection, while F344 wild-type rats did not. Interestingly, T-cells that were reactive with anti-CD4 antibody and anti-CD8 antibody, indicating the presence of remnant thymus, were observed in the infected lung tissues of the nude rats. Therefore, T-cell precursors may be present in nude rats. The nude rat tuberculosis model mimics tuberculosis in immunocompromised humans and may provide a suitable model for immunological studies in vivo. PMID:16548891

Sugawara, Isamu; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Satoru

2006-04-01

331

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part I  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide scourge and its incidence appears to be increasing due to various factors, such as the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The insidious onset and non-specific constitutional symptoms of genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) often lead to delayed diagnosis and rapid progression to a non-functioning kidney. Due to hematogenous dissemination of TB, there is a potential risk of involvement of the contralateral kidney too. Imaging plays an important role in the making of a timely diagnosis and in the planning of treatment, and thus helps to avoid complications such as renal failure. Imaging of GUTB still remains a challenge, mainly on account of the dearth of literature, especially related to the use of the newer modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This two-part article is a comprehensive review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and imaging findings in renal TB. Various imaging features of GUTB are outlined, from the pathognomonic lobar calcification on plain film, to finer early changes such as loss of calyceal sharpness and papillary necrosis on intravenous urography (IVU); to uneven caliectasis and urothelial thickening, in the absence of renal pelvic dilatation, as well as the hitherto unreported ‘lobar caseation’ on ultrasonography (USG). Well-known complications of GUTB such as sinus tracts, fistulae and amyloidosis are described, along with the relatively less well-known complications such as tuberculous interstitial nephritis (TIN), which may remain hidden because of its ‘culture negative’ nature and thus lead to renal failure. The second part of the article reviews the computed tomography (CT) and MRI features of GUTB and touches upon future imaging techniques along with imaging of TB in transplant recipients and in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986618

Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

2013-01-01

332

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Skin tests, blood tests, x-rays, and other tests can tell if you have TB. If not treated properly, TB can be deadly. You can usually cure active TB by taking several medicines for a long period of time. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

333

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com id350107 Last ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com id350107 Last ...

334

Tuberculosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Care Act and HIV/AIDS Community Engagement Incarceration Immigration HIV/AIDS Care Continuum Funding Opportunities How To ... of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents . Treatment There are a number of treatment options ...

335

Duration of Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy and Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: Association with Mortality in HIV-Related Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreases mortality risk in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients, but the effect of the duration of anti-tuberculosis therapy and timing of anti-tuberculosis therapy initiation in relation to ART initiation on mortality, is unclear. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational multi-center cohort study among HIV-infected persons concomitantly treated with Rifamycin-based anti-tuberculosis therapy and ART in Latin America. The study population included persons for whom 6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy is recommended. Results Of 253 patients who met inclusion criteria, median CD4+ lymphocyte count at ART initiation was 64 cells/mm3, 171 (68%) received >180 days of anti-tuberculosis therapy, 168 (66%) initiated anti-tuberculosis therapy before ART, and 43 (17%) died. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model that adjusted for CD4+ lymphocytes and HIV-1 RNA, tuberculosis diagnosed after ART initiation was associated with an increased risk of death compared to tuberculosis diagnosis before ART initiation (HR 2.40; 95% CI 1.15, 5.02; P = 0.02). In a separate model among patients surviving >6 months after tuberculosis diagnosis, after adjusting for CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV-1 RNA, and timing of ART initiation relative to tuberculosis diagnosis, receipt of >6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy was associated with a decreased risk of death (HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.08, 0.66; P=0.007). Conclusions The increased risk of death among persons diagnosed with tuberculosis after ART initiation highlights the importance of screening for tuberculosis before ART initiation. The decreased risk of death among persons receiving > 6 months of anti-tuberculosis therapy suggests that current anti-tuberculosis treatment duration guidelines should be re-evaluated. PMID:24066096

Cortes, Claudia P.; Wehbe, Firas H.; McGowan, Catherine C.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Duda, Stephany N.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Gonzalez, Elsa; Carriquiry, Gabriela; Schechter, Mauro; Padgett, Denis; Cesar, Carina; Madero, Juan Sierra; Pape, Jean W.; Masys, Daniel R.; Sterling, Timothy R.

2013-01-01

336

Deletion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Resuscitation-Promoting Factor Rv1009 Gene Results in Delayed Reactivation from Chronic Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately one-third of the human population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, comprising a critical reservoir for disease reactivation. Despite the importance of latency in maintaining M. tuberculosis in the human population, little is known about the mycobacterial factors that regulate persistence and reactivation. Previous in vitro studies have implicated a family of five related M. tuberculosis proteins, called resuscitation

JoAnn M. Tufariello; K. Mi; J. Xu; Y. C. Manabe; A. K. Kesavan; J. Drumm; K. Tanaka; W. R. Jacobs; J. Chan

2006-01-01

337

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop-ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in  

E-print Network

Abstract The high prevalence of tuberculosis in develop- ing countries and the recent resurgence of tuberculosis in many developed countries suggests that current control strategies are suboptimal. The increase tuberculosis. We describe and discuss a theoretical framework based upon mathematical transmission models

Blower, Sally

338

Identification of a repetitive sequence belonging to a PPE gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its use in diagnosis of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A repetitive sequence specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from a lambda gt11 library of M. tuberculosis by DNA-DNA hybridization using genomic DNA of M. tuberculosis as probe followed by subtractive hybridization with a cocktail of other mycobacterial DNA. This led to identification of CD192, a 1291 bp fragment of M. tuberculosis containing repetitive sequences, which produced positive hybridization signals with M. tuberculosis DNA within 30 min. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the presence of several direct and inverted repeats within the 1291 bp fragment that belonged to a PPE family gene (Rv0355) of M. tuberculosis. The use of CD192 as a DNA probe for the identification of M. tuberculosis in culture and clinical samples was investigated. The 1291 bp sequence was present in M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG, but was not present in many of the other mycobacterial strains tested, including M. tuberculosis H37Ra. More than 300 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were probed with CD192, and the presence of the 1291 bp sequence was observed in all the clinical strains, including those lacking IS6110. The sequence displayed RFLP among the clinical isolates. A PCR assay was developed which detected M. tuberculosis with 100% specificity from specimens of sputum, cerebrospinal fluid and pleural effusion from clinically diagnosed cases of tuberculosis. PMID:16849727

Srivastava, Ranjana; Kumar, D; Waskar, M N; Sharma, Meera; Katoch, V M; Srivastava, Brahm S

2006-08-01

339

[Advantages and drawbacks of expectoration decontamination methods for tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance diagnosis].  

PubMed

In the actual context of increasing tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance, the laboratory diagnosis of Mycobacterial infections remain the primordial objective of control and surveillance of human tuberculosis. The diagnosis and following of tuberculosis in resource limited settings are done by microscopy Ziehl-Neelsen method which is poor sensitive (20-53%) and have poor specificity because it's can't distinguish tuberculosis mycobacterium and atypical tuberculoid mycobacterium. Mycobacterium culture on solid media is the gold standard method for tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance diagnosis. Here, the challenge is that expectorations using for culture contain mycobacterium and others contaminating bacteria responsible of culture contamination. Many different methods of homogenization and decontamination of sputum specimens for culturing exist and each laboratory had to do a choice of the better method to optimize isolating of mycobacterium. This review is a summary of homogenization and decontamination methods described in literature and used by certain laboratories for diagnosis of TB by culture. However, it's essential for each laboratory to conduct evaluation of the different methods and do the choice of the appropriate one by taking into account factors such as the feasibility and cost effectively. Nine methods of decontaminations are described in this review taking account of their advantages, drawbacks and their feasibility in resource limited settings. PMID:23747665

Zingué, Dezemon; Hien, Hervé; Méda, Nicolas; Zida, Sylvie; Kaboré, Antoinette; Sanou, Adama; Ouédraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Gomgnimbou, Michel; Diandé, Souba; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Godreuil, Sylvain

2013-01-01

340

Assessment of Diagnostic Techniques of Urinary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA) test. Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence rate of 2.6%). The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis. PMID:23795272

Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad

2013-01-01

341

Diagnostic value of PCR in genitourinary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Genitourinary tuberculosis is a disease of the genitourinary system which includes the entire urinary tract and reproductive system. Genital tuberculosis is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing nations like India. In the present study, a total of 257 clinical specimens comprising of endometrial biopsy (109), endometrial curetting (42), menstrual blood (8), semen (17), placenta (11) and urine (70) were collected from patients and subjected for PCR, Culture and AFB detection. The endometrial biopsy, endometrial curetting, menstrual blood, semen, placenta, urine showed 30.2, 45.2,12.5, 5.8, 27.2, 31.4 %, positivity rate for tuberculosis by PCR, 7.3, 9.5, 25.0, 0, 9, 8.5 % by culture and 1.8, 2.3, 0, 0, 0, 2.8 % respectively by AFB smear. Being a novel, rapid technique, PCR is the method of choice for rapid diagnosis and management of genitourinary tuberculosis shared with the other concerned tests. This study reveals that genital tuberculosis can occur in any age group, however, the majority of patients were from reproductive age (nearly 75 % of them were from 20-45 years of age) group. PMID:24426229

Sharma, Narotam; Sharma, Veena; Singh, Prem Raj; Sailwal, Shivani; Kushwaha, Rajeev S; Singh, Rajesh K; Nautiyal, Satish C; Mishra, Pankaj; Masood, Tariq; Singh, R K

2013-07-01

342

Oral inflammation in small animals.  

PubMed

The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions. PMID:23643021

Lommer, Milinda J

2013-05-01

343

Oral Leukoplakia – an Update  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

2014-01-01

344

[Osteoporosis and oral diseases].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a major cause of fractures in elderly women. Bone densitometry is used in order to detect osteoporosis. It has been observed can also be analyzed in the jawbone. The osteoporosis may be associated with resorption of the residual ridge, periodontitis and tooth loss; also the same treatments can affect the jaws. A search was carried out in the Medline-Pubmed database in order to search the association between osteoporosis and oral diseases over the past 5 years. Forty-two articles were obtained after the selection process. The authors stated that: in reference to periodontal disease the results are conflicting, but there seems to be a higher prevalence of the disease and tooth loss and resorption of the crest. Oral bisphosphonates have little risk of causing osteonecrosis, and there is no relationship in the dental implant failure among patients taking bisphosphonates. There is no clear scientific evidence that could link osteoporosis and oral diseases. PMID:22854070

Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; López-López, José

2013-02-16

345

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

346

Tuberculosis of Spine: Current Views in Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is the chronic consumptive disease and currently the world's leading cause of death. Tuberculous spondylitis is a less common yet the most dangerous form of skeletal tuberculosis. The recent re-emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) hints at a possible resurgence of tuberculosis in the coming years. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculous spondylitis, and updates material that the author has previously published on the subject. Treatment should be individualized according to different indications which is essential to recovery. A treatment model is suggested on the basis of the author's vast personal experiences. PMID:24596613

2014-01-01

347

Diagnosis of Childhood Tuberculosis and Host RNA Expression in Africa  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Improved diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in children are needed. We hypothesized that transcriptional signatures of host blood could be used to distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children who either were or were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS The study population comprised prospective cohorts of children who were undergoing evaluation for suspected tuberculosis in South Africa (655 children), Malawi (701 children), and Kenya (1599 children). Patients were assigned to groups according to whether the diagnosis was culture-confirmed tuberculosis, culture-negative tuberculosis, diseases other than tuberculosis, or latent tuberculosis infection. Diagnostic signatures distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases and from latent tuberculosis infection were identified from genomewide analysis of RNA expression in host blood. RESULTS We identified a 51-transcript signature distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases in the South African and Malawian children (the discovery cohort). In the Kenyan children (the validation cohort), a risk score based on the signature for tuberculosis and for diseases other than tuberculosis showed a sensitivity of 82.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.6 to 94.3) and a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI, 74.6 to 92.7) for the diagnosis of culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Among patients with cultures negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis who were treated for tuberculosis (those with highly probable, probable, or possible cases of tuberculosis), the estimated sensitivity was 62.5 to 82.3%, 42.1 to 80.8%, and 35.3 to 79.6%, respectively, for different estimates of actual tuberculosis in the groups. In comparison, the sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for molecular detection of M. tuberculosis DNA in cases of culture-confirmed tuberculosis was 54.3% (95% CI, 37.1 to 68.6), and the sensitivity in highly probable, probable, or possible cases was an estimated 25.0 to 35.7%, 5.3 to 13.3%, and 0%, respectively; the specificity of the assay was 100%. CONCLUSIONS RNA expression signatures provided data that helped distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children with and those without HIV infection. (Funded by the European Union Action for Diseases of Poverty Program and others). PMID:24785206

Banwell, Claire M.; Chagaluka, George; Crampin, Amelia C.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; French, Neil; Hamilton, Melissa S.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Kern, Florian; Langford, Paul R.; Ling, Ling; Mlotha, Rachel; Ottenhoff, Tom H.M.; Pienaar, Sandy; Pillay, Vashini; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Twahir, Hemed; Wilkinson, Robert J.

2014-01-01

348

Mixed-Strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections and the Implications for Tuberculosis Treatment and Control  

PubMed Central

Summary: Numerous studies have reported that individuals can simultaneously harbor multiple distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To date, there has been limited discussion of the consequences for the individual or the epidemiological importance of mixed infections. Here, we review studies that documented mixed infections, highlight challenges associated with the detection of mixed infections, and discuss possible implications of mixed infections for the diagnosis and treatment of patients and for the community impact of tuberculosis control strategies. We conclude by highlighting questions that should be resolved in order to improve our understanding of the importance of mixed-strain M. tuberculosis infections. PMID:23034327

van Helden, Paul D.; Wilson, Douglas; Colijn, Caroline; McLaughlin, Megan M.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Warren, Robin M.

2012-01-01

349

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

350

Oral carcinogenesis and oral cancer chemoprevention: a review.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

351

Per-oral cholangioscopy  

PubMed Central

Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

2011-01-01

352

Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

353

Immunology of oral candidiasis.  

PubMed

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M; Udayakumar, P; Shanmugam, K T; Kesavan, G

2014-07-01

354

Multifocal childhood cutaneous tuberculosis: report of two interesting cases from Sikkim, India.  

PubMed

Cutaneous tuberculosis is an important health problem in developing countries such as India. Poverty, overcrowding, malnutrition, and ignorance are predisposing factors. The commonly seen variants of cutaneous tuberculosis are scrofuloderma, lupus vulgaris, and tuberculosis verrucosa cutis. Malnourished children may present with unusual forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. Herein we report two interesting cases of multifocal cutaneous tuberculosis in malnourished children. PMID:22957927

Verma, Shikha; Thakur, Binod Kumar; Gupta, Amlan

2013-01-01

355

Tuberculosis diagnostics and biomarkers: needs, challenges, recent advances, and opportunities.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within communities. Currently recommended gold-standard diagnostic tests for tuberculosis are laboratory based, and multiple investigations may be necessary over a period of weeks or months before a diagnosis is made. Several new diagnostic tests have recently become available for detecting active tuberculosis disease, screening for latent M. tuberculosis infection, and identifying drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. However, progress toward a robust point-of-care test has been limited, and novel biomarker discovery remains challenging. In the absence of effective prevention strategies, high rates of early case detection and subsequent cure are required for global tuberculosis control. Early case detection is dependent on test accuracy, accessibility, cost, and complexity, but also depends on the political will and funder investment to deliver optimal, sustainable care to those worst affected by the tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics. This review highlights unanswered questions, challenges, recent advances, unresolved operational and technical issues, needs, and opportunities related to tuberculosis diagnostics. PMID:22496353

McNerney, Ruth; Maeurer, Markus; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Marais, Ben; McHugh, Timothy D; Ford, Nathan; Weyer, Karin; Lawn, Steve; Grobusch, Martin P; Memish, Ziad; Squire, S Bertel; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Casenghi, Martina; Migliori, Giovanni-Batista; Mwaba, Peter; Zijenah, Lynn; Hoelscher, Michael; Cox, Helen; Swaminathan, Soumya; Kim, Peter S; Schito, Marco; Harari, Alexandre; Bates, Matthew; Schwank, Samana; O'Grady, Justin; Pletschette, Michel; Ditui, Lucica; Atun, Rifat; Zumla, Alimuddin

2012-05-15

356

[Lessons learned from tuberculosis outbreak cases].  

PubMed

Most TB outbreaks were caused by exposure of many people to tuberculosis bacilli due to delayed detection of initial cases who had long-lasting severe coughs and excretion of massive tuberculosis bacilli. They were also affected by several other factors, such as socio-environmental factors of the initial case; time and place of infection; and host factors of the infected persons such as immune status, infectivity, and/or pathogenicity of the bacilli. In this symposium, we learned the seriousness of infection and disease among immune-suppressed groups, special environmental factors with regard to the spread of infection, disease after treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, diagnostic specification of IGRA, and bacteriological features including genotyping of the bacilli. We reaffirmed that countermeasures for the case are important, but outbreaks can provide excellent opportunities to learn important information about infection, disease progression, etc. 1. Tuberculosis outbreak in a cancer ward: Katsuhiro KUWABARA (Division of Respiratory Diseases, National Hospital Organization Nishi-Niigata Chuo National Hospital) There was an outbreak of tuberculosis in a cancer ward of a highly specialized medical center. Outbreak cases included eight hospitalized patients and two medical staff members over a 1.5-year observation period after initial contact. Three immune-compromised patients including the index patent died of cancer and tuberculosis. Community hospitals and highly specialized medical centers, such as cancer centers, should carefully prepare a proper system to prevent nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis. 2. Sixty-one cases of TB exposures in hospital settings and contact investigations of the hospital staff, with special reference to the application of QFT: Hiroko Yoshikawa NIGORIKAWA (The Division of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation, Toshima Hospital; present: Division of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Teishin Hospital), Toru MORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) The index case was a patient who was admitted to a general hospital where she was treated with pulsed corticosteroid therapy and then put on a respirator. Soon after, she developed tuberculosis (TB) and died. Immediately after her death, the healthcare workers who had close contact with the index case were given the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT) test, which indicated that all staff except one were negative. However, a QFT test administered eight weeks later had a positive rate of 18.6%. Subsequently, a total of five workers, including a doctor, nurses, and radiology technicians, developed TB. The bacterial isolates from five of them exhibited an RFLP pattern identical to that of the index case. These secondary cases of TB included a case who had contact of less than 5 minutes, a case whose QFT was negative ("doubtful" in the Japanese criterion of the QFT), and a case who was QFT-positive but declined to be treated for latent TB infection (LTBI). No other workers nor hospitalized patients developed TB. The healthcare worker contacts were further examined with the QFT 6, 9 and 12 months after the contact. The QFT results revealed four additional positive reactors and four "doubtful" reactors who were indicated for LTBI treatment. Among them were seven subjects who turned positive six months after the contact. TB prevention in hospital settings and contact investigations were discussed with the hospital staff, with special reference to the application of QFT. 3. Summary and issues of concern relating to a tuberculosis outbreak in a prison: Mitsunobu HOMMA, Takefumi ITOH (Department of Respiratory Medicine, Akita City Hospital) We report a tuberculosis outbreak that occurred in a prison in the spring of 2011, resulting in 11 cases of active disease and 40 cases of infection. The primary cause of the outbreak is thought to be the delay in identifying the index case, where the screening result interpretation might have contributed to the delay. However, w

Kato, Seiya; Kuwabara, Katsuhiro

2014-02-01

357

Diabetes and immunity to tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes has attracted much attention in the past decade as diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in countries already afflicted with a high burden of TB. The confluence of these two major diseases presents a serious threat to global public health; at the same time it also presents an opportunity to learn more about the key elements of human immunity to TB that may be relevant to the general population. Some effects of diabetes on innate and adaptive immunity that are potentially relevant to TB defense have been identified, but have yet to be verified in humans and are unlikely to fully explain the interaction of these two disease states. This review provides an update on the clinical and epidemiological features of TB in the diabetic population and relates them to recent advances in understanding the mechanistic basis of TB susceptibility and other complications of diabetes. Issues that merit further investigation - such as geographic host and pathogen differences in the diabetes/TB interaction, the role of hyperglycemia-induced epigenetic reprogramming in immune dysfunction, and the impact of diabetes on lung injury and fibrosis caused by TB - are highlighted in this review. PMID:24448841

Martinez, Nuria; Kornfeld, Hardy

2014-03-01

358

Tuberculosis in renal transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is a frequent infectious complication in patients on renal replacement therapy, as a result of immunosuppression from uremia and drugs in the post-transplantation period. A retrospective study of all renal transplantation patients from 1989 to date was conducted. This study tried to examine the prevalence, course, and outcome of TB in renal transplant recipients. A comparison with the occurrence of TB in other modalities of renal replacement therapy was also made. We also discussed the treatment protocols for TB in this group of patients. No difference in the prevalence, age, or male/female ratio of TB was seen among the 3 modes of renal replacement therapy. TB of the lung was the more favored site of infection in patients on hemodialysis (77.3%), when compared with those on CAPD (30%) and renal transplant recipients (33.3%). In renal transplant recipients, no deaths occurred due to TB. In 7 patients there was co-infection with cytomegalovirus and in 3 patients there was Aspergillus lung infection. PMID:17461993

Ram, R; Swarnalatha, G; Prasad, N; Dakshinamurty, K V

2007-06-01

359

Genomic Analysis Reveals Variation between Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and the Attenuated M. tuberculosis H37Ra Strain  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra is an attenuated tubercle bacillus closely related to the virulent type strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Despite extensive study, the reason for the decreased virulence of M. tuberculosis H37Ra has not been determined. A genomic approach was therefore initiated to identify genetic differences between M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. tuberculosis H37Ra as a means of pinpointing the attenuating mutation(s). Digestion with the rare-cutting restriction endonuclease DraI revealed two polymorphisms between the strains: a 480-kb fragment in M. tuberculosis H37Rv was replaced by two fragments of 220 and 260 kb in M. tuberculosis H37Ra, while there was a ?7.9-kb DraI fragment in M. tuberculosis H37Ra that had no counterpart in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. As the M. tuberculosis insertion sequence IS6110 contains a single DraI restriction site, it was considered possible that these polymorphisms were the result of IS6110 transposition events in M. tuberculosis H37Ra, events that may have inactivated virulence genes. The 7.9-kb polymorphism was found to be due to the presence of the previously described H37Rv RvD2 deletion in M. tuberculosis H37Ra, with sequence analysis suggesting an IS6110-mediated deletion mechanism for loss of RvD2. Three other IS6110-catalyzed deletions from the M. tuberculosis H37Rv chromosome (RvD3 to RvD5) were also identified, suggesting that this mechanism plays an important role in genome plasticity in the tubercle bacilli. Comparative mapping and sequencing revealed that the 480-kb polymorphism was due to an IS6110 insertion in M. tuberculosis H37Ra near oriC. Complementation of M. tuberculosis H37Ra with a 2.9-kb restriction fragment from M. tuberculosis H37Rv that encompassed the IS6110 insertion did not increase the survival of recombinant M. tuberculosis H37Ra in mice. In conclusion, this study describes the presence and mechanisms of genomic variation between M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv, although the role that they play in the attenuation of M. tuberculosis H37Ra is unclear. PMID:10531227

Brosch, Roland; Philipp, Wolfgang J.; Stavropoulos, Evangelos; Colston, M. Joseph; Cole, Stewart T.; Gordon, Stephen V.

1999-01-01

360

Genomic analysis reveals variation between Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and the attenuated M. tuberculosis H37Ra strain.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra is an attenuated tubercle bacillus closely related to the virulent type strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Despite extensive study, the reason for the decreased virulence of M. tuberculosis H37Ra has not been determined. A genomic approach was therefore initiated to identify genetic differences between M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. tuberculosis H37Ra as a means of pinpointing the attenuating mutation(s). Digestion with the rare-cutting restriction endonuclease DraI revealed two polymorphisms between the strains: a 480-kb fragment in M. tuberculosis H37Rv was replaced by two fragments of 220 and 260 kb in M. tuberculosis H37Ra, while there was a approximately 7.9-kb DraI fragment in M. tuberculosis H37Ra that had no counterpart in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. As the M. tuberculosis insertion sequence IS6110 contains a single DraI restriction site, it was considered possible that these polymorphisms were the result of IS6110 transposition events in M. tuberculosis H37Ra, events that may have inactivated virulence genes. The 7.9-kb polymorphism was found to be due to the presence of the previously described H37Rv RvD2 deletion in M. tuberculosis H37Ra, with sequence analysis suggesting an IS6110-mediated deletion mechanism for loss of RvD2. Three other IS6110-catalyzed deletions from the M. tuberculosis H37Rv chromosome (RvD3 to RvD5) were also identified, suggesting that this mechanism plays an important role in genome plasticity in the tubercle bacilli. Comparative mapping and sequencing revealed that the 480-kb polymorphism was due to an IS6110 insertion in M. tuberculosis H37Ra near oriC. Complementation of M. tuberculosis H37Ra with a 2.9-kb restriction fragment from M. tuberculosis H37Rv that encompassed the IS6110 insertion did not increase the survival of recombinant M. tuberculosis H37Ra in mice. In conclusion, this study describes the presence and mechanisms of genomic variation between M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv, although the role that they play in the attenuation of M. tuberculosis H37Ra is unclear. PMID:10531227

Brosch, R; Philipp, W J; Stavropoulos, E; Colston, M J; Cole, S T; Gordon, S V

1999-11-01

361

Cryopreservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Cells  

PubMed Central

Successful long-term preservation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells is important for sample transport, research, biobanking, and the development of new drugs, vaccines, biomarkers, and diagnostics. In this report, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin and M. tuberculosis H37Ra were used as models of M. tuberculosis complex strains to study cryopreservation of M. tuberculosis complex cells in diverse sample matrices at different cooling rates. Cells were cryopreserved in diverse sample matrices, namely, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Middlebrook 7H9 medium with or without added glycerol, and human sputum. The efficacy of cryopreservation was quantified by microbiological culture and microscopy with BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. In all sample matrices examined, the microbiological culture results showed that the cooling rate was the most critical factor influencing cell viability. Slow cooling (a few degrees Celsius per minute) resulted in much higher M. tuberculosis complex recovery rates than rapid cooling (direct immersion in liquid nitrogen) (P < 0.05). Among the three defined cryopreservation media (PBS, 7H9, and 7H9 plus glycerol), there was no significant differential effect on viability (P = 0.06 to 0.87). Preincubation of thawed M. tuberculosis complex cells in 7H9 broth for 20 h before culture on solid Middlebrook 7H10 plates did not help the recovery of the cells from cryoinjury (P = 0.14 to 0.71). The BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining kit, based on Syto 9 and propidium iodide (PI), was also applied to assess cell envelope integrity after cryopreservation. Using the kit, similar percentages of “live” cells with intact envelopes were observed for samples cryopreserved under different conditions, which was inconsistent with the microbiological culture results. This implies that suboptimal cryopreservation might not cause severe damage to the cell wall and/or membrane but instead cause intracellular injury, which leads to the loss of cell viability. PMID:22933596

Shu, Zhiquan; Weigel, Kris M.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Lakey, Annie; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Lee, Kyong-Hoon

2012-01-01

362

Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives  

MedlinePLUS

... Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... oral contraceptives on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/ ...

363

Kidney Disease (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney Disease Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects People with kidney disease often have other health issues. They often have compromised immune systems, so they may be more likely to get infections. People with renal (kidney) problems may have ...

364

Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

365

Isoxyl aerosols for tuberculosis treatment: preparation and characterization of particles.  

PubMed

Isoxyl is a potent antituberculosis drug effective in treating various multidrug-resistant strains in the absence of known side effects. Isoxyl has been used exclusively, but infrequently, via the oral route and has exhibited very poor and highly variable bioavailability due to its sparing solubility in water. These properties resulted in failure of some clinical trials and, consequently, isoxyl's use has been limited. Delivery of isoxyl to the lungs, a major site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, is an attractive alternative route of administration that may rescue this abandoned drug for a disease that urgently requires new therapies. Particles for pulmonary delivery were prepared by antisolvent precipitation. Nanofibers with a width of 200 nm were obtained by injecting isoxyl solution in ethanol to water at a volume ratio of solvent to antisolvent of 1:5. Based on this preliminary result, a well-controlled method, involving nozzle mixing, was employed to prepare isoxyl particles. All the particles were 200 to 400 nm in width but had different lengths depending on properties of the solvents. However, generating these nanoparticles by simultaneous spray drying produced isoxyl microparticles (Feret's diameter, 1.19-1.77 microm) with no discernible nanoparticle substructure. The bulking agent, mannitol, helped to prevent these nanoparticles from agglomeration during process and resulted in nanoparticle aggregates in micron-sized superstructures. Future studies will focus on understanding difference of these isoxyl microparticles and nanoparticles/nanoparticle aggregates in terms of in vivo disposition and efficacy. PMID:20339959

Wang, Chenchen; Hickey, Anthony J

2010-06-01

366

Global distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotypes.  

PubMed

We present a short summary of recent observations on the global distribution of the major clades of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of tuberculosis. This global distribution was defined by data-mining of an international spoligotyping database, SpolDB3. This database contains 11708 patterns from as many clinical isolates originating from more than 90 countries. The 11708 spoligotypes were clustered into 813 shared types. A total of 1300 orphan patterns (clinical isolates showing a unique spoligotype) were also detected. PMID:12453368

Filliol, Ingrid; Driscoll, Jeffrey R; Van Soolingen, Dick; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Kremer, Kristin; Valétudie, Georges; Anh, Dang Duc; Barlow, Rachael; Banerjee, Dilip; Bifani, Pablo J; Brudey, Karine; Cataldi, Angel; Cooksey, Robert C; Cousins, Debby V; Dale, Jeremy W; Dellagostin, Odir A; Drobniewski, Francis; Engelmann, Guido; Ferdinand, Séverine; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Gordon, Max; Gutierrez, M Cristina; Haas, Walter H; Heersma, Herre; Källenius, Gunilla; Kassa-Kelembho, Eric; Koivula, Tuija; Ly, Ho Minh; Makristathis, Athanasios; Mammina, Caterina; Martin, Gerald; Moström, Peter; Mokrousov, Igor; Narbonne, Valérie; Narvskaya, Olga; Nastasi, Antonino; Niobe-Eyangoh, Sara Ngo; Pape, Jean W; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, Voahangy; Ridell, Malin; Rossetti, M Lucia; Stauffer, Fritz; Suffys, Philip N; Takiff, Howard; Texier-Maugein, Jeanne; Vincent, Véronique; De Waard, Jacobus H; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin

2002-11-01

367

Animal models of cavitation in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Transmission of tuberculosis occurs with the highest frequency from patients with extensive, cavitary, pulmonary disease and positive sputum smear microscopy. In animal models of tuberculosis, the development of caseous necrosis is an important prerequisite for the formation of cavities although the immunological triggers for liquefaction are unknown. We review the relative merits and the information gleaned from the available animal models of pulmonary cavitation. Understanding the host-pathogen interaction important to the formation of cavities may lead to new strategies to prevent cavitation and thereby, block transmission. PMID:16359922

Helke, Kris L; Mankowski, Joseph L; Manabe, Yukari C

2006-09-01

368

Imaging in oral cancers  

PubMed Central

Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist. PMID:23599568

Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

2012-01-01

369

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

370

Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

371

Milk and Oral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10–15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life

Ingegerd Johansson; Pernilla Lif Holgerson

2011-01-01

372

Teaching Oral History Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains the audiotape recorder is an invaluable tool for the local historian. Outlines interviewing techniques, questioning skills, and audiotape recorder use instructions. Provides suggestions for preparing students for an oral history project. Discusses second interviews and how to utilize the tape after the interview. (RW)

Ahren, John

1990-01-01

373

[Oral management for cancer patients].  

PubMed

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy administered to cancer patients can be harmful because of their effect on normal cells as well as cancer cells, and cause many adverse events. The oral cavity is one of the sites most vulnerable to the direct and indirect effects of cancer therapy. Severe adverse events of the oral cavity can not only reduce a patient's QOL, but also disrupt cancer treatment. We discuss the concept of oral management by maintenance of the oral environment. PMID:24335358

Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Shudo, Atsushi

2013-12-01

374

Is Early Tuberculosis Death Associated with Increased Tuberculosis Transmission?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is now a relatively uncommon disease in high income countries. As such, its diagnosis may be missed or delayed resulting in death before or shortly after the introduction of treatment. Whether early TB death is associated with increased TB transmission is unknown. To determine the transmission risk attributable to early TB death we undertook a case-control study. Methods All adults who were: (1) diagnosed with culture-positive pulmonary TB in the Province of Alberta, Canada between 1996 and 2012, and (2) died a TB-related death before or within the first 60 days of treatment, were identified. For each of these “cases” two sets of “controls” were randomly selected from among culture-positive pulmonary TB cases that survived beyond 60 days of treatment. “Controls” were matched by age, sex, population group, +/- smear status. Secondary cases of “cases” and “controls” were identified using conventional and molecular epidemiologic tools and compared. In addition, new infections were identified and compared in contacts of “cases” that died before treatment and contacts of their smear-matched “controls”. Conditional logistic regression was used to find associations in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results “Cases” were as, but not more, likely than “controls” to transmit. This was so whether transmission was measured in terms of the number of “cases” and smear-unmatched or -matched “controls” that had a secondary case, the number of secondary cases that they had or the number of new infections found in contacts of “cases” that died before treatment and their smear-matched “controls”. Conclusion In a low TB incidence/low HIV prevalence country, pulmonary TB patients that die a TB-related death before or in the initial phase of treatment and pulmonary TB patients that survive beyond the initial phase of treatment are equally likely to transmit. PMID:25622038

Parhar, Anu; Gao, Zhiwei; Heffernan, Courtney; Ahmed, Rabia; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Long, Richard

2015-01-01

375

Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and in these countries diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes increases the risk of TB. Our aim was to assess the potential impact...

Stevenson, Catherine R; Forouhi, Nita G; Roglic, Gojka; Williams, Brian G; Lauer, Jeremy A; Dye, Christopher; Unwin, Nigel

2007-09-06

376

[Progress in management of severe tuberculosis or tuberculosis with severe complication].  

PubMed

The management and therapy of miliary tuberculosis: Nobuharu OHSHIMA (Asthma and Allergy Center, National Hospital Organization Tokyo National Hospital). Treatment and management of severe pulmonary tuberculosis: Yuta HAYASHI, Kenji OGAWA (Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Higashi Nagoya National Hospital). Death of a young (non-elderly) patient may become a large psychological burden not only for patient's family but also for medical staff. We analyzed non-elderly cases with severe pulmonary tuberculosis by comparing 13 patients who died of tuberculosis in the hospital (death group) and 31 patients who survived and were discharged from hospital (survivor group). The mean age was older and there were more patients who were out of employment in the death group compared to the survivor group. Among the factors related to the general condition evaluated on the admission, disturbance of consciousness, respiratory insufficiency, impairment in the ADL, poor dietary intake, and decubitus ulcer were more observed in the death group. Chest X-ray finding was not a predictive factor of poor prognosis. Among the laboratory findings, the numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes, red blood cells, and thrombocytes significantly decreased in the death group. Serum level of total cholesterol, cholinesterase, and albumin were also significantly lower in the death group, indicating that malnutrition was related to the death of severe tuberculosis. Further studies are needed to establish the optimal nutritional management and evaluate the effectiveness of adjunctive use of steroid for severe tuberculosis patients. Invasive fungal infection complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis: Akira WATANABE, Katsuhiko KAMEI (Division of Clinical Research, Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University). Among the invasive mycoses, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is the most frequent disease as a sequel to pulmonary tuberculosis. However, identifying CPA early in patient with persistent pulmonary shadows from pulmonary tuberculosis is difficult. Serum microbiological tests such as Aspergillus precipitans (principally for Aspergillus IgG antibodies) are useful but sensitivity and specificity of this test are not high. Even treated, CPA has a case mortality rate of 50% over a span of 5 years. Morbidity is marked by both systemic and respiratory symptom and hemoptysis. Loss of lung function and life-threatening hemoptysis are common. As invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, early diagnosis and treatment of CPA might improve the outcome. Regarding the treatment, concomitant use of some anti-tubercular agents and antifungals is contradicted. Treatment and management for pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with COPD and interstitial pneumonia: Shinji TAMAKI, Takashi KUGE, Midori TAMURA, Sayuri TANAKA, Eiko YOSHINO, Mouka TAMURA (National Hospital Organization Nara Medical Center), Hiroshi KIMURA (Second Department of Internal Medicine and Respiratory Medicine, Nara Medical University) Recently, patients of pulmonary tuberculosis have many complications especially in the elderly population. It is recognized that patients with COPD and interstitial pneumonia (IP) have an increased risk for developing active tuberculosis. The aim of this report is to describe the clinical findings of pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with COPD and IP. We reviewed 327 patients who were diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-six cases were complicated with COPD. All patients were male, and had smoking history. Cavitary lesions were observed only in 5 cases. Acute exacerbation of COPD occurred in one fatal case. Ten cases were complicated with IP. Cavitary lesions were observed in 3 cases. Acute exacerbation of IP were observed in 7 cases, and 4 patients died during the anti-tuberculosis treatment. Careful evaluation and treatment are necessary for tuberculosis patients complicated with COPD and IP. PMID:24979949

Kimura, Hiroshi; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi

2014-05-01

377

Overview and phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms: Implications for diagnostics and legislation of bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) cause a serious disease with similar pathology, tuberculosis; in this review, bovine tuberculosis will be considered as disease caused by any member of the MTBC in bovids. Bovine tuberculosis is responsible for significant economic loss due to costly eradication programs and trade limitations and poses a threat to both endangered and protected species as well as to public health. We here give an overview on all members of the MTBC, focusing on their isolation from different animal hosts. We also review the recent advances made in elucidating the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships of members of the MTBC. Because the nomenclature of the MTBC is controversial, its members have been considered species, subspecies or ecotypes, this review discusses the possible implications for diagnostics and the legal consequences of naming of new species. PMID:24630673

Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Smith, Noel H; Boniotti, Maria B; Aranaz, Alicia

2014-10-01

378

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis treatment failure in Indonesia.  

PubMed

Animal studies have shown that the globally emerging Beijing genotype strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are more virulent than other strains. We examined whether Beijing strains increase treatment failure in a prospective cohort study in Indonesia. Among 818 tuberculosis cases, positive sputum culture results after 6 months of treatment were more common among patients infected with Beijing strains (33.4%) than among those infected with non-Beijing strains (relative risk, 1.94 [95% confidence interval, 1.26-3.00]), even after adjustment for differences in drug resistance. These data suggest that M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains have a higher capacity to withstand tuberculosis treatment, even in the absence of drug resistance. PMID:20064071

Parwati, Ida; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Apriani, Lika; Soetikno, Rista D; Ottenhoff, Tom H; van der Zanden, Adri G M; van der Meer, Jos; van Soolingen, Dick; van Crevel, Reinout

2010-02-15

379

First Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Second-line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  

PubMed Central

We performed drug susceptibility testing on first- and second-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the first time in Ghana to obtain preliminary data on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of 21 isolates (4 new cases and 17 treated cases), 5 (23.8%) were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 19 (90.5%) were resistant to at least one drug, but no extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was identified. Since the target patients were Category II, IV or smear positive at follow-up microscopy, it is understandable that there were many drug-resistant TB cases. Six isolates were resistant to one or two second-line drugs, but the second-line drugs were not approved in Ghana. It is considered that the bacilli were imported from abroad. Preventing the import of drug-resistant TB bacilli is probably one of best ways to control TB in Ghana. PMID:24808747

Kato, Tomoko; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Nartey, Naomi; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank Adae; Mitarai, Satoshi

2014-01-01

380

American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... you the very latest news and information about oral health care and practice. The Academy of Oral and ... with other dental and medical professionals to advance oral health care. Oral and maxillofacial pathologists (OMP) are uniquely ...

381

75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection...Notice is hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers...MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K....

2010-09-15

382

Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin.

Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

2015-01-01

383

Spatial Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Antananarivo Madagascar: Tuberculosis-Related Knowledge, Attitude and Practice  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis infection may remain latent, but the disease is nevertheless a serious public health issue. Various epidemiological studies on pulmonary tuberculosis have considered the spatial component and taken it into account, revealing the tendency of this disease to cluster in particular locations. The aim was to assess the contribution of Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) to the distribution of tuberculosis and to provide information for the improvement of the National Tuberculosis Program. Methods We investigated the role of KAP to distribution patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo. First, we performed spatial scanning of tuberculosis aggregation among permanent cases resident in Antananarivo Urban Township using the Kulldorff method, and then we carried out a quantitative study on KAP, involving TB patients. The KAP study in the population was based on qualitative methods with focus groups. Results The disease still clusters in the same districts identified in the previous study. The principal cluster covered 22 neighborhoods. Most of them are part of the first district. A secondary cluster was found, involving 18 neighborhoods in the sixth district and two neighborhoods in the fifth. The relative risk was respectively 1.7 (p<10?6) in the principal cluster and 1.6 (p<10?3) in the secondary cluster. Our study showed that more was known about TB symptoms than about the duration of the disease or free treatment. Knowledge about TB was limited to that acquired at school or from relatives with TB. The attitude and practices of patients and the population in general indicated that there is still a stigma attached to tuberculosis. Conclusion This type of survey can be conducted in remote zones where the tuberculosis-related KAP of the TB patients and the general population is less known or not documented; the findings could be used to adapt control measures to the local particularities. PMID:25386655

Rakotosamimanana, Sitraka; Mandrosovololona, Vatsiharizandry; Rakotonirina, Julio; Ramamonjisoa, Joselyne; Ranjalahy, Justin Rasolofomanana; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa

2014-01-01

384

Genetic Polymorphism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Patients with Chronic Multidrug?Resistant Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem because treatment is complicated, cure rates are well below those for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), and patients may remain infectious for months or years, despite receiving the best available therapy. To gain a better understanding of MDR-TB, we characterized serial isolates recovered from 13 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with MDR- TB, by

Barun Mathema; Karen Shean; Elena Shashkina; Gilla Kaplan

2004-01-01

385

Latent Tuberculosis Infection Treatment and T-Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: There is currently no available test for monitoring the effectof treatmentoflatent tuberculosis infection(LTBI) toindicate cure or predict risk of subsequent progression to disease. Objective: We used the T-SPOT.TB assay, which measures T-cell interferon- responses to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific peptides early secretory antigenic target 6-kD protein (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10), to determine the effect of LTBI treatment

Cynthia B. E. Chee; Kyi W. KhinMar; Suay H. Gan; Timothy M. S. Barkham; Mariappan Pushparani; Yee T. Wang

386

Tuberculosis of the genitourinary system-Urinary tract tuberculosis: Renal tuberculosis-Part II  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of renal tuberculosis (TB), including TB in transplant recipients and immunocompromised patients. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT) forms the mainstay of cross-sectional imaging in renal TB. It can easily identify calcification, renal scars, mass lesions, and urothelial thickening. The combination of uneven caliectasis, with urothelial thickening and lack of pelvic dilatation, can also be demonstrated on MDCT. MRI is a sensitive modality for demonstration of features of renal TB, including tissue edema, asymmetric perinephric fat stranding, and thickening of Gerota's fascia, all of which may be clues to focal pyelonephritis of tuberculous origin. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values may help in differentiating hydronephrosis from pyonephrosis. ADC values also have the potential to serve as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of renal fibrosis. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of renal TB. In transplant patients, renal TB, including tuberculous interstitial nephritis, is an important cause of graft dysfunction. Renal TB in patients with HIV more often shows greater parenchymal affection, with poorly formed granulomas and relatively less frequent findings of caseation and stenosis. Atypical mycobacterial infections are also more common in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23986619

Merchant, Suleman; Bharati, Alpa; Merchant, Neesha

2013-01-01

387

Genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from household contacts of tuberculosis patients in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Background The Philippines has an extremely high rate of tuberculosis but little is known about M. tuberculosis genotypes and transmission dynamics in this country. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of household contacts who develop active TB due to direct transmission from an index case in that household. Methods Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from household contacts of tuberculosis patients in the Philippines were characterized using restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis, spoligotyping, and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units – variable number tandem repeats typing (12-loci) to determine their utility in elucidating transmission in an area of high tuberculosis prevalence. Drug susceptibility patterns for these isolates were also determined. Results Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing results matched in 10 (62.5%) of 16 index patient-household contact pairs while IS6110 fingerprints matched in only six (37.5%) pairs. Only 3/16 (18.8%) index patient-household contact pairs had identical drug susceptibility results. Conclusions Strain typing of M. tuberculosis isolates from household contacts in the Philippines indicates that transmission of strains does not necessarily occur directly from the index patient living in close proximity in the same household but rather that community-based transmission also frequently occurs. Accurate susceptibility testing of all isolates is necessary to insure optimal care of both the index patients and any culture-positive household contacts. PMID:24308751

2013-01-01

388

Tuberculosis, AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in a large city  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to analyze the incidence of tuberculosis (TB), AIDS and tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection in the municipality of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period 2001 – 2009. A historical trend study, it uses secondary data from the Tuberculosis Surveillance Database of the University of Campinas (UNICAMP) and the São Paulo State STD-AIDS Center of Excellence and Training. It included new cases of TB, AIDS, and of tuberculosis-AIDS reported in the municipality of Campinas. A decrease in cases of TB until 2007 was observed, with an increase in 2008 and 2009. There was a general reduction in AIDS from 2007, but with an increase among men aged 60 or over, in the years 2007 to 2009. For tuberculosis-AIDS co-infection, the tendency was to reduce. The proportion of HIV tests not undertaken, among patients with tuberculosis, was high (27.5%). This scenario shows the need for integration of the databanks into the planning and control activities. PMID:22990163

Saita, Nanci Michele; de Oliveira, Helenice Bosco

2013-01-01

389

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2012-01-01

390

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2013-01-01

391

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2011-07-01

392

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2011-01-01

393

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2014-01-01

394

78 FR 28221 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-05-14

395

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2012-01-01

396

78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2013-11-07

397

78 FR 9925 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to Be Discussed:...

2013-02-12

398

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2012-01-01

399

9 CFR 77.33 - Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. 77.33 ...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.33 Testing procedures for tuberculosis in captive cervids. (a)...

2013-01-01

400

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2010-07-01

401

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2014-07-01

402

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2011-01-01

403

76 FR 18220 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis; Notice of Charter Renewal  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis; Notice of Charter Renewal This gives...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human Services...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, Department of Health and Human...

2011-04-01

404

75 FR 63496 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-10-15

405

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2013-01-01

406

76 FR 27327 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-05-11

407

77 FR 16661 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; NM; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2008-0124] Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and...interim rule that amended the bovine tuberculosis regulations by establishing two separate zones with different tuberculosis risk classifications for the...

2012-03-22

408

77 FR 65555 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-10-29

409

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2010-01-01

410

9 CFR 71.12 - Sodium orthophenylphenate as permitted disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis.  

...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. 71.12 Section 71.12 Animals...disinfectant for premises infected with tuberculosis. (a) A permitted brand of sodium...12 gallons of water is permitted in tuberculosis eradication work for...

2014-01-01

411

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2013-07-01

412

9 CFR 77.3 - Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tuberculosis classifications of States and zones...INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.3 Tuberculosis classifications of States and...

2011-01-01

413

75 FR 33316 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-06-11

414

77 FR 8877 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2012-02-15

415

75 FR 6402 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2010-02-09

416

77 FR 27776 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed:...

2012-05-11

417

Phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains Constructed from Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in  

E-print Network

Phylogeny of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains Constructed from Polymorphisms in Genes University, Shanghai, China, 3 Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health, Brussels, Belgium, 6 NRF Centre of Excellence in Biomedical Tuberculosis Research/MRC Centre for Molecular

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

76 FR 67459 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section...CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...progress has been made toward eliminating tuberculosis. Matters to be Discussed:...

2011-11-01

419

29 CFR 1904.11 - Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. 1904.11 Section 1904...Recording criteria for work-related tuberculosis cases. (a) Basic requirement...to anyone with a known case of active tuberculosis (TB), and that employee...

2012-07-01

420

Prenatal passive transfer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) calves.  

PubMed

Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) dams and their newborn calves were tested for Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibodies in serum. Blood was drawn from dams prior to calving and from calves on their day of birth. All six calves born to tuberculosis-reactive dams were also tuberculosis reactive, suggesting prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies. In contrast, all three calves born to tuberculosis-nonreactive dams lacked detectable tuberculosis antibodies in pre-suckling or day-of-birth blood samples. Of the living tuberculosis-reactive calves observed from 1 to 11 yr of age, none exhibited clinical signs of tuberculosis infection or became tuberculosis culture positive. This is the first report of prenatal passive placental transfer of tuberculosis antibodies in elephants and demonstrates that detectible tuberculosis antibodies in newborn elephant calves should not be assumed to correlate with clinical tuberculosis. PMID:25632691

McGee, Jennifer L; Wiedner, Ellen; Isaza, Ramiro

2014-12-01

421

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.374 Effect...diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...accepted to show the disease was initially...

2011-07-01

422

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.374 Effect...diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...accepted to show the disease was initially...

2014-07-01

423

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.374 Effect...diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...accepted to show the disease was initially...

2012-07-01

424

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.374 Effect...diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...accepted to show the disease was initially...

2013-07-01

425

38 CFR 3.374 - Effect of diagnosis of active tuberculosis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relative to Specific Diseases § 3.374 Effect...diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis will... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by... Diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis by private...accepted to show the disease was initially...

2010-07-01

426

Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a horse: zoonotic concerns and limitations of antemortem testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...

427

Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis and Clinical Aspects  

PubMed Central

Summary: Tuberculosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is a highly devastating form of tuberculosis, which, even in the setting of appropriate antitubercular therapy, leads to unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality. Despite the development of promising molecular diagnostic techniques, diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis relies largely on microbiological methods that are insensitive, and as such, CNS tuberculosis remains a formidable diagnostic challenge. Insights into the basic neuropathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the development of an appropriate animal model are desperately needed. The optimal regimen and length of treatment are largely unknown, and with the rising incidence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, the development of well-tolerated and effective antibiotics remains a continued need. While the most widely used vaccine in the world largely targets this manifestation of tuberculosis, the BCG vaccine has not fulfilled the promise of eliminating CNS tuberculosis. We put forth this review to highlight the current understanding of the neuropathogenesis of M. tuberculosis, to discuss certain epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of CNS tuberculosis, and also to underscore the many unmet needs in this important field. PMID:18400795

Rock, R. Bryan; Olin, Michael; Baker, Cristina A.; Molitor, Thomas W.; Peterson, Phillip K.

2008-01-01

428

Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus  

PubMed Central

Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB) is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpinography has been considered as the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and as a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG) from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and the "leopard skin tube". Part II will describe adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings, such as "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudo-unicornuate "uterus, "collar-stud abscess" and "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases. PMID:24696765

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam Shahrzad

2014-01-01

429

Human leukocyte antigens in tuberculosis and leprosy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human mycobacterial infections are characterized by a spectrum of clinical and immunological manifestations. Specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) factors are associated with the subtypes of leprosy that develop and the course of tuberculosis after infection. The identification of protective mycobacterial antigens presented by a broad variety of HLA molecules will have important implications for the design of vaccines.

Christian G Meyer; Jürgen May; Klaus Stark

1998-01-01

430

New horizons in the treatment of tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new chemotherapy for the treatment of tuberculosis has three major objectives: first, the development of faster-acting drugs to shorten the duration of treatment; second, the development of novel antimicrobials to counter the emergence of bacteria resistant to current therapies; and, third, the development of chemotherapeutics that specifically target dormant bacilli to treat the one-third of the world's

Clifton E. Barry

1997-01-01

431

Tapering off of tuberculosis among the elderly.  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis has long been prevalent among elderly people. When tubercle bacilli first enter human bodies they usually remain through the rest of their hosts' lives and are capable of causing clinical disease any time, even in old age. In 1900, a large percentage of people of all ages were harboring tubercle bacilli and high mortality and case rates obtained among elderly people. The only way to solve the problem among future old people was to protect infants, children, and youths from becoming infected and remain so throughout life. As far as possible that was accomplished by isolating and treating tuberculosis patients in sanatoriums and hospitals, with anti-tuberculosis drugs after 1946, and controlling the disease among cattle. In due time, large numbers of children entered adulthood uninfected. From year to year, they replaced those heavily infected as they advanced in years. By 1973 the mortality rate was only a fraction of 1.0 per 100,000 among people under 34 years but of those of 65 to 84 years it was 9.7. The case rate was 28.1 for those older than 45 years. Although tuberculosis among the elderly has tapered off phenomenally, much time and work are necessary to accomplish eradication. PMID:790983

Myers, J A

1976-01-01

432

Tuberculosis Surveillance by Analyzing Google Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health concern, causing nearly ten million new cases and over one million deaths every year. The early detection of possible epidemic is the first and important defense line against TB. However, traditional surveil- lance approaches, e.g., U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Pre- vention (CDC), publish the TB morbidity surveillance results on a quarterly

Xichuan Zhou; Jieping Ye; Yujie Feng

2011-01-01

433

Evaluation of a Tuberculosis Skin Testing Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a recent slowdown in the decline of rates of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States. However, there are disparities in TB diagnosis between U.S.-born and foreign-born persons and between Whites and minorities. Measures for achieving TB elimination include identification of high-risk persons, including children and adolescents, at…

Kahn, Pamela

2009-01-01

434

Detection and discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.  

PubMed

A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed for detection and discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and H37Ra) and M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from mycobacterial other than tuberculosis (MOTT). It was based on the melting curve (Tm) analysis of the gyrB gene using SYBR(®) Green I detection dye and the LightCycler 1.5 system. The optimal conditions for the assay were 0.25 ?mol/L of primers with 3.1 mmol/L of MgCl(2) and 45 cycles of amplification. For M. tuberculosis (H37Rv and H37Ra) and M. bovis BCG of the MTBC, we detected the crossing points (Cp) at cycles of 16.96 ± 0.07, 18.02 ± 0.14, and 18.62 ± 0.09, respectively, while the Tm values were 90.19 ± 0.06 °C, 90.27 ± 0.09 °C, and 89.81 ± 0.04 °C, respectively. The assay was sensitive and rapid with a detection limit of 10 pg of the DNA template within 35 min. In this study, the Tm analysis of the qPCR assay was applied for the detection and discrimination of MTBC from MOTT. PMID:22078904

Issa, Rahizan; Mohd Hassan, Nurul Akma; Abdul, Hatijah; Hashim, Siti Hasmah; Seradja, Valentinus H; Abdul Sani, Athirah

2012-01-01

435

Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome occurring in association with chronic pulmonary tuberculosis are reported. A cell-mediated, delayed hypersensitivity reaction to, or invasion of the nerve roots by tubercle bacilli would seem to be the likely explanation of the neuropathy. PMID:6622344

Vyravanathan, S.; Senanayake, N.

1983-01-01

436

Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Because data from countries in Africa are limited, we measured the proportion of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) cases among TB patients in Burkina Faso for whom retreatment was failing. Of 34 patients with multidrug-resistant TB, 2 had an XDR TB strain. Second-line TB drugs should be strictly controlled to prevent further XDR TB increase. PMID:20409379

Saleri, Nuccia; Badoum, Gisèle; Ouedraogo, Martial; Dembélé, Sary M.; Nacanabo, Rachel; Bonkoungou, Victor; Cirillo, Daniela; Pinsi, Gabriele

2010-01-01

437

Tuberculosis in wild and captive deer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deer are found on every continent, save for Antarctica and Australia. Of the over 50 species of deer worldwide, tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis has been documented in at least 14. The broad host range of M. bovis includes most mammals, including humans and livestock. Eradication programs hav...

438

Immunodiagnosis of Tuberculosis: State of the Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undiagnosed and mismanaged tuberculosis (TB) continues to fuel the global TB epidemic. Rapid, accurate and early diagnosis of TB is therefore a priority to improve TB case detection and interrupt transmission. Although considerable improvements have been made in TB diagnostics, there are two major gaps in the existing diagnostics pipeline: (1) lack of a simple accurate point-of-care test that can

Lancelot M. Pinto; Jasmine Grenier; Samuel G. Schumacher; Claudia M. Denkinger; Karen R. Steingart; Madhukar Pai

2012-01-01

439

RAPID LATERAL-FLOW FOR BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine tuberculosis remains a costly disease in many countries despite extensive eradication and control efforts. Multiple wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis infection found in recent decades in the US, Europe, New Zealand, and South Africa play important roles fuelling high rates of disease...

440

Neural arch tuberculosis: a morbid disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed the clinical features, together with the radiographs and computerised tomography, in 9 patients with tuberculosis of the vertebral body and neural arch. All presented with paraparesis or paraplegia. The morbidity associated with this disease is so serious that it is essential to have an accurate means of evaluating the lesion as early as possible. Routine radiographs can

A. Solomon; A. J. Sacks; R. P. Goldschmidt

1995-01-01

441

Good Oral Health and Diet  

PubMed Central

An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

2012-01-01

442

Studies in oral leukoplakias  

PubMed Central

Oral carcinoma has been shown to be correlated with the use of tobacco in various parts of India. In a large-scale dental survey conducted in Lucknow, Bombay and Bangalore various precancerous conditions were investigated and studied for their possible relation to smoking and chewing habits. This paper reports the prevalence of oral leukoplakia among 10 000 dental-clinic patients in Lucknow and the correlation of the condition with the use of tobacco and betel nut in the study population. The results show that leukoplakia is far more prevalent among users of tobacco, betel nut or both than among non-users. A strikingly high frequency was found among smokers of the local cigarette, the bidi. PMID:5300044

Pindborg, J. J.; Kiær, Joyce; Gupta, P. C.; Chawla, T. N.

1967-01-01

443

Infant Oral Health Care  

PubMed Central

The family physician/pediatrician who sees a child from birth as part of the well-baby visit program is in the best position to identify early dental problems and to educate the family about early oral preventive health care. Since children under three years of age are not seen routinely by dentists, they are at risk of developing dental disease. This paper briefly covers the areas of infant oral pathology, early preventive care, teething, suckling habits, and dental trauma in the toddler. The physician will then be in a better position to recommend to parents when they should seek dental advice and treatment for their young children. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21253204

Sigal, Michael J.; Levine, Norman

1988-01-01

444

Detection of multidrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We developed a DNA sequencing-based method to detect mutations in the genome of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is caused by mutations in restricted regions of the genome. Eight genome regions associated with drug resistance, including rpoB for rifampin (RIF), katG and the mabA (fabG1)-inhA promoter for isoniazid (INH), embB for ethambutol (EMB), pncA for pyrazinamide (PZA), rpsL and rrs for streptomycin (STR), and gyrA for levofloxacin, were amplified simultaneously by PCR, and the DNA sequences were determined. It took 6.5 h to complete all procedures. Among the 138 clinical isolates tested, 55 were resistant to at least one drug. Thirty-four of 38 INH-resistant isolates (89.5%), 28 of 28 RIF-resistant isolates (100%), 15 of 18 EMB-resistant isolates (83.3%), 18 of 30 STR-resistant isolates (60%), and 17 of 17 PZA-resistant isolates (100%) had mutations related to specific drug resistance. Eighteen of these mutations had not been reported previously. These novel mutations include one in rpoB, eight in katG, one in the mabA-inhA regulatory region, two in embB, five in pncA, and one in rrs. Escherichia coli isolates expressing individually five of the eight katG mutations showed loss of catalase and INH oxidation activities, and isolates carrying any of the five pncA mutations showed no pyrazinamidase activity, indicating that these mutations are associated with INH and PZA resistance, respectively. Our sequencing-based method was also useful for testing sputa from tuberculosis patients and for screening of mutations in Mycobacterium bovis. In conclusion, our new method is useful for rapid detection of multiple-drug-resistant M. tuberculosis and for identifying novel mutations in drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. PMID:17108078

Sekiguchi, Jun-ichiro; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Augustynowicz-Kope?, Ewa; Zwolska, Zofia; Kirikae, Fumiko; Toyota, Emiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Morita, Koji; Kudo, Koichiro; Kato, Seiya; Kuratsuji, Tadatoshi; Mori, Toru; Kirikae, Teruo

2007-01-01

445

Ethnic Variation in Inflammatory Profile in Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Distinct phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cause disease in patients of particular genetic ancestry, and elicit different patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion when cultured with human macrophages in vitro. Circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of these inflammatory mediators might therefore be expected to vary significantly between tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. Studies to characterise such variation, and to determine whether it relates to host or bacillary factors, have not been conducted. We therefore compared circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of 43 inflammatory mediators and 14 haematological parameters (inflammatory profile) in 45 pulmonary tuberculosis patients of African ancestry vs. 83 patients of Eurasian ancestry in London, UK, and investigated the influence of bacillary and host genotype on these profiles. Despite having similar demographic and clinical characteristics, patients of differing ancestry exhibited distinct inflammatory profiles at presentation: those of African ancestry had lower neutrophil counts, lower serum concentrations of CCL2, CCL11 and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) but higher serum CCL5 concentrations and higher antigen-stimulated IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-12 secretion. These differences associated with ethnic variation in host DBP genotype, but not with ethnic variation in MTB strain. Ethnic differences in inflammatory profile became more marked following initiation of antimicrobial therapy, and immunological correlates of speed of elimination of MTB from the sputum differed between patients of African vs. Eurasian ancestry. Our study demonstrates a hitherto unappreciated degree of ethnic heterogeneity in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis patients that associates primarily with ethnic variation in host, rather than bacillary, genotype. Candidate immunodiagnostics and immunological biomarkers of response to antimicrobial therapy should be derived and validated in tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. PMID:23853590

Coussens, Anna K.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Elkington, Paul T.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Islam, Kamrul; Timms, Peter M.; Bothamley, Graham H.; Claxton, Alleyna P.; Packe, Geoffrey E.; Darmalingam, Mathina; Davidson, Robert N.; Milburn, Heather J.; Baker, Lucy V.; Barker, Richard D.; Drobniewski, Francis A.; Mein, Charles A.; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Nuamah, Rosamond A.; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Martineau, Adrian R.

2013-01-01

446

Urine PCR Evaluation to Diagnose Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Culture and specific staining (including Zeil-Nelson and fluorescent methods) are standard measures for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). These methods are time-consuming and sometimes have a low level of accuracy. In addition, in some cases obtaining samples for smear and culture involves invasive procedures; while in other cases there is no suitable sample for evaluation. Therefore, there is a need for faster and more accurate diagnostic methods. Objectives: The current study investigated the diagnostic value of tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR) of urine in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Patients and Methods: This case-control study included; 77 proven pulmonary tuberculosis cases (according to the national TB protocol), and 30 subjects who were completely healthy. The urine samples (50 mL) were mixed with 0.5 mL Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. DNA extraction and PCR testing were performed on all blood samples using SI 6110 primers. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also cultivated in the sputum and urine samples of the patients. Results: Results of the current study indicated that 48 (62.3%) patients out of 77 had a positive sputum culture. Urine cultures and acid-fast smears were negative. Urine PCR-TB was positive in 48.0% (37/77) of the patients. The speci?c TBPCR complex was positive in 56.2% (27/48) of the positive cultures and 34.4% (10/29) of the negative culture PTB patients. The control group had negative urine PCR (sensitivity 56.2% and specificity 100%). Conclusions: With regard to the ease of urine sample preparation and the 100% specificity the PCR method, performing urine PCR could be used as a diagnostic aid in PTB cases obtaining sputum samples is problematic. PMID:25147688

Heydari, Ali Akbar; Movahhede Danesh, Masood Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

2014-01-01

447

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

448

Strategies in Oral Immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of mucosal vaccine delivery system is an important area for improving public health. Oral vaccines have large\\u000a implications for rural and remote populations since the access to trained medical staff to administer vaccines by injection\\u000a is limited. New mucosal vaccine strategies are focused on development of non-replicating subunit vaccines, DNA, plant, and\\u000a other types of recombinant vaccines. The conjugation

Pavla Simerska; Peter Moyle; Colleen Olive; Istvan Toth

449

Research on the occurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in the circulating immune complexes, isolated from serum of patients with tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases and has among the highest mortality rates of all infectious diseases. There are 9 million cases of active tuberculosis reported annually; however, an estimated one-third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and remains asymptomatic. Despite the great progress in its diagnosis and treatment, tuberculosis is still a serious health and social problem. The contact between the immune system and Mycobacterium tuberculosis initiates cell-specific (Th1) and humoral-specific (Th2) responses. Many studies about the presence of antituberculotic antibodies in the serum have produced inconsistent results because of a high proportion of false-positive or false-negative results. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether circulating immune complexes (CIC) isolated from the serum of patients with tuberculosis are accompanied by antigenic proteins typical of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Material/Methods We assayed serum samples from 42 patients with tuberculosis. The control group consisted of the sera samples taken from 45 healthy subjects. The immunochemical analysis of dissociated immune complexes using the dot blot method demonstrated positive reaction on the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in all patients with tuberculosis. Results All patients with tuberculosis demonstrated a high serum concentration of CIC protein. The mean serum concentration of CIC protein was significantly higher in patients than in controls: 0.081 g/l in the control group and 0.211 g/l in the tuberculosis patients. Conclusions The analysis of CIC suggests that it may be a helpful test for patients with tuberculosis because of its quickness, simplicity of the idea, and limited invasiveness. PMID:24384554

Przybylski, Grzegorz; Go?da, Ryszard

2014-01-01

450

Genomic analysis identifies targets of convergent positive selection in drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

M. tuberculosis is evolving antibiotic resistance, threatening attempts at tuberculosis epidemic control. Mechanisms of resistance, including genetic changes favored by selection in resistant isolates, are incompletely ...

Farhat, Maha R

451

Quantifying Reproducibility in Computational Biology: The Case of the Tuberculosis Drugome  

E-print Network

Quantifying Reproducibility in Computational Biology: The Case of the Tuberculosis Drugome Daniel. (2013) Quantifying Reproducibility in Computational Biology: The Case of the Tuberculosis Drugome. PLo

Gil, Yolanda

452

Surgical treatment of gastric outlet obstruction due to gastroduodenal tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Gastroduodenal tuberculosis is a very rare location of abdominal tuberculosis; it is usually secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis and is often associated with HIV infection. We report a case of a 45-year-old woman with no HIV infection and no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis, with a history of duodenal ulcer treated for several months, who presented at the emergency department with severe gastric outlet obstruction of recent onset caused by ulcerohypertrophic antroduodenal tuberculosis. The lesion was misdiagnosed at endoscopy as a malignancy, although histological examination of biopsies showed only chronic inflammation. The diagnosis was established at surgery, when a frozen section of an enlarged lymph node showed the presence of giant cells and caseating granuloma. The treatment was gastric resection with Roux-en-Y gastrojejunal anastomosis. In this patient the rare gastroduodenal location of tuberculosis occurred as primary disease in the absence of other organ involvement. PMID:18936891

Manzelli, Antonio; Stolfi, Vito M; Spina, Claudio; Rossi, Piero; Federico, Francesco; Canale, Silvia; Gaspari, Achille L

2008-10-01

453

Multicentric Spinal Tuberculosis with Sternoclavicular Joint Involvement: A Rare Presentation  

PubMed Central

Background. Tuberculosis is a chronic disease which may have varied presentations. Though pulmonary tuberculosis is the commonest, extrapulmonary tuberculosis involving skeletal system is often seen. Individuals with poor nourishment and immunological status are especially susceptible for disseminated and multicentric tuberculosis. Case Report. We here present a case of tuberculosis involving multiple anatomical locations in an immune-competent patient which was diagnosed with radiological studies and confirmed with histological examination. Patient was put on multidrug antitubercular therapy and responded well to the treatment with improvement in clinical and radiological picture. Clinical Relevance. This report of a rare case makes us aware of the varied presentations which tuberculosis can present with. It should be kept as a differential diagnosis in patients with cough and fever but not responding to conventional treatment. This is even more important in countries with poor socioeconomic conditions. PMID:25389505

Meena, Umesh Kumar; Meena, Ramesh Chand

2014-01-01

454

Tuberculosis in haemodialysis patients: A single centre experience.  

PubMed

We prospectively followed-up new patients of tuberculosis while on maintenance hemodialysis at a State Government-run tertiary care institute. Between 2000 and 2010, 1237 new patients were initiated on maintainence hemodialysis. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis after initiation of hemodialysis was 131 (10.5% of 1237). The age was 46.4 ± 10.4 (range 8-85) years and there were 90 (68.7%) males. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis on the basis of organ involvement were: Pulmonary-60, pleural effusion-31, lymph node-21, meningitis-8, pericardial effusion-7, peritoneum-2, latent tuberculosis-2. The incidence of tuberculosis in hemodialysis was found to be 105.9 per 1000 patient years. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, past history of tuberculosis, mining as an occupation, low serum albumin, and duration of hemodialysis more than 24 months, and unemployment were found to be significant risk-factors on univariate analysis. PMID:24049269

Rao, T Manmadha; Ram, R; Swarnalatha, G; Santhosh Pai, B H; Ramesh, V; Rao, C Shyam Sunder; Naidu, G Diwaker; Dakshinamurty, K V

2013-09-01

455

Tuberculosis in haemodialysis patients: A single centre experience  

PubMed Central

We prospectively followed-up new patients of tuberculosis while on maintenance hemodialysis at a State Government-run tertiary care institute. Between 2000 and 2010, 1237 new patients were initiated on maintainence hemodialysis. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis after initiation of hemodialysis was 131 (10.5% of 1237). The age was 46.4 ± 10.4 (range 8-85) years and there were 90 (68.7%) males. The number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis on the basis of organ involvement were: Pulmonary-60, pleural effusion-31, lymph node-21, meningitis-8, pericardial effusion-7, peritoneum-2, latent tuberculosis-2. The incidence of tuberculosis in hemodialysis was found to be 105.9 per 1000 patient years. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, past history of tuberculosis, mining as an occupation, low serum albumin, and duration of hemodialysis more than 24 months, and unemployment were found to be significant risk-factors on univariate analysis. PMID:24049269

Rao, T. Manmadha; Ram, R.; Swarnalatha, G.; Santhosh Pai, B. H.; Ramesh, V.; Rao, C. Shyam Sunder; Naidu, G. Diwaker; Dakshinamurty, K. V.

2013-01-01

456

Oral burn contractures in children.  

PubMed

Oral burn contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral burns. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical burns and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar area and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182

Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra

2003-11-01

457

Identification of gene targets against dormant phase Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects approximately 2 billion people worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality\\u000a due to infectious disease. Current TB therapy involves a regimen of four antibiotics taken over a six month period. Patient\\u000a compliance, cost of drugs and increasing incidence of drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains have added urgency to the

Dennis J Murphy; James R Brown

2007-01-01

458

The usefulness of phage typing Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.  

PubMed

Mycobacteriophage typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was used as an epidemiologic aid in investigating the transmission of tuberculosis in community, industrial, and institutional outbreaks. The technique was also useful in other situations, e.g., documenting congenital transmission of infection and distinguishing exogenous reinfection from endogenous reactivation. Additional studies are indicated to further explore the value of phage typing for tracking the transmission of tuberculosis in the community. PMID:6439088

Snider, D E; Jones, W D; Good, R C

1984-12-01

459

Myths and misconceptions: the origin and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Much effort has been spent trying to work out the origin and history of tuberculosis. Understanding these concepts could have important consequences for the development of vaccines and therapies that are effective against all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We discuss a series of misconceptions about the origin of both M. tuberculosis and the disease it causes that have arisen over the years, and identify a number of unanswered questions that could provide insight into both these areas. PMID:19483712

Smith, Noel H; Hewinson, R Glyn; Kremer, Kristin; Brosch, Roland; Gordon, Stephen V

2009-07-01

460

Cystic lung disease in tuberculosis: An unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Cysts in the lung can arise due to large number of causes out of which tuberculosis is very rare, We report a case of tuberculosis in a young female presenting as a febrile illness and respiratory failure with radiological features of cystic lung disease. With treatment,fever and respiratory distress subsided and cysts in the lungs showed partial regression. We highlight the need to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnoses of cystic lung disease under appropriate circumstances. PMID:24339498

Ray, Animesh; Suri, J. C.; Sen, M. K.; Khanna, Arjun

2013-01-01

461

Mycobacterium tuberculosis nitrogen assimilation and host colonization require aspartate  

PubMed Central

Here we identify the amino acid transporter AnsP1 as the unique aspartate importer in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Metabolomic analysis of a mutant inactivated in AnsP1 revealed the transporter is essential for M. tuberculosis to assimilate nitrogen from aspartate. Virulence of the AnsP1 mutant is impaired in vivo, revealing aspartate is a primary nitrogen source required for host colonization by the tuberculosis bacillus. PMID:24077180

Gouzy, Alexandre; Larrouy-Maumus, Gérald; Wu, Ting-Di; Peixoto, Antonio; Levillain, Florence; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Gerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro Sório; Poquet, Yannick; Neyrolles, Olivier

2013-01-01

462

Tuberculosis: evidence review for newly arriving immigrants and refugees  

PubMed Central

Background: The foreign-born population bears a disproportionate health burden from tuberculosis, with a rate of active tuberculosis 20 times that of the non-Aboriginal Canadian-born population, and could therefore benefit from tuberculosis screening programs. We reviewed evidence to determine the burden of tuberculosis in immigrant populations, to assess the effectiveness of screening and treatment programs for latent tuberculosis infection, and to identify potential interventions to improve effectiveness. Methods: We performed a systematic search for evidence of the burden of tuberculosis in immigrant populations and the benefits and harms, applicability, clinical considerations, and implementation issues of screening and treatment programs for latent tuberculosis infection in the general and immigrant populations. The quality of this evidence was assessed and ranked using the GRADE approach (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Results: Chemoprophylaxis with isoniazid is highly efficacious in decreasing the development of active tuberculosis in people with latent tuberculosis infection who adhere to treatment. Monitoring for hepatotoxicity is required at all ages, but close monitoring is required in those 50 years of age and older. Adherence to screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis infection is poor, but it can be increased if care is delivered in a culturally sensitive manner. Interpretation: Immigrant populations have high rates of active tuberculosis that could be decreased by screening for and treating latent tuberculosis infection. Several patient, provider and infrastructure barriers, poor diagnostic tests, and the long treatment course, however, limit effectiveness of current programs. Novel approaches that educate and engage patients, their communities and primary care practitioners might improve the effectiveness of these programs. PMID:20634392

Greenaway, Christina; Sandoe, Amelia; Vissandjee, Bilkis; Kitai, Ian; Gruner, Doug; Wobeser, Wendy; Pottie, Kevin; Ueffing, Erin; Menzies, Dick; Schwartzman, Kevin

2011-01-01

463

Proposed management of childhood tuberculosis in low-incidence countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of childhood tuberculosis continues to decline in central Europe, but due to migration from high incidence countries\\u000a paediatricians will still be confronted with it. The management of childhood tuberculosis in low-incidence, high-income countries\\u000a differs from most high-incidence countries. The primary measures for preventing the transmission of tuberculosis to children\\u000a are the detection of adult source cases, detection of

Klaus Magdorf; Anne K. Detjen

2008-01-01

464

Disseminated Tuberculosis Following Total Knee Arthroplasty in an HIV Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skeletal tuberculosis is now uncommon in developed countries. In immunocompromised patients – particularly in the HIV-infected\\u000a – who present with subacute or chronic joint pain refractory to conventional treatment, osteoarticular tuberculosis should\\u000a still be included in the differential diagnosis. We report on a lethal case of disseminated tuberculosis in an HIV-infected\\u000a subject. Dissemination may have resulted from the implantation of

J. Marschall; J.-M. Evison; S. Droz; U. C. Studer; S. Zimmerli

2008-01-01

465

Sterilizing activities of novel combinations lacking first- and second-line drugs in a murine model of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Novel oral regimens composed of new drugs with potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and no cross-resistance with existing agents are needed to shorten and simplify treatment for both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. As part of a continuing effort to evaluate novel drug combinations for treatment-shortening potential in a murine model, we performed two long-term, relapse-based experiments. In the first experiment, several 3- and 4-drug combinations containing new agents currently in phase 2/3 trials (TMC207 [bedaquiline], PA-824 and PNU-100480 [sutezolid], and/or clofazimine) proved superior to the first-line regimen of rifampin, pyrazinamide, and isoniazid. TMC207 plus PNU-100480 was the most effective drug pair. In the second experiment, in which 3- and 4-drug combinations composed of TMC207 and pyrazinamide plus rifapentine, clofazimine, PNU-100480, or both rifapentine and clofazimine were evaluated, the rank order of drugs improving the sterilizing activity of TMC207 and pyrazinamide was as follows: rifapentine plus clofazimine ? clofazimine ? rifapentine > PNU-100480. The results revealed potential new building blocks for universally active short-course regimens for drug-resistant tuberculosis. The inclusion of pyrazinamide against susceptible isolates may shorten the duration of treatment further. PMID:22470112

Williams, Kathy; Minkowski, Austin; Amoabeng, Opokua; Peloquin, Charles A; Taylor, Dinesh; Andries, Koen; Wallis, Robert S; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E; Nuermberger, Eric L

2012-06-01

466

Delamanid: a review of its use in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Delamanid (Deltyba(®)), a nitroimidazo-oxazole derivative, is a new anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug which exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antitubercular activity against drug-susceptible and -resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is approved in several countries, including Japan and those of the EU, for use as part of an appropriate combination regimen in adults with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be composed due to resistance or tolerability. In a robust phase II trial in adult patients with MDR-TB, oral delamanid 100 mg twice daily for 2 months plus an optimized background regimen improved sputum culture conversion rates to a significantly greater extent than placebo. In a 6-month extension study, long-term (?8 months) treatment with delamanid was associated with a higher incidence of favourable outcomes (i.e. cured or completed all treatment) than short-term (?2 months) treatment, with an accompanying reduction inunfavourable outcomes as defined by the WHO (i.e. pre-specified proportion of TB-positive sputum cultures, death or treatment discontinuation for ?2 months without medical approval). Delamanid was not associated with clinically relevant drug-drug interactions, including with antiretroviral drugs and those commonly used in treating TB. Delamanid was generally well tolerated in patients with MDR-TB, with gastrointestinal adverse events and insomnia reported most commonly. Although the incidence of QT interval prolongation was higher with delamanid-based therapy, it was not associated with clinical symptoms such as syncope and arrhythmia. In conclusion, delamanid is a useful addition to the treatment options currently available for patients with MDR-TB. PMID:25404020

Blair, Hannah A; Scott, Lesley J

2015-01-01

467

[The satisfaction of personal needs in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis].  

PubMed

The founder of humanistic psychology A. Maslow divided the needs of a personality into several levels--from the lowest to the highest ones. Higher-leveled needs rise when the lower-leveled needs are satisfied. A great deal of factors affect the origination and satisfaction of needs, but they are always interrelated with social values. The extent to which personality needs are satisfied in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis has not been studied. A special questionnaire has been drawn up to study the extent to which personality needs are met. Its suitability has been determined, by using a group of patients with bronchial asthma. The extent to which personality needs are satisfied in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was studied in 178 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis and 253 patients with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis. The results have shown that the extent to which personality needs are satisfied in patients with tuberculosis is lower than that in apparently healthy individuals of the same social status. In females with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, the needs for safety are satisfied to a lesser extent. In those with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, the extent to which the physiological, safety, and self-realization needs is decreased. In males with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, the physiological, noetic, and self-realization needs are satisfied to a lesser extent. In those with fibrocavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, the extent to which the physiological, safety, group decision-making, noetic and self-realization needs is decreased. PMID:15801639

Sukhova, E V

2005-01-01

468

Role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Membrane Vesicles in Iron Acquisition  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the host. PMID:24415729

Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C.; Piqué, Daniel G.; Jacobs, William R.; Casadevall, Arturo

2014-01-01

469

A diagnostic pitfall: pancreatic tuberculosis, not pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common forms of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality globally. Tuberculosis can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, the peritoneum, liver, spleen and the pancreatobiliary system. The occurrence of abdominal TB is independent of pulmonary disease in most patients, with a reported incidence of co-existing pulmonary disease varying from 6 to 38% worldwide. We report a case of pancreatic tuberculosis also involving the vertebrae, which was initially treated as a case of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23458046

Samuel, David Olorunfemi; Majid Mukhtar, Adeiza Abdul; Philip, Ibinaiye Oluleke

2013-03-01

470

Role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis membrane vesicles in iron acquisition.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases membrane vesicles packed with molecules that can modulate the immune response. Because environmental conditions often influence the production and content of bacterial vesicles, this study examined M. tuberculosis microvesicles released under iron limitation, a common condition faced by pathogens inside the host. The findings indicate that M. tuberculosis increases microvesicle production in response to iron restriction and that these microvesicles contain mycobactin, which can serve as an iron donor and supports replication of iron-starved mycobacteria. Consequently, the results revealed a role of microvesicles in iron acquisition in M. tuberculosis, which can be critical for survival in the host. PMID:24415729

Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Weinrick, Brian C; Piqué, Daniel G; Jacobs, William R; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodriguez, G Marcela

2014-03-01

471

[Tuberculosis control in the world: results and challenges].  

PubMed

The modern tuberculosis control strategy, which focuses on identifying and curing infectious cases, has made remarkable progress in recent years. This strategy, known as DOTS, receives significant support from bilateral and multilateral donors, in particular from the recently created Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Although case finding rates are still far too low everywhere in the world (45%), cure rates among infectious cases (target 85%) are progressing, but are still too low in Africa (71%). Nevertheless, the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic had led to a dramatic increase in the number of tuberculosis cases, even in countries where tuberculosis programmes have been functioning well for several years; in those countries that are heavily affected by HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis seems to be difficult to control if no progress is made in controlling the HIV epidemic. Health services are often too centralised, particularly in the big cities, and all health structures need to be involved in fighting tuberculosis. Treatment possibilities are limited; new research has been initiated to find new anti-tuberculosis drugs, but it is extremely important to take care to avoid the development of resistance to those drugs that are available. The main challenge in vanquishing tuberculosis is still that of development, mainly of the health services, and particularly their human resources. Tuberculosis elimination is necessarily a long-term goal that will require constant effort spanning several decades. PMID:15816136

Trébucq, A

2004-01-01

472

Mixed infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in tuberculosis patients in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed

We applied a 7 loci Variable-Number-Tandem-Repeats (VNTR-7) analysis method to identify mixed infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to estimate the rate of mixed infections among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Shanghai, China. We validated the VNTR-7 method and used it to genotype an isolate from each of the 249 from pulmonary tuberculosis patients reported from the Songjiang and Chongming districts in Shanghai during 2006. We identified 14 patients with mixed infections, and the estimated rate of mixed infections was 5.6% (14/249) (95% CI 3.1%-9.2%). Mixed infections were observed more frequently among tuberculosis patients undergoing retreatment (15.6%) than among new cases (4.1%) (p<0.05), and among tuberculosis patients whose disease was caused by non-Beijing genotype strains (12.5%) versus Beijing genotype strains (3.5%) (p<0.05). The VNTR-7 method is a highly sensitive, practical tool with relatively high discriminatory power, making it useful for studying mixed infections. PMID:18424179

Fang, Rendong; Li, Xia; Li, Jing; Wu, Jie; Shen, Xin; Gui, Xiaohong; DeRiemer, Kathryn; Liu, Li; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

2008-09-01

473

[Longitudinal observation of pulmonary tuberculosis patients by Gen-Probe Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test (MTD)].  

PubMed

To study the clinical significance of conducting Gen-Probe Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) during the course of the disease, sputum specimens from 19 pulmonary tuberculosis patients were smeared, cultured, and tested by MTD, once a month for five months from the initiation of chemotherapy. 1) MTD-positive rates declined in parallel with decreased pulmonary tuberculosis activity, and the MTD findings of 16 patients who presented mild to moderate pulmonary tuberculosis at admission became negative by four months after the beginning of treatment. Three patients (15.8%) who were consistently positive for MTD during five months after the beginning of treatment were serious pulmonary tuberculosis patients, excreting a large number of organisms at admission. 2) During the course, a total of 43 MTD negative findings were observed, of which one (2.3%) was positive for Ogawa medium culture and the other 42 (92.7%) were negative. MTD was useful in briefly determining the absence of infection, provided that a negative culture on Ogawa medium means no infection. 3) Eleven of the 12 specimens (91.7%) showing positive smears and negative cultures on Ogawa medium were positive for MTD. Since MTD shows negative results for atypical mycobacteria, this is a very useful test in identifying acid fast bacilli which shows a positive smear and a negative culture. PMID:7745308

Toyoda, T; Aoyagi, T; Osumi, M; Kawashiro, T

1995-03-01

474

The Road to Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) Elimination in Arkansas; a Re-Examination of Risk Groups  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to generate knowledge useful for developing public health interventions for more effective tuberculosis control in Arkansas. Methods The study population included 429 culture-confirmed reported cases (January 1, 2004–December 31, 2010). Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping data were used to identify cases likely due to recent transmission (clustered) versus reactivation (non-clustered). Poisson regression models estimated average decline rate in incidence over time and assessed the significance of differences between subpopulations. A multinomial logistic model examined differences between clustered and non-clustered incidence. Results A significant average annual percent decline was found for the overall incidence of culture-confirmed (9%; 95% CI: 5.5%, 16.9%), clustered (6%; 95% CI: 0.5%, 11.6%), and non-clustered tuberculosis cases (12%; 95% CI: 7.6%, 15.9%). However, declines varied among demographic groups. Significant declines in clustered incidence were only observed in males, non-Hispanic blacks, 65 years and older, and the rural population. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Arkansas tuberculosis control program must target both traditional and non-traditional risk groups for successful tuberculosis elimination. The present study also demonstrates that a thorough analysis of TB trends in different population subgroups of a given geographic region or state can lead to the identification of non-traditional risk factors for TB transmission. Similar studies in other low incidence populations would provide beneficial data for how to control and eventually eliminate TB in the U.S. PMID:24618839

Berzkalns, Anna; Bates, Joseph; Ye, Wen; Mukasa, Leonard; France, Anne Marie; Patil, Naveen; Yang, Zhenhua

2014-01-01

475

Emergency transcatheter arterial embolization for massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis sequelae.  

PubMed

To explore the strategy and curative effect of emergency transcatheter arterial embolization (ETAE) in patients with massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis sequelae. A total of 148 patients with massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis underwent emergency arteriography. After the bleeding artery was located, patients were given embolotherapy using gelfoam strips, coils, and polyvinyl alcohol particles. The arteriography manifestations and therapeutic outcomes in all patients were retrospectively analyzed. ETAE was performed successfully in 143 patients after location of the bleeding arteries. The bleeding arteries could not be located in another five patients, and embolotherapy, therefore, could not be performed. Among these five patients, three underwent surgical resection and two died of complications of tuberculosis/fungal ball coinfection. During a 2-year follow-up period, there were 15 cases of recurrent hemoptysis after initial embolotherapy. Among these, four cases were resolved by re-embolization, 11 patients still had massive hemoptysis after re-embolization who underwent surgical resection and resolved the hemoptysis eventually. Successful hemostasis was achieved by ETAE in 132 patients (89.19 %; 132/148). No severe complications occurred after embolotherapy. ETAE is a safe and effective treatment for massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis. The key to successful treatment is thorough and complete embolization of the bleeding arteries. In the event of failure of embolotherapy, surgical resection should be used to resolve the bleeding. PMID:25134662

Xu, Wei; Wang, Hong-Hui; Bai, Bin

2015-01-01

476

Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from New Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed for a better understanding of the epidemiology of TB and could have implications for the development of new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines. M. tuberculosis isolates were characterized using spoligotyping and were compared with the SpoIDB4 database of the Pasteur Institute of Guadeloupe. A total of 53 different patterns were identified among 192 isolates examined. 169 of the isolates were classified into one of the 33 shared SITs, whereas the remaining 23 corresponded to 20 orphan patterns. 54% of the isolates were ascribed to the T family, a family which has not been well defined to date. Other prominent families were CAS, Haarlem, LAM, Beijing, and Unknown comprising 26%, 13%, 2.6%, 0.5%, and 2.1%, respectively. Among HIV-positive patients, 10 patterns were observed among 25 isolates. The T (38.5%), H (26.9%), and CAS (23.1%) families were the most common among HIV-positive individuals. The diversity of the M. tuberculosis strains found in this study is very high, and there was no difference in the distribution of families in HIV-positive and HIV-negative TB patients except the H family. Tuberculosis transmission in Addis Ababa is due to only the modern M. tuberculosis families (CAS, LAM, T, Beijing, Haarlem, and U). PMID:23227330

Mihret, Adane; Bekele, Yonas; Loxton, Andre G.; Jordan, Annemie M.; Yamuah, Lawrence; Aseffa, Abraham; Howe, Rawleigh; Walzl, Gerhard

2012-01-01

477

Indolcarboxamide is a preclinical candidate for treating multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

New chemotherapeutic compounds against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are urgently needed to combat drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). We have identified and characterized the indolcarboxamides as a new class of antitubercular bactericidal agent. Genetic and lipid profiling studies identified the likely molecular target of indolcarboxamides as MmpL3, a transporter of trehalose monomycolate that is essential for mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis. Two lead candidates, NITD-304 and NITD-349, showed potent activity against both drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Mtb. Promising pharmacokinetic profiles of both compounds after oral dosing in several species enabled further evaluation for efficacy and safety. NITD-304 and NITD-349 were efficacious in treating both acute and chronic Mtb infections in mouse efficacy models. Furthermore, dosing of NITD-304 and NITD-349 for 2 weeks in exploratory rat toxicology studies revealed a promising safety margin. Finally, neither compound inhibited the activity of major cytochrome P-450 enzymes or the hERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene) channel. These results suggest that NITD-304 and NITD-349 should undergo further development as a potential treatment for multidrug-resistant TB. PMID:24307692

Rao, Srinivasa P S; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B; Kondreddi, Ravinder R; Herve, Maxime; Camacho, Luis R; Bifani, Pablo; Kalapala, Sarath K; Jiricek, Jan; Ma, Ng L; Tan, Bee H; Ng, Seow H; Nanjundappa, Mahesh; Ravindran, Sindhu; Seah, Peck G; Thayalan, Pamela; Lim, Siao H; Lee, Boon H; Goh, Anne; Barnes, Whitney S; Chen, Zhong; Gagaring, Kerstin; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Pethe, Kevin; Kuhen, Kelli; Walker, John; Feng, Gu; Babu, Sreehari; Zhang, Lijun; Blasco, Francesca; Beer, David; Weaver, Margaret; Dartois, Veronique; Glynne, Richard; Dick, Thomas; Smith, Paul W; Diagana, Thierry T; Manjunatha, Ujjini H

2013-12-01

478

The Effect of Garcin® in Preventing AntiTB-Induced Hepatitis in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients.  

PubMed

Adverse effects of antituberculosis agents such as hepatotoxicity may reduce treatment effectiveness, because they significantly contribute to nonadherence and eventually result in treatment failure, relapse or the emergence of drug resistance. Garlic is an ancient herbal substance, which its effectiveness on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in animal models has been demonstrated (1). In the present study a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial was designed to assess the effect(s) of garlic tablets (1000 mg daily) administered for two weeks orally. Fifty eight newly diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, with age ranges between 18-65 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups. Each patient received either garlic or placebo tablets for the first two weeks of tuberculosis treatment. Of total 58 patients, 31 received garlic tablets while 27 received placebo. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding age, sex, nationality, smoking, underlying diseases and opium usage. During 8 weeks of anti-TB (antituberculosis) treatment, 8 (13.0%) patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). Of them, 6 (75%) occurred in the first two weeks of treatment. Fifty percent of the patients who developed DIH were in garlic group. Results indicated no significant difference between groups in developing DIH (p=1.000). We could not show a significant role in preventing DIH by 1000 mg daily garlic administration. PMID:24711843

Tabarsi, Payam; Fahimi, Fanak; Heidarzadeh, Nader; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Kazempour, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

479

The Effect of Garcin® in Preventing AntiTB-Induced Hepatitis in Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Adverse effects of antituberculosis agents such as hepatotoxicity may reduce treatment effectiveness, because they significantly contribute to nonadherence and eventually result in treatment failure, relapse or the emergence of drug resistance. Garlic is an ancient herbal substance, which its effectiveness on isoniazid and rifampicin-induced hepatic injury in animal models has been demonstrated (1). In the present study a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial was designed to assess the effect(s) of garlic tablets (1000 mg daily) administered for two weeks orally. Fifty eight newly diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients, with age ranges between 18-65 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups. Each patient received either garlic or placebo tablets for the first two weeks of tuberculosis treatment. Of total 58 patients, 31 received garlic tablets while 27 received placebo. No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding age, sex, nationality, smoking, underlying diseases and opium usage. During 8 weeks of anti-TB (antituberculosis) treatment, 8 (13.0%) patients developed drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH). Of them, 6 (75%) occurred in the first two weeks of treatment. Fifty percent of the patients who developed DIH were in garlic group. Results indicated no significant difference between groups in developing DIH (p=1.000). We could not show a significant role in preventing DIH by 1000 mg daily garlic administration. PMID:24711843

Tabarsi, Payam; Fahimi, Fanak; Heidarzadeh, Nader; Haghgoo, Roodabeh; Kazempour, Mehdi; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

480

Oral myiasis: a rare entity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myiasis is the invasion of tissues and organs of human beings or other vertebrates by fly larvae. This phenomenon is well\\u000a documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a When tissues of the oral cavity are invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, this condition is called oral myiasis. Oral\\u000a myiasis is a rare

Gayathri S. Rao; Laxmikanth Chatra; Shenai K Prashanth

2009-01-01

481

Oral complications in cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

Carl, W.

1983-02-01

482

Route 66 Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The folks at Missouri State University have interviewed a range of business owners along the celebrated Route 66 to tell the amazing story of what life was like living along this American landmark. Visitors can read through interviews with a variety of people, including the long-time owner of the Boots Motel in Carthage, Missouri and Sheldon and Julia Chaney, owner of a popular gas station. It's the type of popular oral history that makes for excellent reading and contemplation. They plan on adding more material in the future, so curious visitors would do well to make return visits to see what's added next.

483

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

2014-11-01

484

Arla Jones Oral History  

E-print Network

:00:06 ALBIN: Okay. So we're now recording. It is March 10, 2008, and I am here with Arla Jones, and Radish is running around the room. 00:00:17 JONES: With a chew toy. 00:00:18 ALBIN: And we are here once again to do an oral history. And I... York to get—I'm trying to make sure she's not going to pee on anything, [Radish, the dog.] 10 So I met Kim. And we were friends for three years before we even figured out anything. I mean what happened was Kim was working in the gift shop. I had...

Jones, Arla; Albin, Tami

2010-10-06

485

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine