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1

STI571 (Gleevec) improves tumor growth delay and survival in irradiated mouse models of glioblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain neoplasm that is essentially incurable. Although radiation therapy prolongs survival, GBMs progress within areas of irradiation. Recent studies in invertebrates have shown that STI571 (Gleevec; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ) enhances the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation. In the present study, the effectiveness of STI571 in combination with radiation was studied in mouse models of GBM. Methods and Materials: Murine GL261 and human D54 GBM cell lines formed tumors in brains and hind limbs of C57BL6 and nude mice, respectively. GL261 and D54 cells were treated with 5 {mu}mol/L of STI571 for 1 h and/or irradiated with 3 Gy. Protein was analyzed by Western immunoblots probed with antibodies to caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, phospho-Akt, Akt, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) {alpha} and {beta}. Tumor volumes were assessed in mice bearing GL261 or D54 tumors treated with 21 Gy administered in seven fractionated doses. Histologic sections from STI571-treated mice were stained with phospho-Akt and phospho-PDGFR {beta} antibodies. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to study the response of mice bearing intracranial implants of GL261. Results: STI571 penetrated the blood-brain barrier, which resulted in a reduction in phospho-PDGFR in GBM. STI571-induced apoptosis in GBM was significantly enhanced by irradiation. STI571 combined with irradiation induced caspase 3 cleavage in GBM cells. Glioblastoma multiforme response to therapy correlated with an increase in tumor growth delay and survival when STI571 was administered in conjunction with daily irradiation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that STI571 has the potential to augment radiotherapy and thereby improve median survival.

Geng Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Shinohara, Eric T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Kim, Dong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Tan Jiahuai [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Osusky, Kate [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Shyr, Yu [Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Hallahan, Dennis E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States) and Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States) and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN (United States)]. E-mail: Dennis.Hallahan@mcmail.vanderbilt.edu

2006-01-01

2

Irradiation combined with SU5416: Microvascular changes and growth delay in a human xenograft glioblastoma tumor line  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The combination of irradiation and the antiangiogenic compound SU5416 was tested and compared with irradiation alone in a human glioblastoma tumor line xenografted in nude mice. The aim of this study was to monitor microenvironmental changes and growth delay. Methods and materials: A human glioblastoma xenograft tumor line was implanted in nude mice. Irradiations consisted of 10 Gy or 20 Gy with and without SU5416. Several microenvironmental parameters (tumor cell hypoxia, tumor blood perfusion, vascular volume, and microvascular density) were analyzed after imunohistochemical staining. Tumor growth delay was monitored for up to 200 days after treatment. Results: SU5416, when combined with irradiation, has an additive effect over treatment with irradiation alone. Analysis of the tumor microenvironment showed a decreased vascular density during treatment with SU5416. In tumors regrowing after reaching only a partial remission, vascular characteristics normalized shortly after cessation of SU5416. However, in tumors regrowing after reaching a complete remission, permanent microenvironmental changes and an increase of tumor necrosis with a subsequent slower tumor regrowth was found. Conclusions: Permanent vascular changes were seen after combined treatment resulting in complete remission. Antiangiogenic treatment with SU5416 when combined with irradiation has an additive effect over treatment with irradiation or antiangiogenic treatment alone.

Schuuring, Janneke [Department of NeurologyUniversity Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda (Netherlands); Bussink, Johan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: J.Bussink@rther.umcn.nl; Bernsen, Hans [Department ofRadiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Peeters, Wenny [Department ofRadiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kogel, Albert J. van der [Department ofRadiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2005-02-01

3

AZD1480 delays tumor growth in a melanoma model while enhancing the suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells  

PubMed Central

AZD1480 is a potent, competitive small-molecule inhibitor of JAK1/2 kinase which inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and tumor growth. Here we investigated the effects of AZD1480 on the function of different immune cell populations in a melanoma model. When MO4 tumor-bearing mice were treated with AZD1480 we observed a strong inhibition of tumor growth as well as a prolonged survival. Moreover, a significant decrease in the percentage of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was observed after treatment with AZD1480. However, AZD1480 enhanced the suppressive capacity of murine MDSCs while at the same time impairing the proliferative as well as the IFN-? secretion capacity of murine T cells. The addition of AZD1480 to co-cultures of human MDSCs and T cells does not affect the suppressive activity of MDSCs but it does reduce the IFN-? secretion and the proliferative capacity of T cells. We showed that although AZD1480 has the ability to delay the tumor growth of MO4 tumor-bearing mice, this drug has detrimental effects on several aspects of the immune system. These data indicate that systemic targeting of the JAK/STAT pathway by JAK1/2 inhibition can have divergent effects on tumor growth and anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:25149535

Maenhout, Sarah K.; Four, Stephanie Du; Corthals, Jurgen; Neyns, Bart; Thielemans, Kris; Aerts, Joeri L.

2014-01-01

4

Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine Promotes Glioma Invasion and Delays Tumor Growth in Vivo1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is highly expressed in human astrocytomas, grades II-IV. We demonstrated previously that SPARC promotes invasion in vitro using the U87MG-derived clone U87T2 and U87T2-derived SPARC-transfected clones, A2b2, A2bi, and C2a4, in the spheroid confrontation assay. Additional in vitro studies demonstrated that SPARC delays growth, increases attachment, and modulates migration of tumor cells

Chad Schultz; Nancy Lemke; Shugang Ge; William A. Golembieski; Sandra A. Rempel

5

Dynamical Properties of AN Anti-Tumor Cell Growth System in the Presence of Delay and Correlated Noises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study dynamical properties of an anti-tumor cell growth system in the presence of time delay and correlations between multiplicative and additive white noise. Using the small time delay approximation, the Novikov theorem and Fox approach, the stationary probability distribution (SPD) is obtained. Based on the SPD, the expressions of the normalized correlation function C(s) and the associated relaxation time Tc are derived by means of Stratonovich decoupling ansatz. Based on numerical computations, we find the following: (i) The SPD exhibits one-peak ? two-peaks ? one-peak phase transitions as the correlation intensity ? varies. (ii) The relaxation time Tc exhibits a one-peak structure for negatively correlated noise (?<0), however for positively correlated noise (?>0), the relaxation time Tc decreases monotonously. (iii) The effects of the delay time ? on Tc and C(s) are entirely the same for ?<0 and for ?>0, i.e. ? enhances the fluctuation decay of the population of tumor cells.

Zeng, Chun-Hua; Xie, Chong-Wei

6

An MMP13-Selective Inhibitor Delays Primary Tumor Growth and the Onset of Tumor-Associated Osteolytic Lesions in Experimental Models of Breast Cancer  

E-print Network

We investigated the effects of the matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13)-selective inhibitor, 5-(4-{4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3oxazol-2-yl]phenoxy}phenoxy)-5-(2-methoxyethyl) pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (Cmpd-1), on the primary tumor growth and breast cancer-associated bone remodeling using xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. We used human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells inoculated into the mammary fat pad and left ventricle of BALB/c Nu/Nu mice, respectively, and spontaneously metastasizing 4T1.2-Luc mouse mammary cells inoculated into mammary fat pad of BALB/c mice. In a prevention setting, treatment with Cmpd-1 markedly delayed the growth of primary tumors in both models, and reduced the onset and severity of osteolytic lesions in the MDA-MB-231 intracardiac model. Intervention treatment with Cmpd-1 on established MDA-MB-231 primary tumors also significantly inhibited subsequent growth. In contrast, no effects of Cmpd-1 were observed on soft organ metastatic burden following intracardiac or mammary fat pad inoculations of MDA-MB-231 and 4T1.2-Luc cells respectively. MMP13 immunostaining of clinical primary breast tumors and experimental mice tumors revealed intra-tumoral and stromal expression in most tumors, and vasculature expression in all. MMP13 was also detected in osteoblasts in clinical samples of breast-to-bone metastases. The data suggest that MMP13-selective inhibitors, which lack musculoskeletal side effects, may have therapeutic potential both in primary breast cancer and cancer-induced bone

Manisha Shah; Dexing Huang; Tony Blick; Andrea Connor; Lawrence A. Reiter; Joel R. Hardink; Conor C. Lynch; Mark Waltham; Erik W. Thompson

7

Targeting of the Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase B with a Monoclonal Antibody Delays Tumor Growth in a Glioblastoma Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase B (RPTPB )i s a functional biomarker for several solid tumor types. RPTPB expression is largely restricted to the central nervous system and overexpressed primarily in astrocytic tumors. RPTPB is known to facilitate tumor cell adhesion and migration through interactions with extracellular matrix components and the growth factor pleiotrophin. Here, we show that RPTPB is

Erik D. Foehr; Gustavo Lorente; Jane Kuo; Rosie Ram; Karoly Nikolich; Roman Urfer

8

Growth delay in a murine squamous cell tumor after local radiation and concurrent infusional 5-fluorouracil treatment.  

PubMed

In an effort to increase local control rates in a variety of human squamous cell carcinomas, infusional 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) has been combined with conventional fractionated radiation. The present work uses an experimental tumor system to examine the interactive effect of radiation and 5FU treatment. A transplantable murine tumor of squamous cell origin, SCC VII/SF, was grown in the legs of C3H mice. Leg diameter was measured and converted to tumor weight by an empirical calibration curve. Tumors of 0.3 g were treated by local irradiation with single or fractionated doses of 100 kVp X rays, alone, or in combination with a 7 day infusion of 5FU delivered by subcutaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps. The tumor response was measured for single doses of 10-30 Gy and a fractionated dose of 5 Gy per day for 5 days. Studies done with single doses of radiation indicated delay and extent of tumor volume reduction, increased with dose. The effects of 5FU as a single agent were studied at infusion rates of 0.7, 1.3, or 2 mg/kg/hr for seven days. The LD50 for 5FU infusion was 1.3 mg/kg/hr. A single dose of 20 Gy or a fractionated dose of 5 Gy per day for 5 days was compared both in the presence and absence of 5FU at 0.7 mg/kg/hr. Results were consistent with the single dose radiation and infusional 5FU, interacting in a less than simply additive fashion, whereas, the 5FU-fractionated radiation interaction appears to be greater than simply additive. These results suggest that infusional 5FU may be enhancing the effects of fractionated radiation by inhibiting tumor cell repair and/or repopulation. PMID:3759572

Weinberg, M J; Lapointe, T A; Rauth, A M

1986-08-01

9

Overexpression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 189 in Breast Cancer Cells Leads to Delayed Tumor Uptake with Dilated Intratumoral Vessels  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for breast cancer progression and is a relevant target in anti-angiogenesis. Although VEGF121 and VEGF165, the fully or partially secreted isoforms, respectively, have been the focus of intense studies, the role of the cell-associated VEGF189 isoform is not understood. To clarify the contribution of VEGF189 to human mammary carcinogenesis, we established several clones of MDA-MB-231 cells stably overexpressing VEGF189 (V189) and VEGF165 (V165). V189 and V165 clones increased tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Remarkably, V165 induced the most rapid tumor uptake, whereas V189 increased vasodilation. In vitro overexpression of VEGF165 and VEGF189 increases the proliferation and chemokinesis of these cancer cells. Interestingly, overexpression of VEGF189 increased cell adhesion on fibronectin (1.9-fold) and vitronectin (1.6-fold), as compared to VEGF165, through ?5?1 and ?v?5 integrins. Using the BIACore system we demonstrated for the first time that VEGF189 binds directly to neuropilin-1, which is strongly expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, VEGF-R2 was not significantly expressed and VEGF-R1 was expressed at low level. Our in vitro results suggest an autocrine effect of VEGF189 on breast cancer cells, probably through neuropilin-1. In conclusion, our data indicate that VEGF189 participates in mammary tumor growth through both angiogenesis and nonangiogenic functions. Whether VEGF189 overexpression is correlated to prognosis in human breast tumors remains to be established. PMID:18079435

Hervé, Marie-Astrid; Buteau-Lozano, Hélčne; Vassy, Roger; Bieche, Ivan; Velasco, Guillaume; Pla, Marika; Perret, Gérard; Mourah, Samia; Perrot-Applanat, Martine

2008-01-01

10

Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor 189 in breast cancer cells leads to delayed tumor uptake with dilated intratumoral vessels.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for breast cancer progression and is a relevant target in anti-angiogenesis. Although VEGF121 and VEGF165, the fully or partially secreted isoforms, respectively, have been the focus of intense studies, the role of the cell-associated VEGF189 isoform is not understood. To clarify the contribution of VEGF189 to human mammary carcinogenesis, we established several clones of MDA-MB-231 cells stably overexpressing VEGF189 (V189) and VEGF165 (V165). V189 and V165 clones increased tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Remarkably, V165 induced the most rapid tumor uptake, whereas V189 increased vasodilation. In vitro overexpression of VEGF165 and VEGF189 increases the proliferation and chemokinesis of these cancer cells. Interestingly, overexpression of VEGF189 increased cell adhesion on fibronectin (1.9-fold) and vitronectin (1.6-fold), as compared to VEGF165, through alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta5 integrins. Using the BIACore system we demonstrated for the first time that VEGF189 binds directly to neuropilin-1, which is strongly expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, VEGF-R2 was not significantly expressed and VEGF-R1 was expressed at low level. Our in vitro results suggest an autocrine effect of VEGF189 on breast cancer cells, probably through neuropilin-1. In conclusion, our data indicate that VEGF189 participates in mammary tumor growth through both angiogenesis and nonangiogenic functions. Whether VEGF189 overexpression is correlated to prognosis in human breast tumors remains to be established. PMID:18079435

Hervé, Marie-Astrid; Buteau-Lozano, Hélčne; Vassy, Roger; Bieche, Ivan; Velasco, Guillaume; Pla, Marika; Perret, Gérard; Mourah, Samia; Perrot-Applanat, Martine

2008-01-01

11

Small Interfering RNA Targeted to IGF-IR Delays Tumor Growth and Induces Proinflammatory Cytokines in a Mouse Breast Cancer Model  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its type I receptor (IGF-IR) play significant roles in tumorigenesis and in immune response. Here, we wanted to know whether an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be used for specific antitumor immunostimulation in a breast cancer model. For that, we evaluated short interfering RNA (siRNAs) for inhibition of in vivo tumor growth and immunological stimulation in immunocompetent mice. We designed 2?-O-methyl-modified siRNAs to inhibit expression of IGF-IR in two murine breast cancer cell lines (EMT6, C4HD). Cell transfection of IGF-IR siRNAs decreased proliferation, diminished phosphorylation of downstream signaling pathway proteins, AKT and ERK, and caused a G0/G1 cell cycle block. The IGF-IR silencing also induced secretion of two proinflammatory cytokines, TNF- ? and IFN-?. When we transfected C4HD cells with siRNAs targeting IGF-IR, mammary tumor growth was strongly delayed in syngenic mice. Histology of developing tumors in mice grafted with IGF-IR siRNA treated C4HD cells revealed a low mitotic index, and infiltration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, suggesting activation of an antitumor immune response. When we used C4HD cells treated with siRNA as an immunogen, we observed an increase in delayed-type hypersensitivity and the presence of cytotoxic splenocytes against wild-type C4HD cells, indicative of evolving immune response. Our findings show that silencing IGF-IR using synthetic siRNA bearing 2?-O-methyl nucleotides may offer a new clinical approach for treatment of mammary tumors expressing IGF-IR. Interestingly, our work also suggests that crosstalk between IGF-I axis and antitumor immune response can mobilize proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:22235273

Durfort, Tiphanie; Tkach, Mercedes; Meschaninova, Mariya I.; Rivas, Martín A.; Elizalde, Patricia V.; Venyaminova, Alya G.; Schillaci, Roxana; François, Jean-Christophe

2012-01-01

12

Direct interaction with and activation of p53 by SMAR1 retards cell-cycle progression at G2/M phase and delays tumor growth in mice.  

PubMed

The tumor-suppressor p53 is a multifunctional protein mainly responsible for maintaining genomic integrity. p53 induces its tumor-suppressor activity by either causing cell-cycle arrest (G(1)/S or G(2)/M) or inducing cells to undergo apoptosis. This function of wild-type p53 as "guardian of the genome" is presumably achieved by forming molecular complexes with different DNA targets as well as by interacting with a number of cellular proteins, e.g., Mdm2, Gadd45, p21, 14-3-3sigma, Bax and Apaf-1. Upon activation, p53 activates p21, which in turn controls the cell cycle by regulating G(1) or G(2) checkpoints. Here, we report SMAR1 as one such p53-interacting protein that is involved in delaying tumor progression in vivo as well as in regulating the cell cycle. SMAR1 is a newly identified MARBP involved in chromatin-mediated gene regulation. The SMAR1 gene encodes at least 2 alternatively spliced variants: SMAR1(L) (the full-length form) and SMAR1(S) (the shorter form). We report that expression of SMAR1(S), but not of SMAR1(L), mRNA was decreased in most of the human cell lines examined, suggesting selective silencing of SMAR1(S). Overexpression of SMAR1(S) in mouse melanoma cells (B16F1) and their subsequent injection in C57BL/6 mice delays tumor growth. Exogenous SMAR1(S) causes significant retardation of B16F1 cells in the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle compared to SMAR1(L). SMAR1(S) activates p53-mediated reporter gene expression in mouse melanoma cells, breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and p53 null cells (K562), followed by activation of its downstream effector, p21. We further demonstrate that SMAR1 physically interacts and colocalizes with p53. These data together suggest that SMAR1 is the only known MARBP that delays tumor progression via direct activation and interaction with tumor-suppressor p53. PMID:12494467

Kaul, Ruchika; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Ahmed, Farid; Bhat, Manoj Kumar; Chhipa, Rishiraj; Galande, Sanjeev; Chattopadhyay, Samit

2003-02-20

13

Knockdown of platinum-induced growth differentiation factor 15 abrogates p27-mediated tumor growth delay in the chemoresistant ovarian cancer model A2780cis  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to platinum-based treatment in patients with ovarian cancer remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models allowing the identification of resistance-related factors. In this study, we used human whole-genome microarrays and linear model analysis to identify potential resistance-related genes by comparing the expression profiles of the parental human ovarian cancer model A2780 and its platinum-resistant variant A2780cis before and after carboplatin treatment in vivo. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was identified as one of five potential resistance-related genes in the A2780cis tumor model. Although A2780-bearing mice showed a strong carboplatin-induced increase of GDF15 plasma levels, the basal higher GDF15 plasma levels of A2780cis-bearing mice showed no further increase after short-term or long-term carboplatin treatment. This correlated with a decreased DNA damage response, enhanced AKT survival signaling and abrogated cell cycle arrest in the carboplatin-treated A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, knockdown of GDF15 in A2780cis cells did not alter cell proliferation but enhanced cell migration and colony size in vitro. Interestingly, in vivo knockdown of GDF15 in the A2780cis model led to a basal-enhanced tumor growth, but increased sensitivity to carboplatin treatment as compared to the control-transduced A2780cis tumors. This was associated with larger necrotic areas, a lobular tumor structure and increased p53 and p16 expression of the carboplatin-treated shGDF15-A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated GDF15 knockdown abrogated p27 expression as compared to control-transduced A2780cis tumors. In conclusion, these data show that GDF15 may contribute to carboplatin resistance by suppressing tumor growth through p27. These data show that GDF15 might serve as a novel treatment target in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25490861

Meier, Julia C; Haendler, Bernard; Seidel, Henrik; Groth, Philip; Adams, Robert; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Kreft, Bertolt; Beckmann, Georg; Sommer, Anette; Kopitz, Charlotte

2015-01-01

14

Strange Attractor in Immunology of Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

The time delayed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response on the tumor growth has been developed on the basis of discrete approximation (2-dimensional map). The growth kinetic has been described by logistic law with growth rate being the bifurcation parameter. Increase in the growth rate results in instability of the tumor state and causes period-doubling bifurcations in the immune+tumor system. For larger values of tumor growth rate a strange attractor has been observed. The model proposed is able to describe the metastable-state production when time series data of the immune state and the number of tumor cells are irregular and unpredictable. This metastatic disease may be caused not by exterior (medical) factors, but interior density dependent ones.

Margarita Voitikova

1997-08-21

15

In vivo studies in NCT with a boronated porphyrin and tumor growth delay as an end point  

SciTech Connect

The robust carrying capacity of the porphyrin molecule and its propensity for localizing in tumor justified the synthesizing of a porphyrin labeled with boron for use in BNCT. However, problems associated with poor solubility impeded the utility of the molecule. Until BOPP was synthesized porphyrins were promising, but impractical. After in vitro experiments had demonstrated the biological efficacy of BOPP and had confirmed its intracellular localizing ability in vivo studies were carried out using mice. Irradiation of KHJJ murine mammary carcinoma to the TCD[sub 50] in a single fraction was precluded since this whole body dose is lethal. This problem was overcome by the use of radiation. BOPP was administered either as three 0.5 ml injections per day over two days or by continuous i.v. infusion, 2 ml per day over three days for a total dose of about 42 [mu]g [sup 10]B/gbw. Boron-10 distribution in the tumor at the time of irradiation was [approximately]20 [mu]g.

Laster, B.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology); Kahl, S.B. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry); Warkentien, L.; Bond, V.P. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

16

In vivo studies in NCT with a boronated porphyrin and tumor growth delay as an end point  

SciTech Connect

The robust carrying capacity of the porphyrin molecule and its propensity for localizing in tumor justified the synthesizing of a porphyrin labeled with boron for use in BNCT. However, problems associated with poor solubility impeded the utility of the molecule. Until BOPP was synthesized porphyrins were promising, but impractical. After in vitro experiments had demonstrated the biological efficacy of BOPP and had confirmed its intracellular localizing ability in vivo studies were carried out using mice. Irradiation of KHJJ murine mammary carcinoma to the TCD{sub 50} in a single fraction was precluded since this whole body dose is lethal. This problem was overcome by the use of radiation. BOPP was administered either as three 0.5 ml injections per day over two days or by continuous i.v. infusion, 2 ml per day over three days for a total dose of about 42 {mu}g {sup 10}B/gbw. Boron-10 distribution in the tumor at the time of irradiation was {approximately}20 {mu}g.

Laster, B.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kahl, S.B. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry; Warkentien, L.; Bond, V.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

17

Targeted cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyl transferase suicide gene therapy induces small cell lung cancer specific cytotoxicity and tumor growth delay  

PubMed Central

Purpose Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant cancer for which there is no curable treatment and novel therapies are therefore in high demand. In the present study we investigated the therapeutic effect of transcriptionally targeted suicide gene therapy for SCLC based on the yeast cytosine deaminase (YCD) gene alone or fused with the yeast uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (YUPRT) gene followed by administration of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) prodrug Experimental design The YCD gene or the YCD-YUPRT gene was placed under regulation of the SCLC-specific promoter Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1). Therapeutic effect was evaluated in vitro in SCLC cell lines and in vivo in SCLC xenografted nude mice using the non-viral nanoparticle, DOTAP:Cholesterol for transgene delivery. Results INSM1-YCD/5-FC and INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy induced high cytotoxicity in a range of SCLC cell lines. The highest therapeutic effect was obtained from the YCD-YUPRT fusion gene strategy. No cytotoxicity was induced after treatment of cell lines of other origin than SCLC. In addition the INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy was superior to an established suicide gene system consisting of the Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSVTK) gene and prodrug Ganciclovir (GCV). The superior effect was in part due to massive bystander cytotoxicity of YCD-YUPRT-produced toxins. Finally, INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy induced significant tumor growth delay in SCLC xenografts compared to control treated xenografts. Conclusions The current study is the first to test cytosine deaminase-based suicide gene therapy for SCLC and the first to demonstrate an anti-tumor effect from the delivery of suicide gene therapeutics for SCLC in vivo. PMID:20371678

Christensen, Camilla L.; Gjetting, Torben; Poulsen, Thomas T.; Cramer, Frederik; Roth, Jack A.; Poulsen, Hans S.

2012-01-01

18

Constitutional Growth Delay and Learning Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Records of children admitted to a growth clinic and follow-up questionnaires were examined to determine the incidence of learning problems in children with constitutional growth delay and those with familial short stature. (Author/PHR)

Gold, Ruth F.

1978-01-01

19

Periodic and chaotic oscillations in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays.  

PubMed

In this paper, a tumor and immune system interaction model consisted of two differential equations with three time delays is considered in which the delays describe the proliferation of tumor cells, the process of effector cells growth stimulated by tumor cells, and the differentiation of immune effector cells, respectively. Conditions for the asymptotic stability of equilibria and existence of Hopf bifurcations are obtained by analyzing the roots of a second degree exponential polynomial characteristic equation with delay dependent coefficients. It is shown that the positive equilibrium is asymptotically stable if all three delays are less than their corresponding critical values and Hopf bifurcations occur if any one of these delays passes through its critical value. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the rich dynamical behavior of the model with different delay values including the existence of regular and irregular long periodic oscillations. PMID:24985415

Bi, Ping; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

2014-06-01

20

Periodic and chaotic oscillations in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a tumor and immune system interaction model consisted of two differential equations with three time delays is considered in which the delays describe the proliferation of tumor cells, the process of effector cells growth stimulated by tumor cells, and the differentiation of immune effector cells, respectively. Conditions for the asymptotic stability of equilibria and existence of Hopf bifurcations are obtained by analyzing the roots of a second degree exponential polynomial characteristic equation with delay dependent coefficients. It is shown that the positive equilibrium is asymptotically stable if all three delays are less than their corresponding critical values and Hopf bifurcations occur if any one of these delays passes through its critical value. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the rich dynamical behavior of the model with different delay values including the existence of regular and irregular long periodic oscillations.

Bi, Ping [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of PMMP, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China) [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of PMMP, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Center for Partial Differential Equations, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 (China); Ruan, Shigui, E-mail: ruan@math.miami.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124-4250 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124-4250 (United States); Zhang, Xinan [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)] [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

2014-06-15

21

Periodic and chaotic oscillations in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a tumor and immune system interaction model consisted of two differential equations with three time delays is considered in which the delays describe the proliferation of tumor cells, the process of effector cells growth stimulated by tumor cells, and the differentiation of immune effector cells, respectively. Conditions for the asymptotic stability of equilibria and existence of Hopf bifurcations are obtained by analyzing the roots of a second degree exponential polynomial characteristic equation with delay dependent coefficients. It is shown that the positive equilibrium is asymptotically stable if all three delays are less than their corresponding critical values and Hopf bifurcations occur if any one of these delays passes through its critical value. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the rich dynamical behavior of the model with different delay values including the existence of regular and irregular long periodic oscillations.

Bi, Ping; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

2014-06-01

22

Angiogenin antagonists prevent tumor growth in vivo.  

PubMed Central

A noncytotoxic neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb), 26-2F, to human angiogenin (Ang), a potent inducer of neovascularization, has been reported to prevent or delay the establishment of HT-29 human tumor xenografts in athymic mice. In the present study the tumor model was modified to increase sensitivity to Ang antagonists to facilitate further investigations and comparisons of their capacity to inhibit tumor growth. An increase in the percentage of tumor-free mice from 10-25% to 65% is observed in this modified model after treatment with mAb 26-2F. An additional neutralizing mAb, 36u, that interacts with a different epitope on Ang similarly prevents the appearance of tumors, both alone and in combination with mAb 26-2F. In those tumors that develop in mice treated with these agents, the number of vascular elements is reduced. Actin, an Ang antagonist that unlike the mAbs binds both human and mouse Ang, also prevents the establishment of tumors while exhibiting no toxic effects at daily doses > 50 times the molar amount of circulating mouse Ang. Ang antagonists also inhibit the appearance of tumors derived from two other Ang-secreting human tumor cell lines--i.e., A549 lung adenocarcinoma and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma. These results demonstrate that inhibition of the action of Ang is an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant disease. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7831307

Olson, K A; Fett, J W; French, T C; Key, M E; Vallee, B L

1995-01-01

23

[Bacterial phagelysates and malignant tumor growth].  

PubMed

Anti-tumor preventive efficacy of E.coli phagelysate has been studied. Investigations were conducted on 2-3 months 48 male mice. Regimen of preventive vaccinations were: single - 0,25 ml phagelysate intraperitoneal injection, 3 days before Ehrlich carcinoma inoculation (1x10(6) tumor cells); 3 times vaccinations (0,25 ml, with 3 day intervals) 3, 6, and 9 days before inoculation of carcinoma; and 10 times (during 10 days, before inoculation of carcinoma). Treatment efficacy was evaluated according to the indices of cancer growth (development of cancer tissue, cancer growth inhibition percent, lifespan and survival percent). Experiments have shown that single and 3 times preventive vaccinations inhibited tumor development and delayed malignant growth, while, 10 times permanent vaccinations had no effects on cancer growth. Cancer growth inhibition percent in single and 3 times vaccinated animals were 58% on the average. Maximal lifespan in control group mice consisted 59 days. By the 125th day of cancer growth, at single vaccination 17% of mice were alive, while in 3 times vaccinated mice the survival percent was 25%. Anti-tumor potential of E.coli pagelysate supposedly could be explained by immunoregulatory properties of the preparation. PMID:24743131

Gambashidze, K; Bejitashvili, N; Azaladze, T; Pkhaladze, M; Azaladze, A

2014-03-01

24

Steady-State Analysis of Necrotic Core Formation for Solid Avascular Tumors with Time Delays in Regulatory Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

A mathematical model for the growth of solid avascular tumor with time delays in regulatory apoptosis is studied. The existence of stationary solutions and the mechanism of formation of necrotic cores in the growth of the tumors are studied. The results show that if the natural death rate of the tumor cell exceeds a fixed positive constant, then the dormant tumor is nonnecrotic; otherwise, the dormant tumor is necrotic.

2014-01-01

25

Mechanics in Tumor Growth 1 Mechanics in Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

the extracellular matrix. As will be described in the following this process is affected by the stress applied some of the main feature of tumor growth and in particular the phenomena involving stress description, one can say that the cells forming a compact tumor, like other cells in the body, live

Preziosi, Luigi

26

How Growth Abnormalities Delay "Puberty" in Drosophila  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In various organisms, including flies, amphibians, and mammals, major developmental transitions such as metamorphosis and puberty are triggered by specific hormones. The requirement for a hormone to proceed to the next stage allows the organism to reestablish the temporal coordination of development between multiple organs that might develop at slightly different rates. Additionally, organisms appear to have evolved mechanisms for delaying these transitions in situations where growth in an organ is abnormal or delayed. New evidence in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster indicates that DILP8, a protein of the insulin and relaxin family, delays the onset of metamorphosis under several conditions that alter growth in imaginal discs. Similar mechanisms might operate in disease states in humans where alterations in growth or tissue inflammation can delay puberty.

Iswar K. Hariharan (University of California Berkeley;Department of Molecular and Cell Biology REV)

2012-06-19

27

MAZ-binding G4-decoy with locked nucleic acid and twisted intercalating nucleic acid modifications suppresses KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells and delays tumor growth in mice  

PubMed Central

KRAS mutations are primary genetic lesions leading to pancreatic cancer. The promoter of human KRAS contains a nuclease-hypersensitive element (NHE) that can fold in G4-DNA structures binding to nuclear proteins, including MAZ (myc-associated zinc-finger). Here, we report that MAZ activates KRAS transcription. To knockdown oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells, we designed oligonucleotides that mimic one of the G-quadruplexes formed by NHE (G4-decoys). To increase their nuclease resistance, two locked nucleic acid (LNA) modifications were introduced at the 3?-end, whereas to enhance the folding and stability, two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon units (TINA or AMANY) were inserted internally, to cap the quadruplex. The most active G4-decoy (2998), which had two para-TINAs, strongly suppressed KRAS expression in Panc-1 cells. It also repressed their metabolic activity (IC50 = 520 nM), and it inhibited cell growth and colony formation by activating apoptosis. We finally injected 2998 and control oligonucleotides 5153, 5154 (2 nmol/mouse) intratumorally in SCID mice bearing a Panc-1 xenograft. After three treatments, 2998 reduced tumor xenograft growth by 64% compared with control and increased the Kaplan–Meier median survival time by 70%. Together, our data show that MAZ-specific G4-decoys mimicking a KRAS quadruplex are promising for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:23471001

Cogoi, Susanna; Zorzet, Sonia; Rapozzi, Valentina; Géci, Imrich; Pedersen, Erik B.; Xodo, Luigi E.

2013-01-01

28

Circadian rhythms and tumor growth.  

PubMed

Hormone secretion, metabolism, and the cell cycle are under rhythmic control. Lack of rhythmic control has been predicted to lead to uncontrolled proliferation and cancer. Consistent with this prediction are findings that circadian disruption by dim light at night or chronic jet lag accelerates tumor growth in desynchronized animals. Circadian controlled factors such as insulin/IGF-1, glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and melatonin have be implicated in controlling tumor growth in the desynchronized animals. Recent attention has focused on the signaling pathways activated by the circadian controlled factors because these pathways hold the potential for the development of novel strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:22252116

Greene, Michael W

2012-05-28

29

Role of chemokines in tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemokines play a paramount role in the tumor progression. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor formation. Both tumor cells and stromal cells elaborate chemokines and cytokines. These act either by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms to sustain tumor cell growth, induce angiogenesis and facilitate evasion of immune surveillance through immunoediting. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its ligands promote tumor angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration

Dayanidhi Raman; Paige J. Baugher; Yee Mon Thu; Ann Richmond

2007-01-01

30

Inhibition of rate of tumor growth by creatine and cyclocreatine.  

PubMed

Growth rate inhibition of subcutaneously implanted tumors results from feeding rats and athymic nude mice diets containing 1% cyclocreatine or 1%, 2%, 5%, or 10% creatine. The tumors studied included rat mammary tumors (Ac33tc in Lewis female rats and 13762A in Fischer 344 female rats), rat sarcoma MCI in Lewis male rats, and tumors resulting from the injection of two human neuroblastoma cell lines, IMR-5 and CHP-134, in athymic nude mice. Inhibition was observed regardless of the time experimental diets were administered, either at the time of tumor implantation or after the appearance of palpable tumors. For mammary tumor Ac33tc, the growth inhibition during 24 days after the implantation was approximately 50% for both 1% cyclocreatine and 1% creatine, and inhibition increased as creatine was increased from 2% to 10% of the diet. For the other rat mammary tumor (13762A), there was approximately 35% inhibition by both 1% cyclocreatine and 2% creatine. In the case of the MCI sarcoma, the inhibitory effect appeared more pronounced at earlier periods of growth, ranging from 26% to 41% for 1% cyclocreatine and from 30% to 53% for 1% creatine; there was no significant difference in growth rate between the tumors in the rats fed 1% and 5% creatine. The growth rate of tumors in athymic nude mice, produced by implantation of the human neuroblastoma IMR-5 cell line, appeared somewhat more effectively inhibited by 1% cyclocreatine than by 1% creatine, and 5% creatine feeding was most effective. For the CHP-134 cell line, 33% inhibition was observed for the 1% cyclocreatine diet and 71% for the 5% creatine diet. In several experiments, a delay in appearance of tumors was observed in animals on the experimental diets. In occasional experiments, neither additive inhibited tumor growth rate for the rat tumors or the athymic mouse tumors. PMID:8475072

Miller, E E; Evans, A E; Cohn, M

1993-04-15

31

Delay-induced state transition and resonance in periodically driven tumor model with immune surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a tumor growth model under the presence of immune surveillance is investigated. Time delay and cross-correlation between multiplicative and additive noises are considered in the system. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated when periodic signal is introduced multiplicatively. Our results show that: (i) the time delay can accelerate the transition from the state of stable tumor to that of extinction, however the correlation between two noises can accelerate the transition from the state of extinction to that of stable tumor; (ii) the time delay and correlation between two noises can lead to a transition between SR and double SR in the curve of SNR as a function of additive noise intensity, however for the curve of SNR as a function of multiplicative noise intensity, the time delay can cause the SR phenomenon to disappear, and the cross-correlation between two noises can lead to a transition from SR to stochastic reverse-resonance. Finally, we compare the SR phenomenon for the multiplicative periodic signal with that for additive periodic signal in the tumor growth model with immune surveillance.

Yang, Tao; Han, Qinglin; Zeng, Chunhua; Wang, Hua; Fu, Yunchang; Zhang, Chun

2014-06-01

32

Cimetidine inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth.  

PubMed

Cimetidine, a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist, has been reported to improve survival of patients with cancers. However, the exact mechanisms by which cimetidine suppresses development of cancers remain to be elucidated. Solid tumors require neovascularization for their growth. Here, we investigated the effects of cimetidine on tumor growth and angiogenesis. Syngeneic colon cancer cells, CMT93 cells, were inoculated into the subcutaneous space of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with either saline or cimetidine. Tumor size was measured everyday and angiogenesis was evaluated histologically. Cimetidine markedly suppressed tumor growth with reduced neovascularization in the tumor. Cimetidine had no effect on proliferation of CMT93 cells in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor production by cancer cells was not affected by cimetidine, while vascular-like tube formation by endothelial cells in vitro was significantly impaired in the presence of cimetidine. Our findings suggest that cimetidine suppresses tumor growth, at least in part, by inhibiting tumor-associated angiogenesis. PMID:15740937

Natori, Takeshi; Sata, Masataka; Nagai, Ryozo; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

2005-01-01

33

Host response in tumor growth and progression.  

PubMed

Tumor growth and progression result from complex controls that appear to be facilitated by the growth factors (GFs) which emerge from the tumor and find responsive targets both within the tumor and in the surrounding host. For example, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are both angiogenic signals which appear to emerge from upregulated genetic messages in the proliferating rim of a solid tumor in response to tumor-wide hypoxia. If these signals are generated in response to unfavorable environmental conditions, i.e. a tumor-wide decrease in oxygen tension, then the tumor may be playing a role in manipulating its own environment. Two questions are raised in this paper: (1) How does the host respond to such signals? (2) Is there a linkage between the host's response and the ultimate growth of the tumor? To answer these questions, we have idealized these adaptive signals within a mathematical model of tumor growth. The host response is characterized by a function which represents the host's carrying capacity for the tumor. If the function is constant, then environmental control is strictly limited to tumor shape and mitogenic signal processing. However, if we assume that the response of the local stroma to these signals is an increase in the host's ability to support an ever larger tumor, then the model describes a positive feedback controller. In this paper, we summarize our previous results and ask the question: What form of host response is reasonable, and how will it affect ultimate tumor growth? We examine some specific candidate response functions, and analyze them for system stability. In this model, unstable states correspond to 'infinite' tumor growth. We will also discuss countervailing negative feedback signals and their roles in maintaining tumor stability. PMID:9311388

Michelson, S; Leith, J T

1996-01-01

34

MEDI3617, a human anti-angiopoietin 2 monoclonal antibody, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in human tumor xenograft models.  

PubMed

Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) is an important regulator of angiogenesis, blood vessel maturation and integrity of the vascular endothelium. The correlation between the dynamic expression of Ang2 in tumors with regions of high angiogenic activity and a poor prognosis in many tumor types makes Ang2 an ideal drug target. We have generated MEDI3617, a human anti-Ang2 monoclonal antibody that neutralizes Ang2 by preventing its binding to the Tie2 receptor in vitro, and inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Treatment of mice with MEDI3617 resulted in inhibition of angiogenesis in several mouse models including: FGF2-induced angiogenesis in a basement extract plug model, tumor and retinal angiogenesis. In xenograft tumor models, treatment with MEDI3617 resulted in a reduction in tumor angiogenesis and an increase in tumor hypoxia. The administration of MEDI3617 as a single agent to mice bearing human tumor xenografts resulted in tumor growth inhibition against a broad spectrum of tumor types. Combining MEDI3617 with chemotherapy or bevacizumab resulted in a delay in tumor growth and no body weight loss was observed in the combination groups. These results, combined with pharmacodynamic studies, demonstrate that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with MEDI3617 significantly inhibited tumor growth as a single agent by blocking tumor angiogenesis. Together, these data show that MEDI3617 is a robust antiangiogenic agent and support the clinical evaluation and biomarker development of MEDI3617 in cancer patients. PMID:22327175

Leow, Ching Ching; Coffman, Karen; Inigo, Ivan; Breen, Shannon; Czapiga, Meggan; Soukharev, Serguei; Gingles, Neill; Peterson, Norman; Fazenbaker, Christine; Woods, Rob; Jallal, Bahija; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Lavallee, Theresa; Coats, Steve; Chang, Yong

2012-05-01

35

Delay in diagnosis of primary intradural spinal cord tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been our impression in recent years that there is a significant delay in diagnosis (DID) of patients in Israel harboring intradural spinal cord tumors (IDSCTs). DID can lead to irreversible deficits and unnecessary suffering. Our goal was to identify the incidence and the specific reasons for DID of IDSCTs in patients operated upon at our institution. Methods: A retrospective record review, with additional telephone survey, of 101 patients operated upon at our institute between the years 1996 and 2009 was conducted. The patients who were not diagnosed locally and those who were diagnosed during routine spinal imaging studies as part of their basic disease check-up were excluded. Accordingly, neurofibromatosis and medical tourist patients were excluded. Results: The clinical presentation of IDSCTs in our study was similar to the descriptions given in previous reports. The average age was 41.9 ± 23.3 years. Most tumors were ependymomas, astrocytomas, and schwannomas. The most common symptoms were motor or sensory disturbance, back pain, walking disturbance, and sphincter control deficit. The median time to diagnosis was 12.0 ± 37.0 months (range 3 days to 20 years). We found DID in 82.2% of the cases. 62.4% of the cases were defined as “unreasonable delay.” The most common reasons for DID were “classical symptoms with a wrong diagnosis” and “delayed imaging.” Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, the incidence of unreasonable delays in diagnosis of primary IDSCTs in Israel is very high. In order to shorten the time to diagnosis, primary and secondary care physicians need to increase their awareness of symptoms that may be associated with these lesions. We hereby offer feedback for care providers, relevant to the diagnostic workup of these patients. Such a feedback must be delivered by neurosurgeons to the community they are serving. PMID:22629489

Segal, David; Lidar, Zvi; Corn, Akiva; Constantini, Shlomi

2012-01-01

36

Periodic and chaotic oscillations in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays  

E-print Network

Periodic and chaotic oscillations in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays Ping Bi,1,2 Shigui Ruan,3,a) and Xinan Zhang) In this paper, a tumor and immune system interaction model consisted of two differential equations with three

Ruan, Shigui

37

Ursolic acid-induced changes in tumor growth, O2 consumption, and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.  

PubMed

The anti-tumor effect of ursolic acid (UA) and UA-induced changes in tumor physiology in tumor-bearing mice were examined. MTT colorimetric assay, clonogenic assay, and growth-delay assay for the determination of tumoricidal effects of UA were evaluated. UA-induced apoptosis was measured by fluorescent microscopy, stained by propidium iodide. Oxygen consumption (QO2) after treatment with UA was measured using a Clark-type electrode chamber. Systemic toxicity in mice was assayed by LD50(30). We also measured UA-induced changes in several tumor physiological parameters. Inhibitory effect of UA on various tumor cell lines was observed using MTT and clonogenic assays in vitro. UA-induced apoptosis significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular QO2 values were significantly reduced by UA. In animal studies, UA significantly reduced tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) to approximately 40% of the control values at 2-3 days post-treatment (P<0.05). An i.p. administration of 100 mg/kg of UA significantly (P<0.01) inhibited tumor growth of FSaII. In conclusion, UA showed anti-tumor effect on various tumor cells in vitro as well as a moderate retardation of growth in two tumor models in vivo. We gained some insight regarding the pathophysiological benefits of UA (i.e., reduction in TIFP) as a cancer therapeutic agent. Consequently, these observations can be used for further study of UA or to facilitate clinical applications of UA for treating cancer patients. PMID:11724362

Lee, I; Lee, J; Lee, Y H; Leonard, J

2001-01-01

38

ROLE OF CHEMOKINES IN TUMOR GROWTH  

PubMed Central

Chemokines play a paramount role in the tumor progression. Chronic inflammation promotes tumor formation. Both tumor cells and stromal cells elaborate chemokines and cytokines. These act either by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms to sustain tumor cell growth, induce angiogenesis and facilitate evasion of immune surveillance through immunoediting. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its ligands promote tumor angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. In harsh acidic and hypoxic microenvironmental conditions tumor cells up-regulate their expression of CXCR4, which equips them to migrate up a gradient of CXCL12 elaborated by carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to a normoxic microenvironment. The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis facilitates metastasis to distant organs and the CCL21-CCR7 chemokine ligand-receptor pair favors metastasis to lymph nodes. These two chemokine ligand-receptor systems are common key mediators of tumor cell metastasis for several malignancies and as such provide key targets for chemotherapy. In this paper, the role of specific chemokines/chemokine receptor interactions in tumor progression, growth and metastasis and the role of chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in the stromal compartment as related to angiogenesis, metastasis, and immune response to the tumor are reviewed. PMID:17629396

Raman, Dayanidhi; Baugher, Paige J.; Thu, Yee Mon; Richmond, Ann

2007-01-01

39

Delayed Contrast Extravasation MRI for Depicting Tumor and Non-Tumoral Tissues in Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Recent studies suggest that nearly half of the patients with early radiological deterioration post treatment do not suffer from tumor recurrence but from pseudoprogression. Similarly, a significant number of patients with brain metastases suffer from radiation necrosis following radiation treatments. Conventional MRI is currently unable to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-induced effects. The ability to clearly differentiate tumor from non-tumoral tissues is crucial for appropriate patient management. Ten patients with primary brain tumors and 10 patients with brain metastases were scanned by delayed contrast extravasation MRI prior to surgery. Enhancement subtraction maps calculated from high resolution MR images acquired up to 75 min after contrast administration were used for obtaining stereotactic biopsies. Histological assessment was then compared with the pre-surgical calculated maps. In addition, the application of our maps for prediction of progression was studied in a small cohort of 13 newly diagnosed GBM patients undergoing standard chemoradiation and followed up to 19.7 months post therapy. The maps showed two primary enhancement populations: the slow population where contrast clearance from the tissue was slower than contrast accumulation and the fast population where clearance was faster than accumulation. Comparison with histology confirmed the fast population to consist of morphologically active tumor and the slow population to consist of non-tumoral tissues. Our maps demonstrated significant correlation with perfusion-weighted MR data acquired simultaneously, although contradicting examples were shown. Preliminary results suggest that early changes in the fast volumes may serve as a predictor for time to progression. These preliminary results suggest that our high resolution MRI-based delayed enhancement subtraction maps may be applied for clear depiction of tumor and non-tumoral tissues in patients with primary brain tumors and patients with brain metastases. PMID:23251672

Zach, Leor; Guez, David; Last, David; Daniels, Dianne; Grober, Yuval; Nissim, Ouzi; Hoffmann, Chen; Nass, Dvora; Talianski, Alisa; Spiegelmann, Roberto; Cohen, Zvi R.; Mardor, Yael

2012-01-01

40

An approach to constitutional delay of growth and puberty  

PubMed Central

Constitutional delay of growth and puberty is a transient state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with prolongation of childhood phase of growth, delayed skeletal maturation, delayed and attenuated pubertal growth spurt, and relatively low insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion. In a considerable number of cases, the final adult height (Ht) does not reach the mid-parental or the predicted adult Ht for the individual, with some degree of disproportionately short trunk. In the pre-pubertal male, testosterone (T) replacement therapy can be used to induce pubertal development, accelerate growth and relieve the psychosocial complaints of the adolescents. However, some issues in the management are still unresolved. These include type, optimal timing, dose and duration of sex steroid treatment and the possible use of adjunctive or alternate therapy including: oxandrolone, aromatase inhibitors and human growth hormone. PMID:23087852

Soliman, Ashraf T.; Sanctis, Vincenzo De

2012-01-01

41

Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.  

PubMed Central

The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

1991-01-01

42

Successful Mitigation of Delayed Intestinal Radiation Injury Using Pravastatin is not Associated with Acute Injury Improvement or Tumor Protection  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether pravastatin mitigates delayed radiation-induced enteropathy in rats, by focusing on the effects of pravastatin on acute cell death and fibrosis according to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and collagen inhibition. Methods and Materials: Mitigation of delayed radiation-induced enteropathy was investigated in rats using pravastatin administered in drinking water (30 mg/kg/day) 3 days before and 14 days after irradiation. The ileum was irradiated locally after surgical exteriorization (X-rays, 19 Gy). Acute apoptosis, acute and late histologic alterations, and late CTGF and collagen deposition were monitored by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and colorimetric staining (6 h, 3 days, 14 days, 15 weeks, and 26 weeks after irradiation). Pravastatin antitumor action was studied in HT-29, HeLa, and PC-3 cells by clonogenic cell survival assays and tumor growth delay experiments. Results: Pravastatin improved delayed radiation enteropathy in rats, whereas its benefit in acute and subacute injury remained limited (6 h, 3 days, and 14 days after irradiation). Delayed structural improvement was associated with decreased CTGF and collagen deposition but seemed unrelated to acute damage. Indeed, the early apoptotic index increased, and severe subacute structural damage occurred. Pravastatin elicited a differential effect, protecting normal intestine but not tumors from radiation injury. Conclusion: Pravastatin provides effective protection against delayed radiation enteropathy without interfering with the primary antitumor action of radiotherapy, suggesting that clinical transfer is feasible.

Haydont, Valerie [UPRES EA 27-10, 'Radiosensibilite des tumeurs et tissus sains', Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); 'Laboratoire de Radiopathologie. SRBE/DRPH', Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gilliot, Olivier [UPRES EA 27-10, 'Radiosensibilite des tumeurs et tissus sains', Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Rivera, Sofia [UPRES EA 27-10, 'Radiosensibilite des tumeurs et tissus sains', Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bourgier, Celine [UPRES EA 27-10, 'Radiosensibilite des tumeurs et tissus sains', Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); 'Laboratoire de Radiopathologie. SRBE/DRPH', Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Francois, Agnes [UPRES EA 27-10, 'Radiosensibilite des tumeurs et tissus sains', Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); 'Laboratoire de Radiopathologie. SRBE/DRPH', Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Aigueperse, Jocelyne [DRPH, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bourhis, Jean; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine [UPRES EA 27-10, 'Radiosensibilite des tumeurs et tissus sains', Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire/Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)]|[Laboratoire de Radiopathologie. SRBE/DRPH, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)]. E-mail: vozenin@igr.fr

2007-08-01

43

Connective tissue growth factor in tumor pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Key roles for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) are demonstrated in the wound repair process where it promotes myofibroblast differentiation and angiogenesis. Similar mechanisms are active in tumor-reactive stroma where CTGF is expressed. Other potential roles include prevention of hypoxia-induced apoptosis and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transistion (EMT). CTGF expression in tumors has been associated to both tumor suppression and progression. For example, CTGF expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast, pancreas and gastric cancer correlates to worse prognosis whereas the opposite is true for colorectal, lung and ovarian cancer. This discrepancy is not yet understood. High expression of CTGF is a hallmark of ileal carcinoids, which are well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas with serotonin production originating from the small intestine and proximal colon. These tumors maintain a high grade of differentiation and low proliferation. Despite this, they are malignant and most patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. These tumors demonstrate several phenotypes potentially related to CTGF function namely: cell migration, absent tumor cell apoptosis, as well as, reactive and well vascularised myofibroblast rich stroma and fibrosis development locally and in distal organs. The presence of CTGF in other endocrine tumors indicates a role in the progression of well-differentiated tumors. PMID:23259759

2012-01-01

44

Three phase flow dynamics in tumor growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing tumor models generally consider only a single pressure for all the cell phases. Here, a three-fluid model originally proposed by the authors is further developed to allow for different pressures in the host cells (HC), the tumor cells (TC) and the interstitial fluid (IF) phases. Unlike traditional mixture theory models, this model developed within the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory contains all the necessary interfaces. Appropriate constitutive relationships for the pressure difference among the three fluid phases are introduced with respect to their relative wettability and fluid-fluid interfacial tensions, resulting in a more realistic modeling of cell adhesion and invasion. Five different tumor cases are studied by changing the interfacial tension between the three liquid phases, adhesion and dynamic viscosity. Since these parameters govern the relative velocities of the fluid phases and the adhesion of the phases to the extracellular matrix significant changes in tumor growth are observed. High interfacial tensions at the TC-IF and TC-HC interface support the lateral displacement of the healthy tissue in favor of a rapid growth of the malignant mass, with a relevant amount of HC which cannot be pushed out by TC and remain in place. On the other hand, lower TC-IF and TC-HC interfacial tensions tend to originate a more compact and dense tumor mass with a slower growth rate of the overall size. This novel computational model emphasizes the importance of characterizing the TC-HC interfacial properties to properly predict the temporal and spatial pattern evolution of tumor.

Sciumč, G.; Gray, W. G.; Hussain, F.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B. A.

2014-03-01

45

FTY720 inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis.  

PubMed

De novo malignancies and recurrence of tumors are some of the biggest threats to allograft recipients subjected to chronic immunosuppression. FTY720, a synthetic myriocin analogue, is an immunosuppressant that induces apoptosis of activated lymphocytes and prevents infiltration of lymphocytes into allografts, thereby prolonging allograft survival in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, FTY720 was shown to prevent tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, we examined the effect of FTY720 on angiogenesis in a HUVEC spheroid model. To substantiate our in vitro findings the effect of FTY720 was also tested in C57/B16 mice subcutaneously injected with Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC1) cells. After establishment of a palpable tumor the animals were treated daily with either saline or 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg FTY720. Subsequently, the tumor size was measured, periodically. In our experiments FTY720 showed a strong antiangiogenic effect, overcoming the stimulating effect of VEGF (20 ng/mL) even at subnanomolar concentrations. In vivo, FTY720 showed a dose-dependent inhibition of subcutaneous tumors, and the tumor size of animals treated with 10 mg/kg FTY720 was less than half of the size of tumors in control animals. In conclusion, FTY-720 demonstrated a strong antiangiogenic effect in vitro and a substantial antitumor effect in vivo. Presumably, the stabilizing effect of surrounding pericytes limits the effect of FTY720 in our mouse model. Therefore, a combination of FTY720 with an mTOR inhibitor might be the most favorable immunosuppressive drug combination for allograft recipients at risk for tumor development. PMID:15808563

Schmid, G; Guba, M; Papyan, A; Ischenko, I; Brückel, M; Bruns, C J; Jauch, K-W; Graeb, C

2005-01-01

46

Nonlinear simulation of the effect of microenvironment on tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present and investigate a model for solid tumor growth that incorporates features of the tumor microenvironment. Using analysis and nonlinear numerical simulations, we explore the effects of the interaction between the genetic characteristics of the tumor and the tumor microenvironment on the resulting tumor progression and morphology. We find that the range of morphological responses can

Paul Macklin; John Lowengrub

2007-01-01

47

Host-derived tumor endothelial marker 8 promotes the growth of melanoma.  

PubMed

Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) was initially identified as a gene overexpressed in the vasculature of human tumors and was subsequently identified as an anthrax toxin receptor. To assess the functional role of TEM8, we disrupted the TEM8 gene in mice by targeted homologous recombination. TEM8(-/-) mice were viable and reached adulthood without defects in physiologic angiogenesis. However, histopathologic analysis revealed an excess of extracellular matrix in several tissues, including the ovaries, uterus, skin, and periodontal ligament of the incisors, the latter resulting in dental dysplasia. When challenged with B16 melanoma, tumor growth was delayed in TEM8(-/-) mice, whereas the growth of other tumors, such as Lewis lung carcinoma, was unaltered. These studies show that host-derived TEM8 promotes the growth of certain tumors and suggest that TEM8 antagonists may have utility in the development of new anticancer therapies. PMID:19622764

Cullen, Mike; Seaman, Steven; Chaudhary, Amit; Yang, Mi Young; Hilton, Mary Beth; Logsdon, Daniel; Haines, Diana C; Tessarollo, Lino; St Croix, Brad

2009-08-01

48

TUSC1, a Putative Tumor Suppressor Gene, Reduces Tumor Cell Growth In Vitro and Tumor Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the identification of TUSC1 (Tumor Suppressor Candidate 1), as a novel intronless gene isolated from a region of homozygous deletion at D9S126 on chromosome 9p in human lung cancer. In this study, we examine the differential expression of TUSC1 in human lung cancer cell lines by western blot and in a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray by immunohistochemical analysis. We also tested the functional activities and mechanisms of TUSC1 as a tumor suppressor gene through growth suppression in vitro and in vivo. The results showed no expression of TUSC1 in TUSC1 homozygously deleted cells and diminished expression in some tumor cell lines without TUSC1 deletion. Interestingly, the results from a primary human lung cancer tissue microarray suggested that higher expression of TUSC1 was correlated with increased survival times for lung cancer patients. Our data demonstrated that growth curves of tumor cell lines transfected with TUSC1 grew slower in vitro than those transfected with the empty vector. More importantly, xenograph tumors in nude mice grew significantly slower in vivo in cells stably transfected with TUSC1 than those transfected with empty vector. In addition, results from confocal microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses show distribution of TUSC1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus in tumor cell lines and in normal and tumor cells in the lung cancer tissue microarray. Taken together, our results support TUSC1 has tumor suppressor activity as a candidate tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 9p. PMID:23776618

Shan, Zhihong; Shakoori, Abbas; Bodaghi, Sohrab; Goldsmith, Paul; Jin, Jen; Wiest, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

49

Endogenous T cell responses to antigens expressed in lung adenocarcinomas delay malignant tumor progression  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Neoantigens derived from somatic mutations in tumors may provide a critical link between the adaptive immune system and cancer. Here we describe a system to introduce exogenous antigens into genetically engineered mouse lung cancers to mimic tumor neoantigens. We show that endogenous T cells respond to and infiltrate tumors, significantly delaying malignant progression. Despite continued antigen expression, T cell infiltration does not persist and tumors ultimately escape immune attack. Transplantation of cell lines derived from these lung tumors or prophylactic vaccination against the autochthonous tumors, however, results in rapid tumor eradication or selection of tumors that lose antigen expression. These results provide insight into the dynamic nature of the immune response to naturally arising tumors. PMID:21251614

DuPage, Michel; Cheung, Ann; Mazumdar, Claire; Winslow, Monte M.; Bronson, Roderick; Schmidt, Leah M.; Crowley, Denise; Chen, Jianzhu; Jacks, Tyler

2010-01-01

50

Heavy water delays growth of human carcinoma in nude mice  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium-enriched water has an antiproliferative effect on transplantable mouse tumors without toxic side effects. Since the response to treatment of human carcinomas growing in nude mice is deemed to be a good indicator of the potential clinical behavior of these tumors, we studied the influence of this stable isotope of hydrogen on the growth of xenotransplanted human carcinomas of various histologic types, grades, and primary sites. Seven-week-old Balb/c-nu/nu mice were inoculated subcutaneously, either with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas or with carcinomas of the large intestine. After tumor inoculation, the mice were given drinking water containing 30 atom% D/sub 2/O. Heavy water effectively retarded the growth of the human carcinomas. At the end of the experiment, the weight of the tumors was reduced to values ranging from 22% to 65% of the control values. The reproducible antiproliferative effect was more conspicuous in poorly differentiated carcinomas than in moderately well-differentiated variants. Since animals in both groups, kept under identical conditions, drank the same amount of water and had similar body weights, the difference in tumor growth can be attributed to the moderate deuteration of the hosts.

Altermatt, H.J.; Gebbers, J.O.; Laissue, J.A.

1988-08-01

51

Inhibition of tumor growth by elimination of granulocytes  

PubMed Central

As observed for many types of cancers, heritable variants of ultraviolet light-induced tumors often grow more aggressively than the parental tumors. The aggressive growth of some variants is due to the loss of a T cell-recognized tumor-specific antigen; however, other variants retain such antigens. We have analyzed an antigen retention variant and found that the variant tumor cells grow at the same rate as the parental tumor cells in vitro, but grew more rapidly than the parental cells in the T cell-deficient host. The growth of the variant cells was stimulated in vitro by factors released from tumor-induced leukocytes and by several defined growth factors. In addition, the variant cancer cells actually attracted more leukocytes in vitro than the parental cells. Furthermore, elimination of granulocytes in vivo in nude mice by a specific antigranulocyte antibody inhibited the growth of the variant cancer, indicating that this tumor requires granulocytes for rapid growth. PMID:7807024

1995-01-01

52

Cellular Potts Modeling of Tumor Growth, Tumor Invasion, and Tumor Evolution  

PubMed Central

Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell “successful” in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M. H.

2013-01-01

53

Hybrid-primed lymphocytes and hybrid vaccination prevent tumor growth of lewis lung carcinoma in mice.  

PubMed

Dendritic cell (DC)-tumor cell hybrids are currently being evaluated as a novel antitumor vaccination strategy. We have explored in an animal model whether administration of DCs fused with poorly immunogenic carcinoma cells could elicit an antitumor response. Fusion of C57/BL6 mice bone marrow-derived DCs with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) cells resulted in approximately 50% fusion efficiency. Hybrid cells (HCs) were used to explore 3 potential tumor therapy strategies: protective immunization, vaccination, and adoptive cellular therapy. Immunization with HCs induced activation of proliferating cytotoxic T cells, upregulation of distinct cytokines genes, and a significant retardation of tumor growth. Similar results were observed by vaccination with HCs in the tumor-bearing host. Finally, when T cells from HC-vaccinated mice were transferred into naive tumor-bearing mice, tumor growth was strongly retarded and an efficient proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell response was observed. Tumor growth was reduced by more than 50%, and tumor development was significantly delayed. Taken together, we demonstrate that HCs offer effective immunotherapy of poorly immunogenic carcinomas. This is independent of whether the HCs are taken for adoptive transfer or as a vaccine. PMID:16531818

Savai, Rajkumar; Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Schneider, Michael; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Banat, Gamal-Andre

2006-01-01

54

Rare cancers yield potential source of tumor growth  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered a genetic mutation that appears to increase production of red blood cells in tumors. The discovery, based on analysis of tissue from rare endocrine tumors, may help clarify how some tumors generate a new blood supply to sustain their growth, the researchers explained.

55

Existence of Limit Cycles in the Solow Model with Delayed-Logistic Population Growth  

PubMed Central

This paper is devoted to the existence and stability analysis of limit cycles in a delayed mathematical model for the economy growth. Specifically the Solow model is further improved by inserting the time delay into the logistic population growth rate. Moreover, by choosing the time delay as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that the system loses its stability and a Hopf bifurcation occurs when time delay passes through critical values. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out for supporting the analytical results. PMID:24592147

2014-01-01

56

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C–Induced Lymphangiogenesis DecreasesTumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure and Tumor Growth1  

PubMed Central

Characteristically, most solid tumors exhibit an increased tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) that directly contributes to the lowered uptake of macromolecular therapeutics into the tumor interstitium. Abnormalities in the tumor-associated lymph vessels are a central brick in the development and prolonged sustaining of an increased TIFP. In the current study, vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) was used to enhance tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis as a new mechanism to actively reduce the TIFP by increased lymphatic drainage of the tumor tissue. Human A431 epidermoid vulva carcinoma cells were inoculated in NMRI nu/nu mice to generate a xenograft mouse model. Seven days after tumor cell injection, VEGF-C was peritumorally injected to induce lymphangiogenesis. Tumor growth and TIFP was lowered significantly over time in VEGF-C-treated tumors in comparison to control or VEGF-A-treated animals. These data demonstrate for the first time that actively induced lymphangiogenesis can lower the TIFP in a xenograft tumor model and apparently reduce tumor growth. This model represents a novel approach to modulate biomechanical properties of the tumor interstitium enabling a lowering of TIFP in vivo. PMID:23908682

Hofmann, Matthias; Pflanzer, Ralph; Zoller, Nadja Nicole; Bernd, August; Kaufmann, Roland; Thaci, Diamant; Bereiter-Hahn, Jurgen; Hirohata, Satoshi; Kippenberger, Stefan

2013-01-01

57

Vascular endothelial growth factor C-induced lymphangiogenesis decreases tumor interstitial fluid pressure and tumor.  

PubMed

Characteristically, most solid tumors exhibit an increased tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) that directly contributes to the lowered uptake of macromolecular therapeutics into the tumor interstitium. Abnormalities in the tumor-associated lymph vessels are a central brick in the development and prolonged sustaining of an increased TIFP. In the current study, vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) was used to enhance tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis as a new mechanism to actively reduce the TIFP by increased lymphatic drainage of the tumor tissue. Human A431 epidermoid vulva carcinoma cells were inoculated in NMRI nu/nu mice to generate a xenograft mouse model. Seven days after tumor cell injection, VEGF-C was peritumorally injected to induce lymphangiogenesis. Tumor growth and TIFP was lowered significantly over time in VEGF-C-treated tumors in comparison to control or VEGF-A-treated animals. These data demonstrate for the first time that actively induced lymphangiogenesis can lower the TIFP in a xenograft tumor model and apparently reduce tumor growth. This model represents a novel approach to modulate biomechanical properties of the tumor interstitium enabling a lowering of TIFP in vivo. PMID:23908682

Hofmann, Matthias; Pflanzer, Ralph; Zoller, Nadja Nicole; Bernd, August; Kaufmann, Roland; Thaci, Diamant; Bereiter-Hahn, Jurgen; Hirohata, Satoshi; Kippenberger, Stefan

2013-08-01

58

A two-phase mixture model of avascular tumor growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions with biological environment surrounding a growing tumor have major influence on tumor invasion. By recognizing that mechanical behavior of tumor cells could be described by biophysical laws, the research on physical oncology aims to investigate the inner workings of cancer invasion. In this study, we introduce a mathematical model of avascular tumor growth using the continuum theory of mixtures. Mechanical behavior of the tumor and physical interactions between the tumor and host tissue are represented by biophysically founded relationships. In this model, a solid tumor is embedded in inviscid interstitial fluid. The tumor has viscous mechanical properties. Interstitial fluid exhibits properties of flow through porous medium. Associated with the mixture saturation constraint, we introduce a Lagrange multiplier which represents hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid. We solved the equations using Finite Element Method in two-dimensions. As a result, we have introduced a two-phase mixture model of avascular tumor growth that provided a flexible mathematical framework to include cells' response to mechanical aspects of the tumor microenvironment. The model could be extended to capture tumor-ECM interactions which would have profound influence on tumor invasion.

Ozturk, Deniz; Burcin Unlu, M.; Yonucu, Sirin; Cetiner, Ugur

2012-02-01

59

Brain tumor modeling: glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.

Banaem, Hossein Y.; Ahmadian, Alireza; Saberi, Hooshangh; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Khodadad, Davood

2011-10-01

60

Delayed frost growth on jumping-drop superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an interdrop frost wave. The growth of this interdrop frost front is shown to be up to 3 times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of interdrop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an interdrop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser minimized frost formation relative to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by limiting the success of interdrop ice bridge formation. PMID:23286736

Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, C Patrick

2013-02-26

61

Resveratrol Treatment Delays Growth Plate Fusion and Improves Bone Growth in Female Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Trans-resveratrol (RES), naturally produced by many plants, has a structure similar to synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol, but any effect on bone growth has not yet been clarified. Pre-pubertal ovary-intact New Zealand white rabbits received daily oral administration of either vehicle (control) or RES (200 mg/kg) until growth plate fusion occurred. Bone growth and growth plate size were longitudinally monitored by X-ray imaging, while at the endpoint, bone length was assessed by a digital caliper. In addition, pubertal ovariectomized (OVX) rabbits were treated with vehicle, RES or estradiol cypionate (positive control) for 7 or 10 weeks and fetal rat metatarsal bones were cultured in vitro with RES (0.03 µM–50 µM) and followed for up to 19 days. In ovary-intact rabbits, sixteen-week treatment with RES increased tibiae and vertebrae bone growth and subsequently improved final length. In OVX rabbits, RES delayed fusion of the distal tibia, distal femur and proximal tibia epiphyses and femur length and vertebral bone growth increased when compared with controls. Histomorphometrical analysis showed that RES-treated OVX rabbits had a wider distal femur growth plate, enlarged resting zone, increased number/size of hypertrophic chondrocytes, increased height of the hypertrophic zone, and suppressed chondrocyte expression of VEGF and laminin. In cultured fetal rat metatarsal bones, RES stimulated growth at 0.3 µM while at higher concentrations (10 ?M and 50 ?M) growth was inhibited. We conclude that RES has the potential to improve longitudinal bone growth. The effect was associated with a delay of growth plate fusion resulting in increased final length. These effects were accompanied by a profound suppression of VEGF and laminin expression suggesting that impairment of growth plate vascularization might be an underlying mechanism. PMID:23840780

Karimian, Elham; Tamm, Chen; Chagin, Andrei S.; Samuelsson, Karin; Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Ohlsson, Claes; Sävendahl, Lars

2013-01-01

62

Zyflamend, a combination of herbal extracts, attenuates tumor growth in murine xenograft models of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PrC) is the second deadliest cancer of males in the United States Hormone deprivation therapy (HDT), a common therapy for advanced forms of the disease, results in tumor regression; unfortunately, tumors inevitably become castrate-resistant. Diet is not an appropriate primary therapy for refractory forms of the disease; however, diet may be effective as an adjuvant to HDT, potentially extending the latency period and delaying relapse and/or inhibiting refractory growth. Zyflamend® is a combination of extracts from multiple herbs, each with reported anticancer properties. Zyflamend can inhibit growth of various PrC cell lines, but no studies have investigated its potential use in vivo using a model of castrate-resistant PrC. In this study, oral doses of Zyflamend at human equivalent doses inhibited androgen-dependent and castrate-resistant tumor growth in a mouse model that mimics advanced stages of the disease, and reduced the expression of a number of biomarkers linked to PrC progression including pAKT, prostate specific antigen, histone deacetylases, and androgen receptor. In summary, this is the first article to report that Zyflamend, when provided at human equivalent doses, can potentiate the effects of hormone deprivation on tumor regression and growth inhibition of androgen-dependent and castrate-resistant PrC tumors in vivo. PMID:22663543

Huang, E-Chu; McEntee, Michael F; Whelan, Jay

2012-01-01

63

Oncogenes and Angiogenesis: Signaling Three-Dimensional Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional tumor growth is dependent on the perpetual recruitment of host blood vessels to the tumor site. This recruitment process (mainly via angiogenesis) is thought to be triggered, at least in part, by the very same set of genetic alterations (activated oncogenes, inactivated\\/lost tumor suppressor genes) as those responsible for other aspects of malignant transformation (e.g., aberrant mitogenesis, resistance to

Janusz Rak; Joanne L. Yu; Giannoula Klement; Robert S. Kerbel

2000-01-01

64

IL18-producing Salmonella inhibit tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that intravenously applied bacteria can accumulate in tumors and lead to sporadic tumor regression. Recently, systemic administration of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated to generate no significant side effects in humans, but also no antitumor responses. We report the enhanced antitumor activity in preclinical mouse cancer models of nonvirulent S. typhimurium engineered to synthesize the cytokine

M Loeffler; G Le'Negrate; M Krajewska; J C Reed

2008-01-01

65

Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24980821

Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yan Fei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

2014-01-01

66

Understanding the Mechanisms of Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Though cancer is certainly a disease caused by changes in a cell's genes, it has become clear over the past few years that cancer is also a disease of biomechanical malfunctions. Indeed, research has shown that interactions between the mechanical properties of tumors and the tissues that surround them play a critical role in the development and growth of tumors.

67

Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2012-11-15

68

Mesenchymal Stem Cell 1 (MSC1)-Based Therapy Attenuates Tumor Growth Whereas MSC2-Treatment Promotes Tumor Growth and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, there are many promising clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell-based therapies of numerous diseases. Increasingly, however, there is a concern over the use of MSCs because they home to tumors and can support tumor growth and metastasis. For instance, we established that MSCs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment promoted tumor growth and favored angiogenesis. In parallel studies, we also developed a new approach to induce the conventional mixed pool of MSCs into two uniform but distinct phenotypes we termed MSC1 and MSC2. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we tested the in vitro and in vivo stability of MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes as well as their effects on tumor growth and spread. In vitro co-culture of MSC1 with various cancer cells diminished growth in colony forming units and tumor spheroid assays, while conventional MSCs or MSC2 co-culture had the opposite effect in these assays. Co-culture of MSC1 and cancer cells also distinctly affected their migration and invasion potential when compared to MSCs or MSC2 treated samples. The expression of bioactive molecules also differed dramatically among these samples. MSC1-based treatment of established tumors in an immune competent model attenuated tumor growth and metastasis in contrast to MSCs- and MSC2-treated animals in which tumor growth and spread was increased. Also, in contrast to these groups, MSC1-therapy led to less ascites accumulation, increased CD45+leukocytes, decreased collagen deposition, and mast cell degranulation. Conclusion/Significance These observations indicate that the MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes may be convenient tools for the discovery of critical components of the tumor stroma. The continued investigation of these cells may help ensure that cell based-therapy is used safely and effectively in human disease. PMID:23029122

Waterman, Ruth S.; Henkle, Sarah L.; Betancourt, Aline M.

2012-01-01

69

Host Stromal Bradykinin B2 Receptor Signaling Facilitates Tumor-Associated Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the significance of the host kallikrein-kinin system in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth using two rodent models geneti- cally deficient in a kallikrein-kinin system. Inoculation of Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the s.c. tissues of the back of normal Brown Norway Kitasato rats (BN-Ki rats) resulted in the rapid development of solid tumors with marked angiogenesis. By contrast,

Yasuhiro Ikeda; Izumi Hayashi; Emi Kamoshita; Akira Yamazaki; Hirahito Endo; Keiko Ishihara; Shohei Yamashina; Yoshiaki Tsutsumi; Hiroaki Matsubara; Masataka Majima

2004-01-01

70

Amplified Ras-MAPK signal states correlate with accelerated EGFR internalization, cytostasis and delayed HER2 tumor onset in Fer-deficient model systems.  

PubMed

The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fer belongs to a distinct subfamily of F-BAR domain containing kinases implicated in vesicular trafficking and signaling downstream of adhesion and growth factor receptors. Targeted inactivation of the fer gene in a transgenic mouse model of HER2(+), breast cancer was associated with delayed tumor onset and reduced proliferative rates in tumor cells. Fer deficiency was associated with increased rates of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) internalization and amplified Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk (Ras-MAPK) signaling in primary mammary tumor epithelial cells, as well as increased cytotoxic and anti-proliferative sensitivity to the dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitor Lapatinib (LPN). These observations suggest a model in which accelerated ligand-induced EGFR internalization in Fer-deficient cells hypersensitizes the Ras-MAPK pathway to EGF, resulting in MAPK signal amplification to levels that induce cytostasis, rather than proliferation. Thus, Ras-MAPK cytostatic signaling delays HER2 tumor initiation and increases LPN cytotoxicity in Fer-deficient model systems. Taken together, these data suggest that targeting Fer alone, or in combination with LPN, may be of therapeutic benefit in HER2(+) breast cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 27 October 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.340. PMID:25347743

Sangrar, W; Shi, C; Mullins, G; LeBrun, D; Ingalls, B; Greer, P A

2014-10-27

71

Tumor endothelial marker 1 (Tem1) functions in the growth and progression of abdominal tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumor endothelial marker 1 (Tem1; endosialin) is the prototypical member of a family of genes expressed in the stroma of tumors. To assess the functional role of Tem1, we disrupted the Tem1 gene in mice by targeted homologous recombination. Tem1?/? mice were healthy, their wound healing was normal, and tumors grew normally when implanted in s.c. sites. However, there was a striking reduction in tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis after transplantation of tumors to abdominal sites in mice without functional Tem1 genes. These data indicate that the stroma can control tumor aggressiveness and that this control varies with anatomic site. Therefore, they have significant implications for the mechanisms underlying tumor invasiveness and for models that evaluate this process. PMID:16492758

Nanda, Akash; Karim, Baktiar; Peng, Zhongsheng; Liu, Guosheng; Qiu, Weiping; Gan, Christine; Vogelstein, Bert; St. Croix, Brad; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Huso, David L.

2006-01-01

72

Homeostatic competition drives tumor growth and metastasis nucleation  

E-print Network

in epithelial tissues from where they invade through the basal membrane into the connective tissue. At some a mechanism for tumor growth emphasizing the role of homeostatic regulation and tissue stability. We show data. In addition, it potentially explains the observed preferential growth of metastases on tissue

Turner, Matthew

73

A multiphase model for three-dimensional tumor growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several mathematical formulations have analyzed the time-dependent behavior of a tumor mass. However, most of these propose simplifications that compromise the physical soundness of the model. Here, multiphase porous media mechanics is extended to model tumor evolution, using governing equations obtained via the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory. A tumor mass is treated as a multiphase medium composed of an extracellular matrix (ECM); tumor cells (TCs), which may become necrotic depending on the nutrient concentration and tumor phase pressure; healthy cells (HCs); and an interstitial fluid for the transport of nutrients. The equations are solved by a finite element method to predict the growth rate of the tumor mass as a function of the initial tumor-to-healthy cell density ratio, nutrient concentration, mechanical strain, cell adhesion and geometry. Results are shown for three cases of practical biological interest such as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTSs) and tumor cords. First, the model is validated by experimental data for time-dependent growth of an MTS in a culture medium. The tumor growth pattern follows a biphasic behavior: initially, the rapidly growing TCs tend to saturate the volume available without any significant increase in overall tumor size; then, a classical Gompertzian pattern is observed for the MTS radius variation with time. A core with necrotic cells appears for tumor sizes larger than 150 ?m, surrounded by a shell of viable TCs whose thickness stays almost constant with time. A formula to estimate the size of the necrotic core is proposed. In the second case, the MTS is confined within a healthy tissue. The growth rate is reduced, as compared to the first case—mostly due to the relative adhesion of the TCs and HCs to the ECM, and the less favorable transport of nutrients. In particular, for HCs adhering less avidly to the ECM, the healthy tissue is progressively displaced as the malignant mass grows, whereas TC infiltration is predicted for the opposite condition. Interestingly, the infiltration potential of the tumor mass is mostly driven by the relative cell adhesion to the ECM. In the third case, a tumor cord model is analyzed where the malignant cells grow around microvessels in a three-dimensional geometry. It is shown that TCs tend to migrate among adjacent vessels seeking new oxygen and nutrients. This model can predict and optimize the efficacy of anticancer therapeutic strategies. It can be further developed to answer questions on tumor biophysics, related to the effects of ECM stiffness and cell adhesion on TC proliferation.

Sciumč, G.; Shelton, S.; Gray, W. G.; Miller, C. T.; Hussain, F.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B. A.

2013-01-01

74

MerTK inhibition in tumor leukocytes decreases tumor growth and metastasis.  

PubMed

MerTK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of the TYRO3/AXL/MerTK family, is expressed in myeloid lineage cells in which it acts to suppress proinflammatory cytokines following ingestion of apoptotic material. Using syngeneic mouse models of breast cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer, we found that tumors grew slowly and were poorly metastatic in MerTK-/- mice. Transplantation of MerTK-/- bone marrow, but not wild-type bone marrow, into lethally irradiated MMTV-PyVmT mice (a model of metastatic breast cancer) decreased tumor growth and altered cytokine production by tumor CD11b+ cells. Although MerTK expression was not required for tumor infiltration by leukocytes, MerTK-/- leukocytes exhibited lower tumor cell-induced expression of wound healing cytokines, e.g., IL-10 and growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), and enhanced expression of acute inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-12 and IL-6. Intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte numbers were higher and lymphocyte proliferation was increased in tumor-bearing MerTK-/- mice compared with tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Antibody-mediated CD8+ T lymphocyte depletion restored tumor growth in MerTK-/- mice. These data demonstrate that MerTK signaling in tumor-associated CD11b+ leukocytes promotes tumor growth by dampening acute inflammatory cytokines while inducing wound healing cytokines. These results suggest that inhibition of MerTK in the tumor microenvironment may have clinical benefit, stimulating antitumor immune responses or enhancing immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:23867499

Cook, Rebecca S; Jacobsen, Kristen M; Wofford, Anne M; DeRyckere, Deborah; Stanford, Jamie; Prieto, Anne L; Redente, Elizabeth; Sandahl, Melissa; Hunter, Debra M; Strunk, Karen E; Graham, Douglas K; Earp, H Shelton

2013-08-01

75

Thermographic assessment of tumor growth in mouse xenografts.  

PubMed

In human breast tumors, a 1-2 degrees C increase in skin surface temperature is usually observed at the periphery; it has been proposed that this change is due to the hypervascularity and increased blood flow resulting from tumor-associated angiogenesis. Here we tested the hypothesis that thermal imaging might represent a useful adjunctive technique in monitoring the growth dynamics of human tumor xenografts. Xenografts were established in immunocomprised nude mice using MDA-MB-231 or MCF7 breast cancer cells. We exploited the inherent noncontact and noninvasive advantages of infrared thermography to detect skin surface temperature changes. Continuous thermographic investigation was performed to detect and monitor tumor growth in vivo and high resolution digital images were analyzed to measure the tumor temperature dynamics. In contrast to the skin temperature increases associated with human breast cancer, a consistent temperature decrease was found in the xenograft mice. In one case, a smaller secondary tumor, otherwise undetectable, was clearly evident by thermal imaging. The tumors were cooler than the surrounding tissue with a maximum temperature reduction of 1.5 degrees C for MDA-MB-231 tumor and 3 degrees C for MCF7 tumors observed on day 14. In addition, the temperature of the xenograft tumors decreased progressively as they grew throughout the observation period. It was demonstrated that thermographic imaging could detect temperature changes as small as 0.1 degrees C on the skin surface at an early stage of tumor development. The findings of the study indicate that thermographic imaging might have considerable potential in monitoring human tumor xenografts and their response to anticancer drugs. PMID:17487841

Song, Chengli; Appleyard, Virginia; Murray, Karen; Frank, Tim; Sibbett, Wilson; Cuschieri, Alfred; Thompson, Alastair

2007-09-01

76

ADAM12 Transmembrane and Secreted Isoforms Promote Breast Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Increased levels of ADAM12 have been reported in a variety of human cancers. We have previously reported that urinary ADAM12 is predictive of disease status in breast cancer patients and that ADAM12 protein levels in urine increase with progression of disease. On the basis of these findings, the goal of this study was to elucidate the contribution of ADAM12 in breast tumor growth and progression. Overexpression of both the ADAM12-L (transmembrane) and ADAM12-S (secreted) isoforms in human breast tumor cells resulted in a significantly higher rate of tumor take and increased tumor size. Cells expressing the enzymatically inactive form of the secreted isoform, ADAM12-S, had tumor take rates and tumor volumes similar to those of wild-type cells, suggesting that the tumor-promoting activity of ADAM12-S was a function of its proteolytic activity. Of the two isoforms, only the secreted isoform, ADAM12-S, enhanced the ability of tumor cells to migrate and invade in vitro and resulted in a higher incidence of local and distant metastasis in vivo. This stimulatory effect of ADAM12-S on migration and invasion was dependent on its catalytic activity. Expression of both ADAM12 isoforms was found to be significantly elevated in human malignant breast tissue. Taken together, our results suggest that ADAM12 overexpression results in increased tumor take, tumor size, and metastasis in vivo. These findings suggest that ADAM12 may represent a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:21493715

Roy, Roopali; Rodig, Scott; Bielenberg, Diane; Zurakowski, David; Moses, Marsha A.

2011-01-01

77

Three-Dimensional Multispecies Nonlinear Tumor Growth–II: Tumor Invasion and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

We extend the diffuse interface model developed in Wise et al. (2008) to study nonlinear tumor growth in 3D. Extensions include the tracking of multiple viable cell species populations through a continuum diffuse-interface approach, onset and aging of discrete tumor vessels through angiogenesis, and incorporation of individual cell movement using a hybrid continuum-discrete approach. We investigate disease progression as a function of cellular-scale parameters such as proliferation and oxygen/nutrient uptake rates. We find that heterogeneity in the physiologically complex tumor microenvironment, caused by non-uniform distribution of oxygen, cell nutrients, and metabolites, as well as phenotypic changes affecting cellular-scale parameters, can be quantitatively linked to the tumor macro-scale as a mechanism that promotes morphological instability. This instability leads to invasion through tumor infiltration of surrounding healthy tissue. Models that employ a biologically-founded, multiscale approach, as illustrated in this work, could help to quantitatively link the critical effect of heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment with clinically observed tumor growth and invasion. Using patient tumor-specific parameter values, this approach may provide a predictive tool to characterize the complex in vivo tumor physiological characteristics and clinical response, and thus lead to improved treatment modalities and prognosis. PMID:20303982

Frieboes, H.B.; Jin, F.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Cristini, V.

2010-01-01

78

TESTIN suppresses tumor growth and invasion via manipulating cell cycle progression in endometrial carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The TESTIN gene was demonstrated to be a tumor suppressor in prostate and breast cancer through inhibiting tumor growth and invasion. Herein, we aimed to investigate the detailed functions of TESTIN in the highly sexual hormone (estrogen)-dependent malignancy, endometrial carcinoma. Material/Methods TESTIN mRNA and protein expression were measured by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Upregulation of TESTIN was achieved by transfecting the pcDNA3.1-TESTIN plasmids into AN3CA cells. Knockdown of TESTIN was achieved by transfecting the shRNA-TESTIN into Ishikawa cells. MTT assay, colony formation assay, and Transwell assay were used to investigate the effects of TESTIN on cellular proliferation and invasion. The apoptotic status and cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry. MMP2 secretion was determined by ELISA assay. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of TESTIN in nude mice. Results Compared to the non-malignant adjacent endometrium, 54% of tumor samples presented downregulation of TESTIN (P<0.001). Loss of TESTIN protein was correlated with advanced tumor stage (P=0.047), high grade (P=0.034), and lymphatic vascular space invasion (P=0.036). In vitro, overexpression of TESTIN suppressed cell proliferation, induced dramatic G1 arrest, and inhibited tumor invasion through blocking the secretion of MMP2. Loss of TESTIN accelerated cellular proliferation, promoted cell cycle progression, and enhanced tumor invasion by increasing the secretion of MMP2. Consistently, TESTIN could significantly delay the growth of xenografts in nude mice. Conclusions TESTIN was commonly downregulated in human endometrial carcinoma and was associated with poor prognostic markers. Moreover, TESTIN significantly inhibited tumor growth and invasion via arresting cell cycle in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Therefore, we propose that TESTIN might be a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for endometrial carcinoma. PMID:24929083

Gu, Zhenpeng; Ding, Guofeng; Liang, Kuixiang; Zhang, Hongtao; Guo, Guanghong; Zhang, Lili; Cui, Jinxiu

2014-01-01

79

Inhibition of melanoma tumor growth in vivo by survivin targeting.  

PubMed

A role of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in tumor formation and growth was investigated by targeting the apoptosis inhibitor survivin in vivo. Expression of a phosphorylation-defective survivin mutant (Thr(34)-->Ala) triggered apoptosis in several human melanoma cell lines and enhanced cell death induced by the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in vitro. Conditional expression of survivin Thr(34)-->Ala in YUSAC2 melanoma cells prevented tumor formation upon s.c. injection into CB.17 severe combined immunodeficient-beige mice. When induced in established melanoma tumors, survivin Thr(34)-->Ala inhibited tumor growth by 60-70% and caused increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation of melanoma cells in vivo. Manipulation of the antiapoptotic pathway maintained by survivin may be beneficial for cancer therapy. PMID:11149963

Grossman, D; Kim, P J; Schechner, J S; Altieri, D C

2001-01-16

80

Inhibition of melanoma tumor growth in vivo by survivin targeting  

PubMed Central

A role of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in tumor formation and growth was investigated by targeting the apoptosis inhibitor survivin in vivo. Expression of a phosphorylation-defective survivin mutant (Thr34?Ala) triggered apoptosis in several human melanoma cell lines and enhanced cell death induced by the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in vitro. Conditional expression of survivin Thr34?Ala in YUSAC2 melanoma cells prevented tumor formation upon s.c. injection into CB.17 severe combined immunodeficient-beige mice. When induced in established melanoma tumors, survivin Thr34?Ala inhibited tumor growth by 60–70% and caused increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation of melanoma cells in vivo. Manipulation of the antiapoptotic pathway maintained by survivin may be beneficial for cancer therapy. PMID:11149963

Grossman, Douglas; Kim, Paul J.; Schechner, Jeffrey S.; Altieri, Dario C.

2001-01-01

81

Clinical value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating recurrent or residual brain tumor from delayed cerebral necrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Delayed cerebral necrosis (DN) is a significant risk for brain tumor patients treated with high-dose irradiation. Although differentiating DN from tumor progression is an important clinical question, the distinction cannot be made reliably by conventional imaging techniques. We undertook a pilot study to assess the ability of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to differentiate prospectively between DN or

June S. Taylor; James W. Langston; Wilburn E. Reddick; Peter B. Kingsley; Robert J. Ogg; Margaret H. Pui; Larry E. Kun; Jesse J. Jenkins; Gang Chen; Judith J. Ochs; Robert A. Sanford; Richard L. Heideman

1996-01-01

82

Liposome targeting to tumors using vitamin and growth factor receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liposome-encapsulated anticancer drugs reveal their potential for increased therapeutic efficacy and decreased nonspecific toxicities due to their ability to enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to solid tumors. Advances in liposome technology have resulted in the development of ligand-targeted liposomes capable of selectively increasing the efficacy of carried agents against receptor-bearing tumor cells. Receptors for vitamins and growth factors have

Daryl C. Drummond; Keelung Hong; John W. Park; Christopher C. Benz; Dmitri B. Kirpgtin

2000-01-01

83

Multiscale models for the growth of avascular tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past 30 years we have witnessed an extraordinary progress on the research in the molecular biology of cancer, but its medical treatment, widely based on empirically established protocols, still has many limitations. One of the reasons for that is the limited quantitative understanding of the dynamics of tumor growth and drug response in the organism. In this review we shall discuss in general terms the use of mathematical modeling and computer simulations related to cancer growth and its applications to improve tumor therapy. Particular emphasis is devoted to multiscale models which permit integration of the rapidly expanding knowledge concerning the molecular basis of cancer and the complex, nonlinear interactions among tumor cells and their microenvironment that will determine the neoplastic growth at the tissue level.

Martins, M. L.; Ferreira, S. C.; Vilela, M. J.

2007-06-01

84

[Effect of fenugreek on the growth of different genesis tumors].  

PubMed

This paper deals with antitumor properties of a fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum Graecum L.) as to the different genesis tumors--the Ca755 mouse mammary carcinoma and the Guerin's carcinoma in rats. Fenugreek powder was shown to inhibit (25-40 %) growth of certain tumors, decrease (27-63%) level of malone dialdehyde in liver, heart and kidney. Consumption of fenugreek was accompanied with decreased polyamines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine) content in tumor tissue. Inclusion of fenugreek to allowance was shown to improve certain blood value. PMID:23534282

Zhilenko, V V; Zalietok, S P; Klenov, O O

2012-01-01

85

Inhibition of rat colon tumor isograft growth with dequalinium chloride.  

PubMed

In searching for a new approach to the systemic treatment of colorectal carcinoma, we have observed that certain lipophilic cationic compounds are accumulated and retained for a significantly longer period in the mitochondria of living carcinoma cells than in normal cells or sarcoma cells. We report the in vivo therapeutic effect of one of these compounds, dequalinium chloride, on the W163 rat colon carcinoma isograft, which grows rapidly in Wistar/Furth rats after primary tumor implantation, and which recurs rapidly after primary tumor resection. In the primary transplant model, tumors were implanted, and daily dequalinium chloride treatments were begun the following day in doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg. In the recurrence model, isografts were implanted, allowed to grow for one week, and then all gross tumor was resected. Dequalinium chloride was administered in varying daily doses starting the day after resection. In both models, tumor was removed on day 11 after implantation or resection. At sublethal doses, dequalinium chloride significantly inhibited primary tumor growth to 60% that of controls and recurrent tumor growth to 50% that of controls. We propose that this unique biologic approach of targeting carcinoma mitochondria with lipophilic cationic compounds may provide a major new opportunity for treating colorectal carcinoma. PMID:3778199

Bleday, R; Weiss, M J; Salem, R R; Wilson, R E; Chen, L B; Steele, G

1986-11-01

86

Question 2.7: Logistic growth of a tumor. Zobl et al. [1] have studied the growth functions of tumors by inducing novel sarcomas in the kidneys of rats with Polyoma virus. These tumors  

E-print Network

of tumors by inducing novel sarcomas in the kidneys of rats with Polyoma virus. These tumors initially growQuestion 2.7: Logistic growth of a tumor. Zobl et al. [1] have studied the growth functions description of the data. Apparently, the reduction in the growth rate of the tumor does not decline linearly

Utrecht, Universiteit

87

Growth of melanoma brain tumors monitored by photoacoustic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melanoma is a primary malignancy that is known to metastasize to the brain and often causes death. The ability to image the growth of brain melanoma in vivo can provide new insights into its evolution and response to therapies. In our study, we use a reflection mode photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system to detect the growth of melanoma brain tumor in a small animal model. The melanoma tumor cells are implanted in the brain of a mouse at the beginning of the test. Then, PAM is used to scan the region of implantation in the mouse brain, and the growth of the melanoma is monitored until the death of the animal. It is demonstrated that PAM is capable of detecting and monitoring the brain melanoma growth noninvasively in vivo.

Staley, Jacob; Grogan, Patrick; Samadi, Abbas K.; Cui, Huizhong; Cohen, Mark S.; Yang, Xinmai

2010-07-01

88

Delayed apoptosis of tumor associated neutrophils in the absence of endogenous IFN-?.  

PubMed

The importance of neutrophils in tumor immune surveillance, invasive growth and angiogenesis becomes increasingly clear. Many of neutrophil activities are controlled by endogenous IFN-?. Here, we provide evidence that endogenous IFN-? is regulating the apoptosis of pro-angiogenic tumor infiltrating neutrophils by influencing both, the extrinsic as well as the intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Accordingly, the life span of tumor associated neutrophils (TANs) is remarkably prolonged in tumor bearing Ifnb1(-/-) mice compared to wild type controls. Lower expression of Fas, reactive oxygen species, active Caspase 3 and 9, as well as a change in expression pattern of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family and the major apoptosome constituent Apaf-1 is observed under such conditions. In line with inhibition of apoptosis and the prolonged neutrophil survival, in the absence of endogenous IFN-?, a strong enhancement of G-CSF expression and PI3 Kinase phosphorylation is detected. These data explain the increased longevity of tumor infiltrating neutrophils and the accumulation of such cells in tumors. Taken together, our findings add to the important role of Type I IFN in immune surveillance against cancer. PMID:24806531

Andzinski, Lisa; Wu, Ching-Fang; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Kröger, Andrea; Weiss, Siegfried; Jablonska, Jadwiga

2015-02-15

89

Bioassay and Attributes of a Growth Factor Associated with Crown Gall Tumors 1  

PubMed Central

An improved bioassay is described for a factor that promotes tumor growth which was first obtained from extracts of pinto bean leaves with crown gall tumors. Sixteen primary pinto bean leaves per sample are inoculated with sufficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens to initiate about 5 to 10 tumors per leaf and treated with tumor growth factor at day 3 after inoculation. The diameters of 30 to 48 round tumors (no more than 3 randomly selected per leaf) are measured per test sample at day 6. Mean tumor diameter increased linearly with the logarithm of the concentration of tumor growth factor applied. The tumor growth factor was separated by column chromatography from an ultraviolet light-absorbing compound previously reported to be associated with fractions having maximal tumor growth factor activity. Partly purified tumor growth factor showed no activity in a cytokinin bioassay or an auxin bioassay, and negligible activity in gibberellin bioassays. Representatives of these three classes of growth factors did not promote tumor growth. Extracts from crown gall tumors on primary pinto bean leaves, primary castor bean leaves, Bryophyllum leaves, carrot root slices, and tobacco stems showed tumor growth factor activity, whereas extracts from healthy control tissues did not. Extracts from actively growing parts of healthy pinto beans, Bryophyllum, and tobacco, however, showed tumor growth factor activity. Tumor growth factor is proposed to be a normal plant growth factor associated with rapidly growing tissues. Its synthesis may be activated in nongrowing tissues by infection with Agrobacterium sp. PMID:16657534

Lippincott, Barbara B.; Lippincott, James A.

1970-01-01

90

Robo4 vaccines induce antibodies that retard tumor growth.  

PubMed

Tumor endothelial specific expression of Robo4 in adults identifies this plasma membrane protein as an anti-cancer target for immunotherapeutic approaches, such as vaccination. In this report, we describe how vaccination against Robo4 inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. To break tolerance to the auto-antigen Robo4, mice were immunised with the extracellular domain of mouse Robo4, fused to the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin within an adjuvant. Vaccinated mice show a strong antibody response to Robo4, with no objectively detectable adverse effects on health. Robo4 vaccinated mice showed impaired fibrovascular invasion and angiogenesis in a rodent sponge implantation assay, as well as a reduced growth of implanted syngeneic Lewis lung carcinoma. The anti-tumor effect of Robo4 vaccination was present in CD8 deficient mice but absent in B cell or IgG1 knockout mice, suggesting antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity as the anti-vascular/anti-tumor mechanism. Finally, we show that an adjuvant free soluble Robo4-carrier conjugate can retard tumor growth in carrier primed mice. These results point to appropriate Robo4 conjugates as potential anti-angiogenic vaccines for cancer patients. PMID:25348086

Zhuang, Xiaodong; Ahmed, Forhad; Zhang, Yang; Ferguson, Henry J; Steele, Jane C; Steven, Neil M; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Heath, Victoria L; Toellner, Kai-Michael; Bicknell, Roy

2015-01-01

91

Systemic Par-4 inhibits non-autochthonous tumor growth  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor protein Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells. Extracellular Par-4 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell cultures by binding, via its effector SAC domain, to cell surface GRP78 receptor. However, the functional significance of extracellular Par-4/SAC has not been validated in animal models. We show that Par-4/SAC-transgenic mice express systemic Par-4/SAC protein and are resistant to the growth of non-autochthonous tumors. Consistently, secretory Par-4/SAC pro-apoptotic activity can be transferred from these cancer-resistant transgenic mice to cancer-susceptible mice by bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, intravenous injection of recombinant Par-4 or SAC protein inhibits metastasis of cancer cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that extracellular Par-4/SAC is systemically functional in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis progression, and may merit investigation as a therapy. PMID:21613819

Brandon, Jason; Qiu, Shirley; Shelton, Brent J; Spear, Brett; Bondada, Subbarao; Bryson, Scott

2011-01-01

92

Harnessing High Density Lipoproteins to Block Transforming Growth Factor Beta and to Inhibit the Growth of Liver Tumor Metastases  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) is a powerful promoter of cancer progression and a key target for antitumor therapy. As cancer cells exhibit active cholesterol metabolism, high density lipoproteins (HDLs) appear as an attractive delivery system for anticancer TGF?-inhibitory molecules. We constructed a plasmid encoding a potent TGF-?-blocking peptide (P144) linked to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) through a flexible linker (pApoLinkerP144). The ApoLinkerP144 sequence was then incorporated into a hepatotropic adeno-associated vector (AAVApoLinkerP144). The aim was to induce hepatocytes to produce HDLs containing a modified ApoA-I capable of blocking TGF-?. We observed that transduction of the murine liver with pApoLinkerP144 led to the appearance of a fraction of circulating HDL containing the fusion protein. These HDLs were able to attenuate TGF-? signaling in the liver and to enhance IL-12 -mediated IFN-? production. Treatment of liver metastasis of MC38 colorectal cancer with AAVApoLinkerP144 resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth and enhanced expression of IFN-? and GM-CSF in cancerous tissue. ApoLinkerP144 also delayed MC38 liver metastasis in Rag2?/?IL2r??/? immunodeficient mice. This effect was associated with downregulation of TGF-? target genes essential for metastatic niche conditioning. Finally, in a subset of ret transgenic mice, a model of aggressive spontaneous metastatic melanoma, AAVApoLinkerP144 delayed tumor growth in association with increased CD8+ T cell numbers in regional lymph nodes. In conclusion, modification of HDLs to transport TGF-?-blocking molecules is a novel and promising approach to inhibit the growth of liver metastases by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. PMID:24797128

Medina-Echeverz, José; Fioravanti, Jessica; Díaz-Valdés, Nancy; Frank, Kathrin; Aranda, Fernando; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Dotor, Javier; Umansky, Viktor; Prieto, Jesús; Berraondo, Pedro

2014-01-01

93

The impact of stress on tumor growth: peripheral CRF mediates tumor-promoting effects of stress  

PubMed Central

Introduction Stress has been shown to be a tumor promoting factor. Both clinical and laboratory studies have shown that chronic stress is associated with tumor growth in several types of cancer. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) is the major hypothalamic mediator of stress, but is also expressed in peripheral tissues. Earlier studies have shown that peripheral CRF affects breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. The aim of the present study was to assess the significance of peripheral CRF on tumor growth as a mediator of the response to stress in vivo. Methods For this purpose we used the 4T1 breast cancer cell line in cell culture and in vivo. Cells were treated with CRF in culture and gene specific arrays were performed to identify genes directly affected by CRF and involved in breast cancer cell growth. To assess the impact of peripheral CRF as a stress mediator in tumor growth, Balb/c mice were orthotopically injected with 4T1 cells in the mammary fat pad to induce breast tumors. Mice were subjected to repetitive immobilization stress as a model of chronic stress. To inhibit the action of CRF, the CRF antagonist antalarmin was injected intraperitoneally. Breast tissue samples were histologically analyzed and assessed for neoangiogenesis. Results Array analysis revealed among other genes that CRF induced the expression of SMAD2 and ?-catenin, genes involved in breast cancer cell proliferation and cytoskeletal changes associated with metastasis. Cell transfection and luciferase assays confirmed the role of CRF in WNT- ?-catenin signaling. CRF induced 4T1 cell proliferation and augmented the TGF-? action on proliferation confirming its impact on TGF?/SMAD2 signaling. In addition, CRF promoted actin reorganization and cell migration, suggesting a direct tumor-promoting action. Chronic stress augmented tumor growth in 4T1 breast tumor bearing mice and peripheral administration of the CRF antagonist antalarmin suppressed this effect. Moreover, antalarmin suppressed neoangiogenesis in 4T1 tumors in vivo. Conclusion This is the first report demonstrating that peripheral CRF, at least in part, mediates the tumor-promoting effects of stress and implicates CRF in SMAD2 and ?-catenin expression. PMID:20875132

2010-01-01

94

Delayed Effects of Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Germ Cell Tumor Patients With Central Nervous System Metastases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases are uncommon in patients with germ cell tumors, with an incidence of 2-3%. CNS metastases have been managed with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and concomitant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Our previous study did not observe serious CNS toxicity (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991;22:17-22). We now report on 5 patients who developed delayed significant CNS toxicity. Patients and Methods: We observed 5 patients with delayed CNS toxicity. The initial diagnosis was between 1981 and 2003. All patients had poor-risk disease according to the International Germ Cell Consensus Collaborative Group criteria. Of the 5 patients, 3 had CNS metastases at diagnosis and 2 developed relapses with CNS metastases. These 5 patients underwent WBRT to 4,000-5,000 cGy in 18-28 fractions concurrently with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Results: All 5 patients developed delayed symptoms consistent with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The symptoms included seizures, hemiparesis, cranial neuropathy, headaches, blindness, dementia, and ataxia. The median time from WBRT to CNS symptoms was 72 months (range, 9-228). Head imaging revealed multiple abnormalities consistent with gliosis and diffuse cerebral atrophy. Of the 5 patients, 3 had progressive and 2 stable symptoms. Treatment with surgery and/or steroids had modest benefit. The progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy resulted in significant debility in all 5 patients, resulting in death (3 patients), loss of work, steroid-induced morbidity, and recurrent hospitalizations. Conclusion: Whole brain radiotherapy is not innocuous in young patients with germ cell tumors and can cause late CNS toxicity.

Doyle, Danielle M. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Walther Cancer Institute, Indianapolis, IN (United States)], E-mail: dpeoni@iupui.edu; Einhorn, Lawrence H. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Walther Cancer Institute, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

2008-04-01

95

Delayed adolescent growth in homozygous sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the growth abnormalities in sickle cell disease has been limited by the lack of longitudinal observations in individuals, and by an inability to quantitate the observed patterns. To investigate the timing and pattern of the adolescent growth spurt, longitudinal observations of height from the Jamaican cohort study were fitted to a mathematical model of growth (Preece-Baines model 1).

A Singhal; P Thomas; R Cook; K Wierenga; G Serjeant

1994-01-01

96

Dietary rice component, Oryzanol, inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing Mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scope: We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice. Methods and results: Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, '-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet fo...

97

‘Doubling down’ on the autophagy pathway to suppress tumor growth  

PubMed Central

In this issue of Genes & Development, Wei and colleagues (pp. 1204–1216) use elegant genetic approaches to simultaneously delete the essential autophagy gene FIP200 (FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa) and the signaling adaptor p62/SQSTM1 within established murine tumors, which reveals an unexpected synergism between the autophagy pathway and p62 in driving tumor growth. Intriguingly, these observations suggest that the combined targeting of autophagy and p62 may serve as an effective approach to treat specific cancers. PMID:24888584

Leidal, Andrew M.; Debnath, Jayanta

2014-01-01

98

Netrin-4 regulates angiogenic responses and tumor cell growth  

SciTech Connect

Netrin-4 is a 628 amino acid basement membrane component that promotes neurite elongation at low concentrations but inhibits neurite extension at high concentrations. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that several molecules, including netrins, are regulators of both neuronal and vascular growth. It is believed that molecules that guide neural growth and development are also involved in regulating morphogenesis of the vascular tree. Further, netrins have recently been implicated in controlling epithelial cell branching morphogenesis in the breast, lung and pancreas. Characterization of purified netrin-4 in in vitro angiogenesis assays demonstrated that netrin-4 markedly inhibits HMVEC migration and tube formation. Moreover, netrin-4 inhibits proliferation of a variety of human tumor cells in vitro. Netrin-4 has only modest effects on proliferation of endothelial and other non-transformed cells. Netrin-4 treatment results in phosphorylation changes of proteins that are known to control cell growth. Specifically, Phospho-Akt-1, Phospho-Jnk-2, and Phospho-c-Jun are reduced in tumor cells that have been treated with netrin-4. Together, these data suggest a potential role for netrin-4 in regulating tumor growth.

Nacht, Mariana; St Martin, Thia B.; Byrne, Ann; Klinger, Katherine W.; Teicher, Beverly A. [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States); Madden, Stephen L. [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States)], E-mail: steve.madden@genzyme.com; Jiang, Yide [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States)], E-mail: yide.jiang@genzyme.com

2009-03-10

99

Conditional loss of ErbB3 delays mammary gland hyperplasia induced by mutant PIK3CA without affecting mammary tumor latency, gene expression or signaling  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110? catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), have been shown to transform mammary epithelial cells (MECs). Studies suggest this transforming activity requires binding of mutant p110? via p85 to phosphorylated YXXM motifs in activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) or adaptors. Using transgenic mice, we examined if ErbB3, a potent activator of PI3K, is required for mutant PIK3CA-mediated transformation of MECs. Conditional loss of ErbB3 in mammary epithelium resulted in a delay of PIK3CAH1047R-dependent mammary gland hyperplasia, but tumor latency, gene expression and PI3K signaling were unaffected. In ErbB3-deficient tumors, mutant PI3K remained associated with several tyrosyl phosphoproteins, potentially explaining the dispensability of ErbB3 for tumorigenicity and PI3K activity. Similarly, inhibition of ErbB RTKs with lapatinib did not affect PI3K signaling in PIK3CAH1047R-expressing tumors. However, the p110?-specific inhibitor BYL719, in combination with lapatinib impaired mammary tumor growth and PI3K signaling more potently than BYL719 alone. Further, co-inhibition of p110? and ErbB3 potently suppressed proliferation and PI3K signaling in human breast cancer cells harboring PIK3CAH1047R. These data suggest that PIK3CAH1047R-driven tumor growth and PI3K signaling can occur independently of ErbB RTKs. However, simultaneous blockade of p110? and ErbB RTKs results in superior inhibition of PI3K and mammary tumor growth, suggesting a rational therapeutic combination against breast cancers harboring PIK3CA activating mutations. PMID:23633485

Young, Christian D.; Pfefferle, Adam D.; Owens, Philip; Kuba, María G.; Rexer, Brent N.; Balko, Justin M.; Sánchez, Violeta; Cheng, Hailing; Perou, Charles M.; Zhao, Jean J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

2013-01-01

100

Formal asymptotic limit of a diffuse-interface tumor-growth  

E-print Network

Formal asymptotic limit of a diffuse-interface tumor-growth model Danielle Hilhorst , Johannes-interface tumor-growth model, which has the form of a phase-field system. We discuss the singular limit perturbation, interface mo- tion, matched asymptotic expansion, tumor-growth model. 1 Introduction Diffuse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

The role of mechanical forces in tumor growth and therapy.  

PubMed

Tumors generate physical forces during growth and progression. These physical forces are able to compress blood and lymphatic vessels, reducing perfusion rates and creating hypoxia. When exerted directly on cancer cells, they can increase cells' invasive and metastatic potential. Tumor vessels-while nourishing the tumor-are usually leaky and tortuous, which further decreases perfusion. Hypoperfusion and hypoxia contribute to immune evasion, promote malignant progression and metastasis, and reduce the efficacy of a number of therapies, including radiation. In parallel, vessel leakiness together with vessel compression causes a uniformly elevated interstitial fluid pressure that hinders delivery of blood-borne therapeutic agents, lowering the efficacy of chemo- and nanotherapies. In addition, shear stresses exerted by flowing blood and interstitial fluid modulate the behavior of cancer and a variety of host cells. Taming these physical forces can improve therapeutic outcomes in many cancers. PMID:25014786

Jain, Rakesh K; Martin, John D; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

2014-07-11

102

3D Multi-Cell Simulation of Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

We present a 3D multi-cell simulation of a generic simplification of vascular tumor growth which can be easily extended and adapted to describe more specific vascular tumor types and host tissues. Initially, tumor cells proliferate as they take up the oxygen which the pre-existing vasculature supplies. The tumor grows exponentially. When the oxygen level drops below a threshold, the tumor cells become hypoxic and start secreting pro-angiogenic factors. At this stage, the tumor reaches a maximum diameter characteristic of an avascular tumor spheroid. The endothelial cells in the pre-existing vasculature respond to the pro-angiogenic factors both by chemotaxing towards higher concentrations of pro-angiogenic factors and by forming new blood vessels via angiogenesis. The tumor-induced vasculature increases the growth rate of the resulting vascularized solid tumor compared to an avascular tumor, allowing the tumor to grow beyond the spheroid in these linear-growth phases. First, in the linear-spherical phase of growth, the tumor remains spherical while its volume increases. Second, in the linear-cylindrical phase of growth the tumor elongates into a cylinder. Finally, in the linear-sheet phase of growth, tumor growth accelerates as the tumor changes from cylindrical to paddle-shaped. Substantial periods during which the tumor grows slowly or not at all separate the exponential from the linear-spherical and the linear-spherical from the linear-cylindrical growth phases. In contrast to other simulations in which avascular tumors remain spherical, our simulated avascular tumors form cylinders following the blood vessels, leading to a different distribution of hypoxic cells within the tumor. Our simulations cover time periods which are long enough to produce a range of biologically reasonable complex morphologies, allowing us to study how tumor-induced angiogenesis affects the growth rate, size and morphology of simulated tumors. PMID:19834621

Shirinifard, Abbas; Gens, J. Scott; Zaitlen, Benjamin L.; Pop?awski, Nikodem J.; Swat, Maciej; Glazier, James A.

2009-01-01

103

Tumor growth and its effect on Magnetic Resonance Imaging signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this project is twofold. On one hand, we have developed computer code based on simple probabilistic rules to model the growth (or shrinking) of cancerigenous tissue. We assume that initially there exists a differentiated cell, which has a time- dependent probability of reproducing. If it did reproduce, then we assume that it has a finite probability of dying before reproducing again. This simple model falls into the Eden-type kind, and presents appropriate bulk growth characteristics, as it follows Gompert observational law. We propose new methods of geometrical characterization of the tumor. Besides its total mass, we also consider higher multipolar order of mass distribution and surface fractal dimension. In addition, we study how the geometrical properties of the tumor affect the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal. To this end, we consider a human brain in the presence of radiofrequency fields. We calculate the MRI image of this object. Then, we introduce a tumor in the white-gray matter region and reobtain the MRI image. We associate the signal changes with the geometrical properties of the tumor.

Cersosimo, Homero; Colon, Jorge; Ramos, Elio; Zypman, Fredy

2000-03-01

104

[Seasonal patterns of breast tumor growth in Far North residents].  

PubMed

Earlier, we established a relationship between sex hormone receptor concentration in tumor and 5-year survival, on the one hand, and seasonality, on the other. The parameters showed a distinct 6-month cycle. That pointed to certain environmental factors which could synchronize hormone-dependent tumor process in the breast of women living in the North. The present study is concerned with a relationship of 6-month rhythm of tumor growth and latitude of residence. Said rhythm was reliably identified as a parameter of 5-year survival in the Far North (68 deg. northern latitude, p < 0.001). Maximum values of 5-year survival were registered in those diagnosed with cancer in winter or summer, while those diagnosed in spring or fall had unfavorable prognosis. Northern magnetic storms recur at 6-month intervals and most frequently in spring and fall. Electromagnetic radiation is known to suppress melatonin production and, that might have stimulated tumor process. Therefore, it is most likely that solar electromagnetic radiation might synchronize hormone-dependent tumor process in women resident in the North. PMID:17037040

Borisenkov, M F; Bazhenov, S M

2005-01-01

105

Environmental enrichment does not impact on tumor growth in mice  

PubMed Central

The effect of environmental enrichment (EE) on a variety of physiologic and disease processes has been studied in laboratory mice. During EE, a large group of mice are housed in larger cages than the standard cage and are given toys and equipment, enabling more social contact, and providing a greater surface area per mouse, and a more stimulating environment. Studies have been performed into the effect of EE on neurogenesis, brain injury, cognitive capacity, memory, learning, neuronal pathways, diseases such as Alzheimer’s, anxiety, social defeat, emotionality, depression, drug addiction, alopecia, and stereotypies. In the cancer field, three papers have reported effects on mice injected with tumors and housed in enriched environments compared with those housed in standard conditions. One paper reported a significant decrease in tumor growth in mice in EE housing. We attempted to replicate this finding in our animal facility, because the implications of repeating this finding would have profound implications for how we house all our mice in our studies on cancer. We were unable to reproduce the results in the paper in which B16F10 subcutaneous tumors of mice housed in EE conditions were smaller than those of mice housed in standard conditions. The differences in results could have been due to the different growth rate of the B16F10 cultures from the different laboratories, the microbiota of the mice housed in the two animal facilities, variations in noise and handling between the two facilities, food composition, the chemical composition of the cages or the detergents used for cleaning, or a variety of other reasons. EE alone does not appear to consistently result in decreased tumor growth, but other factors would appear to be able to counteract or inhibit the effects of EE on cancer progression. PMID:24555065

Kershaw, Michael H

2013-01-01

106

Neuronal Defects and Delayed Wound Healing in Mice Lacking Fibroblast Growth Factor 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a wide-spectrum mitogenic, angiogenic, and neurotrophic factor that is expressed at low levels in many tissues and cell types and reaches high concentrations in brain and pituitary. FGF2 has been implicated in a multitude of physiological and pathological processes, including limb development, angiogenesis, wound healing, and tumor growth, but its physiological role is still

Sagrario Ortega; Michael Ittmann; Stephen H. Tsang; Michelle Ehrlich; Claudio Basilico

1998-01-01

107

Lifespan Based Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model of Tumor Growth Inhibition by Anticancer Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Accurate prediction of tumor growth is critical in modeling the effects of anti-tumor agents. Popular models of tumor growth inhibition (TGI) generally offer empirical description of tumor growth. We propose a lifespan-based tumor growth inhibition (LS TGI) model that describes tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, on the basis of cellular lifespan T. At the end of the lifespan, cells divide, and to account for tumor burden on growth, we introduce a cell division efficiency function that is negatively affected by tumor size. The LS TGI model capability to describe dynamic growth characteristics is similar to many empirical TGI models. Our model describes anti-cancer drug effect as a dose-dependent shift of proliferating tumor cells into a non-proliferating population that die after an altered lifespan TA. Sensitivity analysis indicated that all model parameters are identifiable. The model was validated through case studies of xenograft mouse tumor growth. Data from paclitaxel mediated tumor inhibition was well described by the LS TGI model, and model parameters were estimated with high precision. A study involving a protein casein kinase 2 inhibitor, AZ968, contained tumor growth data that only exhibited linear growth kinetics. The LS TGI model accurately described the linear growth data and estimated the potency of AZ968 that was very similar to the estimate from an established TGI model. In the case study of AZD1208, a pan-Pim inhibitor, the doubling time was not estimable from the control data. By fixing the parameter to the reported in vitro value of the tumor cell doubling time, the model was still able to fit the data well and estimated the remaining parameters with high precision. We have developed a mechanistic model that describes tumor growth based on cell division and has the flexibility to describe tumor data with diverse growth kinetics. PMID:25333487

Mo, Gary; Gibbons, Frank; Schroeder, Patricia; Krzyzanski, Wojciech

2014-01-01

108

Mo polyoxometalate nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth and vascular endothelial growth factor induced angiogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor growth depends on angiogenesis, which can furnish the oxygen and nutrients that proliferate tumor cells. Thus, blocking angiogenesis can be an effective strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this work, three typical nanoparticles based on polyoxometalates (POMs) have been prepared; we investigated their capability as antitumor and anti-angiogenesis agents. We found that Mo POM nanoparticles, especially complex 3, inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) through cellular reactive oxygen species levels’ elevation and mitochondrial membrane potential damage. Complex 3 also suppressed the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro and chicken chorioallantoic membrane development ex vivo. Furthermore, western blot analysis of cell signaling molecules indicated that Mo POMs blocked the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated their cellular uptake and localization within the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells. These results indicate that, owing to the extraordinary physical and chemical properties, Mo POM nanoparticles can significantly inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, which makes them potential drug candidates in anticancer and anti-angiogenesis therapies.

Zheng, Wenjing; Yang, Licong; Liu, Ying; Qin, Xiuying; Zhou, Yanhui; Zhou, Yunshan; Liu, Jie

2014-06-01

109

Heat-activated thermosensitive liposomal cisplatin (HTLC) results in effective growth delay of cervical carcinoma in mice.  

PubMed

Cisplatin (CDDP) has been identified as the primary chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cervical cancer, but dose limiting toxicity is a key issue associated with its clinical application. A suite of liposome formulations of CDDP has been developed in efforts to reduce systemic toxicity, but their therapeutic advantage over the free drug has been modest due to insufficient drug release at the tumor site. This report describes the development of a novel heat-activated thermosensitive liposome formulation containing CDDP (HTLC) designed to release approximately 90% of the loaded drug in less than 5min under mild heating conditions (42°C). Physico-chemical characteristics of HTLC were assessed in terms of gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature (Tm), drug loading efficiency, particle size, and stability. The pharmacokinetic profile and biodistribution of HTLC in non-tumor-bearing mice were evaluated over a 24h period. A sophisticated spatio-temporal elucidation of HTLC release in tumor-bearing mice was achieved by way of real-time monitoring using a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol, wherein a custom-built laser-based conformal heat source was applied at the tumor volume to trigger the release of HTLC co-encapsulated with the MR contrast agent gadoteridol (Gd-HP-DO3A). MR thermometry (MRT) demonstrated that a relatively uniform temperature distribution was achieved in the tumor volume using the external laser-based heating setup. In mice bearing subcutaneously-implanted ME-180 cervical tumors, the combination of HTLC and heat resulted in a 2-fold increase in tumor drug levels at 1h post-administration compared to HTLC without heating. Furthermore, the overall tumor accumulation levels for the HTLC groups (with and without heat) at 1h post-injection were significantly higher than the corresponding free CDDP group. This translated into a significant improvement in therapeutic efficacy evaluated as tumor growth delay (p<0.05) for the heated HTLC treatment group compared to the unheated HTLC, heated or unheated free CDDP, and saline groups. Overall, findings from this study demonstrate that a heat-activated, triggered release formulation of CDDP results in a significant enhancement in the therapeutic index of this drug. PMID:24440663

Dou, Yannan N; Zheng, Jinzi; Foltz, Warren D; Weersink, Robert; Chaudary, Naz; Jaffray, David A; Allen, Christine

2014-03-28

110

Ribonuclease binase inhibits primary tumor growth and metastases via apoptosis induction in tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Exogenous ribonucleases are known to inhibit tumor growth via apoptosis induction in tumor cells, allowing to consider them as promising anticancer drugs for clinical application. In this work the antitumor potential of binase was evaluated in vivo and the mechanism of cytotoxic effect of binase on tumor cells was comprehensively studied in vitro. We investigated tumoricidal activity of binase using three murine tumor models of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), lymphosarcoma RLS40 and melanoma B-16. We show for the first time that intraperitoneal injection of binase at a dose range 0.1–5 mg/kg results in retardation of primary tumor growth up to 45% in LLC and RLS40 and inhibits metastasis up to 50% in LLC and RLS40 and up to 70% in B-16 melanoma. Binase does not exhibit overall toxic effect and displays a general systemic and immunomodulatory effects. Treatment of RLS40-bearing animals with binase together with polychemotherapy revealed that binase decreases the hepatotoxicity of polychemotherapy while maintaining its antitumor effect. It was demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of binase is realized via the induction of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway is manifested by a drop of mitochondrial potential, increase in calcium concentration and inhibition of respiratory activity. Subsequent synthesis of TNF-? in the cells under the action of binase triggers extrinsic apoptotic pathway through the binding of TNF with cell-death receptors and activation of caspase 8. Thus binase is a potential anticancer therapeutics inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:23759588

Mironova, Nadezhda L.; Petrushanko, Irina Y.; Patutina, Olga A.; Sen’kova, Aexandra V.; Simonenko, Olga V.; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Markov, Oleg V.; Zenkova, Marina A.; Makarov, Alexander A.

2013-01-01

111

Ribonuclease binase inhibits primary tumor growth and metastases via apoptosis induction in tumor cells.  

PubMed

Exogenous ribonucleases are known to inhibit tumor growth via apoptosis induction in tumor cells, allowing to consider them as promising anticancer drugs for clinical application. In this work the antitumor potential of binase was evaluated in vivo and the mechanism of cytotoxic effect of binase on tumor cells was comprehensively studied in vitro. We investigated tumoricidal activity of binase using three murine tumor models of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), lymphosarcoma RLS 40 and melanoma B-16. We show for the first time that intraperitoneal injection of binase at a dose range 0.1-5 mg/kg results in retardation of primary tumor growth up to 45% in LLC and RLS 40 and inhibits metastasis up to 50% in LLC and RLS 40 and up to 70% in B-16 melanoma. Binase does not exhibit overall toxic effect and displays a general systemic and immunomodulatory effects. Treatment of RLS 40-bearing animals with binase together with polychemotherapy revealed that binase decreases the hepatotoxicity of polychemotherapy while maintaining its antitumor effect. It was demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of binase is realized via the induction of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway is manifested by a drop of mitochondrial potential, increase in calcium concentration and inhibition of respiratory activity. Subsequent synthesis of TNF-? in the cells under the action of binase triggers extrinsic apoptotic pathway through the binding of TNF with cell-death receptors and activation of caspase 8. Thus binase is a potential anticancer therapeutics inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:23759588

Mironova, Nadezhda L; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Patutina, Olga A; Sen'kova, Aexandra V; Simonenko, Olga V; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Markov, Oleg V; Zenkova, Marina A; Makarov, Alexander A

2013-07-01

112

Interferon-? and celecoxib inhibit lung-tumor growth through modulating M2/M1 macrophage ratio in the tumor microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Tumor-associated macrophages play an important role in tumor growth and progression. These macrophages are heterogeneous with diverse functions, eg, M1 macrophages inhibit tumor growth, whereas M2 macrophages promote tumor growth. In this study, we found that IFN? and/or celecoxib (cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) treatment consistently inhibited tumor growth in a mouse lung cancer model. IFN? alone and celecoxib alone increased the percentage of M1 macrophages but decreased the percentage of M2 macrophages in the tumors, and thus the M2/M1 macrophage ratio was reduced to 1.1 and 1.7 by IFN? alone and celecoxib alone, respectively, compared to the M2/M1 macrophage ratio of 4.4 in the control group. A combination of IFN? and celecoxib treatment reduced the M2/M1 macrophage ratio to 0.8. Furthermore, IFN? and/or celecoxib treatment decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and VEGF, as well as the density of microvessels in the tumors, compared to the control group. This study provides the proof of principle that IFN? and/or celecoxib treatment may inhibit lung-tumor growth through modulating the M2/M1 macrophage ratio in the tumor microenvironment, suggesting that IFN? and celecoxib have potential to be further optimized into a new anticancer therapy. PMID:25284985

Ren, Fuqiang; Fan, Mingyu; Mei, Jiandong; Wu, Yongqiang; Liu, Chengwu; Pu, Qiang; You, Zongbing; Liu, Lunxu

2014-01-01

113

Optimal Timing for Resuming Antithrombotic Agents and Risk Factors for Delayed Bleeding after Endoscopic Resection of Colorectal Tumors  

PubMed Central

Aim. To examine optimal timing for resuming antithrombotic agents and risk factors for delayed bleeding after endoscopic resection of colorectal tumors. Method. Of 1,970 polyps larger than 10?mm removed by polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection, or endoscopic submucosal dissection, delayed bleeding, which was designated as bleeding that occurred 6 or more hours after endoscopic treatment, occurred in 52 cases (2.6%); 156 nonbleeding cases matched for age and gender were controls in this single-institution retrospective case-control study. We investigated (1) patient-factors: resuming antithrombotic agents within 5 days following endoscopic resection, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus; and (2) tumor-factors: morphology, size, location, and resection technique by conditional logistic regression. Results. By multivariate analysis resumption of anticoagulants within 5 days was a significant risk factor for delayed bleeding (OR 10.2; 95% CI?=?2.7–38.3; P = 0.0006). But resuming a thienopyridine within 5 days was not (OR 0.9; 95% CI?=?0.1–2.6; P = 0.40). Other patient- and tumor-factors were not significant. Conclusion. Resuming anticoagulants within 5 days after endoscopic treatment was associated with delayed bleeding whereas resuming thienopyridines was not. PMID:25548556

Shibuya, Tomoyoshi; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Nagahara, Akihito; Watanabe, Sumio

2014-01-01

114

Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (Fetal Liver Kinase 1) Monoclonal Antibody Inhibits Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth of Several Mouse and Human Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor angiogenesis is mediated by tumor-secreted angiogenic growth factors that interact with their surface receptors expressed on endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk-1)\\/kinase insert domain-containing receptor) play an important role in vascular permeability and tumor angiogenesis. Previ- ously, we reported on the development of anti-Flk-1 and antikinase insert domain-containing receptor monoclonal

Marie Prewett; James Huber; Yiwen Li; Angel Santiago; William O'Connor; Karen King; Jay Overholser; Andrea Hooper; Bronislaw Pytowski; Larry Witte; Peter Bohlen; Daniel J. Hicklin

1999-01-01

115

Phenomenological modeling of tumor diameter growth based on a mixed effects  

E-print Network

Phenomenological modeling of tumor diameter growth based on a mixed effects model T. Bastogne a,, A tumor volume-based models have been devel- oped for the phenomenological modeling of tumor growth-00390380,version1-2Jun2009 #12;1 Introduction In systems theory1,2 , phenomenological or black-box models

Boyer, Edmond

116

Nerve Growth Factor from Cobra Venom Inhibits the Growth of Ehrlich Tumor in Mice  

PubMed Central

The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) from cobra venom (cvNGF) on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells inoculated subcutaneously in mice have been studied. The carcinoma growth slows down, but does not stop, during a course of cvNGF injections and restores after the course has been discontinued. The maximal anti-tumor effect has been observed at a dose of 8 nmoles cvNGF/kg body weight. cvNGF does not impact on lifespan of mice with grafted EAC cells. K252a, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, attenuates the anti-tumor effect of cvNGF indicating the involvement of TrkA receptors in the process. cvNGF has induced also increase in body weight of the experimental animals. In overall, cvNGF shows the anti-tumor and weight-increasing effects which are opposite to those described for mammalian NGF (mNGF). However in experiments on breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cvNGF showed the same proliferative effects as mNGF and had no cytotoxic action on tumor cells in vitro. These data suggest that cvNGF slows down EAC growth via an indirect mechanism in which TrkA receptors are involved. PMID:24577582

Osipov, Alexey V.; Terpinskaya, Tatiana I.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Ulaschik, Vladimir S.; Paulovets, Lubov V.; Petrova, Elena A.; Blagun, Ekaterina V.; Starkov, Vladislav G.; Utkin, Yuri N.

2014-01-01

117

Nerve growth factor from cobra venom inhibits the growth of Ehrlich tumor in mice.  

PubMed

The effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) from cobra venom (cvNGF) on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells inoculated subcutaneously in mice have been studied. The carcinoma growth slows down, but does not stop, during a course of cvNGF injections and restores after the course has been discontinued. The maximal anti-tumor effect has been observed at a dose of 8 nmoles cvNGF/kg body weight. cvNGF does not impact on lifespan of mice with grafted EAC cells. K252a, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, attenuates the anti-tumor effect of cvNGF indicating the involvement of TrkA receptors in the process. cvNGF has induced also increase in body weight of the experimental animals. In overall, cvNGF shows the anti-tumor and weight-increasing effects which are opposite to those described for mammalian NGF (mNGF). However in experiments on breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cvNGF showed the same proliferative effects as mNGF and had no cytotoxic action on tumor cells in vitro. These data suggest that cvNGF slows down EAC growth via an indirect mechanism in which TrkA receptors are involved. PMID:24577582

Osipov, Alexey V; Terpinskaya, Tatiana I; Kryukova, Elena V; Ulaschik, Vladimir S; Paulovets, Lubov V; Petrova, Elena A; Blagun, Ekaterina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Utkin, Yuri N

2014-03-01

118

Squalamine Inhibits Angiogenesis and Solid Tumor Growth in Vivo and Perturbs Embryonic Vasculature1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel aminosterol, squalamine, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in multiple animal models. This effect is mediated, at least in part, by blocking mitogen-induced proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, thus preventing neovascularization of the tumor. Squalamine has no observable effect on unstimulated endothelial cells, is not directly cyto- toxic to tumor cells, does not alter mitogen production by tumor

Allen K. Sills; Jon I. Williams; Betty M. Tyler; Darin S. Epstein; Eric P. Sipos; John D. Davis; Michael P. McLane; Simon Pitchford; Kimberly Cheshire; Francis H. Gannon; William A. Kinney; Tessa L. Chao; Mark Donowitz; John Laterra; Michael Zasloff; Henry Brem

119

The Motor Protein KIF14 Inhibits Tumor Growth and Cancer Metastasis in Lung Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

The motor protein kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are involved in cancer progression. The depletion of one of the KIFs, KIF14, might delay the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, resulting in a binucleated status, which enhances tumor progression; however, the exact correlation between KIF14 and cancer progression remains ambiguous. In this study, using loss of heterozygosity and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses, we observed a 30% loss in the regions surrounding KIF14 on chromosome 1q in lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, the protein expression levels of KIF14 in 122 lung adenocarcinomas also indicated that approximately 30% of adenocarcinomas showed KIF14 down-regulation compared with the expression in the bronchial epithelial cells of adjacent normal counterparts. In addition, the reduced expression of KIF14 mRNA or proteins was correlated with poor overall survival (P?=?0.0158 and <0.0001, respectively), and the protein levels were also inversely correlated with metastasis (P<0.0001). The overexpression of KIF14 in lung adenocarcinoma cells inhibited anchorage-independent growth in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 also inhibited or enhanced cancer cell migration, invasion and adhesion to the extracellular matrix proteins laminin and collagen IV. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion molecules cadherin 11 (CDH11) and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) as cargo on KIF14. The overexpression and silencing of KIF14 enhanced or reduced the recruitment of CDH11 in the membrane fraction, suggesting that KIF14 might act through recruiting adhesion molecules to the cell membrane and modulating cell adhesive, migratory and invasive properties. Thus, KIF14 might inhibit tumor growth and cancer metastasis in lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:23626713

Hung, Pei-Fang; Hong, Tse-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chang, Yih-Leong; Wu, Chen-Tu; Chang, Gee-Chen; Jou, Yuh-Shan

2013-01-01

120

Tumor vascular permeability factor stimulates endothelial cell growth and angiogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Vascular permeability factor (VPF) is an Mr 40-kD protein that has been purified from the conditioned medium of guinea pig line 10 tumor cells grown in vitro, and increases fluid permeability from blood vessels when injected intradermally. Addition of VPF to cultures of vascular endothelial cells in vitro unexpectedly stimulated cellular proliferation. VPF promoted the growth of new blood vessels when administered into healing rabbit bone grafts or rat corneas. The identity of the growth factor activity with VPF was established in four ways: (a) the molecular weight of the activity in preparative SDS-PAGE was the same as VPF (Mr approximately 40 kD); (b) multiple isoforms (pI greater than or equal to 8) for both VPF and the growth-promoting activity were observed; (c) a single, unique NH2-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained; (d) both growth factor and permeability-enhancing activities were immunoadsorbed using antipeptide IgG that recognized the amino terminus of VPF. Furthermore, 125I-VPF was shown to bind specifically and with high affinity to endothelial cells in vitro and could be chemically cross-linked to a high-molecular weight cell surface receptor, thus demonstrating a mechanism whereby VPF can interact directly with endothelial cells. Unlike other endothelial cell growth factors, VPF did not stimulate [3H]thymidine incorporation or promote growth of other cell types including mouse 3T3 fibroblasts or bovine smooth muscle cells. VPF, therefore, appears to be unique in its ability to specifically promote increased vascular permeability, endothelial cell growth, and angio-genesis. Images PMID:2478587

Connolly, D T; Heuvelman, D M; Nelson, R; Olander, J V; Eppley, B L; Delfino, J J; Siegel, N R; Leimgruber, R M; Feder, J

1989-01-01

121

Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer Stimulates Tumor Angiogenesis by Elevating Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor and Matrix Metalloproteinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases that play pivotal roles in promoting tumor disease progression, including tumor angiogenesis. In many solid tumors, MMP expression could be attributed to tumor stromal cells and is partially regulated by tumor-stroma interactions via tumor cell-associated extracellular matrix metalloproteinase in- ducer (EMMPRIN). The role of EMMPRIN during tumor angiogenesis and growth was explored by modulating EMMPRIN

Yi Tang; Marian T. Nakada; Prabakaran Kesavan; Francis McCabe; Hillary Millar; Patricia Rafferty; Peter Bugelski

2005-01-01

122

Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: Improving target volume delineation  

E-print Network

Glioblastoma are known to infiltrate the brain parenchyma instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In clinical practice, a uniform margin is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth: Anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain...

Unkelbach, Jan; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A

2013-01-01

123

Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signaling in Tumor Growth and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is highly correlated with the onset of a variety of human cancers, and continued smoking is known to abrogate the beneficial effects of cancer therapy. While tobacco smoke contains hundreds of molecules that are known carcinogens, nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco smoke, is not carcinogenic. At the same time, nicotine has been shown to promote cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, leading to enhanced tumor growth and metastasis. These effects of nicotine are mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are expressed on a variety of neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Specific signal transduction cascades that emanate from different nAChR subunits or subunit combinations facilitate the proliferative and prosurvival functions of nicotine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to stimulate many downstream signaling cascades induced by growth factors and mitogens. It has been suggested that antagonists of nAChR signaling might have antitumor effects and might open new avenues for combating tobacco-related cancer. This paper examines the historical data connecting nicotine tumor progression and the recent efforts to target the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to combat cancer. PMID:21541211

Singh, Sandeep; Pillai, Smitha; Chellappan, Srikumar

2011-01-01

124

VCC-1, a novel chemokine, promotes tumor growth  

SciTech Connect

We have identified a novel human gene by transcriptional microarray analysis, which is co-regulated in tumors and angiogenesis model systems with VEGF expression. Isolation of cDNA clones containing the full-length VCC-1 transcript from both human and mouse shows a 119 amino acid protein with a 22 amino acid cleavable signal sequence in both species. Comparison of the protein product of this gene with hidden Markov models of all known proteins shows weak but significant homology with two known chemokines, SCYA17 and SCYA16. Northern analysis of human tissues detects a 1 kb band in lung and skeletal muscle. Murine VCC-1 expression can also be detected in lung as well as thyroid, submaxillary gland, epididymis, and uterus tissues by slot blot analysis. By quantitative real time RT-PCR 71% of breast tumors showed 3- to 24-fold up-regulation of VCC-1. In situ hybridization of breast carcinomas showed strong expression of the gene in both normal and transformed mammary gland ductal epithelial cells. In vitro, human microvascular endothelial cells grown on fibronectin increase VCC-1 expression by almost 100-fold. In addition, in the mouse angioma endothelial cell line PY4.1 the gene was over-expressed by 28-fold 6 h after induction of tube formation while quiescent and proliferating cells showed no change. VCC-1 expression is also increased by VEGF and FGF treatment, about 6- and 5-fold, respectively. Finally, 100% of mice injected with NIH3T3 cells over-expressing VCC-1 develop rapidly progressing tumors within 21 days while no growth is seen in any control mice injected with NIH3T3 cells containing the vector alone. These results strongly suggest that VCC-1 plays a role in angiogenesis and possibly in the development of tumors in some tissue types.

Weinstein, Edward J. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Head, Richard [Department of Genomics and Biotechnology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Griggs, David W. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Sun Duo [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Evans, Robert J. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Swearingen, Michelle L. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Westlin, Marisa M. [Department of Oncology Pharmacology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States); Mazzarella, Richard [Department of Genomics and Biotechnology, Pfizer Inc., 700 Chesterfield Parkway North, St. Louis, MO 63198 (United States)]. E-mail: richard.a.mazzarella@pfizer.com

2006-11-10

125

Mesenchymal stem cell-secreted soluble signaling molecules potentiate tumor growth.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we and others have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited to sites of growing tumors and promote tumor growth in mouse xenograft models, suggesting that interactions between MSCs and tumor cells may play an important role in this process. However, the exact mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the physical presence or the continuous presence of MSCs is required for enhanced tumor growth, and we found that pretreatment of tumor cells SGC-7901 with a single dose of human MSC-conditioned medium (hMSC-CM) in vitro is sufficient to potentiate tumor growth comparable to the effect of MSC co-injection in vivo in mouse xenograft models. We further showed that significant tumor modifying activity is present in post-ultracentrifigation soluble fraction. Biochemical analysis suggests that hMSC-CM induces the expression of VEGF of tumor cells as well as the activation of RhoA-GTPase and ERK1/2. Furthermore, hMSC-CM-enhanced tumor growth is sustainable in serial transplantation, suggesting that MSC-secreted factors have profound effects on "reprogramming" of tumor growth. Our data provide new insights into the way in which MSCs modify tumor growth and offer a new and exciting opportunity to develop effective therapeutics for intercepting tumor progression. PMID:21900753

Zhu, Wei; Huang, Ling; Li, Yahong; Qian, Hui; Shan, Xiuhong; Yan, Yongmin; Mao, Fei; Wu, Xiaosheng; Xu, Wen-Rong

2011-09-15

126

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-dependent tumor growth inhibition by a vascular endothelial growth factor-superantigen conjugate  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct and purify a fusion protein VEGF-SEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around tumor cells bearing VEGFR by mice image model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester CTLs into the tumor site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induced CTLs could release the cytokines, perforins and granzyme B to kill the tumor cells. -- Abstract: T cells are major lymphocytes in the blood and passengers across the tumor vasculature. If these T cells are retained in the tumor site, a therapeutic potential will be gained by turning them into tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). A fusion protein composed of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) with a D227A mutation strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors (control versus VEGF-SEA treated with 15 {mu}g, mean tumor weight: 1.128 g versus 0.252 g, difference = 0.876 g). CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around VEGFR expressing tumor cells and the induced CTLs could release the tumoricidal cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Meanwhile, intratumoral CTLs secreted cytolytic pore-forming perforin and granzyme B proteins around tumor cells, leading to the death of tumor cells. The labeled fusion proteins were gradually targeted to the tumor site in an imaging mice model. These results show that VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester active infiltrating CTLs into the tumor site to kill tumor cells, and could therefore be a potential therapeutical drug for a variety of cancers.

Sun, Qingwen [Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai 200433 (China) [Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai 200433 (China); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jiang, Songmin [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Han, Baohui [Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Tongwen [Wuhan Junyu Innovation Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wuhan 430079 (China)] [Wuhan Junyu Innovation Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Zhengnan; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Qiang [College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)] [College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Sun, Jialin, E-mail: jialin_sun@126.com [Wuhan Junyu Innovation Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wuhan 430079 (China)] [Wuhan Junyu Innovation Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wuhan 430079 (China)

2012-11-02

127

Reexpression of LSAMP inhibits tumor growth in a preclinical osteosarcoma model  

PubMed Central

Background Osteosarcomas are the most common primary malignant tumors of bone, showing complex chromosomal rearrangements with multiple gains and losses. A frequent deletion within the chromosomal region 3q13.31 has been identified by us and others, and is mainly reported to be present in osteosarcomas. The purpose of the study was to further characterize the frequency and the extent of the deletion in an extended panel of osteosarcoma samples, and the expression level of the affected genes within the region. We have identified LSAMP as the target gene for the deletion, and have studied the functional implications of LSAMP-reexpression. Methods LSAMP copy number, expression level and protein level were investigated by quantitative PCR and western blotting in an osteosarcoma panel. The expression of LSAMP was restored in an osteosarcoma cell line, and differences in proliferation rate, tumor formation, gene expression, migration rate, differentiation capabilities, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were investigated by metabolic dyes, tumor formation in vivo, gene expression profiling, time-lapse photography, differentiation techniques and flow cytometry, respectively. Results We found reduced copy number of LSAMP in 45/76 osteosarcoma samples, reduced expression level in 25/42 samples and protein expression in 9/42 samples. By restoring the expression of LSAMP in a cell line with a homozygous deletion of the gene, the proliferation rate in vitro was significantly reduced and tumor growth in vivo was significantly delayed. In response to reexpression of LSAMP, mRNA expression profiling revealed consistent upregulation of the genes hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1), cancer/testis antigen 2 (CTAG2) and kruppel-like factor 10 (KLF10). Conclusions The high frequency and the specificity of the deletion indicate that it is important for the development of osteosarcomas. The deletion targets the tumor suppressor LSAMP, and based on the functional evidence, the tumor suppressor function of LSAMP is most likely exerted by reducing the proliferation rate of the tumor cells, possibly by indirectly upregulating one or more of the genes HES1, CTAG2 or KLF10. To our knowledge, this study describes novel functions of LSAMP, a first step to understanding the functional role of this specific deletion in osteosarcomas. PMID:24885297

2014-01-01

128

Acetyl11Keto -Boswellic Acid Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth by Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2-Mediated Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis is well established. Identification of a small molecule that blocks tumor angiogenesis and is safe and affordable has been a challenge in drug development. In this study, we showed that acetyl-11-keto-B-boswellic acid (AKBA), an active component from an Ayurvedic medicinal plant (Boswellia serrata), could strongly inhibit tumor angiogenesis. AKBA suppressed tumor

Xiufeng Pang; Zhengfang Yi; Xiaoli Zhang; Bokyung Sung; Weijing Qu; Xiaoyuan Lian; Bharat B. Aggarwal; M. Liu

2009-01-01

129

[Effects of delayed first feeding on growth and survival of Hucho taimen larvae].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of delaying first breeding Hucho taimen larvae for different days on the larvae growth, survival, and body size. Five treatments were installed, i. e. , feeding begins on the first eating day (control, S0) and on the 9th, 12th, 15th, and 18th days after the first eating day (S1 -S4) at 10.4-14.9 degree C, respectively. By the end of the experiment (36-day), the growth rate and initial feeding rate in S1 was higher than that in S0, and the overall mortality rate in S1 was lower, but the body size and mass in S1and S0 had no significant difference. Compared with S0, S2 had higher growth rate, initial feeding rate, total mortality, and self-mutilation mortality, the body mass was significantly lower, but the body size had less difference. S3 had higher first feeding rate, body size, total mortality, and self-mutilation mortality, but significantly lower body mass than S0, whereas the growth rate had less difference. In S4, the growth rate and body mass were lower, and the total mortality and self-mutilation mortality were higher than those in S0. It was suggested that under the same conditions, delaying first feeding for 9 days would induce H. taimen larvae presenting "completely compensatory growth", and this feeding way could be applied for the culture of H. taimen larvae in their initial feeding period. PMID:23898674

Zhang, Yong-quan; Yin, Jia-sheng; Du, Jia; Zhang, Ying; Tong, Guang-xiang

2013-04-01

130

Targeting Gli Transcription Activation by Small Molecule Suppresses Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Targeted inhibition of Hedgehog signaling at the cell membrane has been associated with anti-cancer activity in preclinical and early clinical studies. Hedgehog signaling involves activation of Gli transcription factors that can also be induced by alternative pathways. In this study we identified an interaction between Gli proteins and a transcription co-activator TAF9, and validated its functional relevance in regulating Gli transactivation. We also describe a novel, synthetic small molecule, FN1-8, that efficiently interferes with Gli/TAF9 interaction and down-regulate Gli/TAF9 dependent transcriptional activity. More importantly, FN1-8 suppresses cancer cell proliferation in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggest that blocking Gli transactivation, a key control point of multiple oncogenic pathways, may be an effective anti-cancer strategy. PMID:23686308

Bosco-Clément, Genevičve; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Zhao; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Li, Hui; Mikami, Iwao; Hirata, Tomomi; Yagui-Beltran, Adam; Lui, Natalie; Do, Hanh T.; Cheng, Tiffany; Tseng, Hsin-Hui; Choi, Helen; Fang, Li-Tai; Kim, Il-Jin; Yue, Dongsheng; Wang, Changli; Zheng, Qingfeng; Fujii, Naoaki; Mann, Michael; Jablons, David M.; He, Biao

2014-01-01

131

Carbon Monoxide Expedites Metabolic Exhaustion to Inhibit Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion. PMID:24121491

Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M.; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

2013-01-01

132

Global Practical Tracking by Output Feedback for Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Growth Rate and Time Delay  

PubMed Central

This paper is the further investigation of work of Yan and Liu, 2011, and considers the global practical tracking problem by output feedback for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with not only unmeasured states dependent growth but also time-varying time delay. Compared with the closely related works, the remarkableness of the paper is that the time-varying time delay and unmeasurable states are permitted in the system nonlinear growth. Motivated by the related tracking results and flexibly using the ideas and techniques of universal control and dead zone, an adaptive output-feedback tracking controller is explicitly designed with the help of a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, to make the tracking error prescribed arbitrarily small after a finite time while keeping all the closed-loop signals bounded. A numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the results. PMID:25276859

Yan, Xuehua

2014-01-01

133

Phosphocaveolin-1 enforces tumor growth and chemoresistance in rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) can ambiguously behave as either tumor suppressor or oncogene depending on its phosphorylation state and the type of cancer. In this study we show that Cav-1 was phosphorylated on tyrosine 14 (pCav-1) by Src-kinase family members in various human cell lines and primary mouse cultures of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequent soft-tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. Cav-1 overexpression in the human embryonal RD or alveolar RH30 cells yielded increased pCav-1 levels and reinforced the phosphorylation state of either ERK or AKT kinase, respectively, in turn enhancing in vitro cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness and chemoresistance. In contrast, reducing the pCav-1 levels by administration of a Src-kinase inhibitor or through targeted Cav-1 silencing counteracted the malignant in vitro phenotype of RMS cells. Consistent with these results, xenotransplantation of Cav-1 overexpressing RD cells into nude mice resulted in substantial tumor growth in comparison to control cells. Taken together, these data point to pCav-1 as an important and therapeutically valuable target for overcoming the progression and multidrug resistance of RMS. PMID:24427291

Faggi, Fiorella; Mitola, Stefania; Sorci, Guglielmo; Riuzzi, Francesca; Donato, Rosario; Codenotti, Silvia; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Cominelli, Manuela; Vescovi, Raffaella; Rossi, Stefania; Calza, Stefano; Colombi, Marina; Penna, Fabio; Costelli, Paola; Perini, Ilaria; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Monti, Eugenio; Fanzani, Alessandro

2014-01-01

134

Sanguinarine Suppresses Prostate Tumor Growth and Inhibits Survivin Expression  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is a frequently occurring disease and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of men in the United States. Current treatments have proved inadequate in curing or controlling prostate cancer, and a search for agents for the management of this disease is urgently needed. Survivin plays an important role in both progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and resistance to chemotherapy. Altered expression of survivin in prostate cancer cells is associated with cancer progression, drug/radiation resistance, poor prognosis, and short patient survival. In the present study, the authors performed a cell-based rapid screen of the Prestwick Chemical Library consisting of 1120 Food and Drug Administration–approved compounds with known safety and bioavailability in humans to identify potential inhibitors of survivin and anticancer agents for prostate cancer. Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived primarily from the bloodroot plant, was identified as a novel inhibitor of survivin that selectively kills prostate cancer cells over “normal” prostate epithelial cells. The authors found that sanguinarine inhibits survivin protein expression through protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Sanguinarine induces apoptosis and inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells and in vivo tumor formation. Administration of sanguinarine, beginning 3 days after ectopic implantation of DU145 human prostate cancer cells, reduces both tumor weight and volume. In addition, sanguinarine sensitized paclitaxel-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis, offering a potential therapeutic strategy for overcoming taxol resistance. These results suggest that sanguinarine may be developed as an agent either alone or in combination with taxol for treatment of prostate cancer overexpressing survivin. PMID:21318089

Sun, Meng; Lou, Wei; Chun, Jae Yeon; Cho, Daniel S.; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Evans, Christopher P.; Chen, Jun; Yue, Jiao; Zhou, Qinghua; Gao, Allen C.

2010-01-01

135

Sanguinarine suppresses prostate tumor growth and inhibits survivin expression.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is a frequently occurring disease and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths of men in the United States. Current treatments have proved inadequate in curing or controlling prostate cancer, and a search for agents for the management of this disease is urgently needed. Survivin plays an important role in both progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and resistance to chemotherapy. Altered expression of survivin in prostate cancer cells is associated with cancer progression, drug/radiation resistance, poor prognosis, and short patient survival. In the present study, the authors performed a cell-based rapid screen of the Prestwick Chemical Library consisting of 1120 Food and Drug Administration-approved compounds with known safety and bioavailability in humans to identify potential inhibitors of survivin and anticancer agents for prostate cancer. Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived primarily from the bloodroot plant, was identified as a novel inhibitor of survivin that selectively kills prostate cancer cells over "normal" prostate epithelial cells. The authors found that sanguinarine inhibits survivin protein expression through protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Sanguinarine induces apoptosis and inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells and in vivo tumor formation. Administration of sanguinarine, beginning 3 days after ectopic implantation of DU145 human prostate cancer cells, reduces both tumor weight and volume. In addition, sanguinarine sensitized paclitaxel-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis, offering a potential therapeutic strategy for overcoming taxol resistance. These results suggest that sanguinarine may be developed as an agent either alone or in combination with taxol for treatment of prostate cancer overexpressing survivin. PMID:21318089

Sun, Meng; Lou, Wei; Chun, Jae Yeon; Cho, Daniel S; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Evans, Christopher P; Chen, Jun; Yue, Jiao; Zhou, Qinghua; Gao, Allen C

2010-03-01

136

PHOSPHOLIPASE D (PLD) DRIVES CELL INVASION, TUMOR GROWTH AND METASTASIS IN A HUMAN BREAST CANCER XENOGRAPH MODEL  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in human females in the world. One protein that has elevated enzymatic lipase activity in breast cancers in vitro is phospholipase D (PLD), which is also involved in cell migration. We demonstrate that the PLD2 isoform, which was analyzed directly in the tumors, is crucial for cell invasion that contributes critically to the growth and development of breast tumors and lung metastases in vivo. We used three complementary strategies in a SCID mouse model and also addressed the underlying molecular mechanism. First, the PLD2 gene was silenced in highly metastatic, aggressive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) with lentivirus-based shRNA, which were xenotransplanted in SCID mice. The resulting mouse primary mammary tumors were reduced in size (65%, p<0.05) and their onset delayed when compared to control tumors. Second, we stably overexpressed PLD2 in low-invasive breast cancer cells (MCF-7) with a biscistronic MIEG retroviral vector and observed that these cells were converted into a highly aggressive phenotype, as primary tumors that formed following xenotransplantation were larger, grew faster and developed lung metastases more readily. Third, we implanted osmotic pumps into SCID xenotransplanted mice that delivered two different small-molecule inhibitors of PLD activity (FIPI and NOPT). These inhibitors led to significant (>70%, p<0.05) inhibition of primary tumor growth, metastatic axillary tumors and lung metastases. In order to define the underlying mechanism, we determined that the machinery of PLD-induced cell invasion is mediated by phosphatidic acid (PA), WASp, Grb2 and Rac2 signaling events that ultimately affect actin polymerization and cell invasion. In summary, this study shows that PLD has a central role in the development, metastasis and level of aggressiveness of breast cancer, raising the possibility that PLD2 could be used as a new therapeutic target. PMID:23752189

Henkels, Karen M.; Boivin, Gregory P.; Dudley, Emily S.; Berberich, Steven J.; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

2014-01-01

137

Mechanism of delayed frost growth on superhydrophobic surfaces with jumping condensates: more than interdrop freezing.  

PubMed

Delayed frost growth on superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) with jumping condensates has been found by many researchers recently. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, copper SHSs with or without jumping condensates were selected as the substrates for observing condensation icing at a relative humidity (RH) of 60%. The results showed that only SHS with jumping condensates showed delayed condensation icing. Moreover, when such SHSs were placed upward and the surface temperature was held at -10 °C, some discrete frozen drops first appeared on the SHSs. The following icing mainly occurred on these discrete global crystals and then expanded around them until covering the entire surface. Little macroscopic interdrop freezing phenomenon was found. The growth of the frost front is mainly dominated by jumping freezing (the condensed droplets jumped onto the ice crystals and were frozen) or direct vapor-ice deposition. Using microscopy, we found interdrop freezing occurred, in addition to the two mechanisms mentioned above. By placing the SHS downward at -10 °C and intentionally introducing or eliminating tiny dusts, we confirmed that there were no superhydrophobic defects on our SHSs. The discrete frozen drops first appearing on the SHSs were triggered by tiny dusts falling on the surface before or during condensation icing. The key approach in delaying or resisting frost growth on SHSs with jumping condensates is to retard initial ice crystal formation, e.g., eliminating the edge effect and keeping the SHSs clean. PMID:25466489

Hao, Quanyong; Pang, Yichuan; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Jie; Yao, Shuhuai

2014-12-30

138

Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization  

SciTech Connect

In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

1993-06-01

139

Oxygen Consumption Can Regulate the Growth of Tumors, a New Perspective on the Warburg Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The unique metabolism of tumors was described many years ago by Otto Warburg, who identified tumor cells with increased glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial activity. However, ''aerobic glycolysis'' generates fewer ATP per glucose molecule than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, so in terms of energy production, it is unclear how increasing a less efficient process provides tumors with a growth advantage. Methods\\/Findings:

Yijun Chen; Rob Cairns; Ioanna Papandreou; Albert Koong; Nicholas C. Denko

2009-01-01

140

Vascular-promoting therapy reduced tumor growth and progression by improving chemotherapy efficacy.  

PubMed

In this issue of Cancer Cell, Wong and colleagues describe a novel approach of increasing the number of functional blood vessels in tumors using a low-dose therapy regimen of Cilengtide and Verapamil. This method enhanced Gemcitabine delivery, uptake, and metabolism within tumor cells to reduce tumor growth and progression. PMID:25584889

Bridges, Esther; Harris, Adrian L

2015-01-12

141

DNA Metabolism in Liver and Kidney Tumors of Different Growth Rates1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The incorporation of 14C-labeled thymidine into DNA was studied in liver and kidney tumors of different growth rates. Low incorporation was observed for the normal kidney cortex whereas greatly increased rates were found even in the very slowly growing 8997-K renal cortical tumor. The largest in corporation was observed in the most rapidly growing of the kidney tumors examined,

Michael A. Lea; Harold P. Morris; George Weber

142

The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics  

PubMed Central

Tumor cells require increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to support anabolism and proliferation. The precise mechanisms regulating this process in tumor cells are unknown. Here, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors. We found that RAGE is present in the mitochondria of cultured tumor cells as well as primary tumors. RAGE and HMGB1 coordinately enhanced tumor cell mitochondrial complex I activity, ATP production, tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lack of RAGE or inhibition of HMGB1 release diminished ATP production and slowed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. These findings link, for the first time, the HMGB1–RAGE pathway with changes in bioenergetics. Moreover, our observations provide a novel mechanism within the tumor microenvironment by which necrosis and inflammation promote tumor progression. PMID:23318458

Kang, R; Tang, D; Schapiro, NE; Loux, T; Livesey, KM; Billiar, TR; Wang, H; Van Houten, B; Lotze, MT; Zeh, HJ

2013-01-01

143

Differential feeding patterns induced by tumor growth and by TPN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of anorexia induced by early tumor, and anorexia induced by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on food intake and the indexes of food intake, were investigated in rats infused with saline after jugular catheter placement and concomitant inoculation with methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced tumor cells on day 0, and in rats without catheters receiving tumor only. Tumor became palpable around day

Michael M Meguid; Zhong-Jin Yang; John R Gleason; Akio Kubota

1999-01-01

144

Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase synergistically suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandins derived from the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from the cytochrome P450/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway are important eicosanoids that regulate angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors, which block the formation of prostaglandins, suppress tumor growth, whereas sEH inhibitors, which increase endogenous EETs, stimulate primary tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional interactions of these two pathways in cancer are unknown. Using pharmacological inhibitors as probes, we show here that dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH synergistically inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. COX-2/sEH dual pharmacological inhibitors also potently suppress primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via selective inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. These results demonstrate a critical interaction of these two lipid metabolism pathways on tumorigenesis and suggest dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:25024195

Zhang, Guodong; Panigrahy, Dipak; Hwang, Sung Hee; Yang, Jun; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Wettersten, Hiromi I.; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wang, Yanru; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Tam, Sarah; Kieran, Mark W.; Weiss, Robert H.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Hammock, Bruce D.

2014-01-01

145

CASZ1, a candidate tumor-suppressor gene, suppresses neuroblastoma tumor growth through reprogramming gene expression  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common childhood malignant tumor of the neural crest-derived sympathetic nervous system. In NB the frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 1p raises the possibility that this region contains tumor-suppressor genes whose inactivation contributes to tumorigenesis. The human homolog of the Drosophila neural fate determination gene CASZ1, a zinc-finger transcription factor, maps to chromosome 1p36.22, a region implicated in NB tumorigenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that low-CASZ1 expression is significantly correlated with increased age (?18 months), Children's Oncology Group high-risk classification, 1p LOH and MYCN amplification (all P<0.0002) and decreased survival probability (P=0.0009). CASZ1 was more highly expressed in NB with a differentiated histopathology (P<0.0001). Retinoids and epigenetic modification agents associated with regulation of differentiation induced CASZ1 expression. Expression profiling analysis revealed that CASZ1 regulates the expression of genes involved in regulation of cell growth and developmental processes. Specific restoration of CASZ1 in NB cells induced cell differentiation, enhanced cell adhesion, inhibited migration and suppressed tumorigenicity. These data are consistent with CASZ1 being a critical modulator of neural cell development, and that somatically acquired disruption of normal CASZ1 expression contributes to the malignant phenotype of human NB. PMID:21252912

Liu, Z; Yang, X; Li, Z; McMahon, C; Sizer, C; Barenboim-Stapleton, L; Bliskovsky, V; Mock, B; Ried, T; London, W B; Maris, J; Khan, J; Thiele, C J

2011-01-01

146

PET measurements of hyperthermia-induced suppression of protein synthesis in tumors in relation to effects on tumor growth  

SciTech Connect

Hyperthermia-induced metabolic changes in tumor tissue have been monitored by PET. Uptake of L-(1-11C)tyrosine in rhabdomyosarcoma tissue of Wag/Rij rats was dose-dependently reduced after local hyperthermia treatment at 42, 45, or 47 degrees C. Tumor blood flow, as measured by PET with 13NH3, appeared to be unchanged. The L-(1-11C)tyrosine uptake data were compared to uptake data of L-(1-14C)tyrosine and with data on the incorporation of L-(1-14C)tyrosine into tumor proteins. After intravenous injection, the 14C data were obtained from dissected tumor tissue. Heat-induced inhibition of the incorporation of L-(1-14C)tyrosine into tumor proteins tallied with the L-(1-11C)tyrosine uptake data. Heat-induced inhibition of amino acid uptake in the tumor correlated well with regression of tumor growth. It is concluded that PET using L-(1-11C)tyrosine is eligible for monitoring the effect of hyperthermia on tumor growth.

Daemen, B.J.; Elsinga, P.H.; Mooibroek, J.; Paans, A.M.; Wieringa, A.R.; Konings, A.W.; Vaalburg, W. (University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands))

1991-08-01

147

Chronic supplementation with shark liver oil for reducing tumor growth and cachexia in walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of chronic supplementation with shark liver oil (SLO), an antitumor supplement source of n-3 fatty acids and 1-O-alkylglycerols, alone and combined with coconut fat (CF), a source of saturated fatty acids, on Walker 256 tumor growth and cachexia. Male rats were supplemented daily and orally with SLO and/or CF (1 g per kg body weight) for 7 wk. After 7 wk, 50% of animals were subcutaneously inoculated with 3 × 10(7) Walker 256 tumor cells. After 14 days, the rats were killed, the tumors were removed for lipid peroxidation measurement, and blood was collected for glycemia, triacylglycerolemia, and lacticidemia evaluation. Liver samples were obtained for glycogen measurement. Unlike CF, supplementation with SLO promoted gain in body weight, reduction of tumor weight, and maintained glycemia, triacylglycerolemia, lacticidemia, and liver glycogen content to values similar to non-tumor-bearing rats. Combined supplementation of SLO with CF also showed a reversion of cachexia with gain in body mass, reduction of lacticidemia, maintaining the liver glycogen store, and reduction in tumor weight. SLO, alone or combined with CF, promoted increase of tumor lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, SLO supplemented chronically, alone or associated with CF, was able to reduce tumor growth and cachexia. PMID:21981555

Iagher, Fabíola; de Brito Belo, Sérgio Ricardo; Naliwaiko, Katya; Franzói, Andressa Machado; de Brito, Gleisson Alisson Pereira; Yamazaki, Ricardo Key; Muritiba, Ana Lúcia; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Steffani, Jovani Antonio; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

2011-11-01

148

Ohio State study shows how normal cells can fuel tumor growth:  

Cancer.gov

A new study published in the journal Nature Cell Biology has discovered how normal cells in mouse tumors can fuel tumor growth. Led by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center–Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, the study examines what happens when normal cells called fibroblasts in mouse mammary tumors lose an important tumor-suppressor gene called Pten.

149

Key Molecule Reprograms Microenvironment to Support Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

A team of investigators from the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center has identified two key molecules that cause normal cells in the tissue surrounding a tumor, the stroma, to produce nutrients that fuel tumor growth. The results of this study, which were published in the journal Nature Cell Biology, demonstrate what happens when normal cells called fibroblasts in mouse mammary tumors lose an important tumor-suppressor gene called Pten.

150

Delayed soil thawing affects root and shoot functioning and growth in Scots pine.  

PubMed

In boreal regions, soil can remain frozen after the start of the growing season. We compared relationships between root characteristics and water relations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings subjected to soil frost treatments before and during the first week of the growing period in a controlled environment experiment. Delayed soil thawing delayed the onset of sap flow or totally blocked it if soil thawing lagged the start of the growing period by 7 days. This effect was reflected in the electrical impedance of needles and trunks and in the relative electrolyte leakage of needles. Prolonged soil frost reduced or completely inhibited root growth. In unfrozen soil, limited trunk sap flow was observed despite unfavorable aboveground growing conditions (low temperature, low irradiance, short photoperiod). Following the earliest soil thaw, sap flow varied during the growing season, depending on light and temperature conditions, phenological stage of the plant and the amount of live needles in the canopy. The results suggest that delayed soil thawing can reduce tree growth, and if prolonged, it can be lethal. PMID:18708340

Repo, Tapani; Lehto, Tarja; Finér, Leena

2008-10-01

151

Dysregulation of CXCL9 and reduced tumor growth in Egr-1 deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Background Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is an immediate-early transcription factor inducible in the vasculature in response to injury, shear stress, and other stimuli. Mice lacking Egr-1 have a profound deficit in the ability to recover from femoral artery ligation, suggesting a role in neovascularization. Previous studies have shown that manipulating Egr-1 expression can have either positive or negative effects on tumor growth. We hypothesized that Egr-1 knockout mice might exhibit reduced tumor growth, possibly due to a reduced capacity to respond to angiogenic signals from a growing tumor. Results We injected 106 Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) cells subcutaneously in the flank of wild type and Egr-1 knockout mice. The average mass of tumors from wild type mice at 12 days after implantation was 413 +/- 128 mg, while those from Egr-1-/- mice was 219 +/- 81 mg (p = 0.001, mean +/- SD). However, sectioning the tumors and staining with anti-CD31 antibodies revealed no difference in the vascularity of the tumors and there was no difference in angiogenic growth factor expression. Expression of the chemokine Mig (CXCL9) was increased 2.8-fold in tumors from knockout mice, but no increase was found in serum levels of Mig. Natural killer cells have a 1.7-fold greater prevalence in the CD45+ cells found in tumors from Egr-1-/- mice compared to those from wild type mice. Immunohistochemical staining suggests that Mig expression in the tumors comes from invading macrophages. Conclusion Mice deficient in Egr-1 exhibit reduced growth of LLC1 tumors, and this phenomenon is associated with overexpression of Mig locally within the tumor. There are no obvious differences in tumor vascularity in the knockout mice. Natural killer cells accumulate in the tumors grown in Egr-1-/- mice, providing a potential mechanism for the reduction in growth. PMID:19200397

Caso, Giuseppe; Barry, Catherine; Patejunas, Gerald

2009-01-01

152

p62/SQSTM1 synergizes with autophagy for tumor growth in vivo.  

PubMed

Autophagy is crucial for cellular homeostasis and plays important roles in tumorigenesis. FIP200 (FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa) is an essential autophagy gene required for autophagy induction, functioning in the ULK1-ATG13-FIP200 complex. Our previous studies showed that conditional knockout of FIP200 significantly suppressed mammary tumorigenesis, which was accompanied by accumulation of p62 in tumor cells. However, it is not clear whether FIP200 is also required for maintaining tumor growth and how the increased p62 level affects the growth in autophagy-deficient FIP200-null tumors in vivo. Here, we describe a new system to delete FIP200 in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts as well as mammary tumor cells following their transplantation and show that ablation of FIP200 significantly reduced growth of established tumors in vivo. Using similar strategies, we further showed that either p62 knockdown or p62 deficiency in established FIP200-null tumors dramatically impaired tumor growth. The stimulation of tumor growth by p62 accumulation in FIP200-null tumors is associated with the up-regulated activation of the NF-?B pathway by p62. Last, we showed that overexpression of the autophagy master regulator TFEB(S142A) increased the growth of established tumors, which correlated with the increased autophagy of the tumor cells. Together, our studies demonstrate that p62 and autophagy synergize to promote tumor growth, suggesting that inhibition of both pathways could be more effective than targeting either alone for cancer therapy. PMID:24888590

Wei, Huijun; Wang, Chenran; Croce, Carlo M; Guan, Jun-Lin

2014-06-01

153

p62/SQSTM1 synergizes with autophagy for tumor growth in vivo  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is crucial for cellular homeostasis and plays important roles in tumorigenesis. FIP200 (FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa) is an essential autophagy gene required for autophagy induction, functioning in the ULK1–ATG13–FIP200 complex. Our previous studies showed that conditional knockout of FIP200 significantly suppressed mammary tumorigenesis, which was accompanied by accumulation of p62 in tumor cells. However, it is not clear whether FIP200 is also required for maintaining tumor growth and how the increased p62 level affects the growth in autophagy-deficient FIP200-null tumors in vivo. Here, we describe a new system to delete FIP200 in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts as well as mammary tumor cells following their transplantation and show that ablation of FIP200 significantly reduced growth of established tumors in vivo. Using similar strategies, we further showed that either p62 knockdown or p62 deficiency in established FIP200-null tumors dramatically impaired tumor growth. The stimulation of tumor growth by p62 accumulation in FIP200-null tumors is associated with the up-regulated activation of the NF-?B pathway by p62. Last, we showed that overexpression of the autophagy master regulator TFEBS142A increased the growth of established tumors, which correlated with the increased autophagy of the tumor cells. Together, our studies demonstrate that p62 and autophagy synergize to promote tumor growth, suggesting that inhibition of both pathways could be more effective than targeting either alone for cancer therapy. PMID:24888590

Wei, Huijun; Wang, Chenran; Croce, Carlo M.; Guan, Jun-Lin

2014-01-01

154

Celecoxib inhibits growth of tumors in a syngeneic rat liver metastases model for colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpressing colorectal cancers. The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib on the growth of colorectal cancer liver metastases in a syngeneic rat model, CC531. Materials and methods The effects of celecoxib on cell viability in vitro were evaluated by treatment of CC531 tumor cell cultures with celecoxib. In vivo, Wag/Rij rats were inoculated with CC531 tumor cells at two sites in the liver and treated with celecoxib starting one week before, or directly after tumor inoculation. Control rats were inoculated without treatment. Three weeks after tumor inoculation rats were sacrificed. Tumor size, immune cell infiltration, caspase-3 activity, PGE2 and celecoxib levels were determined. Results CC531 tumors did not show COX-2 expression. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by celecoxib treatment in a dose dependent manner. Immune cell infiltration was decreased after celecoxib treatment, indicating that the immune system was not involved in preventing tumor growth. Tumor caspase-3 levels were only significantly increased if treatment was started before tumor inoculation. Celecoxib serum concentration starting at 0.84 ?g/ml significantly inhibited the outgrowth of CC531 liver tumors. In contrast, in vitro concentrations of celecoxib of at least 12 ?g/ml were needed to affect tumor cell viability. Conclusion These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of celecoxib on tumor growth are not by direct cytotoxicity, but by creating an unfavorable environment for tumor growth. PMID:18247029

de Heer, Pieter; Sandel, Maro H.; Guertens, Gunther; de Boeck, Gert; Koudijs, Margaretha M.; Nagelkerke, J. Fred; Junggeburt, Jan M. C.; de Bruijn, Ernst A.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.

2008-01-01

155

Role of IL13 in regulation of anti-tumor immunity and tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major mediators of anti-tumor immunity are CD4 + T h1 cells and CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In tumor-bearing animals, the T h1- and CTL-mediated anti-tumor immunity is down-regulated in multiple ways. Better understanding of negative regulatory pathways of tumor immunity is crucial for the development of anti-tumor vaccines and immunotherapies. Since immune deviation toward T h2 suppresses T

Masaki Terabe; Jay A. Berzofsky

2004-01-01

156

Clinically relevant doses of candesartan inhibit growth of prostate tumor xenografts in vivo through modulation of tumor angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs), widely used antihypertensive drugs, have also been investigated for their anticancer effects. The effect of ARBs on prostate cancer in experimental models compared with meta-analysis data from clinical trials is conflicting. Whereas this discrepancy might be due to the use of supratherapeutic doses of ARBs in cellular and animal models as compared with the clinical doses used in human trials, further investigation of the effects of clinical doses of ARBs on prostate cancer in experimental models is warranted. In the current study, we sought to determine the effects of candesartan on prostate cancer cellular function in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, and characterize the underlying mechanisms. Our analysis indicated that clinically relevant doses of candesartan significantly inhibited growth of PC3 cell tumor xenografts in mice. Interestingly, the same concentrations of candesartan actually promoted prostate cancer cellular function in vitro, through a modest but significant inhibition in apoptosis. Inhibition of tumor growth by candesartan was associated with a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in tumors and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, but normalization of tumor vasculature. Although candesartan did not impair PC3 cell viability, it inhibited endothelial-barrier disruption by tumor-derived factors. Furthermore, candesartan significantly inhibited expression of VEGF in PC3 and DU145 cell lines independent of angiotensin II type 2 receptor, but potentially via angiotensin II type 1 receptor inhibition. Our findings clearly demonstrate the therapeutic potential of candesartan for prostate cancer and establish a link between ARBs, VEGF expression, and prostate tumor angiogenesis. PMID:24990940

Alhusban, Ahmed; Al-Azayzih, Ahmad; Goc, Anna; Gao, Fei; Fagan, Susan C; Somanath, Payaningal R

2014-09-01

157

Sca1-positive murine pituitary adenoma cells show tumor growth advantage  

PubMed Central

The role of tumor stem cells in benign tumors such as pituitary adenomas remains unclear. We investigated whether cells within pituitary adenomas that spontaneously develop in Rb+/? mice are hierarchically distributed with a subset being responsible for tumor growth. Cells derived directly from such tumors grew as spheres in serum-free culture medium supplemented with EGF and bFGF. Some cells within growing pituitary tumor spheres (PTS) expressed common stem cell markers (Sca1, Sox2, Nestin, CD133), but were devoid of hormone-positive differentiated cells. Under subsequent differentiating conditions (matrigel-coated growth surface), PTS expressed all six pituitary hormones. We next searched for specific markers of the stem cell population and isolated a Sca1+ cell population that showed increased sphere formation potential, lower hormone mRNA expression, higher expression of stem cell markers (Notch1, Sox2, Nestin), and increased proliferation rates. When transplanted into NOD scid gamma mice brains, Sca1+ pituitary tumor cells exhibited higher rates of tumor formation (brain tumors observed in 11/11 [100%] vs. 7/12 [54%] of mice transplanted with Sca1+ and Sca1? cells, respectively). Magnetic resonance imaging and histological analysis of brain tumors showed that those derived from Sca1+ pituitary tumor cells were also larger and plurihormonal. Our findings show that Sca1+ cells derived from benign pituitary tumors exhibit an undifferentiated expression profile and tumor proliferative advantages, and we propose that they could represent putative pituitary tumor stem/progenitor cells. PMID:24481638

Donangelo, Ines; Ren, Song-Guang; Eigler, Tamar; Svendsen, Clive; Melmed, Shlomo

2014-01-01

158

Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells  

SciTech Connect

Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

1982-09-01

159

Tumor Growth Modeling from the Perspective of Multiphase Porous Media Mechanics  

PubMed Central

Multiphase porous media mechanics is used for modeling tumor growth, using governing equations obtained via the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT). This approach incorporates the interaction of more phases than legacy tumor growth models. The tumor is treated as a multiphase system composed of an extracellular matrix, tumor cells which may become necrotic depending on the nutrient level and the pressure, healthy cells and an interstitial fluid which transports nutrients. The governing equations are numerically solved within a Finite Element framework for predicting the growth rate of the tumor mass, and of its individual components, as a function of the initial tumor-to-healthy cell density ratio, nutrient concentration, and mechanical strain. Preliminary results are shown. PMID:23285734

Sciumč, G.; Shelton, S.E.; Gray, W.G.; Miller, C.T.; Hussain, F.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B.A.

2013-01-01

160

IMP1 promotes tumor growth, dissemination and a tumor-initiating cell phenotype in colorectal cancer cell xenografts.  

PubMed

Igf2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IMP1, CRD-BP, ZBP-1) is a messenger RNA binding protein that we have shown previously to regulate colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, increased IMP1 expression correlates with enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC patients. In the current study, we sought to elucidate IMP1-mediated functions in CRC pathogenesis in vivo. Using CRC cell xenografts, we demonstrate that IMP1 overexpression promotes xenograft tumor growth and dissemination into the blood. Furthermore, intestine-specific knockdown of Imp1 dramatically reduces tumor number in the Apc (Min/+) mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis. In addition, IMP1 knockdown xenografts exhibit a reduced number of tumor cells entering the circulation, suggesting that IMP1 may directly modulate this early metastatic event. We further demonstrate that IMP1 overexpression decreases E-cadherin expression, promotes survival of single tumor cell-derived colonospheres and promotes enrichment and maintenance of a population of CD24+CD44+ cells, signifying that IMP1 overexpressing cells display evidence of loss of epithelial identity and enhancement of a tumor-initiating cell phenotype. Taken together, these findings implicate IMP1 as a modulator of tumor growth and provide evidence for a novel role of IMP1 in early events in CRC metastasis. PMID:23764754

Hamilton, Kathryn E; Noubissi, Felicite K; Katti, Prateek S; Hahn, Christopher M; Davey, Sonya R; Lundsmith, Emma T; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Rhim, Andrew D; Spiegelman, Vladimir S; Rustgi, Anil K

2013-11-01

161

p53 status in stromal fibroblasts modulates tumor growth in an SDF1-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

The p53 tumor suppressor exerts a variety of cell-autonomous effects that are aimed to thwart tumor development. In addition, however, there is growing evidence for cell non-autonomous tumor suppressor effects of p53. In the present study, we investigated the impact of stromal p53 on tumor growth. Specifically, we found that ablation of p53 in fibroblasts enabled them to promote more efficiently the growth of tumors initiated by PC3 prostate cancer-derived cells. This stimulatory effect was dependent on the increased expression of the chemokine SDF-1 in the p53-deficient fibroblasts. Notably, fibroblasts harboring mutant p53 protein were more effective than p53-null fibroblasts in promoting tumor growth. The presence of either p53-null or p53-mutant fibroblasts led also to a markedly elevated rate of metastatic spread of the PC3 tumors. These findings implicate p53 in a cell non-autonomous tumor suppressor role within stromal fibroblasts, through suppressing the production of tumor-stimulatory factors by these cells. Moreover, expression of mutant p53 by tumor stroma fibroblasts might exert a gain of function effect, further accelerating tumor development. PMID:20952507

Addadi, Yoseph; Moskovits, Neta; Granot, Dorit; Lozano, Guillermina; Carmi, Yaron; Apte, Ron N.; Neeman, Michal; Oren, Moshe

2010-01-01

162

Neutrophils but not eosinophils are involved in growth suppression of IL-4-secreting tumors.  

PubMed

Local expression of IL-4 by gene-modified tumor cells increases their immunogenicity by inducing an inflammatory response that is dominated by eosinophils. Eosinophils have been implicated as antitumor effector cells because the application of a granulocyte-depleting Ab inhibited rejection of IL-4 transfected tumors. This Ab did not discriminate between eosinophils and neutrophils and, therefore, this experiment could not exclude neutrophils as primary effector cells, whereas eosinophils were innocent bystander cells in IL-4 transfected tumors. We analyzed tumor growth suppression and granulocyte infiltration in IL-5-deficient (IL-5(-/-)) mice that had a deficiency of eosinophils, using two tumor lines (B16-F10 and MCA205) transfected to secrete IL-4. IL-4-expressing tumors were at least as efficiently rejected in IL-5(-/-) mice as in wild-type mice, despite an almost complete absence of tumor-infiltrating eosinophils. However, neutrophils were present in undiminished amounts and their depletion partially restored tumor growth. Furthermore, the growth of IL-5-secreting tumors was not impaired in either wild-type or IL-5(-/-) mice, even though it induced eosinophilia in both mouse strains. These findings demonstrate that eosinophils can be induced in IL-5(-/-) mice by exogenous IL-5 and argue against a compensatory effect of neutrophils in the absence of eosinophils. We conclude that 1) infiltration of IL-4 transfected tumors by eosinophils is completely IL-5 dependent, 2) eosinophils have no tumoricidal activity, and 3) neutrophils are responsible, at least in part, for tumor suppression. PMID:9551990

Noffz, G; Qin, Z; Kopf, M; Blankenstein, T

1998-01-01

163

A combination hybrid-based vaccination/adoptive cellular therapy to prevent tumor growth by involvement of T cells.  

PubMed

Cancer immunotherapy with dendritic cell-tumor cell fusion hybrids induces polyclonal stimulation against a variety of tumor antigens, including unknown antigens. Hybrid cells can prime CTLs, which subsequently develop antitumor responses. The aim of this study was to enhance the known antitumor effect of hybrid vaccination (HC-Vacc) and hybrid-primed adoptive T-cell therapy (HC-ACT) using the poorly immunogenic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) model. The strategy used was a combination of a double HC-Vacc alternating with HC-ACT (HC-Vacc/ACT). Using flat-panel volumetric computer tomography and immunohistochemistry, we showed a significant retardation of tumor growth (85%). In addition, a significant delay in tumor development, a reduction in the number of pulmonary metastases, and increased survival times were observed. Furthermore, the tumors displayed significant morphologic changes and increased apoptosis, as shown by up-regulation of gene expression of the proapoptotic markers Fas, caspase-8, and caspase-3. The residual tumor masses seen in the HC-Vacc/ACT-treated mice were infiltrated with CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and showed elevated IFNgamma expression. Moreover, splenic enlargement observed in HC-Vacc/ACT-treated mice reflected the increased functionality of T cells, as also indicated by increased expression of markers for CTL activation, differentiation, and proliferation (Cd28, Icosl, Tnfrsf13, and Tnfsf14). Our findings indicate that the combination therapy of dendritic cell-tumor cell HC-Vacc/ACT is a very effective and a promising immunotherapeutic regimen against poorly immunogenic carcinomas. PMID:17545626

Savai, Rajkumar; Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Schneider, Michael; Greschus, Susanne; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Traupe, Horst; Grimminger, Friedrich; Banat, Gamal-Andre

2007-06-01

164

Sca1? murine pituitary adenoma cells show tumor-growth advantage.  

PubMed

The role of tumor stem cells in benign tumors such as pituitary adenomas remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the cells within pituitary adenomas that spontaneously develop in Rb+/- mice are hierarchically distributed with a subset being responsible for tumor growth. Cells derived directly from such tumors grew as spheres in serum-free culture medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Some cells within growing pituitary tumor spheres (PTS) expressed common stem cell markers (Sca1, Sox2, Nestin, and CD133), but were devoid of hormone-positive differentiated cells. Under subsequent differentiating conditions (matrigel-coated growth surface), PTS expressed all six pituitary hormones. We next searched for specific markers of the stem cell population and isolated a Sca1(+) cell population that showed increased sphere formation potential, lower mRNA hormone expression, higher expression of stem cell markers (Notch1, Sox2, and Nestin), and increased proliferation rates. When transplanted into non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency gamma mice brains, Sca1(+) pituitary tumor cells exhibited higher rates of tumor formation (brain tumors observed in 11/11 (100%) vs 7/12 (54%) of mice transplanted with Sca1(+) and Sca1(-) cells respectively). Magnetic resonance imaging and histological analysis of brain tumors showed that tumors derived from Sca1(+) pituitary tumor cells were also larger and plurihormonal. Our findings show that Sca1(+) cells derived from benign pituitary tumors exhibit an undifferentiated expression profile and tumor-proliferative advantages, and we propose that they could represent putative pituitary tumor stem/progenitor cells. PMID:24481638

Donangelo, Ines; Ren, Song-Guang; Eigler, Tamar; Svendsen, Clive; Melmed, Shlomo

2014-04-01

165

Vaccination with OVA-bound nanoparticles encapsulating IL-7 inhibits the growth of OVA-expressing E.G7 tumor cells in vivo.  

PubMed

Immunotherapy has gained special attention due to its specific effects on tumor cells and systemic action to block metastasis. We recently demonstrated that ovalbumin (OVA) conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) (OVA?NPs) can manipulate humoral immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain whether vaccination with OVA-NPs entrapping IL-7 (OVA-NPs-IL-7) are able to induce antitumor immune responses in vivo. Pretreatment with a subcutaneous inoculation of OVA-NPs delayed the growth of thymic lymphoma cells expressing a model tumor antigen OVA (E.G7-OVA), and OVA-NPs-IL-7 substantially blocked the growth of E.G7-OVA tumor cells, although NPs-IL-7 alone had a meager effect, as assessed by the mean tumor size and the percentage of tumor-free mice. However, pretreatment with OVA-NPs-IL-7 failed to reduce the growth of parental thymic tumor cells, suggesting that the antitumor effect was antigen-specific. A tetramer assay revealed that vaccination with OVA-NPs-IL-7 tended to enhance the proportion of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) specific for OVA. When the tumor-free mice inoculated with OVA-NPs-IL-7 plus EG.7 cells were rechallenged with E.G7-OVA cells, they demonstrated reduced growth compared with that in the control mice. Thus, a single subcutaneous injection of OVA-NPs-IL-7 into mice induced tumor-specific and also memory-like immune responses, resulting in regression of tumor cells. Antigens on NPs entrapping IL-7 would be a promising carrier to develop and enhance immune responses, including humoral and cellular immunity as well as a method of drug delivery to a specific target of interest. PMID:25394516

Toyota, Hiroko; Yanase, Noriko; Yoshimoto, Takayuki; Harada, Mitsunori; Kato, Yasuki; Mizuguchi, Junichiro

2015-01-01

166

Control of Tumor Growth in Animals by Infusion of an Angiogenesis Inhibitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angiogenesis and tumor growth were inhibited in two different animal models by regional infusion of a partially purified cartilage extract. In rabbits bearing corneal implants of V2 carcinoma and receiving the inhibitor, vascular growth rates were <3% of those in control animals receiving either Ringer's solution or bovine trypsin inhibitor (Trasylol). Subconjunctival B16 melanoma implants in mice receiving the inhibitor weighed <2.5% of implants in mice receiving Ringer's solution, Trasylol, or albumin. Histologic study of major organs and standard blood tests revealed no toxic effects in any of the animals. The inhibitor did not retard the growth of either tumor cell type in tissue culture at concentrations as high as 1 mg/ml. These results suggest that the cartilage factor does not interfere with the growth of the tumor cell population directly but that it prevents tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis.

Langer, Robert; Conn, Howard; Vacanti, Joseph; Haudenschild, Christian; Folkman, Judah

1980-07-01

167

Insulin-like growth factors and insulin: at the crossroad between tumor development and longevity.  

PubMed

Numerous lines of evidence indicate that insulin-like growth factor signaling plays an important role in the regulation of life span and tumor development. In the present paper, the role of individual components of insulin-like growth factor signaling in aging and tumor development has been extensively analyzed. The molecular mechanisms underlying aging and tumor development are frequently overlapping. Although the link between reduced insulin-like growth factor signaling and suppressed tumor growth and development is well established, it remains unclear whether extended life span results from direct suppression of insulin-like growth factor signaling or this effect is caused by indirect mechanisms such as improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:22421704

Novosyadlyy, Ruslan; Leroith, Derek

2012-06-01

168

Preclinical Development of a Novel Class of CXCR4 Antagonist Impairing Solid Tumors Growth and Metastases  

PubMed Central

The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays a role in cancer metastases, stem cell mobilization and chemosensitization. Proof of concept for efficient CXCR4 inhibition has been demonstrated in stem cell mobilization prior to autologous transplantation in hematological malignancies. Nevertheless CXCR4 inhibitors suitable for prolonged use as required for anticancer therapy are not available. To develop new CXCR4 antagonists a rational, ligand-based approach was taken, distinct from the more commonly used development strategy. A three amino acid motif (Ar-Ar-X) in CXCL12, also found in the reverse orientation (X-Ar-Ar) in the vMIP-II inhibitory chemokine formed the core of nineteen cyclic peptides evaluated for inhibition of CXCR4-dependent migration, binding, P-ERK1/2-induction and calcium efflux. Peptides R, S and I were chosen for evaluation in in vivo models of lung metastases (B16-CXCR4 and KTM2 murine osteosarcoma cells) and growth of a renal cells xenograft. Peptides R, S, and T significantly reduced the association of the 12G5-CXCR4 antibody to the receptor and inhibited CXCL12-induced calcium efflux. The four peptides efficiently inhibited CXCL12-dependent migration at concentrations as low as 10 nM and delayed CXCL12-mediated wound healing in PES43 human melanoma cells. Intraperitoneal treatment with peptides R, I or S drastically reduced the number of B16-CXCR4-derived lung metastases in C57/BL mice. KTM2 osteosarcoma lung metastases were also reduced in Balb/C mice following CXCR4 inhibition. All three peptides significantly inhibited subcutaneous growth of SN12C-EGFP renal cancer cells. A novel class of CXCR4 inhibitory peptides was discovered. Three peptides, R, I and S inhibited lung metastases and primary tumor growth and will be evaluated as anticancer agents. PMID:24058588

Portella, Luigi; Vitale, Rosamaria; De Luca, Stefania; D’Alterio, Crescenzo; Ieranň, Caterina; Napolitano, Maria; Riccio, Anna; Polimeno, Maria Neve; Monfregola, Luca; Barbieri, Antonio; Luciano, Antonio; Ciarmiello, Andrea; Arra, Claudio; Castello, Giuseppe; Amodeo, Pietro; Scala, Stefania

2013-01-01

169

Endogenous T Cell Responses to Antigens Expressed in Lung Adenocarcinomas Delay Malignant Tumor Progression  

E-print Network

Neoantigens derived from somatic mutations in tumors may provide a critical link between the adaptive immune system and cancer. Here, we describe a system to introduce exogenous antigens into genetically engineered mouse ...

DuPage, Michel

170

Hyaluronan suppresses prostate tumor cell proliferation through diminished expression of N-cadherin and aberrant growth factor receptor signaling  

SciTech Connect

Hyaluronan (HA) production has been functionally implicated in prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis. We previously used prostate tumor cells overexpressing the HA synthesizing enzyme HAS3 or the clinically relevant hyaluronidase Hyal1 to show that excess HA production suppresses tumor growth, while HA turnover accelerates spontaneous metastasis from the prostate. Here, we examined pathways responsible for effects of HAS3 and Hyal1 on tumor cell phenotype. Detailed characterization of cell cycle progression revealed that expression of Hyal1 accelerated cell cycle re-entry following synchronization, whereas HAS3 alone delayed entry. Hyal1 expressing cells exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to sustain ERK phosphorylation upon stimulation by growth factors, and in their expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. In contrast, HAS3 expressing cells showed prolonged ERK phosphorylation and increased expression of both p21 and p27, in asynchronous and synchronized cultures. Changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins were accompanied by HA-induced suppression of N-cadherin, while E-cadherin expression and {beta}-catenin expression and distribution remained unchanged. Our results are consistent with a model in which excess HA synthesis suppresses cell proliferation by promoting homotypic E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion, consequently signaling to elevate cell cycle inhibitor expression and suppress G1- to S-phase transition.

Bharadwaj, Alamelu G.; Goodrich, Nathaniel P.; McAtee, Caitlin O.; Haferbier, Katie [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Oakley, Gregory G.; Wahl, James K. [Department of Oral Biology, University of Nebraska College of Dentistry, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)] [Department of Oral Biology, University of Nebraska College of Dentistry, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Simpson, Melanie A., E-mail: msimpson2@unl.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Eppley Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States)

2011-05-01

171

Control exponential growth of tumor cells with slow spread of oncolytic virus.  

PubMed

Great attention has been paid to cancer therapy by means of oncolytic viruses, but the fast virus-spread, which eliminates all tumor cells, cannot be applied to solid tumors. As slow virus-spread is applied, solid tumors are expected to be controlled but complicated dynamical behaviors appear. In this paper we investigate bifurcations of equilibria in the oncolytic virus dynamics model with exponential growth of tumor cells and slow virus-spread. We find conditions of parameters for saddle-node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation and Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation. Those conditions give thresholds for slow virus-spread to control the population of tumor cells within an appropriate range. PMID:25435412

Si, Wen; Zhang, Weinian

2015-02-21

172

Mice Lacking NCF1 Exhibit Reduced Growth of Implanted Melanoma and Carcinoma Tumors  

PubMed Central

The NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex is a professional producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is mainly expressed in phagocytes. While the activity of the NOX2 complex is essential for immunity against pathogens and protection against autoimmunity, its role in the development of malignant tumors remains unclear. We compared wild type and Ncf1m1J mutated mice, which lack functional NOX2 complex, in four different tumor models. Ncf1m1J mutated mice developed significantly smaller tumors in two melanoma models in which B16 melanoma cells expressing a hematopoietic growth factor FLT3L or luciferase reporter were used. Ncf1m1J mutated mice developed significantly fewer Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumors, but the tumors that did develop, grew at a pace that was similar to the wild type mice. In the spontaneously arising prostate carcinoma model (TRAMP), tumor growth was not affected. The lack of ROS-mediated protection against tumor growth was associated with increased production of immunity-associated cytokines. A significant increase in Th2 associated cytokines was observed in the LLC model. Our present data show that ROS regulate rejection of the antigenic B16-luc and LLC tumors, whereas the data do not support a role for ROS in growth of intrinsically generated tumors. PMID:24358335

Kelkka, Tiina; Pizzolla, Angela; Laurila, Juha Petteri; Friman, Tomas; Gustafsson, Renata; Källberg, Eva; Olsson, Olof; Leanderson, Tomas; Rubin, Kristofer; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Holmdahl, Rikard

2013-01-01

173

Mice lacking NCF1 exhibit reduced growth of implanted melanoma and carcinoma tumors.  

PubMed

The NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex is a professional producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is mainly expressed in phagocytes. While the activity of the NOX2 complex is essential for immunity against pathogens and protection against autoimmunity, its role in the development of malignant tumors remains unclear. We compared wild type and Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice, which lack functional NOX2 complex, in four different tumor models. Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice developed significantly smaller tumors in two melanoma models in which B16 melanoma cells expressing a hematopoietic growth factor FLT3L or luciferase reporter were used. Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice developed significantly fewer Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumors, but the tumors that did develop, grew at a pace that was similar to the wild type mice. In the spontaneously arising prostate carcinoma model (TRAMP), tumor growth was not affected. The lack of ROS-mediated protection against tumor growth was associated with increased production of immunity-associated cytokines. A significant increase in Th2 associated cytokines was observed in the LLC model. Our present data show that ROS regulate rejection of the antigenic B16-luc and LLC tumors, whereas the data do not support a role for ROS in growth of intrinsically generated tumors. PMID:24358335

Kelkka, Tiina; Pizzolla, Angela; Laurila, Juha Petteri; Friman, Tomas; Gustafsson, Renata; Källberg, Eva; Olsson, Olof; Leanderson, Tomas; Rubin, Kristofer; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Holmdahl, Rikard

2013-01-01

174

The Effect of Electroacupuncture on Osteosarcoma Tumor Growth and Metastasis: Analysis of Different Treatment Regimens  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor found in children and adolescents and is associated with many complications including cancer pain and metastasis. While cancer patients often seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches to treat cancer pain and fatigue or the side effects of chemotherapy and treatment, there is little known about the effect of acupuncture treatment on tumor growth and metastasis. Here we evaluate the effects of six different electroacupuncture (EA) regimens on osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis in both male and female mice. The most significant positive effects were observed when EA was applied to the ST-36 acupoint twice weekly (EA-2X/3) beginning at postimplantation day 3 (PID 3). Twice weekly treatment produced robust reductions in tumor growth. Conversely, when EA was applied twice weekly (EA-2X/7), starting at PID 7, there was a significant increase in tumor growth. We further demonstrate that EA-2X/3 treatment elicits significant reductions in tumor lymphatics, vasculature, and innervation. Lastly, EA-2X/3 treatment produced a marked reduction in pulmonary metastasis, thus providing evidence for EA's potential antimetastatic capabilities. Collectively, EA-2X/3 treatment was found to reduce both bone tumor growth and lung metastasis, which may be mediated in part through reductions in tumor-associated vasculature, lymphatics, and innervation. PMID:24228059

Smeester, Branden A.; O'Brien, Elaine E.; Ericson, Marna E.; Triemstra, Jennifer L.; Beitz, Alvin J.

2013-01-01

175

Omental adipose tissue-derived stromal cells promote vascularization and growth of endometrial tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adipose tissue contains a population of tumor-tropic mesenchymal progenitors, termed adipose stromal cells (ASC), which engraft in neighboring tumors to form supportive tumor stroma. We hypothesized that intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue may contain a uniquely tumor promoting population of ASC to account for the relationship between excess visceral adipose tissue and mortality of intra-abdominal cancers. Experimental Design To investigate this, we isolated and characterized ASC from intra-abdominal omental adipose tissue (O-ASC) and characterized their effects on endometrial cancer progression as compared to subcutaneous adipose derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SC-ASC), bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) and lung fibroblasts. To model chronic recruitment of ASC by tumors, cells were injected metronomically into mice bearing Hec1a xenografts. Results O-ASC expressed cell surface markers characteristic of BM-MSC and differentiated into mesenchymal lineages. Co-culture with O-ASC increased endometrial cancer cell proliferation in-vitro. Tumor tropism of O-ASC and SC-ASC for human Hec1a endometrial tumor xenografts was comparable, but O-ASC more potently promoted tumor growth. Compared with tumors in SC-ASC-injected mice, tumors in O-ASC-injected mice contained higher numbers of large tortuous desmin-positive blood vessels, which correlated with decreased central tumor necrosis and increased tumor cell proliferation. O-ASC-exhibited enhanced motility as compared to SC-ASC in response to Hec1a secreted factors. Conclusions Visceral adipose contains a population of multipotent MSC that promote endometrial tumor growth more potently than MSC from subcutaneous adipose tissue. We propose that O-ASC recruited to tumors express specific factors that enhance tumor vascularization, promoting survival and proliferation of tumor cells. PMID:22167410

Klopp, Ann H.; Zhang, Yan; Solley, Travis; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Marini, Frank; Andreeff, Michael; Debeb, Bisrat; Woodward, Wendy; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Broaddus, Russell; Lu, Karen; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

2011-01-01

176

Pharmacological Inhibition of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Suppresses Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mediated Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Blockade of Prostaglandin (PG) E2 production via deletion of microsomal Prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) gene reduces tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo on xenograft tumors. So far the therapeutic potential of the pharmacological inhibition of mPGES-1 has not been elucidated. PGE2 promotes epithelial tumor progression via multiple signaling pathways including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we evaluated the antitumor activity of AF3485, a compound of a novel family of human mPGES-1 inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo, in mice bearing human A431 xenografts overexpressing EGFR. Treatment of the human cell line A431 with interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) increased mPGES-1 expression, PGE2 production and induced EGFR phosphorylation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) expression. AF3485 reduced PGE2 production, both in quiescent and in cells stimulated by IL-1?. AF3485 abolished IL-1?-induced activation of the EGFR, decreasing VEGF and FGF-2 expression, and tumor-mediated endothelial tube formation. In vivo, in A431 xenograft, AF3485, administered sub-chronically, decreased tumor growth, an effect related to inhibition of EGFR signalling, and to tumor microvessel rarefaction. In fact, we observed a decrease of EGFR phosphorylation, and VEGF and FGF-2 expression in tumours explanted from treated mice. Conclusion Our work demonstrates that the pharmacological inhibition of mPGES-1 reduces squamous carcinoma growth by suppressing PGE2 mediated-EGFR signalling and by impairing tumor associated angiogenesis. These results underscore the potential of mPGES-1 inhibitors as agents capable of controlling tumor growth. PMID:22815767

Bocci, Elena; Coletta, Isabella; Polenzani, Lorenzo; Mangano, Giorgina; Alisi, Maria Alessandra; Cazzolla, Nicola; Giachetti, Antonio; Ziche, Marina; Donnini, Sandra

2012-01-01

177

Sucrose octasulfate regulates fibroblast growth factor-2 binding, transport, and activity: potential for regulation of tumor growth.  

PubMed

The antithrombotic activity of heparin has largely been credited with the success found in some cancer treatment by heparin. There are, however, many potent growth factors involved in tumor and blood vessel growth that bind to heparin with high affinity and their regulation by heparin may play a role in heparin's efficacy. We therefore chose to study the activity of a heparin analog, sucrose octasulfate (SOS), which has been similarly shown to interact with heparin-binding growth factors. Using mouse melanoma and lung carcinoma models, we demonstrate in vivo inhibition of tumor growth by SOS. SOS, however, showed little effect in coagulation assays indicating that this activity was not a primary mechanism of action for this molecule. Studies were then performed to assess the effect of SOS on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) activity, a growth factor which promotes tumor and blood vessel growth and is produced by B16 melanoma cells. SOS potently inhibited FGF-2 binding to endothelial cells and stripped pre-bound FGF-2 from cells. SOS also regulated FGF-2 stimulated proliferation. Further, SOS facilitated FGF-2 diffusion through Descemet's membrane, a heparan sulfate-rich basement membrane from the cornea, suggesting a possible role in FGF-2 clearance. Our results suggest that molecules such as SOS have the potential to remove growth factors from tumor microenvironments and the approach offers an attractive area for further study. PMID:18163458

Fannon, Michael; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Nugent, Matthew A; Gregory, Kalvin J; Chu, Chia Lin; Goerges-Wildt, Adrienne L; Panigrahy, Dipak; Kaipainen, Arja; Barnes, Carmen; Lapp, Cathy; Shing, Yuen

2008-05-01

178

Sucrose Octasulfate Regulates Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding, Transport, and Activity: Potential for Regulation of Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The antithrombotic activity of heparin has largely been credited with the success found in some cancer treatment by heparin. There are, however, many potent growth factors involved in tumor and blood vessel growth that bind to heparin with high affinity and their regulation by heparin may play a role in heparin’s efficacy. We therefore chose to study the activity of a heparin analog, sucrose octasulfate (SOS), which has been similarly shown to interact with heparin-binding growth factors. Using mouse melanoma and lung carcinoma models, we demonstrate in vivo inhibition of tumor growth by SOS. SOS, however, showed little effect in coagulation assays indicating that this activity was not a primary mechanism of action for this molecule. Studies were then performed to assess the effect of SOS on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) activity, a growth factor which promotes tumor and blood vessel growth and is produced by B16 melanoma cells. SOS potently inhibited FGF-2 binding to endothelial cells and stripped pre-bound FGF-2 from cells. SOS also regulated FGF-2 stimulated proliferation. Further, SOS facilitated FGF-2 diffusion through Descemet’s membrane, a heparan sulfate-rich basement membrane from the cornea, suggesting a possible role in FGF-2 clearance. Our results suggest that molecules such as SOS have the potential to remove growth factors from tumor microenvironments and the approach offers an attractive area for further study. PMID:18163458

FANNON, MICHAEL; FORSTEN-WILLIAMS, KIMBERLY; NUGENT, MATTHEW A.; GREGORY, KALVIN J.; CHU, CHIA LIN; GOERGES-WILDT, ADRIENNE L; PANIGRAHY, DIPAK; KAIPAINEN, ARJA; BARNES, CARMEN; LAPP, CATHY; SHING, YUEN

2008-01-01

179

On a Nonlinear Model for Tumor Growth: Global in Time Weak Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of a class of tumor growth models known as mixed models. The key characteristic of these type of tumor growth models is that the different populations of cells are continuously present everywhere in the tumor at all times. In this work we focus on the evolution of tumor growth in the presence of proliferating, quiescent and dead cells as well as a nutrient. The system is given by a multi-phase flow model and the tumor is described as a growing continuum ? with boundary ?? both of which evolve in time. Global-in-time weak solutions are obtained using an approach based on penalization of the boundary behavior, diffusion and viscosity in the weak formulation.

Donatelli, Donatella; Trivisa, Konstantina

2014-07-01

180

PACAP Induces Signaling and Stimulation of 5Hydroxytryptamine Release and Growth in Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroendocrine tumors, although rare, are currently diagnosed with increasing frequency, owing to improved imaging techniques\\u000a and a greater clinical awareness of this condition. To date, BON is a very well established and characterized human pancreatic\\u000a neuroendocrine tumor cell line used to study the signal transduction and genetic regulation of neuroendocrine tumors secretion\\u000a and growth. The secretory activity of BON cells

Patrizia M. Germano; Sandy N. Lieu; Janjing Xue; Helen J. Cooke; Fievos L. Christofi; Yuxin Lu; Joseph R. Pisegna

2009-01-01

181

Oxygen Consumption Can Regulate the Growth of Tumors, a New Perspective on the Warburg Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe unique metabolism of tumors was described many years ago by Otto Warburg, who identified tumor cells with increased glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial activity. However, “aerobic glycolysis” generates fewer ATP per glucose molecule than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, so in terms of energy production, it is unclear how increasing a less efficient process provides tumors with a growth advantage.Methods\\/FindingsWe carried out

Yijun Chen; Rob Cairns; Ioanna Papandreou; Albert Koong; Nicholas C. Denko; Mikhail V. Blagosklonny

2009-01-01

182

WT1-Mediated Growth Suppression of Wilms Tumor Cells Expressing a WT1 Splicing Variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human Wilms tumor cell line (RM1) was developed to test the tumor suppressor activity of WT1, a zinc finger transcription factor that is expressed in the developing human kidney and is mutationally inactivated in a subset of Wilms tumors. Transfection of each of four wild-type WT1 isoforms suppressed the growth of RM1 cells. The endogenous WT1 transcript in these

Daniel A. Haber; Seon Park; Shyamala Maheswaran; Christoph Englert; Gian G. Re; Debra J. Hazen-Martin; Donald A. Sens; A. Julian Garvin

1993-01-01

183

CD40 is a regulator for vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor microenvironment of glioma  

Microsoft Academic Search

CD40 is expressed in many tumor cells, however, its role in tumor biology is yet to be demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the role of CD40 in gliomas. In vivo, we evaluated CD40 expression in 95 glioma tissues and 10 non-tumorous brain tissues and investigated the relationship between histopathological parameters, vascular density, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

Fang Xie; Qin Shi; Qin Wang; Yan Ge; Yongjing Chen; Jianling Zuo; Yongping Gu; Haizhen Deng; Hui Mao; Zhenhua Hu; Yinghui Zhou; Xueguang Zhang

2010-01-01

184

Growth characteristics of human Wilms' tumor in nude mice.  

PubMed

Ten Wilms' tumors (WT) were heterotransplated into athymic (nude) mice. Eight of the tumors (80%) grew and were serially passaged as many as 20 times. The histology of the primary heterotransplants resembled that of the surgically excised tumors (seven classical and one anaplastic). Histological examination of serial passages of the classical WT demonstrated the tendency of the stromal and tubular components to disappear. The anaplastic tumor, however, maintained histological features identical to the primary tumor through all passages examined. One WT cell line that exhibited a prominent skeletal muscle component failed to grow beyond the third passage. Spontaneous glomerular differentiation was noted in several heterotransplants. The site of transplantation (subcutaneous, peritoneal, or renal capsule) had no effect on the differentiation of the tumors, and attempts to produce intravenous metastases were unsuccessful. Unilateral nephrectomy of WT-bearing mice gave a transient increase in pulse labeling of the tumors with bromodeoxyuridine, a thymidine analogue, compared with sham-operated controls or mice bearing Ewings' sarcoma heterotransplants. The increased labeling of tumor nuclei reached a maximum at 48 h. Similar increased labeling was observed in the remaining kidney following unilateral nephrectomy. These data show that although WT is a malignant neoplasm, its cells retain the capacity to respond to physiological signals resulting from nephrectomy and that differentiation cannot be modulated by the site of heterotransplantation or serial passage in athymic mice. PMID:2854254

Garvin, A J; Congleton, L; Inabnett, T; Gansler, T; Sens, D A

1988-01-01

185

Causes, consequences, and remedies for growth-induced solid stress in murine and human tumors  

E-print Network

The presence of growth-induced solid stresses in tumors has been suspected for some time, but these stresses were largely estimated using mathematical models. Solid stresses can deform the surrounding tissues and compress ...

Martin, John D.

186

Molecularly Targeted Drug Slows Tumor Growth in Patients with Metastatic Kidney Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported today that the molecularly targeted drug bevacizumab slowed tumor growth in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the most common form of kidney cancer in adults.

187

Mass General study identifies growth factor essential to the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor  

Cancer.gov

A multi-institutional team led by Massachusetts General Hospital researchers has identified a molecular pathway that appears to be essential for the growth and spread of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children.

188

Co-implanting orthotopic tissue creates stroma microenvironment enhancing growth and angiogenesis of multiple tumors  

PubMed Central

Tumor models are needed to study cancer. Noninvasive imaging of tumors under native conditions in vivo is critical but challenging. Intravital microscopy (IVM) of subcutaneous tumors provides dynamic, continuous, long-term imaging at high resolution. Although popular, subcutaneous tumor models are often criticized for being ectopic and lacking orthotopic tissue microenvironments critical for proper development. Similar IVM of orthotopic and especially spontaneous tumors is seldom possible. Here, we generate and characterize tumor models in mice for breast, lung, prostate and ovarian cancer by co-engrafting tumor spheroids with orthotopic tissue in dorsal skin window chambers for IVM. We use tumor cells and tissue, both genetically engineered to express distinct fluorescent proteins, in order to distinguish neoplastic cells from engrafted tissue. IVM of this new, two-colored model reveals classic tumor morphology with red tumor cell nests surrounded by green stromal elements. The co-implanted tissue forms the supportive stroma and vasculature of these tumors. Tumor growth and angiogenesis are more robust when tumor cells are co-implanted with orthotopic tissue versus other tissues, or in the skin alone. The orthotopic tissue promotes tumor cell mitosis over apoptosis. With time, tumor cells can adapt to new environments and ultimately even grow better in the non-orthotopic tissue over the original orthotopic tissue. These models offer a significant advance by recreating an orthotopic microenvironment in an ectopic location that is still easy to image by IVM. These “ectopic-orthotopic” models provide an exceptional way to study tumor and stroma cells in cancer, and directly show the critical importance of microenvironment in the development of multiple tumors. PMID:24715954

Schnitzer, Jan E

2013-01-01

189

Extracellular matrix-resident growth factors and enzymes: possible involvement in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoplastic cells require an appropriate pericellular environment and new formation of stroma and blood vessels in order to constitute a soilid tumor. Tumor progression also involves degradation of various extracellular matrix (ECM) constituents. In this review we have focused on the possible involvement of ECM-resident growth factors and enzymes in neovascularization and cell invasion. We demonstrate that the pluripotent angiogenic

Israel Vlodavsky; Gil Korner; Rivka Ishai-Michaeli; Pnina Bashkin; Rachel Bar-Shavit; Zvi Fuks

1990-01-01

190

Lack of effect of eicosapentaenoic acid in preventing cancer cachexia and inhibiting tumor growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recently reported that a diet enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the growth of different kinds of tumors as well as the host tissue hypercatabolic state frequently associated. The rat ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 is a fast growing tumor that causes a rapid and progressive body weight loss in the host and tissue waste associated with

Paola Costelli; Marta Llovera; Joaquín López-Soriano; Neus Carbó; Luciana Tessitore; Francisco J. López-Soriano; Francesco M. Baccino; Josep M. Argilés

1995-01-01

191

Pitt team finds protein that keeps balance between tumor cell growth and suppression  

Cancer.gov

Using an approach that combines molecular biology, genetics, cell biology and physiology, and pathology, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine have identified a protein that governs a key molecule involved in orchestrating the balance between tumor growth and tumor suppression.

192

Anti-tumor activity and tumor vessel normalization by the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor KRN951 in a rat peritoneal disseminated tumor model.  

PubMed

We assessed the antitumor efficacy of KRN951, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, using a rat colon cancer RCN-9 syngeneic model in which the tumor cells are transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of F344 rats. KRN951 treatments that commenced 4 days after tumor transplantation (day 4) significantly inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, the formation of tumor nodules in the mesenteric windows, and the accumulation of malignant ascites. Moreover, KRN951 treatments initiated on day 14, by which time angiogenesis and malignant ascites have already been well established, resulted in the regression of newly formed tumor vasculatures with aberrant structures and also in the apparent loss of malignant ascites by the end of the study period. Quantitative analysis of the vessel architecture on mesenteric windows revealed that KRN951 not only regressed, but also normalized the tumor-induced neovasculature. Continuous daily treatments with KRN951 significantly prolonged the survival of rats bearing both early stage and more advanced-stage tumors, compared with the vehicle-treated animals. The results of our current study thus show that KRN951 inhibits colon carcinoma progression in the peritoneal cavity by blocking tumor angiogenesis, ascites formation, and tumor spread, thereby prolonging survival. Moreover, these studies clearly demonstrate the therapeutic effects of KRN951 against established tumors in the peritoneal cavity, including the regression and normalization of the tumor neovasculature. Our findings therefore suggest that KRN951 has significant potential as a future therapeutic agent in the treatment of peritoneal cancers with ascites. PMID:18201272

Taguchi, Eri; Nakamura, Kazuhide; Miura, Toru; Shibuya, Masabumi; Isoe, Toshiyuki

2008-03-01

193

Acetyl-11-Keto-?-Boswellic Acid Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth by Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2-Mediated Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis is well established. Identification of small molecule that blocks tumor angiogenesis and is safe and affordable has been a challenge in drug development. In this study, we demonstrated that acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA), an active component from an Ayurvedic medicinal plant (Boswellia serrata), could strongly inhibit tumor angiogenesis. AKBA suppressed tumor growth in the human prostate tumor xenograft mice treated daily (10 mg/kg of AKBA) after solid tumors reached about 100 mm3 (n=5). The inhibitory effect of AKBA on tumor growth was well correlated with suppression of angiogenesis. When examined for the molecular mechanism, we found that AKBA significantly inhibited blood vessel formation in the Matrigel plug assay in mice and effectively and suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced microvessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay ex vivo. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited VEGF-induced cell proliferation, chemotactic motility, and the formation of capillary-like structures from primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis and in vitro kinase assay revealed that AKBA suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 kinase (KDR/Flk-1) with IC50 of 1.68 ?mol/L. Specifically, AKBA suppressed the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src family kinase, focal adhesion kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, AKT, mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase. Our findings suggest that AKBA potently inhibits human prostate tumor growth through inhibition of angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathways. PMID:19567671

Pang, Xiufeng; Yi, Zhengfang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sung, Bokyung; Qu, Weijing; Lian, Xiaoyuan; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Liu, Mingyao

2009-01-01

194

Antisense oligonucleotides directed against insulin-like growth factor-II messenger ribonucleic acids delay the progress of rat hepatocarcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep complex process, caused by many of genetic alteration. Insulin-like growth factors and their receptor have been widely implicated to HCC. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a mitogenic polypeptide, found in various fetal and neonatal tissues of humans and rats and expresses in HCC. Here we investigated anticancer potential of phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) against three coding exons (exon-1/exon-2/exon-3) of IGF-II messenger ribonucleic acid in rat hepatocarcinogenesis model. Materials and Methods: During diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene induced hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were treated with ASOs. Various biochemical and histological studies were conducted. Results: About 40% of carcinogen treated rats, which received two oligomers (against exon-1 or-3) did not show any hepatic lesion, hyperplastic nodule or tumor and remaining 60% of those rats showed lesion incidence and had about 59% and 55% reductions in the numbers of hepatic altered foci, respectively. Reductions in the total lesion-area when compared with carcinogen control rats were 64% and 53%, respectively for the animals treated with carcinogen and received the ASOs against exon-1/-3. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ASO reached in the hepatocytes in 2 h. No predominant IGF-II overexpression was observed in case of rats treated with the two ASOs. Treatment of the antisense IGF-II oligomers in carcinogen treated rats show better hepatocellular integrity along with several preneoplastic/neoplastic marker isoenzyme/enzyme modulations. Conclusions: Two of the three antisense oligomer-types effectively controlled IGF-II overexpression, causing the delay of the development and/or progress of hepatic cancer in rats. PMID:24737950

Ghosh, Miltu Kumar; Patra, Falguni; Ghosh, Shampa; Hossain, Chowdhury Mobaswar; Mukherjee, Biswajit

2014-01-01

195

Tumor Microenvironments Correspond to Unique Metabolic Signatures that Affect Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Using a genetic construct that produces a green glow as a tumor responds to microenvironmental stresses, a team of investigators at Stanford University have shown that the way in which a tumor responds to stress can predict how it will grow in the body. This work, led by Albert Koong, M.D., was published in the journal Cancer Research.

196

Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor from a Human Pancreatic Tumor that Caused Acromegaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 44 amino acid peptide with growth hormone-releasing activity has been isolated from a human tumor of the pancreas that had caused acromegaly. The primary structure of the tumor-derived peptide is H-Tyr-Ala-Asp-Ala-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asn-Ser-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Val-Leu-Gly-Gln-Leu- Ser-Ala-Arg-Lys-Leu-Leu-Gln-Asp-Ile-Met-Ser-Arg-Gln-Gln-Gly-Glu-Ser-Asn- Gln-Glu-Arg-Gly-Ala-Arg-Ala-Arg-Leu-NH2. The synthetic replicate has full biological activity in vitro and in vivo specifically to stimulate the secretion of immunoreactive growth hormone. The tumor-derived peptide is identical

Roger Guillemin; Paul Brazeau; Peter Bohlen; Frederick Esch; Nicholas Ling; William B. Wehrenberg

1982-01-01

197

Regulation of Tumor Growth and Metastasis: The Role of Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

The presence of abnormal cells with malignant potential or neoplastic characteristics is a relatively common phenomenon. The interaction of these abnormal cells with their microenvironment is essential for tumor development, protection from the body’s immune or defence mechanisms, later progression and the development of life-threatening or metastatic disease. The tumor microenvironment is a collective term that includes the tumor’s surrounding and supportive stroma, the different effectors of the immune system, blood platelets, hormones and other humoral factors. A better understanding of the interplay between the tumor cells and its microenvironment can provide efficient tools for cancer management, as well as better prevention, screening and risk assessment protocols. PMID:24926201

Goubran, Hadi A; Kotb, Rami R; Stakiw, Julie; Emara, Mohamed E; Burnouf, Thierry

2014-01-01

198

Stochastic fluctuation induced the competition between extinction and recurrence in a model of tumor growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the phenomenon that stochastic fluctuation induced the competition between tumor extinction and recurrence in the model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction. We analyze the probability transitions between the extinction state and the state of the stable tumor by the Mean First Extinction Time (MFET) and Mean First Return Time (MFRT). It is found that the positional fluctuations hinder the transition, but the environmental fluctuations, to a certain level, facilitate the tumor extinction. The observed behavior could be used as prior information for the treatment of cancer.

Li, Dongxi; Xu, Wei; Sun, Chunyan; Wang, Liang

2012-04-01

199

PPAR? agonist fenofibrate suppresses tumor growth through direct and indirect angiogenesis inhibition  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis and inflammation are central processes through which the tumor microenvironment influences tumor growth. We have demonstrated recently that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? deficiency in the host leads to overt inflammation that suppresses angiogenesis via excess production of thrombospondin (TSP)-1 and prevents tumor growth. Hence, we speculated that pharmacologic activation of PPAR? would promote tumor growth. Surprisingly, the PPAR? agonist fenofibrate potently suppressed primary tumor growth in mice. This effect was not mediated by cancer-cell-autonomous antiproliferative mechanisms but by the inhibition of angiogenesis and inflammation in the host tissue. Although PPAR?-deficient tumors were still susceptible to fenofibrate, absence of PPAR? in the host animal abrogated the potent antitumor effect of fenofibrate. In addition, fenofibrate suppressed endothelial cell proliferation and VEGF production, increased TSP-1 and endostatin, and inhibited corneal neovascularization. Thus, both genetic abrogation of PPAR? as well as its activation by ligands cause tumor suppression via overlapping antiangiogenic pathways. These findings reveal the potential utility of the well tolerated PPAR? agonists beyond their use as lipid-lowering drugs in anticancer therapy. Our results provide a mechanistic rationale for evaluating the clinical benefits of PPAR? agonists in cancer treatment, alone and in combination with other therapies. PMID:18199835

Panigrahy, Dipak; Kaipainen, Arja; Huang, Sui; Butterfield, Catherine E.; Barnés, Carmen M.; Fannon, Michael; Laforme, Andrea M.; Chaponis, Deviney M.; Folkman, Judah; Kieran, Mark W.

2008-01-01

200

PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate suppresses tumor growth through direct and indirect angiogenesis inhibition.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis and inflammation are central processes through which the tumor microenvironment influences tumor growth. We have demonstrated recently that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha deficiency in the host leads to overt inflammation that suppresses angiogenesis via excess production of thrombospondin (TSP)-1 and prevents tumor growth. Hence, we speculated that pharmacologic activation of PPARalpha would promote tumor growth. Surprisingly, the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate potently suppressed primary tumor growth in mice. This effect was not mediated by cancer-cell-autonomous antiproliferative mechanisms but by the inhibition of angiogenesis and inflammation in the host tissue. Although PPARalpha-deficient tumors were still susceptible to fenofibrate, absence of PPARalpha in the host animal abrogated the potent antitumor effect of fenofibrate. In addition, fenofibrate suppressed endothelial cell proliferation and VEGF production, increased TSP-1 and endostatin, and inhibited corneal neovascularization. Thus, both genetic abrogation of PPARalpha as well as its activation by ligands cause tumor suppression via overlapping antiangiogenic pathways. These findings reveal the potential utility of the well tolerated PPARalpha agonists beyond their use as lipid-lowering drugs in anticancer therapy. Our results provide a mechanistic rationale for evaluating the clinical benefits of PPARalpha agonists in cancer treatment, alone and in combination with other therapies. PMID:18199835

Panigrahy, Dipak; Kaipainen, Arja; Huang, Sui; Butterfield, Catherine E; Barnés, Carmen M; Fannon, Michael; Laforme, Andrea M; Chaponis, Deviney M; Folkman, Judah; Kieran, Mark W

2008-01-22

201

Evidence for the isolation, growth, and characterization of malignant cells in primary cultures of human tumors.  

PubMed

Isolation and growth of malignant cells from solid tumors have often met with disappointing results. Consequently, we have developed a cell culture methodology based on ex vivo explantation of tumor tissue, with subsequent monolayer cell outgrowth. In an attempt to assess methods for detection of malignant cells in these cultures, we analyzed and compared the results of cytopathology, growth in soft agar, and detection of telomerase activity with those of standard immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques for the detection of cytokeratins, tumor marker p53, and proliferation marker Ki-67. The sensitivity of detection of malignant cells was 85% (22/26) for cytopathological examination, 30% (3/10) for soft agar growth, and 100% (12/12) for detection of telomerase activity. From these data, we concluded that both cytopathological examination and assessment of telomerase activity contribute to the detection of malignant cells in primary cultures of human solid tumors, whereas growth in soft agar was not a good indicator of malignant cells. Although not specific for malignant cells per se, IHC detection for epithelial cell cytokeratins showed a high degree of sensitivity (100%, 23/23), whereas the sensitivity for detection of tumor marker p53 and proliferation marker Ki-67 was 30% (7/23) and 70% (16/23), respectively. These data also provide proof that malignant tumor cells, derived from a diverse number of human solid tumors, can be isolated and grown in primary cell culture. PMID:12892529

Ochs, Robert L; Fensterer, Jeffrey; Ohori, N Paul; Wells, Alan; Gabrin, Michael; George, Lisa D; Kornblith, Paul

2003-01-01

202

Computational Modeling of 3D Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis for Chemotherapy Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Solid tumors develop abnormally at spatial and temporal scales, giving rise to biophysical barriers that impact anti-tumor chemotherapy. This may increase the expenditure and time for conventional drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. In order to facilitate drug discovery, we propose a mathematical model that couples three-dimensional tumor growth and angiogenesis to simulate tumor progression for chemotherapy evaluation. This application-oriented model incorporates complex dynamical processes including cell- and vascular-mediated interstitial pressure, mass transport, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and vessel maturation to model tumor progression through multiple stages including tumor initiation, avascular growth, and transition from avascular to vascular growth. Compared to pure mechanistic models, the proposed empirical methods are not only easy to conduct but can provide realistic predictions and calculations. A series of computational simulations were conducted to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed comprehensive model. The computational simulation results suggest that solid tumor geometry is related to the interstitial pressure, such that tumors with high interstitial pressure are more likely to develop dendritic structures than those with low interstitial pressure. PMID:24404145

Tang, Lei; van de Ven, Anne L.; Guo, Dongmin; Andasari, Vivi; Cristini, Vittorio; Li, King C.; Zhou, Xiaobo

2014-01-01

203

Tumor fibroblast–derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK  

PubMed Central

Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J.; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R.; Threadgill, David W.; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F.

2013-01-01

204

Tumor fibroblast-derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R; Threadgill, David W; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F

2013-04-01

205

Failure of thalidomide to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo.  

PubMed

Thalidomide was recently suggested to be angiogenesis-inhibitor following the demonstration of its activity in a rabbit cornea micropocket model. The purpose of the present study was to test its efficacy in solid tumors in mice. B16-F10 melanoma and CT-26 colon carcinoma cells were injected subcutaneously, intravenously and intraperitoneally, and mice received daily gavage of 0.3-1.0 mg thalidomide starting either two or 10 days following tumor cell injection. The tumors were measured and compared with controls. There was no growth retardation in CT-26 bearing mice nor in mice with pulmonary or peritoneal metastases of B16-F10 melanoma. In 3/7 groups of mice with SC B16-F10 tumors, growth retardation was demonstrated, however the difference was not statistically significant. All tumors eventually reached maximal size, similar to controls. Morphological evaluation of the blood vessels oriented towards the tumor revealed that in both thalidomide and control groups, all mice had developed an intact network of new blood vessels. In our model for the oral administration of thalidomide inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis did not occur. We hypothesize that the lack of sustained antiangiogenic response was either due to immune modulation or to tumor heterogeneity and adaptation. PMID:9042240

Gutman, M; Szold, A; Ravid, A; Lazauskas, T; Merimsky, O; Klausner, J M

1996-01-01

206

A small-molecule antagonist of CXCR4 inhibits intracranial growth of primary brain tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 inhibits growth of intracranial glioblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts by increasing apoptosis and decreasing the proliferation of tumor cells. This reflects the ability of AMD 3100 to reduce the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt, all of which are pathways downstream of CXCR4 that promote survival, proliferation, and migration. These studies (i) demonstrate that CXCR4 is critical to the progression of diverse brain malignances and (ii) provide a scientific rationale for clinical evaluation of AMD 3100 in treating both adults and children with malignant brain tumors.

Rubin, Joshua B.; Kung, Andrew L.; Klein, Robyn S.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Sun, Yanping; Schmidt, Karl; Kieran, Mark W.; Luster, Andrew D.; Segal, Rosalind A.

2003-11-01

207

A small-molecule antagonist of CXCR4 inhibits intracranial growth of primary brain tumors  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of brain tumors in adults exhibit glial characteristics. Brain tumors in children are diverse: Many have neuronal characteristics, whereas others have glial features. Here we show that activation of the Gi protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 is critical for the growth of both malignant neuronal and glial tumors. Systemic administration of CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 inhibits growth of intracranial glioblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts by increasing apoptosis and decreasing the proliferation of tumor cells. This reflects the ability of AMD 3100 to reduce the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt, all of which are pathways downstream of CXCR4 that promote survival, proliferation, and migration. These studies (i) demonstrate that CXCR4 is critical to the progression of diverse brain malignances and (ii) provide a scientific rationale for clinical evaluation of AMD 3100 in treating both adults and children with malignant brain tumors. PMID:14595012

Rubin, Joshua B.; Kung, Andrew L.; Klein, Robyn S.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Sun, YanPing; Schmidt, Karl; Kieran, Mark W.; Luster, Andrew D.; Segal, Rosalind A.

2003-01-01

208

Co-expression of hepatocyte growth factor and c-met in epithelial odontogenic tumors.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-met, have been shown to regulate cell proliferation, motility and morphology in a variety of cell types. A significant role of the HGF/c-met pathway has been demonstrated in various tumors, however, little is known about the role of HGF/c-met pathway in odontogenic tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression of HGF and c-met in 30 ameloblastomas, 7 unicystic ameloblastomas (luminal type), 10 calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors, 10 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOTs), 30 keratocytic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) and 6 ameloblastic carcinomas using an immunohistochemical method. HGF and c-met were generally immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of all epithelial tumor cells, except for keratinizing cells in acanthomatous ameloblastoma, in all the examined odontogenic tumors. These results, together with the expression of these two proteins in the epithelium of tooth germs, suggest that the HGF/c-met pathway is involved in the differentiation of odontogenic tumors. This pathway may also promote tumor proliferation in odontogenic tumors due to its potent mitogenic effect. The consistent and strong immunolocalization of HGF and c-met in squamous cells present in acanthomatous ameloblastomas, AOTs and ameloblastic carcinomas, and in the linings of KCOTs suggests that the HGF/c-met interaction may have an influence on squamous differentiation in these odontogenic tumors. PMID:21855117

Poomsawat, Sopee; Punyasingh, Jirapa; Vejchapipat, Paisarn; Larbcharoensub, Noppadol

2012-07-01

209

Pazopanib, a Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Suppresses Tumor Growth through Angiogenesis in Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Xenograft Models123  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: The rarity of dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) and the lack of experimental DDLPS models limit the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Pazopanib (PAZ) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of non-adipocytic advanced soft tissue sarcoma. The activity of this agent has not yet been properly explored in preclinical liposarcoma models nor in a randomized phase ? clinical trial in this entity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PAZ had antitumor activity in DDLPS models in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We established two patient-derived DDLPS xenograft models (UZLX-STS3 and UZLX-STS5) through implantation of tumor material from sarcoma patients in athymic nude NMRI mice. An animal model of the SW872 liposarcoma cell line was also used. To investigate the efficacy of PAZ in vivo, mice bearing tumors were treated for 2 weeks with sterile water, doxorubicin (1.2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, twice per week), PAZ [40 mg/kg, orally (p.o.), twice per day], or PAZ plus doxorubicin (same schedules as for single treatments). RESULTS: Patient-derived xenografts retained the histologic and molecular features of DDLPS. PAZ significantly delayed tumor growth by decreasing proliferation and inhibited angiogenesis in all models tested. Combining the angiogenesis inhibitor with an anthracycline did not show superior efficacy. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PAZ has potential antitumor activity in DDLPS primarily through antiangiogenic effects and therefore should be explored in clinical trials. PMID:25500074

Li, Haifu; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Sciot, Raf; Cornillie, Jasmien; Wellens, Jasmien; Van Looy, Thomas; Vanleeuw, Ulla; Stas, Marguerite; Hompes, Daphne; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Schöffski, Patrick

2014-01-01

210

Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor for Treatment of Onychomadesis with Delayed Regrowth of the Nail  

PubMed Central

Onychomadesis usually arises from an inflammation of the paronychium or as a result of blisters and hemorrhaging under a nail that has been struck or compressed. No documented interactions between basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and onychomadesis have hitherto been reported. This case report describes a 25-year-old woman with onychomadesis following infection of the ingrown nail of her left thumb. After ten months of observation with no treatment showed no regrowth of her left thumbnail, the external use of bFGF and antibiotic ointment was started. One month later, nail regrowth was observed up to the halfway point of the nail bed, and after treatment for three months, the regrown nail reached the top of the nail bed. Both thumbnails now looked identical. This case suggests that external use of bFGF can promote nail regrowth in cases of onychomadesis with delayed regrowth of the nail. PMID:23864965

Oji, Tomito; Yazawa, Masaki; Kishi, Kazuo

2013-01-01

211

Effect of Melatonin on Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis in Xenograft Model of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

As neovascularization is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, controlling angiogenesis is a promising tactic in limiting cancer progression. Melatonin has been studied for their inhibitory properties on angiogenesis in cancer. We performed an in vivo study to evaluate the effects of melatonin treatment on angiogenesis in breast cancer. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay after melatonin treatment in triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). After, cells were implanted in athymic nude mice and treated with melatonin or vehicle daily, administered intraperitoneally 1 hour before turning the room light off. Volume of the tumors was measured weekly with a digital caliper and at the end of treatments animals underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Technetium-99m tagged vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C to detect in vivo angiogenesis. In addition, expression of pro-angiogenic/growth factors in the tumor extracts was evaluated by membrane antibody array and collected tumor tissues were analyzed with histochemical staining. Melatonin in vitro treatment (1 mM) decreased cell viability (p<0.05). The breast cancer xenografts nude mice treated with melatonin showed reduced tumor size and cell proliferation (Ki-67) compared to control animals after 21 days of treatment (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF receptor 2 decreased significantly in the treated animals compared to that of control when determined by immunohistochemistry (p<0.05) but the changes were not significant on SPECT (p>0.05) images. In addition, there was a decrease of micro-vessel density (Von Willebrand Factor) in melatonin treated mice (p<0.05). However, semiquantitative densitometry analysis of membrane array indicated increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 in treated tumors compared to vehicle treated tumors (p<0.05). In conclusion, melatonin treatment showed effectiveness in reducing tumor growth and cell proliferation, as well as in the inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:24416386

Jardim-Perassi, Bruna Victorasso; Arbab, Ali S.; Ferreira, Lívia Carvalho; Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Varma, Nadimpalli R. S.; Iskander, A. S. M.; Shankar, Adarsh; Ali, Meser M.; de Campos Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires

2014-01-01

212

Cotargeting tumor and stroma in a novel chimeric tumor model involving the growth of both human prostate cancer and bone stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stromal–epithelial interaction contributes to local prostate tumor growth, androgen-independent progression and distant metastasis. We have established in vitro coculture and in vivo chimeric tumor models to evaluate the roles of stromal cells isolated from either osteosarcoma or normal bone, a site where prostate cancer cells frequently metastasize, in contributing to the growth and survival of human prostate cancer cells. We

Chia-Ling Hsieh; Thomas A Gardner; Li Miao; Gary Balian; Leland W K Chung; Leland WK Chung

2004-01-01

213

Antisense targeting of perlecan blocks tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Perlecan, a ubiquitous heparan sulfate proteoglycan, possesses angiogenic and growth-promoting attributes primarily by acting as a coreceptor for basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). In this report we blocked perlecan expression by using either constitutive CMV-driven or doxycycline- inducible antisense constructs. Growth of colon carcinoma cells was markedly attenuated upon obliteration of perlecan gene expression and these effects correlated with reduced responsiveness to and affinity for mitogenic keratinocyte growth factor (FGF-7). Exogenous perlecan effectively reconstituted the activity of FGF-7 in the perlecan-deficient cells. Moreover, soluble FGF-7 specifically bound immobilized perlecan in a heparan sulfate-independent manner. In both tumor xenografts induced by human colon carcinoma cells and tumor allografts induced by highly invasive mouse melanoma cells, perlecan suppression caused substantial inhibition of tumor growth and neovascularization. Thus, perlecan is a potent inducer of tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo and therapeutic interventions targeting this key modulator of tumor progression may improve cancer treatment. PMID:9788974

Sharma, B; Handler, M; Eichstetter, I; Whitelock, J M; Nugent, M A; Iozzo, R V

1998-01-01

214

Combined effects of X rays, Ro 03-8799, and hyperthermia on growth, necrosis, and cell proliferation in a mouse tumor  

SciTech Connect

A mouse adenocarcinoma was treated with 20 Gy X rays, hyperthermia (30 minutes at 43 degrees C), Ro-03-8799, or a combination of two or three of these agents. Combined treatments increase growth delay in the tumor and this was greatest with the combination of all three modalities. Extensive amounts of necrosis were observed after the combined treatments. This effect was most pronounced after treatment modalities including hyperthermia. On the other hand, the radiation-induced micronucleus formation was more enhanced by the sensitizer than by hyperthermia. After X irradiation and combined treatments with X rays a G2-block was observed in DNA-histograms. Tetraploid cells appeared in large amounts that started DNA synthesis followed by necrosis. From these tumors it was impossible to obtain regular DNA-histograms. Tumor regression is a combined result of reduced cell renewal, increased cytogenetic damage, and development of necrosis.

George, K.C.; Streffer, C.; Pelzer, T.

1989-04-01

215

Growth Delay as an Index of Allostatic Load in Young Children: Predictions to Disinhibited Social Approach and Diurnal Cortisol Activity  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to examine whether growth delay can serve as an index of allostatic load during early development, as it is well known that the activity of stress-mediating systems inhibits growth. The participants were children adopted internationally from institutional care (n = 36), children adopted internationally from foster care (n = 6), and nonadopted children (n = 35). For the adopted children, height-for-age and weight-for-height were assessed at adoption; for all children, disinhibited social approach (DSA; termed elsewhere as “indiscriminate friendliness”) and diurnal cortisol were assessed at 6–8 years (M = 6.9 years). For internationally adopted children in general, and postinstitutionalized children specifically, linear growth delay assessed at the time of adoption was associated with more dysregulated behavior in response to an unfamiliar adult (i.e., greater DSA) and a more dysregulated diurnal cortisol rhythm (i.e., higher late-afternoon and evening values). Further, among the most growth-delayed children, higher cortisol levels later in the day were correlated with DSA. The potential for using growth delay as an allostatic load indicator and the possible problems and limitations in its use in child populations are discussed. PMID:21756437

Johnson, Anna E.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Tarullo, Amanda R.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2012-01-01

216

Fibroblast-mediated acceleration of human epithelial tumor growth in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Transformed fibroblasts coinoculated with epithelial cells accelerated the growth and shortened the latency period of human epithelial tumors in athymic mice. Addition of NbF-1 fibroblasts caused epithelial tumors to grow from five marginally tumorigenic or "nontumorigenic" (nontumor-forming) human tumor cell lines or strains: PC-3 (prostate), WH (bladder), MDA-436 (breast), and cells derived from the ascites fluids of patients with metastatic renal pelvic or prostate cancers. Evidence for the human and epithelial nature of these experimental tumors was provided by histologic, immunohistochemical, Southern and dot-blot hybridization, and cytogenetic analyses. Transformed fibroblasts induced predominantly carcinosarcomas, whereas nontumorigenic fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) and lethally irradiated transformed fibroblasts induced exclusively carcinomas. The fibroblast-epithelial interaction appears to occur bidirectionally and does not result from cell fusion. Because coculture experiments in vitro did not demonstrate an increased cell proliferation, it appears that undefined host factors can influence tumor growth. This tumor model may be useful in drug-screening programs and in mechanistic studies of factors regulating human tumor growth and progression. Images PMID:2296606

Camps, J L; Chang, S M; Hsu, T C; Freeman, M R; Hong, S J; Zhau, H E; von Eschenbach, A C; Chung, L W

1990-01-01

217

Modeling tumor growth in a complex evolving confinement using a diffuse domain approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of tumor growth represents an essential step towards engineering effective treatment for cancer patients. At the macroscopic scale, various biophysical models describing tumors as continuum fluids have been constructed, particularly on a Cartesian grid, where efficient numerical schemes are available to analyze the model for general tumor behaviors in a relatively unconfined space. For practical problems, however, tumors are often found in a confined sub-domain, which can even be dilated and distorted by the growing tumor within. To study such tumors, we adopt a novel diffuse domain approach that enables us to adapt a model to an evolving sub-domain and formulate the modified problem on a Cartesian grid to utilize existing numerical schemes. To demonstrate this approach, we adapt a diffuse-interface model presented in Wise et al. [2008, Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth - I Model and numerical method, J. Theor. Biol. 253, 524-543] to simulate lymphoma growth in a lymph node structure.

Chuang, Yao-Li; Lowengrub, John; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Cristini, Vittorio

2011-11-01

218

Inverse hormesis of cancer growth mediated by narrow ranges of tumor-directed antibodies  

PubMed Central

Compelling evidence for naturally occurring immunosurveillance against malignancies informs and justifies some current approaches toward cancer immunotherapy. However, some types of immune reactions have also been shown to facilitate tumor progression. For example, our previous studies showed that although experimental tumor growth is enhanced by low levels of circulating antibodies directed against the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), which accumulates in human tumors, growth could be inhibited by anti-Neu5Gc antibodies from a different source, in a different model. However, it remains generally unclear whether the immune responses that mediate cancer immunosurveillance vs. those responsible for inflammatory facilitation are qualitatively and/or quantitatively distinct. Here, we address this question using multiple murine tumor growth models in which polyclonal antibodies against tumor antigens, such as Neu5Gc, can alter tumor progression. We found that although growth was stimulated at low antibody doses, it was inhibited by high doses, over a linear and remarkably narrow range, defining an immune response curve (IRC; i.e., inverse hormesis). Moreover, modulation of immune responses against the tumor by altering antibody avidity or by enhancing innate immunity shifted the IRC in the appropriate direction. Thus, the dualistic role of immunosurveillance vs. inflammation in modulating tumor progression can be quantitatively distinguished in multiple model systems, and can occur over a remarkably narrow range. Similar findings were made in a human tumor xenograft model using a narrow range of doses of a monoclonal antibody currently in clinical use. These findings may have implications for the etiology, prevention, and treatment of cancer. PMID:24711415

Pearce, Oliver M. T.; Läubli, Heinz; Verhagen, Andrea; Secrest, Patrick; Zhang, Jiquan; Varki, Nissi M.; Crocker, Paul R.; Bui, Jack D.; Varki, Ajit

2014-01-01

219

Heparin Affinity: Purification of a Tumor-Derived Capillary Endothelial Cell Growth Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tumor-derived growth factor that stimulates the proliferation of capillary endothelial cells has a very strong affinity for heparin. This heparin affinity makes it possible to purify the growth factor to a single-band preparation in a rapid two-step procedure. The purified growth factor is a cationic polypeptide, has a molecular weight of about 18,000, and stimulates capillary endothelial cell proliferation

Y. Shing; J. Folkman; R. Sullivan; C. Butterfield; M. Klagsbrun

1984-01-01

220

Surface-Modified HK:siRNA Nanoplexes with Enhanced Pharmacokinetics and Tumor Growth Inhibition  

PubMed Central

We characterized in this study the pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy of histidine-lysine (HK):siRNA nanoplexes modified with PEG and a cyclic RGD (cRGD) ligand targeting ?v?3 and ?v?5 integrins. With noninvasive imaging, systemically administered surface-modified HK:siRNA nanoplexes showed nearly 4-fold greater blood levels, 40% higher accumulation in tumor tissue, and 60% lower luciferase activity than unmodified HK:siRNA nanoplexes. We then determined whether the surface-modified HK:siRNA nanoplex carrier was more effective in reducing MDA-MB-435 tumor growth with an siRNA targeting Raf-1. Repeated systemic administration of the selected surface modified HK:siRNA nanoplexes targeting Raf-1 showed 35% greater inhibition of tumor growth than unmodified HK:siRNA nanoplexes and 60% greater inhibition of tumor growth than untreated mice. The improved blood pharmacokinetic results and tumor localization observed with the integrin-targeting surface modification of HK:siRNA nanoplexes correlated with greater tumor growth inhibition. This investigation reveals that through control of targeting ligand surface display in association with a steric PEG layer, modified HK: siRNA nanoplexes show promise to advance RNAi therapeutics in oncology and potentially other critical diseases. PMID:23360232

2013-01-01

221

A Chemokine Receptor Antagonist Inhibits Experimental Breast Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leukocyte infiltrate of human and murine epithelial cancers is regulated by chemokine production in the tumor microenvironment. In this article, we tested the hypothesis that chemokine receptor antagonists may have anticancer activity by inhibiting this infiltrate. We first char- acterized CC chemokines, chemokine receptors, and the leukocyte infil- trate in the 410.4 murine model of breast cancer. We found

Stephen C. Robinson; Kate A. Scott; Julia L. Wilson; Richard G. Thompson; Amanda E. I. Proudfoot; Frances R. Balkwill

2003-01-01

222

A multinomial model of tumor growth treated by radiotherapy  

E-print Network

of cancer cell radio-sensitivity according to their states. This work gives also a new formulation in Radiobiology and assumes that a cancer cell contains m targets which must be all deactivated to produce cell of the radioactive treatments on cancer and healthy cells are characterized by two probabilities: (i) the tumor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

Depletion of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Slows the Growth of Chemically Induced Mouse Lung Adenocarcinomas  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for lung cancer, and low-dose aspirin intake reduces lung cancer risk. However, the roles that specific inflammatory cells and their products play in lung carcinogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. In mice, alveolar macrophage numbers increase as lung tumors progress, and pulmonary macrophage programing changes within 2?weeks of carcinogen exposure. To examine how macrophages specifically affect lung tumor progression, they were depleted in mice bearing urethane-induced lung tumors using clodronate-encapsulated liposomes. Alveolar macrophage populations decreased to ?50% of control levels after 4–6?weeks of liposomal clodronate treatment. Tumor burden decreased by 50% compared to vehicle treated mice, and tumor cell proliferation, as measured by Ki67 staining, was also attenuated. Pulmonary fluid levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, CXCL1, IL-6, and CCL2 diminished with clodronate liposome treatment. Tumor-associated macrophages expressed markers of both M1 and M2 programing in vehicle and clodronate liposome-treated mice. Mice lacking CCR2 (the receptor for macrophage chemotactic factor CCL2) had comparable numbers of alveolar macrophages and showed no difference in tumor growth rates when compared to similarly treated wild-type mice suggesting that while CCL2 may recruit macrophages to lung tumor microenvironments, redundant pathways can compensate when CCL2/CCR2 signaling is inactivated. Depletion of pulmonary macrophages rather than inhibition of their recruitment may be an advantageous strategy for attenuating lung cancer progression. PMID:25505466

Fritz, Jason M.; Tennis, Meredith A.; Orlicky, David J.; Lin, Hao; Ju, Cynthia; Redente, Elizabeth F.; Choo, Kevin S.; Staab, Taylor A.; Bouchard, Ronald J.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Malkinson, Alvin M.; Dwyer-Nield, Lori D.

2014-01-01

224

Deletion of cyclooxygenase 2 in mouse mammary epithelial cells delays breast cancer onset through augmentation of type 1 immune responses in tumors  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, which is associated with >40% of breast cancers, decreases the risk of tumorigenesis and breast cancer recurrence. To study the role of COX-2 in breast cancer, we engineered mice that lack selectively mammary epithelial cell (MEC) COX-2 (COX-2 KOMEC). Compared with wild type (WT), MEC from COX-2 KOMEC mice expressed >90% less COX-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein and produced 90% less of the dominant pro-oncogenic COX-2 product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. We confirmed COX-2 as the principle source of PGE2 in MEC treated with selective COX-2 and COX-1 inhibitors. Tumors were induced in mice using medroxyprogesterone acetate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Breast cancer onset was significantly delayed in COX-2 KOMEC compared with WT (P = 0.03), equivalent to the delay following systemic COX-2 inhibition with rofecoxib. Compared with WT, COX-2 KOMEC tumors showed increased mRNA for Caspase-3, Ki-67 and common markers for leukocytes (CD45) and macrophages (F4/80). Analysis of multiple markers/cytokines, namely CD86, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and Tim-3 indicated a shift toward antitumorigenic type 1 immune responses in COX-2 KOMEC tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed elevated expression of CD45, F4/80 and CD86 in COX-2 KOMEC tumors. Concordant with a role for COX-2 in restraining M1 macrophage polarization, CD86 and TNF? expression were offset by exogenous PGE2 in bone marrow-derived macrophages polarized in vitro to the M1 phenotype. Our data reveal the importance of epithelial COX-2 in tumor promotion and indicate that deletion of epithelial COX-2 may skew tumor immunity toward type 1 responses, coincident with delayed tumor development. PMID:21771729

Markosyan, Nune; Chen, Edward P.; Ndong, Victoire N.; Yao, Yubing; Sterner, Christopher J.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Lawson, John A.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Smyth, Emer M.

2011-01-01

225

Novel xenograft model expressing human hepatocyte growth factor shows ligand-dependent growth of c-Met-expressing tumors.  

PubMed

c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase responsible for cellular migration, invasion, and proliferation, is overexpressed in human cancers. Although ligand-independent c-Met activation has been described, the majority of tumors are ligand dependent and rely on binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) for receptor activation. Both receptor and ligand are attractive therapeutic targets; however, preclinical models are limited because murine HGF does not activate human c-Met. The goal of this study was to develop a xenograft model in which human HGF (hHGF) is produced in a controllable fashion in the mouse. Severe combined immunodeficient mice were treated with adenovirus encoding the hHGF transgene (Ad-hHGF) via tail vein injection, and transgene expression was determined by the presence of hHGF mRNA in mouse tissue and hHGF in serum. Ad-hHGF administration to severe combined immunodeficient mice resulted in hHGF production that was (a) dependent on quantity of virus delivered; (b) biologically active, resulting in liver hypertrophy; and (c) sustainable over 40 days. In this model, the ligand-dependent human tumor cell line SW1417 showed enhanced tumor growth, whereas the ligand-independent cell lines SW480 and GTL-16 showed no augmented tumor growth. This novel xenograft model is ideal for investigating c-Met/HGF-dependent human tumor progression and for evaluating c-Met targeted therapy. PMID:17431125

Francone, Todd D; Landmann, Ron G; Chen, Chin-Tung; Sun, Mark Y; Kuntz, Eleanor J; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Dematteo, Ronald P; Paty, Philip B; Weiser, Martin R

2007-04-01

226

CD200-expressing human basal cell carcinoma cells initiate tumor growth.  

PubMed

Smoothened antagonists directly target the genetic basis of human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common of all cancers. These drugs inhibit BCC growth, but they are not curative. Although BCC cells are monomorphic, immunofluorescence microscopy reveals a complex hierarchical pattern of growth with inward differentiation along hair follicle lineages. Most BCC cells express the transcription factor KLF4 and are committed to terminal differentiation. A small CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation that represents 1.63 ± 1.11% of all BCC cells resides in small clusters at the tumor periphery. By using reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assays, we determined that tumor initiating cell frequencies approximate one per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200(+) CD45(-) cells, representing ~1,500-fold enrichment. CD200(-) CD45(-) BCC cells were unable to form tumors. These findings establish a platform to study the effects of Smoothened antagonists on BCC tumor initiating cell and also suggest that currently available anti-CD200 therapy be considered, either as monotherapy or an adjunct to Smoothened antagonists, in the treatment of inoperable BCC. PMID:23292936

Colmont, Chantal S; Benketah, Antisar; Reed, Simon H; Hawk, Nga V; Telford, William G; Ohyama, Manabu; Udey, Mark C; Yee, Carole L; Vogel, Jonathan C; Patel, Girish K

2013-01-22

227

Hepatocyte growth factor and Met in tumor biology and therapeutic approach with NK4.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Met/HGF receptor tyrosine kinase play a role in the progression to invasive and metastatic cancers. A variety of cancer cells secrete molecules that enhance HGF expression in stromal fibroblasts, while fibroblast-derived HGF, in turn, is a potent stimulator of the invasion of cancer cells. In addition to the ligand-dependent activation, Met receptor activation is negatively regulated by cell-cell contact and Ser985 phosphorylation in the juxtamembrane of Met. The loss of intercellular junctions may facilitate an escape from the cell-cell contact-dependent suppression of Met-signaling. Significance of juxtamembrane mutations found in human cancers is assumed to be a loss-of-function in the negative regulation of Met. In attempts to block the malignant behavior of cancers, NK4 was isolated as a competitive antagonist against HGF-Met signaling. Independently on its HGF-antagonist action, NK4 inhibited angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial cell growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, as well as HGF. In experimental models of distinct types of cancers, NK4 inhibited Met activation and this was associated with inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis. NK4 inhibited tumor angiogenesis, thereby suppressing angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth. Cancer treatment with NK4 suppresses malignant tumors to be "static" in both tumor growth and spreading. PMID:18646008

Matsumoto, Kunio; Nakamura, Takahiro; Sakai, Katsuya; Nakamura, Toshikazu

2008-08-01

228

RAD001 (Everolimus) Delays Tumor Onset and Progression in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is thought to play a critical role in regulating cell growth, cell cycle progression, and tumorigenesis. Because the AKT-mTOR pathway is frequently hyperactivated in ovarian cancer, we hypothesized that the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (Everolimus) would inhibit ovarian tumorigenesis in transgenic mice that spontaneously develop ovarian carcinomas. We used TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice, which develop bilateral

Seiji Mabuchi; Deborah A. Altomare; Denise C. Connolly; Samuel Litwin; Harvey H. Hensley; Thomas C. Hamilton

229

Culture-Specific Institutions that Delayed the Growth of Common Schools in the Antebellum South, 1700-1860.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the southern approach to education during the period of 1700 to 1860. During this period there developed in the South three culture-specific institutions that helped delay the growth of Common Schools, and later Public Schools. Those institutions were the following: (1) a code of honor; (2) the development of a structured…

Hodgson, Frank M.

230

Iron and Copper Act Synergistically To Delay Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Transition metals are known to cause toxic effects through their interaction with oxygen, but toxicity under anoxic conditions is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on the anaerobic growth and gene expression of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. We found that Fe(II) and Cu(II) act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth at environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Cu(I) and Cu(II) had similar effects both alone and in the presence of ascorbate, a Cu(II) reductant, indicating that reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Fe(II) is not sufficient to explain the growth inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) increased the toxicity of Co(II) and Ni(II); in contrast, Ni(II) toxicity was diminished in the presence of Fe(II). The synergistic anaerobic toxicity of Fe(II) and Cu(II) was also observed for Escherichia coli MG1655, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Gene expression analyses for R. palustris identified three regulatory genes that respond to Cu(II) and not to Fe(II): homologs of cueR and cusR, two known proteobacterial copper homeostasis regulators, and csoR, a copper regulator recently identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two P-type ATPase efflux pumps, along with an FoF1 ATP synthase, were also upregulated by Cu(II) but not by Fe(II). An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in copA, cus, and cueO showed a smaller synergistic effect, indicating that iron might interfere with one or more of the copper homeostasis systems. Our results suggest that interactive effects of transition metals on microbial physiology may be widespread under anoxic conditions, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be more fully elucidated. PMID:23563938

Bird, Lina J.; Coleman, Maureen L.

2013-01-01

231

Iron and copper act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth of bacteria.  

PubMed

Transition metals are known to cause toxic effects through their interaction with oxygen, but toxicity under anoxic conditions is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on the anaerobic growth and gene expression of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. We found that Fe(II) and Cu(II) act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth at environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Cu(I) and Cu(II) had similar effects both alone and in the presence of ascorbate, a Cu(II) reductant, indicating that reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Fe(II) is not sufficient to explain the growth inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) increased the toxicity of Co(II) and Ni(II); in contrast, Ni(II) toxicity was diminished in the presence of Fe(II). The synergistic anaerobic toxicity of Fe(II) and Cu(II) was also observed for Escherichia coli MG1655, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Gene expression analyses for R. palustris identified three regulatory genes that respond to Cu(II) and not to Fe(II): homologs of cueR and cusR, two known proteobacterial copper homeostasis regulators, and csoR, a copper regulator recently identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two P-type ATPase efflux pumps, along with an F(o)F(1) ATP synthase, were also upregulated by Cu(II) but not by Fe(II). An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in copA, cus, and cueO showed a smaller synergistic effect, indicating that iron might interfere with one or more of the copper homeostasis systems. Our results suggest that interactive effects of transition metals on microbial physiology may be widespread under anoxic conditions, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be more fully elucidated. PMID:23563938

Bird, Lina J; Coleman, Maureen L; Newman, Dianne K

2013-06-01

232

A partial differential equation model and its reduction to an ordinary differential equation model for prostate tumor growth under intermittent hormone therapy.  

PubMed

Hormonal therapy with androgen suppression is a common treatment for advanced prostate tumors. The emergence of androgen-independent cells, however, leads to a tumor relapse under a condition of long-term androgen deprivation. Clinical trials suggest that intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) with alternating on- and off-treatment periods can delay the relapse when compared with continuous androgen suppression (CAS). In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for prostate tumor growth under IAS therapy. The model elucidates initial hormone sensitivity, an eventual relapse of a tumor under CAS therapy, and a delay of a relapse under IAS therapy, which are due to the coexistence of androgen-dependent cells, androgen-independent cells resulting from reversible changes by adaptation, and androgen-independent cells resulting from irreversible changes by genetic mutations. The model is formulated as a free boundary problem of partial differential equations that describe the evolution of populations of the abovementioned three types of cells during on-treatment periods and off-treatment periods. Moreover, the model can be transformed into a piecewise linear ordinary differential equation model by introducing three new volume variables, and the study of the resulting model may help to devise optimal IAS schedules. PMID:23982260

Tao, Youshan; Guo, Qian; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2014-10-01

233

A tumor cell growth inhibitor from polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (P. hypoleucum Ohwi) has been used as a Chinese medicine for a long time. In the present study, four anthraquinones, emodin, emodin 1-O-?-D-glucoside (49A), physcion (62A), and physcion 1-O-?-D-glucoside (50A) were identified from P. hypoleucum Ohwi and their inhibitory effects on various tumor cells proliferation were investigated. On a percentage basis, emodin had the highest suppressing activity

Yuh-Chi Kuo; Chang-Ming Sun; Jun-Chih Ou; Wei-Jern Tsai

1997-01-01

234

News Note: Gene Therapy Method Slows Tumor Growth in Mice  

Cancer.gov

NCI researchers have developed a novel method in mice of delivering genes to cancer cells, that when expressed, promote cell death. These genes, known as suicide genes, cause a cell to kill itself through a process known as apoptosis. The new technique uses the survivin gene promoter to express the suicide gene and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. This method of gene delivery effectively targeted tumor cells with a minimum effect on normal cells.

235

Silencing Met receptor tyrosine kinase signaling decreased oral tumor growth and increased survival of nude mice  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) is frequently overexpressed in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC), correlating positively with high-grade tumors and shortened patient survival. As such, Met may represent an important therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of Met signaling for HNSCC growth and locoregional dissemination. Materials and methods Using a lentiviral system for RNA interference, we knocked down Met in established HNSCC cell lines that express high levels of the endogenous receptor. The effect of Met silencing on in vitro proliferation, cell survival and migration was examined using western analysis, immunohisto-chemistry and live cell imaging. In vivo tumor growth, dissemination and mouse survival was assessed using an orthotopic tongue mouse model for HNSCC. Results We show that Met knockdown (1) impaired activation of downstream MAPK signaling; (2) reduced cell viability and anchorage independent growth; (3) abrogated HGF-induced cell motility on laminin; (4) reduced In vivo tumor growth by increased cell apoptosis; (5) caused reduced incidence of tumor dissemination to regional lymph nodes and (6) increased the survival of nude mice with orthotopic xenografts. Conclusion Met signaling is important for HNSCC growth and locoregional dissemination In vivo and that targeting Met may be an important strategy for therapy. PMID:24268630

Tao, X.; Hill, K.S.; Gaziova, I.; Sastry, S.K.; Qui, S.; Szaniszlo, P.; Fennewald, S.; Resto, V.A.; Elferink, L.A.

2013-01-01

236

Mechanisms by which SMARCB1 loss drives rhabdoid tumor growth.  

PubMed

SMARCB1 (INI1/SNF5/BAF47), a core subunit of the SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin-remodeling complex, is inactivated in the large majority of rhabdoid tumors, and germline heterozygous SMARCB1 mutations form the basis for rhabdoid predisposition syndrome. Mouse models validated Smarcb1 as a bona fide tumor suppressor, as Smarcb1 inactivation in mice results in 100% of the animals rapidly developing cancer. SMARCB1 was the first subunit of the SWI/SNF complex found mutated in cancer. More recently, at least seven other genes encoding SWI/SNF subunits have been identified as recurrently mutated in cancer. Collectively, 20% of all human cancers contain a SWI/SNF mutation. Consequently, investigation of the mechanisms by which SMARCB1 mutation causes cancer has relevance not only for rhabdoid tumors, but also potentially for the wide variety of SWI/SNF mutant cancers. Here we discuss normal functions of SMARCB1 and the SWI/SNF complex as well as mechanistic and potentially therapeutic insights that have emerged. PMID:24853101

Kim, Kimberly H; Roberts, Charles W M

2014-09-01

237

Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3? activation, while p38? phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors. PMID:24789042

Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

2014-07-01

238

Two Coordinated Mechanisms Underlie Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Immediate and Delayed I?B Kinase Activation  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?)-induced NF-?B activation has been believed to depend on TRAF2- and cIAP1-mediated RIP1 ubiquitination. However, recent findings have challenged the notion that these proteins play essential roles in NF-?B activation. Here, by assessing the kinetics and amplitude of I?B kinase (IKK) activation, we report that TNF-?-induced immediate and robust activation of IKK requires K63-linked and linearly linked ubiquitination of RIP1 and that in the absence of RIP1 expression, TRAF2 and cIAP1 cooperatively induce delayed IKK activation by recruiting LUBAC to TNFR1. Knockdown of HOIP (a component of LUBAC) in RIP1-deficient cells completely impairs the recruitment and activation of IKK but does not affect K63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF2 and recruitment of TAK1 to TNFR1, suggesting that the K63-linked ubiquitin chain is not capable of recruiting IKK in vivo. We also demonstrate that TRAF2 and cIAP1 together, but not either one alone, directly catalyze linearly linked ubiquitination of RIP1. Importantly, in embryonic hepatocytes, TNF-? activates NF-?B through a RIP1-independent pathway. Thus, our findings clarify molecular details of this important signaling mechanism by providing evidence for the existence of two phases of IKK activation: the immediate phase, induced by TRAF2/cIAP1-mediated ubiquitination of RIP1, and the delayed phase, activated by TRAF2/cIAP1-dependent recruitment of LUBAC. PMID:23459942

Blackwell, Ken; Zhang, Laiqun; Workman, Lauren M.; Ting, Adrian T.; Iwai, Kazuhiro

2013-01-01

239

Dual-Action Combination Therapy Enhances Angiogenesis while Reducing Tumor Growth and Spread.  

PubMed

Increasing chemotherapy delivery to tumors, while enhancing drug uptake and reducing side effects, is a primary goal of cancer research. In mouse and human cancer models in vivo, we show that coadministration of low-dose Cilengitide and Verapamil increases tumor angiogenesis, leakiness, blood flow, and Gemcitabine delivery. This approach reduces tumor growth, metastasis, and minimizes side effects while extending survival. At a molecular level, this strategy alters Gemcitabine transporter and metabolizing enzyme expression levels, enhancing the potency of Gemcitabine within tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. Thus, the dual action of low-dose Cilengitide, in vessels and tumor cells, improves chemotherapy efficacy. Overall, our data demonstrate that vascular promotion therapy is a means to improve cancer treatment. PMID:25584895

Wong, Ping-Pui; Demircioglu, Fevzi; Ghazaly, Essam; Alrawashdeh, Wasfi; Stratford, Michael R L; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Cereser, Biancastella; Crnogorac-Jurcevic, Tatjana; McDonald, Stuart; Elia, George; Hagemann, Thorsten; Kocher, Hemant M; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M

2015-01-12

240

Fufang Kushen injection inhibits sarcoma growth and tumor-induced hyperalgesia via TRPV1 signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Cancer pain is a deleterious consequence of tumor growth and related inflammation. Opioids and anti-inflammatory drugs provide first line treatment for cancer pain, but both are limited by side effects. Fufang Kushen injection (FKI) is GMP produced, traditional Chinese medicine used alone or with chemotherapy to reduce cancer-associated pain. FKI limited mouse sarcoma growth both in vivo and in vitro, in part, by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT kinases and BAD. FKI inhibited TRPV1 mediated capsaicin-induced ERK phosphorylation and reduced tumor-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Thus, FKI limited cancer pain both directly by blocking TRPV1 signaling and indirectly by reducing tumor growth. PMID:25242356

Zhao, Zhizheng; Fan, Huiting; Higgins, Tim; Qi, Jia; Haines, Diana; Trivett, Anna; Oppenheim, Joost J; Wei, Hou; Li, Jie; Lin, Hongsheng; Howard, O M Zack

2014-12-28

241

A validated mathematical model of tumor growth including tumor-host interaction, cell-mediated immune  

E-print Network

between the stromal and the neoplastic tissue may ultimately prove to be as important as the cancer cell of the present work is to develop a validated ODE model of tumor progression with three interacting cell data (Diefenbach et al., 2001), verifying that the lysis of cancer cells by the effector constituents

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

242

Novel EphB4 Monoclonal Antibodies Modulate Angiogenesis and Inhibit Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase and its cognate ligand EphrinB2 regulate induction and maturation of newly forming vessels. Inhibition of their interaction arrests angiogenesis, vessel maturation, and pericyte recruitment. In addition, EphB4 is expressed in the vast majority of epithelial cancers and provides a survival advantage to most. Here, we describe two anti-EphB4 monoclonal antibodies that inhibit tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth by two distinct pathways. MAb131 binds to fibronectin-like domain 1 and induces degradation of human EphB4, but not murine EphB4. MAb131 inhibits human endothelial tube formation in vitro and growth of human tumors expressing EphB4 in vivo. In contrast, MAb47 targets fibronectin-like domain 2 of both human and murine EphB4 and does not alter EphB4 receptor levels, but inhibits angiogenesis and growth of both EphB4-positive and EphB4-negative tumors in a mouse s.c. xenograft model. Combination of MAb47 and bevacizumab enhances the antitumor activity and induces tumor regression. Indeed, humanized antibodies hAb47 and hAb131 showed similar affinity for EphB4 and retained efficacy in the inhibition of primary tumor development and experimental metastasis. PMID:20133814

Krasnoperov, Valery; Kumar, S. Ram; Ley, Eric; Li, Xiuqing; Scehnet, Jeffrey; Liu, Ren; Zozulya, Sergey; Gill, Parkash S.

2010-01-01

243

Dual HER/VEGF receptor targeting inhibits in vivo ovarian cancer tumor growth.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer mortality ranks highest among all gynecologic cancers with growth factor pathways playing an integral role in tumorigenesis, metastatic dissemination, and therapeutic resistance. The HER and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) are both overexpressed and/or aberrantly activated in subsets of ovarian tumors. While agents targeting either the HER or VEGF pathways alone have been investigated, the impact of these agents have not led to overall survival benefit in ovarian cancer. We tested the hypothesis that cotargeting HER and VEGFR would maximize antitumor efficacy at tolerable doses. To this end, ovarian cancer xenografts grown intraperitoneally in athymic nude mice were tested in response to AC480 (pan-HER inhibitor, "HERi"), cediranib (pan-VEGFR inhibitor "VEGFRi"), or BMS-690514 (combined HER/VEGFR inhibitor "EVRi"). EVRi was superior to both HERi and VEGFRi in terms of tumor growth, final tumor weight, and progression-free survival. Correlative tumor studies employing phosphoproteomic antibody arrays revealed distinct agent-specific alterations, with EVRi inducing the greatest overall effect on growth factor signaling. These data suggest that simultaneous inhibition of HER and VEGFR may benefit select subsets of ovarian cancer tumors. To this end, we derived a novel HER/VEGF signature that correlated with poor overall survival in high-grade, late stage, serous ovarian cancer patient tumors. PMID:24130056

Becker, Marc A; Farzan, Thahir; Harrington, Sean C; Krempski, James W; Weroha, S John; Hou, Xiaonan; Kalli, Kimberly R; Wong, Tai W; Haluska, Paul

2013-12-01

244

Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 Directly Promotes Tumor Cell Growth by Scavenging Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate12  

PubMed Central

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5?-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X7 receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X7 expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management. PMID:21390184

Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan

2011-01-01

245

Caveolin-1 is a negative regulator of tumor growth in glioblastoma and modulates chemosensitivity to temozolomide  

PubMed Central

Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a critical regulator of tumor progression in a variety of cancers where it has been shown to act as either a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter. In glioblastoma multiforme, it has been previously demonstrated to function as a putative tumor suppressor. Our studies here, using the human glioblastoma-derived cell line U-87MG, further support the role of Cav-1 as a negative regulator of tumor growth. Using a lentiviral transduction approach, we were able to stably overexpress Cav-1 in U-87MG cells. Gene expression microarray analyses demonstrated significant enrichment in gene signatures corresponding to downregulation of MAPK, PI3K/AKT and mTOR signaling, as well as activation of apoptotic pathways in Cav-1-overexpressing U-87MG cells. These same gene signatures were later confirmed at the protein level in vitro. To explore the ability of Cav-1 to regulate tumor growth in vivo, we further show that Cav-1-overexpressing U-87MG cells display reduced tumorigenicity in an ectopic xenograft mouse model, with marked hypoactivation of MAPK and PI3K/mTOR pathways. Finally, we demonstrate that Cav-1 overexpression confers sensitivity to the most commonly used chemotherapy for glioblastoma, temozolomide. In conclusion, Cav-1 negatively regulates key cell growth and survival pathways and may be an effective biomarker for predicting response to chemotherapy in glioblastoma. PMID:23598719

Quann, Kevin; Gonzales, Donna M.; Mercier, Isabelle; Wang, Chenguang; Sotgia, Federica; Pestell, Richard G.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Jasmin, Jean-François

2013-01-01

246

Intra-vital ultrasonographic monitoring of intra-cerebral tumor growth in a rat glioma model: technical note.  

PubMed

The assessment of therapeutic effects in rodent glioma models by comparison of post mortem tumor sizes has to deal with differing individual growth kinetics and the possibility of spontaneous tumor regression. This technical note describes the intravital ultrasonographical monitoring of cerebral tumor growth in individual animals. In the experiments C6 lacZ glioma cells were injected intracerebrally into female Wistar rats. Extended craniectomy allowed for transcutaneous sonographic examination of the tumor growth. Four animals were followed ultrasonographically, the volumes of the tumors were calculated and plotted graphically, and on day 21 histological evaluation was performed. Our results show that ultrasonography is an easy and reliable imaging modality for frequent assessment of tumor growth kinetics in the intra-cerebral rat glioma model. It allows for the intravital monitoring of treatment with new therapeutic strategies and increases the reliability of the model by visualization of the tumor size before initiation of treatment. PMID:15494118

Nestler, Ulf; Luecke, Marcus; Joedicke, Andreas; Winking, Michael

2004-10-01

247

MicroRNA-17 inhibits tumor growth by stimulating T-cell mediated host immune response  

PubMed Central

Background Melanoma is one of the fastest-rising types of cancer in North American. Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-tumor immune tolerance plays a critical role in tumor development. Methods B16 melanoma cells were injected into wild type and miR-17 overexpressing transgenic mice. Tumor growth was monitored and tumor bearing mice were sacrificed by the end of the forth week. Peripheral blood and spleen cells were subject to flow cytometry analysis and tumor samples were subject to immunohistochemistry staining. Meanwhile, Jurkat cells transfected with mock-control or miR-17 overexpressing plasmid were co-cultured with B16 cells. The influence of miR-17 on cell cycle, proliferation and survival was evaluated. Results The melanoma tumors formed in mice overexpressing miR-17 were less than that in wild type mice. In addition, the miR-17 tumors were less invasive and less angiogenic. The percentage of CD8+ T cells was suppressed in miR-17 transgenic mice before melanoma cell injection. Its level was significantly increased upon tumor grafting. More tumor infiltrating CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte could be found in transgenic mice with tumor formation. Luciferase assay and protein analysis indicated that STAT3 was the target of miR-17. Decreased levels of STAT3 were associated with miR-17 over-expression. Down-regulation of STAT3 in Jurkat cells promoted cell proliferation and mitosis. Conclusions MiR-17 inhibits melanoma growth by stimulating CD8+ T cells mediated host immune response, which is due to its regulation of STAT3. PMID:25594054

Li, Haoran; Gupta, Shaan; Du, William W.; Yang, Burton B.

2014-01-01

248

p53 expression in pituitary adenomas and carcinomas: correlation with invasiveness and tumor growth fractions.  

PubMed

Although most pituitary tumors are well differentiated, histologically benign neoplasms, their clinical behavior is known to vary greatly. These lesions are relentlessly aggressive in some instances yet biologically indolent in others, but these prognostically relevant differences in behavior are not reflected in their histopathological appearance. As a means of identifying intrinsically aggressive pituitary tumors, we evaluated 70 pituitary adenomas and 7 primary pituitary carcinomas for their expression of the p53 gene product, a nuclear phosphoprotein whose immunohistochemical accumulation has served as an unfavorable prognostic factor for a wide range of human neoplasms. All tumors were fully classified by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy; adenomas were further stratified on the basis of their invasion status, the latter being defined as gross operatively or radiologically apparent infiltration of dura or bone. Conclusive nuclear immunopositivity for p53 was identified in a total of 12 tumors, all being either invasive adenomas or primary pituitary carcinomas. A clear and highly significant association was evident between p53 expression and tumor behavior, as the proportion of p53-positive cases among noninvasive adenomas, invasive adenomas, and pituitary carcinomas was 0, 15.2, and 100%, respectively (chi 2 = 44.72; degrees of freedom, 2; P < 0.001). A comparison of previously reported growth fraction data with p53 expression indicated that the mean Ki-67-derived growth fraction of p53-positive tumors was significantly higher than that of p53-negative tumors (10.41 +/- 2.20 versus 2.51 +/- 0.28%) (+/- standard error of the mean, two-sample t test for independent samples, P = 0.004). There was no apparent relationship between the functional status of the tumor and p53 expression; positivity was observed among somatotroph, lactotroph, corticotroph, and clinically nonfunctioning pituitary tumors. These data indicate that p53 expression, when conclusively present in pituitary tumors, may be of some diagnostic usefulness as a marker of biologically aggressive behavior. PMID:8692397

Thapar, K; Scheithauer, B W; Kovacs, K; Pernicone, P J; Laws, E R

1996-04-01

249

Baseline tumor growth and immune control in laboratory mice are significantly influenced by subthermoneutral housing temperature  

PubMed Central

We show here that fundamental aspects of antitumor immunity in mice are significantly influenced by ambient housing temperature. Standard housing temperature for laboratory mice in research facilities is mandated to be between 20–26 °C; however, these subthermoneutral temperatures cause mild chronic cold stress, activating thermogenesis to maintain normal body temperature. When stress is alleviated by housing at thermoneutral ambient temperature (30–31 °C), we observe a striking reduction in tumor formation, growth rate and metastasis. This improved control of tumor growth is dependent upon the adaptive immune system. We observe significantly increased numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T cells with an activated phenotype in the tumor microenvironment at thermoneutrality. At the same time there is a significant reduction in numbers of immunosuppressive MDSCs and regulatory T lymphocytes. Notably, in temperature preference studies, tumor-bearing mice select a higher ambient temperature than non-tumor-bearing mice, suggesting that tumor-bearing mice experience a greater degree of cold-stress. Overall, our data raise the hypothesis that suppression of antitumor immunity is an outcome of cold stress-induced thermogenesis. Therefore, the common approach of studying immunity against tumors in mice housed only at standard room temperature may be limiting our understanding of the full potential of the antitumor immune response. PMID:24248371

Kokolus, Kathleen M.; Capitano, Maegan L.; Lee, Chen-Ting; Eng, Jason W.-L.; Waight, Jeremy D.; Hylander, Bonnie L.; Sexton, Sandra; Hong, Chi-Chen; Gordon, Christopher J.; Abrams, Scott I.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

250

ALK-dependent control of hypoxia-inducible factors mediates tumor growth and metastasis.  

PubMed

Rearrangements involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene are defining events in several tumors, including anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In such cancers, the oncogenic activity of ALK stimulates signaling pathways that induce cell transformation and promote tumor growth. In search for common pathways activated by oncogenic ALK across different tumors types, we found that hypoxia pathways were significantly enriched in ALK-rearranged ALCL and NSCLC, as compared with other types of T-cell lymphoma or EGFR- and K-RAS-mutated NSCLC, respectively. Consistently, in both ALCL and NSCLC, we found that under hypoxic conditions, ALK directly regulated the abundance of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), which are key players of the hypoxia response in normal tissues and cancers. In ALCL, the upregulation of HIF1? and HIF2? in hypoxic conditions required ALK activity and its downstream signaling proteins STAT3 and C/EBP?. In vivo, ALK regulated VEGFA production and tumor angiogenesis in ALCL and NSCLC, and the treatment with the anti-VEGFA antibody bevacizumab strongly impaired ALCL growth in mouse xenografts. Finally, HIF2?, but not HIF1?, was required for ALCL growth in vivo whereas the growth and metastasis potential of ALK-rearranged NSCLC required both HIF1? and HIF2?. In conclusion, we uncovered an ALK-specific regulation of the hypoxia response across different ALK(+) tumor types and propose HIFs as a powerful specific therapeutic target in ALK-rearranged ALCL and NSCLC. PMID:25193384

Martinengo, Cinzia; Poggio, Teresa; Menotti, Matteo; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Mastini, Cristina; Ambrogio, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elisa; Riera, Ludovica; Piva, Roberto; Ribatti, Domenico; Pastorino, Fabio; Perri, Patrizia; Ponzoni, Mirco; Wang, Qi; Voena, Claudia; Chiarle, Roberto

2014-11-01

251

The Tumor Microenvironment Contribution to Development, Growth, Invasion and Metastasis of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a complex tissue that contains tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, which is populated by different types of mesenchymal cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Collectively, they are referred to as the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recent studies have shown that TME has a more profound influence on the growth and metastasis of HNSCC than was previously appreciated. Because carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are frequently observed in the stroma of the tumor, this review focuses on the potential role of tumor-CAFs interactions in progression of HNSCC. Tumor-CAFs crosstalk enhances the production of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inflammatory mediators, which eventually facilitates tumor growth. In fact, factors and cells that do not support tumor growth are usually down regulated or mitigated in TME. Therefore TME may determine the fate of the tumors at the site of invasion and metastasis. For tumor cells that survive at these sites, stromal activation may serve to establish a supportive tumor stroma, fostering the outgrowth of the metastatic cells. The concept of tumor-stromal interactions and microenvironmental niche has profound consequences in tumor growth and metastasis and therefore, it's understanding will open up new strategies for the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of HNSCC. PMID:23386906

Koontongkaew, Sittichai

2013-01-01

252

The tumor microenvironment contribution to development, growth, invasion and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.  

PubMed

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a complex tissue that contains tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, which is populated by different types of mesenchymal cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Collectively, they are referred to as the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recent studies have shown that TME has a more profound influence on the growth and metastasis of HNSCC than was previously appreciated. Because carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are frequently observed in the stroma of the tumor, this review focuses on the potential role of tumor-CAFs interactions in progression of HNSCC. Tumor-CAFs crosstalk enhances the production of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inflammatory mediators, which eventually facilitates tumor growth. In fact, factors and cells that do not support tumor growth are usually down regulated or mitigated in TME. Therefore TME may determine the fate of the tumors at the site of invasion and metastasis. For tumor cells that survive at these sites, stromal activation may serve to establish a supportive tumor stroma, fostering the outgrowth of the metastatic cells. The concept of tumor-stromal interactions and microenvironmental niche has profound consequences in tumor growth and metastasis and therefore, it's understanding will open up new strategies for the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of HNSCC. PMID:23386906

Koontongkaew, Sittichai

2013-01-01

253

Morphine inhibits migration of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes and suppresses angiogenesis associated with tumor growth in mice.  

PubMed

Tumor cells secrete factors that stimulate the migration of peripheral blood leukocytes and enhance tumor progression by affecting angiogenesis. In these studies, we investigated the effect of morphine, a known immunosuppressant, on leukocyte migration and recruitment to conditioned media derived from long-term cultures of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Our results indicate that morphine treatment reduced the migration and recruitment of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes into Matrigel plugs and polyvinyl alcohol sponges containing conditioned media derived from long-term cultures of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells when compared with placebo. A reciprocal increase in peripheral blood leukocytes was observed at the time of plug or sponge removal in morphine-treated mice. Decreased angiogenesis was observed in conditioned media derived from long-term cultures of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells Matrigel plugs taken from morphine-treated wild-type mice when compared with placebo but was abolished in morphine-treated ?-opioid receptor knockout mice. In addition, in vitro studies using trans-well and electric cell substrate impedance sensing system studies reveal for the first time morphine's inhibitory effects on leukocyte migration and their ability to transmigrate across an activated endothelial monolayer. Taken together, these studies indicate that morphine treatment can potentially decrease leukocyte transendothelial migration and reduce angiogenesis associated with tumor growth. The use of morphine for cancer pain management may be beneficial through its effects on angiogenesis. PMID:24495739

Koodie, Lisa; Yuan, Hongyan; Pumper, Jeffery A; Yu, Haidong; Charboneau, Richard; Ramkrishnan, Sundaram; Roy, Sabita

2014-04-01

254

Novel monoclonal antibody inhibits tumor growth in breast cancer and angiosarcoma  

Cancer.gov

A monoclonal antibody targeting a protein known as SFPR2 has been shown by researchers at the University of North Carolina and its Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center to inhibit tumor growth in pre-clinical models of breast cancer and angiosarcoma. In a paper published in the April 19 issue of Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, a team used a monoclonal antibody to target SFRP2 expressed in cells from triple-negative breast cancer and the aggressive blood-vessel malignancy angiosarcoma, reducing the rate of tumor growth.

255

Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 axis promotes tumor growth in murine models of melanoma.  

PubMed

In order to understand how tumor cells can escape immune surveillance mechanisms and thus develop antitumor therapies, it is critically important to investigate the mechanisms by which the immune system interacts with the tumor microenvironment. In our current study, IL-17 deficiency results in reduced melanoma tumor size, diminished numbers of proliferating cells and blood vessels, and decreased percentage of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) MDSCs in tumor tissues. IL-17 promotes IL-6 induction and Stat3 activation. Treatment of Stat3 inhibitor WP1066 in B16-F10 tumor cells inoculated wild-type mice inhibits tumor growth. Additional administration of recombinant IL-6 into B16-F10 tumor-bearing IL-17(-/-) mice results in markedly increased tumor size and p-Stat3 expression, whereas additional recombinant IL-17 administration into B16-F10 tumor-bearing wild-type mice treated with anti-IL-6 mAb does not significantly alter the tumor growth and p-Stat3 expression. In our further study, blockade of Hmgb1-RAGE pathway inhibits melanoma tumor growth and reduces production of IL-23 and IL-17. All these data suggest that Hmgb1-IL-23-IL-17-IL-6-Stat3 axis plays a pivotal role in tumor development in murine models of melanoma, and blocking any portion of this axis will attenuate melanoma tumor growth. PMID:24453427

Tang, Qiu; Li, Jian; Zhu, Hongfei; Li, Pan; Zou, Zhenwei; Xiao, Yin

2013-01-01

256

Vav1 promotes lung cancer growth by instigating tumor-microenvironment cross-talk via growth factor secretion.  

PubMed

Vav1 is a signal transducer that functions as a scaffold protein and a regulator of cytoskeleton organization in the hematopoietic system, where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in diverse human cancers, including lung cancer. We demonstrate that lung cancer cells that abnormally express Vav1 secrete growth factors in a Vav1-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Vav1 depletion results in a marked reduction in the expression of colony-stimulating-factor-1 (CSF1), a hematopoietic growth factor. The association between Vav1 expression and CSF1 was further supported by signal transduction experiments, supporting involvement of Vav1 in regulating lung cancer secretome. Blocking of ERK phosphorylation, led to a decrease in CSF1 transcription, thus suggesting a role for ERK, a downstream effector of Vav1, in CSF1 expression. CSF1-silenced cells exhibited reduced focus formation, proliferation abilities, and growth in NOD/SCID mice. CSF1-silenced H358 cells resulted in significantly smaller tumors, showing increased fibrosis and a decrease in tumor infiltrating macrophages. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of primary human lung tumors revealed a positive correlation between Vav1 and CSF1 expression, which was associated with tumor grade. Additional results presented herein suggest a potential cross-talk between cancer cells and the microenvironment controlled by CSF1/Vav1 signaling pathways. PMID:25313137

Sebban, Shulamit; Farago, Marganit; Rabinovich, Shiran; Lazer, Galit; Idelchuck, Yulia; Ilan, Lena; Pikarsky, Eli; Katzav, Shulamit

2014-10-15

257

Tumor growth increases neuroinflammation, fatigue and depressive-like behavior prior to alterations in muscle function.  

PubMed

Cancer patients frequently suffer from fatigue, a complex syndrome associated with loss of muscle mass, weakness, and depressed mood. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) can be present at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and persists for years after treatment. CRF negatively influences quality of life, limits functional independence, and is associated with decreased survival in patients with incurable disease. Currently there are no effective treatments to reduce CRF. The aim of this study was to use a mouse model of tumor growth and discriminate between two main components of fatigue: loss of muscle mass/function and altered mood/motivation. Here we show that tumor growth increased fatigue- and depressive-like behaviors, and reduced body and muscle mass. Decreased voluntary wheel running activity (VWRA) and increased depressive-like behavior in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests were evident in tumor-bearing mice within the first two weeks of tumor growth and preceded the loss of body and muscle mass. At three weeks, tumor-bearing mice had reduced grip strength but this was not associated with altered expression of myosin isoforms or impaired contractile properties of muscles. These increases in fatigue and depressive-like behaviors were paralleled by increased expression of IL-1? mRNA in the cortex and hippocampus. Minocycline administration reduced tumor-induced expression of IL-1? in the brain, reduced depressive-like behavior, and improved grip strength without altering muscle mass. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroinflammation and depressed mood, rather than muscle wasting, contribute to decreased voluntary activity and precede major changes in muscle contractile properties with tumor growth. PMID:25102452

Norden, Diana M; Bicer, Sabahattin; Clark, Yvonne; Jing, Runfeng; Henry, Christopher J; Wold, Loren E; Reiser, Peter J; Godbout, Jonathan P; McCarthy, Donna O

2015-01-01

258

Effect of soy isoflavones on the growth of human breast tumors: findings from preclinical studies.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, and many women with breast cancer live more than 5 years after their diagnosis. Breast cancer patients and survivors have a greater interest in taking soy foods and isoflavone supplements. However, the effect of isoflavones on breast cancer remains controversial. Thus, it is critical to determine if and when isoflavones are beneficial or detrimental to breast cancer patients. According to the available preclinical data, high concentrations of isoflavones inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells, regardless of their estrogen receptor (ER) status. In comparison, genistein, a major isoflavone, has stimulated tumor growth at low concentrations and mitigated tamoxifen efficacy in ER-positive breast cancer. Studies have indicated that the relative levels of genistein and estrogen at the target site are important to determine the genistein effect on the ER-positive tumor growth. However, studies using ovariectomized mice and subcutaneous xenograft models might not truly reflect estrogen concentrations in human breast tumors. Moreover, it may be an oversimplification that isoflavones stimulate hormone-dependent tumor growth due to their potential estrogenic effect since studies also suggest nonestrogenic anticancer effects of isoflavones and ER-independent anticancer activity of tamoxifen. Therefore, the concentrations of isoflavones and estrogen in human breast tumors should be considered better in future preclinical studies and the parameters that can estimate those levels in breast tumors are required in human clinical/epidemiological investigation. In addition, it will be important to identify the molecular mechanisms that either inhibit or promote the growth of breast cancer cells by soy isoflavones, and use those molecules to evaluate the relevance of the preclinical findings to the human disease and to predict the health effects of isoflavones in human breast tumors. PMID:25493176

Kwon, Youngjoo

2014-11-01

259

Effects of restraint stress on inoculated tumor growth and immune response in rats.  

PubMed

Rats were given injections s.c. of mammary adenocarcinoma cells which developed into undifferentiated carcinomas within a few days. The animals were either left alone or were stressed by restraint for 3 h a day for 11 days and then left for 12 days undisturbed to recover. During this schedule, some animals were sacrificed immediately after the 11-day stress period, whereas others were allowed the 12-day recovery period; unstressed animals were sacrificed as controls on these 2 days. Tumor burden was significantly increased during stress and markedly decreased after the recovery period as compared to unstressed rats. Higher mitotic activity was seen in the tumors of rats which recovered from stress. The immune system responded differently to stress in healthy and tumor-bearing animals. In the tumor-bearing animals, leukocytes were decreased by stress and increased after the recovery period. Lymphocytes were increased, and neutrophiles and large granular lymphocytes were decreased after the recovery period. Total T-cells and suppressor T-cells were decreased during stress and increased during recovery. The percentage of T-cell populations was unaffected by stress, but the percentage of suppressor T-cells increased during recovery. Natural killer cell activity was unaffected by stress but increased after the recovery period. These results indicate that (a) stress and recovery from stress differentially affect tumor development and growth, (b) stress and recovery from stress cause different effects on the immune system in healthy or tumor-bearing animals, (c) stress and recovery from stress stimulate or inhibit different parts of the immune system, and (d) a decreased lymphocyte count and total and suppressor T-cell numbers correlated best with enhanced tumor growth, whereas increased numbers of neutrophils, large granular lymphocytes, total and suppressor T-cells, natural killer cell activity, and a decreased percentage of T-suppressor cells correlated best with depressed tumor growth. PMID:3928147

Steplewski, Z; Vogel, W H; Ehya, H; Poropatich, C; Smith, J M

1985-10-01

260

Circadian Disruption Accelerates Tumor Growth and Angio/Stromagenesis through a Wnt Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies show a high incidence of cancer in shift workers, suggesting a possible relationship between circadian rhythms and tumorigenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism played by circadian rhythms in tumor progression is not known. To identify the possible mechanisms underlying tumor progression related to circadian rhythms, we set up nude mouse xenograft models. HeLa cells were injected in nude mice and nude mice were moved to two different cases, one case is exposed to a 24-hour light cycle (L/L), the other is a more “normal” 12-hour light/dark cycle (L/D). We found a significant increase in tumor volume in the L/L group compared with the L/D group. In addition, tumor microvessels and stroma were strongly increased in L/L mice. Although there was a hypervascularization in L/L tumors, there was no associated increase in the production of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF). DNA microarray analysis showed enhanced expression of WNT10A, and our subsequent study revealed that WNT10A stimulates the growth of both microvascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts in tumors from light-stressed mice, along with marked increases in angio/stromagenesis. Only the tumor stroma stained positive for WNT10A and WNT10A is also highly expressed in keloid dermal fibroblasts but not in normal dermal fibroblasts indicated that WNT10A may be a novel angio/stromagenic growth factor. These findings suggest that circadian disruption induces the progression of malignant tumors via a Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:21203463

Yasuniwa, Yoshihiro; Izumi, Hiroto; Wang, Ke-Yong; Shimajiri, Shohei; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takashi; Miyake, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Hirano, Gen; Kidani, Akihiko; Akiyama, Masaki; Han, Bin; Wu, Ying; Ieiri, Ichiro; Higuchi, Shun; Kohno, Kimitoshi

2010-01-01

261

Sudden cold temperature delays plant carbon transport and shifts allocation from growth to respiratory demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since substrates for respiration are supplied mainly by recent photo-assimilates, there is a strong but time-lagged link between short-term above- and belowground carbon (C) cycling. However, regulation of this coupling by environmental variables is poorly understood. Whereas recent studies focussed on the effect of drought and shading on the link between above- and belowground short-term C cycling, the effect of temperature remains unclear. We used a 13CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiment to investigate the effect of a sudden temperature change from 25 to 10 °C on the short-term coupling between assimilatory C uptake and respiratory loss. The study was done in the laboratory using two-month-old perennial rye-grass plants (Lolium perenne L.). After label application, the ?13C signal of respired shoot and root samples was analysed at regular time intervals using laser spectroscopy. In addition, ?13C was analysed in bulk root and shoot samples. Cold temperature (10 °C) reduced the short-term coupling between shoot and roots by delaying belowground transfer of recent assimilates and its subsequent respiratory use, as indicated by the ?13C signal of root respiration (?13CRR). That is, the time lag from the actual shoot labelling to the first appearance of the label in 13CRR was about 1.5 times longer under cold temperature. Moreover, analysis of bulk shoot and root material revealed that plants at cold temperature invest relatively more carbon into respiration compared to growth or storage. While the whole plant C turnover increased under cold temperature, the turnover time of the labile C pool decreased, probably because less 13C is used for growth and/or storage. That is, (almost) all recent C remained in the labile pool serving respiration under these conditions. Overall, our results highlight the importance of temperature as a driver of C transport and relative C allocation within the plant-soil system.

Barthel, M.; Cieraad, E.; Zakharova, A.; Hunt, J. E.

2014-03-01

262

Effect of selumetinib on the growth of anastrozole-resistant tumors.  

PubMed

Despite significant improvement in the treatment outcome of hormone responsive postmenopausal breast cancer, some patients eventually acquire resistance to aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Using our MCF-7Ca xenograft model, we observed that although AIs such as anastrozole initially inhibit tumor growth effectively, tumors eventually began to grow. Our previous data show that anastrozole-resistant tumors upregulate growth factor receptor pathways as they adapt to grow in the low estrogen environment. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting the growth factor receptor pathways with a MEK-1/2 inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142866). We treated the mice with anastrozole-resistant tumors with selumetinib alone or in combination with anastrozole. MCF-7Ca cells were inoculated sc into ovariectomized athymic nude mice supplemented throughout the experiment with androstenedione (100 ?g/day), the substrate for aromatase conversion to estrogen. Once the tumors reached a measurable size (~300 mm(3)), the mice were treated with anastrozole (200 ?g/day), supplemented with androstenedione (?(4)A). The tumors in the anastrozole group doubled in volume after 6 weeks, at which time the animals were regrouped to receive the following treatments: (i) anastrozole, (ii) anastrozole withdrawal (?(4)A alone), (iii) selumetinib (25 mg/kg/d, bid, po), and (iv) selumetinib + anastrozole, (n = 10 mice/group). The treatments were given for 6 weeks (till week 12) and then the mice were euthanized, the tumors were collected and analyzed. The tumors of mice treated with selumetinib + anastrozole had significantly lower growth rates than those treated with single agents (p = 0.008). Western blot analysis of the tumors showed that treatment with anastrozole resulted in upregulation of proteins in the growth factor receptor cascade such as p-mTOR, pAkt, pMEK, and pMAPK. This was accompanied by downregulation of ER? protein, consistent with previous findings. The treatment of mice with selumetinib resulted in downregulation of activated MAPK, along with p-mTOR, which likely resulted in upregulation of ER?. Our results suggest that inhibition of the growth factor receptor pathway with selumetinib can reverse anastrozole resistance. PMID:23508762

Sabnis, Gauri J; Kazi, Armina; Golubeva, Olga; Shah, Preeti; Brodie, Angela

2013-04-01

263

Some Cancer Mutations Slow Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

A typical cancer cell has thousands of mutations scattered throughout its genome and hundreds of mutated genes. However, only a handful of those genes, known as drivers, are responsible for cancerous traits such as uncontrolled growth. Cancer biologists have largely ignored these so-called passenger mutations, believing they had little or no impact on cancer progression.

264

Cellular and Tumor Radiosensitivity is Correlated to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein Expression Level in Tumors Without EGFR Amplification;Epidermal growth factor receptor; Radiotherapy; Squamous cell carcinoma; Biomarker; Local tumor control  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There is conflicting evidence for whether the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in human tumors can be used as a marker of radioresponse. Therefore, this association was studied in a systematic manner using squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines grown as cell cultures and xenografts. Methods and Materials: The study was performed with 24 tumor cell lines of different tumor types, including 10 SCC lines, which were also investigated as xenografts on nude mice. Egfr gene dose and the length of CA-repeats in intron 1 were determined by polymerase chain reaction, protein expression in vitro by Western blot and in vivo by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and radiosensitivity in vitro by colony formation. Data were correlated with previously published tumor control dose 50% data after fractionated irradiation of xenografts of the 10 SCC. Results: EGFR protein expression varies considerably, with most tumor cell lines showing moderate and only few showing pronounced upregulation. EGFR upregulation could only be attributed to massive gene amplification in the latter. In the case of little or no amplification, in vitro EGFR expression correlated with both cellular and tumor radioresponse. In vivo EGFR expression did not show this correlation. Conclusions: Local tumor control after the fractionated irradiation of tumors with little or no gene amplification seems to be dependent on in vitro EGFR via its effect on cellular radiosensitivity.

Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Saker, Jarob [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiooncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hubertus Wald Tumor Center, Hamburg (Germany); Eicheler, Wolfgang; Krause, Mechthild; Yaromina, Ala [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University, Dresden (Germany); OncoRay Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University, Dresden (Germany); Meyer-Staeckling, Soenke [Institute for Tumor Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hubertus Wald Tumor Center, Hamburg (Germany); Scherkl, Benjamin; Kriegs, Malte [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiooncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hubertus Wald Tumor Center, Hamburg (Germany); Brandt, Burkhard [Institute for Tumor Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hubertus Wald Tumor Center, Hamburg (Germany); Grenman, Reidar [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Turku University and University Hospital of Turku, Turku (Finland); Petersen, Cordula [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hubertus Wald Tumor Center, Hamburg (Germany); Baumann, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University, Dresden (Germany); OncoRay Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University, Dresden (Germany); Dikomey, Ekkehard, E-mail: dikomey@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Laboratory of Radiobiology and Experimental Radiooncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hubertus Wald Tumor Center, Hamburg (Germany)

2011-07-15

265

Dynamic quantitative intravital imaging of glioblastoma progression reveals a lack of correlation between tumor growth and blood vessel density.  

PubMed

The spatiotemporal and longitudinal monitoring of cellular processes occurring in tumors is critical for oncological research. We focused on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an untreatable highly vascularized brain tumor whose progression is thought to critically depend on the oxygen and metabolites supplied by blood vessels. We optimized protocols for orthotopic GBM grafting in mice that were able to recapitulate the biophysical constraints normally governing tumor progression and were suitable for intravital multiphoton microscopy. We repeatedly imaged tumor cells and blood vessels during GBM development. We established methods for quantitative correlative analyses of dynamic imaging data over wide fields in order to cover the entire tumor. We searched whether correlations existed between blood vessel density, tumor cell density and proliferation in control tumors. Extensive vascular remodeling and the formation of new vessels accompanied U87 tumor cell growth, but no strong correlation was found between local cell density and the extent of local blood vessel density irrespective of the tumor area or time points. The technique moreover proves useful for comparative analysis of mice subjected either to Bevacizumab anti-angiogenic treatment that targets VEGF or to AMD3100, an antagonist of CXCR4 receptor. Bevacizumab treatment massively reduced tumoral vessel densities but only transiently reduced U87 tumor growth rate. Again, there was no correlation between local blood vessel density and local cell density. Moreover, Bev applied only prior to tumor implantation inhibited tumor growth to the same extent as post-grafting treatment. AMD3100 achieved a potent inhibition of tumor growth without significant reduction in blood vessel density. These results indicate that in the brain, in this model, tumor growth can be sustained without an increase in blood vessel density and suggest that GBM growth is rather governed by stromal properties. PMID:24069154

Ricard, Clément; Stanchi, Fabio; Rodriguez, Thieric; Amoureux, Marie-Claude; Rougon, Genevičve; Debarbieux, Franck

2013-01-01

266

Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor in sacral giant cell tumors and the correlation with tumor microvessel density  

PubMed Central

Although classified as benign, giant cell tumors of the bone (GCTB) may be aggressive, recur and even metastasize to the lungs. In addition, the pathogenesis and histogenesis remain unclear; thus, the driving factors behind the strong tumor growth capacity of GCTB require investigation. In the present study, the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are promoted by hypoxic conditions, were determined in 22 sacral GCTB samples using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Furthermore, CD34 expression was analyzed using these methods. The correlation between HIF-1? or VEGF expression and the tumor microvessel density (MVD) was then determined. The results demonstrated that HIF-1?, VEGF and CD34 were overexpressed in the 22 sacral GCTB specimens, and overexpression of HIF-1? and VEGF correlated with the tumor MVD. Thus, the present study has provided novel indicators for the tumor growth capacity of GCTBs. PMID:25289039

FU, SHAOFENG; BAI, RUI; ZHAO, ZHENQUN; ZHANG, ZHIFENG; ZHANG, GANG; WANG, YUXIN; WANG, YONG; JIANG, DIANMING; ZHU, DEZHI

2014-01-01

267

Oral administration of Polypodium leucotomos delays skin tumor development and increases epidermal p53 expression and the anti-oxidant status of UV-irradiated hairless mice.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin tumors in hairless mice. Daily oral administration of a Polypodium leucotomos (PL) extract significantly delayed tumor development in PL-treated versus non-PL-treated mice. UVR and/or PL treatment modified several oxidative stress markers. In all irradiated mice, erythrocytic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content increased and in all PL-treated mice GSSG content decreased, specially in non-irradiated animals, and total plasma anti-oxidant capacity (ORAC) increased. In dorsolateral non-tumoral skin of all irradiated mice, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased and GSSG decreased in non-irradiated PL-treated animals. UVR induced a steep increase of p53 expression in epidermal cells. In non-tumoral skin, this increase was significantly higher in PL-treated animals than in non-treated mice and can contribute in delaying tumor development, either by repairing the damaged DNA or by increasing apoptosis. These results reinforce the usefulness of PL as systemic photoprotective agent, especially in patients highly sensitive to UVR. PMID:24862559

Rodríguez-Yanes, Esperanza; Cuevas, Jesús; González, Salvador; Mallol, Jordi

2014-07-01

268

Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Is an Autocrine Regulator of Chromogranin A Secretion and Growth in Human Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinoid tumors are predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract and are characterized by hypersecretion of various substances, including bioamines and neuropeptides, leading to functional tumor disease. Here, we demonstrate that human BON carcinoid tumor cells express function- ally active insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptors and secrete IGF-I, suggesting an autocrine action of this growth factor. The IGF-I receptor was functionally

Gotz von Wichert; Peter M. Jehle; Andreas Hoeflich; Stefan Koschnick; Henning Dralle; Eckhard Wolf; Bertram Wiedenmann; Bernhard O. Boehm; Guido Adler; Thomas Seufferlein

2000-01-01

269

Honokiol thwarts gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by inhibiting Tpl2 in an orthotopic model.  

PubMed

Honokiol is known to suppress the growth of cancer cells; however, to date, its antiperitoneal dissemination effects have not been studied in an orthotopic mouse model. In the present study, we evaluated the antiperitoneal dissemination potential of Honokiol in an orthotopic mouse model and assessed associations with tumor growth factor-?1 (TGF?1) and cells stimulated by a carcinogen, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Our results demonstrate that tumor growth, peritoneal dissemination and peritoneum or organ metastasis of orthotopically implanted MKN45 cells were significantly decreased in Honokiol-treated mice and that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was induced. Honokiol-treated tumors showed increased epithelial signatures such as E-cadherin, cytokeratin-18 and ER stress marker. In contrast, decreased expression of vimentin, Snail and tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) was also noted. TGF?1 and MNNG-induced downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of Tpl2 were abrogated by Honokiol treatment. The effect of Tpl2 inhibition in cancer cells or endothelial cells was associated with inactivation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein B, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell and activator protein-1 and suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibition of Tpl2 in gastric cancer cells by small interfering RNA or pharmacological inhibitor was found to effectively reduce growth ability and vessel density in vivo. Honokiol-induced reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and ER stress-induced apoptosis via Tp12 may involve the paralleling processes. Taken together, our results suggest that the therapeutic inhibition of Tpl2 by Honokiol thwarts both gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by inducing ER stress and inhibiting EMT. PMID:23828905

Pan, Hung-Chuan; Lai, De-Wei; Lan, Keng-Hsin; Shen, Chin-Chang; Wu, Sheng-Mao; Chiu, Chien-Shan; Wang, Keh-Bin; Sheu, Meei-Ling

2013-11-01

270

A cellular automata model for avascular solid tumor growth under the effect of therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumor growth has long been a target of investigation within the context of mathematical and computer modeling. The objective of this study is to propose and analyze a two-dimensional stochastic cellular automata model to describe avascular solid tumor growth, taking into account both the competition between cancer cells and normal cells for nutrients and/or space and a time-dependent proliferation of cancer cells. Gompertzian growth, characteristic of some tumors, is described and some of the features of the time-spatial pattern of solid tumors, such as compact morphology with irregular borders, are captured. The parameter space is studied in order to analyze the occurrence of necrosis and the response to therapy. Our findings suggest that transitions exist between necrotic and non-necrotic phases (no-therapy cases), and between the states of cure and non-cure (therapy cases). To analyze cure, the control and order parameters are, respectively, the highest probability of cancer cell proliferation and the probability of the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. With respect to patterns, it is possible to observe the inner necrotic core and the effect of the therapy destroying the tumor from its outer borders inwards.

Reis, E. A.; Santos, L. B. L.; Pinho, S. T. R.

2009-04-01

271

Lack of effect of eicosapentaenoic acid in preventing cancer cachexia and inhibiting tumor growth.  

PubMed

It has been recently reported that a diet enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the growth of different kinds of tumors as well as the host tissue hypercatabolic state frequently associated. The rat ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 is a fast growing tumor that causes a rapid and progressive body weight loss in the host and tissue waste associated with a hypercatabolic condition. Plasma levels of classical hormones and humoral mediators (prostaglandin E2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) are early perturbed after tumor transplantation (Tessitore, L., Costelli, P. and Baccino, F.M. (1993) Humoral mediation for cachexia in tumour-bearing rats. Br. J. Cancer, 67, 16-23). Enhanced protein degradation rates and alteration of lipoprotein lipase activity mainly account for the wasting of protein and adipose mass, respectively. However, the daily intragastric administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (1.5 g/kg body wt) to AH-130 bearing rats was completely ineffective either in preventing tissue waste or in reducing tumor growth. The low degree of differentiation and the high growth rate of the AH0130 hepatoma probably account for this lack of effect. PMID:7585474

Costelli, P; Llovera, M; López-Soriano, J; Carbó, N; Tessitore, L; López-Soriano, F J; Baccino, F M; Argilés, J M

1995-10-20

272

Tumor growth influences skeletal muscle protein turnover in the pregnant rat.  

PubMed

The implantation of a fast growing tumor (the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma) to mid-pregnant rats resulted in no changes in fetus weight, in spite of an important body weight decrease observed in the mother. Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed an accelerated muscle protein degradation that resulted in decreases in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscle weight and protein content. Although very slight changes were observed in liver protein turnover after tumor implantation, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin gene expression were increased (in relation with the non-tumor-bearing pregnant rats) in the first postimplantation period (0-4 d), whereas it remained lower in the second studied period (4-7 d), compensating for the initial differences when the whole period (0-7 d) was considered. Similar results were observed when muscle protein synthesis was studied. On the whole, tumor growth resulted in a slightly decreased protein accumulation rate. The results presented suggest that the implantation of this tumor in the pregnant rat has little or no consequences in fetal growth but results in an important muscle waste in the mother. PMID:9475293

Carbó, N; Costelli, P; López-Soriano, F J; Argilés, J M

1998-02-01

273

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C promotes cell survival and tumor growth under conditions of metabolic stress  

PubMed Central

Tumor cells gain a survival/growth advantage by adapting their metabolism to respond to environmental stress, a process known as metabolic transformation. The best-known aspect of metabolic transformation is the Warburg effect, whereby cancer cells up-regulate glycolysis under aerobic conditions. However, other mechanisms mediating metabolic transformation remain undefined. Here we report that carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), a brain-specific metabolic enzyme, may participate in metabolic transformation. CPT1C expression correlates inversely with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation, contributes to rapamycin resistance in murine primary tumors, and is frequently up-regulated in human lung tumors. Tumor cells constitutively expressing CPT1C show increased fatty acid (FA) oxidation, ATP production, and resistance to glucose deprivation or hypoxia. Conversely, cancer cells lacking CPT1C produce less ATP and are more sensitive to metabolic stress. CPT1C depletion via siRNA suppresses xenograft tumor growth and metformin responsiveness in vivo. CPT1C can be induced by hypoxia or glucose deprivation and is regulated by AMPK?. Cpt1c-deficient murine embryonic stem (ES) cells show sensitivity to hypoxia and glucose deprivation and altered FA homeostasis. Our results indicate that cells can use a novel mechanism involving CPT1C and FA metabolism to protect against metabolic stress. CPT1C may thus be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of hypoxic tumors. PMID:21576264

Zaugg, Kathrin; Yao, Yi; Reilly, Patrick T.; Kannan, Karuppiah; Kiarash, Reza; Mason, Jacqueline; Huang, Ping; Sawyer, Suzanne K.; Fuerth, Benjamin; Faubert, Brandon; Kalliomäki, Tuula; Elia, Andrew; Luo, Xunyi; Nadeem, Vincent; Bungard, David; Yalavarthi, Sireesha; Growney, Joseph D.; Wakeham, Andrew; Moolani, Yasmin; Silvester, Jennifer; Ten, Annick You; Bakker, Walbert; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Berger, Shelley L.; Hill, Richard P.; Jones, Russell G.; Tsao, Ming; Robinson, Murray O.; Thompson, Craig B.; Pan, Guohua; Mak, Tak W.

2011-01-01

274

Crenolanib, a PDGFR inhibitor, suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation and inhibits tumor growth in vivo  

PubMed Central

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors (PDGFR), including PDGFR? and PDGFR?, play important roles in tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and the regulation of stromal cell function. Constitutive activation of PDGFR signaling, gene rearrangement, and activating mutations of PDGFR have been identified in various types of human tumors and malignancies. PDGFR? and PDGFR? belong to the family of type III receptor tyrosine kinases and, upon stimulation, activate downstream signaling cascades. Crenolanib is a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets and inhibits the kinase activity of PDGFR and the FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3. Its clinical efficacy in several human tumors is currently under investigation in Phase II clinical trials. In this study, we examined the potential role of crenolanib in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using A549 cells as a model system, we have shown that crenolanib is capable of suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Crenolanib-treated cells have reduced migratory activity in response to inducers of chemotaxis. Furthermore, the in vivo antitumor activity of crenolanib was confirmed in an NSCLC xenograft tumor model. Injection of crenolanib significantly inhibited the growth of tumor mass by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells. Our results provide strong evidence supporting the use of crenolanib as a potential therapeutic agent in treating NSCLC. This work sets a foundation for further development of targeted and personalized therapeutics for lung cancer. PMID:25328409

Wang, Ping; Song, Liqiang; Ge, Hui; Jin, Pule; Jiang, Yifang; Hu, Wenxia; Geng, Nan

2014-01-01

275

Luteolin and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in systemic malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Lamy et al have provided interesting data in their recent article in your esteemed journal. Luteolin augments apoptosis in a number of systemic malignancies. Luteolin reduces tumor growth in breast carcinomas. Luteolin mediates this effect by up-regulating the expression of Bax and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-xL. EGFR-induced MAPK activation is also attenuated. As a result there is increased G2/ M phase arrest. These effects have been seen both in vivo as well as in vitro. It also reduces ER? expression and causes inhibition of IGF-1 mediated PI3K–Akt pathway. Luteolin also activates p38 resulting in nuclear translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor. Simultaneously it also activates ERK. As a result there is increased intra-tumoral apoptosis which is caspase dependent as well as caspase independent. - Highlights: ? Luteolin and tumor growth in breast carcinomas. ? Luteolin and pulmonary cancer. ? Luteolin and colon cancer.

Kapoor, Shailendra, E-mail: shailendrakapoor@yahoo.com [74 crossing place, Mechanicsville, VA (United States)

2013-04-01

276

A Generative Approach for Image-Based Modeling of Tumor Growth  

E-print Network

Machine Learning and Perception Group, Microsoft Research, Cambridge, UK 7 Department of Diagnostic approaches for com- prehensive integration of information from different image sources and different time in patients with glioma. The tumor growth model is based on a reaction-diffusion framework. Model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

ture in vivo. So far, there is no evidence that tumors can stimulate the growth of  

E-print Network

ture in vivo. So far, there is no evidence that tumors can stimulate the growth of new lymphatic metastasis via the lymphatic vasculature as well as in various other disorders involving the lym- phatic system and their treatment. REFERENCES AND NOTES ___________________________ 1. N. Ferrara and T. Davis

Prentiss, Mara

278

Suppressing Activity of Common Intestinal Bacteria Reduces Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Over the past few years, cancer researchers have come to suspect that the bacteria living in our gastrointestinal system may play a role in the development of some types of cancer. Now, a team of investigators from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine has discovered that common intestinal bacteria do promote tumor growth in genetically susceptible mice.

279

Picropodophyllin inhibits tumor growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a mouse model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We identified that PPP inhibits IGF-1R/Akt pathway in NPC cells. •PPP dose-dependently inhibits NPC cell proliferation in vitro. •PPP suppresses tumor growth of NPC in nude mice. •PPP have little effect on microtubule assembly. -- Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and plays important roles in cell transformation, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a selective IGF-1R inhibitor and shows promising antitumor effects for several human cancers. However, its antitumor effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of PPP in NPC using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. We found that PPP dose-dependently decreased the IGF-induced phosphorylation and activity of IGF-1R and consequently reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, one downstream target of IGF-1R. In addition, PPP inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PPP for NPC cell line CNE-2 was ?1 ?M at 24 h after treatment and ?0.5 ?M at 48 h after treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of PPP by intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the tumor growth of xenografted NPC in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest targeting IGF-1R by PPP may represent a new strategy for treatment of NPCs with positive IGF-1R expression.

Yin, Shu-Cheng [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China) [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tao, Ze-Zhang, E-mail: zezhangtao@gmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)

2013-09-13

280

Cotargeting tumor and tumor endothelium effectively inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer in adenovirus-mediated antiangiogenesis and oncolysis combination therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor–endothelial interaction contributes to local prostate tumor growth and distant metastasis. In this communication, we designed a novel approach to target both cancer cells and their “crosstalk” with surrounding microvascular endothelium in an experimental hormone refractory human prostate cancer model. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo synergistic and\\/or additive effects of a combination of conditional oncolytic adenovirus plus

Fengshuo Jin; Zhihui Xie; Calvin J Kuo; Leland W K Chung; Chia-Ling Hsieh

2005-01-01

281

Extinction Effects of Multiplicative Non-Gaussian Lévy Noise in a Tumor Growth System with Immunization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extinction phenomenon induced by multiplicative non-Gaussian Lévy noise in a tumor growth model with immune response is discussed. Under the influence of the stochastic immune rate, the model is analyzed in terms of a stochastic differential equation with multiplicative noise. By means of the theory of the infinitesimal generator of Hunt processes, the escape probability, which is used to measure the noise-induced extinction probability of tumor cells, is explicitly expressed as a function of initial tumor cell density, stability index and noise intensity. Based on the numerical calculations, it is found that for different initial densities of tumor cells, noise parameters play opposite roles on the escape probability. The optimally selected values of the multiplicative noise intensity and the stability index are found to maximize the escape probability.

Hao, Meng-Li; Xu, Wei; Li, Dong-Xi; Liu, Di

2014-05-01

282

microRNA-137 modulates pancreatic cancer cells tumor growth, invasion and sensitivity to chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background: We intended to investigate the role of microRNA 137 (miR-137) in regulating pancreatic cancer cells’ growth in vitro and tumor development in vivo. Methods: QTR-PCR was used to examine the expression of miR-137 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor cells from human patients. Lentivirual vector containing miR-137 mimic was used to overexpress miR-137 in PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. The effects of overexpressing miR-137 on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and chemo-sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were examined by cell migration and survival essays in vitro. The molecular target of miR-137, pleiotropic growth factor (PTN), was down-regulated by siRNA to examine its effects on cancer cell invasion. MIA PaCa-2 cells with endogenously overexpressed miR-137 were transplanted into null mice to examine tumor growth in vivo. Results: We found miR-137 was markedly underexpressed in both pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor cells from patients. In cancer cells, transfection of lentivirus containing miR-137 mimic was able to markedly upregulate endogenous expression of miR-137, inhibited cancer cell invasion and increased sensitivities to chemotherapy reagent 5-FU. PTN was significantly down-regulated by overexpressing miR-137 in pancreatic cancer cells, and knocking down PTN was effective to rescue the reduced cancer cell invasion ability caused by miR-137 overexpression. More importantly, overexpressing miR-137 led to significant inhibition on tumor formation, including reductions in tumor weight and tumor size in vivo. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that miR-137 played an important role in pancreatic cancer development. It may become a new therapeutic target for gene therapy in patients suffered from pancreatic cancer. PMID:25550779

Xiao, Jie; Peng, Feng; Yu, Chao; Wang, Min; Li, Xu; Li, Zhipeng; Jiang, Jianxin; Sun, Chengyi

2014-01-01

283

KRN633: A selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinase that suppresses tumor angiogenesis and growth.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR-2 play a central role in angiogenesis, which is necessary for solid tumors to expand and metastasize. Specific inhibitors of VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase are therefore thought to be useful for treating cancer. We showed that the quinazoline urea derivative KRN633 inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 (IC50 = 1.16 nmol/L) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Selectivity profiling with recombinant tyrosine kinases showed that KRN633 was highly selective for VEGFR-1, -2, and -3. KRN633 also blocked the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by VEGF, along with human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation. The propagation of various cancer cell lines in vitro was not inhibited by KRN633. However, p.o. administration of KRN633 inhibited tumor growth in several in vivo tumor xenograft models with diverse tissue origins, including lung, colon, and prostate, in athymic mice and rats. KRN633 also caused the regression of some well-established tumors and those that had regrown after the cessation of treatment. In these models, the trough serum concentration of KRN633 had a more significant effect than the maximum serum concentration on antitumor activity. KRN633 was well tolerated and had no significant effects on body weight or the general health of the animals. Histologic analysis of tumor xenografts treated with KRN633 revealed a reduction in the number of endothelial cells in non-necrotic areas and a decrease in vascular permeability. These data suggest that KRN633 might be useful in the treatment of solid tumors and other diseases that depend on pathologic angiogenesis. PMID:15634658

Nakamura, Kazuhide; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kamishohara, Masaru; Takahashi, Kazumi; Taguchi, Eri; Miura, Toru; Kubo, Kazuo; Shibuya, Masabumi; Isoe, Toshiyuki

2004-12-01

284

Close Interactions between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neuroblastoma Cell Lines Lead to Tumor Growth Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted much interest in oncology since they exhibit marked tropism for the tumor microenvironment and support or suppress malignant cell growth depending on the tumor model tested. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MSCs in the control of the growth of neuroblastoma (NB), which is the second most common solid tumor in children. In vivo experiments showed that systemically administered MSCs, under our experimental conditions, did not home to tumor sites and did not affect tumor growth or survival. However, MSCs injected intratumorally in an established subcutaneous NB model reduced tumor growth through inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis of NB cells and prolonged the survival of hMSC-treated mice. The need for contact between MSCs and NB cells was further supported by in vitro experiments. In particular, MSCs were found to be attracted by NB cells, and to affect NB cell proliferation with different results depending on the cell line tested. Moreover, NB cells, after pre-incubation with hMSCs, acquired a more invasive behavior towards CXCL12 and the bone marrow, i.e., the primary site of NB metastases. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that functional cross-talk between MSCs and NB cell lines used in our experiments can occur only within short range interaction. Thus, this report does not support the clinical use of MSCs as vehicles for selective delivery of antitumor drugs at the NB site unless chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy create suitable local conditions for MSCs recruitment. PMID:23119082

Bianchi, Giovanna; Morandi, Fabio; Cilli, Michele; Daga, Antonio; Bocelli-Tyndall, Chiara; Gambini, Claudio

2012-01-01

285

IGFBP7 reduces breast tumor growth by induction of senescence and apoptosis pathways.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in a variety of cancers. We previously have shown that IGFBP7 expression is inversely correlated with disease progression and poor outcome in breast cancer. Overexpression of IGFBP7 in MDA-MB-468, a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line, resulted in inhibition of growth and migration. Xenografted tumors bearing ectopic IGFBP7 expression were significantly growth-impaired compared to IGFBP7-negative controls, which suggested that IGFBP7 treatment could inhibit breast cancer cell growth. To confirm this notion, 14 human patient primary breast tumors were analyzed by qRTPCR for IGFBP7 expression. The TNBC tumors expressed the lowest levels of IGFBP7 expression, which also correlated with higher tumorigenicity in mice. Furthermore, when breast cancer cell lines were treated with IGFBP7, only the TNBC cell lines were growth inhibited. Treatment of NOD/SCID mice harboring xenografts of TNBC cells with IGFBP7 systemically every 3-4 days inhibited tumorigenesis, with associated anti-angiogenic effects, together with increased apoptosis. Upon examining the mechanism of IGFBP7-mediated growth inhibition in TNBC cells, we found that cells not only were arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle but also underwent senescence as a result of treatment with IGFBP7. Interestingly, IGFBP7 treatment was also associated with strong activation of the stress-associated p38 MAPK pathway, together with upregulation of p53 and the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) inhibitor, p21(cip1). Prolonged treatment of cells with IGFBP7 resulted in increased cell death, marked by an increase in apoptotic cells and associated cleaved PARP. This is the first study showing that exogenous IGFBP7 inhibits TNBC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest IGFBP7 treatment might have therapeutic potential for TNBC. PMID:21997538

Benatar, Tania; Yang, Wenyi; Amemiya, Yutaka; Evdokimova, Valentina; Kahn, Harriette; Holloway, Claire; Seth, Arun

2012-06-01

286

Patrinia scabiosaefolia inhibits colorectal cancer growth through suppression of tumor angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is an essential process for tumor development and metastasis, therefore inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become a promising strategy for anticancer treatments. Patrinia scabiosaefolia, a well-known Oriental folk medicine, has been shown to be effective in the clinical treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. However, the precise mechanism of its tumoricidal activity remains largely unknown. Using a colorectal cancer (CRC) mouse xenograft model, the human colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), in the present study we evaluated the effects of an ethanol extract of Patrinia scabiosaefolia (EEPS) on tumor angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro, and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that EEPS treatment significantly reduced the tumor volume in CRC mice and decreased the intratumoral microvessel density in tumor tissues. In addition, EEPS inhibited several key processes of angiogenesis, including the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. Moreover, EEPS treatment suppressed the expression of VEGF-A in CRC tumors and HT-29 cells. Collectively, our data suggest that Patrinia scabiosaefolia inhibits CRC growth likely via suppression of tumor angiogenesis. PMID:23820929

Chen, Liwu; Liu, Liya; Ye, Ling; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

2013-09-01

287

Biodegradable polymeric micelles encapsulated JK184 suppress tumor growth through inhibiting Hedgehog signaling pathway.  

PubMed

JK184 can specially inhibit Gli in the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, which showed great promise for cancer therapeutics. For developing aqueous formulation and improving anti-tumor activity of JK184, we prepared JK184 encapsulated MPEG-PCL micelles by the solid dispersion method without using surfactants or toxic organic solvents. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of JK184 micelles were both increased compared with the free drug. JK184 micelles induced more apoptosis and blocked proliferation of Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumor cells. In addition, JK184 micelles exerted a sustained in vitro release behavior and had a stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration and invasion of HUVECs than free JK184. Furthermore, JK184 micelles had stronger tumor growth inhibiting effects in subcutaneous Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumor models. Histological analysis showed that JK184 micelles improved anti-tumor activity by inducing more apoptosis, decreasing microvessel density and reducing expression of CD31, Ki67, and VEGF in tumor tissues. JK184 micelles showed a stronger inhibition of Gli expression in Hh signaling, which played an important role in pancreatic carcinoma. Furthermore, circulation time of JK184 in blood was prolonged after entrapment in polymeric micelles. Our results suggested that JK184 micelles are a promising drug candidate for treating pancreatic tumors with a highly inhibitory effect on Hh activity. PMID:25581613

Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Ning; Deng, Senyi; Song, Linjiang; Wu, Qinjie; Liu, Lei; Su, Weijun; Wei, Yuquan; Xie, Yongmei; Gong, Changyang

2015-01-28

288

Repeated Administration of Inhibitors for Ion Pumps Reduce Markedly Tumor Growth in Vivo  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: Measurements of extracellular pH show that the micro environment of malignant tumors is more acidic than that of normal cells, whereas pH does not differ appreciable in normal and malignant cells. The acid micro environment of tumors is created by the secretion of tumor factors and ATP hydrolysis in hypoxic tumor tissue. In order to survive in a low pH-environment tumor cells develop regulatory mechanisms which keep their intracellular pH stable. Two of the most important systems are the Na+/H+ ion pump and the Na-dependent HCO3-/Cl- pump of stilbenian derivatives. Material and methods: Experiments were carried out on DBA mice of both sexes at the age of 4 month. Laboratory animals were grown in our institute and supplied with food and aqua ad libitum. Results: After termination of the experiments the mean tumor diameter in the control group was 12.4±0.8mm, in group A it was 6.9±0.6mm, and in group B we measured 6.6±3.1mm. At the final day the tumor size in treated animals was twice as small as in the control group. In addition we observed the rate of survival. In the control group only 18% of the animals were still alive at day 18. Considering the rate of survival a statistically significant difference between treated and untreated animals was observed. The survival of tumor cells is dependent on the function of these ion pumps which keep their intracellular pH values constant in the setting of an acid extracellular environment. Conclusion: The activity of the ion pump is especially important at the beginning of cell division and in cell proliferation. Our in vivo experiments demonstrate that prolonged administration of intratumoral ion pump inhibitors suppresses tumor growth as well as enhances survival of tumor-bearing animals. Research of inhibitors of ion pumps and their action in tumor growth opens new perspectives into pathophysiology of malignant tumors and may create new therapeutic options. PMID:24937925

Hrgovic, Igor; Glavic, Zeljko; Kovacic, Zeljko; Mulic, Smaila; Zunic, Lejla; Hrgovic, Zlatko

2014-01-01

289

Enhancement of cancer vaccine therapy by systemic delivery of a tumor-targeting Salmonella-based STAT3 shRNA suppresses the growth of established melanoma tumors.  

PubMed

Cancer vaccine therapies have only achieved limited success when focusing on effector immunity with the goal of eliciting robust tumor-specific T-cell responses. More recently, there is an emerging understanding that effective immunity can only be achieved by coordinate disruption of tumor-derived immunosuppression. Toward that goal, we have developed a potent Salmonella-based vaccine expressing codon-optimized survivin (CO-SVN), referred to as 3342Max. When used alone as a therapeutic vaccine, 3342Max can attenuate growth of aggressive murine melanomas overexpressing SVN. However, under more immunosuppressive conditions, such as those associated with larger tumor volumes, we found that the vaccine was ineffective. Vaccine efficacy could be rescued if tumor-bearing mice were treated initially with Salmonella encoding a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting the tolerogenic molecule STAT3 (YS1646-shSTAT3). In vaccinated mice, silencing STAT3 increased the proliferation and granzyme B levels of intratumoral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. The combined strategy also increased apoptosis in tumors of treated mice, enhancing tumor-specific killing of tumor targets. Interestingly, mice treated with YS1646-shSTAT3 or 3342Max alone were similarly unsuccessful in rejecting established tumors, whereas the combined regimen was highly potent. Our findings establish that a combined strategy of silencing immunosuppressive molecules followed by vaccination can act synergistically to attenuate tumor growth, and they offer a novel translational direction to improve tumor immunotherapy. PMID:21527558

Manuel, Edwin R; Blache, Céline A; Paquette, Rebecca; Kaltcheva, Teodora I; Ishizaki, Hidenobu; Ellenhorn, Joshua D I; Hensel, Michael; Metelitsa, Leonid; Diamond, Don J

2011-06-15

290

Efficacy of local delivery of ardipusilloside I using biodegradable implants against cerebral tumor growth  

PubMed Central

Ardipusilloside I (ADS-I) is a natural compound that can be isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Ardisiapusilla A.DC, and has been reported to inhibit the growth of glioblastoma cells in cultures. This study was designed to test its efficacy by the delivery using biodegradable implants against glioblastoma in vivo. ADS-I was incorporated into polymer microspheres, which were prepared by a mixture of poly (D, L-lactic acid) and poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymers and then fabricated into wafers. The anti-glioma activities of ADS-I-loaded wafers were examined by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay in cultured rat C6 glioma cells, and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and survival monitoring in C6 glioma-bearing rats. Here, we showed that ADS-I-loaded wafers sustained ADS-I release in vitro for 36 days in Higuchi model of kinetics, and had the same cytotoxic activity as ADS-I in the solution against the growth of C6 glioma cells in cultures. In C6 glioma-bearing rats, ADS-I wafer implants inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent matter, and were more effective than the same dosage of ADS-I in the solution. The tumor suppression efficacies of ADS-I wafer implants were positively correlated with an increase in tumor cell apoptosis and prolonged animal survival, and were associated with a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6, and an increase in interleukin-2 expression. In conclusion, this study demonstrates significant efficacy of local delivery of ADS-I using polymer implants against glioma tumor growth in vivo, suggesting the potential of ADS-I-loaded wafers for glioma treatment.

Dang, Huan; Wang, Ji; Cheng, Jiang-Xue; Wang, Peng-Yuan; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Li-Fei; Du, Caigan; Wang, Xiao-Juan

2015-01-01

291

Delayed soil thawing affects root and shoot functioning and growth in Scots pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In boreal regions, soil can remain frozen after the start of the growing season. We compared relationships be- tween root characteristics and water relations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings subjected to soil frost treatments before and during the first week of the growing period in a con- trolled environment experiment. Delayed soil thawing delayed the onset of

TAPANI REPO; TARJA LEHTO; LEENA FINÉR

292

Insulin like growth factor binding protein-7 reduces growth of human breast cancer cells and xenografted tumors.  

PubMed

Previously, we have shown that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP-7) expression is inversely correlated with disease progression in breast cancer and is associated with poor outcome. To further investigate the role of IGFBP-7 in the growth and metastatic behavior of breast cancer, primary breast tumors and metastatic tumors derived from the same patients were analyzed for IGFBP-7 expression. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that IGFBP-7 is downregulated in half of the human metastatic breast tumors tested. IGFBP-7 has been linked to suppression of oncogenic pathways and can directly restore cellular senescence in melanomas, leading to their regression. It is possible that breast tumors with metastatic potential have escaped from IGFBP-7-induced suppression by its down-regulation. Twenty-two human primary breast tumor specimens were transplanted into human-bone NOD/SCID mice. One of the two triple negative primary breast tumors was serially xenotransplanted more than five times. Each serial transplant resulted in increased tumor take and rate of growth. Expression of IGFBP-7 was downregulated upon each serial implantation. To investigate the role of IGFBP-7 in breast tumor suppression, IGFBP-7 was overexpressed in the triple negative MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer line by stable transfection of a pSec-tag2-IGFBP-7 vector. The parental MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells expressed extremely low levels of endogenous IGFBP-7. The production of IGFBP-7 protein by the MDA-MB-468 cells stably transfected with IGFBP-7 was confirmed by immunoblotting with anti-IGFBP-7 antibody. Ectopic overexpression of IGFBP-7 significantly reduced the growth of the IGFBP-7 transfected MDA-MB-468 cells compared to the parental MDA-MB-468 cells. We also assessed the role of IGFBP-7 on cell migration, a key determinant of malignant progression and metastasis. When parental MDA-MB-468 cells were treated with various amounts of conditioned medium derived from the IGFBP-7 overexpressing cell line, a significant difference in cell migration rate was observed between untreated and treated cells. IGFBP-7 strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK-1/2, suggesting that IGFBP-7 mediates its anti-proliferative effects through negative feedback signaling. Levels of phospho-ERK-1/2 were higher in the parental MDA-MB-468 than in IGFBP-7-expressing cells derived from it. When injected subcutaneously into NOD/SCID mice, the increased expression of IGFBP-7 in the MDA-MB-468 transfected cells reduced the rate of tumor growth in comparison to the parental MDA-MB-468 controls. These results suggest that the growth of breast cancer could be prevented by the forced expression of IGFBP-7 protein. PMID:20464481

Amemiya, Y; Yang, W; Benatar, T; Nofech-Mozes, S; Yee, A; Kahn, H; Holloway, C; Seth, Arun

2011-04-01

293

Delayed growth of glioma by Scutellaria flavonoids involve inhibition of Akt, GSK-3 and NF-?B signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants of the genus Scutellaria constitute one of the common components of Eastern as well as traditional American medicine against various human diseases,\\u000a including cancer. In this study, we examined the in vivo anti-glioma activity of a leaf extract of Scutellaria\\u000a ocmulgee (SocL) while also exploring their potential molecular mechanisms of action. Oral administration of SocL extract delayed the\\u000a growth

Prahlad Parajuli; N. Joshee; S. R. Chinni; A. M. Rimando; S. Mittal; S. Sethi; A. K. Yadav

2011-01-01

294

Soil salinity delays germination and limits growth of hyphae from propagules of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

Colonisation of plant roots by some arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is reduced in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl), probably due to a direct effect of NaCl on the fungi. However, there appear to be differences between the fungi in their ability to colonise plants in the presence of NaCl. This experiment tested the hypothesis that propagules of different isolates and species of AM fungi from saline and nonsaline soils would differ in their ability to germinate and grow in the presence of NaCl in the soil solution. Spores or pieces of root colonised by a range of AM fungi were incubated between filters buried in soil to which NaCl had been added at concentrations of 0, 150 or 300 mM in the soil solution. At regular intervals, filters were removed from the soil and both the percentage of propagules which had germinated and the length of proliferating hyphae were determined. Germination of spores of AM fungi studied was delayed in the presence of NaCl, but the fungi differed in the extent to which germination was inhibited. Two isolates of Scutellospora calospora reached maximum germination in 300 mM NaCl, but neither of two isolates of Acaulospora laevis germinated in the presence of NaCl. Germination of spores of the other fungi, including some isolated from saline soil, fell between these extremes. For some fungi, the specific rate of hyphal extension was reduced by NaCl. For others, the specific rate of growth was similar in the presence of NaCl to that in the control treatment, but overall production of hyphae was reduced in the NaCl treatments because germination was reduced. PMID:16525784

Juniper, S; Abbott, L K

2006-07-01

295

Transfection of the mullerian inhibiting substance gene inhibits local and metastatic tumor-growth.  

PubMed

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a gonadal growth factor important in sexual differentiation, has antiproliferative activity against several human carcinoma cell lines. In this study, we examine the effect of MIS-transfection on the growth characteristics of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human ocular melanoma (OM431) cells, compared to wild-type lines and a CHO line transfected with a noncleavable, inactive MIS mutant. MIS-transfection inhibited proliferation of CHO cells in double-layer agarose, tumor spheroid, and murine subrenal capsule assays, as well as growth of CHO and OM431 cells in pulmonary metastasis studies. These results anticipate further study of targeted gene therapy of certain human tumors with MIS gene constructs. PMID:21573527

Boveri, J; Parry, R; Ruffin, W; Gustafson, M; Lee, K; He, W; Donahoe, P

1993-02-01

296

Naďve rat umbilical cord matrix stem cells significantly attenuate mammary tumor growth through modulation of endogenous immune responses  

PubMed Central

Background aims Un-engineered human and rat umbilical cord matrix stem cells (UCMSCs) attenuate growth of several types of tumors in mice and rats. However, the mechanism by which UCMSCs attenuate tumor growth has not been studied rigorously. Methods The possible mechanisms of tumor growth attenuation by rat UCMSCs were studied using orthotopic Mat B III rat mammary tumor grafts in female F344 rats. Tumor-infiltrating leukocytes were identified and quantified by immunohistochemistry analysis. Potential cytokines involved in lymphocyte infiltration in the tumors were determined by microarray and Western blot analysis. The Boyden chamber migration assay was performed for the functional analysis of identified cytokines. Results Rat UCMSCs markedly attenuated tumor growth; this attenuation was accompanied by considerable lymphocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that most infiltrating lymphocytes in the rat UCMSC-treated tumors were CD3+ T cells. In addition, treatment with rat UCMSCs significantly increased infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells throughout tumor tissue. CD68+ monocytes/macrophages and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were scarcely observed, only in the tumors of the phosphate-buffered saline control group. Microarray analysis of rat UCMSCs demonstrated that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 is involved in rat UCMSC-induced lymphocyte infiltration in the tumor tissues. Conclusions These results suggest that naďve rat UCMSCs attenuated mammary tumor growth at least in part by enhancing host anti-tumor immune responses. Naďve UCMSCs can be used as powerful therapeutic cells for breast cancer treatment, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 may be a key molecule to enhance the effect of UCMSCs at the tumor site. PMID:23474329

Kawabata, Atsushi; Ohta, Naomi; Seiler, Garret; Pyle, Marla M.; Ishiguro, Susumu; Zhang, Yong Qing; Becker, Kevin G.; Troyer, Deryl; Tamura, Masaaki

2013-01-01

297

Gastrointestinal hormones stimulate growth of Foregut Neuroendocrine Tumors by transactivating the EGF receptor.  

PubMed

Foregut neuroendocrine tumors [NETs] usually pursuit a benign course, but some show aggressive behavior. The treatment of patients with advanced NETs is marginally effective and new approaches are needed. In other tumors, transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by growth factors, gastrointestinal (GI) hormones and lipids can stimulate growth, which has led to new treatments. Recent studies show a direct correlation between NET malignancy and EGFR expression, EGFR inhibition decreases basal NET growth and an autocrine growth effect exerted by GI hormones, for some NETs. To determine if GI hormones can stimulate NET growth by inducing transactivation of EGFR, we examined the ability of EGF, TGF? and various GI hormones to stimulate growth of the human foregut carcinoid,BON, the somatostatinoma QGP-1 and the rat islet tumor,Rin-14B-cell lines. The EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, AG1478 strongly inhibited EGF and the GI hormones stimulated cell growth, both in BON and QGP-1 cells. In all the three neuroendocrine cell lines studied, we found EGF, TGF? and the other growth-stimulating GI hormones increased Tyr(1068) EGFR phosphorylation. In BON cells, both the GI hormones neurotensin and a bombesin analogue caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in EGFR phosphorylation, which was strongly inhibited by AG1478. Moreover, we found this stimulated phosphorylation was dependent on Src kinases, PKCs, matrix metalloproteinase activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species. These results raise the possibility that disruption of this signaling cascade by either EGFR inhibition alone or combined with receptor antagonists may be a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of foregut NETs/PETs. PMID:23220008

Di Florio, Alessia; Sancho, Veronica; Moreno, Paola; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Jensen, Robert T

2013-03-01

298

Gastrointestinal hormones stimulate growth of Foregut Neuroendocrine Tumors by transactivating the EGF receptor  

PubMed Central

Foregut Neuroendocrine Tumors[NETs] usually pursuit a benign course, but some show aggressive behavior. The treatment of patients with advanced NETs is marginally effective and new approaches are needed. In other tumors, transactivation of the EGF receptor(EGFR) by growth factors, gastrointestinal(GI) hormones and lipids can stimulate growth, which has led to new treatments. Recent studies show a direct correlation between NET malignancy and EGFR expression, EGFR inhibition decreases basal NET growth and an autocrine growth effect exerted by GI hormones, for some NETs. To determine if GI hormones can stimulate NET growth by inducing transactivation of EGFR, we examined the ability of EGF, TGF? and various GI hormones to stimulate growth of the human foregut carcinoid, BON, the somatostatinoma QGP-1 and the rat islet tumor, Rin-14B-cell lines. The EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, AG1478 strongly inhibited EGF and the GI hormones stimulated cell growth, both in BON and QGP-1 cells. In all the three neuroendocrine cell lines studied, we found EGF, TGF? and the other growth-stimulating GI hormones increased Tyr1068 EGFR phosphorylation. In BON cells, both the GI hormones neurotensin and a bombesin analogue caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in EGFR phosphorylation, which was strongly inhibited by AG1478. Moreover, we found this stimulated phosphorylation was dependent on Src kinases, PKCs, matrix metalloproteinase activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species. These results raise the possibility that disruption of this signaling cascade by either EGFR inhibition alone or combined with receptor antagonists may be a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of foregut NETs/PETs. PMID:23220008

Di Florio, Alessia; Sancho, Veronica; Moreno, Paola; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Jensen, Robert T.

2012-01-01

299

The effects of selenium on tumor growth in epithelial ovarian carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective Epidemiological studies suggest that selenium protects against the development of several cancers. Selenium (sodium selenite) has been reported to interfere with cell growth and proliferation, and to induce cell death. In this study, we tested whether selenium could have growth-inhibiting effect in ovarian cancer cells and an orthotopic animal model. Methods Cell growth in selenium-treated cells was determined in human ovarian cancer cells, A2780, HeyA8, and SKOV3ip1 using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Animal experiment of selenium with paclitaxel was performed using SKOV3ip1 cells in nude mice to evaluate their inhibiting effect for tumor growth. In addition, another animal experiment of paclitaxel with or without selenium was performed to assess the effect of survival and food intake in mice. Results The in vitro growth of selenium-treated cells was significantly decreased dose-dependently in A2780, HeyA8, and SKOV3ip1 cells. Therapy experiment in mice was started 1 week after injection of the SKOV3ip1 cells. Treatment with selenium (1.5 mg/kg, 3 times/week) and paclitaxel injection showed no addictive effect of the inhibition of tumor growth. However, combination of selenium and paclitaxel showed the slightly increased food intake compared with paclitaxel alone. Conclusion Although selenium has growth-inhibiting effect in ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro, there is no additive effect on tumor growth in mice treated with combination of paclitaxel and selenium. However, food intake is slightly higher in selenium-treated mice during chemotherapy. PMID:22808362

Park, Jin Sun; Ryu, Ji Yoon; Jeon, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Young Jae; Park, Young Ae; Choi, Jung-Joo; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

2012-01-01

300

Natural alkylglycerols restrain growth and metastasis of grafted tumors in mice.  

PubMed

Alkylglycerols are natural etherlipids abundant in shark liver oil (SLO) in a diacylated form. SLO is known to have antitumor properties and was recently described as an inhibitor of tumor neovascularization. However, most studies did not discriminate between the respective activities of alkylglycerols and of fatty acids, which both have potent biological properties. In this work, a mouse model was used to investigate the antitumor effects of SLO and of alkylglycerols purified from the same source, both administered orally. We demonstrated that either pure alkylglycerols or SLO reduced the tumor growth in a similar manner, suggesting that alkylglycerols were involved in this effect. In alkylglycerol-treated mice, metastasis dissemination was reduced by 64 +/- 8%, whereas SLO effect was 30 +/- 9% below control. Purified alkylglycerols also decreased significantly plasmalogen content in tumors, whereas SLO had no such effect. Finally, we demonstrated that a 5-day treatment with alkylglycerols curtailed the presence in tumors of von Willebrand factor, a marker of endothelial cells. This result suggested an anti-angiogenic effect of alkylglycerols. In summary, alkylglycerols were shown to decrease the growth, vascularization, and dissemination of Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice. These findings suggest that the antitumor activity of SLO is likely mediated by the presence of alkylglycerols. PMID:15203379

Pedrono, Frederique; Martin, Bénédicte; Leduc, Christine; Le Lan, Jacky; Saďag, Bernard; Legrand, Philippe; Moulinoux, Jacques-Philippe; Legrand, Alain B

2004-01-01

301

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected tumor xenografts as an in vivo model for antiviral therapy: role of alpha/beta interferon in restriction of tumor growth in nude mice injected with HIV-infected U937 tumor cells.  

PubMed Central

The host factors involved in the restriction of tumor growth were studied in nude mice transplanted with a cloned line of chronically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected U937 cells. HIV-infected and uninfected U937 cells exhibited the same growth patterns in culture. However, HIV-infected cells were not tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously in nude mice, whereas large solid tumors were observed in mice injected with uninfected U937 cells. Injection of nude mice with antibody to alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) enabled HIV-infected U937 cells to grow progressively in approximately 90 to 100% of mice. HIV-infected U937 cells formed solid tumors in the majority (60 to 90%) of either immunosuppressed (splenectomized, irradiated, and anti-asialo-GM1-treated) or genetically immunodeficient (bg/nu/xid) nude mice. In mice treated with antibodies to IFN-alpha/beta with established HIV-positive tumors, a direct correlation was found between p24 antigenemia and tumor size. Treatment of established HIV-positive U937 cell tumors with human IFN-alpha or mouse IFN-alpha/beta resulted in a clear-cut inhibition of both tumor growth and p24 HIV antigenemia. In contrast, treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha markedly inhibited tumor growth but did not significantly decrease serum p24 levels. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine treatment did not affect either tumor growth or the levels of serum p24 antigen. These data indicate that endogenous IFN-alpha/beta is a crucial factor in the restriction of both tumor growth and p24 antigenemia in mice injected with HIV-infected tumor cells. Moreover, the results suggest that the development of HIV-1 p24 antigenemia in athymic immunosuppressed mice may represent an interesting in vivo model for anti-HIV therapy. Images PMID:1901915

Puddu, P; Locardi, C; Sestili, P; Varano, F; Petrini, C; Modesti, A; Masuelli, L; Gresser, I; Belardelli, F

1991-01-01

302

Matrix Metalloprotease 1a-Deficiency Suppresses Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP1) is an important mediator of tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue remodeling through its ability to degrade critical matrix components. Recent studies indicate that stromal-derived MMP1 may exert direct oncogenic activity by signaling through protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) in carcinoma cells, however, this has not been established in vivo. We generated a Mmp1a knock-out mouse to ascertain whether stromal-derived Mmp1a affects tumor growth. Mmp1a-deficient mice are grossly normal and born in Mendelian ratios, however, deficiency of Mmp1a results in significantly decreased growth and angiogenesis of lung tumors. Co-implantation of lung cancer cells with wild-type Mmp1a+/+ fibroblasts completely restored tumor growth in Mmp1a-deficient animals, highlighting the critical role of stromal-derived Mmp1a. Silencing of PAR1 expression in the lung carcinoma cells phenocopied stromal Mmp1a-deficiency, thus validating tumor-derived PAR1 as a Mmp1a target. Mmp1a secretion is controlled by the ability of its prodomain to suppress auto-cleavage, whereas human MMP1 is efficiently secreted due to stable pro- and catalytic domain interactions. Together, these data demonstrate that stromal Mmp1a drives in vivo tumorigenesis and provide proof-of-concept that targeting the MMP1-PAR1 axis may afford effective treatments of lung cancer. PMID:23708660

Foley, Caitlin J.; Fanjul-Fernández, Miriam; Bohm, Andrew; Nguyen, Nga; Agarwal, Anika; Austin, Karyn; Koukos, Georgios; Covic, Lidija; López-Otín, Carlos; Kuliopulos, Athan

2013-01-01

303

3-Bromopyruvate inhibits human gastric cancer tumor growth in nude mice via the inhibition of glycolysis  

PubMed Central

Tumor cells primarily depend upon glycolysis in order to gain energy. Therefore, the inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. Our previous study demonstrated that 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro. However, the ability of 3-BrPA to suppress tumor growth in vivo, and its underlying mechanism, have yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA in an animal model of gastric cancer. It was identified that 3-BrPA exhibited strong inhibitory effects upon xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, the antitumor function of 3-BrPA exhibited a dose-effect association, which was similar to that of the chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil. Furthermore, 3-BrPA exhibited low toxicity in the blood, liver and kidneys of the nude mice. The present study hypothesized that the inhibitory effect of 3-BrPA is achieved through the inhibition of hexokinase activity, which leads to the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein expression and the subsequent activation of caspase-3. These data suggest that 3-BrPA may be a novel therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

XIAN, SHU-LIN; CAO, WEI; ZHANG, XIAO-DONG; LU, YUN-FEI

2015-01-01

304

Osteopontin regulates human glioma cell invasiveness and tumor growth in mice  

PubMed Central

Human malignant glioma cells are characterized by local invasion. In the present study, we investigated the role of osteopontin (OPN) in the invasiveness of human glioma cells isolated from grade IV tumors. We found that the expression levels of OPN in these cell lines paralleled matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and cell invasiveness potential. When U87MG glioma cells (with a high-OPN expression level) were stably transformed with specific small hairpin RNA to knock down OPN expression, MMP-2 secretion, cell invasiveness, and tumor growth in implanted brains were dramatically reduced. Conversely, forced expression of OPN in GBM-SKH glioma cells (which expressed OPN at a low level) increased MMP-2 secretion, enhanced cell invasiveness, and increased tumor growth in a rodent xenograft model. Expression of OPN was associated with increased expression of vimentin and decreased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Treatment of glioma cells with 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) suppressed OPN expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Suppression of OPN expression by 5-aza-dC was associated with reductions in MMP-2 secretion, vimentin expression, cell invasion, intravasation, and tumor growth. These data suggest that OPN may play important roles in regulating cell invasion in glioma cells and that 5-aza-dC may serve as a therapeutic agent for human gliomas. PMID:20150368

Jan, Hsun-Jin; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Shih, Yung-Luen; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Ma, Hsin-I; Lai, Jing-Huei; Wei, Hen-Wei; Lee, Horng-Mo

2010-01-01

305

Use of tumor diameter to estimate the growth kinetics of cancer and sensitivity of screening tests.  

PubMed Central

A statistical method has been developed that is useful for studying the relationship between the growth kinetics of malignant tumors and the detection probability either through symptoms or by screening. Mathematical models that describe the distribution of pathological variables in malignant tumors, detected after various histories of screening, are derived and parameters for detection probabilities and the growth kinetics are then estimated by the maximum likelihood procedure. By this method the probabilities of detection through symptoms as well as by screening can be estimated as functions of pathological variable(s) such as tumor size. The growth rate of tumor can also be estimated from the distribution of pathological variables. The present method was applied to gastric cancer in Japan, where an annual screening program for the disease exists. The detection probability for the indirect X-ray used as the screening test was estimated to be 0.323 x (diameter)2/[1 + 0.323 x (diameter)2]. The doubling time of gastric cancer was estimated to be 2.90 months. PMID:2269242

Yamaguchi, N; Yanagawa, T; Yoshimura, T; Kohrogi, N; Tanaka, K; Nakamura, Y; Okubo, T

1990-01-01

306

Regulation of Macrophage Arginase Expression and Tumor Growth by the Ron Receptor Tyrosine Kinase1  

PubMed Central

M1 activation of macrophages promotes inflammation and immunity to intracellular pathogens, while M2 macrophage activation promotes resolution of inflammation, wound healing, and tumor growth. These divergent phenotypes are characterized, in part, by the expression of iNOS and arginase I (Arg1) in M1 vs. M2 activated macrophages, respectively. Here we demonstrate that the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase tips the balance of macrophage activation by attenuating the M1 phenotype while promoting expression of Arg1, through a Stat6-independent mechanism. Induction of the Arg1 promoter by Ron is mediated by an AP-1 site located 433 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Treatment of primary macrophages with MSP, the ligand for Ron, induces potent MAP kinase activation, upregulates Fos, and enhances binding of Fos to the AP-1 site in the Arg1 promoter. In vivo, Arg1 expression in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) from Ron?/? mice was significantly reduced compared with TAMs from control animals. Furthermore, we show that Ron is expressed specifically by Tie2-expressing macrophages (TEMs), a TAM subset that exhibits a markedly skewed M2 and pro-tumoral phenotype. Decreased Arg1 in TAMs from Ron?/? mice was associated with reduced syngeneic tumor growth in these animals. These findings indicate that Ron induces Arg1 expression in macrophages through a previously uncharacterized AP-1 site in the Arg1 promoter, and that Ron could be therapeutically targeted in the tumor microenvironment to inhibit tumor growth by targeting expression of Arg1 PMID:21810604

Sharda, Daniel R.; Yu, Shan; Ray, Manujendra; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; De Palma, Michele; Wynn, Thomas A.; Morris, Sidney M.; Hankey, Pamela A.

2011-01-01

307

The impact of delayed cardiac surgery on the postnatal growth of children with congenital heart disease in Bosnia and Herzegovina.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative and postoperative growth in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) when cardio-surgical treatment is delayed. Growth data were analysed on 116 children with various types of CHD (cyanotic lesions (Group 1), left to right shunt (Group 2) and obstructive lesions (Group 3)), who underwent cardiac surgery after a certain period of waiting. Preoperatively, during the time (median 1.13 (0.55-2.39)) years of waiting for surgery, their mean weight z-score decreased from -1.38 (+/- 1.19) to -1.41 (+/- 1.28), and their mean height z-score from -0.65 (+/- 1.41) to -0.81 (+/- 1.36). Children in Group 1 developed a significant linear growth deficit, in Group 2 weight was more affected than height, while in Group 3 both growth parameters were gradually slowly, but not significantly reduced. Postoperatively weight and height z scores, although they showed a linear trend of improvement for all three groups, remained significantly reduced for two years after surgery. At the time of the last examination at the age 9.11 (5.66-13.10) years, the mean height z score -0.16 (+/- 1.28), was significantly reduced p < 0.0001, than predicted height 0.23 (+/- 0.82). Growth catch-up was related to age at surgery and preoperative growth deficit. Delayed cardiac surgery in children with CHD aggravated growth deficit and caused slow and incomplete postoperative growth catch-up. PMID:23940997

Begi?, Hidajeta; Tahirovi?, Husref

2013-06-01

308

Classical Mathematical Models for Description and Prediction of Experimental Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

Despite internal complexity, tumor growth kinetics follow relatively simple laws that can be expressed as mathematical models. To explore this further, quantitative analysis of the most classical of these were performed. The models were assessed against data from two in vivo experimental systems: an ectopic syngeneic tumor (Lewis lung carcinoma) and an orthotopically xenografted human breast carcinoma. The goals were threefold: 1) to determine a statistical model for description of the measurement error, 2) to establish the descriptive power of each model, using several goodness-of-fit metrics and a study of parametric identifiability, and 3) to assess the models' ability to forecast future tumor growth. The models included in the study comprised the exponential, exponential-linear, power law, Gompertz, logistic, generalized logistic, von Bertalanffy and a model with dynamic carrying capacity. For the breast data, the dynamics were best captured by the Gompertz and exponential-linear models. The latter also exhibited the highest predictive power, with excellent prediction scores (?80%) extending out as far as 12 days in the future. For the lung data, the Gompertz and power law models provided the most parsimonious and parametrically identifiable description. However, not one of the models was able to achieve a substantial prediction rate (?70%) beyond the next day data point. In this context, adjunction of a priori information on the parameter distribution led to considerable improvement. For instance, forecast success rates went from 14.9% to 62.7% when using the power law model to predict the full future tumor growth curves, using just three data points. These results not only have important implications for biological theories of tumor growth and the use of mathematical modeling in preclinical anti-cancer drug investigations, but also may assist in defining how mathematical models could serve as potential prognostic tools in the clinic. PMID:25167199

Benzekry, Sébastien; Lamont, Clare; Beheshti, Afshin; Tracz, Amanda; Ebos, John M. L.; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip

2014-01-01

309

Classical mathematical models for description and prediction of experimental tumor growth.  

PubMed

Despite internal complexity, tumor growth kinetics follow relatively simple laws that can be expressed as mathematical models. To explore this further, quantitative analysis of the most classical of these were performed. The models were assessed against data from two in vivo experimental systems: an ectopic syngeneic tumor (Lewis lung carcinoma) and an orthotopically xenografted human breast carcinoma. The goals were threefold: 1) to determine a statistical model for description of the measurement error, 2) to establish the descriptive power of each model, using several goodness-of-fit metrics and a study of parametric identifiability, and 3) to assess the models' ability to forecast future tumor growth. The models included in the study comprised the exponential, exponential-linear, power law, Gompertz, logistic, generalized logistic, von Bertalanffy and a model with dynamic carrying capacity. For the breast data, the dynamics were best captured by the Gompertz and exponential-linear models. The latter also exhibited the highest predictive power, with excellent prediction scores (?80%) extending out as far as 12 days in the future. For the lung data, the Gompertz and power law models provided the most parsimonious and parametrically identifiable description. However, not one of the models was able to achieve a substantial prediction rate (?70%) beyond the next day data point. In this context, adjunction of a priori information on the parameter distribution led to considerable improvement. For instance, forecast success rates went from 14.9% to 62.7% when using the power law model to predict the full future tumor growth curves, using just three data points. These results not only have important implications for biological theories of tumor growth and the use of mathematical modeling in preclinical anti-cancer drug investigations, but also may assist in defining how mathematical models could serve as potential prognostic tools in the clinic. PMID:25167199

Benzekry, Sébastien; Lamont, Clare; Beheshti, Afshin; Tracz, Amanda; Ebos, John M L; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip

2014-08-01

310

The LKB1-AMPK pathway: metabolism and growth control in tumor suppression  

PubMed Central

In the past decade, studies of the human tumor suppressor LKB1 have uncovered a novel signaling pathway that links cell metabolism to growth control and cell polarity. LKB1 encodes a serine/threonine kinase that directly phosphorylates and activates AMPK, a central metabolic sensor. AMPK regulates lipid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in specialized metabolic tissues such as liver, muscle, and adipose, a function that has made it a key therapeutic target in patients with diabetes. The connection of AMPK with several tumor suppressors suggests that therapeutic manipulation of this pathway with established diabetes drugs warrants further investigation in patients with cancer. PMID:19629071

Shackelford, David B.; Shaw, Reuben J.

2009-01-01

311

Multi-targeted inhibition of tumor growth and lung metastasis by redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles loading disulfiram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metastasis, the main cause of cancer related deaths, remains the greatest challenge in cancer treatment. Disulfiram (DSF), which has multi-targeted anti-tumor activity, was encapsulated into redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles to achieve intracellular targeted delivery and finally inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The crosslinked micelles demonstrated good stability in circulation and specifically released DSF under a reductive environment that mimicked the intracellular conditions of tumor cells. As a result, the DSF-loaded redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles (DCMs) dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and suppressed cell invasion, as well as impairing tube formation of HMEC-1 cells. In addition, the DCMs could accumulate in tumor tissue and stay there for a long time, thereby causing significant inhibition of 4T1 tumor growth and marked prevention in lung metastasis of 4T1 tumors. These results suggested that DCMs could be a promising delivery system in inhibiting the growth and metastasis of breast cancer.

Duan, Xiaopin; Xiao, Jisheng; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Yu, Haijun; Mao, Shirui; Li, Yaping

2014-03-01

312

Autophagy Sustains Mitochondrial Glutamine Metabolism and Growth of BRAFV600E–Driven Lung Tumors  

PubMed Central

Autophagic elimination of defective mitochondria suppresses oxidative stress and preserves mitochondrial function. Here, the essential autophagy gene Atg7 was deleted in a mouse model of BRAFV600E-induced lung cancer in the presence or absence of the tumor suppressor TRP53. Atg7 deletion initially induced oxidative stress and accelerated tumor cell proliferation in a manner indistinguishable from Nrf2 ablation. Compound deletion of Atg7 and Nrf2 had no additive effect suggesting that both genes modulate tumorigenesis by regulating oxidative stress, revealing a potential mechanism of autophagy-mediated tumor suppression. At later stages of tumorigenesis, Atg7 deficiency resulted in an accumulation of defective mitochondria, proliferative defects, reduced tumor burden, conversion of adenomas and adenocarcinomas to oncocytomas, and increased mouse lifespan. Autophagy-defective tumor-derived cell lines were impaired in their ability to respire, survive starvation and were glutamine-dependent, suggesting that autophagy-supplied substrates from protein degradation sustains BRAFV600E-tumor growth and metabolism. PMID:23965987

Strohecker, Anne M.; Guo, Jessie Yanxiang; Karsli-Uzunbas, Gizem; Price, Sandy M.; Chen, Guanghua Jim; Mathew, Robin; McMahon, Martin; White, Eileen

2013-01-01

313

Localization of transforming growth factor-alpha in human appendageal tumors.  

PubMed Central

Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) is a potent mitogen for epithelial cells that has been localized to normal human appendageal epithelia. To further understand the role of TGF alpha in human appendages, we examined TGF alpha expression immunohistochemically in 17 types of human appendageal tumors differentiating toward hair follicles, eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous glands. In order of decreasing degrees of differentiation, tumors could be divided into hyperplasias, adenomas, benign epitheliomas, and primordial epitheliomas. Using an antibody that recognizes primarily the 6-kd and 13-kd forms of TGF alpha, TGF alpha immunostaining in 16 of 17 tumor types analyzed was found to follow a similar pattern, with expression in hyperplasias greater than adenomas greater than benign epitheliomas greater than primordial epitheliomas. Within a given tumor, TGF alpha expression also correlated well with the known differentiation state of the tumor cell types. The results suggest that TGF alpha expression is directly correlated with the differentiation state of hair follicle, eccrine, apocrine, and sebaceous tumors in human skin, and raises the possibility that TGF alpha may play a role in the differentiation of appendageal epithelia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1519669

Finzi, E.; Ho, T.; Anhalt, G.; Hawkins, W.; Harkins, R.; Horn, T.

1992-01-01

314

A New Ghost Cell/Level Set Method for Moving Boundary Problems: Application to Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present a ghost cell/level set method for the evolution of interfaces whose normal velocity depend upon the solutions of linear and nonlinear quasi-steady reaction-diffusion equations with curvature-dependent boundary conditions. Our technique includes a ghost cell method that accurately discretizes normal derivative jump boundary conditions without smearing jumps in the tangential derivative; a new iterative method for solving linear and nonlinear quasi-steady reaction-diffusion equations; an adaptive discretization to compute the curvature and normal vectors; and a new discrete approximation to the Heaviside function. We present numerical examples that demonstrate better than 1.5-order convergence for problems where traditional ghost cell methods either fail to converge or attain at best sub-linear accuracy. We apply our techniques to a model of tumor growth in complex, heterogeneous tissues that consists of a nonlinear nutrient equation and a pressure equation with geometry-dependent jump boundary conditions. We simulate the growth of glioblastoma (an aggressive brain tumor) into a large, 1 cm square of brain tissue that includes heterogeneous nutrient delivery and varied biomechanical characteristics (white matter, gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid, and bone), and we observe growth morphologies that are highly dependent upon the variations of the tissue characteristics—an effect observed in real tumor growth. PMID:21331304

Macklin, Paul

2011-01-01

315

Tumor-growth–promoting cyclooxygenase-2 prostaglandin E2 pathway provides medulloblastoma therapeutic targets  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to play important roles in several aspects of tumor development and progression. PGE2 is synthesized from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases (COX) and prostaglandin E synthases (PGES) and mediates its biological activity through binding to the four prostanoid receptors EP1 through EP4. In this study, we show for the first time that medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant childhood brain tumor, expresses high levels of COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, and EP1 through EP4 and secretes PGE2. PGE2 and the EP2 receptor agonist butaprost stimulated MB cell proliferation. Treatment of MB cells with COX inhibitors suppressed PGE2 production and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Similarly, specific COX-2 silencing by small interfering RNA inhibited MB cell growth. EP1 and EP3 receptor antagonists ONO-8713 and ONO-AE3-240, but not the EP4 antagonists ONO-AE3-208 and AH 23848, inhibited tumor cell proliferation, indicating the significance of EP1 and EP3 but not EP4 for MB growth. Administration of COX inhibitors at clinically achievable nontoxic concentrations significantly inhibited growth of established human MB xenografts. Apoptosis was increased, proliferation was reduced, and angiogenesis was inhibited in MBs treated with COX inhibitors. This study suggests that PGE2 is important for MB growth and that therapies targeting the prostanoid metabolic pathway are potentially beneficial and should be tested in clinical settings for treatment of children with MB. PMID:18715952

Baryawno, Ninib; Sveinbjörnsson, Baldur; Eksborg, Staffan; Orrego, Abiel; Segerström, Lova; Öqvist, Carl Otto; Holm, Stefan; Gustavsson, Bengt; Kĺgedal, Bertil; Kogner, Per; Johnsen, John Inge

2008-01-01

316

Oridonin inhibits tumor growth in glioma by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Glioma is the most common malignant intracranial tumors. Despite newly developed therapies, these treatments mainly target oncogenic signals, and unfortunately, fail to provide enough survival benefit in both human patients and mouse xenograft models, especially the first—generation therapies. Oridonin is purified from the Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens and considered to exert extensive anti—cancer effects on human tumorigenesis. In this study, we systemically investigated the role of Oridonin in tumor growth and the underlying mechanisms in human glioma. We found that Oridonin inhibited cell proliferations in a dose— and time—dependent manner in both glioma U87 and U251 cells. Moreover, these anti—cancer effects were also confirmed in a mouse model bearing glioma. Furthermore, cell cycle arrest in S phase was observed in Oridonin—mediated growth inhibition by flow cytometry. Cell cycle arrest in S phase led to eventual cell apoptosis, as revealed by Hoechst 33342 staining and annexin V/PI double—staining. The cell apoptosis might be accomplished through a mitochondrial manner. In all, we were the first to our knowledge to report that Oridonin could exert anti—cancer effects on tumor growth in human glioma by inducing cell cycle arrest and eventual cell apoptosis. The identification of Oridonin as a critical mediator of glioma growth may potentiate Oridonin as a novel therapeutic strategies in glioma treatments. PMID:25553351

Zhang, X-H; Liu, Y-X; Jia, M; Han, J-S; Zhao, M; Ji, S-P; Li, A-M

2014-01-01

317

The Epstein-Barr Virus Encoded BART miRNAs Potentiate Tumor Growth In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The human herpes virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latently infects and drives the proliferation of B lymphocytes in vitro and is associated with several forms of lymphoma and carcinoma in vivo. The virus encodes ~30 miRNAs in the BART region, the function of most of which remains elusive. Here we have used a new mouse xenograft model of EBV driven carcinomagenesis to demonstrate that the BART miRNAs potentiate tumor growth and development in vivo. No effect was seen on invasion or metastasis, and the growth promoting activity was not seen in vitro. In vivo tumor growth was not associated with the expression of specific BART miRNAs but with up regulation of all the BART miRNAs, consistent with previous observations that all the BART miRNAs are highly expressed in all of the EBV associated cancers. Based on these observations, we suggest that deregulated expression of the BART miRNAs potentiates tumor growth and represents a general mechanism behind EBV associated oncogenesis. PMID:25590614

Qiu, Jin; Smith, Pamela; Leahy, Leah; Thorley-Lawson, David A.

2015-01-01

318

Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

2014-03-01

319

Fulvene-5 potently inhibits NADPH oxidase 4 and blocks the growth of endothelial tumors in mice  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas are the most common type of tumor in infants. As they are endothelial cell–derived neoplasias, their growth can be regulated by the autocrine-acting Tie2 ligand angiopoietin 2 (Ang2). Using an experimental model of human hemangiomas, in which polyoma middle T–transformed brain endothelial (bEnd) cells are grafted subcutaneously into nude mice, we compared hemangioma growth originating from bEnd cells derived from wild-type, Ang2+/–, and Ang2–/– mice. Surprisingly, Ang2-deficient bEnd cells formed endothelial tumors that grew rapidly and were devoid of the typical cavernous architecture of slow-growing Ang2-expressing hemangiomas, while Ang2+/– cells were greatly impaired in their in vivo growth. Gene array analysis identified a strong downregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in Ang2+/– cells. Correspondingly, lentiviral silencing of Nox4 in an Ang2-sufficient bEnd cell line decreased Ang2 mRNA levels and greatly impaired hemangioma growth in vivo. Using a structure-based approach, we identified fulvenes as what we believe to be a novel class of Nox inhibitors. We therefore produced and began the initial characterization of fulvenes as potential Nox inhibitors, finding that fulvene-5 efficiently inhibited Nox activity in vitro and potently inhibited hemangioma growth in vivo. In conclusion, the present study establishes Nox4 as a critical regulator of hemangioma growth and identifies fulvenes as a potential class of candidate inhibitor to therapeutically interfere with Nox function. PMID:19620773

Bhandarkar, Sulochana S.; Jaconi, Marisa; Fried, Levi E.; Bonner, Michael Y.; Lefkove, Benjamin; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Perry, Betsy N.; Parhar, Ravi; Mackelfresh, Jamie; Sohn, Allie; Stouffs, Michael; Knaus, Ulla; Yancopoulos, George; Reiss, Yvonne; Benest, Andrew V.; Augustin, Hellmut G.; Arbiser, Jack L.

2009-01-01

320

Fulvene-5 potently inhibits NADPH oxidase 4 and blocks the growth of endothelial tumors in mice.  

PubMed

Hemangiomas are the most common type of tumor in infants. As they are endothelial cell-derived neoplasias, their growth can be regulated by the autocrine-acting Tie2 ligand angiopoietin 2 (Ang2). Using an experimental model of human hemangiomas, in which polyoma middle T-transformed brain endothelial (bEnd) cells are grafted subcutaneously into nude mice, we compared hemangioma growth originating from bEnd cells derived from wild-type, Ang2+/-, and Ang2-/- mice. Surprisingly, Ang2-deficient bEnd cells formed endothelial tumors that grew rapidly and were devoid of the typical cavernous architecture of slow-growing Ang2-expressing hemangiomas, while Ang2+/- cells were greatly impaired in their in vivo growth. Gene array analysis identified a strong downregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in Ang2+/- cells. Correspondingly, lentiviral silencing of Nox4 in an Ang2-sufficient bEnd cell line decreased Ang2 mRNA levels and greatly impaired hemangioma growth in vivo. Using a structure-based approach, we identified fulvenes as what we believe to be a novel class of Nox inhibitors. We therefore produced and began the initial characterization of fulvenes as potential Nox inhibitors, finding that fulvene-5 efficiently inhibited Nox activity in vitro and potently inhibited hemangioma growth in vivo. In conclusion, the present study establishes Nox4 as a critical regulator of hemangioma growth and identifies fulvenes as a potential class of candidate inhibitor to therapeutically interfere with Nox function. PMID:19620773

Bhandarkar, Sulochana S; Jaconi, Marisa; Fried, Levi E; Bonner, Michael Y; Lefkove, Benjamin; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Perry, Betsy N; Parhar, Ravi; Mackelfresh, Jamie; Sohn, Allie; Stouffs, Michael; Knaus, Ulla; Yancopoulos, George; Reiss, Yvonne; Benest, Andrew V; Augustin, Hellmut G; Arbiser, Jack L

2009-08-01

321

Macrophages From Irradiated Tumors Express Higher Levels of iNOS, Arginase-I and COX-2, and Promote Tumor Growth  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the effects of single and fractionated doses of radiation on tumors and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and to elucidate the potential of TAMs to influence tumor growth. Methods and Materials: A murine prostate cell line, TRAMP-C1, was grown in C57Bl/6J mice to 4-mm tumor diameter and irradiated with either 25 Gy in a single dose, or 60 Gy in 15 fractions. The tumors were removed at the indicated times and assessed for a variety of markers related to TAM content, activation status, and function. Results: In tumors receiving a single radiation dose, arginase (Arg-I), and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression increased as a small transient wave within 24 h and a larger persistent wave starting after 3 days. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was elevated only after 3 days and continued to increase up to 3 weeks. After fractionated irradiation, Arg-1 and COX-2 mRNA levels increased within 5 days, whereas iNOS was increased only after 10 fractions of irradiation had been given. Increased levels of Arg-I, COX-2, and, to a lesser extent, iNOS protein were found to associate with TAMs 1-2 weeks after tumor irradiation. Function of TAMs were compared by mixing them with TRAMP-C1 cells and injecting them into mice; TRAMP-C1 cells mixed with TAMs from irradiated tumors appeared earlier and grew significantly faster than those mixed with TAMs from unirradiated tumors or TRAMP-C1 alone. Conclusions: Tumor-associated macrophages in the postirradiated tumor microenvironment express higher levels of Arg-1, COX-2, and iNOS, and promote early tumor growth in vivo.

Tsai, C.-S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Chen, F.-H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Jung, Shih-Ming [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Wu, C.-J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Lee, C.-C. [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roy E. Coats Laboratories, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chiang, C.-S. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Hong, J.-H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China) and Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw

2007-06-01

322

Influence of Anti-Mouse Interferon Serum on the Growth and Metastasis of Tumor Cells Persistently Infected with Virus and of Human Prostatic Tumors in Athymic Nude Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baby hamster kidney or HeLa cells form tumors in 100% of athymic nude mice. When such cells are persistently infected (PI) with RNA viruses, such as mumps or measles virus, the tumor cells either fail to grow or form circumscribed benign nodules. Neither the parental nor the virus PI tumor cells form invasive or metastatic lesions in nude mice. Previous studies have indicated a correlation between the susceptibility of virus-PI tumor cells in vitro and the cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and their failure to grow in vivo. Because interferon (IF) is the principal regulatory molecule governing the differentiation of NK cells, it was possible to test the relevance of the IF--NK cell system in vivo to restriction of tumor growth by treatment of nude mice with anti-IF globulin. This treatment was shown to reduce both IF production and NK activity in spleen cells. Both parental and virus-PI tumor cells grew and formed larger tumors in nude mice treated with anti-IF globulin than in control nude mice. The viral-PI tumor cells and the uninfected parental cells formed tumors in treated mice that were highly invasive and often metastatic. Some human tumor types have been notoriously difficult to establish as tumor lines in nude mice (e.g., primary human prostatic carcinomas). When transplanted into nude mice treated either with anti-IF globulin or anti-lymphocyte serum, two prostatic carcinomas grew and produced neoplasms with local invasiveness and some metastases. The results are consistent with the view that interferon may be important in restricting the growth, invasiveness, and metastases of tumor cells by acting indirectly through components of the immune system, such as NK cells.

Reid, Lola M.; Minato, Nagahiro; Gresser, Ion; Holland, John; Kadish, Anna; Bloom, Barry R.

1981-02-01

323

tRNAPhe and tRNAPro are the near-ultraviolet molecular targets triggering the growth delay effect  

SciTech Connect

The illumination of Escherichia coli cells with UVA light, 320 nm less than or equal to lambda less than or equal to 380 nm, triggers a transient growth and division delay. The built-in 4-thiouridine chromophore which absorbs light at 340 nm leads to the quantitative 8-13 crosslinking of a number of tRNA species corresponding to 50% of the bulk tRNA molecules. Determination of the tRNA acylation level by the various aminoacids shows that only the tRNA species acylated by Phe and Pro are strikingly affected in vivo. Both acylation levels decrease to less than 10% of their initial value during the illumination period, remain stable all along the growth lag and increase concomitantly with cell mass when growth resumes. Hence tRNA(Phe) and tRNA(Pro) are the UVA light molecular targets triggering growth delay and related effects of biological significance such as cell volume reduction, photoprotection and protection against UV mutagenesis (antiphotomutagenesis).

Blondel, M.O.; Favre, A.

1988-02-15

324

Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. PMID:22841774

Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

2012-01-01

325

Fully human antibodies to MCAM/MUC18 inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of human melanoma.  

PubMed

MCAM/MUC18 expression correlates with tumor thickness and metastatic potential of human melanoma cells in nude mice. Moreover, ectopic expression of MUC18 in primary cutaneous melanoma cells leads to increased tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Here we tested the effect of a fully human anti-MUC18 antibody, ABX-MA1, on angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. ABX-MA1 had no effect on melanoma cell proliferation rate in vitro. However, when cells of the metastatic melanoma lines A375SM and WM2664 (which express high levels of MUC18) were injected s.c. into nude mice and treated with ABX-MA1 (100 micro g, weekly, i.p. for 5 weeks), tumor growth was significantly inhibited compared with control IgG-treated mice. ABX-MA1 treatment also suppressed experimental lung metastasis of these melanoma cells. ABX-MA1 disrupted spheroid formation by melanoma cells expressing MUC18 (homotypic interaction) and the ability of these cells to attach to human vascular endothelial cells [HUVECs (MUC18 positive)] in vitro. ABX-MA1 treatment of melanoma cells in vitro significantly inhibited the promoter and collagenase activity of matrix metalloproteinase 2, resulting in decreased invasion through Matrigel-coated filters. Decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 was also observed in the implanted tumors in vivo. Moreover, because HUVECs also express MUC18, ABX-MA1 directly disrupted the tube-like formation by HUVECs in an in vitro vessel formation assay. Collectively, these results point to usefulness of ABX-MA1 as a modality to treat melanoma either alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy or other antitumor agents. PMID:12208768

Mills, Lisa; Tellez, Carmen; Huang, Suyun; Baker, Cheryl; McCarty, Marya; Green, Larry; Gudas, Jean M; Feng, X; Bar-Eli, Menashe

2002-09-01

326

Recombinant TIMP-1-GPI inhibits growth of fibrosarcoma and enhances tumor sensitivity to doxorubicin.  

PubMed

Fibrosarcomas show a high incidence of recurrence and general resistance to apoptosis. Limiting tumor regrowth and increasing their sensitivity to chemotherapy and apoptosis represent key issues in developing more effective treatments of these tumors. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) broadly blocks matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and can moderate tumor growth and metastasis. We previously described generation of a recombinant fusion protein linking TIMP-1 to glycosylphophatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (TIMP-1-GPI) that efficiently directs the inhibitor to cell surfaces. In the present report, we examined the effect of TIMP-1-GPI treatment on fibrosarcoma biology. Exogenously applied TIMP-1-GPI efficiently incorporated into surface membranes of human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. It inhibited their proliferation, migration, suppressed cancer cell clone formation, and enhanced apoptosis. Doxorubicin, the standard chemotherapeutic drug for fibrosarcoma, was tested alone or in combination with TIMP-1-GPI. In parallel, the influence of treatment on HT1080 side population cells (exhibiting tumor stem cell-like characteristics) was investigated using Hoechst 33342 staining. The sequential combination of TIMP-1-GPI and doxorubicin showed more than additive effects on apoptosis, while TIMP-1-GPI treatment alone effectively decreased "stem-cell like" side population cells of HT1080. TIMP-1-GPI treatment was validated using HT1080 fibrosarcoma murine xenografts. Growing tumors treated with repeated local injections of TIMP-1-GPI showed dramatically inhibited fibrosarcoma growth and reduced angiogenesis. Intraoperative peritumoral application of GPI-anchored TIMP-1 as an adjuvant to surgery may help maintain tumor control by targeting microscopic residual fibrosarcoma cells and increasing their sensitivity to chemotherapy. PMID:23934106

Bao, Q; Niess, H; Djafarzadeh, R; Zhao, Y; Schwarz, B; Angele, M K; Jauch, K-W; Nelson, P J; Bruns, C J

2014-09-01

327

A Synthetic Manassantin A Derivative Inhibits Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 and Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The dineolignan manassantin A from Saururaceae was recently identified as a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitor, but its in-vivo anti-tumor effect has not been explored. We synthesized a series of manassantin A derivatives, and found that replacing the central tetrahydrofuran moiety with a cyclopentane ring yielded a compound (LXY6006) with increased HIF-1-inhibitory activity yet decreased stereochemically complexity amenable to a simplified synthesis scheme. LXY6006 inhibited HIF-1? nuclear accumulation induced by hypoxia, and inhibited cancer cell growth as a consequence of G2/M arrest. Oral administration of LXY6006 significantly inhibited growth of breast, lung, and pancreatic tumors implanted in nude mice. These results indicate that LXY6006 represents a novel class of agents targeting a broad range of human cancers. PMID:24925080

Li, Yan; Zhou, Qing; Xie, Ping; Yan, Chunhong; Chen, Xiaoguang

2014-01-01

328

Metastasis Suppressor Genes: At the Interface Between the Environment and Tumor Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms and genetic programs required for cancer metastasis are sometimes overlapping, but components are clearly distinct from those promoting growth of a primary tumor. Every sequential, rate-limiting step in the sequence of events leading to metastasis requires coordinated expression of multiple genes, necessary signaling events, and favorable environmental conditions or the ability to escape negative selection pressures. Metastasis suppressors are molecules that inhibit the process of metastasis without preventing growth of the primary tumor. The cellular processes regulated by metastasis suppressors are diverse and function at every step in the metastatic cascade. As we gain knowledge into the molecular mechanisms of metastasis suppressors and cofactors with which they interact, we learn more about the process, including appreciation that some are potential targets for therapy of metastasis, the most lethal aspect of cancer. Until now, metastasis suppressors have been described largely by their function. With greater appreciation of their biochemical mechanisms of action, the importance of context is increasingly recognized especially since tumor cells exist in myriad microenvironments. In this review, we assemble the evidence that selected molecules are indeed suppressors of metastasis, collate the data defining the biochemical mechanisms of action, and glean insights regarding how metastasis suppressors regulate tumor cell communication to–from microenvironments. PMID:21199781

Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.

2013-01-01

329

Mathematical Modeling Shows Individual Mutations Are Slow to Promote Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

Individual cancer-causing mutations have a minute effect on tumor growth, generating a selective growth advantage of just 0.4 percent on average, according to new mathematical modeling by scientists at Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, and other institutions. This research, which was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reinforces the idea that cancer is the culmination of many accumulated mutations. It also highlights the fundamental heterogeneity and randomness of many cancers, consistent with the observations of epidemiologists and clinicians.

330

Human Prostate Tumor Growth in Athymic Mice: Inhibition by Androgens and Stimulation by Finasteride  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP 104-S, the growth of which is stimulated by physiological levels of androgen, is cultured in androgen-depleted medium for >100 passages, the cells, now called LNCaP 104-R2, are proliferatively repressed by low concentrations of androgens. LNCaP 104-R2 cells formed tumors in castrated male athymic nude mice. Testosterone propionate (TP) treatment prevented LNCaP 104-R2

Yoshihisa Umekita; Richard A. Hiipakka; John M. Kokontis; Shutsung Liao

1996-01-01

331

Tumor Promoters Induce Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Gene Expression in Human Dermal Fibroblasta1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown previously to either induce or repress the expression of numerous cellular genes, and this property is likely to be important for the in vitro and in vivo biological effects of these compounds. In this report, we demonstrate that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces the accumulation of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA and protein in human

Jeffrey A. Winkles; Kimberly A. Peifley; Robert E. Friesel

1992-01-01

332

Escape from Transforming Growth Factor beta Control and Oncogene Cooperation in Skin Tumor Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of tumor development by surrounding normal cells has been suggested by a number of in vitro studies. In vivo, tumorigenicity of ras-transformed primary keratinocytes can be suppressed by addition of normal dermal fibroblasts. Here, we report that dermal fibroblasts produce a diffusible inhibitory factor belonging to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family and possibly corresponding to TGF-beta3. This

Caterina Missero; Santiago Ramon Y. Cajal; G. Paolo Dotto

1991-01-01

333

Epidermal growth factor receptor domain II, IV, and kinase domain mutations in human solid tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations that may predict response to adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP)-mimetic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors occur in the EGFR kinase domain in lung adenocarcinomas and bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BACs). Data on the frequency of EGFR mutations are sparse in other human tumors. Apart from the deletion mutant EGFRvIII, little is known about the frequency of mutations that encode for the EGFR

Harri Sihto; Marjut Puputti; Laura Pulli; Olli Tynninen; Walter Koskinen; Leena-Maija Aaltonen; Minna Tanner; Tom Böhling; Tapio Visakorpi; Ralf Bützow; Aija Knuuttila; Nina N. Nupponen; Heikki Joensuu

2005-01-01

334

Control of solid tumor growth in mice using EGF receptor targeted RNA replicase-based plasmid DNA  

PubMed Central

Previously, it was shown that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with an RNA replicase-based plasmid that produces double-stranded RNA when transfected into tumor cells significantly inhibited the tumor growth. In the present study, the feasibility of further improving the anti-tumor activity of the RNA replicase-based plasmid by targeting it into tumors cells was evaluated. An epidermal growth factor (EGF)-conjugated, PEGylated cationic liposome was developed to deliver the RNA replicase-based plasmid, pSIN-?, into EGFR-over-expressing human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-468) in vitro and in vivo. Delivery of the pSIN-? using the EGF receptor-targeted liposome more effectively controlled the growth of MDA-MB-468 tumors (and human epidermoid carcinoma A431 tumors) in mice than using un-targeted liposome. The pSIN-? carried by the EGFR-targeted liposome caused the complete regression of MDA-MB-468 tumors in mice, likely due to the enhancement of its pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic activities. Tumor-targeted RNA replicase-based plasmid holds a strong potential in tumor therapy. PMID:22296186

Rodriguez, B. Leticia; Li, Xinran; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John; Unger, Evan C.; Cui, Zhengrong

2012-01-01

335

Cetuximab inhibits the growth of mucinous ovarian carcinoma tumor cells lacking KRAS gene mutations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of targeted molecular therapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) antibody (cetuximab) for the treatment of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. We analyzed EGFR protein expression and KRAS gene mutations in 5 mucinous ovarian carcinoma cell lines RMUG-L, RMUG-S, MN-1, OMC-1 and MCAS and evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of cetuximab on each. EGFR expression was observed in all cell lines except for MN-1 cells, and a KRAS gene mutation at codon 12 was detected only in the MCAS cell line. Cetuximab inhibited RMUG-L and OMC-1 cell growth in vitro and completely blocked RMUG-L tumor growth in vivo. On the other hand, cetuximab did not affect MCAS cell growth in vitro and only partially reduced the MCAS tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest the possibility of targeted molecular therapy with cetuximab for mucinous ovarian carcinoma cells lacking a KRAS gene mutation. PMID:22246397

Sato, Naoto; Saga, Yasushi; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Wang, Dongdong; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Takei, Yuji; Machida, Shizuo; Ozawa, Keiya; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

2012-05-01

336

IKK? protein is a target of BAG3 regulatory activity in human tumor growth  

PubMed Central

BAG3, a member of the BAG family of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 cochaperones, is expressed in response to stressful stimuli in a number of normal cell types and constitutively in a variety of tumors, including pancreas carcinomas, lymphocytic and myeloblastic leukemias, and thyroid carcinomas. Down-regulation of BAG3 results in cell death, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of BAG3-dependent survival in human osteosarcoma (SAOS-2) and melanoma (M14) cells. We show that bag3 overexpression in tumors promotes survival through the NF-?B pathway. Indeed, we demonstrate that BAG3 alters the interaction between HSP70 and IKK?, increasing availability of IKK? and protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation; this, in turn, results in increased NF-?B activity and survival. These results identify bag3 as a potential target for anticancer therapies in those tumors in which this gene is constitutively expressed. As a proof of principle, we show that treatment of a mouse xenograft tumor model with bag3siRNA-adenovirus that down-regulates bag3 results in reduced tumor growth and increased animal survival. PMID:20368414

Ammirante, Massimo; Rosati, Alessandra; Arra, Claudio; Basile, Anna; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michela; Pascale, Maria; d'Avenia, Morena; Marzullo, Liberato; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; De Marco, Margot; Barbieri, Antonio; Giudice, Aldo; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Vuttariello, Emilia; Monaco, Mario; Bonelli, Patrizia; Salvatore, Gaetano; Di Benedetto, Maria; Deshmane, Satish L.; Khalili, Kamel; Turco, Maria Caterina; Leone, Arturo

2010-01-01

337

Oridonin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Anti-Angiogenesis by Blocking the Notch Signaling  

PubMed Central

While significant progress has been made in understanding the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of the natural diterpenoid component Oridonin on tumor cells, little is known about its effect on tumor angiogenesis or metastasis and on the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, Oridonin significantly suppressed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation, migration, and apillary-like structure formation in vitro. Using aortic ring assay and mouse corneal angiogenesis model, we found that Oridonin inhibited angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo. In our animal experiments, Oridonin impeded tumor growth and metastasis. Immunohistochemistry analysis further revealed that the expression of CD31 and vWF protein in xenografts was remarkably decreased by the Oridonin. Furthermore, Oridonin reinforced endothelial cell-cell junction and impaired breast cancer cell transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, Oridonin not only down-regulated Jagged2 expression and Notch1 activity but also decreased the expression of their target genes. In conclusion, our results demonstrated an original role of Oridonin in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and propose a mechanism. This study also provides new evidence supporting the central role of Notch in tumor angiogenesis and suggests that Oridonin could be a potential drug candidate for angiogenesis related diseases. PMID:25485753

Li, Jingjie; Deng, Huayun; Song, Yajuan; Zhai, Dong; Peng, Yi; Lu, Xiaoling; Liu, Mingyao; Zhao, Yongxiang; Yi, Zhengfang

2014-01-01

338

Glucagon-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth through the HIF-1-VEGF-dependent pathway in hyperglycemic nude mice.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effect glucagon-induced hyperglycemia on tumor growth as well as the role of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway in this condition. A high concentration of glucose (HG) was utilized to treat HeLa cells under hypoxic or normoxic conditions, and transcriptional levels of HIF-1, VEGF, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were evaluated. Moreover, the ability of an HIF-1 inhibitor to block the effect induced by HG was examined. By contrast, hyperglycemia was induced in nude mice by glucagon released from an osmotic pump, and microvessel density was determined with CD31 staining. Thus, the relationship among hyperglycemia, microvessel density, tumor growth, and the HIF-1 inhibitor were analyzed. We found that HG increased transcription of the VEGF gene, which is downstream of HIF-1. Moreover, HG impaired the function of HIF-1 inhibitors [HIF-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and berberine] to affect the VEGF transcription level in tumor cells. By contrast, hyperglycemia increased tumor microvessel density and promoted tumor growth, which was inhibited by the HIF-1 inhibitor. However, hyperglycemia attenuated the effect of the HIF-1 inhibitor. Glucagon-induced hyperglycemia influenced tumor microenvironments through the HIF-1-VEGF-dependent pathway and promoted tumor growth and resistance to HIF-1 inhibition treatments. PMID:25222223

Wang, Y; Zhu, Y D; Gui, Q; Wang, X D; Zhu, Y X

2014-01-01

339

Bayesian calibration, validation, and uncertainty quantification of diffuse interface models of tumor growth.  

PubMed

The idea that one can possibly develop computational models that predict the emergence, growth, or decline of tumors in living tissue is enormously intriguing as such predictions could revolutionize medicine and bring a new paradigm into the treatment and prevention of a class of the deadliest maladies affecting humankind. But at the heart of this subject is the notion of predictability itself, the ambiguity involved in selecting and implementing effective models, and the acquisition of relevant data, all factors that contribute to the difficulty of predicting such complex events as tumor growth with quantifiable uncertainty. In this work, we attempt to lay out a framework, based on Bayesian probability, for systematically addressing the questions of Validation, the process of investigating the accuracy with which a mathematical model is able to reproduce particular physical events, and Uncertainty quantification, developing measures of the degree of confidence with which a computer model predicts particular quantities of interest. For illustrative purposes, we exercise the process using virtual data for models of tumor growth based on diffuse-interface theories of mixtures utilizing virtual data. PMID:23053536

Hawkins-Daarud, Andrea; Prudhomme, Serge; van der Zee, Kristoffer G; Oden, J Tinsley

2013-12-01

340

Stimulation of MC38 tumor growth by insulin analog X10 involves the serine synthesis pathway.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that type II diabetes is associated with increased risk and/or aggressive behavior of several cancers, including those arising from the colon. Concerns have been raised that endogenous hyperinsulinemia and/or exogenous insulin and insulin analogs might stimulate proliferation of neoplastic cells. However, the mechanisms underlying possible growth-promoting effects of insulin and insulin analogs in cancer cells in vivo, such as changes in gene expression, are incompletely described. We observed that administration of the insulin analog X10 significantly increased tumor growth and proliferation in a murine colon cancer model (MC38 cell allografts). Insulin and X10 altered gene expression in MC38 tumors in a similar fashion, but X10 was more potent in terms of the number of genes influenced and the magnitude of changes in gene expression. Many of the affected genes were annotated to metabolism, nutrient uptake, and protein synthesis. Strikingly, expression of genes encoding enzymes in the serine synthesis pathway, recently shown to be critical for neoplastic proliferation, was increased following treatment with insulin and X10. Using stable isotopic tracers and mass spectrometry, we confirmed that insulin and X10 increased glucose contribution to serine synthesis in MC38 cells. The data demonstrate that the tumor growth-promoting effects of insulin and X10 are associated with changes in expression of genes involved in cellular energy metabolism and reveal previously unrecognized effects of insulin and X10 on serine synthesis. PMID:22685267

Hvid, Henning; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Blouin, Marie-José; Birman, Elena; Voisin, Gregory; Svendsen, Angela Manegold; Frank, Russell; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Hansen, Bo Falck; Pollak, Michael

2012-08-01

341

Systemic Platelet-activating Factor Receptor Activation Augments Experimental Lung Tumor Growth and Metastasis.  

PubMed

Pro-oxidative stressors including cigarette smoke (CS) generate novel lipids with platelet-activated factor-receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity mediate systemic immunosuppression, one of the most recognized events in promoting carcinogenesis. Our previous studies have established that these oxidized-PAF-R-agonists augment murine B16F10 melanoma tumor growth in a PAF-R-dependent manner because of its effects on host immunity. As CS generates PAF-R agonists, the current studies sought to determine the impact of PAF-R agonists on lung cancer growth and metastasis. Using the murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC1) model, we demonstrate that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a PAF-R agonist augments tumor growth and lung metastasis in a PAF-R-dependent manner as these findings were not seen in PAF-R-deficient mice. Importantly, this effect was because of host rather than tumor cells PAF-R dependent as LLC1 cells do not express functional PAF-R. These findings indicate that experimental lung cancer progression can be modulated by the PAF system. PMID:25002816

Hackler, Patrick C; Reuss, Sarah; Konger, Raymond L; Travers, Jeffrey B; Sahu, Ravi P

2014-01-01

342

Systemic Platelet-activating Factor Receptor Activation Augments Experimental Lung Tumor Growth and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Pro-oxidative stressors including cigarette smoke (CS) generate novel lipids with platelet-activated factor-receptor (PAF-R) agonistic activity mediate systemic immunosuppression, one of the most recognized events in promoting carcinogenesis. Our previous studies have established that these oxidized-PAF-R-agonists augment murine B16F10 melanoma tumor growth in a PAF-R-dependent manner because of its effects on host immunity. As CS generates PAF-R agonists, the current studies sought to determine the impact of PAF-R agonists on lung cancer growth and metastasis. Using the murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC1) model, we demonstrate that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a PAF-R agonist augments tumor growth and lung metastasis in a PAF-R-dependent manner as these findings were not seen in PAF-R-deficient mice. Importantly, this effect was because of host rather than tumor cells PAF-R dependent as LLC1 cells do not express functional PAF-R. These findings indicate that experimental lung cancer progression can be modulated by the PAF system. PMID:25002816

Hackler, Patrick C; Reuss, Sarah; Konger, Raymond L; Travers, Jeffrey B; Sahu, Ravi P

2014-01-01

343

Suppression of Tumor Growth by Pleurotus ferulae Ethanol Extract through Induction of Cell Apoptosis, and Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration  

PubMed Central

Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Edible medicinal mushrooms have been used in traditional medicine as regimes for cancer patients. Recently anti-cancer bioactive components from some mushrooms have been isolated and their anti-cancer effects have been tested. Pleurotus ferulae, a typical edible medicinal mushroom in Xinjiang China, has also been used to treat cancer patients in folk medicine. However, little studies have been reported on the anti-cancer components of Pleurotus ferulae. This study aims to extract bioactive components from Pleurotus ferulae and to investigate the anti-cancer effects of the extracts. We used ethanol to extract anti-cancer bioactive components enriched with terpenoids from Pleurotus ferulae. We tested the anti-tumour effects of ethanol extracts on the melanoma cell line B16F10, the human gastric cancer cell line BGC 823 and the immortalized human gastric epithelial mucosa cell line GES-1 in vitro and a murine melanoma model in vivo. Cell toxicity and cell proliferation were measured by MTT assays. Cell cycle progression, apoptosis, caspase 3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), migration and gene expression were studied in vitro. PFEC suppressed tumor cell growth, inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cells at G0/G1 phases and was not toxic to non-cancer cells. PFEC also induced cell apoptosis and necrosis, increased caspase 3 activity, reduced the MMP, prevented cell invasion and changed the expression of genes associated with apoptosis and the cell cycle. PFEC delayed tumor formation and reduced tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, ethanol extracted components from Pleurotus ferulae exert anti-cancer effects through direct suppression of tumor cell growth and invasion, demonstrating its therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. PMID:25029345

Wang, Weilan; Chen, Kaixu; Liu, Qing; Johnston, Nathan; Ma, Zhenghai; Zhang, Fuchun; Zheng, Xiufen

2014-01-01

344

Gene expression of fibroblast growth factors in human gliomas and meningiomas: Demonstration of cellular source of basic fibroblast growth factor mRNA and peptide in tumor tissues  

SciTech Connect

The growth autonomy of human tumor cells is considered due to the endogenous production of growth factors. Transcriptional expression of candidates for autocrine stimulatory factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), acidic FGF, and transforming growth factor type {beta} were determined in human brain tumors. Basic FGF was expressed abundantly in 17 of 18 gliomas, 20 of 22 meningiomas, and 0 of 5 metastatic brain tumors. The level of mRNA expression of acidic FGF in gliomas was significant. In contrast, transforming growth factor type {beta}1 was expressed in all the samples investigated. The mRNA for basic FGF and its peptide were localized in tumor cells in vivo by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, showing that basic FGF is actually produced in tumor cells. The results suggest that tumor-derived basic FGF is involved in the progression of gliomas and meningiomas in vivo, whereas acidic FGF is expressed in a tumor origin-specific manner, suggesting that acidic FGF works in tandem with basic FGF in glioma tumorigenesis.

Takahashi, J.A.; Mori, Hirotaka; Fukumoto, Manabu; Oda, Yoshifumi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Hatanaka, Masakazu (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Igarashi, Koichi (Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Jaye, M. (Rorer Biotechnology, King of Prussia, PA (USA))

1990-08-01

345

Involvement of Gap Junctions in Tumorigenesis: Transfection of Tumor Cells with Connexin 32 cDNA Retards Growth In vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gap junction channels provide a pathway for exchange of ions and small molecules between coupled cells, and this exchange is believed to be critical for normal tissue growth and development. As a test for a role of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication in control of cell growth, we have compared growth rates of communication-deficient human tumor cells (SKHep1) with clones stably transfected with cDNA encoding the rat liver gap junction protein connexin 32. In culture, growth rates for parental and transfected clones were similar. However, when sizes of tumors were evaluated following injection of these clones into athymic nude mice, growth rates for two well-coupled clones were significantly lower than for communication-deficient or poorly coupled clones. This study demonstrates that growth rate of these tumor cells in situ is negatively correlated with strength of intercellular communication.

Eghbali, B.; Kessler, J. A.; Reid, L. M.; Roy, C.; Spray, D. C.

1991-12-01

346

Delayed Clostridium perfringens growth from a spore inocula by sodium lactate in sous-vide chicken products.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens growth from a spore inoculum was investigated in vacuum-packaged, cook-in-bag marinated chicken breast that included 0%, 1.5%, 3%, or 4.8% sodium lactate (NaL; w/w). The packages were processed to an internal temperature of 71.1 degrees C, ice chilled and stored at 4, 19, and 25 degrees C. The total C. perfringens population was determined by plating diluted samples on Tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar followed by anaerobic incubation for 48 h at 37 degrees C. At 25 degrees C, addition of 1.5% NaL was effective in delaying growth for 29 h. Increasing the NaL level to 4.8%, C. perfringens growth from a spore inoculum during storage at 25 degrees C for 480 h was not observed. At 19 degrees C, the growth was > 6 log 10 cfu/g by 288 h in control samples. In samples with 3.0% or 4.8% NaL, the growth of C. perfringens from spores was dramatically restricted with little or no growth in 648 h at 19 degrees C. C. perfringens growth was not observed at 4 degrees C regardless of NaL concentration. The D-values at 55 degrees C ranged from 47.40 (no NaL) to 57.58 min (1.5% NaL). Cyclic and static temperature abuse of refrigerated products for 20 h did not permit C. perfringens growth. However, temperature abuse of products for periods 24 h or longer in the absence of NaL led to growth of C. perfringens from a spore inoculum. An extra degree of safety may be assured in such products by supplementation with NaL at 1.5-4.8% NaL level. PMID:16942993

Juneja, Vijay K

2006-04-01

347

Restoring physiological levels of ascorbate slows tumor growth and moderates HIF-1 pathway activity in Gulo(-/-) mice.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) governs cellular adaption to the hypoxic microenvironment and is associated with a proliferative, metastatic, and treatment-resistant tumor phenotype. HIF-1 levels and transcriptional activity are regulated by proline and asparagine hydroxylases, which require ascorbate as cofactor. Ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF-1 activation in vitro, but only limited data are available in relevant animal models. There is no information of the effect of physiological levels of ascorbate on HIF activity and tumor growth, which was measured in this study. C57BL/6 Gulo(-/-) mice (a model of the human ascorbate dependency condition) were supplemented with 3300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L of ascorbate in their drinking water before and during subcutaneous tumor growth of B16-F10 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/2). Ascorbate levels in tumors increased significantly with elevated ascorbate intake and restoration of wild-type ascorbate levels led to a reduction in growth of B16-F10 (log phase P < 0.001) and LL/2 tumors (lag growth P < 0.001, log phase P < 0.05). Levels of HIF-1? protein in tumors decreased as dietary ascorbate supplementation increased for both tumor models (P < 0.001). Similarly, tumor ascorbate was inversely correlated with levels of the HIF-1 target proteins CA-IX, GLUT-1, and VEGF in both B16-F10 and LL/2 tumors (P < 0.05). The extent of necrosis was similar between ascorbate groups but varied between models (30% for B16-F10 and 21% for LL/2), indicating that ascorbate did not affect tumor hypoxia. Our data support the hypothesis that restoration of optimal intracellular ascorbate levels reduces tumor growth via moderation of HIF-1 pathway activity. PMID:25354695

Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet C M; Bozonet, Stephanie; Dyer, Arron; Robinson, Bridget A; Dachs, Gabi U

2014-10-30

348

Restoring physiological levels of ascorbate slows tumor growth and moderates HIF-1 pathway activity in Gulo?/? mice  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) governs cellular adaption to the hypoxic microenvironment and is associated with a proliferative, metastatic, and treatment-resistant tumor phenotype. HIF-1 levels and transcriptional activity are regulated by proline and asparagine hydroxylases, which require ascorbate as cofactor. Ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF-1 activation in vitro, but only limited data are available in relevant animal models. There is no information of the effect of physiological levels of ascorbate on HIF activity and tumor growth, which was measured in this study. C57BL/6 Gulo?/? mice (a model of the human ascorbate dependency condition) were supplemented with 3300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L of ascorbate in their drinking water before and during subcutaneous tumor growth of B16-F10 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/2). Ascorbate levels in tumors increased significantly with elevated ascorbate intake and restoration of wild-type ascorbate levels led to a reduction in growth of B16-F10 (log phase P < 0.001) and LL/2 tumors (lag growth P < 0.001, log phase P < 0.05). Levels of HIF-1? protein in tumors decreased as dietary ascorbate supplementation increased for both tumor models (P < 0.001). Similarly, tumor ascorbate was inversely correlated with levels of the HIF-1 target proteins CA-IX, GLUT-1, and VEGF in both B16-F10 and LL/2 tumors (P < 0.05). The extent of necrosis was similar between ascorbate groups but varied between models (30% for B16-F10 and 21% for LL/2), indicating that ascorbate did not affect tumor hypoxia. Our data support the hypothesis that restoration of optimal intracellular ascorbate levels reduces tumor growth via moderation of HIF-1 pathway activity. PMID:25354695

Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet C M; Bozonet, Stephanie; Dyer, Arron; Robinson, Bridget A; Dachs, Gabi U

2015-01-01

349

Inhibition of Tumor Growth and Metastasis by a Combination of Escherichia coli–mediated Cytolytic Therapy and Radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reported that Escherichia coli K-12 colonizes hypoxic and necrotic tumor regions after intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice. In this study, we established a novel strategy for cancer therapy using engineered bacteria to enhance the therapeutic effects of radiation. E. coli strain K-12 was engineered to produce cytolysin A (ClyA), and its effects on tumor growth in primary and

Sheng-Nan Jiang; Thuy X Phan; Taek-Keun Nam; Vu H Nguyen; Hyung-Seok Kim; Hee-Seung Bom; Hyon E Choy; Yeongjin Hong; Jung-Joon Min

2010-01-01

350

Endothelial Function of von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Gene: Control of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease results from germline and somatic mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene and is characterized by highly vascularized tumors. VHL mutations lead to stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF),which up-regulates proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothe- lial growth factor (VEGF). This pathway is therefore believed to underlie the hypervascular phenotypes of the VHL tumors. However,recent studies have

Kristen J. Champion; Maria Guinea; Vincent Dammai; Tien Hsu

2008-01-01

351

Changes in the Activation and Reconstitution of Lymphocytes Resulting from Total-Body Irradiation Correlate with Slowed Tumor Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in cytokine secretion, activation marker expression, and immune cell concentrations were investigated at sequential time points following delivery of total-body irradiation (TBI) to C57BL\\/6 mice (n = 64) in the Lewis lung tumor model. Significantly slower tumor growth was observed when a 3-Gy dose of TBI was administered 2 h prior to tumor implantation (p < 0.05). The antitumor

Glen M. Miller; Dong W. Kim; Melba L. Andres; Lora M. Green; Daila S. Gridley

2003-01-01

352

Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors in Combination with Local OK-432 Injection Prolongs Survival and Suppresses Distant Tumor Growth in the Rabbit Model with Intra- and Extrahepatic VX2 Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate survival and distant tumor growth after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and local OK-432 injection at a single tumor site in a rabbit model with intra- and extrahepatic VX2 tumors and to examine the effect of this combination therapy, which we termed immuno-radiofrequency ablation (immunoRFA), on systemic antitumor immunity in a rechallenge test. Methods: Our institutional animal care committee approved all experiments. VX2 tumors were implanted to three sites: two in the liver and one in the left ear. Rabbits were randomized into four groups of seven to receive control, RFA alone, OK-432 alone, and immunoRFA treatments at a single liver tumor at 1 week after implantation. Untreated liver and ear tumor volumes were measured after the treatment. As the rechallenge test, tumors were reimplanted into the right ear of rabbits, which survived the 35 weeks and were followed up without additional treatment. Statistical significance was examined by log-rank test for survival and Student's t test for tumor volume. Results: Survival was significantly prolonged in the immunoRFA group compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Untreated liver and ear tumor sizes became significantly smaller after immunoRFA compared to controls (P < 0.05). In the rechallenge test, the reimplanted tumors regressed without further therapy compared to the ear tumors of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ImmunoRFA led to improved survival and suppression of distant untreated tumor growth. Decreases in size of the distant untreated tumors and reimplanted tumors suggested that systemic antitumor immunity was enhanced by immunoRFA.

Kageyama, Ken, E-mail: kageyamaken0112@gmail.com; Yamamoto, Akira, E-mail: loveakirayamamoto@gmail.com; Okuma, Tomohisa, E-mail: o-kuma@msic.med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Hamamoto, Shinichi, E-mail: hamashin_tigers1975@yahoo.co.jp; Takeshita, Toru, E-mail: takeshita3595@view.ocn.ne.jp; Sakai, Yukimasa, E-mail: sakaiy@trust.ocn.ne.jp; Nishida, Norifumi, E-mail: norifumin@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tmatsuoka@msic.med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Miki, Yukio, E-mail: yukio.miki@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Osaka City University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)] [Osaka City University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

2013-10-15

353

Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

2008-01-01

354

NIH study finds low-dose nicotine does not promote tumor growth in mouse models of lung cancer:  

Cancer.gov

Experiments in mice show that low levels of exposure to nicotine, equivalent to those in humans who use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to help them quit smoking, did not promote lung tumor growth.

355

MicroRNA-340 suppresses osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis by directly targeting ROCK1  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •miR-340 is downregulated in OS cell lines and tissues. •miR-340 suppresses OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. •miR-340 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of OS cells in nude mice. •ROCK1 is a target gene of miR-340. •ROCK1 is involved in miR-340-induced suppression of OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in cancer development and progression. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-340 in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS). Our results showed that miR-340 was frequently downregulated in OS tumors and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-340 in OS cell lines significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth and metastasis in a xenograft mouse model. ROCK1 was identified as a target of miR-340, and ectopic expression of miR-340 downregulated ROCK1 by direct binding to its 3? untranslated region. siRNA-mediated silencing of ROCK1 phenocopied the effects of miR-340 overexpression, whereas restoration of ROCK1 in miR-340-overexpressing OS cells reversed the suppressive effects of miR-340. Together, these findings indicate that miR-340 acts as a tumor suppressor and its downregulation in tumor tissues may contribute to the progression and metastasis of OS through a mechanism involving ROCK1, suggesting miR-340 as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target for the treatment of OS.

Zhou, Xin; Wei, Min; Wang, Wei, E-mail: rjwangwei@126.com

2013-08-09

356

Glipizide, an antidiabetic drug, suppresses tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is involved in the development, progression and metastasis of various human cancers. Herein, we report the discovery of glipizide, a widely used drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus, as a promising anticancer agent through the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. By high-throughput screening (HTS) of an FDA approved drug library utilizing our in vivo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and yolk sac membrane (YSM) models, glipizide has been identified to significantly inhibit blood vessel formation and development. Moreover, glipizide was found to suppress tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis using xenograft tumor and MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse models. We further revealed that the anticancer capability of glipizide is not attributed to its antiproliferative effects, which are not significant against various human cancer cell lines. To investigate whether its anticancer efficacy is associated with the glucose level alteration induced by glipizide application, glimepiride, another medium to long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug in the same class, was employed for the comparison studies in the same fashion. Interestingly, glimepiride has demonstrated no significant impact on the tumor growth and metastasis, indicating that the anticancer effects of glipizide is not ascribed to its antidiabetic properties. Furthermore, glipizide suppresses endothelial cell migration and the formation of tubular structures, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis by up-regulating the expression of natriuretic peptide receptor A. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of glipizide as a potential cancer therapy, and also for the first time, provide direct evidence to support that treatment with glipizide may reduce the cancer risk for diabetic patients. PMID:25294818

Qi, Cuiling; Zhou, Qin; Li, Bin; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liu; Ye, Yuxiang; Li, Jiangchao; Ding, Yi; Wang, Huiping; Wang, Jintao; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Li, Weidong; Song, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jia; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Lijing

2014-10-30

357

Long-term survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy by decreasing incidence of tumor recurrence without delaying relapse in stage III colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds and aims  To elucidate the survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy by decreasing incidence or by delaying time of tumor recurrence,\\u000a we reported the long-term results of a nonrandomized prospective study comparing the adjuvant chemotherapy to no chemotherapy\\u000a in stage III colorectal cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients  From 1991 to 1995, 463 patients with stage III colorectal cancer were divided to three groups which were

Wen-Sy Tsai; Pao-Shiu Hsieh; Chien-Yuh Yeh; Jy-Ming Chiang; Reiping Tang; Jinn-Shiun Chen; Chung Rong Changchien; Jeng Yi Wang

358

MicroRNA-155 deficiency enhances the recruitment and functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumor microenvironment and promotes solid tumor growth.  

PubMed

Immune cells in tumor microenvironment play a prominent role in tumor progression and metastasis. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) represents an important player in innate and adaptive immunity by regulating differentiation, maturation and activation of macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and T cells. However, the role of miR-155 expression in immune cells in solid tumor development is less elucidated. Our current study showed that both B16-F10 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma tumors grew much faster in bic/miR-155 knockout (miR-155(-/-) ) mice along with an increase of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulation in tumors, compared to that in wild-type mice. Bone marrow transplantation study showed that bone marrow miR-155 deficiency could replicate the above tumor-promoting phenotype. In vitro study demonstrated that tumor-infiltrating miR-155(-/-) MDSCs showed greater migration ability and expressed higher level of multiple chemokines. Furthermore, we found that the level of HIF-1?, a direct target of miR-155, was increased in miR-155 deficient MDSCs, and that the increased HIF-1? upregulated CXCL1, CXCL3 and CXCL8 expression in MDSCs, contributing to the enhanced recruitment of miR-155(-/-) MDSCs to the tumors. Moreover, miR-155(-/-) MDSCs showed enhanced immunosuppressive and pro-angiogenic capacities. Taken together, our study, for the first time, demonstrated that miR-155 deficiency promoted solid tumor growth through increasing the recruitment of MDSCs to tumor microenvironment and enhancing the tumor-promoting functions of the recruited MDSCs. Thus, upregulating miR-155 expression in MDSCs may be developed as a therapeutic approach to halt tumor development. PMID:25143000

Wang, Junfeng; Yu, Fang; Jia, Xuemei; Iwanowycz, Stephen; Wang, Yuzhen; Huang, Shiang; Ai, Walden; Fan, Daping

2015-03-15

359

Prevention of in vivo lung tumor growth by prolonged local delivery of hydroxycamptothecin using poly(ester-carbonate)-collagen composites  

E-print Network

Prevention of in vivo lung tumor growth by prolonged local delivery of hydroxycamptothecin using February 2010 Available online 22 February 2010 Keywords: Prevention Lung tumors Recurrence Films Local treatment of most cancers, and this is especially true with lung cancer. Consequently, methods to deliver

360

Insulin-like growth factor receptor cooperates with integrin alpha v beta 5 to promote tumor cell dissemination in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Tumor cell interactions with adhesion proteins and growth factors likely contribute to the metastatic cascade. Evidence is provided that insulin or insulin-like growth factor-mediated signals cooperate with the commonly expressed integrin alpha v beta 5 to promote spontaneous pulmonary metastasis of multiple tumor cell types in both the chick embryo and severe combined immune deficiency mouse/human chimeric models. Expression of alpha v beta 5 in tumor cells promoted their adhesion to vitronectin in vitro. However, cell motility required cytokine stimulation, which caused redistribution of alpha-actinin to membrane-adhesive sites containing alpha v beta 5. Significantly, ligation of alpha v beta 5 and cytokine receptors were both required for spontaneous pulmonary metastasis of multiple tumor types even though it was not necessary for primary tumor growth. Thus, tumor cell metastasis can be regulated by a functional cooperation between cytokine signaling events and the adhesion receptor alpha v beta 5 in a manner independent of tumor cell growth. These findings provide evidence that integrin ligation, in conjunction with cytokine activation, plays an important role in the dissemination of malignant tumor cells. PMID:9077549

Brooks, P C; Klemke, R L; Schon, S; Lewis, J M; Schwartz, M A; Cheresh, D A

1997-01-01

361

Suppression of tumor growth by designed dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazine targeting hypoxia-inducible transcription factor complex.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid tumors, is associated with local invasion, metastatic spread, resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, and is an independent, negative prognostic factor for a diverse range of malignant neoplasms. The cellular response to hypoxia is primarily mediated by a family of transcription factors, among which hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) plays a major role. Under normoxia, the oxygen-sensitive ? subunit of HIF1 is rapidly and constitutively degraded but is stabilized and accumulates under hypoxia. Upon nuclear translocation, HIF1 controls the expression of over 100 genes involved in angiogenesis, altered energy metabolism, antiapoptotic, and pro-proliferative mechanisms that promote tumor growth. A designed transcriptional antagonist, dimeric epidithiodiketopiperazine (ETP 2), selectively disrupts the interaction of HIF1? with p300/CBP coactivators and downregulates the expression of hypoxia-inducible genes. ETP 2 was synthesized via a novel homo-oxidative coupling of the aliphatic primary carbons of the dithioacetal precursor. It effectively inhibits HIF1-induced activation of VEGFA, LOX, Glut1, and c-Met genes in a panel of cell lines representing breast and lung cancers. We observed an outstanding antitumor efficacy of both (±)-ETP 2 and meso-ETP 2 in a fully established breast carcinoma model by intravital microscopy. Treatment with either form of ETP 2 (1 mg/kg) resulted in a rapid regression of tumor growth that lasted for up to 14 days. These results suggest that inhibition of HIF1 transcriptional activity by designed dimeric ETPs could offer an innovative approach to cancer therapy with the potential to overcome hypoxia-induced tumor growth and resistance. PMID:23448368

Dubey, Ramin; Levin, Michael D; Szabo, Lajos Z; Laszlo, Csaba F; Kushal, Swati; Singh, Jason B; Oh, Philip; Schnitzer, Jan E; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z

2013-03-20

362

EFEMP1 suppresses malignant glioma growth and exerts its action within the tumor extracellular compartment  

PubMed Central

Purpose There are conflicting reports regarding the function of EFEMP1 in different cancer types. In this study, we sought to evaluate the role of EFEMP1 in malignant glioma biology. Experimental Design Real-time qRT-PCR was used to quantify EFEMP1 expression in 95 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Human high-grade glioma cell lines and primary cultures were engineered to express ectopic EFEMP1, a small hairpin RNA of EFEMP1, or treated with exogenous recombinant EFEMP1 protein. Following treatment, growth was assayed both in vitro and in vivo (subcutaneous (s.c.) and intracranial (i.c.) xenograft model systems). Results Cox regression revealed that EFEMP1 is a favorable prognostic marker for patients with GBM. Over-expression of EFEMP1 eliminated tumor development and suppressed angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and VEGFA expression, while the converse was true with knock-down of endogenous EFEMP1 expression. The EFEMP1 suppression of tumor onset time was nearly restored by ectopic VEGFA expression; however, overall tumor growth rate remained suppressed. This suggested that inhibition of angiogenesis was only partly responsible for EFEMP1's impact on glioma development. In glioma cells that were treated by exogenous EFEMP1 protein or over-expressed endogenous EFEMP1, the EGFR level was reduced and AKT signaling activity attenuated. Mixing of EFEMP1 protein with cells prior to s.c. and i.c. implantations or injection of the protein around the established s.c. xenografts, both significantly suppressed tumorigenicity. Conclusions Overall, our data reveals that EEFEMP1 suppresses glioma growth in vivo, both by modulating the tumor extracellular microenvironment and by altering critical intracellular oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:21955618

2011-01-01

363

Adjuvant cationic liposomes presenting MPL and IL-12 induce cell death, suppress tumor growth, and alter the cellular phenotype of tumors in a murine model of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DC) process and present antigens to T lymphocytes, inducing potent immune responses when encountered in association with activating signals, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Using the 4T1 murine model of breast cancer, cationic liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and interleukin (IL)-12 were administered by intratumoral injection. Combination multivalent presentation of the Toll-like receptor-4 ligand MPL and cytotoxic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trmethylammonium-propane lipids induced cell death, decreased cellular proliferation, and increased serum levels of IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. The addition of recombinant IL-12 further suppressed tumor growth and increased expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, and interferon-?. IL-12 also increased the percentage of cytolytic T cells, DC, and F4/80(+) macrophages in the tumor. While single agent therapy elevated levels of nitric oxide synthase 3-fold above basal levels in the tumor, combination therapy with MPL cationic liposomes and IL-12 stimulated a 7-fold increase, supporting the observed cell cycle arrest (loss of Ki-67 expression) and apoptosis (TUNEL positive). In mice bearing dual tumors, the growth of distal, untreated tumors mirrored that of liposome-treated tumors, supporting the presence of a systemic immune response. PMID:25179345

Meraz, Ismail M; Savage, David J; Segura-Ibarra, Victor; Li, Jeffrey; Rhudy, Jessica; Gu, Jianhua; Serda, Rita E

2014-10-01

364

Preparation of selenium-enriched Bifidobacterium longum and its effect on tumor growth and immune function of tumor-bearing mice.  

PubMed

In this study, we demonstrated selenium (Se) accumulation in Bifidobacterium longum strain (B. longum) and evaluated the effect of Se-enriched B. longum (Se-B. longum) on tumor growth and immune function in tumor-bearing mice. Analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) revealed that more than 99% of Se in Se-B. longum was organic, the main component of which was selenomethionine (SeMet). In the in vivo experiments, tumor-bearing mice (n=8) were orally administrated with different doses of Se-B. longum alone or combined with cyclophosphamide (CTX). The results showed that the middle and high dose of Se-B. longum significantly inhibited tumor growth. When Se-B. longum and CTX were combined, the antitumor effect was significantly enhanced and the survival time of tumor-bearing mice (n=12) was prolonged. Furthermore, compared with CTX alone, the combination of Se-B. longum and CTX stimulated the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, increasing the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and the leukocyte count of H22 tumor-bearing mice (n=12). PMID:24870777

Yin, Yan; Wang, Rong-Rong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jian-Jun; Xu, Gen-Xing

2014-01-01

365

Human müllerian inhibiting substance inhibits tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) causes regression of the müllerian duct in the male fetus. Bovine MIS has been reported to inhibit the growth of some gynecological tumors. Recombinant human MIS (rhMIS) produced in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells has been highly purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. The introduction of a salt wash prior to elution of MIS from the affinity column removes a growth-stimulating factor(s) derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells. This immunopurified rhMIS caused significant inhibition (34-59% survival) of A431 (a vulvar epidermoid carcinoma), HT-3 (a cervical carcinoma), HEC-1-A (an endometrial adenocarcinoma), NIH:OVCAR-3 (an ovarian adenocarcinoma), and OM431 (an ocular melanoma) human cell lines in colony inhibition assays. Two cell lines, Hep 3B (a hepatocellular carcinoma) and RT4 (a bladder transitional cell papilloma), were unresponsive to immunopurified rhMIS. Using an in vivo subrenal capsule assay in irradiated CD-1 mice, the growth of A431 and OM431 cells was inhibited by immunopurified rhMIS. We conclude that rhMIS inhibits the growth of certain tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo. PMID:2009529

Chin, T W; Parry, R L; Donahoe, P K

1991-04-15

366

EGFR inhibition prevents in vitro tumor growth of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in the development of many human malignant tumors and plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. Antagonists of EGFR can suppress the growth of several malignancies; however, their therapeutic effect in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is controversial. Results The increased proliferation of two ACC cell lines induced by EGF-treatment was reversed by nimotuzumab. Regardless of EGF stimulation, nimotuzumab-treated ACC cells were arrested in G1 phase and showed decreased expression of Ki67. In addition, EGF activated the MAPK-dependent pathway and up-regulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and Snail, enhancing the invasive potential of an ACC cell line (ACC-M). The effects of EGF were down-regulated by nimotuzumab treatment. Conclusions These results suggest that nimotuzumab can inhibit the growth and invasion of ACC cells induced by EGF, probably through inactivation of ERK phosphorylation. Thus, nimotuzumab should be considered as a promising novel agent for the treatment of ACC. PMID:23496982

2013-01-01

367

CSF1-ETS2-induced microRNA in myeloid cells promote metastatic tumor growth.  

PubMed

Metastasis of solid tumors is associated with poor prognosis and bleak survival rates. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells (TIMs) are known to promote metastasis, but the mechanisms underlying their collaboration with tumor cells remain unknown. Here, we report an oncogenic role for microRNA (miR) in driving M2 reprogramming in TIMs, characterized by the acquisition of pro-tumor and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of miR-21, miR-29a, miR-142-3p and miR-223 increased in myeloid cells during tumor progression in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma metastasis. Further, we show that these miRs are regulated by the CSF1-ETS2 pathway in macrophages. A loss-of-function approach utilizing selective depletion of the miR-processing enzyme Dicer in mature myeloid cells blocks angiogenesis and metastatic tumor growth. Ectopic expression of miR-21 and miR-29a promotes angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through the downregulation of anti-angiogenic genes such as Col4a2, Spry1 and Timp3, whereas knockdown of the miRs impedes these processes. miR-21 and miR-29a are expressed in Csf1r+ myeloid cells associated with human metastatic breast cancer, and levels of these miRs in CD115+ non-classical monocytes correlates with metastatic tumor burden in patients. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-21 and miR-29a are essential for the pro-tumor functions of myeloid cells and the CSF1-ETS2 pathway upstream of the miRs serves as an attractive therapeutic target for the inhibition of M2 remodeling of macrophages during malignancy. In addition, miR-21 and miR-29a in circulating myeloid cells may potentially serve as biomarkers to measure therapeutic efficacy of targeted therapies for CSF1 signaling.Oncogene advance online publication, 22 September 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.294. PMID:25241894

Mathsyaraja, H; Thies, K; Taffany, D A; Deighan, C; Liu, T; Yu, L; Fernandez, S A; Shapiro, C; Otero, J; Timmers, C; Lustberg, M B; Chalmers, J; Leone, G; Ostrowski, M C

2014-09-22

368

Selenized milk casein in the diet of BALB/c nude mice reduces growth of intramammary MCF-7 tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary selenium has the potential to reduce growth of mammary tumors. Increasing the Se content of cows’ milk proteins is a potentially effective means to increase Se intake in humans. We investigate the effects of selenized milk protein on human mammary tumor progression in immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice. Methods Four isonitrogenous diets with selenium levels of 0.16, 0.51, 0.85 and 1.15 ppm were formulated by mixing low- and high-selenium milk casein isolates with a rodent premix. MCF-7 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad of female BALB/c nude mice implanted with slow-release 17 ?-estradiol pellets. Mice with palpable tumors were randomly assigned to one of the four diets for 10 weeks, during which time weekly tumor caliper measurements were conducted. Individual growth curves were fit with the Gompertz equation. Apoptotic cells and Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were determined. Results There was a linear decrease in mean tumor volume at 70 days with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05), where final tumor volume decreased 35% between 0.16 and 1.15 ppm Se. There was a linear decrease in mean predicted tumor volume at 56, 63 and 70 days, and the number of tumors with a final volume above 500 mm3, with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05). This tumor volume effect was associated with a decrease in the proportion of tumors with a maximum growth rate above 0.03 day-1. The predicted maximum volume of tumors (Vmax) and the number of tumors with a large Vmax, were not affected by Se-casein. Final tumor mass, Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were not significantly affected by Se-casein. There was a significantly higher number of apoptotic cells in high-Se tumors as compared to low-Se tumors. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that turnover of cells in the tumor, but not its nutrient supply, were affected by dairy Se. We have shown that 1.1 ppm dietary Se from selenized casein can effectively reduce tumor progression in an MCF-7 xenograft breast cancer model. These results show promise for selenized milk protein as an effective supplement during chemotherapy. PMID:24152862

2013-01-01

369