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Sample records for tumor growth delay

  1. Tumor growth delay by laser-generated shock waves.

    PubMed

    de Reijke, T M; Schamhart, D H; Kurth, K H; Löwik, C W; Donkers, L H; Sterenborg, H J

    1994-01-01

    The antiproliferative effect of laser-generated shock waves (L-SW) was investigated on a human renal cell carcinoma, RC-8, grown subcutaneously in the nu/nu mouse. The RC-8 is characterized by the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) associated with profound cachexia, increase of serum Ca level, hypophosphatemia, and an enhancement of serum parathyroid-like peptides. In this model system, the effects on cachexia and tumor growth were studied after a series of pulses (3-200) generated by a Candela LFDL/3 equipped pulsed-dye laser with optical fiber guided through a hypodermic needle with a 45 degrees angle bended tip, stuck through the skin of the mouse, and positioned directly below the tumor. The antitumor effect, expressed as a delay of tumor growth, was found to be dependent on number of pulses applied, tumor size, and growth rate (alpha). Treatment of RC-8 with alpha = 0.21 was effective only after 200 pulses combined with a tumor volume smaller than 100 mm3. Under these conditions a growth delay of approximately 8 days was observed, paralleled by delay of animal weight loss (cachexia). Under conditions of a decreased growth rate of RC-8 (alpha = 0.13), the susceptibility toward L-SW was found to be increased, expressed by a suppression of tumor growth after 100 pulses. However, no L-SW-associated delay of cachexia was observed under these latter conditions. PMID:8208046

  2. NOS Inhibition Modulates Immune Polarization and Improves Radiation-Induced Tumor Growth Delay.

    PubMed

    Ridnour, Lisa A; Cheng, Robert Y S; Weiss, Jonathan M; Kaur, Sukhbir; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Basudhar, Debashree; Heinecke, Julie L; Stewart, C Andrew; DeGraff, William; Sowers, Anastasia L; Thetford, Angela; Kesarwala, Aparna H; Roberts, David D; Young, Howard A; Mitchell, James B; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Wiltrout, Robert H; Wink, David A

    2015-07-15

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are important mediators of progrowth signaling in tumor cells, as they regulate angiogenesis, immune response, and immune-mediated wound healing. Ionizing radiation (IR) is also an immune modulator and inducer of wound response. We hypothesized that radiation therapeutic efficacy could be improved by targeting NOS following tumor irradiation. Herein, we show enhanced radiation-induced (10 Gy) tumor growth delay in a syngeneic model (C3H) but not immunosuppressed (Nu/Nu) squamous cell carcinoma tumor-bearing mice treated post-IR with the constitutive NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). These results suggest a requirement of T cells for improved radiation tumor response. In support of this observation, tumor irradiation induced a rapid increase in the immunosuppressive Th2 cytokine IL10, which was abated by post-IR administration of L-NAME. In vivo suppression of IL10 using an antisense IL10 morpholino also extended the tumor growth delay induced by radiation in a manner similar to L-NAME. Further examination of this mechanism in cultured Jurkat T cells revealed L-NAME suppression of IR-induced IL10 expression, which reaccumulated in the presence of exogenous NO donor. In addition to L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitors ODQ and thrombospondin-1 also abated IR-induced IL10 expression in Jurkat T cells and ANA-1 macrophages, which further suggests that the immunosuppressive effects involve eNOS. Moreover, cytotoxic Th1 cytokines, including IL2, IL12p40, and IFN?, as well as activated CD8(+) T cells were elevated in tumors receiving post-IR L-NAME. Together, these results suggest that post-IR NOS inhibition improves radiation tumor response via Th1 immune polarization within the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25990221

  3. The Addition of Sunitinib to Radiation Delays Tumor Growth in a Murine Model of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Randy; Lei, Liang; Kennedy, Benjamin C.; Sisti, Julia; Ebiana, Victoria; Crisman, Celina; Christensen, James G.; Gil, Orlando; Rosenfeld, Steven S.; Canoll, Peter; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recent preclinical studies suggest that treating glioblastoma (GBM) with a combination of targeted chemotherapy and radiotherapy may enhance the anti-tumor effects of both therapies. However, the effects of these treatments on glioma growth and progression are poorly understood. Methods In this study we have tested the effects of combination therapy in a mouse glioma model that utilizes a PDGF-IRES-Cre-expressing retrovirus to infect adult glial progenitors in mice carrying conditional deletions of Pten and p53. This model produces tumors with the histological features of GBM with 100% penetrance, making it a powerful system to test novel treatments. Sunitinib is an orally active, small molecule inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) critical for tumor growth and angiogenesis, including PDGF receptors. We investigate the addition of Sunitinib to radiotherapy, and use bioluminescence imaging to characterize the effects of treatment on glioma growth and progression. Results Treating our PDGF-driven mouse model with either Sunitinib or high-dose radiation alone delayed tumor growth and had a modest but significant effect on survival, while treating with low-dose radiation alone failed to control glioma growth and progression. The addition of Sunitinib to low-dose radiation caused a modest, but significant delay in tumor growth. However, no significant survival benefit was seen as tumors progressed in 100% of animals. Histological analysis revealed a reduction in vascular proliferation and a marked increase in brain invasion. An additional study combining Sunitinib with high-dose radiation revealed a fatal toxicity despite individual monotherapies being well tolerated. Discussion These results show that the addition of Sunitinib to radiotherapy fails to significantly alter survival in GBM despite enhancement of the effects of radiation. Furthermore, an enhanced risk of toxicity associated with combined therapy must be considered in the design of future clinical studies. PMID:22449730

  4. Neuroblastoma-targeted nanocarriers improve drug delivery and penetration, delay tumor growth and abrogate metastatic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Irene; Bottoni, Gianluca; Loi, Monica; Emionite, Laura; Bartolini, Alice; Di Paolo, Daniela; Brignole, Chiara; Piaggio, Francesca; Perri, Patrizia; Sacchi, Angelina; Curnis, Flavio; Gagliani, Maria Cristina; Bruno, Silvia; Marini, Cecilia; Gori, Alessandro; Longhi, Renato; Murgia, Daniele; Sementa, Angela Rita; Cilli, Michele; Tacchetti, Carlo; Corti, Angelo; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Marchiò, Serena; Ponzoni, Mirco; Pastorino, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Selective tumor targeting is expected to enhance drug delivery and to decrease toxicity, resulting in an improved therapeutic index. We have recently identified the HSYWLRS peptide sequence as a specific ligand for aggressive neuroblastoma, a childhood tumor mostly refractory to current therapies. Here we validated the specific binding of HSYWLRS to neuroblastoma cell suspensions obtained either from cell lines, animal models, or Schwannian-stroma poor, stage IV neuroblastoma patients. Binding of the biotinylated peptide and of HSYWLRS-functionalized fluorescent quantum dots or liposomal nanoparticles was dose-dependent and inhibited by an excess of free peptide. In animal models obtained by the orthotopic implant of either MYCN-amplified or MYCN single copy human neuroblastoma cell lines, treatment with HSYWLRS-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded Stealth Liposomes increased tumor vascular permeability and perfusion, enhancing tumor penetration of the drug. This formulation proved to exert a potent antitumor efficacy, as evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and micro-PET, leading to (i) delay of tumor growth paralleled by decreased tumor glucose consumption, and (ii) abrogation of metastatic spreading, accompanied by absence of systemic toxicity and significant increase in the animal life span. Our findings are functional to the design of targeted nanocarriers with potentiated therapeutic efficacy towards the clinical translation. PMID:26276694

  5. STI571 (Gleevec) improves tumor growth delay and survival in irradiated mouse models of glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Geng Ling; Shinohara, Eric T.; Kim, Dong; Tan Jiahuai; Osusky, Kate; Shyr, Yu; Hallahan, Dennis E. . E-mail: Dennis.Hallahan@mcmail.vanderbilt.edu

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain neoplasm that is essentially incurable. Although radiation therapy prolongs survival, GBMs progress within areas of irradiation. Recent studies in invertebrates have shown that STI571 (Gleevec; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ) enhances the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation. In the present study, the effectiveness of STI571 in combination with radiation was studied in mouse models of GBM. Methods and Materials: Murine GL261 and human D54 GBM cell lines formed tumors in brains and hind limbs of C57BL6 and nude mice, respectively. GL261 and D54 cells were treated with 5 {mu}mol/L of STI571 for 1 h and/or irradiated with 3 Gy. Protein was analyzed by Western immunoblots probed with antibodies to caspase 3, cleaved caspase 3, phospho-Akt, Akt, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) {alpha} and {beta}. Tumor volumes were assessed in mice bearing GL261 or D54 tumors treated with 21 Gy administered in seven fractionated doses. Histologic sections from STI571-treated mice were stained with phospho-Akt and phospho-PDGFR {beta} antibodies. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to study the response of mice bearing intracranial implants of GL261. Results: STI571 penetrated the blood-brain barrier, which resulted in a reduction in phospho-PDGFR in GBM. STI571-induced apoptosis in GBM was significantly enhanced by irradiation. STI571 combined with irradiation induced caspase 3 cleavage in GBM cells. Glioblastoma multiforme response to therapy correlated with an increase in tumor growth delay and survival when STI571 was administered in conjunction with daily irradiation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that STI571 has the potential to augment radiotherapy and thereby improve median survival.

  6. Irradiation combined with SU5416: Microvascular changes and growth delay in a human xenograft glioblastoma tumor line

    SciTech Connect

    Schuuring, Janneke; Bussink, Johan . E-mail: J.Bussink@rther.umcn.nl; Bernsen, Hans; Peeters, Wenny; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: The combination of irradiation and the antiangiogenic compound SU5416 was tested and compared with irradiation alone in a human glioblastoma tumor line xenografted in nude mice. The aim of this study was to monitor microenvironmental changes and growth delay. Methods and materials: A human glioblastoma xenograft tumor line was implanted in nude mice. Irradiations consisted of 10 Gy or 20 Gy with and without SU5416. Several microenvironmental parameters (tumor cell hypoxia, tumor blood perfusion, vascular volume, and microvascular density) were analyzed after imunohistochemical staining. Tumor growth delay was monitored for up to 200 days after treatment. Results: SU5416, when combined with irradiation, has an additive effect over treatment with irradiation alone. Analysis of the tumor microenvironment showed a decreased vascular density during treatment with SU5416. In tumors regrowing after reaching only a partial remission, vascular characteristics normalized shortly after cessation of SU5416. However, in tumors regrowing after reaching a complete remission, permanent microenvironmental changes and an increase of tumor necrosis with a subsequent slower tumor regrowth was found. Conclusions: Permanent vascular changes were seen after combined treatment resulting in complete remission. Antiangiogenic treatment with SU5416 when combined with irradiation has an additive effect over treatment with irradiation or antiangiogenic treatment alone.

  7. AZD1480 delays tumor growth in a melanoma model while enhancing the suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Sarah K.; Four, Stephanie Du; Corthals, Jurgen; Neyns, Bart; Thielemans, Kris; Aerts, Joeri L.

    2014-01-01

    AZD1480 is a potent, competitive small-molecule inhibitor of JAK1/2 kinase which inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and tumor growth. Here we investigated the effects of AZD1480 on the function of different immune cell populations in a melanoma model. When MO4 tumor-bearing mice were treated with AZD1480 we observed a strong inhibition of tumor growth as well as a prolonged survival. Moreover, a significant decrease in the percentage of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was observed after treatment with AZD1480. However, AZD1480 enhanced the suppressive capacity of murine MDSCs while at the same time impairing the proliferative as well as the IFN-? secretion capacity of murine T cells. The addition of AZD1480 to co-cultures of human MDSCs and T cells does not affect the suppressive activity of MDSCs but it does reduce the IFN-? secretion and the proliferative capacity of T cells. We showed that although AZD1480 has the ability to delay the tumor growth of MO4 tumor-bearing mice, this drug has detrimental effects on several aspects of the immune system. These data indicate that systemic targeting of the JAK/STAT pathway by JAK1/2 inhibition can have divergent effects on tumor growth and anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:25149535

  8. Delayed growth

    MedlinePLUS

    Growth - slow (child 0 - 5 years); Weight gain - slow (child 0 - 5 years); Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; ... A child should have regular, well-baby check-ups with a health care provider. These checkups are usually scheduled ...

  9. Cationic poly-L-lysine dendrimer complexes doxorubicin and delays tumor growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Al-Jamal, Khuloud T; Al-Jamal, Wafa' T; Wang, Julie T-W; Rubio, Noelia; Buddle, Joanna; Gathercole, David; Zloh, Mire; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-03-26

    We report in this study the complexation of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) with the novel sixth-generation cationic poly-l-lysine dendrimer (DM) (MW 8149 kDa), which we previously reported to exhibit systemic antiangiogenic activity in tumor-bearing mice. DOX-DM complexation was confirmed by florescence polarization measurement, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular modeling. Enhanced penetration of DOX-DM (at 1:10 molar ratio), compared to the free DOX, into prostate 3D multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, DOX-DM complexes achieved a significantly higher cytotoxicity in DU145 MTS system compared to the free drug, as shown by growth delay curves. Incubation of MTS with low DOX concentration (1 ?M) complexed with DM led to a significant delay in MTS growth compared to untreated MTS or MTS treated with free DOX. DOX-DM complex retention was also achieved in a Calu-6 lung cancer xenograft model in tumor-bearing mice, as shown by live whole animal fluorescence imaging. Therapeutic experiments in B16F10 tumor bearing mice have shown enhanced therapeutic efficacy of DOX when complexed to DM. This study suggests that the cationic poly-l-lysine DM molecules studied here could, in addition to their systemic antiangiogenic property, complex chemotherapeutic drugs such as DOX and improve their accumulation and cytotoxicity into MTS and solid tumors in vivo. Such an approach offers new capabilities for the design of combinatory antiangiogenic/anticancer therapeutics. PMID:23527750

  10. Systemic treatment with CAR-engineered T cells against PSCA delays subcutaneous tumor growth and prolongs survival of mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has successfully been used to treat both chronic and acute lymphocytic leukemia as well as other hematological cancers. Experimental therapy with CAR-engineered T cells has also shown promising results on solid tumors. The prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a protein expressed on the surface of prostate epithelial cells as well as in primary and metastatic prostate cancer cells and therefore a promising target for immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods We developed a third-generation CAR against PSCA including the CD28, OX-40 and CD3 ? signaling domains. T cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding the PSCA-CAR and evaluated for cytokine production (paired Student’s t-test), proliferation (paired Student’s t-test), CD107a expression (paired Student’s t-test) and target cell killing in vitro and tumor growth and survival in vivo (Log-rank test comparing Kaplan-Meier survival curves). Results PSCA-CAR T cells exhibit specific interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-2 secretion and specific proliferation in response to PSCA-expressing target cells. Furthermore, the PSCA-CAR-engineered T cells efficiently kill PSCA-expressing tumor cells in vitro and systemic treatment with PSCA-CAR-engineered T cells significantly delays subcutaneous tumor growth and prolongs survival of mice. Conclusions Our data confirms that PSCA-CAR T cells may be developed for treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:24438073

  11. Aspirin delays mesothelioma growth by inhibiting HMGB1-mediated tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H; Pellegrini, L; Napolitano, A; Giorgi, C; Jube, S; Preti, A; Jennings, C J; De Marchis, F; Flores, E G; Larson, D; Pagano, I; Tanji, M; Powers, A; Kanodia, S; Gaudino, G; Pastorino, S; Pass, H I; Pinton, P; Bianchi, M E; Carbone, M

    2015-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an inflammatory molecule that has a critical role in the initiation and progression of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is the most widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that reduces the incidence, metastatic potential and mortality of many inflammation-induced cancers. We hypothesized that ASA may exert anticancer properties in MM by abrogating the carcinogenic effects of HMGB1. Using HMGB1-secreting and -non-secreting human MM cell lines, we determined whether aspirin inhibited the hallmarks of HMGB1-induced MM cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrated that ASA and its metabolite, salicylic acid (SA), inhibit motility, migration, invasion and anchorage-independent colony formation of MM cells via a novel HMGB1-mediated mechanism. ASA/SA, at serum concentrations comparable to those achieved in humans taking therapeutic doses of aspirin, and BoxA, a specific inhibitor of HMGB1, markedly reduced MM growth in xenograft mice and significantly improved survival of treated animals. The effects of ASA and BoxA were cyclooxygenase-2 independent and were not additive, consistent with both acting via inhibition of HMGB1 activity. Our findings provide a rationale for the well documented, yet poorly understood antitumorigenic activity of aspirin, which we show proceeds via HMGB1 inhibition. Moreover, the use of BoxA appears to allow a more efficient HMGB1 targeting while eluding the known gastrointestinal side effects of ASA. Our findings are directly relevant to MM. Given the emerging importance of HMGB1 and its tumor-promoting functions in many cancer types, and of aspirin in cancer prevention and therapy, our investigation is poised to provide broadly applicable information. PMID:26068794

  12. Overexpression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 189 in Breast Cancer Cells Leads to Delayed Tumor Uptake with Dilated Intratumoral Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Hervé, Marie-Astrid; Buteau-Lozano, Hélène; Vassy, Roger; Bieche, Ivan; Velasco, Guillaume; Pla, Marika; Perret, Gérard; Mourah, Samia; Perrot-Applanat, Martine

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for breast cancer progression and is a relevant target in anti-angiogenesis. Although VEGF121 and VEGF165, the fully or partially secreted isoforms, respectively, have been the focus of intense studies, the role of the cell-associated VEGF189 isoform is not understood. To clarify the contribution of VEGF189 to human mammary carcinogenesis, we established several clones of MDA-MB-231 cells stably overexpressing VEGF189 (V189) and VEGF165 (V165). V189 and V165 clones increased tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Remarkably, V165 induced the most rapid tumor uptake, whereas V189 increased vasodilation. In vitro overexpression of VEGF165 and VEGF189 increases the proliferation and chemokinesis of these cancer cells. Interestingly, overexpression of VEGF189 increased cell adhesion on fibronectin (1.9-fold) and vitronectin (1.6-fold), as compared to VEGF165, through ?5?1 and ?v?5 integrins. Using the BIACore system we demonstrated for the first time that VEGF189 binds directly to neuropilin-1, which is strongly expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, VEGF-R2 was not significantly expressed and VEGF-R1 was expressed at low level. Our in vitro results suggest an autocrine effect of VEGF189 on breast cancer cells, probably through neuropilin-1. In conclusion, our data indicate that VEGF189 participates in mammary tumor growth through both angiogenesis and nonangiogenic functions. Whether VEGF189 overexpression is correlated to prognosis in human breast tumors remains to be established. PMID:18079435

  13. Knockdown of platinum-induced growth differentiation factor 15 abrogates p27-mediated tumor growth delay in the chemoresistant ovarian cancer model A2780cis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Julia C; Haendler, Bernard; Seidel, Henrik; Groth, Philip; Adams, Robert; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Kreft, Bertolt; Beckmann, Georg; Sommer, Anette; Kopitz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to platinum-based treatment in patients with ovarian cancer remain poorly understood. This is mainly due to the lack of appropriate in vivo models allowing the identification of resistance-related factors. In this study, we used human whole-genome microarrays and linear model analysis to identify potential resistance-related genes by comparing the expression profiles of the parental human ovarian cancer model A2780 and its platinum-resistant variant A2780cis before and after carboplatin treatment in vivo. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) was identified as one of five potential resistance-related genes in the A2780cis tumor model. Although A2780-bearing mice showed a strong carboplatin-induced increase of GDF15 plasma levels, the basal higher GDF15 plasma levels of A2780cis-bearing mice showed no further increase after short-term or long-term carboplatin treatment. This correlated with a decreased DNA damage response, enhanced AKT survival signaling and abrogated cell cycle arrest in the carboplatin-treated A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, knockdown of GDF15 in A2780cis cells did not alter cell proliferation but enhanced cell migration and colony size in vitro. Interestingly, in vivo knockdown of GDF15 in the A2780cis model led to a basal-enhanced tumor growth, but increased sensitivity to carboplatin treatment as compared to the control-transduced A2780cis tumors. This was associated with larger necrotic areas, a lobular tumor structure and increased p53 and p16 expression of the carboplatin-treated shGDF15-A2780cis tumors. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated GDF15 knockdown abrogated p27 expression as compared to control-transduced A2780cis tumors. In conclusion, these data show that GDF15 may contribute to carboplatin resistance by suppressing tumor growth through p27. These data show that GDF15 might serve as a novel treatment target in women with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25490861

  14. Strange Attractor in Immunology of Tumor Growth

    E-print Network

    Margarita Voitikova

    1997-08-21

    The time delayed cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response on the tumor growth has been developed on the basis of discrete approximation (2-dimensional map). The growth kinetic has been described by logistic law with growth rate being the bifurcation parameter. Increase in the growth rate results in instability of the tumor state and causes period-doubling bifurcations in the immune+tumor system. For larger values of tumor growth rate a strange attractor has been observed. The model proposed is able to describe the metastable-state production when time series data of the immune state and the number of tumor cells are irregular and unpredictable. This metastatic disease may be caused not by exterior (medical) factors, but interior density dependent ones.

  15. Inhibition of ILK in PTEN-mutant human glioblastomas inhibits PKB/Akt activation, induces apoptosis, and delays tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lincoln A; Thiessen, B; Dragowska, Wieslawa H; Daynard, Tim; Bally, Marcel B; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2005-05-19

    The tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) regulates the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas when mutational inactivation or loss of the PTEN gene occurs. PTEN mutation leads to constitutive activation of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt with phosphorylation at the PKB/Akt sites Thr-308 and Ser-473. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has been shown to regulate PKB/Akt activity with the loss of PTEN in prostate cancer. We now demonstrate that ILK activity regulates PKB/Akt activity in glioblastoma cells. The activity of ILK is constitutively elevated in a serum-independent manner in PTEN mutant cells, and transfection of wild-type PTEN under the control of an inducible promoter into mutant PTEN cells inhibits ILK activity. Transfection of ILK antisense (ILKAS) or exposure to a small-molecule ILK inhibitor suppresses the constitutive phosphorylation of PKB/Akt on Ser-473 in PTEN-mutant glioblastoma cell lines. In addition, the delivery of ILKAS to PTEN-negative glioblastoma cells resulted in apoptosis. Rag-2M mice bearing established ( approximately 100 mg) human U87MG glioblastoma tumors, treated QD x 5 for 3 consecutive weeks with ILKAS (i.p. 5 mg/kg), exhibited stable disease with < or =7% increase in tumor volume over the 3-week course of treatment. In contrast, animals treated with an oligonucleotide control or saline exhibited a >100% increase in tumor volume over the same time period. Our initial results indicate that therapeutic strategies targeting ILK may be beneficial in the treatment of glioblastomas. PMID:15782140

  16. In vivo studies in NCT with a boronated porphyrin and tumor growth delay as an end point

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, B.H. |; Kahl, S.B.; Warkentien, L.; Bond, V.P.

    1992-12-31

    The robust carrying capacity of the porphyrin molecule and its propensity for localizing in tumor justified the synthesizing of a porphyrin labeled with boron for use in BNCT. However, problems associated with poor solubility impeded the utility of the molecule. Until BOPP was synthesized porphyrins were promising, but impractical. After in vitro experiments had demonstrated the biological efficacy of BOPP and had confirmed its intracellular localizing ability in vivo studies were carried out using mice. Irradiation of KHJJ murine mammary carcinoma to the TCD{sub 50} in a single fraction was precluded since this whole body dose is lethal. This problem was overcome by the use of radiation. BOPP was administered either as three 0.5 ml injections per day over two days or by continuous i.v. infusion, 2 ml per day over three days for a total dose of about 42 {mu}g {sup 10}B/gbw. Boron-10 distribution in the tumor at the time of irradiation was {approximately}20 {mu}g.

  17. Growth factors in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuejing; Nie, Daotai; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2012-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. Components in the microenvironment can modulate the growth of tumor cells, their ability to progress and metastasize. A major venue of communication between tumor cells and their microenvironment is through polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. This article discusses three major classes of growth-stimulatory polypeptide growth factors and receptors for these growth factors. It also discusses how deregulation of these growth factors or their receptors can drive malignant transformation and progression. PMID:20036812

  18. Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth

    Cancer.gov

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.

  19. The TCD[sub 50] and regrowth delay assay in human tumor xenografts: Differences and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Budach, W.; Budach, V.; Stuschke, M.; Dinges, S.; Sack, H. )

    1993-01-15

    The response to irradiation of five human xenograft cell lines - a malignant paraganglioma, a neurogenic sarcoma, a malignant histiocytoma, a primary lymphoma of the brain, and a squamous cell carcinoma - were tested in nude mice. All mice underwent 5 Gy whole body irradiation prior to xenotransplantation to minimize the residual immune response. The subcutaneous tumors were irradiated at a tumor volume of 120 mm[sup 3] under acutely hypoxic conditions with single doses between 8 Gy and 80 Gy depending on the expected radiation sensitivity of the tumor line. Endpoints of the study were the tumor control dose 50% (TCD[sub 50]) and the regrowth delay endpoints growth delay, specific growth delay, and the tumor bed effect corrected specific growth delay. Specific growth delay and corrected specific growth delay at 76% of the TCD[sub 50] was used in order to compare the data to previously published data from spheroids. The lowest TCD[sub 50] was found in the lymphoma with 24.9 Gy, whereas the TCD[sub 50] of the soft tissue sarcomas and the squamous cell carcinoma ranged from 57.8 Gy to 65.6 Gy. The isoeffective dose levels for the induction of 30 days growth delay, a specific growth delay of 3, and a corrected specific growth delay of 3 ranged from 15.5 Gy (ECL1) to 37.1 Gy (FADU), from 7.2 Gy (ENE2) to 45.6 Gy (EPG1) and from 9.2 Gy (ENE2) to 37.6 Gy (EPG1), respectively. The corrected specific growth delay at 76% of the TCD[sub 50] was correlated with the number of tumor rescue units per 100 cells in spheroids, which was available for three tumor lines, and with the tumor doubling time in xenografts (n = 5). The TCD[sub 50] values corresponded better to the clinical experience than the regrowth delay data. There was no correlation between TCD[sub 50] and any of the regrowth delay endpoints. This missing correlation was most likely a result of large differences in the number of tumor rescue units in human xenografts of the same size.

  20. Targeting the hsp70 gene delays mammary tumor initiation and inhibits tumor cell metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gong, J; Weng, D; Eguchi, T; Murshid, A; Sherman, M Y; Song, B; Calderwood, S K

    2015-10-01

    Elevated levels of the inducible heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp72) have been implicated in mammary tumorigenesis in histological investigations of human breast cancer. We therefore examined the role of Hsp72 in mice, using animals in which the hsp70 gene was inactivated. We used a spontaneous tumor system with mice expressing the polyomavirus middle T (PyMT) oncogene under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long-terminal repeat (MMT mice). These mice developed spontaneous, metastatic mammary cancer. We then showed Hsp72 to be upregulated in a fraction of mammary cancer initiating cells (CIC) within the MMT tumor cell population. These cells were characterized by elevated surface levels of stem cell markers CD44 and Sca1 and by rapid metastasis. Inactivation of the hsp70 gene delayed the initiation of mammary tumors. This delay in tumor initiation imposed by loss of hsp70 was correlated with a decreased pool of CIC. Interestingly, hsp70 knockout significantly reduced invasion and metastasis by mammary tumor cells and implicated its product Hsp72 in cell migration and formation of secondary neoplasms. Impaired tumorigenesis and metastasis in hsp70-knockout MMT mice was associated with downregulation of the met gene and reduced activition of the oncogenic c-Met protein. These experiments therefore showed Hsp72 to be involved in the growth and progression of mammary carcinoma and highlighted this protein as a potential target for anticancer drug development. PMID:25659585

  1. Periodic and chaotic oscillations in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Ping; Center for Partial Differential Equations, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200241 ; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, a tumor and immune system interaction model consisted of two differential equations with three time delays is considered in which the delays describe the proliferation of tumor cells, the process of effector cells growth stimulated by tumor cells, and the differentiation of immune effector cells, respectively. Conditions for the asymptotic stability of equilibria and existence of Hopf bifurcations are obtained by analyzing the roots of a second degree exponential polynomial characteristic equation with delay dependent coefficients. It is shown that the positive equilibrium is asymptotically stable if all three delays are less than their corresponding critical values and Hopf bifurcations occur if any one of these delays passes through its critical value. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the rich dynamical behavior of the model with different delay values including the existence of regular and irregular long periodic oscillations.

  2. Cancer Progression and Tumor Growth Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoev, Krastan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wilkerson, Julia; Sprinkhuizen, Sara; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bates, Susan; Rosen, Bruce; Fojo, Tito

    2013-03-01

    We present and analyze tumor growth data from prostate and brain cancer. Scaling the data from different patients shows that early stage prostate tumors show non-exponential growth while advanced prostate and brain tumors enter a stage of exponential growth. The scaling analysis points to the existence of cancer stem cells and/or massive apoptosis in early stage prostate cancer and that late stage cancer growth is not dominated by cancer stem cells. Statistical models of these two growth modes are discussed. Work supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health

  3. Periodic and chaotic oscillations in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays

    E-print Network

    Ruan, Shigui

    Periodic and chaotic oscillations in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays in a tumor and immune system interaction model with three delays Ping Bi,1,2 Shigui Ruan,3,a) and Xinan Zhang) In this paper, a tumor and immune system interaction model consisted of two differential equations with three

  4. Fragile histidine triad expression delays tumor development and induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Dumon, K R; Ishii, H; Vecchione, A; Trapasso, F; Baldassarre, G; Chakrani, F; Druck, T; Rosato, E F; Williams, N N; Baffa, R; During, M J; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

    2001-06-15

    The fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene is a tumor suppressor gene that is altered by deletion in a large fraction of human tumors, including pancreatic cancer. To evaluate the potential of FHIT gene therapy, we developed recombinant adenoviral and adenoassociated viral (AAV) FHIT vectors and tested these vectors in vitro and in vivo for activity against human pancreatic cancer cells. Our data show that viral FHIT gene delivery results in apoptosis by activation of the caspase pathway. Furthermore, Fhit overexpression enhances the susceptibility of pancreatic cancer cells to exogenous inducers of apoptosis. In vivo results show that FHIT gene transfer delays tumor growth and prolongs survival in a murine model mimicking human disease. PMID:11406559

  5. Tumor cell growth fraction in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gerdes, J.; Van Baarlen, J.; Pileri, S.; Schwarting, R.; Van Unnik, J. A.; Stein, H.

    1987-01-01

    The growth fraction of tumor cells was studied in 45 cases of Hodgkin's disease by means of a recently developed double immunostaining technique using monoclonal antibody Ki-1, which reacts selectively with Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in tissues affected by Hodgkin's disease, and antibody Ki-67, which recognizes a cell proliferation-associated nuclear antigen. The medians of the growth fractions of the tumor cells in all histologic subtypes of Hodgkin's disease varied between 78% and 83%. In none of the cases investigated did we find a growth fraction below 50%. Furthermore, mononucleated Hodgkin cells as well as multi-nucleated Reed-Sternberg cells showed a similar Ki-67 labeling index, indicating that both tumor cell types belong to the proliferating pool of this malignancy. Images Figure 1 PMID:3307442

  6. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth12

    PubMed Central

    von Au, Anja; Vasel, Matthaeus; Kraft, Sabrina; Sens, Carla; Hackl, Norman; Marx, Alexander; Stroebel, Philipp; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Todenhöfer, Tilman; Stenzl, Arnulf; Schott, Sarah; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Wetterwald, Antoinette; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Cecchini, Marco G; Nakchbandi, Inaam A

    2013-01-01

    Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers. PMID:23908593

  7. A tumor growth model with deformable ECM

    PubMed Central

    Sciumè, G; Santagiuliana, R; Ferrari, M; Decuzzi, P; Schrefler, B A

    2015-01-01

    Existing tumor growth models based on fluid analogy for the cells do not generally include the extracellular matrix (ECM), or if present, take it as rigid. The three-fluid model originally proposed by the authors and comprising tumor cells (TC), host cells (HC), interstitial fluid (IF) and an ECM, considered up to now only a rigid ECM in the applications. This limitation is here relaxed and the deformability of the ECM is investigated in detail. The ECM is modeled as a porous solid matrix with Green-elastic and elasto-visco-plastic material behavior within a large strain approach. Jauman and Truesdell objective stress measures are adopted together with the deformation rate tensor. Numerical results are first compared with those of a reference experiment of a multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) growing in vitro, then three different tumor cases are studied: growth of an MTS in a decellularized ECM, growth of a spheroid in the presence of host cells and growth of a melanoma. The influence of the stiffness of the ECM is evidenced and comparison with the case of a rigid ECM is made. The processes in a deformable ECM are more rapid than in a rigid ECM and the obtained growth pattern differs. The reasons for this are due to the changes in porosity induced by the tumor growth. These changes are inhibited in a rigid ECM. This enhanced computational model emphasizes the importance of properly characterizing the biomechanical behavior of the malignant mass in all its components to correctly predict its temporal and spatial pattern evolution. PMID:25427284

  8. A tumor growth model with deformable ECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciumè, G.; Santagiuliana, R.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Existing tumor growth models based on fluid analogy for the cells do not generally include the extracellular matrix (ECM), or if present, take it as rigid. The three-fluid model originally proposed by the authors and comprising tumor cells (TC), host cells (HC), interstitial fluid (IF) and an ECM, considered up to now only a rigid ECM in the applications. This limitation is here relaxed and the deformability of the ECM is investigated in detail. The ECM is modeled as a porous solid matrix with Green-elastic and elasto-visco-plastic material behavior within a large strain approach. Jauman and Truesdell objective stress measures are adopted together with the deformation rate tensor. Numerical results are first compared with those of a reference experiment of a multicellular tumor spheroid (MTS) growing in vitro, then three different tumor cases are studied: growth of an MTS in a decellularized ECM, growth of a spheroid in the presence of host cells and growth of a melanoma. The influence of the stiffness of the ECM is evidenced and comparison with the case of a rigid ECM is made. The processes in a deformable ECM are more rapid than in a rigid ECM and the obtained growth pattern differs. The reasons for this are due to the changes in porosity induced by the tumor growth. These changes are inhibited in a rigid ECM. This enhanced computational model emphasizes the importance of properly characterizing the biomechanical behavior of the malignant mass in all its components to correctly predict its temporal and spatial pattern evolution.

  9. MATH100 PROJECT A SIMPLE MODEL FOR TUMOR GROWTH

    E-print Network

    Fasshauer, Greg

    MATH100 PROJECT A SIMPLE MODEL FOR TUMOR GROWTH Introduction. It has been observed experimentally that a tumor grows by dividing its cells, and at early stage the tumor grows at a rate proportional (1) is known as the law of natural growth. Given the initial tumor volume is V0 at the initial time t

  10. Combined Treatment of Herbal Mixture Extract H9 with Trastuzumab Enhances Anti-tumor Growth Effect.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunyi; Han, Sora; Jeong, Ae Lee; Park, Jeong Su; Jung, Seung Hyun; Choi, Kang-Duk; Yang, Young

    2015-07-01

    Extracts from Asian medicinal herbs are known to be successful therapeutic agents against cancer. In this study, the effects of three types of herbal extracts on anti-tumor growth were examined. Among the three types of herbal extracts, H9 showed stronger anti-tumor growth effects than H5 and H11 in vivo. To find the molecular mechanism by which H9 inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines, the levels of apoptotic markers were examined. Proapoptotic markers, including cleaved PARP and cleaved caspases 3 and 9, were increased, whereas the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was decreased by H9 treatment. Next, the combined effect of H9 with the chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) on tumor growth was examined using 4T1-tumor-bearing mice. The combined treatment of H9 with AC did not show additive or synergetic anti-tumor growth effects. However, when tumor-bearing mice were co-treated with H9 and the targeted anti-tumor drug trastuzumab, a delay in tumor growth was observed. The combined treatment of H9 and trastuzumab caused an increase of natural killer (NK) cells and a decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Taken together, H9 induces the apoptotic death of tumor cells while increasing anti-tumor immune activity through the enhancement of NK activity and diminishment of MDSC. PMID:25791851

  11. Decorin: A Growth Factor Antagonist for Tumor Growth Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Decorin (DCN) is the best characterized member of the extracellular small leucine-rich proteoglycan family present in connective tissues, typically in association with or “decorating” collagen fibrils. It has substantial interest to clinical medicine owing to its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Studies on DCN knockout mice have established that a lack of DCN is permissive for tumor development and it is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. A reduced expression or a total disappearance of DCN has been reported to take place in various forms of human cancers during tumor progression. Furthermore, when used as a therapeutic molecule, DCN has been shown to inhibit tumor progression and metastases in experimental cancer models. DCN affects the biology of various types of cancer by targeting a number of crucial signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The active sites for the neutralization of different growth factors all reside in different parts of the DCN molecule. An emerging concept that multiple proteases, especially those produced by inflammatory cells, are capable of cleaving DCN suggests that native DCN could be inactivated in a number of pathological inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we review the role of DCN in cancer. PMID:26697491

  12. Decorin: A Growth Factor Antagonist for Tumor Growth Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Tero A H; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Decorin (DCN) is the best characterized member of the extracellular small leucine-rich proteoglycan family present in connective tissues, typically in association with or "decorating" collagen fibrils. It has substantial interest to clinical medicine owing to its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Studies on DCN knockout mice have established that a lack of DCN is permissive for tumor development and it is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. A reduced expression or a total disappearance of DCN has been reported to take place in various forms of human cancers during tumor progression. Furthermore, when used as a therapeutic molecule, DCN has been shown to inhibit tumor progression and metastases in experimental cancer models. DCN affects the biology of various types of cancer by targeting a number of crucial signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The active sites for the neutralization of different growth factors all reside in different parts of the DCN molecule. An emerging concept that multiple proteases, especially those produced by inflammatory cells, are capable of cleaving DCN suggests that native DCN could be inactivated in a number of pathological inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we review the role of DCN in cancer. PMID:26697491

  13. Myeloid Cell COX-2 deletion reduces mammary tumor growth through enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Edward P.; Markosyan, Nune; Connolly, Emma; Lawson, John A.; Li, Xuanwen; Grant, Gregory R.; Grosser, Tilo; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Smyth, Emer M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with poor prognosis across a range of human cancers, including breast cancer. The contribution of tumor cell-derived COX-2 to tumorigenesis has been examined in numerous studies; however, the role of stromal-derived COX-2 is ill-defined. Here, we examined how COX-2 in myeloid cells, an immune cell subset that includes macrophages, influences mammary tumor progression. In mice engineered to selectively lack myeloid cell COX-2 [myeloid-COX-2 knockout (KO) mice], spontaneous neu oncogene-induced tumor onset was delayed, tumor burden reduced, and tumor growth slowed compared with wild-type (WT). Similarly, growth of neu-transformed mammary tumor cells as orthotopic tumors in immune competent syngeneic myeloid-COX-2 KO host mice was reduced compared with WT. By flow cytometric analysis, orthotopic myeloid-COX-2 KO tumors had lower tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration consistent with impaired colony stimulating factor-1-dependent chemotaxis by COX-2 deficient macrophages in vitro. Further, in both spontaneous and orthotopic tumors, COX-2-deficient TAM displayed lower immunosuppressive M2 markers and this was coincident with less suppression of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in myeloid-COX-2 KO tumors. These studies suggest that reduced tumor growth in myeloid-COX-2 KO mice resulted from disruption of M2-like TAM function, thereby enhancing T-cell survival and immune surveillance. Antibody-mediated depletion of CD8+, but not CD4+ cells, restored tumor growth in myeloid-COX-2 KO to WT levels, indicating that CD8+ CTLs are dominant antitumor effectors in myeloid-COX-2 KO mice. Our studies suggest that inhibition of myeloid cell COX-2 can potentiate CTL-mediated tumor cytotoxicity and may provide a novel therapeutic approach in breast cancer therapy. PMID:24590894

  14. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  15. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  16. Cellular Potts Modeling of Tumor Growth, Tumor Invasion, and Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell “successful” in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  17. Fibrin depletion decreases inflammation and delays the onset of demyelination in a tumor necrosis factor

    E-print Network

    Fibrin depletion decreases inflammation and delays the onset of demyelination in a tumor necrosis) In multiple sclerosis, in which brain tissue becomes permeable to blood proteins, extravascular fibrin of fibrin in neuroinflammatory demyelination, we de- pleted fibrin in two tumor necrosis factor transgenic

  18. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  19. Heavy water delays growth of human carcinoma in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Altermatt, H.J.; Gebbers, J.O.; Laissue, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    Deuterium-enriched water has an antiproliferative effect on transplantable mouse tumors without toxic side effects. Since the response to treatment of human carcinomas growing in nude mice is deemed to be a good indicator of the potential clinical behavior of these tumors, we studied the influence of this stable isotope of hydrogen on the growth of xenotransplanted human carcinomas of various histologic types, grades, and primary sites. Seven-week-old Balb/c-nu/nu mice were inoculated subcutaneously, either with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas or with carcinomas of the large intestine. After tumor inoculation, the mice were given drinking water containing 30 atom% D/sub 2/O. Heavy water effectively retarded the growth of the human carcinomas. At the end of the experiment, the weight of the tumors was reduced to values ranging from 22% to 65% of the control values. The reproducible antiproliferative effect was more conspicuous in poorly differentiated carcinomas than in moderately well-differentiated variants. Since animals in both groups, kept under identical conditions, drank the same amount of water and had similar body weights, the difference in tumor growth can be attributed to the moderate deuteration of the hosts.

  20. Modulating mammary tumor growth, metastasis and immunosuppression by siRNA-induced MIF reduction in tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Yan, L; Kim, J A

    2015-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been identified as a major gene product upregulated in breast cancer cells-tissues upon the accumulation of macrophages. However, regulatory role of MIF in tumor microenvironment is not well understood. Previously, we have developed small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded nanoparticle system to effectively reduce MIF expression in both breast cancer cells and macrophages. Using this nanoparticle system, in this study we demonstrated that the siRNA-induced MIF reduction in murine mammary cancer line 4T1 and human breast cancer line MDA-MB-231 resulted in significant reduction of cell proliferation and increase of apoptosis; the siRNA-induced MIF reduction in tumor-associated macrophages resulted in a significant reduction of surface expression of CD74 and CD206 and a significant increase of surface expression of major histocompatibility complex II, as well as intracellular expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-2. A direct injection of the MIF-siRNA-loaded nanoparticles into 4T1 tumor in mice resulted in effective reduction of intratumoral MIF. This led to a reduction of tumor growth and metastasis. This also resulted in a reduction of circulating myeloid-derived suppressive cells both in number and in suppressive function. CD4 T-cell infiltration to tumor was increased. More importantly, this not only slowed the growth of treated 4T1 tumor, but also delayed the growth and metastasis of a contralateral untreated 4T1-luc tumor, suggesting the development of systemic antitumor responses. This study demonstrates for the first time that the siRNA-mediated intratumoral MIF reduction can induce antitumoral immune response via reducing systemic immune suppression. PMID:26403072

  1. Rare cancers yield potential source of tumor growth

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered a genetic mutation that appears to increase production of red blood cells in tumors. The discovery, based on analysis of tissue from rare endocrine tumors, may help clarify how some tumors generate a new blood supply to sustain their growth, the researchers explained.

  2. Modified Gompertz equation for electrotherapy murine tumor growth kinetics: predictions and new hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy effectiveness at different doses has been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies; however, several aspects that occur in the tumor growth kinetics before and after treatment have not yet been revealed. Mathematical modeling is a useful instrument that can reveal some of these aspects. The aim of this paper is to describe the complete growth kinetics of unperturbed and perturbed tumors through use of the modified Gompertz equation in order to generate useful insight into the mechanisms that underpin this devastating disease. Methods The complete tumor growth kinetics for control and treated groups are obtained by interpolation and extrapolation methods with different time steps, using experimental data of fibrosarcoma Sa-37. In the modified Gompertz equation, a delay time is introduced to describe the tumor's natural history before treatment. Different graphical strategies are used in order to reveal new information in the complete kinetics of this tumor type. Results The first stage of complete tumor growth kinetics is highly non linear. The model, at this stage, shows different aspects that agree with those reported theoretically and experimentally. Tumor reversibility and the proportionality between regions before and after electrotherapy are demonstrated. In tumors that reach partial remission, two antagonistic post-treatment processes are induced, whereas in complete remission, two unknown antitumor mechanisms are induced. Conclusion The modified Gompertz equation is likely to lead to insights within cancer research. Such insights hold promise for increasing our understanding of tumors as self-organizing systems and, the possible existence of phase transitions in tumor growth kinetics, which, in turn, may have significant impacts both on cancer research and on clinical practice. PMID:21029411

  3. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Berridge, Jon Casey; Mallon, Zachary; Kreis, Mark; Athos, Brian; Nuccitelli, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    We have used both a rat orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model and a mouse allograft tumor model to study liver tumor ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). We confirm that nsPEF treatment triggers apoptosis in rat liver tumor cells as indicated by the appearance of cleaved caspase 3 and 9 within two hours after treatment. Furthermore we provide evidence that nsPEF treatment leads to the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) to the cell surface which is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern indicative of immunogenic cell death. We provide direct evidence that nanoelectroablation triggers a CD8-dependent inhibition of secondary tumor growth by comparing the growth rate of secondary orthotopic liver tumors in nsPEF-treated rats with that in nsPEF-treated rats depleted of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. The growth of these secondary tumors was severely inhibited as compared to tumor growth in CD8-depleated rats, with their average size only 3% of the primary tumor size after the same one-week growth period. In contrast, when we depleted CD8+ T-cells the second tumor grew more robustly, reaching 54% of the size of the first tumor. In addition, we demonstrate with immunohistochemistry that CD8+ T-cells are highly enriched in the secondary tumors exhibiting slow growth. We also showed that vaccinating mice with nsPEF-treated isogenic tumor cells stimulates an immune response that inhibits the growth of secondary tumors in a CD8+-dependent manner. We conclude that nanoelectroablation triggers the production of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells resulting in the inhibition of secondary tumor growth. PMID:26231031

  4. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Berridge, Jon Casey; Mallon, Zachary; Kreis, Mark; Athos, Brian; Nuccitelli, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    We have used both a rat orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model and a mouse allograft tumor model to study liver tumor ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). We confirm that nsPEF treatment triggers apoptosis in rat liver tumor cells as indicated by the appearance of cleaved caspase 3 and 9 within two hours after treatment. Furthermore we provide evidence that nsPEF treatment leads to the translocation of calreticulin (CRT) to the cell surface which is considered a damage-associated molecular pattern indicative of immunogenic cell death. We provide direct evidence that nanoelectroablation triggers a CD8-dependent inhibition of secondary tumor growth by comparing the growth rate of secondary orthotopic liver tumors in nsPEF-treated rats with that in nsPEF-treated rats depleted of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. The growth of these secondary tumors was severely inhibited as compared to tumor growth in CD8-depleated rats, with their average size only 3% of the primary tumor size after the same one-week growth period. In contrast, when we depleted CD8+ T-cells the second tumor grew more robustly, reaching 54% of the size of the first tumor. In addition, we demonstrate with immunohistochemistry that CD8+ T-cells are highly enriched in the secondary tumors exhibiting slow growth. We also showed that vaccinating mice with nsPEF-treated isogenic tumor cells stimulates an immune response that inhibits the growth of secondary tumors in a CD8+-dependent manner. We conclude that nanoelectroablation triggers the production of CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells resulting in the inhibition of secondary tumor growth. PMID:26231031

  5. P-selectin-mediated platelet adhesion promotes tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Li, Bin; Guo, Simei; Li, Jialin; Ye, Jie; Li, Jiangchao; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; He, Xiaodong; Cao, Liu; Zhou, Jia; Geng, Jianguo; Wang, Lijing

    2015-01-01

    Blood platelets foster carcinogenesis. We found that platelets are accumulated in human tumors. P-selectin deficiency and soluble P-selectin abolish platelet deposition within tumors, decreasing secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis, thereby suppressing tumor growth. Binding of the P-selectin cytoplasmic tail to talin1 triggers the talin1 N-terminal head to interact with the ?3 cytoplasmic tail. This activates ?IIb?3 and recruits platelets into tumors. Platelet infiltration into solid tumors occurs through a P-selectin-dependent mechanism. PMID:25762641

  6. Tumor growth modeling based on cell and tumor lifespans.

    PubMed

    Keinj, R; Bastogne, T; Vallois, P

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the lifespan modeling of heterogenous tumors treated by radiotherapy. A bi-scale model describing the cell and tumor lifespans by random variables is proposed. First- and second-order moments as well as the cumulative distribution functions and confidence intervals are expressed for the two lifespans with respect to the model parameters. One interesting result is that the mean value of the tumor lifespan can be approached by a logarithmic function of the initial cancer cell number. Moreover, we show that TCP and NTCP, used in radiotherapy to evaluate, optimize and compare treatment plans, can be derived from the tumor lifespan and the surrounding healthy tissue, respectively. Finally, we propose a ROC curve, entitled ECT (Efficiency-Complication Trade-off), suited to the selection by clinicians of the appropriate treatment planning. PMID:22820494

  7. Natural history of tumor growth and immune modulation in common spontaneous murine mammary tumor models

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Ekram; Rastetter, Lauren; Slota, Meredith; Koehnlein, Marlese; Treuting, Piper M.; Dang, Yushe; Stanton, Sasha; Disis, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies in patients with breast cancer suggest the immune microenvironment influences response to therapy. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between growth rates of tumors in common spontaneous mammary tumor models and immune biomarkers evaluated in the tumor and blood. Methods TgMMTV-neu and C3(1)-Tag transgenic mice were followed longitudinally from birth, and MPA-DMBA treated mice from the time of carcinogen administration, for the development of mammary tumors. Tumor infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, FOXP3+ T-regulatory cells, and myeloid derived suppressor cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokines were evaluated in subsets of mice. Fine needle aspirates of tumors were collected and RNA isolated to determine levels of immune and proliferation markers. Results Age of tumor onset and kinetics of tumor growth were significantly different among the models. Mammary tumors from TgMMTV-neu contained a lower CD8/CD4 ratio than other models (p<0.05). MPA-DMBA induced tumors contained a higher percentage of FOXP3+ CD4+ T-cells (p<0.01) and MDSC (p<0.001) as compared to the other models. Individuals with significantly slower tumor growth demonstrated higher levels of Type I serum cytokines prior to the development of lesions as compared to those with rapid tumor growth. Moreover, the tumors of animals with more rapid tumor growth demonstrated a significant increase in expression of genes associated with Type II immunity than those with slower progressing tumors. Conclusions These data provide a foundation for the development of in vivo models to explore the relationship between endogenous immunity and response to standard therapies for breast cancer. PMID:25395320

  8. Logistic Growth: Quadratic, No Time Delay, K Constant b = [K -N(0)]/N(0)

    E-print Network

    Caraco, Thomas

    Logistic Growth: Quadratic, No Time Delay, K Constant #12;b = [K - N(0)]/N(0) Logistic Population ~ Individual Growth Rate When Rare : Time Delay Population Reproduction: Responds to Density Time Units/Period Lesson: Time delay in density-dependent population regulation may destabilize population growth

  9. A multiphase model for three-dimensional tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sciumè, G; Shelton, S; Gray, WG; Miller, CT; Hussain, F; Ferrari, M; Decuzzi, P; Schrefler, BA

    2014-01-01

    Several mathematical formulations have analyzed the time-dependent behaviour of a tumor mass. However, most of these propose simplifications that compromise the physical soundness of the model. Here, multiphase porous media mechanics is extended to model tumor evolution, using governing equations obtained via the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT). A tumor mass is treated as a multiphase medium composed of an extracellular matrix (ECM); tumor cells (TC), which may become necrotic depending on the nutrient concentration and tumor phase pressure; healthy cells (HC); and an interstitial fluid (IF) for the transport of nutrients. The equations are solved by a Finite Element method to predict the growth rate of the tumor mass as a function of the initial tumor-to-healthy cell density ratio, nutrient concentration, mechanical strain, cell adhesion and geometry. Results are shown for three cases of practical biological interest such as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) and tumor cords. First, the model is validated by experimental data for time-dependent growth of an MTS in a culture medium. The tumor growth pattern follows a biphasic behaviour: initially, the rapidly growing tumor cells tend to saturate the volume available without any significant increase in overall tumor size; then, a classical Gompertzian pattern is observed for the MTS radius variation with time. A core with necrotic cells appears for tumor sizes larger than 150 ?m, surrounded by a shell of viable tumor cells whose thickness stays almost constant with time. A formula to estimate the size of the necrotic core is proposed. In the second case, the MTS is confined within a healthy tissue. The growth rate is reduced, as compared to the first case – mostly due to the relative adhesion of the tumor and healthy cells to the ECM, and the less favourable transport of nutrients. In particular, for tumor cells adhering less avidly to the ECM, the healthy tissue is progressively displaced as the malignant mass grows, whereas tumor cell infiltration is predicted for the opposite condition. Interestingly, the infiltration potential of the tumor mass is mostly driven by the relative cell adhesion to the ECM. In the third case, a tumor cord model is analyzed where the malignant cells grow around microvessels in a 3D geometry. It is shown that tumor cells tend to migrate among adjacent vessels seeking new oxygen and nutrient. This model can predict and optimize the efficacy of anticancer therapeutic strategies. It can be further developed to answer questions on tumor biophysics, related to the effects of ECM stiffness and cell adhesion on tumor cell proliferation. PMID:24554920

  10. Orally Active ?-TEA Suppresses Tumor Growth and Multiplicity of Spontaneous Murine Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Tobias; Fried, Karen; Hurley, Laurence H.; Akporiaye, Emmanuel T.

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated the anti-tumor efficacy of orally administered alpha-tocopheryloxyacetic acid (?-TEA), a redox silent and non-hydrolysable derivative of naturally occurring vitamin E. In order to move ?-TEA closer to the clinic to benefit breast cancer patients, the present study had two goals. First to determine the minimal effective treatment dose and second to test the efficacy of dietary administration of ?-TEA in the clinically relevant MMTV-PyMT mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer that more closely resembles human disease. The minimal effective dose of ?-TEA was evaluated in the transplantable 4T1 tumor model and we demonstrate a dose-dependent decrease of primary tumor growth and reduction of metastatic spread to the lung. MMTV-PyMT mice were treated with oral ?-TEA starting at six weeks of age for nine weeks with no apparent signs of drug toxicity. The ?-TEA treatment delayed tumor development and significantly slowed tumor progression, resulting in a 6-fold reduction of the average cumulative tumor size. In addition, oral ?-TEA caused an 80% reduction in spontaneous metastases. In situ analysis of tumor tissue identified apoptosis as an important mechanism of ?-TEA-mediated tumor suppression in addition to inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of orally administered ?-TEA to delay tumor onset and to inhibit the progression and metastatic spread of a clinically relevant model of spontaneous breast cancer. Our finding of the high efficacy in this tumor model highlights the translational potential of oral ?-TEA therapy. PMID:19509249

  11. Tumor associated osteoclast-like giant cells promote tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor-C

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, Yu; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Morita, Ikuo

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • M-CSF and RANKL expressing HeLa cells induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • We established OGC-containing tumor model in vivo. • OGC-containing tumor became larger independent of M-CSF or RANKL effect. • VEGF-C secreted from OGCs was a one of candidates for OGC-containing tumor growth. - Abstract: Tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) have been reported in a variety of organs and exert an invasive and prometastatic phenotype, but the functional role of OGCs in the tumor environment has not been fully clarified. We established tumors containing OGCs to clarify the role of OGCs in tumor phenotype. A mixture of HeLa cells expressing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, HeLa-M) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL, HeLa-R) effectively supported the differentiation of osteoclast-like cells from bone marrow macrophages in vitro. Moreover, a xenograft study showed OGC formation in a tumor composed of HeLa-M and HeLa-R. Surprisingly, the tumors containing OGCs were significantly larger than the tumors without OGCs, although the growth rates were not different in vitro. Histological analysis showed that lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration in the tumor containing OGCs, but not in other tumors were accelerated. According to quantitative PCR analysis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C mRNA expression increased with differentiation of osteoclast-like cells. To investigate whether VEGF-C expression is responsible for tumor growth and macrophage infiltration, HeLa cells overexpressing VEGF-C (HeLa-VC) were established and transplanted into mice. Tumors composed of HeLa-VC mimicked the phenotype of the tumors containing OGCs. Furthermore, the vascular permeability of tumor microvessels also increased in tumors containing OGCs and to some extent in VEGF-C-expressing tumors. These results suggest that macrophage infiltration and vascular permeability are possible mediators in these tumors. These findings revealed that OGCs in the tumor environment promoted tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis, at least in part, by secreting VEGF-C.

  12. Brain tumor modeling: glioma growth and interaction with chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaem, Hossein Y.; Ahmadian, Alireza; Saberi, Hooshangh; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Khodadad, Davood

    2011-10-01

    In last decade increasingly mathematical models of tumor growths have been studied, particularly on solid tumors which growth mainly caused by cellular proliferation. In this paper we propose a modified model to simulate the growth of gliomas in different stages. Glioma growth is modeled by a reaction-advection-diffusion. We begin with a model of untreated gliomas and continue with models of polyclonal glioma following chemotherapy. From relatively simple assumptions involving homogeneous brain tissue bounded by a few gross anatomical landmarks (ventricles and skull) the models have been expanded to include heterogeneous brain tissue with different motilities of glioma cells in grey and white matter. Tumor growth is characterized by a dangerous change in the control mechanisms, which normally maintain a balance between the rate of proliferation and the rate of apoptosis (controlled cell death). Result shows that this model closes to clinical finding and can simulate brain tumor behavior properly.

  13. Delaying cluster growth of ionotropic induced alginate gelation by oligoguluronate.

    PubMed

    Pado?, Anna Maria; Maurstad, Gjertrud; Draget, Kurt Ingar; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2015-11-20

    Alginates form gels in the presence of various divalent ions, such as Ca(2+) that mediate lateral association of chain segments. Various procedures exist that introduce Ca(2+) to yield alginate hydrogels with overall homogeneous or controlled gradients in the concentration profiles. In the present study, the effect of adding oligomers of ?-l-guluronic acid (oligoGs) to gelling solutions of alginate was investigated by determination of the cluster growth stimulated by in situ release of Ca(2+). Three different alginate samples varying in fraction of ?-l-guluronic acid and molecular weights were employed. The cluster growth was determined for both pure alginates and alginates with two different concentrations of the oligoGs employing dynamic light scattering. The results show that addition of oligoG slows down the cluster growth, the more efficient for the alginates with higher fraction of ?-l-guluronic acid, and the higher molecular weight. The efficiency in delaying and slowing the cluster growth induced by added oligoG were discussed in view of the molecular parameters of the alginates. These results show that oligoG can be added to alginate solutions to control the cluster growth and eventually also transition to the gel state. Quantitative relation between the concentration of added oligoG, type and molecular weight of the alginate, and concentration, can be employed as guidelines in tuning alginate cluster growth with specific properties. PMID:26344264

  14. Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yan Fei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

    2014-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24980821

  15. Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yanfei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

    2014-07-30

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:24980821

  16. Tumor-induced osteomalacia due to a recurrent mesenchymal tumor overexpressing several growth factor receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gerothanasi, Nikolina; Frydas, Athanasios; Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Poulios, Chris; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Apostolou, Panagiotis; Papasotiriou, Ioannis; Tournis, Symeon; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Yovos, John G

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and local recurrence occurs in <5% of cases. We investigated a 49-year-old man with a recurrent mesenchymal phosphaturic tumor showing no signs of malignancy. The patient suffered from chronic muscle weakness, myalgia and cramps. His medical record included the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia, for which he was submitted to tumor resection in the left leg three times before. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia and an elevated serum FGF23 level. A radical surgical approach (amputation) was advised, however, complete biochemical and clinical remission was not reached. Molecular analysis of the tumor cells demonstrated overexpression of growth factor receptors implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastatic potential (platelet derived growth factor type A (PDGFRA), PDGFRB and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor) together with increased expression of FGF23, x-linked-phosphate-regulating endopeptidase and KLOTHO. TIO is usually associated with benign phosphauturic tumors and, when identified, resection of the tumor leads to complete remission in the majority of cases. The underlying pathophysiology of recurrences in these tumors is not known. This is the first report showing increased expression of growth factor receptors in a locally aggressive but histopathologically benign phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. Learning points TIO is usually associated with benign soft tissue or bone neoplasms of mesenchymal origin.These tumors typically follow a benign clinical course and even in the rare malignant cases local recurrence occurs in <5%.Successful identification and removal of the tumor leads to full recovery in the majority of cases. PMID:26155363

  17. Understanding the Mechanisms of Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Though cancer is certainly a disease caused by changes in a cell's genes, it has become clear over the past few years that cancer is also a disease of biomechanical malfunctions. Indeed, research has shown that interactions between the mechanical properties of tumors and the tissues that surround them play a critical role in the development and growth of tumors.

  18. Growth of melanoma brain tumors monitored by photoacoustic microscopy

    E-print Network

    Staley, Jacob; Grogan, Patrick; Samadi, Abbas K.; Cui, Huizhong; Cohen, Mark S.; Yang, Xinmai

    2010-08-13

    a reflection mode photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system to detect the growth of melanoma brain tumor in a small animal model. The melanoma tumor cells are implanted in the brain of a mouse at the beginning of the test. Then, PAM is used to scan...

  19. Motif mimetic of epsin perturbs tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yunzhou; Wu, Hao; Rahman, H N Ashiqur; Liu, Yanjun; Pasula, Satish; Tessneer, Kandice L; Cai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiaolei; Chang, Baojun; McManus, John; Hahn, Scott; Dong, Jiali; Brophy, Megan L; Yu, Lili; Song, Kai; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Saunders, Debra; Njoku, Charity; Song, Hoogeun; Mehta-D'Souza, Padmaja; Towner, Rheal; Lupu, Florea; McEver, Rodger P; Xia, Lijun; Boerboom, Derek; Srinivasan, R Sathish; Chen, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is critical for cancer progression. In multiple murine models, endothelium-specific epsin deficiency abrogates tumor progression by shifting the balance of VEGFR2 signaling toward uncontrolled tumor angiogenesis, resulting in dysfunctional tumor vasculature. Here, we designed a tumor endothelium-targeting chimeric peptide (UPI) for the purpose of inhibiting endogenous tumor endothelial epsins by competitively binding activated VEGFR2. We determined that the UPI peptide specifically targets tumor endothelial VEGFR2 through an unconventional binding mechanism that is driven by unique residues present only in the epsin ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM) and the VEGFR2 kinase domain. In murine models of neoangiogenesis, UPI peptide increased VEGF-driven angiogenesis and neovascularization but spared quiescent vascular beds. Further, in tumor-bearing mice, UPI peptide markedly impaired functional tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis, resulting in a notable increase in survival. Coadministration of UPI peptide with cytotoxic chemotherapeutics further sustained tumor inhibition. Equipped with localized tumor endothelium-specific targeting, our UPI peptide provides potential for an effective and alternative cancer therapy. PMID:26571402

  20. Phase transition in tumor growth: I avascular development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Rebelo, I.; Tejera, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a mechanism for avascular tumor growth based on a simple chemical network. This model presents a logistic behavior and shows a “second order” phase transition. We prove the fractal origin of the empirical logistics and Gompertz constant and its relation to mitosis and apoptosis rate. Finally, the thermodynamics framework developed demonstrates the entropy production rate as a Lyapunov function during avascular tumor growth.

  1. Patient Specific Tumor Growth Prediction Using Multimodal Images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yixun; Sadowski, Samira M.; Weisbrod, Allison B.; Kebebew, Electron; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Personalized tumor growth model is valuable in tumor staging and therapy planning. In this paper, we present a patient specific tumor growth model based on longitudinal multimodal imaging data including dual-phase CT and FDG-PET. The proposed Reaction-Advection-Diffusion model is capable of integrating cancerous cell proliferation, infiltration, metabolic rate and extracellular matrix biomechanical response. To bridge the model with multimodal imaging data, we introduce intracellular volume fraction (ICVF) measured from dual-phase CT and Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) measured from FDG-PET into the model. The patient specific model parameters are estimated by fitting the model to the observation, which leads to an inverse problem formalized as a coupled Partial Differential Equations (PDE)-constrained optimization problem. The optimality system is derived and solved by the Finite Difference Method. The model was evaluated by comparing the predicted tumors with the observed tumors in terms of average surface distance (ASD), root mean square difference (RMSD) of the ICVF map, average ICVF difference (AICVFD) of tumor surface and tumor relative volume difference (RVD) on six patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The ASD between the predicted tumor and the reference tumor was 2.4±0.5 mm, the RMSD was 4.3±0.4%, the AICVFD was 2.6±0.6%, and the RVD was 7.7±1.3%. PMID:24607911

  2. STATISTICAL INFERENCE FOR TUMOR GROWTH INHIBITION T/C RATIO

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The tumor growth inhibition T/C ratio is commonly used to quantify treatment effects in drug screening tumor xenograft experiments. The T/C ratio is converted to an antitumor activity rating using an arbitrary cutoff point and often without any formal statistical inference. Here, we applied a nonparametric bootstrap method and a small sample likelihood ratio statistic to make a statistical inference of the T/C ratio, including both hypothesis testing and a confidence interval estimate. Furthermore, sample size and power are also discussed for statistical design of tumor xenograft experiments. Tumor xenograft data from an actual experiment were analyzed to illustrate the application. PMID:20721784

  3. Bee venom inhibits growth of human cervical tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Lim; Park, Sang Ho; Kim, Tae Myoung; Jung, Yu Yeon; Park, Mi Hee; Oh, Sang Hyun; Yun, Hye Seok; Jun, Hyung Ok; Yoo, Hwan Soo; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ung Soo; Yoon, Joo Hee; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-03-30

    We studied whether bee venom (BV) inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of death receptor (DR) expressions and inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in mice. In vivo study showed that BV (1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth. Similar inhibitory effects of BV on cancer growth in primary human cervical cancer cells were also found. BV (1-5 ?g/ml) also inhibited the growth of cancer cells, Ca Ski and C33Aby the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Agreed with cancer cell growth inhibition, expression of death receptors; FAS, DR3 and DR6, and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3 and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the NF-?B activity and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with BV in tumor mice, human cancer cell and human tumor samples as well as cultured cancer cells. In addition, deletion of FAS, DR3 and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed BV-induced cell growth inhibitory effects as well as NF-?B inactivation. These results suggest that BV inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of FAS, DR3 and DR6 expression via inhibition of NF-?B pathway. PMID:25730901

  4. Bee venom inhibits growth of human cervical tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Myoung; Jung, Yu Yeon; Park, Mi Hee; Oh, Sang Hyun; Yun, Hye Seok; Jun, Hyung Ok; Yoo, Hwan Soo; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ung Soo; Yoon, Joo Hee; Song, Min Jong; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    We studied whether bee venom (BV) inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of death receptor (DR) expressions and inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) in mice. In vivo study showed that BV (1 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth. Similar inhibitory effects of BV on cancer growth in primary human cervical cancer cells were also found. BV (1–5 ?g/ml) also inhibited the growth of cancer cells, Ca Ski and C33Aby the induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner. Agreed with cancer cell growth inhibition, expression of death receptors; FAS, DR3 and DR6, and DR downstream pro-apoptotic proteins including caspase-3 and Bax was concomitantly increased, but the NF-?B activity and the expression of Bcl-2 were inhibited by treatment with BV in tumor mice, human cancer cell and human tumor samples as well as cultured cancer cells. In addition, deletion of FAS, DR3 and DR6 by small interfering RNA significantly reversed BV-induced cell growth inhibitory effects as well as NF-?B inactivation. These results suggest that BV inhibits cervical tumor growth through enhancement of FAS, DR3 and DR6 expression via inhibition of NF-?B pathway. PMID:25730901

  5. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  6. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A; Salomon, Matthew P; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-03-01

    What happens in early, still undetectable human malignancies is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a 'Big Bang' model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed subclones that are not subject to stringent selection and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors showed an absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) and subclone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear 'born to be bad', with subclone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH, with important clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Branching Morphogenesis and Vascular Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huaming

    Feedback regulation of cell lineages is known to play an important role in tissue size control, but the effect in tissue morphogenesis has yet to be explored. We first use a non-spatial model to show that a combination of positive and negative feedback on stem and/or progenitor cell self-renewal leads to bistable or bi-modal growth behaviors and ultrasensitivity to external growth cues. Next, a spatiotemporal model is used to demonstrate spatial patterns such as local budding and branching arise in this setting, and are not consequences of Turing-type instabilities. We next extend the model to a three-dimensional hybrid discrete-continuum model of tumor growth to study the effects of angiogenesis, tumor progression and cancer therapies. We account for the crosstalk between the vasculature and cancer stem cells (CSCs), and CSC transdifferentiation into vascular endothelial cells (gECs), as observed experimentally. The vasculature stabilizes tumor invasiveness but considerably enhances growth. A gEC network structure forms spontaneously within the hypoxic core, consistent with experimental findings. The model is then used to study cancer therapeutics. We demonstrate that traditional anti-angiogenic therapies decelerate tumor growth, but make the tumor highly invasive. Chemotherapies help to reduce tumor sizes, but cannot control the invasion. Anti-CSC therapies that promote differentiation or disturb the stem cell niche effectively reduce tumor invasiveness. However, gECs inherit mutations present in CSCs and are resistant to traditional therapies. We show that anti-gEC treatments block the support on CSCs by gECs, and reduce both tumor size and invasiveness. Our study suggests that therapies targeting the vasculature, CSCs and gECs, when combined, are highly synergistic and are capable of controlling both tumor size and shape.

  8. MerTK inhibition in tumor leukocytes decreases tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Rebecca S.; Jacobsen, Kristen M.; Wofford, Anne M.; DeRyckere, Deborah; Stanford, Jamie; Prieto, Anne L.; Redente, Elizabeth; Sandahl, Melissa; Hunter, Debra M.; Strunk, Karen E.; Graham, Douglas K.; Earp, H. Shelton

    2013-01-01

    MerTK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) of the TYRO3/AXL/MerTK family, is expressed in myeloid lineage cells in which it acts to suppress proinflammatory cytokines following ingestion of apoptotic material. Using syngeneic mouse models of breast cancer, melanoma, and colon cancer, we found that tumors grew slowly and were poorly metastatic in MerTK–/– mice. Transplantation of MerTK–/– bone marrow, but not wild-type bone marrow, into lethally irradiated MMTV-PyVmT mice (a model of metastatic breast cancer) decreased tumor growth and altered cytokine production by tumor CD11b+ cells. Although MerTK expression was not required for tumor infiltration by leukocytes, MerTK–/– leukocytes exhibited lower tumor cell–induced expression of wound healing cytokines, e.g., IL-10 and growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), and enhanced expression of acute inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-12 and IL-6. Intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte numbers were higher and lymphocyte proliferation was increased in tumor-bearing MerTK–/– mice compared with tumor-bearing wild-type mice. Antibody-mediated CD8+ T lymphocyte depletion restored tumor growth in MerTK–/– mice. These data demonstrate that MerTK signaling in tumor-associated CD11b+ leukocytes promotes tumor growth by dampening acute inflammatory cytokines while inducing wound healing cytokines. These results suggest that inhibition of MerTK in the tumor microenvironment may have clinical benefit, stimulating antitumor immune responses or enhancing immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:23867499

  9. Thymidine Phosphorylase is Angiogenic and Promotes Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, Amir; Zhang, Hua-Tang; Fan, Tai-Ping D.; Hu, De-En; Lees, Vivien C.; Turley, Helen; Fox, Stephen B.; Gatter, Kevin C.; Harris, Adrian L.; Bicknell, Roy

    1995-02-01

    Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor was previously identified as the sole angiogenic activity present in platelets; it is now known to be thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The effect of TP on [methyl-^3H]thymidine uptake does not arise from de novo DNA synthesis and the molecule is not a growth factor. Despite this, TP is strongly angiogenic in a rat sponge and freeze-injured skin graft model. Neutralizing antibodies and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the enzyme activity of TP is a condition for its angiogenic activity. The level of TP was found to be elevated in human breast tumors compared to normal breast tissue (P < 0.001). Overexpression of TP in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells had no effect on growth in vitro but markedly enhanced tumor growth in vivo. These data and the correlation of expression in tumors with malignancy identify TP as a target for antitumor strategies.

  10. TNF? antagonization alters NOS2 dependent nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Bourouba, Mehdi; Zergoun, Ahmed-Amine; Maffei, Joseph S; Chila, Dalia; Djennaoui, Djamel; Asselah, Fatima; Amir-Tidadini, Zine-Charef; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2015-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF?) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which mediates via nitric oxide (NO) several carcinogenic processes. Increasing evidences suggest that NO promotes inflammation induced growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In patients, TNF? synthesis associates with poor survival. To explore the effect of the cytokine on NO production and NOS2 dependent NPC growth, NO2(-) (nitrite) producing cells in patients were analyzed in vitro. We observed that patients' monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) and primary tumor biopsies synthesized significant amounts of NO2(-). Interestingly, tumor explants derived NO2(-) levels were more important in elderly patients in comparison with juveniles. Endogenous TNF? neutralization with an anti-TNF? monoclonal antibody (mAb) successfully inhibited NO2(-) synthesis by blood mononuclear cells and tumor explants. Recombinant TNF? (rTNF?) enhanced NO2(-) synthesis and C666-1 NPC cell proliferation. NOS2 selective inhibition (1400W) and TNF? antagonization with an anti-TNF? mAb potently inhibited rTNF? induced C666-1 proliferation and NO2(-) production. Importantly, primary tumors treated with the anti-TNF? mAb also displayed reduced proliferation index (Ki67). Altogether, our results define monocytes/macrophages and the primary tumor as major sources of circulating NO2(-) in NPC patients and support the idea that antibody dependent inhibition of the TNF?/NOS2 pathway may alter NPC tumor growth. PMID:25912222

  11. Three-Dimensional Multispecies Nonlinear Tumor Growth–II: Tumor Invasion and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frieboes, H.B.; Jin, F.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Cristini, V.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the diffuse interface model developed in Wise et al. (2008) to study nonlinear tumor growth in 3D. Extensions include the tracking of multiple viable cell species populations through a continuum diffuse-interface approach, onset and aging of discrete tumor vessels through angiogenesis, and incorporation of individual cell movement using a hybrid continuum-discrete approach. We investigate disease progression as a function of cellular-scale parameters such as proliferation and oxygen/nutrient uptake rates. We find that heterogeneity in the physiologically complex tumor microenvironment, caused by non-uniform distribution of oxygen, cell nutrients, and metabolites, as well as phenotypic changes affecting cellular-scale parameters, can be quantitatively linked to the tumor macro-scale as a mechanism that promotes morphological instability. This instability leads to invasion through tumor infiltration of surrounding healthy tissue. Models that employ a biologically-founded, multiscale approach, as illustrated in this work, could help to quantitatively link the critical effect of heterogeneity in the tumor microenvironment with clinically observed tumor growth and invasion. Using patient tumor-specific parameter values, this approach may provide a predictive tool to characterize the complex in vivo tumor physiological characteristics and clinical response, and thus lead to improved treatment modalities and prognosis. PMID:20303982

  12. Inhibition of tumor growth by histoincompatible cells expressing interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Roth, C; Mir, L M; Cressent, M; Quintin-Colonna, F; Ley, V; Fradelizi, D; Kourilsky, P

    1992-12-01

    Murine tumor cells engineered to express IL-2 have been shown to be rejected by the syngeneic host, which is then protected against a subsequent tumorigenic challenge. To assess whether IL-2 has to be produced by the tumor cells themselves, or whether its local delivery would be sufficient to promote such beneficial effects, the syngeneic tumor cells were co-inoculated with allogeneic or xenogeneic cells secreting IL-2, selected after gene transfection. In several murine systems, it was observed that this is an efficient approach for controlling the growth of the syngeneic tumor. However, animals which rejected the tumor were not protected against a subsequent challenge. Several lines of evidence indicate that NK cells play a major role in tumor rejection induced by the IL-2 expressing histoincompatible vector cells. Thus, while local delivery of IL-2 in the vicinity of a tumor might not be sufficient to promote a systemic long-term specific antitumor immune response, it can control the growth of the primary syngeneic tumor. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using genetically engineered histoincompatible cells (which are rejected by the host's immune system) as a transient delivery system in vivo. PMID:1286066

  13. Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Boreyko, Jonathan B; Collier, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an inter-drop frost wave. The growth of this inter-drop frost front is shown to be up to three times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of inter-drop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an inter-drop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser was found to be superior to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by minimizing the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

  14. Regulatory B cells preferentially accumulate in tumor-draining lymph nodes and promote tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ganti, Sheila N.; Albershardt, Tina C.; Iritani, Brian M.; Ruddell, Alanna

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies found that B16-F10 melanoma growth in the rear footpad of immunocompetent mice induces marked B cell accumulation within tumor-draining popliteal lymph nodes (TDLN). This B cell accumulation drives TDLN remodeling that precedes and promotes metastasis, indicating a tumor-promoting role for TDLN B cells. Here we show that phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in mice bearing B16-F10 melanomas identifies preferential accumulation of T2-MZP B cells in the TDLN. Comparison of non-draining LNs and spleens of tumor-bearing mice with LNs and spleens from naïve mice determined that this pattern of B cell accumulation was restricted to the TDLN. B cell-deficient and immunocompetent mice reconstituted with T2-MZP B cells but not with other B cell subsets displayed accelerated tumor growth, demonstrating that T2-MZP B cells possess regulatory activity in tumor-bearing mice. Unlike splenic regulatory B cells, however, these TDLN B cells did not exhibit increased IL-10 production, nor did they promote Treg generation in the TDLN. These findings demonstrate that tumors initially signal via the lymphatic drainage to stimulate the preferential accumulation of T2-MZP regulatory B cells. This local response may be an early and critical step in generating an immunosuppressive environment to permit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26193241

  15. SKI knockdown inhibits human melanoma tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dahu; Lin, Qiushi; Box, Neil; Roop, Dennis; Ishii, Shunsuke; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Fan, Tao; Hornyak, Thomas J; Reed, Jon A; Stavnezer, Ed; Timchenko, Nikolai A; Medrano, Estela E

    2009-12-01

    The SKI protein represses the TGF-beta tumor suppressor pathway by associating with the Smad transcription factors. SKI is upregulated in human malignant melanoma tumors in a disease-progression manner and its overexpression promotes proliferation and migration of melanoma cells in vitro. The mechanisms by which SKI antagonizes TGF-beta signaling in vivo have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that human melanoma cells in which endogenous SKI expression was knocked down by RNAi produced minimal orthotopic tumor xenograft nodules that displayed low mitotic rate and prominent apoptosis. These minute tumors exhibited critical signatures of active TGF-beta signaling including high levels of nuclear Smad3 and p21(Waf-1), which are not found in the parental melanomas. To understand how SKI promotes tumor growth we used gain- and loss-of-function approaches and found that simultaneously to blocking the TGF-beta-growth inhibitory pathway, SKI promotes the switch of Smad3 from tumor suppression to oncogenesis by favoring phosphorylations of the Smad3 linker region in melanoma cells but not in normal human melanocytes. In this context, SKI is required for preventing TGF-beta-mediated downregulation of the oncogenic protein c-MYC, and for inducing the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a mediator of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Together, the results indicate that SKI exploits multiple regulatory levels of the TGF-beta pathway and its deficiency restores TGF-beta tumor suppressor and apoptotic activities in spite of the likely presence of oncogenic mutations in melanoma tumors. PMID:19845874

  16. Inhibition of IL-17A suppresses enhanced-tumor growth in low dose pre-irradiated tumor beds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ik-Jae; Kim, Won Woo; Ha, Sang-Jun; Suh, Yang-Gun; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces modification of the tumor microenvironment such as tumor surrounding region, which is relevant to treatment outcome after radiotherapy. In this study, the effects of pre-irradiated tumor beds on the growth of subsequently implanted tumors were investigated as well as underlying mechanism. The experimental model was set up by irradiating the right thighs of C3H/HeN mice with 5 Gy, followed by the implantation of HCa-I and MIH-2. Both implanted tumors in the pre-irradiated bed showed accelerated-growth compared to the control. Tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte (TIL) levels were increased, as well as pro-tumor factors such as IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-?1) in the pre-irradiated group. In particular, the role of pro-tumor cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) was investigated as a possible target mechanism because IL-6 and TGF-? are key factors in Th17 cells differentiation from naïve T cells. IL-17A expression was increased not only in tumors, but also in CD4+ T cells isolated from the tumor draining lymph nodes. The effect of IL-17A on tumor growth was confirmed by treating tumors with IL-17A antibody, which abolished the acceleration of tumor growth. These results indicate that the upregulation of IL-17A seems to be a key factor for enhancing tumor growth in pre-irradiated tumor beds. PMID:25181290

  17. From the Cover: Glutamate antagonists limit tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzeski, Wojciech; Turski, Lechoslaw; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2001-05-01

    Neuronal progenitors and tumor cells possess propensity to proliferate and to migrate. Glutamate regulates proliferation and migration of neurons during development, but it is not known whether it influences proliferation and migration of tumor cells. We demonstrate that glutamate antagonists inhibit proliferation of human tumor cells. Colon adenocarcinoma, astrocytoma, and breast and lung carcinoma cells were most sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist dizocilpine, whereas breast and lung carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and neuroblastoma cells responded most favorably to the -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate antagonist GYKI52466. The antiproliferative effect of glutamate antagonists was Ca2+ dependent and resulted from decreased cell division and increased cell death. Morphological alterations induced by glutamate antagonists in tumor cells consisted of reduced membrane ruffling and pseudopodial protrusions. Furthermore, glutamate antagonists decreased motility and invasive growth of tumor cells. These findings suggest anticancer potential of glutamate antagonists.

  18. Inhibition of lung tumor growth and augmentation of radiosensitivity by decreasing peroxiredoxin I expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.-F.; Keng, Peter C.; Shau Hungyi; Wu, C.-T.; Hu, Y.-C.; Liao, S.-K.; Chen, W.-C. . E-mail: miaofen@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: In this study, we examined the role of peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) in lung cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and its influence on these tumor cells' sensitivity to radiotherapy. Methods and materials: We established stable transfectants of A549 (p53+) and H1299 (p53-) lung carcinoma cell lines with Prx I antisense to downregulate their Prx I protein. We then examined their in vitro biologic changes and used nude mice xenografts of these cell lines to compare tumor invasion, spontaneous metastatic capacity, and sensitivity to radiotherapy. Results: The Prx I antisense transfectants of both cell lines showed a significant reduction in Prx I protein production. Prx I antisense transfectants grew more slowly than did the wild type. As xenografts in mice, A549 Prx I antisense transfectants showed a threefold delay in the generation of palpable tumors. The incidence of spontaneous metastasis of Prx I antisense transfectants was significantly less than that of the wild-type cells. Furthermore, irradiation of Prx I antisense transfectants caused more than twice the growth delay compared with the wild type. Conclusion: The results of these studies suggest that inactivation of Prx I may be a promising approach to improve the treatment outcome of patients with lung cancer.

  19. Growth of melanoma brain tumors monitored by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Jacob; Grogan, Patrick; Samadi, Abbas K.; Cui, Huizhong; Cohen, Mark S.; Yang, Xinmai

    2010-07-01

    Melanoma is a primary malignancy that is known to metastasize to the brain and often causes death. The ability to image the growth of brain melanoma in vivo can provide new insights into its evolution and response to therapies. In our study, we use a reflection mode photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system to detect the growth of melanoma brain tumor in a small animal model. The melanoma tumor cells are implanted in the brain of a mouse at the beginning of the test. Then, PAM is used to scan the region of implantation in the mouse brain, and the growth of the melanoma is monitored until the death of the animal. It is demonstrated that PAM is capable of detecting and monitoring the brain melanoma growth noninvasively in vivo.

  20. A Big Bang model of human colorectal tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sottoriva, Andrea; Kang, Haeyoun; Ma, Zhicheng; Graham, Trevor A.; Salomon, Matthew P.; Zhao, Junsong; Marjoram, Paul; Siegmund, Kimberly; Press, Michael F.; Shibata, Darryl; Curtis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    What happens in the early, still undetectable human malignancy is unknown because direct observations are impractical. Here we present and validate a “Big Bang” model, whereby tumors grow predominantly as a single expansion producing numerous intermixed sub-clones that are not subject to stringent selection, and where both public (clonal) and most detectable private (subclonal) alterations arise early during growth. Genomic profiling of 349 individual glands from 15 colorectal tumors revealed the absence of selective sweeps, uniformly high intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH), and sub-clone mixing in distant regions, as postulated by our model. We also verified the prediction that most detectable ITH originates from early private alterations, and not from later clonal expansions, thus exposing the profile of the primordial tumor. Moreover, some tumors appear born-to-be-bad, with sub-clone mixing indicative of early malignant potential. This new model provides a quantitative framework to interpret tumor growth dynamics and the origins of ITH with significant clinical implications. PMID:25665006

  1. Phase transitions in tumor growth: II prostate cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanos-Pérez, J. A.; Betancourt-Mar, A.; De Miguel, M. P.; Izquierdo-Kulich, E.; Royuela-García, M.; Tejera, E.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a mechanism for prostate cancer cell lines growth, LNCaP and PC3 based on a Gompertz dynamics. This growth exhibits a multifractal behavior and a "second order" phase transition. Finally, it was found that the cellular line PC3 exhibits a higher value of entropy production rate compared to LNCaP, which is indicative of the robustness of PC3, over to LNCaP and may be a quantitative index of metastatic potential tumors.

  2. Altered tumor cell growth and tumorigenicity in models of microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, K.; Taga, M.; Furian, L.; Odle, J.; Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N.; Andrassy, R.; Kulkarni, A.

    Spaceflight environment and microgravity (MG) causes immune dysfunction and is a major health risk to humans, especially during long-term space missions. The effects of microgravity environment on tumor growth and carcinogenesis are yet unknown. Hence, we investigated the effects of simulated MG (SMG) on tumor growth and tumorigenicity using in vivo and in vitro models. B16 melanoma cells were cultured in static flask (FL) and rotating wall vessel bioreactors (BIO) to measure growth and properties, melanin production and apoptosis. BIO cultures had 50% decreased growth (p<0.01), increased doubling time and a 150% increase in melanin production (p<0.05). Flow cytometric analysis showed increased apoptosis in BIO. When BIO cultured melanoma cells were inoculated sc in mice there was a significant increase in tumorigenicity as compared to FL cells. Thus SMG may have supported &selected highly tumorigenic cells and it is pos sible that in addition to decreased immune function MG may alter tumor cell characteristics and invasiveness. Thus it is important to study effects of microgravity environment and its stressors using experimental tumors and SMG to understand and evaluate carcinogenic responses to true microgravity. Further studies on carcinogenic events and their mechanisms will allow us develop and formulate countermeasures and protect space travelers. Additional results will be presented. (Supported by NASA NCC8-168 grant, ADK)

  3. Building Context with Tumor Growth Modeling Projects in Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Julie C.; Gevertz, Jana L.; Howard, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling projects serves to integrate, reinforce, and extend student knowledge. Here we present two projects related to tumor growth appropriate for a first course in differential equations. They illustrate the use of problem-based learning to reinforce and extend course content via a writing or research experience. Here we discuss…

  4. Pancreatic Tumor Growth Prediction with Multiplicative Growth and Image-Derived Motion.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ken C L; Summers, Ronald M; Kebebew, Electron; Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are abnormal growths of hormone-producing cells in the pancreas. Different from the brain in the skull, the pancreas in the abdomen can be largely deformed by the body posture and the surrounding organs. In consequence, both tumor growth and pancreatic motion attribute to the tumor shape difference observable from images. As images at different time points are used to personalize the tumor growth model, the prediction accuracy may be reduced if such motion is ignored. Therefore, we incorporate the image-derived pancreatic motion to tumor growth personalization. For realistic mechanical interactions, the multiplicative growth decomposition is used with a hyperelastic constitutive law to model tumor mass effect, which allows growth modeling without compromising the mechanical accuracy. With also the FDG-PET and contrast-enhanced CT images, the functional, structural, and motion data are combined for a more patient-specific model. Experiments on synthetic and clinical data show the importance of image-derived motion on estimating physiologically plausible mechanical properties and the promising performance of our framework. From six patient data sets, the recall, precision, Dice coefficient, relative volume difference, and average surface distance were 89.8 ± 3.5%, 85.6 ± 7.5%, 87.4 ± 3.6%, 9.7 ± 7.2%, and 0.6 ± 0.2 mm, respectively. PMID:26221698

  5. Dietary rice component, Oryzanol, inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scope: We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice. Methods and results: Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, '-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet fo...

  6. Human STEAP3 maintains tumor growth under hypoferric condition

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Taichi; Baba, Eishi; Arita, Shuji; Komoda, Masato; Tamura, Shingo; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Takaishi, Shigeo; Kusaba, Hitoshi; and others

    2011-11-01

    Iron is essential in cellular proliferation and survival based on its crucial roles in DNA and ATP synthesis. Tumor cells proliferate rapidly even in patients with low serum iron, although their actual mechanisms are not well known. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of efficient tumor progression under the hypoferric condition, we studied the roles of six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate family member 3 (STEAP3), which was reported to facilitate iron uptake. Using Raji cells with low STEAP3 mRNA expression, human STEAP3-overexpressing cells were established. The impact of STEAP3 expression was analyzed about the amount of iron storage, the survival under hypoferric conditions in vitro and the growth of tumor in vivo. STEAP3 overexpression increased ferritin, an indicator of iron storage, in STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells. STEAP3 gave Raji cells the resistance to iron deprivation-induced apoptosis. These STEAP3-overexpressing Raji cells preserved efficient growth even in hypoferric mice, while parental Raji cells grew less rapidly. In addition, iron deficiency enhanced STEAP3 mRNA expression in tumor cells. Furthermore, human colorectal cancer tissues exhibited more STEAP3 mRNA expression and iron storage compared with normal colon mucosa. These findings indicate that STEAP3 maintains iron storage in human malignant cells and tumor proliferation under the hypoferric condition. -- Highlights: {yields} STEAP3 expression results in increment of stored intracellular iron. {yields} Iron deprivation induces expression of STEAP3. {yields} Colorectal cancer expresses STEAP3 highly and stores iron much. {yields} STEAP3 expressing tumors preserves growth even in mice being hypoferremia.

  7. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  8. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-02-03

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Interleukin-35 Promoting Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kang-Ling; Bai, Xue-Feng; Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-35 (IL-35), a cytokine from the Interleukin-12 cytokine family, has been considered as an anti-inflammatory cytokine which promotes tumor progression and tumor immune evasion. It has also been demonstrated that IL-35 is secreted by regulatory T cells. Recent mouse experiments have shown that IL-35 produced by cancer cells promotes tumor growth via enhancing myeloid cell accumulation and angiogenesis, and reducing the infiltration of activated CD8 T cells into tumor microenvironment. In the present paper we develop a mathematical model based on these experimental results. We include in the model an anti-IL-35 drug as treatment. The extended model (with drug) is used to design protocols of anti-IL-35 injections for treatment of cancer. We find that with a fixed total amount of drug, continuous injection has better efficacy than intermittent injections in reducing the tumor load while the treatment is ongoing. We also find that the percentage of tumor reduction under anti-IL-35 treatment improves when the production of IL-35 by cancer is increased. PMID:25356878

  10. Blocking Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Inhibits Tumor Growth, Lymphangiogenesis, and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Larrieu-Lahargue, Frédéric; Welm, Alana L.; Bouchecareilh, Marion; Alitalo, Kari; Li, Dean Y.; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Auguste, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor receptor (FGFR) activity plays crucial roles in tumor growth and patient survival. However, FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor) signaling as a target for cancer therapy has been under-investigated compared to other receptor tyrosine kinases. Here, we studied the effect of FGFR signaling inhibition on tumor growth, metastasis and lymphangiogenesis by expressing a dominant negative FGFR (FGFR-2DN) in an orthotopic mouse mammary 66c14 carcinoma model. We show that FGFR-2DN-expressing 66c14 cells proliferate in vitro slower than controls. 66c14 tumor outgrowth and lung metastatic foci are reduced in mice implanted with FGFR-2DN-expressing cells, which also exhibited better overall survival. We found 66c14 cells in the lumen of tumor lymphatic vessels and in lymph nodes. FGFR-2DN-expressing tumors exhibited a decrease in VEGFR-3 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3) or podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels, an increase in isolated intratumoral lymphatic endothelial cells and a reduction in VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C) mRNA expression. FGFs may act in an autocrine manner as the inhibition of FGFR signaling in tumor cells suppresses VEGF-C expression in a COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) or HIF1-? (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 ?) independent manner. FGFs may also act in a paracrine manner on tumor lymphatics by inducing expression of pro-lymphangiogenic molecules such as VEGFR-3, integrin ?9, prox1 and netrin-1. Finally, in vitro lymphangiogenesis is impeded in the presence of FGFR-2DN 66c14 cells. These data confirm that both FGF and VEGF signaling are necessary for the maintenance of vascular morphogenesis and provide evidence that targeting FGFR signaling may be an interesting approach to inhibit tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastatic spread. PMID:22761819

  11. Netrin-4 regulates angiogenic responses and tumor cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Nacht, Mariana; St Martin, Thia B.; Byrne, Ann; Klinger, Katherine W.; Teicher, Beverly A.; Madden, Stephen L. Jiang, Yide

    2009-03-10

    Netrin-4 is a 628 amino acid basement membrane component that promotes neurite elongation at low concentrations but inhibits neurite extension at high concentrations. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that several molecules, including netrins, are regulators of both neuronal and vascular growth. It is believed that molecules that guide neural growth and development are also involved in regulating morphogenesis of the vascular tree. Further, netrins have recently been implicated in controlling epithelial cell branching morphogenesis in the breast, lung and pancreas. Characterization of purified netrin-4 in in vitro angiogenesis assays demonstrated that netrin-4 markedly inhibits HMVEC migration and tube formation. Moreover, netrin-4 inhibits proliferation of a variety of human tumor cells in vitro. Netrin-4 has only modest effects on proliferation of endothelial and other non-transformed cells. Netrin-4 treatment results in phosphorylation changes of proteins that are known to control cell growth. Specifically, Phospho-Akt-1, Phospho-Jnk-2, and Phospho-c-Jun are reduced in tumor cells that have been treated with netrin-4. Together, these data suggest a potential role for netrin-4 in regulating tumor growth.

  12. Liver-Tumor Hybrid Organoids for Modeling Tumor Growth and Drug Response In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Aleksander; Devarasetty, Mahesh; Rodman, Christopher; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2015-10-01

    Current in vitro models for tumor growth and metastasis are poor facsimiles of in vivo cancer physiology and thus, are not optimal for anti-cancer drug development. Three dimensional (3D) tissue organoid systems, which utilize human cells in a tailored microenvironment, have the potential to recapitulate in vivo conditions and address the drawbacks of current tissue culture dish 2D models. In this study, we created liver-based cell organoids in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor. The organoids were further inoculated with colon carcinoma cells in order to create liver-tumor organoids for in vitro modeling of liver metastasis. Immunofluorescent staining revealed notable phenotypic differences between tumor cells in 2D and inside the organoids. In 2D they displayed an epithelial phenotype, and only after transition to the organoids did the cells present with a mesenchymal phenotype. The cell surface marker expression results suggested that WNT pathway might be involved in the phenotypic changes observed between cells in 2D and organoid conditions, and may lead to changes in cell proliferation. Manipulating the WNT pathway with an agonist and antagonist showed significant changes in sensitivity to the anti-proliferative drug 5-fluoruracil. Collectively, the results show the potential of in vitro 3D liver-tumor organoids to serve as a model for metastasis growth and for testing the response of tumor cells to current and newly discovered drugs. PMID:25777294

  13. The role of mechanical forces in tumor growth and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rakesh K.; Martin, John D.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2014-01-01

    Tumors generate physical forces during growth and progression. These physical forces are able to compress blood and lymphatic vessels, reducing perfusion rates and creating hypoxia. When exerted directly on cancer cells, they can increase their invasive and metastatic potential. Tumor vessels - while nourishing the tumor - are usually leaky and tortuous, which further decreases perfusion. Hypo-perfusion and hypoxia contribute to immune-evasion, promote malignant progression and metastasis, and reduce the efficacy of a number of therapies, including radiation. In parallel, vessel leakiness together with vessel compression cause a uniformly elevated interstitial fluid pressure that hinders delivery of blood-borne therapeutic agents, lowering the efficacy of chemo- and nano-therapies. In addition, shear stresses exerted by flowing blood and interstitial fluid modulate the behavior of cancer and a variety of host cells. Taming these physical forces can improve therapeutic outcomes in many cancers. PMID:25014786

  14. The role of mechanical forces in tumor growth and therapy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakesh K; Martin, John D; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2014-07-11

    Tumors generate physical forces during growth and progression. These physical forces are able to compress blood and lymphatic vessels, reducing perfusion rates and creating hypoxia. When exerted directly on cancer cells, they can increase cells' invasive and metastatic potential. Tumor vessels-while nourishing the tumor-are usually leaky and tortuous, which further decreases perfusion. Hypoperfusion and hypoxia contribute to immune evasion, promote malignant progression and metastasis, and reduce the efficacy of a number of therapies, including radiation. In parallel, vessel leakiness together with vessel compression causes a uniformly elevated interstitial fluid pressure that hinders delivery of blood-borne therapeutic agents, lowering the efficacy of chemo- and nanotherapies. In addition, shear stresses exerted by flowing blood and interstitial fluid modulate the behavior of cancer and a variety of host cells. Taming these physical forces can improve therapeutic outcomes in many cancers. PMID:25014786

  15. Neuronal defects and delayed wound healing in mice lacking fibroblast growth factor 2

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Sagrario; Ittmann, Michael; Tsang, Stephen H.; Ehrlich, Michelle; Basilico, Claudio

    1998-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) is a wide-spectrum mitogenic, angiogenic, and neurotrophic factor that is expressed at low levels in many tissues and cell types and reaches high concentrations in brain and pituitary. FGF2 has been implicated in a multitude of physiological and pathological processes, including limb development, angiogenesis, wound healing, and tumor growth, but its physiological role is still unclear. To determine the function of FGF2 in vivo, we have generated FGF2 knockout mice, lacking all three FGF2 isoforms, by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. FGF2?/? mice are viable, fertile and phenotypically indistinguishable from FGF2+/+ littermates by gross examination. However, abnormalities in the cytoarchitecture of the neocortex, most pronounced in the frontal motor-sensory area, can be detected by histological and immunohistochemical methods. A significant reduction in neuronal density is observed in most layers of the motor cortex in the FGF2?/? mice, with layer V being the most affected. Cell density is normal in other regions of the brain such as the striatum and the hippocampus. In addition, the healing of excisional skin wounds is delayed in mice lacking FGF2. These results indicate that FGF2, although not essential for embryonic development, plays a specific role in cortical neurogenesis and skin wound healing in mice, which, in spite of the apparent redundancy of FGF signaling, cannot be carried out by other FGF family members. PMID:9576942

  16. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN-depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E; Warram, Jason M; Knowles, Joseph A; Sweeny, Larissa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2011-08-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma-mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer, there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were cocultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into severe combined immunodeficient mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Coculture experiments showed fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN-silenced cells compared with control vector-transfected cells, whereas inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast coculture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast-mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed that EMMPRIN-silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared with control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast-independent tumor growth. PMID:21665938

  17. Fibroblast growth factor receptor mediates fibroblast-dependent growth in EMMPRIN depleted head and neck cancer tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyong; Hartman, Yolanda E.; Warram, Jason M.; Knowles, Joseph A.; Sweeny, Larrisa; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors (HNSCC) contain a dense fibrous stroma which is known to promote tumor growth, although the mechanism of stroma mediated growth remains unclear. As dysplastic mucosal epithelium progresses to cancer there is incremental overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (EMMPRIN) which is associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Here we present evidence that gain of EMMPRIN expression allows tumor growth to be less dependent on fibroblasts by modulating fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) signaling. We show that silencing EMMPRIN in FaDu and SCC-5 HNSCC cell lines inhibits cell growth, but when EMMPRIN-silenced tumor cells were co-cultured with fibroblasts or inoculated with fibroblasts into SCID mice, the growth inhibition by silencing EMMPRIN was blunted by the presence of fibroblasts. Co-culture experiments demonstrated fibroblast-dependent tumor cell growth occurred via a paracrine signaling. Analysis of tumor gene expression revealed expression of FGFR2 was inversely related to EMMPRIN expression. To determine the role of FGFR2 signaling in EMMPRIN silenced tumor cells, ligands and inhibitors of FGFR2 were assessed. Both FGF1 and FGF2 enhanced tumor growth in EMMPRIN silenced cells compared to control vector transfected cells, while inhibition of FGFR2 with blocking antibody or with a synthetic inhibitor (PD173074) inhibited tumor cell growth in fibroblast co-culture, suggesting the importance of FGFR2 signaling in fibroblast mediated tumor growth. Analysis of xenografted tumors revealed EMMPRIN silenced tumors had a larger stromal compartment compared to control. Taken together, these results suggest that EMMPRIN acquired during tumor progression promotes fibroblast independent tumor growth. PMID:21665938

  18. Integrative models of vascular remodeling during tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Heiko; Welter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Malignant solid tumors recruit the blood vessel network of the host tissue for nutrient supply, continuous growth, and gain of metastatic potential. Angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), vessel cooption (the integration of existing blood vessels into the tumor vasculature), and vessel regression remodel the healthy vascular network into a tumor-specific vasculature that is in many respects different from the hierarchically organized arterio-venous blood vessel network of the host tissues. Integrative models based on detailed experimental data and physical laws implement in silico the complex interplay of molecular pathways, cell proliferation, migration, and death, tissue microenvironment, mechanical and hydrodynamic forces, and the fine structure of the host tissue vasculature. With the help of computer simulations high-precision information about blood flow patterns, interstitial fluid flow, drug distribution, oxygen and nutrient distribution can be obtained and a plethora of therapeutic protocols can be tested before clinical trials. In this review, we give an overview over the current status of integrative models describing tumor growth, vascular remodeling, blood and interstitial fluid flow, drug delivery, and concomitant transformations of the microenvironment. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Systems Biology and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25808551

  19. Delayed Effects of Whole Brain Radiotherapy in Germ Cell Tumor Patients With Central Nervous System Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Danielle M. Einhorn, Lawrence H.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases are uncommon in patients with germ cell tumors, with an incidence of 2-3%. CNS metastases have been managed with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and concomitant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Our previous study did not observe serious CNS toxicity (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991;22:17-22). We now report on 5 patients who developed delayed significant CNS toxicity. Patients and Methods: We observed 5 patients with delayed CNS toxicity. The initial diagnosis was between 1981 and 2003. All patients had poor-risk disease according to the International Germ Cell Consensus Collaborative Group criteria. Of the 5 patients, 3 had CNS metastases at diagnosis and 2 developed relapses with CNS metastases. These 5 patients underwent WBRT to 4,000-5,000 cGy in 18-28 fractions concurrently with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Results: All 5 patients developed delayed symptoms consistent with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The symptoms included seizures, hemiparesis, cranial neuropathy, headaches, blindness, dementia, and ataxia. The median time from WBRT to CNS symptoms was 72 months (range, 9-228). Head imaging revealed multiple abnormalities consistent with gliosis and diffuse cerebral atrophy. Of the 5 patients, 3 had progressive and 2 stable symptoms. Treatment with surgery and/or steroids had modest benefit. The progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy resulted in significant debility in all 5 patients, resulting in death (3 patients), loss of work, steroid-induced morbidity, and recurrent hospitalizations. Conclusion: Whole brain radiotherapy is not innocuous in young patients with germ cell tumors and can cause late CNS toxicity.

  20. Bursts of Bipolar Microsecond Pulses Inhibit Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Michael B.; Arena, Christopher B.; Bittleman, Katelyn R.; DeWitt, Matthew R.; Cho, Hyung J.; Szot, Christopher S.; Saur, Dieter; Cissell, James M.; Robertson, John; Lee, Yong W.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging focal therapy which is demonstrating utility in the treatment of unresectable tumors where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. IRE uses ultra-short duration, high-intensity monopolar pulsed electric fields to permanently disrupt cell membranes within a well-defined volume. Though preliminary clinical results for IRE are promising, implementing IRE can be challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of tumor tissue and the unintended induction of muscle contractions. High-frequency IRE (H-FIRE), a new treatment modality which replaces the monopolar IRE pulses with a burst of bipolar pulses, has the potential to resolve these clinical challenges. We explored the pulse-duration space between 250?ns and 100??s and determined the lethal electric field intensity for specific H-FIRE protocols using a 3D tumor mimic. Murine tumors were exposed to 120 bursts, each energized for 100??s, containing individual pulses 1, 2, or 5??s in duration. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited and all protocols were able to achieve complete regressions. The H-FIRE protocol substantially reduces muscle contractions and the therapy can be delivered without the need for a neuromuscular blockade. This work shows the potential for H-FIRE to be used as a focal therapy and merits its investigation in larger pre-clinical models. PMID:26459930

  1. Cyclooxygenase-Dependent Tumor Growth through Evasion of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zelenay, Santiago; van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Böttcher, Jan P.; Snelgrove, Kathryn J.; Rogers, Neil; Acton, Sophie E.; Chakravarty, Probir; Girotti, Maria Romina; Marais, Richard; Quezada, Sergio A.; Sahai, Erik; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms by which melanoma and other cancer cells evade anti-tumor immunity remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the growth of tumors formed by mutant BrafV600E mouse melanoma cells in an immunocompetent host requires their production of prostaglandin E2, which suppresses immunity and fuels tumor-promoting inflammation. Genetic ablation of cyclooxygenases (COX) or prostaglandin E synthases in BrafV600E mouse melanoma cells, as well as in NrasG12D melanoma or in breast or colorectal cancer cells, renders them susceptible to immune control and provokes a shift in the tumor inflammatory profile toward classic anti-cancer immune pathways. This mouse COX-dependent inflammatory signature is remarkably conserved in human cutaneous melanoma biopsies, arguing for COX activity as a driver of immune suppression across species. Pre-clinical data demonstrate that inhibition of COX synergizes with anti-PD-1 blockade in inducing eradication of tumors, implying that COX inhibitors could be useful adjuvants for immune-based therapies in cancer patients. PMID:26343581

  2. Numerical simulation of hypoxic cell regulation in avascular tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Said, Norfarizan; Ibrahim, Arsmah; Alias, Norma

    2013-04-01

    Avascular tumor is an early stage of tumor which does not have the blood vessels themselves and depends entirely on the cells around them to get the supply of nutrients such as oxygen and glucose. Hypoxia is a condition in which living cells are deprived of oxygen needed to maintain metabolism and growth. In avascular tumor, the hypoxic environment inhibits the cells proliferation and distinguishes the cellular dynamics into proliferative, quiescent and necrotic cells. In this paper, we present a numerical simulation of mathematical model describing these cellular dynamics using Matlab software with R2009a version. The model formulated in the form of one-dimensional parabolic partial differential equations depending on time and space. The discretization is based on forward differential respect to time and central differential respect to space of finite difference approximation. The results of simulation show that the distribution of proliferating, quiescent and necrotic cells within a tumor spheroid with respect to time and the cells regulation under different rates of nutrients consumptions in one-dimensional computational domain. In conclusion, in the hypoxic environment, the proliferative and quiescent cells grow slowly dependent on some parameter changes and the necrotic cells emerged at the tumor core.

  3. Bursts of Bipolar Microsecond Pulses Inhibit Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Sano, Michael B; Arena, Christopher B; Bittleman, Katelyn R; DeWitt, Matthew R; Cho, Hyung J; Szot, Christopher S; Saur, Dieter; Cissell, James M; Robertson, John; Lee, Yong W; Davalos, Rafael V

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging focal therapy which is demonstrating utility in the treatment of unresectable tumors where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. IRE uses ultra-short duration, high-intensity monopolar pulsed electric fields to permanently disrupt cell membranes within a well-defined volume. Though preliminary clinical results for IRE are promising, implementing IRE can be challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of tumor tissue and the unintended induction of muscle contractions. High-frequency IRE (H-FIRE), a new treatment modality which replaces the monopolar IRE pulses with a burst of bipolar pulses, has the potential to resolve these clinical challenges. We explored the pulse-duration space between 250?ns and 100??s and determined the lethal electric field intensity for specific H-FIRE protocols using a 3D tumor mimic. Murine tumors were exposed to 120 bursts, each energized for 100??s, containing individual pulses 1, 2, or 5??s in duration. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited and all protocols were able to achieve complete regressions. The H-FIRE protocol substantially reduces muscle contractions and the therapy can be delivered without the need for a neuromuscular blockade. This work shows the potential for H-FIRE to be used as a focal therapy and merits its investigation in larger pre-clinical models. PMID:26459930

  4. Bursts of Bipolar Microsecond Pulses Inhibit Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Michael B.; Arena, Christopher B.; Bittleman, Katelyn R.; Dewitt, Matthew R.; Cho, Hyung J.; Szot, Christopher S.; Saur, Dieter; Cissell, James M.; Robertson, John; Lee, Yong W.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2015-10-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an emerging focal therapy which is demonstrating utility in the treatment of unresectable tumors where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. IRE uses ultra-short duration, high-intensity monopolar pulsed electric fields to permanently disrupt cell membranes within a well-defined volume. Though preliminary clinical results for IRE are promising, implementing IRE can be challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of tumor tissue and the unintended induction of muscle contractions. High-frequency IRE (H-FIRE), a new treatment modality which replaces the monopolar IRE pulses with a burst of bipolar pulses, has the potential to resolve these clinical challenges. We explored the pulse-duration space between 250?ns and 100??s and determined the lethal electric field intensity for specific H-FIRE protocols using a 3D tumor mimic. Murine tumors were exposed to 120 bursts, each energized for 100??s, containing individual pulses 1, 2, or 5??s in duration. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited and all protocols were able to achieve complete regressions. The H-FIRE protocol substantially reduces muscle contractions and the therapy can be delivered without the need for a neuromuscular blockade. This work shows the potential for H-FIRE to be used as a focal therapy and merits its investigation in larger pre-clinical models.

  5. Studying tumor growth in Drosophila using the tissue allograft method.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Fabrizio; Gonzalez, Cayetano

    2015-10-01

    This protocol describes a method to allograft Drosophila larval tissue into adult fly hosts that can be used to assay the tumorigenic potential of mutant tissues. The tissue of interest is dissected, loaded into a fine glass needle and implanted into a host. Upon implantation, nontransformed tissues do not overgrow beyond their normal size, but malignant tumors grow without limit, are invasive and kill the host. By using this method, Drosophila malignant tumors can be transplanted repeatedly, for years, and therefore they can be aged beyond the short life span of flies. Because several hosts can be implanted using different pieces from a single tumor, the method also allows the tumor mass to be increased to facilitate further studies that may require large amounts of tissue (i.e., genomics, proteomics and so on). This method also provides an operational definition of hyperplastic, benign and malignant growth. The injection procedure itself requires only ?1 d. Tumor development can then be monitored until the death of the implanted hosts. PMID:26357008

  6. Caveolin-1 is down-regulated in alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas and negatively regulates tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Huertas-Martínez, Juan; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Herrero-Martín, David; Barrau, Ignasi; García-Monclús, Silvia; Sáinz-Jaspeado, Miguel; Lagares-Tena, Laura; Núñez-Álvarez, Yaiza; Mateo-Lozano, Silvia; Mora, Jaume; Roma, Josep; Toran, Nuria; Moran, Sebastian; López-Alemany, Roser; Gallego, Soledad; Esteller, Manel; Peinado, Miguel A; Del Muro, Xavier García; Tirado, Oscar M

    2014-10-30

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Despite advances in therapy, patients with histological variant of rhabdomyosarcoma known as alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) have a 5-year survival of less than 30%. Caveolin-1 (CAV1), encoding the structural component of cellular caveolae, is a suggested tumor suppressor gene involved in cell signaling. In the present study we report that compared to other forms of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) CAV1 expression is either undetectable or very low in ARMS cell lines and tumor samples. DNA methylation analysis of the promoter region and azacytidine-induced re-expression suggest the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the silencing of CAV1. Reintroduction of CAV1 in three of these cell lines impairs their clonogenic capacity and promotes features of muscular differentiation. In vitro, CAV1-expressing cells show high expression of Caveolin-3 (CAV3), a muscular differentiation marker. Blockade of MAPK signaling is also observed. In vivo, CAV1-expressing xenografts show growth delay, features of muscular differentiation and increased cell death. In summary, our results suggest that CAV1 could function as a potent tumor suppressor in ARMS tumors. Inhibition of CAV1 function therefore, could contribute to aberrant cell proliferation, leading to ARMS development. PMID:25313138

  7. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Qamri, Zahida; Preet, Anju; Nasser, Mohd W; Bass, Caroline E; Leone, Gustavo; Barsky, Sanford H; Ganju, Ramesh K

    2009-11-01

    Cannabinoids have been reported to possess antitumorogenic activity. Not much is known, however, about the effects and mechanism of action of synthetic nonpsychotic cannabinoids on breast cancer growth and metastasis. We have shown that the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are overexpressed in primary human breast tumors compared with normal breast tissue. We have also observed that the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231, MDA-MB231-luc, and MDA-MB468 express CB1 and CB2 receptors. Furthermore, we have shown that the CB2 synthetic agonist JWH-133 and the CB1 and CB2 agonist WIN-55,212-2 inhibit cell proliferation and migration under in vitro conditions. These results were confirmed in vivo in various mouse model systems. Mice treated with JWH-133 or WIN-55,212-2 showed a 40% to 50% reduction in tumor growth and a 65% to 80% reduction in lung metastasis. These effects were reversed by CB1 and CB2 antagonists AM 251 and SR144528, respectively, suggesting involvement of CB1 and CB2 receptors. In addition, the CB2 agonist JWH-133 was shown to delay and reduce mammary gland tumors in the polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) transgenic mouse model system. Upon further elucidation, we observed that JWH-133 and WIN-55,212-2 mediate the breast tumor-suppressive effects via a coordinated regulation of cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 signaling pathways and induction of apoptosis. These results indicate that CB1 and CB2 receptors could be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies against breast cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:19887554

  8. Tetrandrine suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis of gliomas in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Tseng, Sheng-Hong

    2009-05-15

    Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, has antitumor effects against some cancers, but its effects on gliomas are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetrandrine on the growth and angiogenesis of rat RT-2 gliomas. We treated RT-2 glioma cells with tetrandrine and then measured cytotoxicity, apoptosis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We also examined the cytotoxic effect of tetrandrine on the ECV304 human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the effects of tetrandrine on the in vivo angiogenesis. Tumor size and animal survival were followed in tetrandrine-treated rats with subcutaneous or intracerebral gliomas. Expression of CD31 in tetrandrine-treated gliomas was followed to study its effect on glioma-induced angiogenesis. Tetrandrine had cytotoxic effects and induced apoptosis of glioma cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Tetrandrine also inhibited the expression of VEGF in glioma cells, induced cytotoxicity effect on the ECV304 cells and suppressed the in vivo angiogenesis. Tetrandrine (150 mg/kg/day) had significant antitumor effects on subcutaneous tumors and led to slower tumor growth rate, longer animal survival time and higher animal survival (p < 0.05). Tetrandrine also affected intracerebral tumors and prolonged animal survival (p < 0.05) without affecting survival rate. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the subcutaneous gliomas from tetrandrine-treated rats had fewer microvessel densities than control rats (p = 0.01). The results demonstrate that tetrandrine is cytotoxic to RT-2 glioma cells, has antitumor effects on subcutaneous and intracerebral gliomas, and inhibits angiogenesis in subcutaneous gliomas. Tetrandrine has potential as a treatment for gliomas. PMID:19165864

  9. Lifespan based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of tumor growth inhibition by anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mo, Gary; Gibbons, Frank; Schroeder, Patricia; Krzyzanski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of tumor growth is critical in modeling the effects of anti-tumor agents. Popular models of tumor growth inhibition (TGI) generally offer empirical description of tumor growth. We propose a lifespan-based tumor growth inhibition (LS TGI) model that describes tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, on the basis of cellular lifespan T. At the end of the lifespan, cells divide, and to account for tumor burden on growth, we introduce a cell division efficiency function that is negatively affected by tumor size. The LS TGI model capability to describe dynamic growth characteristics is similar to many empirical TGI models. Our model describes anti-cancer drug effect as a dose-dependent shift of proliferating tumor cells into a non-proliferating population that die after an altered lifespan TA. Sensitivity analysis indicated that all model parameters are identifiable. The model was validated through case studies of xenograft mouse tumor growth. Data from paclitaxel mediated tumor inhibition was well described by the LS TGI model, and model parameters were estimated with high precision. A study involving a protein casein kinase 2 inhibitor, AZ968, contained tumor growth data that only exhibited linear growth kinetics. The LS TGI model accurately described the linear growth data and estimated the potency of AZ968 that was very similar to the estimate from an established TGI model. In the case study of AZD1208, a pan-Pim inhibitor, the doubling time was not estimable from the control data. By fixing the parameter to the reported in vitro value of the tumor cell doubling time, the model was still able to fit the data well and estimated the remaining parameters with high precision. We have developed a mechanistic model that describes tumor growth based on cell division and has the flexibility to describe tumor data with diverse growth kinetics. PMID:25333487

  10. Lifespan Based Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model of Tumor Growth Inhibition by Anticancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Gary; Gibbons, Frank; Schroeder, Patricia; Krzyzanski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of tumor growth is critical in modeling the effects of anti-tumor agents. Popular models of tumor growth inhibition (TGI) generally offer empirical description of tumor growth. We propose a lifespan-based tumor growth inhibition (LS TGI) model that describes tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model, on the basis of cellular lifespan T. At the end of the lifespan, cells divide, and to account for tumor burden on growth, we introduce a cell division efficiency function that is negatively affected by tumor size. The LS TGI model capability to describe dynamic growth characteristics is similar to many empirical TGI models. Our model describes anti-cancer drug effect as a dose-dependent shift of proliferating tumor cells into a non-proliferating population that die after an altered lifespan TA. Sensitivity analysis indicated that all model parameters are identifiable. The model was validated through case studies of xenograft mouse tumor growth. Data from paclitaxel mediated tumor inhibition was well described by the LS TGI model, and model parameters were estimated with high precision. A study involving a protein casein kinase 2 inhibitor, AZ968, contained tumor growth data that only exhibited linear growth kinetics. The LS TGI model accurately described the linear growth data and estimated the potency of AZ968 that was very similar to the estimate from an established TGI model. In the case study of AZD1208, a pan-Pim inhibitor, the doubling time was not estimable from the control data. By fixing the parameter to the reported in vitro value of the tumor cell doubling time, the model was still able to fit the data well and estimated the remaining parameters with high precision. We have developed a mechanistic model that describes tumor growth based on cell division and has the flexibility to describe tumor data with diverse growth kinetics. PMID:25333487

  11. Hybrid Cellular Continuum Simulations of Heterogeneity in Tumor Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, H. G. E.; Family, Fereydoon; van Meir, Erwin; Grossniklaus, Hans

    2010-03-01

    We will discuss simulations of pre-angiogenic tumor growth using a class of hybrid cellular-continuum models. A lattice site can be occupied either by a cell of a specific tumor cell population or consist of extracellular matrix. The local concentrations of oxygen is described by continuum reaction-diffusion equations. Dynamic linked lists of cells are evolved in time and contain information on cell type, position, age, concentration of oxygen at cell site. When cells proliferate via mitosis or differentiate, new cells are added to the list, if mutation occurs the cell types are altered, and if the cell dies via apoptosis the cells are removed from the linked list. The motion of individual cells consist of random walks subject to caging and chemotaxis away from regions of low oxygen concentration. We will describe the heterogenous spatial segregation of different cell types in the tumor, the development of necrotic cores as well as micronecrotic regions, and the effects of externally applied drugs on cell populations and overall tumor shape.

  12. Expression of fibroblast growth factors in ultraviolet radiation-induced corneal tumors and corneal tumor cell lines from Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, C L; Kusewitt, D F; Applegate, L A; Budge, C L; Ley, R D

    1993-01-01

    Chronic exposure of the gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces highly vascularized mesenchymal tumors of the cornea. Cell lines derived from these UVR-induced corneal tumors and the corneal tumors themselves were examined for the presence of mRNA coding for basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGF), transforming growth factors-beta and -alpha (TGF-beta and TGF-alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Basic FGF was expressed in the cell lines derived from corneal tumors and in the corneal tumors. Expression of basic FGF was high in one corneal tumor. Transcripts for acidic FGF were detected only in the corneal tumor cell lines, not in primary tumors. TGF-beta expression was detected in the corneal tumors and tumor-derived cell lines. TGF-alpha, EGF, and TNF-alpha transcripts were not detectable in any opossum material; however, homologous gene sequences for TGF-alpha and EGF were detected on Southern blots of opossum genomic DNA. Southern blot analysis revealed no evidence of amplification or rearrangement of the genes for basic FGF or acidic FGF in the UVR-induced corneal tumor that expressed high levels of basic FGF. Opossum basic FGF, which stimulated the proliferation of fetal bovine heart endothelial cells, was purified by heparin affinity chromatography from a UVR-induced corneal tumor and a corneal tumor cell line. Immunoblotting of opossum basic FGF from a corneal tumor cell line using antiserum to bovine basic FGF showed two prominent immunoreactive bands of 17.5 and 18.5 kDa. Expression of basic FGF and acidic FGF may play a role in the development and progression of UVR-induced corneal tumors in M. domestica. PMID:7683886

  13. Tumor cell growth inhibition by liposome-encapsulated aromatic polyamidines.

    PubMed

    Nastruzzi, C; Gambari, R; Menegatti, E; Walde, P; Luisi, P L

    1990-08-01

    Apart from its antiproteinase activity, the aromatic polyamidine TAPP-Br [the bromo derivative of 1,3-di-(p-amidinophenoxy)-2,2-bis-(p-amidinophenoxymethyl)propane (TAPP-H)] is able to inhibit the in vitro growth of a variety of tumor cell lines, including human melanoma, and breast and kidney carcinoma. We have now shown that TAPP-Br can efficiently be encapsulated into egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles. When incorporated into these liposomes, the inhibitory effect of TAPP-Br is significantly enhanced compared with that of the free drug. Based on these promising results, a proposal is made for the delivery of this antiproliferative agent to tumor cells by using liposomes as the vehicle. PMID:2231328

  14. Erythropoietin Stimulates Tumor Growth via EphB4.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Sunila; Huang, Jie; Mora, Edna M; Nick, Alpa M; Cho, Min Soon; Wu, Sherry Y; Noh, Kyunghee; Pecot, Chad V; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Stein, Martin A; Brock, Stephan; Wen, Yunfei; Xiong, Chiyi; Gharpure, Kshipra; Hansen, Jean M; Nagaraja, Archana S; Previs, Rebecca A; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo; Han, Hee Dong; Hu, Wei; Mangala, Lingegowda S; Zand, Behrouz; Stagg, Loren J; Ladbury, John E; Ozpolat, Bulent; Alpay, S Neslihan; Nishimura, Masato; Stone, Rebecca L; Matsuo, Koji; Armaiz-Peña, Guillermo N; Dalton, Heather J; Danes, Christopher; Goodman, Blake; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Kruger, Carola; Schneider, Armin; Haghpeykar, Shyon; Jaladurgam, Padmavathi; Hung, Mien-Chie; Coleman, Robert L; Liu, Jinsong; Li, Chun; Urbauer, Diana; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Jackson, David B; Sood, Anil K

    2015-11-01

    While recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo) has been widely used to treat anemia in cancer patients, concerns about its adverse effects on patient survival have emerged. A lack of correlation between expression of the canonical EpoR and rhEpo's effects on cancer cells prompted us to consider the existence of an alternative Epo receptor. Here, we identified EphB4 as an Epo receptor that triggers downstream signaling via STAT3 and promotes rhEpo-induced tumor growth and progression. In human ovarian and breast cancer samples, expression of EphB4 rather than the canonical EpoR correlated with decreased disease-specific survival in rhEpo-treated patients. These results identify EphB4 as a critical mediator of erythropoietin-induced tumor progression and further provide clinically significant dimension to the biology of erythropoietin. PMID:26481148

  15. Deguelin--an inhibitor to tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis by downregulation of vascular endothelial cell growth factor-D in lung tumor model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Ye, Haoyu; Fu, Afu; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Yongsheng; Chen, Xiancheng; Ye, Xia; Xiao, Wenjing; Duan, Xingmei; Wei, Yuquan; Chen, Lijuan

    2010-11-15

    Deguelin, a rotenoid of the flavonoid family, has been reported to possess antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic activities in several cell lines and tumor models. However, it is still unclear whether deguelin effectively inhibits tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. Since tumor production of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF)-D was associated with tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, we established the mouse lymphatic metastasis model by transfecting high expression VEGF-D into LL/2 Lewis lung cells (VEGF-D-LL/2) and explored the effects of deguelin on lymphatic metastasis in the immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. Our results indicated that deguelin inhibited proliferation, migration of VEGF-D-LL/2 cells via downregulating AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and interfered tube formation of lymphatic vascular endothelial cells on matrigel at nanomolar concentrations. Deguelin significantly downregulated the expression of VEGF-D both at mRNA and protein levels in VEGF-D-LL/2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In the in vivo study, intraperitoneal administration of deguelin (4 mg/kg) remarkably inhibited the tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. The rates of lymph node and lung metastasis in deguelin-treated mice were 0 and 16.7% compared with 58.3 and 83.3% in control group mice, respectively. Deguelin also resulted in a remarkable delay of tumor growth and prolongation of life span. Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against VEGF-D, LYVE-1 and VEGFR-3 revealed fewer positive vessel-like structures in deguelin-treated mice compared with control group mice. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time that deguelin suppresses tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis by downregulation of VEGF-D both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20162567

  16. Triparanol suppresses human tumor growth in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Xinyu; Han, Xingpeng; Zhang, Fang; He, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Zhao, Hong

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrate Triparanol can block proliferation in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrate Triparanol can induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proved Triparanol can inhibit Hedgehog signaling in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrated Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo in mouse xenograft model. -- Abstract: Despite the improved contemporary multidisciplinary regimens treating cancer, majority of cancer patients still suffer from adverse effects and relapse, therefore posing a significant challenge to uncover more efficacious molecular therapeutics targeting signaling pathways central to tumorigenesis. Here, our study have demonstrated that Triparanol, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, can block proliferation and induce apoptosis in multiple human cancer cells including lung, breast, liver, pancreatic, prostate cancer and melanoma cells, and growth inhibition can be rescued by exogenous addition of cholesterol. Remarkably, we have proved Triparanol can significantly repress Hedgehog pathway signaling in these human cancer cells. Furthermore, study in a mouse xenograft model of human lung cancer has validated that Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo. We have therefore uncovered Triparanol as potential new cancer therapeutic in treating multiple types of human cancers with deregulated Hedgehog signaling.

  17. MULTIPHASE MODELING AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM OF THE GROWTH OF TUMOR CORDS

    E-print Network

    Ceragioli, Francesca

    MULTIPHASE MODELING AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM OF THE GROWTH OF TUMOR CORDS ANDREA TOSIN Abstract. In this paper a macroscopic model of tumor cords growth is developed, relying on the mathematical theory of deformable porous media. Tumor is modeled as a saturated mixture of proliferating cells

  18. A Generative Approach for Image-Based Modeling of Tumor Growth

    E-print Network

    Golland, Polina

    A Generative Approach for Image-Based Modeling of Tumor Growth Bjoern H. Menze1,2 , Koen Van tumor patients to monitor the state of the disease and to evaluate therapeutic options. A large number points. In this work we propose a joint generative model of tumor growth and of image observation

  19. A Chebyshev method for a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth

    E-print Network

    Sommese, Andrew J.

    A Chebyshev method for a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth Wenrui Hao Oliver Kernell Andrew Sommese May 23, 2013 1 Mathematical model Mathematical models of tumor growth, which consider the tumor tissue as a density of proliferating cells, have been developed and studied in many papers; see [1

  20. Polyphenol-rich extract of Pimenta dioica berries (Allspice) kills breast cancer cells by autophagy and delays growth of triple negative breast cancer in athymic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K.; Patil, Bhimu S.; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from edible plants have limited efficacy in treating advanced cancers, but they have potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in a combined treatment. An aqueous extract of berries of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) shows promise as one such candidate for combination therapy or chemoprevention. An aqueous extract of Allspice (AAE) was tested against human breast cancer (BrCa) cells in vitro and in vivo. AAE reduced the viability and clonogenic growth of several types of BrCa cells (IC50 ? 100 ?g/ml) with limited toxicity in non-tumorigenic, quiescent cells (IC50 >200 ?g/ml). AAE induced cytotoxicity in BrCa was inconsistent with apoptosis, but was associated with increased levels of autophagy markers LC3B and LC3B-positive puncta. Silencing the expression of autophagy related genes (ATGs) prevented AAE-induced cell death. Further, AAE caused inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling, and showed enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with rapamycin, a chemotherapy drug and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Oral administration (gavage) of AAE into athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB231 tumors inhibited tumor growth slightly but not significantly (mean decrease ~ 14%, p ? 0.20) if mice were gavaged post-tumor implant. Tumor growth showed a significant delay (38%) in tumor palpability and growth rate (time to reach tumor volume ? 1,000 mm3) when mice were pre-dosed with AAE for two weeks. Analysis of tumor tissues showed increased levels of LC3B in AAE treated tumors, indicating elevated autophagic tumor cell death in vivo in treated mice. These results demonstrate antitumor and chemo-preventive activity of AAE against BrCa and potential for adjuvant to mTOR inhibition. PMID:25945840

  1. Polyphenol-rich extract of Pimenta dioica berries (Allspice) kills breast cancer cells by autophagy and delays growth of triple negative breast cancer in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shamaladevi, Nagarajarao; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimu S; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2015-06-30

    Bioactive compounds from edible plants have limited efficacy in treating advanced cancers, but they have potential to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in a combined treatment. An aqueous extract of berries of Pimenta dioica (Allspice) shows promise as one such candidate for combination therapy or chemoprevention. An aqueous extract of Allspice (AAE) was tested against human breast cancer (BrCa) cells in vitro and in vivo. AAE reduced the viability and clonogenic growth of several types of BrCa cells (IC50 ? 100 ?g/ml) with limited toxicity in non-tumorigenic, quiescent cells (IC50 >200 ?g/ml). AAE induced cytotoxicity in BrCa was inconsistent with apoptosis, but was associated with increased levels of autophagy markers LC3B and LC3B-positive puncta. Silencing the expression of autophagy related genes (ATGs) prevented AAE-induced cell death. Further, AAE caused inhibition of Akt/mTOR signaling, and showed enhanced cytotoxicity when combined with rapamycin, a chemotherapy drug and an inhibitor of mTOR signaling. Oral administration (gavage) of AAE into athymic mice implanted with MDA-MB231 tumors inhibited tumor growth slightly but not significantly (mean decrease ~ 14%, p ? 0.20) if mice were gavaged post-tumor implant. Tumor growth showed a significant delay (38%) in tumor palpability and growth rate (time to reach tumor volume ? 1,000 mm3) when mice were pre-dosed with AAE for two weeks. Analysis of tumor tissues showed increased levels of LC3B in AAE treated tumors, indicating elevated autophagic tumor cell death in vivo in treated mice. These results demonstrate antitumor and chemo-preventive activity of AAE against BrCa and potential for adjuvant to mTOR inhibition. PMID:25945840

  2. Modelling hematopoiesis mediated by growth factors: Delay equations describing periodic

    E-print Network

    Crauste, Fabien

    and reg- ulation of blood cells. It is based upon differentiation of stem cells under the action of growth diseases, characterized by oscillations in circulating blood cells. A system of three differential between blood cells and growth factors. This stresses the localization of periodic hematological diseases

  3. Fragmented sleep accelerates tumor growth and progression through recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and TLR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Fahed; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Shelley XL; Zheng, Jiamao; Yolcu, Esma S.; Carreras, Alba; Khlayfa, Abdelnaby; Shirwan, Haval; Almendros, Isaac; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Fragmented sleep (SF) is a highly prevalent condition and a hallmark of sleep apnea, a condition that has been associated with increased cancer incidence and mortality. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that SF promotes tumor growth and progression through pro-inflammatory TLR4 signaling. In the design, we compared mice that were exposed to SF one week before engraftment of syngeneic TC1 or LL3 tumor cells and tumor analysis three weeks later. We also compared host contributions through the use of mice genetically deficient in TLR4 or its effector molecules MYD88 or TRIF. We found that SF enhanced tumor size and weight compared to control mice. Increased invasiveness was apparent in SF tumors, which penetrated the tumor capsule into surrounding tissues including adjacent muscle. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) were more numerous in SF tumors where they were distributed in a relatively closer proximity to the tumor capsule, compared to control mice. Although tumors were generally smaller in both MYD88?/? and TRIF?/? hosts, the more aggressive features produced by SF persisted. In contrast, these more aggressive features produced by SF were abolished completely in TLR4?/? mice. Our findings offer mechanistic insights into how sleep perturbations can accelerate tumor growth and invasiveness through TAM recruitment and TLR4 signaling pathways. PMID:24448240

  4. Fragmented sleep accelerates tumor growth and progression through recruitment of tumor-associated macrophages and TLR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Fahed; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Shelley X L; Zheng, Jiamao; Yolcu, Esma S; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Shirwan, Haval; Almendros, Isaac; Gozal, David

    2014-03-01

    Sleep fragmentation (SF) is a highly prevalent condition and a hallmark of sleep apnea, a condition that has been associated with increased cancer incidence and mortality. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that sleep fragmentation promotes tumor growth and progression through proinflammatory TLR4 signaling. In the design, we compared mice that were exposed to sleep fragmentation one week before engraftment of syngeneic TC1 or LL3 tumor cells and tumor analysis four weeks later. We also compared host contributions through the use of mice genetically deficient in TLR4 or its effector molecules MYD88 or TRIF. We found that sleep fragmentation enhanced tumor size and weight compared with control mice. Increased invasiveness was apparent in sleep fragmentation tumors, which penetrated the tumor capsule into surrounding tissues, including adjacent muscle. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) were more numerous in sleep fragmentation tumors, where they were distributed in a relatively closer proximity to the tumor capsule compared with control mice. Although tumors were generally smaller in both MYD88(-/-) and TRIF(-/-) hosts, the more aggressive features produced by sleep fragmentation persisted. In contrast, these more aggressive features produced by sleep fragmentation were abolished completely in TLR4(-/-) mice. Our findings offer mechanistic insights into how sleep perturbations can accelerate tumor growth and invasiveness through TAM recruitment and TLR4 signaling pathways. PMID:24448240

  5. Polyploidization delay in rat hepatocytes under liver growth inhibition by hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faktor, V. M.; Malyutin, V. F.; Li, S. Y.; Brodskiy, V. Y.

    1981-01-01

    A study of young rats, weighing 55 to 59 g, after being for 10 days in conditions of limited mobility, shows a retardation of body growth as well as that of liver growth. The decrease in the rate of growth is accompanied by a reduction of cell proliferation and by delay polyploidization of hepatocytes in the liver of experimental rats. The materials, methods, and results of research are discussed.

  6. Senescence Mediates Pituitary Hypoplasia and Restrains Pituitary Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Chesnokova, Vera; Zonis, Svetlana; Rubinek, Tami; Yu, Run; Ben-Shlomo, Anat; Kovacs, Kalman; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Melmed, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Understanding factors subserving pituitary cell proliferation enables understanding mechanisms underlying uniquely benign pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (Pttg) deletion results in pituitary hypoplasia, low pituitary cell proliferation rates, and rescue of pituitary tumor development in Rb+/? mice. Pttg?/? pituitary glands exhibit ARF/p53/p21-dependent senescence pathway activation evidenced by up-regulated p19, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2 protein levels and p53 stabilization. High pituitary p21 levels in the absence of PTTG were associated with suppressed cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity, Rb phosphorylation, and cyclin A expression, all required for cell cycle progression. Although senescence-associated ?-galactosidase was enhanced in Pttg-deficient pituitary glands, telomere lengths were increased. DNA damage signaling pathways were activated and aneuploidy was evident in the Pttg-deficient pituitary, triggering senescence-associated genes. To confirm the p21 dependency of decreased proliferation and senescence in the Pttg-null pituitary, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) colony formation was tested in wild-type, Pttg?/?, Rb+/?, Rb+/?Pttg?/?, and Rb+/?Pttg?/?p21?/? cells. Rb+/?Pttg?/? MEFs, unlike Rb+/? cells, failed to produce colonies and exhibited high levels of senescence. p21 deletion from Rb+/?Pttg?/? MEFs enhanced anchorage-independent cell growth, accompanied by a marked decrease in senescence. As cell proliferation assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was higher in Rb+/?Pttg?/?p21?/? relative to Rb+/?Pttg?/? pituitary glands, p21-dependent senescence provoked by Pttg deletion may underlie pituitary hypoplasia and decreased tumor development in Rb+/?Pttg?/? mice. PMID:17975001

  7. VCC-1, a novel chemokine, promotes tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Edward J.; Head, Richard; Griggs, David W.; Sun Duo; Evans, Robert J.; Swearingen, Michelle L.; Westlin, Marisa M.; Mazzarella, Richard . E-mail: richard.a.mazzarella@pfizer.com

    2006-11-10

    We have identified a novel human gene by transcriptional microarray analysis, which is co-regulated in tumors and angiogenesis model systems with VEGF expression. Isolation of cDNA clones containing the full-length VCC-1 transcript from both human and mouse shows a 119 amino acid protein with a 22 amino acid cleavable signal sequence in both species. Comparison of the protein product of this gene with hidden Markov models of all known proteins shows weak but significant homology with two known chemokines, SCYA17 and SCYA16. Northern analysis of human tissues detects a 1 kb band in lung and skeletal muscle. Murine VCC-1 expression can also be detected in lung as well as thyroid, submaxillary gland, epididymis, and uterus tissues by slot blot analysis. By quantitative real time RT-PCR 71% of breast tumors showed 3- to 24-fold up-regulation of VCC-1. In situ hybridization of breast carcinomas showed strong expression of the gene in both normal and transformed mammary gland ductal epithelial cells. In vitro, human microvascular endothelial cells grown on fibronectin increase VCC-1 expression by almost 100-fold. In addition, in the mouse angioma endothelial cell line PY4.1 the gene was over-expressed by 28-fold 6 h after induction of tube formation while quiescent and proliferating cells showed no change. VCC-1 expression is also increased by VEGF and FGF treatment, about 6- and 5-fold, respectively. Finally, 100% of mice injected with NIH3T3 cells over-expressing VCC-1 develop rapidly progressing tumors within 21 days while no growth is seen in any control mice injected with NIH3T3 cells containing the vector alone. These results strongly suggest that VCC-1 plays a role in angiogenesis and possibly in the development of tumors in some tissue types.

  8. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-dependent tumor growth inhibition by a vascular endothelial growth factor-superantigen conjugate

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qingwen; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 ; Jiang, Songmin; Han, Baohui; Sun, Tongwen; Li, Zhengnan; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Jialin

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct and purify a fusion protein VEGF-SEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around tumor cells bearing VEGFR by mice image model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester CTLs into the tumor site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induced CTLs could release the cytokines, perforins and granzyme B to kill the tumor cells. -- Abstract: T cells are major lymphocytes in the blood and passengers across the tumor vasculature. If these T cells are retained in the tumor site, a therapeutic potential will be gained by turning them into tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). A fusion protein composed of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) with a D227A mutation strongly repressed the growth of murine solid sarcoma 180 (S180) tumors (control versus VEGF-SEA treated with 15 {mu}g, mean tumor weight: 1.128 g versus 0.252 g, difference = 0.876 g). CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells driven by VEGF-SEA were accumulated around VEGFR expressing tumor cells and the induced CTLs could release the tumoricidal cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Meanwhile, intratumoral CTLs secreted cytolytic pore-forming perforin and granzyme B proteins around tumor cells, leading to the death of tumor cells. The labeled fusion proteins were gradually targeted to the tumor site in an imaging mice model. These results show that VEGF-SEA can serve as a tumor targeting agent and sequester active infiltrating CTLs into the tumor site to kill tumor cells, and could therefore be a potential therapeutical drug for a variety of cancers.

  9. HSulf-1 and HSulf-2 are potent inhibitors of myeloma tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuemeng; Yang, Yang; MacLeod, Veronica; Yue, Xinping; Rapraeger, Alan C; Shriver, Zachary; Venkataraman, Ganesh; Sasisekharan, Ram; Sanderson, Ralph D

    2005-12-01

    To participate as co-receptor in growth factor signaling, heparan sulfate must have specific structural features. Recent studies show that when the levels of 6-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate are diminished by the activity of extracellular heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulfs), fibroblast growth factor 2-, heparin binding epidermal growth factor-, and hepatocyte growth factor-mediated signaling are attenuated. This represents a novel mechanism for regulating cell growth, particularly within the tumor microenvironment where the Sulfs are known to be misregulated. To directly test the role of Sulfs in tumor growth control in vivo, a human myeloma cell line was transfected with cDNAs encoding either of the two known human endosulfatases, HSulf-1 or HSulf-2. When implanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, the growth of these tumors was dramatically reduced on the order of 5- to 10-fold as compared with controls. In addition to an inhibition of tumor growth, these studies revealed the following. (i) HSulf-1 and HSulf-2 have similar functions in vivo. (ii) The extracellular activity of Sulfs is restricted to the local tumor cell surface. (iii) The Sulfs promote a marked increase in extracellular matrix deposition within tumors that may, along with attenuated growth factor signaling, contribute to the reduction in tumor growth. These findings demonstrate that dynamic regulation of heparan sulfate structure by Sulfs present within the tumor microenvironment can have a dramatic impact on the growth and progression of malignant cells in vivo. PMID:16192265

  10. Reduced growth factor requirement of keloid-derived fibroblasts may account for tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, S.B.; Trupin, K.M.; Rodriguez-Eaton, S.; Russell, J.D.; Trupin, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Keloids are benign dermal tumors that form during an abnormal wound-healing process is genetically susceptible individuals. Although growth of normal and keloid cells did not differ in medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid culture grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum, keloid cultures grew to significantly higher densities than normal cells in medium containing 5% (vol/vol) plasma or 1% fetal bovine serum. Conditioned medium from keloid cultures did not stimulate growth of normal cells in plasma nor did it contain detectable platelet-derived growth factor or epidermal growth factor. Keloid fibroblasts responded differently than normal adult fibroblasts to transforming growth factor ..beta... Whereas transforming growth factor ..beta.. reduced growth stimulation by epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from normal adult skin or scars, it enhanced the activity of epidermal growth factor in cells from keloids. Normal and keloid fibroblasts also responded differently to hydrocortisone: growth was stimulated in normal adult cells and unaffected or inhibited in keloid cells. Fetal fibroblasts resembled keloid cells in their ability to grow in plasma and in their response to hydrocortisone. The ability of keloid fibroblasts to grow to higher cell densities in low-serum medium than cells from normal adult skin or from normal early or mature scars suggests that a reduced dependence on serum growth factors may account for their prolonged growth in vivo. Similarities between keloid and fetal cells suggest that keloids may result from the untimely expression of growth-control mechanism that is developmentally regulated.

  11. Kinetics of tumor growth and regression in IgG multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Salmon, Sydney E.

    1972-01-01

    Studies of immunoglobulin synthesis, total body tumor cell number, and tumor kinetics were carried out in a series of patients with IgG multiple myeloma. The changes in tumor size associated with tumor growth or with regression were underestimated when the concentration of serum M-component was used as the sole index of tumor mass. Calculation of the total body M-component synthetic rate (corrected for concentration-dependent changes in IgG metabolism) and tumor cell number gave a more accurate and predictable estimate of changes in tumor size. Tumor growth and drug-induced tumor regression were found to follow Gompertzian kinetics, with progressive retardation of the rate of change of tumor size in both of these circumstances. This retardation effect, describable with a constant ?, may be caused by a shift in the proportion of tumor cells in the proliferative cycle. Drug sensitivity of the tumor could be described quantitatively with a calculation of BO, the tumor's initial sensitivity to a given drug regimen. Of particular clinical significance, the magnitude of a given patient's tumor regression could be predicted from the ratio of BO to ?. Mathematical proof was obtained that the retardation constant determined during tumor regression also applied to the earlier period of tumor growth, and this constant was used to reconstruct the preclinical history of disease. In the average patient, fewer than 5 yr elapse from the initial tumor cell doubling to its clinical presentation with from 1011 to more than 1012 myeloma cells in the body. The reduction in total body tumor mass in most patients responding to therapy ranges from less than one to almost two orders of magnitude. Application of predictive kinetic analysis to the design of sequential drug regimens may lead to further improvement in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other tumors with similar growth characteristics. PMID:5040867

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies to Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 Effectively Inhibit Growth of Gastric Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei-meng; Wang, Lihong; Park, Hangil; Chhim, Sophea; Tanphanich, Melanie; Yashiro, Masakazu; Kim, K. Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Overexpression of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (FGFR2) may be a causative factor of a number of human tumors, especially gastric tumors of the poorly differentiated type. We investigated whether monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against FGFR2 can inhibit the growth of tumors in xenograft models. Experimental Design We generated and characterized three mAbs that recognize different epitopes on FGFR2: GAL-FR21, GAL-FR22 and GAL-FR23. The ability of the mAbs to recognize the FGFR2IIIb and FGFR2IIIc isoforms of FGFR2 was determined, as was their ability to block binding of FGF ligands to FGFR2. The capability of the mAbs to inhibit FGF-induced FGFR2 phosphorylation and to down-modulate FGFR2 expression was also investigated. Finally, the ability of the anti-FGFR2 mAbs to inhibit tumor growth was determined by establishing xenografts of SNU-16 and OCUM-2M human gastric tumor cell lines in nude mice, treating with each mAb (0.5 – 5 mg/kg i.p. twice weekly), and monitoring tumor size. Results Of the three mAbs, GAL-FR21 binds only the FGFR2IIIb isoform, whereas GAL-FR22 and GAL-FR23 bind to both the FGFR2IIIb and FGFR2IIIc forms, with binding regions respectively in the D3, D2-D3 and D1 domains of FGFR2. GAL-FR21 and GAL-FR22 blocked the binding of FGF2, FGF7 and FGF10 to FGFR2IIIb. GAL-FR21 inhibited FGF2 and FGF7 induced phosphorylation of FGFR2, and both mAbs down-modulated FGFR2 expression on SNU-16 cells. These mAbs effectively inhibited growth of established SNU-16 and OCUM-2M xenografts in mice. Conclusions Anti-FGFR2 mAbs GAL-FR21 and GAL-FR22 have potential for the treatment of gastric and other tumors. PMID:20670946

  13. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Promotes Cell Migration and Tumor Growth of Colorectal Metastasis1

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Otto; Rupertus, Kathrin; Scheuer, Claudia; Junker, Bastian; Tilton, Bettina; Schilling, Martin K; Menger, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    In a mouse model of established extrahepatic colorectal metastasis, we analyzed whether stromal cell-derived factor (SDF) 1 stimulates tumor cell migration in vitro and angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Methods Using chemotaxis chambers, CT26.WT colorectal tumor cell migration was studied under stimulation with different concentrations of SDF-1. To evaluate angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo, green fluorescent protein-transfected CT26.WT cells were implanted in dorsal skinfold chambers of syngeneic BALB/c mice. After 5 days, tumors were locally exposed to SDF-1. Cell proliferation, tumor microvascularization, and growth were studied during a further 9-day period using intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Tumors exposed to PBS only served as controls. Results In vitro, > 30% of unstimulated CT26.WT cells showed expression of the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4. On chemotaxis assay, SDF-1 provoked a dose-dependent increase in cell migration. In vivo, SDF-1 accelerated neovascularization and induced a significant increase in tumor growth. Capillaries of SDF-1-treated tumors showed significant dilation. Of interest, SDF-1 treatment was associated with a significantly increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a downregulation of cleaved caspase-3. Conclusion Our study indicates that the CXC chemokine SDF-1 promotes tumor cell migration in vitro and tumor growth of established extrahepatic metastasis in vivo due to angiogenesis-dependent induction of tumor cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptotic cell death. PMID:17971906

  14. Simulation of the effect of plasma species on tumor growth and apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William; Carroll, Caitlin; Keidar, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Tumor modeling is a technique that entails using mathematical and physical equations to describe the biological disease, most importantly uncontrolled cell growth and the tumor life cycle. The model utilized in this paper makes use of a three-dimensional hybrid discrete-continuum model to show the apoptotic effect a tumor volume undergoes when treated with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species from the cold atmospheric plasma. The results compare untreated and treated tumors of varying sizes by measuring spatiotemporal data to predict trends of tumor evolution. The simulation results show that the treated tumor death, irrespective of tumor volume, follows an exponential decay and that the untreated tumor follows an expected growth pattern. Future experiments and applications can lead to a predictive tumor model allowing for individualized treatment planning for the cold atmospheric plasma therapy.

  15. Tumor-secreted miR-214 induces regulatory T cells: a major link between immune evasion and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yuan; Cai, Xing; Chen, Xi; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Jing; Wang, Zuoyun; Chen, Xiulan; Zhang, Wen; Yokoyama, Seiji; Wang, Cheng; Li, Liang; Li, Limin; Hou, Dongxia; Dong, Lei; Xu, Tao; Hiroi, Takachika; Yang, Fuquan; Ji, Hongbin; Zhang, Junfeng; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    An increased population of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor-associated microenvironment plays an important role in cancer immune evasion. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we observed an increased secretion of miR-214 in various types of human cancers and mouse tumor models. Tumor-secreted miR-214 was sufficiently delivered into recipient T cells by microvesicles (MVs). In targeted mouse peripheral CD4+ T cells, tumor-derived miR-214 efficiently downregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and promoted Treg expansion. The miR-214-induced Tregs secreted higher levels of IL-10 and promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, in vivo studies indicated that Treg expansion mediated by cancer cell-secreted miR-214 resulted in enhanced immune suppression and tumor implantation/growth in mice. The MV delivery of anti-miR-214 antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) into mice implanted with tumors blocked Treg expansion and tumor growth. Our study reveals a novel mechanism through which cancer cell actively manipulates immune response via promoting Treg expansion. PMID:25223704

  16. Destruction of tumor vasculature and abated tumor growth upon VEGF blockade is driven by proapoptotic protein Bim in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Naik, Edwina; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Merino, Delphine; Lin, Ann; Cook, Michele; Coultas, Leigh; Bouillet, Philippe; Adams, Jerry M; Strasser, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    For malignant growth, solid cancers must stimulate the formation of new blood vessels by producing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), which is required for the survival of tumor-associated vessels. Novel anticancer agents that block VEGF-A signaling trigger endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis and vascular regression preferentially within tumors, but how the ECs die is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that VEGF-A deprivation, provoked either by drug-induced tumor shrinkage or direct VEGF-A blockade, up-regulates the proapoptotic BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-only Bcl-2 family member Bim in ECs. Importantly, the tumor growth inhibitory activity of a VEGF-A antagonist required Bim-induced apoptosis of ECs. These findings thus reveal the mechanism by which VEGF-A blockade induces EC apoptosis and impairs tumor growth. They also indicate that drugs mimicking BH3-only proteins may be exploited to kill tumor cells not only directly but also indirectly by ablating the tumor vasculature. PMID:21646395

  17. Phosphocaveolin-1 enforces tumor growth and chemoresistance in rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Faggi, Fiorella; Mitola, Stefania; Sorci, Guglielmo; Riuzzi, Francesca; Donato, Rosario; Codenotti, Silvia; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Cominelli, Manuela; Vescovi, Raffaella; Rossi, Stefania; Calza, Stefano; Colombi, Marina; Penna, Fabio; Costelli, Paola; Perini, Ilaria; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Monti, Eugenio; Fanzani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) can ambiguously behave as either tumor suppressor or oncogene depending on its phosphorylation state and the type of cancer. In this study we show that Cav-1 was phosphorylated on tyrosine 14 (pCav-1) by Src-kinase family members in various human cell lines and primary mouse cultures of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most frequent soft-tissue sarcoma affecting childhood. Cav-1 overexpression in the human embryonal RD or alveolar RH30 cells yielded increased pCav-1 levels and reinforced the phosphorylation state of either ERK or AKT kinase, respectively, in turn enhancing in vitro cell proliferation, migration, invasiveness and chemoresistance. In contrast, reducing the pCav-1 levels by administration of a Src-kinase inhibitor or through targeted Cav-1 silencing counteracted the malignant in vitro phenotype of RMS cells. Consistent with these results, xenotransplantation of Cav-1 overexpressing RD cells into nude mice resulted in substantial tumor growth in comparison to control cells. Taken together, these data point to pCav-1 as an important and therapeutically valuable target for overcoming the progression and multidrug resistance of RMS. PMID:24427291

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  19. Emergent Behaviors from a Cellular Automaton Model for Invasive Tumor Growth in Heterogeneous Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Understanding tumor invasion and metastasis is of crucial importance for both fundamental cancer research and clinical practice. In vitro experiments have established that the invasive growth of malignant tumors is characterized by the dendritic invasive branches composed of chains of tumor cells emanating from the primary tumor mass. The preponderance of previous tumor simulations focused on non-invasive (or proliferative) growth. The formation of the invasive cell chains and their interactions with the primary tumor mass and host microenvironment are not well understood. Here, we present a novel cellular automaton (CA) model that enables one to efficiently simulate invasive tumor growth in a heterogeneous host microenvironment. By taking into account a variety of microscopic-scale tumor-host interactions, including the short-range mechanical interactions between tumor cells and tumor stroma, degradation of the extracellular matrix by the invasive cells and oxygen/nutrient gradient driven cell motions, our CA model predicts a rich spectrum of growth dynamics and emergent behaviors of invasive tumors. Besides robustly reproducing the salient features of dendritic invasive growth, such as least-resistance paths of cells and intrabranch homotype attraction, we also predict nontrivial coupling between the growth dynamics of the primary tumor mass and the invasive cells. In addition, we show that the properties of the host microenvironment can significantly affect tumor morphology and growth dynamics, emphasizing the importance of understanding the tumor-host interaction. The capability of our CA model suggests that sophisticated in silico tools could eventually be utilized in clinical situations to predict neoplastic progression and propose individualized optimal treatment strategies. PMID:22215996

  20. Paracrine expression of a native soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibits tumor growth, metastasis, and mortality rate

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Corey K.; Kendall, Richard L.; Cabrera, Gustavo; Soroceanu, Liliana; Heike, Yuji; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Siegal, Gene P.; Mao, Xianzhi; Bett, Andrew J.; Huckle, William R.; Thomas, Kenneth A.; Curiel, David T.

    1998-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and selective vascular endothelial cell mitogen and angiogenic factor. VEGF expression is elevated in a wide variety of solid tumors and is thought to support their growth by enhancing tumor neovascularization. To block VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, tumor cells were transfected with cDNA encoding the native soluble FLT-1 (sFLT-1) truncated VEGF receptor which can function both by sequestering VEGF and, in a dominant negative fashion, by forming inactive heterodimers with membrane-spanning VEGF receptors. Transient transfection of HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells with a gene encoding sFLT-1 significantly inhibited their implantation and growth in the lungs of nude mice following i.v. injection and their growth as nodules from cells injected s.c. High sFLT-1 expressing stably transfected HT-1080 clones grew even slower as s.c. tumors. Finally, survival was significantly prolonged in mice injected intracranially with human glioblastoma cells stably transfected with the sflt-1 gene. The ability of sFLT-1 protein to inhibit tumor growth is presumably attributable to its paracrine inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in vivo, since it did not affect tumor cell mitogenesis in vitro. These results not only support VEGF receptors as antiangiogenic targets but also demonstrate that sflt-1 gene therapy might be a feasible approach for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID:9671758

  1. An RGD motif present in cadherin 17 induces integrin activation and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, Rubén A; Peláez-García, Alberto; Gomez, Inmaculada; Torres, Sofía; Fernandez-Aceñero, María Jesús; Escudero-Paniagua, Beatriz; Imbaud, J Ignacio; Casal, J Ignacio

    2014-12-12

    Little is known about the mechanism of integrin activation by cadherin 17 (CDH17). Here we observed the presence of a tri-peptide motif, RGD, in domain 6 of the human CDH17 sequence and other cadherins such as cadherin 5 and cadherin 6. The use of CDH17 RAD mutants demonstrated a considerable decrease of proliferation and adhesion in RKO and KM12SM colon cancer cells. Furthermore, RGD peptides inhibited the adhesion of both cell lines to recombinant CDH17 domain 6. The RGD motif added exogenously to the cells provoked a change in ?1 integrin to an active, high-affinity conformation and an increase in focal adhesion kinase and ERK1/2 activation. In vivo experiments with Swiss nude mice demonstrated that cancer cells expressing the CDH17 RAD mutant showed a considerable delay in tumor growth and liver homing. CDH17 RGD effects were also active in pancreatic cancer cells. Our results suggest that ?2?1 integrin interacts with two different ligands, collagen IV and CDH17, using two different binding sites. In summary, the RGD binding motif constitutes a switch for integrin pathway activation and shows a novel capacity of CDH17 as an integrin ligand. This motif could be targeted to avoid metastatic dissemination in tumors overexpressing CDH17 and other RGD-containing cadherins. PMID:25336636

  2. Radiographically determined growth kinetics of primary lung tumors in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.E. . Coll. of Veterinary Medicine Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA ); Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F. )

    1989-10-01

    Tumor growth rate patterns especially tumor doubling time (TDT), have been extensively evaluated in man. Studies involving the determination of TDT in humans are limited, however, by the number of cases, time consistent radiographic tumor measurements, and inability to perform experimental procedures. In animals similar constraints do not exist. Lifespan animal models lend themselves well to tumor growth pattern analysis. Experimental studies have been designed to evaluate both the biological effects and growth patterns of induced and spontaneous tumors. The purpose of this study was to calculate the tumor volume doubling times (TCDT) for radiation-induced and spontaneous primary pulmonary neoplasms in dogs to see if differences existed due to etiology, sex or histologic cell type, and to determine if the time of tumor onset could be extrapolated from the TVDT. 3 refs.

  3. Tumor STAT1 transcription factor activity enhances breast tumor growth and immune suppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Hix, Laura M; Karavitis, John; Khan, Mohammad W; Shi, Yihui H; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Zhang, Ming

    2013-04-26

    Previous studies had implicated the IFN-? transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) as a tumor suppressor. However, accumulating evidence has correlated increased STAT1 activation with increased tumor progression in multiple types of cancer, including breast cancer. Indeed, we present evidence that tumor up-regulation of STAT1 activity in human and mouse mammary tumors correlates with increasing disease progression to invasive carcinoma. A microarray analysis comparing low aggressive TM40D and highly aggressive TM40D-MB mouse mammary carcinoma cells revealed significantly higher STAT1 activity in the TM40D-MB cells. Ectopic overexpression of constitutively active STAT1 in TM40D cells promoted mobilization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and inhibition of antitumor T cells, resulting in aggressive tumor growth in tumor-transplanted, immunocompetent mice. Conversely, gene knockdown of STAT1 in the metastatic TM40D-MB cells reversed these events and attenuated tumor progression. Importantly, we demonstrate that in human breast cancer, the presence of tumor STAT1 activity and tumor-recruited CD33(+) myeloid cells correlates with increasing disease progression from ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive carcinoma. We conclude that STAT1 activity in breast cancer cells is responsible for shaping an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, and inhibiting STAT1 activity is a promising immune therapeutic approach. PMID:23486482

  4. Pubertal growth of the medial amygdala delayed by short photoperiods in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    E-print Network

    Breedlove, Marc

    Pubertal growth of the medial amygdala delayed by short photoperiods in the Siberian hamster nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) by comparing Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) that had been raised from birth in either long day (LD; 16:8 h light:dark) or short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods. Hamsters were

  5. Delayed Embryonic Development and Impaired Cell Growth and Survival in Actg1 Null Mice

    E-print Network

    Ervasti, James M.

    muscle contraction, cell motility, cell division, cell signaling, establishment of cell polarityDelayed Embryonic Development and Impaired Cell Growth and Survival in Actg1 Null Mice Tina M and play a central role in nearly all aspects of cell biology. While the intricate process of development

  6. Decreases in Histamine Forming Enzyme Activity of Non-Metastasizing Fibrosarcomas in Hamsters with Progressive Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Thomas C.; Koppelmann, Lois E.; E. Lemmi, Carlos A.

    1978-01-01

    A marked and progressive decrease in the activity of the histamine forming enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), of tumors was found to be associated with the progressive growth of SV-40 virus induced and transplanted syngeneic non-metastasizing fibrosarcomas in inbred LSH Syrian hamsters. Histamine forming enzyme activity was highest in the smallest tumors (p < .005) and in the tumors with the slowest growth rate (p < .005, r - 0.84). Tumor histamine forming enzyme activity was highest for each interval of animal exposure to inoculated tumor cells in those animals which had limited their tumor growth to the smallest tumor size. These findings suggested a local anti-inflammatory effect of progressive tumor growth. Induced local inflammation by repeated intratumor injections of bradykinin markedly elevated tumor histamine forming enzyme activity above expected levels for tumors of the same size in a small group of individual animals which were sampled at random from a larger group of animals which were being studied for the tumor growth kinetics effects of repeated intralesional injections of bradykinin. Tumor histamine forming enzyme activity was highest in those animals which were managed by the frequency of injection and dose schedules which were found in the tumor growth kinetics study to be most effective in limiting tumor growth. These findings suggested that the observed anti-inflammatory effects of progressive tumor growth may be reversed by locally induced inflammation at the tumor site with beneficial effects on tumor growth. PMID:686884

  7. Decreases in histamine forming enzyme activity of non-metastasizing fibrosarcomas in hamsters with progressive tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Moore, T C; Koppelman, L E; Lemmi, C A

    1978-08-01

    A marked and progressive decrease in the activity of the histamine forming enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), of tumors was found to be associated with the progressive growth of SV-40 virus induced and transplanted syngeneic non-metastasizing fibrosarcomas in inbred LSH Syrian hamsters. Histamine forming enzyme activity was highest in the smallest tumors (p < .005) and in the tumors with the slowest growth rate (p < .005, r - 0.84). Tumor histamine forming enzyme activity was highest for each interval of animal exposure to inoculated tumor cells in those animals which had limited their tumor growth to the smallest tumor size. These findings suggested a local anti-inflammatory effect of progressive tumor growth. Induced local inflammation by repeated intratumor injections of bradykinin markedly elevated tumor histamine forming enzyme activity above expected levels for tumors of the same size in a small group of individual animals which were sampled at random from a larger group of animals which were being studied for the tumor growth kinetics effects of repeated intralesional injections of bradykinin. Tumor histamine forming enzyme activity was highest in those animals which were managed by the frequency of injection and dose schedules which were found in the tumor growth kinetics study to be most effective in limiting tumor growth. These findings suggested that the observed anti-inflammatory effects of progressive tumor growth may be reversed by locally induced inflammation at the tumor site with beneficial effects on tumor growth. PMID:686884

  8. Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase synergistically suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guodong; Panigrahy, Dipak; Hwang, Sung Hee; Yang, Jun; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Wettersten, Hiromi I.; Liu, Jun-Yan; Wang, Yanru; Ingham, Elizabeth S.; Tam, Sarah; Kieran, Mark W.; Weiss, Robert H.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins derived from the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from the cytochrome P450/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway are important eicosanoids that regulate angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors, which block the formation of prostaglandins, suppress tumor growth, whereas sEH inhibitors, which increase endogenous EETs, stimulate primary tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional interactions of these two pathways in cancer are unknown. Using pharmacological inhibitors as probes, we show here that dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH synergistically inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. COX-2/sEH dual pharmacological inhibitors also potently suppress primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via selective inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. These results demonstrate a critical interaction of these two lipid metabolism pathways on tumorigenesis and suggest dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:25024195

  9. [Investigation of the Influence of Angiogenesis on Tumor Growth with the Use of a Mathematical Model].

    PubMed

    Kolobov, A V; Kuznetsov, M B

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of tumor growth is developed taking into account angiogenesis. Malignant cells under metabolic stress produce vascular endothelium growth factor that stimulates angiogenesis, increasing nutrient influx in tumor. The model takes into account the migration and proliferation dichotomy in the malignant cells depending on nutrient concentration. Convective fluxes originated due to active tumor cell proliferation in compact dense tissue are also considered. The computational analysis of the model has demonstrated that diffusive tumor growth rate does not depend on angiogenesis while for non-invasive tumors angiogenesis can significantly alter tumor growth, although it is not able to stop it completely. The causes and significance of the result for estimation of the antitumor efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy are discussed. PMID:26349221

  10. On the Probability of Random Genetic Mutations for Various Types of Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we consider the problem of estimating the probability for a specific random genetic mutation to be present in a tumor of a given size. Previous mathematical models have been based on stochastic methods where the tumor was assumed to be homogeneous and, on average, growing exponentially. In contrast, we are able to obtain analytical results for cases where the exponential growth of cancer has been replaced by other, arguably more realistic types of growth of a heterogeneous tumor cell population. Our main result is that the probability that a given random mutation will be present by the time a tumor reaches a certain size, is independent of the type of curve assumed for the average growth of the tumor, at least for a general class of growth curves. The same is true for the related estimate of the expected number of mutants present in a tumor of a given size, if mutants are indeed present. PMID:22311065

  11. Sonodynamic therapy inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model

    E-print Network

    Cao, Wenwu

    Sonodynamic therapy inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model Zhongxiuzi proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube forma- tion. Furthermore, in a tumor xenograft mouse model, SDT was obtained from BD Biosci- ences. Rabbit anti-CD31 and mouse anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF

  12. PET measurements of hyperthermia-induced suppression of protein synthesis in tumors in relation to effects on tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, B.J.; Elsinga, P.H.; Mooibroek, J.; Paans, A.M.; Wieringa, A.R.; Konings, A.W.; Vaalburg, W. )

    1991-08-01

    Hyperthermia-induced metabolic changes in tumor tissue have been monitored by PET. Uptake of L-(1-11C)tyrosine in rhabdomyosarcoma tissue of Wag/Rij rats was dose-dependently reduced after local hyperthermia treatment at 42, 45, or 47 degrees C. Tumor blood flow, as measured by PET with 13NH3, appeared to be unchanged. The L-(1-11C)tyrosine uptake data were compared to uptake data of L-(1-14C)tyrosine and with data on the incorporation of L-(1-14C)tyrosine into tumor proteins. After intravenous injection, the 14C data were obtained from dissected tumor tissue. Heat-induced inhibition of the incorporation of L-(1-14C)tyrosine into tumor proteins tallied with the L-(1-11C)tyrosine uptake data. Heat-induced inhibition of amino acid uptake in the tumor correlated well with regression of tumor growth. It is concluded that PET using L-(1-11C)tyrosine is eligible for monitoring the effect of hyperthermia on tumor growth.

  13. Key Molecule Reprograms Microenvironment to Support Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    A team of investigators from the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center has identified two key molecules that cause normal cells in the tissue surrounding a tumor, the stroma, to produce nutrients that fuel tumor growth. The results of this study, which were published in the journal Nature Cell Biology, demonstrate what happens when normal cells called fibroblasts in mouse mammary tumors lose an important tumor-suppressor gene called Pten.

  14. Direct tumor recognition by a human CD4+ T-cell subset potently mediates tumor growth inhibition and orchestrates anti-tumor immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel F.; Shiku, Hiroshi; Mineno, Junichi; Okamoto, Sachiko; Old, Lloyd J.; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2015-01-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells generally orchestrate and regulate immune cells to provide immune surveillance against malignancy. However, activation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is restricted at local tumor sites where antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are frequently dysfunctional, which can cause rapid exhaustion of anti-tumor immune responses. Herein, we characterize anti-tumor effects of a unique human CD4+ helper T-cell subset that directly recognizes the cytoplasmic tumor antigen, NY-ESO-1, presented by MHC class II on cancer cells. Upon direct recognition of cancer cells, tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells (TR-CD4) potently induced IFN-?-dependent growth arrest in cancer cells. In addition, direct recognition of cancer cells triggers TR-CD4 to provide help to NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells by enhancing cytotoxic activity, and improving viability and proliferation in the absence of APCs. Notably, the TR-CD4 either alone or in collaboration with CD8+ T cells significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo in a xenograft model. Finally, retroviral gene-engineering with T cell receptor (TCR) derived from TR-CD4 produced large numbers of functional TR-CD4. These observations provide mechanistic insights into the role of TR-CD4 in tumor immunity, and suggest that approaches to utilize TR-CD4 will augment anti-tumor immune responses for durable therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients. PMID:26447332

  15. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity and Longitudinal Growth in Children With Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Triana, Clímaco Andres; Castelán-Martínez, Osvaldo D.; Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Jiménez-Méndez, Ricardo; Medina, Aurora; Clark, Patricia; Rassekh, Rod; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Carleton, Bruce; Medeiros, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cisplatin, a major antineoplastic drug used in the treatment of solid tumors, is a known nephrotoxin. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the prevalence and severity of cisplatin nephrotoxicity in 54 children and its impact on height and weight. We recorded the weight, height, serum creatinine, and electrolytes in each cisplatin cycle and after 12 months of treatment. Nephrotoxicity was graded as follows: normal renal function (Grade 0); asymptomatic electrolyte disorders, including an increase in serum creatinine, up to 1.5 times baseline value (Grade 1); need for electrolyte supplementation <3 months and/or increase in serum creatinine 1.5 to 1.9 times from baseline (Grade 2); increase in serum creatinine 2 to 2.9 times from baseline or need for electrolyte supplementation for more than 3 months after treatment completion (Grade 3); and increase in serum creatinine ?3 times from baseline or renal replacement therapy (Grade 4). Nephrotoxicity was observed in 41 subjects (75.9%). Grade 1 nephrotoxicity was observed in 18 patients (33.3%), Grade 2 in 5 patients (9.2%), and Grade 3 in 18 patients (33.3%). None had Grade 4 nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity patients were younger and received higher cisplatin dose, they also had impairment in longitudinal growth manifested as statistically significant worsening on the height Z Score at 12 months after treatment. We used a multiple logistic regression model using the delta of height Z Score (baseline-12 months) as dependent variable in order to adjust for the main confounder variables such as: germ cell tumor, cisplatin total dose, serum magnesium levels at 12 months, gender, and nephrotoxicity grade. Patients with nephrotoxicity Grade 1 where at higher risk of not growing (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.07–24.3, P?=?0.04). The cisplatin total dose had a significant negative relationship with magnesium levels at 12 months (Spearman r?=??0.527, P?=?<0.001). PMID:26313789

  16. Congenital Cutis Laxa Type 2 Associated With Recurrent Aspiration Pneumonia and Growth Delay: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Mohammadbagher; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Jahanshahi, Keramatallah; Zakeri, Mohadese

    2015-01-01

    Cutis laxa is a connective tissue disorder caused by deficiency of fibro elastic plexus, which can involve multiple organs. It is inherited in autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked. Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2, which appears to compromise a spectrum of disorders, starts with severe wrinkly skin syndrome and leads to more severe diseases related to growth and developmental delays and skeletal anomalies. The clinical manifestations in some of cases of Cutis laxa consist of redundant loose skin, pre-and post-natal growth deficiency, mental retardation, large fontanels, and dislocation of the hips. The authors present the case of a female patient with involved internal organ disorder and delay in growth in addition to skin laxity in which gene sequence analysis of PYCR1 indicated C.797G>A mutation. PMID:26516448

  17. p62/SQSTM1 synergizes with autophagy for tumor growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Huijun; Wang, Chenran; Croce, Carlo M.; Guan, Jun-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is crucial for cellular homeostasis and plays important roles in tumorigenesis. FIP200 (FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa) is an essential autophagy gene required for autophagy induction, functioning in the ULK1–ATG13–FIP200 complex. Our previous studies showed that conditional knockout of FIP200 significantly suppressed mammary tumorigenesis, which was accompanied by accumulation of p62 in tumor cells. However, it is not clear whether FIP200 is also required for maintaining tumor growth and how the increased p62 level affects the growth in autophagy-deficient FIP200-null tumors in vivo. Here, we describe a new system to delete FIP200 in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts as well as mammary tumor cells following their transplantation and show that ablation of FIP200 significantly reduced growth of established tumors in vivo. Using similar strategies, we further showed that either p62 knockdown or p62 deficiency in established FIP200-null tumors dramatically impaired tumor growth. The stimulation of tumor growth by p62 accumulation in FIP200-null tumors is associated with the up-regulated activation of the NF-?B pathway by p62. Last, we showed that overexpression of the autophagy master regulator TFEBS142A increased the growth of established tumors, which correlated with the increased autophagy of the tumor cells. Together, our studies demonstrate that p62 and autophagy synergize to promote tumor growth, suggesting that inhibition of both pathways could be more effective than targeting either alone for cancer therapy. PMID:24888590

  18. Clinically relevant doses of candesartan inhibit growth of prostate tumor xenografts in vivo through modulation of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alhusban, Ahmed; Al-Azayzih, Ahmad; Goc, Anna; Gao, Fei; Fagan, Susan C; Somanath, Payaningal R

    2014-09-01

    Angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs), widely used antihypertensive drugs, have also been investigated for their anticancer effects. The effect of ARBs on prostate cancer in experimental models compared with meta-analysis data from clinical trials is conflicting. Whereas this discrepancy might be due to the use of supratherapeutic doses of ARBs in cellular and animal models as compared with the clinical doses used in human trials, further investigation of the effects of clinical doses of ARBs on prostate cancer in experimental models is warranted. In the current study, we sought to determine the effects of candesartan on prostate cancer cellular function in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, and characterize the underlying mechanisms. Our analysis indicated that clinically relevant doses of candesartan significantly inhibited growth of PC3 cell tumor xenografts in mice. Interestingly, the same concentrations of candesartan actually promoted prostate cancer cellular function in vitro, through a modest but significant inhibition in apoptosis. Inhibition of tumor growth by candesartan was associated with a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in tumors and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, but normalization of tumor vasculature. Although candesartan did not impair PC3 cell viability, it inhibited endothelial-barrier disruption by tumor-derived factors. Furthermore, candesartan significantly inhibited expression of VEGF in PC3 and DU145 cell lines independent of angiotensin II type 2 receptor, but potentially via angiotensin II type 1 receptor inhibition. Our findings clearly demonstrate the therapeutic potential of candesartan for prostate cancer and establish a link between ARBs, VEGF expression, and prostate tumor angiogenesis. PMID:24990940

  19. Tumor Growth Modeling from the Perspective of Multiphase Porous Media Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Sciumè, G.; Shelton, S.E.; Gray, W.G.; Miller, C.T.; Hussain, F.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiphase porous media mechanics is used for modeling tumor growth, using governing equations obtained via the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT). This approach incorporates the interaction of more phases than legacy tumor growth models. The tumor is treated as a multiphase system composed of an extracellular matrix, tumor cells which may become necrotic depending on the nutrient level and the pressure, healthy cells and an interstitial fluid which transports nutrients. The governing equations are numerically solved within a Finite Element framework for predicting the growth rate of the tumor mass, and of its individual components, as a function of the initial tumor-to-healthy cell density ratio, nutrient concentration, and mechanical strain. Preliminary results are shown. PMID:23285734

  20. Luteolin Inhibits Human Prostate Tumor Growth by Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2-Mediated Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Budhraja, Amit; Wang, Xin; Ding, Songze; Wang, Lei; Hitron, Andrew; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Kim, Donghern; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vascular beds, is essential for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Luteolin is a common dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of luteolin using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In vitro studies using rat aortic ring assay showed that luteolin at non-toxic concentrations significantly inhibited microvessel sprouting and proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are key events in the process of angiogenesis. Luteolin also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis as revealed by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and matrigel plug assay. Gelatin zymographic analysis demonstrated the inhibitory effect of luteolin on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin suppressed VEGF induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and their downstream protein kinases AKT, ERK, mTOR, P70S6K, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in HUVECs. Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? level were significantly reduced by the treatment of luteolin in PC-3 cells. Luteolin (10 mg/kg/d) significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model, indicating that luteolin inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemical staining further revealed that the microvessel density could be remarkably suppressed by luteolin. Moreover, luteolin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, ERK, mTOR, P70S6K, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that luteolin inhibits human prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis. PMID:23300633

  1. Absence of tumor growth stimulation in a panel of 16 human tumor cell lines by mistletoe extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maier, Gerhard; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert

    2002-04-01

    Extracts of Viscum album (mistletoe) are widely used as complementary cancer therapies in Europe. The mistletoe lectins have been identified as the main active principle of mistletoe extracts. They have been shown to exhibit cytotoxic effects as well as immunomodulatory activities. The latter is exemplified by induction of cytokine secretion and increased activity of natural killer cells. Recent reports, however, indicated possible tumor growth stimulation by mistletoe extracts. Therefore, the three aqueous mistletoe extracts (Iscador M special, Iscador Qu special and Iscador P) were evaluated for antiproliferative and/or stimulatory effects in a panel of 16 human tumor cell lines in vitro using a cellular proliferation assay. The results show no evidence of stimulation of tumor growth by any of the three Iscador preparations, comprising central nervous system, gastric, non-small cell lung, mammary, prostate, renal and uterine cancer cell lines, as well as cell lines from hematological malignancies and melanomas. On the contrary, Iscador preparations containing a high lectin concentration (Iscador M special and Iscador Qu special) showed antitumor activity in the mammary cancer cell line MAXF 401NL at the 15 microg/ml dose level with a more than 70% growth inhibition compared to untreated control cells. In addition, a slight antitumor activity (growth inhibition 30-70%) was found in three tumor cell lines for Iscador M special and in seven tumor cell lines for Iscador Qu special, respectively. Iscador P, which contains no mistletoe lectin I, showed no antiproliferative activity. PMID:11984083

  2. Salmonella typhimurium Suppresses Tumor Growth via the Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-1?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Phan, Thuy Xuan; Nguyen, Vu Hong; Dinh-Vu, Hong-Van; Zheng, Jin Hai; Yun, Misun; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Hong, Yeongjin; Choy, Hyon E.; Szardenings, Michael; Hwang, Won; Park, Jin-A; Park, SunHee; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Min, Jung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Although strains of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium and wild-type Escherichia coli show similar tumor-targeting capacities, only S. typhimurium significantly suppresses tumor growth in mice. The aim of the present study was to examine bacteria-mediated immune responses by conducting comparative analyses of the cytokine profiles and immune cell populations within tumor tissues colonized by E. coli or attenuated Salmonellae. CT26 tumor-bearing mice were treated with two different bacterial strains: S. typhimurium defective in ppGpp synthesis (?ppGpp Salmonellae) or wild-type E. coli MG1655. Cytokine profiles and immune cell populations in tumor tissue colonized by these two bacterial strains were examined at two time points based on the pattern of tumor growth after ?ppGpp Salmonellae treatment: 1) when tumor growth was suppressed ('suppression stage') and 2) when they began to re-grow ('re-growing stage'). The levels of IL-1? and TNF-? were markedly increased in tumors colonized by ?ppGpp Salmonellae. This increase was associated with tumor regression; the levels of both IL-1? and TNF-? returned to normal level when the tumors started to re-grow. To identify the immune cells primarily responsible for Salmonellae-mediated tumor suppression, we examined the major cell types that produce IL-1? and TNF-?. We found that macrophages and dendritic cells were the main producers of TNF-? and IL-1?. Inhibiting IL-1? production in Salmonellae-treated mice restored tumor growth, whereas tumor growth was suppressed for longer by local administration of recombinant IL-1? or TNF-? in conjunction with Salmonella therapy. These findings suggested that IL-1? and TNF-? play important roles in Salmonella-mediated cancer therapy. A better understanding of host immune responses in Salmonella therapy may increase the success of a given drug, particularly when various strategies are combined with bacteriotherapy. PMID:26516371

  3. Delayed union of the clavicle treated with plasma rich in growth factors.

    PubMed

    Seijas, Roberto; Santana-Suarez, Romen Y; Garcia-Balletbo, Montserrat; Cuscó, Xavier; Ares, Oscar; Cugat, Ramón

    2010-10-01

    Nonunion is an uncommon complication of fracture of the clavicle; it is usually treated surgically. The use of biological treatments in this type of condition is increasingly more common because of their ease of application. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) has been used in delayed healing and in nonunion of fractures. We report a case of delayed union fracture of the clavicle in which biological treatment was chosen before considering surgery. Three percutaneous injections of PRGF, one every 2 weeks, were delivered into the delayed union site. The autologous PGRF used was obtained through the patented PRGF system. Three months after the final dose, computed tomography study showed healing of the bone. The patient regained complete mobility of the shoulder without pain. Currently she is able to carry out all the normal life activities and experiences no pain. PMID:21138228

  4. [Metabolic changes of lymphocytes and neoplastic cells in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma during tumor growth].

    PubMed

    Inzhevatkin, E V; Fomenko, E Iu; Slepov, E V; Savchenko, A A

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the activities of NAD+- and NADP-dependent dehydrogenases of lymphocytes and tumor cells were studied in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, as well as changes in the concentrations of oxaloacetate, lactate, and NAD+ in the course of tumor growth. During the major period of tumor growth, conditions are produced in the lymphocytes for increased intensity of aerobic reactions directed at energy reproduction combined with a somewhat decreased intensity of synthetic processes. In the tumor cells, conditions predominantly arise for intensification of plastic metabolic reactions and reactions related to anaerobic energy reproduction. PMID:17853702

  5. Macrophage depletion reduces postsurgical tumor recurrence and metastatic growth in a spontaneous murine model of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Muly; Khoo, Karen; Yeo, Kim Pin; Kato, Masashi; Prevost-Blondel, Amelle; Angeli, Veronique; Abastado, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of tumors is often followed by regrowth at the primary site and metastases may emerge rapidly following removal of the primary tumor. Macrophages are important drivers of tumor growth, and here we investigated their involvement in postoperative relapse as well as explore macrophage depletion as an adjuvant to surgical resection. RETAAD mice develop spontaneous metastatic melanoma that begins in the eye. Removal of the eyes as early as 1 week of age did not prevent the development of metastases; rather, surgery led to increased proliferation of tumor cells locally and in distant metastases. Surgery-induced increase in tumor cell proliferation correlated with increased macrophage density within the tumor. Moreover, macrophages stimulate tumor sphere formation from tumor cells of post-surgical but not control mice. Macrophage depletion with a diet containing the CSF-1R specific kinase inhibitor Ki20227 following surgery significantly reduced postoperative tumor recurrence and abrogated enhanced metastatic outgrowth. Our results confirm that tumor cells disseminate early, and show that macrophages contribute both to post-surgical tumor relapse and growth of metastases, likely through stimulating a population of tumor-initiating cells. Thus macrophage depletion warrants exploration as an adjuvant to surgical resection. PMID:25762633

  6. Dopamine receptor antagonist thioridazine inhibits tumor growth in a murine breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    YIN, TAO; HE, SISI; SHEN, GUOBO; YE, TINGHONG; GUO, FUCHUN; WANG, YONGSHENG

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological factors have been shown to influence tumor progression and therapeutic response. The present study investigated the effect of the dopamine receptor antagonist thioridazine on murine breast cancer. The anti-tumor efficacy of thioridazine was assessed using a murine breast cancer model. Cell apoptosis and proliferation were analyzed in vitro using flow cytometry (FCM) and the MTT assay, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to assess Akt, phosphorylated (p)-Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, p-STAT3 and p-p65 in tumor cells following treatment with thioridazine. The Ki67 index and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells were assessed in the tumor sections. Thioridazine was found to reduce tumor growth, inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. Thioridazine was also found to markedly inhibit tumor proliferation and induce tumor cell apoptosis in vivo as shown by the lower Ki67 index and increase in TUNEL-positive cells. In addition, thioridazine was observed to inhibit the activation of the canonical nuclear factor ?-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway and exert anti-tumor effects by remodeling the tumor stroma, as well as inhibit angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. In conclusion, thioridazine was found to significantly inhibit breast tumor growth and the potential for thioridazine to be used in cancer therapy may be re-evaluated and investigated in clinical settings. PMID:26095429

  7. ABT-510 induces tumor cell apoptosis and inhibits ovarian tumor growth in an orthotopic, syngeneic model of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, James; Henkin, Jack; Lawler, Jack; Moorehead, Roger; Petrik, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth most common cancer in women and is characterized by a low 5-year survival rate. One strategy that can potentially improve the overall survival rate in ovarian cancer is the use of antitumor agents such as ABT-510. ABT-510 is a small mimetic peptide of the naturally occurring antiangiogenic compound thrombospondin-1 and has been shown to significantly reduce tumor growth and burden in preclinical mouse models and in naturally occurring tumors in dogs. This is the first evaluation of ABT-510 in a preclinical model of human EOC. Tumorigenic mouse surface epithelial cells were injected into the bursa of C57BL/6 mice that were treated with either 100 mg/kg ABT-510 or an equivalent amount of PBS. ABT-510 caused a significant reduction in tumor size, ascites fluid volume, and secondary lesion dissemination when compared with PBS controls. Analysis of the vasculature of ABT-510-treated mice revealed vascular remodeling with smaller diameter vessels and lower overall area, increased number of mature vessels, and decreased tissue hypoxia. Tumors of ABT-510-treated mice had a significantly higher proportion of apoptotic tumor cells compared with the PBS-treated controls. Immunoblot analysis of cell lysates revealed a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein expression as well as expression of members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase survival pathways. In vitro, ABT-510 induced tumor cell apoptosis in mouse and human ovarian cancer cells. This study shows ABT-510 as a promising candidate for inhibiting tumor growth and ascites formation in human EOC. PMID:19139114

  8. Control of tumor growth in animals by infusion of an angiogenesis inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Langer, R; Conn, H; Vacanti, J; Haudenschild, C; Folkman, J

    1980-01-01

    Angiogenesis and tumor growth were inhibited in two different animal models by regional infusion of a partially purified cartilage extract. In rabbits bearing corneal implants of V2 carcinoma and receiving the inhibitor, vascular growth rates were < 3% of those in control animals receiving either Ringer's solution or bovine trypsin inhibitor (Trasylol). Subconjunctival B16 melanoma implants in mice receiving the inhibitor weight < 2.5% of implants in mice receiving Ringer's solution, Trasylol, or albumin. Histologic study of major organs and standard blood tests revealed no toxic effects in any of the animals. The inhibitor did not retard the growth of either tumor cell type in tissue culture at concentrations as high as 1 mg/ml. These results suggest that the cartilage factor does not interfere with the growth of the tumor cell population directly but that it prevents tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Images PMID:6159628

  9. Control of Tumor Growth in Animals by Infusion of an Angiogenesis Inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Robert; Conn, Howard; Vacanti, Joseph; Haudenschild, Christian; Folkman, Judah

    1980-07-01

    Angiogenesis and tumor growth were inhibited in two different animal models by regional infusion of a partially purified cartilage extract. In rabbits bearing corneal implants of V2 carcinoma and receiving the inhibitor, vascular growth rates were <3% of those in control animals receiving either Ringer's solution or bovine trypsin inhibitor (Trasylol). Subconjunctival B16 melanoma implants in mice receiving the inhibitor weighed <2.5% of implants in mice receiving Ringer's solution, Trasylol, or albumin. Histologic study of major organs and standard blood tests revealed no toxic effects in any of the animals. The inhibitor did not retard the growth of either tumor cell type in tissue culture at concentrations as high as 1 mg/ml. These results suggest that the cartilage factor does not interfere with the growth of the tumor cell population directly but that it prevents tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis.

  10. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor 19 reduces tumor growth by modulating beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Pai, Rama; Dunlap, Debra; Qing, Jing; Mohtashemi, Iman; Hotzel, Kathy; French, Dorothy M

    2008-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) play important roles in development, angiogenesis, and cancer. FGF19 uniquely binds to FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4). Our previous study has shown that FGF19 transgenic tumors have an activated Wnt-pathway phenotype. Wnt signaling is implicated in initiating or promoting FGF signaling in various cell types and organs. In this study, we examined whether FGF19 or inhibition of FGF19 affects the beta-catenin signaling pathway using human colon cancer cell lines (HCT116, Colo201). Our results show that FGF19 increases tyrosine phosphorylation of beta-catenin and causes loss of beta-catenin-E-cadherin binding. FGF19 increases p-GSK3beta and active beta-catenin levels and anti-FGF19 antibody (1A6) treatment abrogates this effect of FGF19. Anti-FGF19 antibody treatment increases S33/S37/T41 phosphorylation and ubiquitination of beta-catenin. Ion-trap mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that 1A6 increases phosphorylation of beta-catenin in the NH(2) terminus. Using HCT116-paired beta-catenin knockout cells, we show that FGF19 induces TCF/LEF reporter activity in parental (WT/Delta45) and in WT/--but not in mutant (-/Delta45) cells, and that inhibition of endogenous FGF19 reduces this reporter activity, indicating that wild-type beta-catenin is accessible for modulation. FGFR4 knockdown using inducible short hairpin RNA significantly reduces the colony-forming ability in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Although cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity remains unchanged, the number of ki67-positive nuclei is reduced in FGFR4 knockdown tumor xenograft tissues. Consistent with the reduced beta-catenin activation, Taqman analyses show that FGF19/FGFR4 inhibition reduced beta-catenin target gene (cyclin D1, CD44, c-jun, Cox-2, UPAR) expression. These findings highlight that FGF19/FGFR4 cross-talk with beta-catenin and that pathway intervention reduces tumor growth. PMID:18593907

  11. An Analysis of Trends and Growth Factor Receptor Expression of GI Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Kanika A.; Silva, Scott R.; Johnson, Jessica N.; Doan, Hung Q.; Jackson, Lindsey N.; Gulhati, Pat; Qiu, Suimin; Riall, Taylor S.; Evers, B. Mark

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was twofold: 1) to determine the incidence, patient and tumor characteristics, and outcome of patients with GI carcinoid tumors using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, and 2) to delineate the expression pattern of growth factor receptors (GFRs) in carcinoid tumors. The SEER database search provided information on patients diagnosed with carcinoid tumors from 1990–2002. Carcinoid tumor sections (n = 46) were stained for the GFRs: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and HER-2/neu. Over the 12 year analysis period, 18,180 patients were identified with carcinoid tumors of the foregut, midgut, and hindgut; the incidence of carcinoid tumors increased ~2-fold during this time period. Of the patients with carcinoid tumors, there was a trend of increased expression of VEGF-R and IGF-R, particularly in the foregut and midgut carcinoids. Analysis of the SEER database confirms that the incidence of carcinoid tumors is increasing with an approximate doubling in the number of carcinoid cases from 1990–2002. Furthermore, an increase in VEGF-R and IGF-R expression suggests that GFR inhibitors may be effective adjuvant therapy for carcinoid cancer. PMID:19582519

  12. Is tumor growth sustained by rare cancer stem cells or dominant clones?

    PubMed

    Adams, Jerry M; Strasser, Andreas

    2008-06-01

    A key issue for cancer biology and therapy is whether the relentless growth of a tumor is driven by a substantial proportion of its cells or exclusively by a rare subpopulation, commonly termed "cancer stem cells." Support for the cancer stem cell model has been stimulated by experiments in which human tumor cells were transplanted into immunodeficient mice. Most notably, in human acute myeloid leukemia, only a minute proportion of the cells, displaying a defined phenotype, could seed leukemia in mice. Xenotransplantation, however, may fail to reveal many tumor growth-sustaining cells because the foreign microenvironment precludes essential interactions with support cells. In studies that instead have transplanted mouse leukemias and lymphomas into syngeneic animals, most of the tumors seem to be maintained by the dominant cell population, and only a few types of mouse leukemia seem to be sustained by a minor tumor growth-sustaining subpopulation. The collective evidence suggests that various tumors may span the spectrum between the extremes represented by the two models. If tumor growth can indeed be sustained either by rare cancer stem cells or dominant clones or both, as current evidence suggests, curative therapy for many types of tumors will most likely require targeting all the tumor cell populations. PMID:18519656

  13. Aberrant IDH3? expression promotes malignant tumor growth by inducing HIF-1-mediated metabolic reprogramming and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L; Morinibu, A; Kobayashi, M; Zhu, Y; Wang, X; Goto, Y; Yeom, C J; Zhao, T; Hirota, K; Shinomiya, K; Itasaka, S; Yoshimura, M; Guo, G; Hammond, E M; Hiraoka, M; Harada, H

    2015-09-01

    Cancer cells gain a growth advantage through the so-called Warburg effect by shifting glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has been suggested to function in metabolic reprogramming; however, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We found that the aberrant expression of wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 3? (IDH3?), a subunit of the IDH3 heterotetramer, decreased ?-ketoglutarate levels and increased the stability and transactivation activity of HIF-1? in cancer cells. The silencing of IDH3? significantly delayed tumor growth by suppressing the HIF-1-mediated Warburg effect and angiogenesis. IDH3? expression was associated with the poor postoperative overall survival of lung and breast cancer patients. These results justify the exploitation of IDH3 as a novel target for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. PMID:25531325

  14. Mechanism of delayed frost growth on superhydrophobic surfaces with jumping condensates: more than interdrop freezing.

    PubMed

    Hao, Quanyong; Pang, Yichuan; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Jie; Yao, Shuhuai

    2014-12-30

    Delayed frost growth on superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) with jumping condensates has been found by many researchers recently. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, copper SHSs with or without jumping condensates were selected as the substrates for observing condensation icing at a relative humidity (RH) of 60%. The results showed that only SHS with jumping condensates showed delayed condensation icing. Moreover, when such SHSs were placed upward and the surface temperature was held at -10 °C, some discrete frozen drops first appeared on the SHSs. The following icing mainly occurred on these discrete global crystals and then expanded around them until covering the entire surface. Little macroscopic interdrop freezing phenomenon was found. The growth of the frost front is mainly dominated by jumping freezing (the condensed droplets jumped onto the ice crystals and were frozen) or direct vapor-ice deposition. Using microscopy, we found interdrop freezing occurred, in addition to the two mechanisms mentioned above. By placing the SHS downward at -10 °C and intentionally introducing or eliminating tiny dusts, we confirmed that there were no superhydrophobic defects on our SHSs. The discrete frozen drops first appearing on the SHSs were triggered by tiny dusts falling on the surface before or during condensation icing. The key approach in delaying or resisting frost growth on SHSs with jumping condensates is to retard initial ice crystal formation, e.g., eliminating the edge effect and keeping the SHSs clean. PMID:25466489

  15. Tumor growth model for atlas based registration of pathological brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moualhi, Wafa; Ezzeddine, Zagrouba

    2015-02-01

    The motivation of this work is to register a tumor brain magnetic resonance (MR) image with a normal brain atlas. A normal brain atlas is deformed in order to take account of the presence of a large space occupying tumor. The method use a priori model of tumor growth assuming that the tumor grows in a radial way from a starting point. First, an affine transformation is used in order to bring the patient image and the brain atlas in a global correspondence. Second, the seeding of a synthetic tumor into the brain atlas provides a template for the lesion. Finally, the seeded atlas is deformed combining a method derived from optical flow principles and a model for tumor growth (MTG). Results show that an automatic segmentation method of brain structures in the presence of large deformation can be provided.

  16. On a Nonlinear Model for Tumor Growth: Global in Time Weak Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatelli, Donatella; Trivisa, Konstantina

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a class of tumor growth models known as mixed models. The key characteristic of these type of tumor growth models is that the different populations of cells are continuously present everywhere in the tumor at all times. In this work we focus on the evolution of tumor growth in the presence of proliferating, quiescent and dead cells as well as a nutrient. The system is given by a multi-phase flow model and the tumor is described as a growing continuum ? with boundary ?? both of which evolve in time. Global-in-time weak solutions are obtained using an approach based on penalization of the boundary behavior, diffusion and viscosity in the weak formulation.

  17. A kinetic model of tumor growth and its radiation response with an application to Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery

    E-print Network

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Leder, Kevin Z; Hui, Susanta K

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model to simulate the growth of tumor volume and its response to a single fraction of high dose irradiation. We made several key assumptions of the model. Tumor volume is composed of proliferating (or dividing) cancer cells and non-dividing (or dead) cells. Tumor growth rate (or tumor volume doubling time, Td) is proportional to the ratio of the volumes of tumor vasculature and the tumor. The vascular volume grows slower than the tumor by introducing the vascular growth retardation factor, theta. Upon irradiation the proliferating cells gradually die over a fixed time period after irradiation. Dead cells are cleared away with cell clearance time, Tcl. The model was applied to simulate pre-treatment growth and post-treatment radiation response of rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor and metastatic brain tumors of five patients who were treated by Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). By selecting appropriate model parameters, we showed the temporal variation of the tumors for both th...

  18. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; McDougall, Steven R.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-01-01

    The flow of interstitial fluid and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in solid tumors and surrounding host tissues have been identified as critical elements in cancer growth and vascularization. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that tumors may present elevated IFP, which can be a formidable physical barrier for delivery of cell nutrients and small molecules into the tumor. Elevated IFP may also exacerbate gradients of biochemical signals such as angiogenic factors released by tumors into the surrounding tissues. These studies have helped to understand both biochemical signaling and treatment prognosis. Building upon previous work, here we develop a vascular tumor growth model by coupling a continuous growth model with a discrete angiogenesis model. We include fluid/oxygen extravasation as well as a continuous lymphatic field, and study the micro-environmental fluid dynamics and their effect on tumor growth by accounting for blood flow, transcapillary fluid flux, interstitial fluid flow, and lymphatic drainage. We thus elucidate further the non-trivial relationship between the key elements contributing to the effects of interstitial pressure in solid tumors. In particular, we study the effect of IFP on oxygen extravasation and show that small blood/lymphatic vessel resistance and collapse may contribute to lower transcapillary fluid/oxygen flux, thus decreasing the rate of tumor growth. We also investigate the effect of tumor vascular pathologies, including elevated vascular and interstitial hydraulic conductivities inside the tumor as well as diminished osmotic pressure differences, on the fluid flow across the tumor capillary bed, the lymphatic drainage, and the IFP. Our results reveal that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity together with poor lymphatic function is the root cause of the development of plateau profiles of the IFP in the tumor, which have been observed in experiments, and contributes to a more uniform distribution of oxygen, solid tumor pressure and a broad-based collapse of the tumor lymphatics. We also find that the rate that IFF is fluxed into the lymphatics and host tissue is largely controlled by an elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity in the tumor. We discuss the implications of these results on microenvironmental transport barriers, and the tumor invasive and metastatic potential. Our results suggest the possibility of developing strategies of targeting tumor cells based on the cues in the interstitial fluid. PMID:23220211

  19. Therapeutic effects of intrabone and systemic mesenchymal stem cell cytotherapy on myeloma bone disease and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Khan, Sharmin; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2012-08-01

    The cytotherapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been evaluated in various disorders including those involving inflammation, autoimmunity, bone regeneration, and cancer. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a systemic malignancy associated with induction of osteolytic lesions that often are not repaired even after prolonged remission. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intrabone and systemic injections of MSCs on MM bone disease, tumor growth, and tumor regrowth in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-rab model and to shed light on the exact localization of systemically injected MSCs. Intrabone injection of MSCs, but not hematopoietic stem cells, into myelomatous bones prevented MM-induced bone disease, promoted bone formation, and inhibited MM growth. After remission was induced with melphalan treatment, intrabone-injected MSCs promoted bone formation and delayed myeloma cell regrowth in bone. Most intrabone or systemically injected MSCs were undetected 2 to 4 weeks after injection. The bone-building effects of MSCs were mediated through activation of endogenous osteoblasts and suppression of osteoclast activity. Although a single intravenous injection of MSCs had no effect on MM, sequential weekly intravenous injections of MSCs prevented MM-induced bone disease but had no effect on tumor burden. MSCs expressed high levels of anti-inflammatory (eg, HMOX1) and bone-remodeling (eg, Decorin, CYR61) mediators. In vitro, MSCs promoted osteoblast maturation and suppressed osteoclast formation, and these effects were partially prevented by blocking decorin. A subset of intravenously or intracardially injected MSCs trafficked to myelomatous bone in SCID-rab mice. Although the majority of intravenously injected MSCs were trapped in lungs, intracardially injected MSCs were mainly localized in draining mesenteric lymph nodes. This study shows that exogenous MSCs act as bystander cells to inhibit MM-induced bone disease and tumor growth and that systemically injected MSCs are attracted to bone by myeloma cells or conditions induced by MM and inhibit bone disease. PMID:22460389

  20. Causes, consequences, and remedies for growth-induced solid stress in murine and human tumors

    E-print Network

    Martin, John D.

    The presence of growth-induced solid stresses in tumors has been suspected for some time, but these stresses were largely estimated using mathematical models. Solid stresses can deform the surrounding tissues and compress ...

  1. Expression of endothelial cell-specific receptor tyrosine kinases and growth factors in human brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hatva, E.; Kaipainen, A.; Mentula, P.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Paetau, A.; Haltia, M.; Alitalo, K.

    1995-01-01

    Key growth factor-receptor interactions involved in angiogenesis are possible targets for therapy of CNS tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly specific endothelial cell mitogen that has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis, a requirement for solid tumor growth. The expression of VEGF, the closely related placental growth factor (PIGF), the newly cloned endothelial high affinity VEGF receptors KDR and FLT1, and the endothelial orphan receptors FLT4 and Tie were analyzed by in situ hybridization in normal human brain tissue and in the following CNS tumors: gliomas, grades II, III, IV; meningiomas, grades I and II; and melanoma metastases to the cerebrum. VEGF mRNA was up-regulated in the majority of low grade tumors studied and was highly expressed in cells of malignant gliomas. Significantly elevated levels of Tie, KDR, and FLT1 mRNAs, but not FLT4 mRNA, were observed in malignant tumor endothelia, as well as in endothelia of tissues directly adjacent to the tumor margin. In comparison, there was little or no receptor expression in normal brain vasculature. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that these endothelial receptors are induced during tumor progression and may play a role in tumor angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7856749

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo by targeting

    E-print Network

    Fan, Jianqing

    is associated with advanced disease stage, rapid tumor progression and poor prognosis (Bown, 2001; Brodeur, 2003ORIGINAL ARTICLE Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo by targeting macrophage migration inhibitory factor in human neuroblastoma Y Ren1,2 , HM Chan1 , J Fan3 , Y Xie1 , YX Chen

  3. CCR 20th anniversary commentary: a chimeric antibody, C225, inhibits EGFR activation and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, John; Prewett, Marie; Rockwell, Patricia; Goldstein, Neil I

    2015-01-15

    Murine mAb 225 was effective against the EGFR tyrosine kinase and inhibited tumor growth in preclinical studies. A phase I trial showed safety, tumor localization, and satisfactory pharmacokinetics. Human:murine chimeric C225 retained biologic activity, which was essential for the conduct of subsequent combination therapy trials and eventual regulatory approval. PMID:25593342

  4. Platelets promote tumor growth and metastasis via direct interaction between Aggrus/podoplanin and CLEC-2.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Satoshi; Sato, Shigeo; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Takami, Miho; Koike, Sumie; Mishima, Yuji; Hatake, Kiyohiko; Fujita, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    The platelet aggregation-inducing factor Aggrus, also known as podoplanin, is frequently upregulated in several types of tumors and enhances hematogenous metastasis by interacting with and activating the platelet receptor CLEC-2. Thus, Aggrus-CLEC-2 binding could be a therapeutic molecular mechanism for cancer therapy. We generated a new anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody, MS-1, that suppressed Aggrus-CLEC-2 binding, Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation, and Aggrus-mediated tumor metastasis. Interestingly, the MS-1 monoclonal antibody attenuated the growth of Aggrus-positive tumors in vivo. Moreover, the humanized chimeric MS-1 antibody, ChMS-1, also exhibited strong antitumor activity against Aggrus-positive lung squamous cell carcinoma xenografted into NOD-SCID mice compromising antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic and complement-dependent cytotoxic activities. Because Aggrus knockdown suppressed platelet-induced proliferation in vitro and tumor growth of the lung squamous cell carcinoma in vivo, Aggrus may be involved in not only tumor metastasis but also tumor growth by promoting platelet-tumor interaction, platelet activation, and secretion of platelet-derived factors in vivo. Our results indicate that molecular target drugs inhibiting specific platelet-tumor interactions can be developed as antitumor drugs that suppress both metastasis and proliferation of tumors such as lung squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23991201

  5. Conditions supporting repair of potentially lethal damage cause a significant reduction of ultraviolet light-induced division delay in synchronized and plateau-phase Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iliakis, G.; Nusse, M.

    1982-09-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) induced by uv light in synchronized and in plateau-phase cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells was studied by measuring cell survival. In particlar the influence of conditions supporting repair of PLD on growth kinetics was investigated. In synchronized G/sub 1/, S, or G/sub 2/ + M cells as well as in plateau-phase cells, uv light induced, almost exclusively, delay in the next S phase. A significant decrease of this delay was observed when the cells were incubated for 24 hr in balanced salt solution. Repair of PLD after uv irradiation was found to occur in plateau-phase cells and in cells in different phases of the cell cycle provided that after irradiation these were kept under conditions inhibiting cell multiplication (incubation in balanced salt solution or in conditioned medium). The repair time constant t/sub 50/ was significantly higher than those found for X irradiation (5-10 hr compared to 2 hr), and repair was not significantly inhibited by either 20 ..mu..g/ml cycloheximide or 2 mM caffeine in 24 hr.

  6. 2'-hydroxyflavanone inhibits prostate tumor growth through inactivation of AKT/STAT3 signaling and induction of cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaijie; Ning, Zhongyun; Zhou, Jiancheng; Wang, Bin; Fan, Jinhai; Zhu, Jianning; Gao, Yang; Wang, Xinyang; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; He, Dalin

    2014-07-01

    Although there have been advances in therapeutic regimes for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), these recent developments have not led to improved cure rates. Thus, more novel agents to prolong patient survival are desired. 2'-Hydroxyflavanone (2HF), a nontoxic natural flavonoid, has been shown to exhibit pleiotropic anticancer effects in many cancer types, including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the therapeutic effects of 2HF on tumor growth and its potential mechanisms in CRPC have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, utilizing three different metastatic and androgen-independent PCa cell models (PC-3, DU145 and C4-2), we found that 2HF treatment not only resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro, but also delayed subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, besides its known inhibitory effects on aldo?keto reductase activity and de novo androgen synthesis, 2HF also markedly suppressed AKT phosphorylation, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and transactivation subsequently regulating the expression of members of the BCL-2 family (i.e., Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bax) and modulating caspase-mediated cell apoptosis. Overall, this study revealed a novel mechanism for 2HF targeting metastatic CRPC, in which inactivation of AKT/STAT3 signaling led to cell apoptosis and growth inhibition. PMID:24859932

  7. Acetyl-11-Keto-?-Boswellic Acid Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth by Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2-Mediated Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiufeng; Yi, Zhengfang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sung, Bokyung; Qu, Weijing; Lian, Xiaoyuan; Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Liu, Mingyao

    2009-01-01

    The role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis is well established. Identification of small molecule that blocks tumor angiogenesis and is safe and affordable has been a challenge in drug development. In this study, we demonstrated that acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA), an active component from an Ayurvedic medicinal plant (Boswellia serrata), could strongly inhibit tumor angiogenesis. AKBA suppressed tumor growth in the human prostate tumor xenograft mice treated daily (10 mg/kg of AKBA) after solid tumors reached about 100 mm3 (n=5). The inhibitory effect of AKBA on tumor growth was well correlated with suppression of angiogenesis. When examined for the molecular mechanism, we found that AKBA significantly inhibited blood vessel formation in the Matrigel plug assay in mice and effectively and suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced microvessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay ex vivo. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited VEGF-induced cell proliferation, chemotactic motility, and the formation of capillary-like structures from primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis and in vitro kinase assay revealed that AKBA suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 kinase (KDR/Flk-1) with IC50 of 1.68 ?mol/L. Specifically, AKBA suppressed the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src family kinase, focal adhesion kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, AKT, mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase. Our findings suggest that AKBA potently inhibits human prostate tumor growth through inhibition of angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathways. PMID:19567671

  8. The Methanol Extract of Angelica sinensis Induces Cell Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wen-Lin; Harn, Horng-jyh; Hung, Pei-Hsiu; Hsieh, Ming-Chang; Chang, Kai-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Fan; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Lee, Ming-Shih; Tsai, Nu-Man

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascularized and invasive neoplasm. The methanol extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-M) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several diseases, such as gastric mucosal damage, hepatic injury, menopausal symptoms, and chronic glomerulonephritis. AS-M also displays potency in suppressing the growth of malignant brain tumor cells. The growth suppression of malignant brain tumor cells by AS-M results from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. AS-M upregulates expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, including p16, to decrease the phosphorylation of Rb proteins, resulting in arrest at the G0-G1 phase. The expression of the p53 protein is increased by AS-M and correlates with activation of apoptosis-associated proteins. Therefore, the apoptosis of cancer cells induced by AS-M may be triggered through the p53 pathway. In in vivo studies, AS-M not only suppresses the growth of human malignant brain tumors but also significantly prolongs patient survival. In addition, AS-M has potent anticancer effects involving cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of AS-M indicate that this extract warrants further investigation and potential development as a new antibrain tumor agent, providing new hope for the chemotherapy of malignant brain cancer. PMID:24319475

  9. Tumor Microenvironments Correspond to Unique Metabolic Signatures that Affect Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Using a genetic construct that produces a green glow as a tumor responds to microenvironmental stresses, a team of investigators at Stanford University have shown that the way in which a tumor responds to stress can predict how it will grow in the body. This work, led by Albert Koong, M.D., was published in the journal Cancer Research.

  10. Endogenous T Cell Responses to Antigens Expressed in Lung Adenocarcinomas Delay Malignant Tumor Progression

    E-print Network

    DuPage, Michel J.

    Neoantigens derived from somatic mutations in tumors may provide a critical link between the adaptive immune system and cancer. Here, we describe a system to introduce exogenous antigens into genetically engineered mouse ...

  11. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting as a delayed sequela to cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Barasch, E.S.; Altieri, D.; Decker, R.E.; Ahmed, S.; Lin, J.

    1988-11-01

    A patient developed a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) many years after therapeutic cerebral radiation and methotrexate treatment for leukemia. The differential radiologic and histologic diagnoses, as well as the possible co-oncogenic effects of radiation and methotrexate, are evaluated.

  12. Pu-erh Tea Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth by Down-Regulating Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lanjun; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms’ metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects. PMID:22174618

  13. Pu-erh tea inhibits tumor cell growth by down-regulating mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lanjun; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms' metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects. PMID:22174618

  14. Computational Modeling of 3D Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis for Chemotherapy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lei; van de Ven, Anne L.; Guo, Dongmin; Andasari, Vivi; Cristini, Vittorio; Li, King C.; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Solid tumors develop abnormally at spatial and temporal scales, giving rise to biophysical barriers that impact anti-tumor chemotherapy. This may increase the expenditure and time for conventional drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. In order to facilitate drug discovery, we propose a mathematical model that couples three-dimensional tumor growth and angiogenesis to simulate tumor progression for chemotherapy evaluation. This application-oriented model incorporates complex dynamical processes including cell- and vascular-mediated interstitial pressure, mass transport, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and vessel maturation to model tumor progression through multiple stages including tumor initiation, avascular growth, and transition from avascular to vascular growth. Compared to pure mechanistic models, the proposed empirical methods are not only easy to conduct but can provide realistic predictions and calculations. A series of computational simulations were conducted to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed comprehensive model. The computational simulation results suggest that solid tumor geometry is related to the interstitial pressure, such that tumors with high interstitial pressure are more likely to develop dendritic structures than those with low interstitial pressure. PMID:24404145

  15. Inhibition of mammary carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo by bee venom.

    PubMed

    Orsoli?, Nada; Sver, Lidija; Verstovsek, Srdan; Terzi?, Svjetlana; Basi?, Ivan

    2003-06-01

    The possible tumor growth- and metastasis-inhibiting effects of bee venom in mice and in tumor cell cultures were studied. The tumor was a transplantable mammary carcinoma (MCa) of CBA mouse. Intravenous administration of bee venom to mice significantly reduced the number of metastases in the lung. However, subcutaneous administration of bee venom did not reduce the number of lung metastases, indicating that the antitumor effect of the venom could be highly dependent on the route of injection as well as close contact between the components of the venom and the tumor cells, as was shown by in vitro studies on MCa cells. We also observed variations in immunological parameter induced by bee venom. We proposed that bee venom has an indirect mechanism of tumor growth inhibition and promotion of tumor rejection that is based on stimulation of the local cellular immune responses in lymph nodes. Apoptosis, necrosis, and lysis of tumor cells are other possible mechanisms by which bee venom inhibits tumor growth. PMID:12782086

  16. Simulation of avascular tumor growth by agent-based game model involving phenotype-phenotype interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Wang, Hengtong; Zhang, Jiangang; Chen, Ke; Li, Yumin

    2015-01-01

    All tumors, both benign and metastatic, undergo an avascular growth stage with nutrients supplied by the surrounding tissue. This avascular growth process is much easier to carry out in more qualitative and quantitative experiments starting from tumor spheroids in vitro with reliable reproducibility. Essentially, this tumor progression would be described as a sequence of phenotypes. Using agent-based simulation in a two-dimensional spatial lattice, we constructed a composite growth model in which the phenotypic behavior of tumor cells depends on not only the local nutrient concentration and cell count but also the game among cells. Our simulation results demonstrated that in silico tumors are qualitatively similar to those observed in tumor spheroid experiments. We also found that the payoffs in the game between two living cell phenotypes can influence the growth velocity and surface roughness of tumors at the same time. Finally, this current model is flexible and can be easily extended to discuss other situations, such as environmental heterogeneity and mutation. PMID:26648395

  17. Effects of epidermal growth factor on the growth of human gastric cancer cell and the implanted tumor of nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lu; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Xu, Chun-Di; Zhang, Yong-Pin; Qiao, Ming-Ming; Xu, Jia-Xu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal tissue growth and development, and it can stimulate epithelial proliferation, cell differentiation and growth. It has been established that the EGF can promote gastric cytoprotection and ulcer healing. But the potential ability of EGF to regulate the gastric cancer growth is unknown. This study is to investigate the influence of EGF on human gastric cancer cell and the implanted tumor growth of nude mice. METHODS: The cell growth rates of human gastric adenocarinoma cell lines MKN-28, MKN-45, SGC-7901 and normal human gastric epithelial cells 3T3 were assessed when incubated with recombinant human EGF (rhEGF, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10, 50, 100 mg·L-1) using MTT method. The cells of MKN-28, MKN-45, SGC-7901 (gastric cancer tissue 1.5 mm3) were implanted in the BALB/cA nude mice for 10 days. The EGF was given intraperitoneally (15, 30, 60 ?g·kg-1) for 3 weeks. The body weights of the tumor-bearing animals and their tumor mass were measured afterwards to assess the mitogenic effect of rhEGF in the nude mice. RESULTS: Within the concentration range of 0.05-100 mg·L-1, rhEGF could increase the cell growth of normal 3T3 cells (cell growth rate 100% vs 102.8%, P < 0.05), but partially restrain the gastric cancer cell growth. The latter effect was related to cell differentiation. In 15-60 ?g/kg rhEGF groups, the mean implanted tumor mass of MKN-28 cell were 1.75 g, 1.91 g, 2.08 g/NS group 1.97 g (P > 0.05), the mean tumor mass of SGC-7901 cell were 1.53 g, 1.07 g, 1.20 g/NS group 1.07 g (P > 0.05), and for MKN-45 cell, the tumor mass were respectively 1.92 g, 1.29 g, 1.77 g/NS group 1.82 g (P > 0.05). So rhEGF had no obvious effect on implanted MKN-28, SGC-7901 and MKN-45 tumor growth. CONCLUSION: EGF has no stimulating effect on the human gastric cancer cell growth neither in vitro nor in vivo. PMID:12046069

  18. Apparent involvement of opioid peptides in stress-induced enhancement of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Shavit, Y; Terman, G W; Nelson, L R; Gale, R P; Liebeskind, J C

    1983-01-01

    Exposure to stress has been associated with alterations in both immune function and tumor development in man and laboratory animals. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a particular type of inescapable footshock stress, known to cause an opioid mediated form of analgesia, on survival time of female Fischer 344 rats injected with a mammary ascites tumor. Rats subjected to inescapable footshock manifested an enhanced tumor growth indicated by a decreased survival time and decreased percent survival. This tumor enhancing effect of stress was prevented by the opiate antagonist, naltrexone, suggesting a role for endogenous opioid peptides in this process. In the absence of stress, naltrexone did not affect tumor growth. PMID:6686324

  19. Molecular Characterization of Growth Hormone-producing Tumors in the GC Rat Model of Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan F; Muñoz-Bravo, Jose L; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Fernandez-Maza, Laura; Balcerzyk, Marcin; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Luque, Raúl M; Castaño, Justo P; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Cano, David A

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a disorder resulting from excessive production of growth hormone (GH) and consequent increase of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), most frequently caused by pituitary adenomas. Elevated GH and IGF-I levels results in wide range of somatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and gastrointestinal morbidities. Subcutaneous implantation of the GH-secreting GC cell line in rats leads to the formation of tumors. GC tumor-bearing rats develop characteristics that resemble human acromegaly including gigantism and visceromegaly. However, GC tumors remain poorly characterized at a molecular level. In the present work, we report a detailed histological and molecular characterization of GC tumors using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology and imaging techniques. GC tumors display histopathological and molecular features of human GH-producing tumors, including hormone production, cell architecture, senescence activation and alterations in cell cycle gene expression. Furthermore, GC tumors cells displayed sensitivity to somatostatin analogues, drugs that are currently used in the treatment of human GH-producing adenomas, thus supporting the GC tumor model as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic agents. The information obtained would help to maximize the usefulness of the GC rat model for research and preclinical studies in GH-secreting tumors. PMID:26549306

  20. Molecular Characterization of Growth Hormone-producing Tumors in the GC Rat Model of Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan F.; Muñoz-Bravo, Jose L.; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Fernandez-Maza, Laura; Balcerzyk, Marcin; Leal-Campanario, Rocío; Luque, Raúl M.; Castaño, Justo P.; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso; Cano, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Acromegaly is a disorder resulting from excessive production of growth hormone (GH) and consequent increase of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), most frequently caused by pituitary adenomas. Elevated GH and IGF-I levels results in wide range of somatic, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, and gastrointestinal morbidities. Subcutaneous implantation of the GH-secreting GC cell line in rats leads to the formation of tumors. GC tumor-bearing rats develop characteristics that resemble human acromegaly including gigantism and visceromegaly. However, GC tumors remain poorly characterized at a molecular level. In the present work, we report a detailed histological and molecular characterization of GC tumors using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology and imaging techniques. GC tumors display histopathological and molecular features of human GH-producing tumors, including hormone production, cell architecture, senescence activation and alterations in cell cycle gene expression. Furthermore, GC tumors cells displayed sensitivity to somatostatin analogues, drugs that are currently used in the treatment of human GH-producing adenomas, thus supporting the GC tumor model as a translational tool to evaluate therapeutic agents. The information obtained would help to maximize the usefulness of the GC rat model for research and preclinical studies in GH-secreting tumors. PMID:26549306

  1. Inhibition of tumor growth by a newly-identified activator for epidermal fatty acid binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Enyu; Singh, Puja; Zhai, Xiuhong; Li, Yan; Zhu, Ganqian; Zhang, Yuwen; Hao, Jiaqing; Chi, Young-In; Brown, Rhoderick E.; Cleary, Margot P.; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that expression of epidermal fatty acid binding protein (E-FABP) in tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) promotes macrophage anti-tumor activity by enhancing IFN? responses in tumor models. Thus, E-FABP represents a new protective factor in enhancing tumor immune surveillance against tumor development. Herein, we report the compound 5-(benzylamino)-2-(3-methylphenyl)-1,3-oxazole-4-carbonitrile (designated EI-05) as a novel E-FABP activator for inhibition of mammary tumor growth. EI-05 was selected from the ZINC compound library using molecular docking analysis based on the crystal structure of E-FABP. Although EI-05 is unable to bind E-FABP directly, it significantly increases E-FABP expression in macrophages during inflammation. Stimulation of macrophages with EI-05 remarkably enhances lipid droplet formation and IFN? production, which further promotes the anti-tumor activity of macrophages. Importantly, administering EI-05 in vivo significantly inhibits mammary tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse model. Altogether, these results suggest that EI-05 may represent a promising drug candidate for anti-tumor treatment through enhancing E-FABP activity and IFN? responses in macrophages. PMID:25796556

  2. Early life exposure to PCB126 results in delayed mortality and growth impairment in the zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Groh, Ksenia J; Zennegg, Markus; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Murk, Albertinka J; Eggen, Rik I L; Hollert, Henner; Werner, Inge; Schirmer, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity resulting from the exposure to sublethal chemical concentrations is an increasing concern in environmental risk assessment. The Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test with zebrafish provides a reliable prediction of acute toxicity in adult fish, but it cannot yet be applied to predict the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity. Identification of sublethal FET endpoints that can assist in predicting the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity would be advantageous. The present study characterized the occurrence of delayed toxicity in zebrafish larvae following early exposure to PCB126, previously described to cause delayed effects in the common sole. The first aim was to investigate the occurrence and temporal profiles of delayed toxicity during zebrafish larval development and compare them to those previously described for sole to evaluate the suitability of zebrafish as a model fish species for delayed toxicity assessment. The second aim was to examine the correlation between the sublethal endpoints assessed during embryonal and early larval development and the delayed effects observed during later larval development. After exposure to PCB126 (3-3000ng/L) until 5 days post fertilization (dpf), larvae were reared in clean water until 14 or 28 dpf. Mortality and sublethal morphological and behavioural endpoints were recorded daily, and growth was assessed at 28 dpf. Early life exposure to PCB126 caused delayed mortality (300ng/L and 3000ng/L) as well as growth impairment and delayed development (100ng/L) during the clean water period. Effects on swim bladder inflation and cartilaginous tissues within 5 dpf were the most promising for predicting delayed mortality and sublethal effects, such as decreased standard length, delayed metamorphosis, reduced inflation of swim bladder and column malformations. The EC50 value for swim bladder inflation at 5 dpf (169ng/L) was similar to the LC50 value at 8 dpf (188 and 202ng/L in two experiments). Interestingly, the patterns of delayed mortality and delayed effects on growth and development were similar between sole and zebrafish. This indicates the comparability of critical developmental stages across divergent fish species such as a cold water marine flatfish and a tropical freshwater cyprinid. Additionally, sublethal effects in early embryo-larval stages were found promising for predicting delayed lethal and sublethal effects of PCB126. Therefore, the proposed method with zebrafish is expected to provide valuable information on delayed mortality and delayed sublethal effects of chemicals and environmental samples that may be extrapolated to other species. PMID:26551687

  3. Tumor growth and metastasis are not affected in thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Reijerkerk, A; Meijers, J C M; Havik, S R; Bouma, B N; Voest, E E; Gebbink, M F B G

    2004-05-01

    Many studies have indicated that the plasminogen activation system may have a prominent role in cancer. Activation of the zymogen plasminogen into the serine protease plasmin by plasminogen activator is mediated by carboxyterminal basic amino acids in fibrin, including lysines and arginines. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a circulating carboxypeptidase B-type proenzyme that, after activation, removes carboxyterminal lysine or arginine residues in fibrin, resulting in decreased plasminogen activation and attenuated fibrinolysis. To determine directly whether TAFI is involved in primary tumor growth and metastasis formation, we examined the effects of TAFI deficiency on subcutaneous growth and experimentally or spontaneously induced pulmonary metastasis formation of different tumor cell types in mice. In all tumor models TAFI deficiency did not affect the formation and growth of primary and metastasized tumors. PMID:15099284

  4. Lithotripter shock waves with cavitation nucleation agents produce tumor growth reduction and gene transfer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L; Song, Jianming

    2002-10-01

    Cavitation nucleation agents (CNA) can greatly enhance DNA transfer and cell killing for therapeutically useful applications of nonthermal bioeffects of ultrasound (US). Renal carcinoma (RENCA) tumor cells were implanted and grown to about 400 microL tumor volumes on the hind legs of syngeneic Balb/c mice. Before treatment, mice were anesthetized, the tumor region was shaved and depilated, and a DNA plasmid coding for marker proteins was injected into the tumor. Two sets of tests were completed: the first set involved measurement of tumor growth for 4 days and use of a beta-galactosidase marker plasmid for localization of transfection, and the second set involved 2 days of growth and use of a luciferase marker plasmid for assessing overall protein expression. Either saline, Optison US contrast agent, a vaporizing perfluoropentane droplet suspension (SDS) or air bubble was also injected intratumorally at 10% of tumor volume as a CNA. In some tests, droplets or contrast agent were injected IV. Shock waves (SW) were generated from a spark-gap lithotripter at 7.4 MPa peak negative pressure amplitude. For sham exposure, tumor volume increased by a factor of 3.6 in 4 days. With 500-SW treatment, all the CNA reduced 4-day tumor growth about the same amount (to factors of 1.2 to 1.9). Marker gene expression was generally localized to the region around the needle injection path. All the agents, except saline, produced statistically significant increases of 11.8- to 14.6-fold in luciferase expression after 2 days, relative to sham exposure. IV injection of Optison or droplet nucleation agents before SW treatment reduced tumor growth to factors of 1.0 and 0.7, but did not increase transfection. These results demonstrate the efficacy of CNA in vivo and should lead to improved strategies for simultaneous SW tumor ablation and cancer gene therapy. PMID:12467861

  5. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H.; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most crucial model input. We conclude that the tumor growth model provides a method to account for anisotropic growth patterns of glioma, and may therefore provide a tool to make target delineation more objective and automated.

  6. Radiotherapy planning for glioblastoma based on a tumor growth model: improving target volume delineation.

    PubMed

    Unkelbach, Jan; Menze, Bjoern H; Konukoglu, Ender; Dittmann, Florian; Le, Matthieu; Ayache, Nicholas; Shih, Helen A

    2014-02-01

    Glioblastoma differ from many other tumors in the sense that they grow infiltratively into the brain tissue instead of forming a solid tumor mass with a defined boundary. Only the part of the tumor with high tumor cell density can be localized through imaging directly. In contrast, brain tissue infiltrated by tumor cells at low density appears normal on current imaging modalities. In current clinical practice, a uniform margin, typically two centimeters, is applied to account for microscopic spread of disease that is not directly assessable through imaging. The current treatment planning procedure can potentially be improved by accounting for the anisotropy of tumor growth, which arises from different factors: anatomical barriers such as the falx cerebri represent boundaries for migrating tumor cells. In addition, tumor cells primarily spread in white matter and infiltrate gray matter at lower rate. We investigate the use of a phenomenological tumor growth model for treatment planning. The model is based on the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, which formalizes these growth characteristics and estimates the spatial distribution of tumor cells in normal appearing regions of the brain. The target volume for radiotherapy planning can be defined as an isoline of the simulated tumor cell density. This paper analyzes the model with respect to implications for target volume definition and identifies its most critical components. A retrospective study involving ten glioblastoma patients treated at our institution has been performed. To illustrate the main findings of the study, a detailed case study is presented for a glioblastoma located close to the falx. In this situation, the falx represents a boundary for migrating tumor cells, whereas the corpus callosum provides a route for the tumor to spread to the contralateral hemisphere. We further discuss the sensitivity of the model with respect to the input parameters. Correct segmentation of the brain appears to be the most crucial model input. We conclude that the tumor growth model provides a method to account for anisotropic growth patterns of glioma, and may therefore provide a tool to make target delineation more objective and automated. PMID:24440875

  7. Anti-VEGFA Therapy Reduces Tumor Growth and Extends Survival in a Murine Model of Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Mayra; Laguë, Marie-Noëlle; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Nadeau, Marie-Ève; Boerboom, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Although angiogenesis has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT), its potential has not been evaluated in controlled studies. To do so, we used the Pten (tm1Hwu/tm1Hwu); Ctnnb1 (tm1Mmt/+);Amhr2 (tm3(cre)Bhr/+) (PCA) mouse model, which develops GCTs that mimic the advanced disease in women. A monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) antibody was administered weekly to PCA mice beginning at 3 weeks of age. By 6 weeks of age, anti-VEGFA therapy significantly decreased tumor weights relative to controls (P < .05) and increased survival, with all treated animals but none of the controls surviving to 8 weeks of age. Analyses of PCA tumors showed that anti-VEGFA treatment resulted in significant decreases in tumor cell proliferation and microvessel density relative to controls (P < .05). However, treatment did not have a significant effect on apoptosis or tumor necrosis. The VEGFA receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling effector p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), whose activity is associated with cell proliferation, was significantly less phosphorylated (i.e., activated) in tumors from the treated group (P < .05). Conversely, no significant difference was found in the activation of protein kinase B, a VEGFR2 signaling effector associated with cell survival. Together, these results suggest that anti-VEGFA therapy is effective at inhibiting GCT growth in the PCA model and acts by reducing microvascular density and cell proliferation through inhibition of the VEGFR2-MAPK pathway. Findings from this preclinical model therefore support the investigation of targeting VEGFA for the adjuvant treatment of GCT in women. PMID:23730402

  8. A non-local model for cancer stem cells and the tumor growth paradox

    E-print Network

    Hillen, Thomas

    A non-local model for cancer stem cells and the tumor growth paradox I. Borsi a A. Fasano b M of cancers can enhance their growth. As shown here and elsewhere, the existence of cancer stem cells (CSC more relevant for small renewal rate of the CSC. Key words: cancer stem cells, integro

  9. Targeted inhibition of histone deacetylases and hedgehog signaling suppress tumor growth and homologous recombination in aerodigestive cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Stephen G; Park, Hyunsil; Pandita, Raj K; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Pandita, Tej K; Schwartz, David L; Yordy, John S

    2015-01-01

    Standard combined modality therapies for aerodigestive tract malignancies have suboptimal outcomes, and targeting cancer-specific molecular pathways in combination with radiation could improve the therapeutic ratio. Dysregulation of epigenetic modulators such as histone deacetylases (HDACs), and developmental morphogens such as the hedgehog (HH) pathway have been implicated in aerodigestive tumor progression and metastasis. We hypothesized that simultaneous targeting of HDACs and the HH-pathway mediator Smoothened (Smo) represents an opportunity to overcome therapeutic resistance in these cancers. We evaluated the effects of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA and Smo inhibitor GDC-0449 with radiation in multiple aerodigestive cancer cell lines. Isobologram analyses showed that SAHA and GDC-0449 synergistically suppressed cancer cell proliferation in vitro. SAHA and GDC-0449 cooperatively enhanced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest which was associated with up-regulation of p21waf. GDC-0449 prevented SAHA-induced up-regulation of Gli-1 and Gli-2. Both Smo and Ptc-1 expression was cooperatively suppressed by SAHA and GDC-0449. The combination of SAHA and GDC-0449 induced radiation sensitization with 2 Gy as determined by colony formation assays and cytogenetic analyses, which correlated with higher residual ?-H2AX and 53BP1 foci. In mouse tumor xenografts of the SqCC/Y1 cell line, SAHA and GDC-0449 delayed tumor growth longer and prolonged survival more than either agent alone. In summary, we have identified synergistic effect of HDAC and HH signaling for radiosensitization to improve therapeutic outcomes for aerodigestive malignancies. PMID:26101701

  10. Effects of Marsdenia tenacissima polysaccharide on the immune regulation and tumor growth in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuang; Qiu, Limin; Li, Yiquan; Li, Lu; Wang, Xingyun; Liu, Zhi; Guo, Yan; Wang, Haotian

    2016-02-10

    One water-soluble polysaccharide (Marsdenia tenacissima polysaccharide, MTP), with an average molecular weight of 4.9×10(4)Da, was isolated from the dried rattan of M. tenacissima. MTP contained 93.8% carbohydrates, 5.6% proteins and 21.3% uronic acid, and were composed of arabinose, mannose, galactose, xylose, glucuronic acid at a molar ratio of 9.1, 17.7, 30.2, 22.4 and 20.6. The experiments on the animals showed that MTP could increase the serum hemolysin, promote the formation of antibody-forming cells and improve the phagocytosis of mononuclear macrophage in normal mice. Meanwhile, MTP could also inhibit the growth of tumor in H22 tumor-bearing mice dose-dependently, and increase the spleen index, thymus index and serum albumin level in the mice. In addition, MTP could elevate the serum level of TNF-? and IL-2, increase the activity of GSH-Px, CAT and SOD in the liver tissue, and reduce the content of VEGF and MDA. These results suggest that MTP can regulate the immune function in mice and suppress the growth of tumor in H22 tumor-bearing mice, and its antitumor activity may be related to its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26686104

  11. Unexpected Delayed Colon Perforation after the Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection with Snaring of a Laterally Spreading Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Bo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Kim, Wan Soo; Kwak, Min Seob; Lee, Ji Wan; Shin, Dong Yeol; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Colonic perforation may occur as a complication of diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy. The risk factors for perforation after colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) include an inexperienced endoscopist, a large tumor size, and submucosal fibrosis. The mechanisms of perforation include unintended endoscopic resection/dissection and severe thermal injury. Here, we report a case of colon perforation that occurred after ESD with snaring of a laterally spreading tumor. The perforation was completely unexpected because there were no colorectal ESD-associated risk factors for perforation, deep dissection, or severe coagulation injury in our patient. PMID:26668808

  12. Decreased tumor growth in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with fish oil involves COX-2 and PGE2 reduction associated with apoptosis and increased peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Mund, Rogéria C; Pizato, Nathalia; Bonatto, Sandro; Nunes, Everson A; Vicenzi, Thiago; Tanhoffer, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Heloisa H P; Curi, Rui; Calder, Philip C; Fernandes, Luiz C

    2007-02-01

    Many studies have shown that addition of fish oil (FO) to the diet reduces tumor growth but the mechanism(s) of action involved is (are) still unknown. In this study, we examine some possible mechanisms in tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with FO. Male Wistar rats (21 days old) were fed with regular chow and supplemented with coconut or FO (1g/kg body weight) until they reached 70 days of age. Then, they were inoculated with a suspension of Walker 256 ascitic tumor cells (2 x 10(7)ml) and after 14 days they were killed. Supplementation with FO resulted in significantly lower tumor weight, greater tumor cell apoptosis, lower ex vivo tumor cell proliferation, a higher tumor content of lipid peroxides, lower expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in tumor tissue and a lower plasma concentration of prostaglandin E2 than observed in rats fed regular chow or supplemented with coconut oil. These results suggest that reduction of tumor growth by FO involves an increase in apoptosis and of lipid peroxidation in tumor tissue, with a reduction in tumor cell proliferation ex vivo, COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Thus, FO may act simultaneously through multiple effects to reduce tumor growth. Whether these effects are connected through a single underlying mechanism remains to be seen. PMID:17234396

  13. Akt1 and akt3 exert opposing roles in the regulation of vascular tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Phung, Thuy L; Du, Wa; Xue, Qi; Ayyaswamy, Sriram; Gerald, Damien; Antonello, Zeus; Nhek, Sokha; Perruzzi, Carole A; Acevedo, Isabel; Ramanna-Valmiki, Rajesh; Rodriguez-Waitkus, Paul; Enayati, Ladan; Hochman, Marcelo L; Lev, Dina; Geeganage, Sandaruwan; Benjamin, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Vascular tumors are endothelial cell neoplasms whose mechanisms of tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Moreover, current therapies, particularly those for malignant lesions, have little beneficial effect on clinical outcomes. In this study, we show that endothelial activation of the Akt1 kinase is sufficient to drive de novo tumor formation. Mechanistic investigations uncovered opposing functions for different Akt isoforms in this regulation, where Akt1 promotes and Akt3 inhibits vascular tumor growth. Akt3 exerted negative effects on tumor endothelial cell growth and migration by inhibiting activation of the translation regulatory kinase S6-Kinase (S6K) through modulation of Rictor expression. S6K in turn acted through a negative feedback loop to restrain Akt3 expression. Conversely, S6K signaling was increased in vascular tumor cells where Akt3 was silenced, and the growth of these tumor cells was inhibited by a novel S6K inhibitor. Overall, our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the therapeutic utility of treating vascular tumors, such as angiosarcomas, with S6K inhibitors. PMID:25388284

  14. Modeling tumor growth in a complex evolving confinement using a diffuse domain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Li; Lowengrub, John; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Cristini, Vittorio

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of tumor growth represents an essential step towards engineering effective treatment for cancer patients. At the macroscopic scale, various biophysical models describing tumors as continuum fluids have been constructed, particularly on a Cartesian grid, where efficient numerical schemes are available to analyze the model for general tumor behaviors in a relatively unconfined space. For practical problems, however, tumors are often found in a confined sub-domain, which can even be dilated and distorted by the growing tumor within. To study such tumors, we adopt a novel diffuse domain approach that enables us to adapt a model to an evolving sub-domain and formulate the modified problem on a Cartesian grid to utilize existing numerical schemes. To demonstrate this approach, we adapt a diffuse-interface model presented in Wise et al. [2008, Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth - I Model and numerical method, J. Theor. Biol. 253, 524-543] to simulate lymphoma growth in a lymph node structure. Supported by NIH-PSOC grant 1U54CA143907-01.

  15. Combined effects of X rays, Ro 03-8799, and hyperthermia on growth, necrosis, and cell proliferation in a mouse tumor

    SciTech Connect

    George, K.C.; Streffer, C.; Pelzer, T.

    1989-04-01

    A mouse adenocarcinoma was treated with 20 Gy X rays, hyperthermia (30 minutes at 43 degrees C), Ro-03-8799, or a combination of two or three of these agents. Combined treatments increase growth delay in the tumor and this was greatest with the combination of all three modalities. Extensive amounts of necrosis were observed after the combined treatments. This effect was most pronounced after treatment modalities including hyperthermia. On the other hand, the radiation-induced micronucleus formation was more enhanced by the sensitizer than by hyperthermia. After X irradiation and combined treatments with X rays a G2-block was observed in DNA-histograms. Tetraploid cells appeared in large amounts that started DNA synthesis followed by necrosis. From these tumors it was impossible to obtain regular DNA-histograms. Tumor regression is a combined result of reduced cell renewal, increased cytogenetic damage, and development of necrosis.

  16. Tumor-induced osteomalacia associated with a maxillofacial tumor producing fibroblast growth factor 23: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshiyuki; Ogasawara, Toru; Motoi, Toru; Shimizu, Yuichiro; Chikazu, Daichi; Tamura, Kazumi; Fukumoto, Seiji; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare acquired paraneoplastic disease characterized by renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia. Recently, it was reported that tumors associated with TIO produce fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23, identified as the last member of the FGF family and of which excessive action causes several hypophosphatemic diseases whereas deficient FGF23 activity results in hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. In this case, although it was difficult to locate the associated tumor, an abnormal mass in the left maxilla was detected by imaging. The tumor was removed by partial resection of the left maxillary alveolar region. Thereafter, serum level of FGF23 rapidly decreased, hypophosphatemia improved, and the clinical symptoms greatly improved. Histopathologic diagnosis of the tumor was phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant. Immunohistochemical findings confirmed that the removed tumor produced FGF23. These results indicate that development of osteomalacia in this patient was related to the maxillary tumor, which overexpressed FGF23. PMID:20219587

  17. Non-invasive optical imaging of tumor growth in intact animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinling; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2003-12-01

    We describe here a system for rapidly visualizing tumor growth in intact rodent mice that is simple, rapid, and eminently accessible and repeatable. We have established new rodent tumor cell line -- SP2/0-GFP cells that stably express high level of green fluorescent protein (GFP) by transfected with a plasmid that encoded GFP using electroporation and selected with G418 for 3 weeks. 1 x 104 - 1x107 SP2/0-GFP mouse melanoma cells were injected s.c. in the ears and legs of 6- to 7-week-old syngeneic male BALB/c mice, and optical images visualized real-time the engrafted tumor growth. The tumor burden was monitored over time by cryogenically cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera focused through a stereo microscope. The results show that the fluorescence intensity of GFP-expressing tumor is comparably with the tumor growth and/or depress. This in vivo optical imaging based on GFP is sensitive, external, and noninvasive. It affords continuous visual monitoring of malignant growth within intact animals, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies.

  18. Measuring Growth and Gene Expression Dynamics of Tumor-Targeted S. Typhimurium Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hasty, Jeff; Bhatia, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to generate quantitative time-course data on the growth and gene expression dynamics of attenuated S. typhimurium bacterial colonies growing inside tumors. We generated model xenograft tumors in mice by subcutaneous injection of a human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-8 (NCI DCTD Tumor Repository, Frederick, MD). We transformed attenuated strains of S. typhimurium bacteria (ELH430:SL1344 phoPQ- 1) with a constitutively expressed luciferase (luxCDABE) plasmid for visualization2. These strains specifically colonize tumors while remaining essentially non-virulent to the mouse1. Once measurable tumors were established, bacteria were injected intravenously via the tail vein with varying dosage. Tumor-localized, bacterial gene expression was monitored in real time over the course of 60 hours using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). At each time point, tumors were excised, homogenized, and plated to quantitate bacterial colonies for correlation with gene expression data. Together, this data yields a quantitative measure of the in vivo growth and gene expression dynamics of bacteria growing inside tumors. PMID:23851642

  19. Depletion of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Slows the Growth of Chemically Induced Mouse Lung Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jason M.; Tennis, Meredith A.; Orlicky, David J.; Yin, Hao; Ju, Cynthia; Redente, Elizabeth F.; Choo, Kevin S.; Staab, Taylor A.; Bouchard, Ronald J.; Merrick, Daniel T.; Malkinson, Alvin M.; Dwyer-Nield, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for lung cancer, and low-dose aspirin intake reduces lung cancer risk. However, the roles that specific inflammatory cells and their products play in lung carcinogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. In mice, alveolar macrophage numbers increase as lung tumors progress, and pulmonary macrophage programing changes within 2?weeks of carcinogen exposure. To examine how macrophages specifically affect lung tumor progression, they were depleted in mice bearing urethane-induced lung tumors using clodronate-encapsulated liposomes. Alveolar macrophage populations decreased to ?50% of control levels after 4–6?weeks of liposomal clodronate treatment. Tumor burden decreased by 50% compared to vehicle treated mice, and tumor cell proliferation, as measured by Ki67 staining, was also attenuated. Pulmonary fluid levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, CXCL1, IL-6, and CCL2 diminished with clodronate liposome treatment. Tumor-associated macrophages expressed markers of both M1 and M2 programing in vehicle and clodronate liposome-treated mice. Mice lacking CCR2 (the receptor for macrophage chemotactic factor CCL2) had comparable numbers of alveolar macrophages and showed no difference in tumor growth rates when compared to similarly treated wild-type mice suggesting that while CCL2 may recruit macrophages to lung tumor microenvironments, redundant pathways can compensate when CCL2/CCR2 signaling is inactivated. Depletion of pulmonary macrophages rather than inhibition of their recruitment may be an advantageous strategy for attenuating lung cancer progression. PMID:25505466

  20. Drugs Which Inhibit Osteoclast Function Suppress Tumor Growth through Calcium Reduction in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Liao, Jinhui; Park, Serk In; Koh, Amy J; Sadler, William D; Pienta, Kenneth J; Rosol, Thomas J; McCauley, Laurie K

    2011-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma frequently metastasizes to bone where the microenvironment facilitates its growth. Inhibition of bone resorption is effective in reducing tumor burden and bone destruction in prostate cancer. However, whether drugs that inhibit osteoclast function inhibit tumor growth independent of inhibition of bone resorption is unclear. Calcium is released during bone resorption and the calcium sensing receptor is an important regulator of cancer cell proliferation. The goal of this investigation was to elucidate the role of calcium released during bone resorption and to determine the impact of drugs which suppress bone resorption on tumor growth in bone. To compare tumor growth in a skeletal versus non-skeletal site, equal numbers of canine prostate cancer cells expressing luciferase (ACE-1luc) prostate cancer cells were inoculated into a simple collagen matrix, neonatal mouse vertebrae (vossicles), human de-proteinized bone, or a mineralized collagen matrix. Implants were placed subcutaneously into athymic mice. Luciferase activity was used to track tumor growth weekly and at one month tumors were dissected for histologic analysis. Luciferase activity and tumor size were greater in vossicles, de-proteinized bone and mineralized collagen matrix versus non-mineralized collagen implants. The human osteoblastic prostate carcinoma cell line C4-2b also grew better in a mineral rich environment with a greater proliferation of C4-2b cells reflected by Ki-67 staining. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate, and recombinant OPG-Fc, a RANKL inhibitor, were administered to mice bearing vertebral implants (vossicles) containing ACE-1 osteoblastic prostate cancer cells. Vossicles or collagen matrices were seeded with ACE-1luc cells subcutaneously in athymic mice (2 vossicles, 2 collagen implants/mouse). Mice received ZA (5?g/mouse, twice/week), (OPG-Fc at 10mg/kg, 3 times/week) or vehicle, and luciferase activity was measured weekly. Histologic analysis of the tumors, vossicles and endogenous bones and serum biochemistry were performed. Antiresorptive administration was associated with decreased serum TRAP5b and reduced osteoclast numbers, increased tibia and vossicle bone areas. ZA significantly decreased bone marrow calcium concentrations without affecting serum calcium. ZA and OPG-Fc significantly inhibited tumor growth in bone but not in collagen implants. In conclusion, the inhibitory effects of ZA or OPG-Fc on prostate tumor growth in bone are mediated via blocking bone resorption and calcium release from bone. PMID:21419883

  1. Transplantation of human renal cell carcinoma into NMRI nu/nu mice. III. Effect of irradiation on tumor acceptance and tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, U.; Huland, H.; Baisch, H.; Kloeppel, G.

    1985-07-01

    Irradiation of human renal cell carcinoma before radical tumor nephrectomy resulted in a significantly lower acceptance rate (1 of 7) in nude mice than for nonirradiated tumors (all of 13). The tumor tissue was transplanted into NMRI nu/nu mice immediately after nephrectomy. In this experimental system the authors demonstrated the reduced vitality of human tumor cells after irradiation. In a second series of experiments, 3 morphologically different human renal cell carcinomas were irradiated at various doses after establishment in nude mice. The irradiated tumor tissue was transplanted to the next passage. The morphology, proliferation rate and growth of these tumors were compared with those of nonirradiated controls. Radiation effect was dose dependent in the responding tumor types. The characteristics correlated with radiosensitivity were high proliferation rate (measured by flow cytometry), low cytologic grading and fast growth rate in the nude mice.

  2. Ion Channels and Amino Acid Transporters Support the Growth and Invasion of Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sontheimer, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The malignant growth of glial support cells causes gliomas, highly invasive, primary brain tumors that are largely resistant to therapy. Individual tumor cells spread by active cell migration, invading diffusely into the normal brain. This process is facilitated by Cl- channels that endow glioma cells with an enhanced ability to quickly adjust their shape and cell volume to fit the narrow and tortuous extracellular brain spaces. Once satellite tumors enlarge, their growth is limited by the spatial constraints imposed by the bony cavity of the skull and spinal column. Glioma cells circumvent this limitation by active destruction of peritumoral neural tissue through the release of glutamate, inducing peritumoral seizures and ultimately excitotoxic neuronal cell death. Hence, primary brain tumors support their unusual biology by taking advantage of ion channels and transporters that are designed to support ion homeostatic functions in normal brain. PMID:15034223

  3. The Importance of Neighborhood Scheme Selection in Agent-based Tumor Growth Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Tzedakis, Georgios; Tzamali, Eleftheria; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis

    2015-01-01

    Modeling tumor growth has proven a very challenging problem, mainly due to the fact that tumors are highly complex systems that involve dynamic interactions spanning multiple scales both in time and space. The desire to describe interactions in various scales has given rise to modeling approaches that use both continuous and discrete variables, known as hybrid approaches. This work refers to a hybrid model on a 2D square lattice focusing on cell movement dynamics as they play an important role in tumor morphology, invasion and metastasis and are considered as indicators for the stage of malignancy used for early prognosis and effective treatment. Considering various distributions of the microenvironment, we explore how Neumann vs. Moore neighborhood schemes affects tumor growth and morphology. The results indicate that the importance of neighborhood selection is critical under specific conditions that include i) increased hapto/chemo-tactic coefficient, ii) a rugged microenvironment and iii) ECM degradation. PMID:26396490

  4. Treatment-induced secretion of WNT16B promotes tumor growth and acquired resistance to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Linda M.; Price, Douglas K.; Figg, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Innate or acquired resistance to chemotherapy presents an important and predictable challenge in cancer therapy. Malignant tumors consist of both neoplastic and benign cells such as stromal fibroblasts, which can influence the tumor’s response to cytotoxic therapy. In a recent article in Nature Medicine, Sun et al. show that increased expression of Wnt family member wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 16B (WNT16B) by the tumor microenvironment in response to cytotoxic damage and signals through the canonical Wnt pathway to promote tumor growth and chemotherapy resistance. Such findings outline a mechanism by which cytotoxic therapies given in cyclical doses can actually augment later treatment resistance and may open the door to new areas of research and to the development of new therapeutic targets that block the DNA damage response program. PMID:23114711

  5. Effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on intact muscle tissue and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Bgatova, N P; Borodin, Yu I; Makarova, V V; Pozhidaeva, A A; Rachkovskaya, L N; Konenkov, V I

    2014-05-01

    The effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on muscle tissue structure and development of experimental hepatocarcinoma-29 transplanted into the hip were studied in CBA mice. Necrotic changes in all structural components of the muscle were detected after intramuscular injection of nanosized lithium carbonate particles to intact animals. Regeneration of the muscle fibers after lithium carbonate treatment was associated with a significant increase in macrophage count, number of microvessels, activation of fibroblasts, and complete recovery of the organ structure. Injection of lithium carbonate nanoparticles at the periphery of tumor growth caused tumor cell necrosis, destruction of the vascular bed, and attraction of neutrophils and macrophages to the tumor focus. After the preparation was discontinued, the tumor developed with lesser number of vessels, smaller tumor cells, and lesser deformation of the cell nuclei structure. PMID:24909724

  6. Fufang Kushen injection inhibits sarcoma growth and tumor-induced hyperalgesia via TRPV1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizheng; Fan, Huiting; Higgins, Tim; Qi, Jia; Haines, Diana; Trivett, Anna; Oppenheim, Joost J; Wei, Hou; Li, Jie; Lin, Hongsheng; Howard, O M Zack

    2014-12-28

    Cancer pain is a deleterious consequence of tumor growth and related inflammation. Opioids and anti-inflammatory drugs provide first line treatment for cancer pain, but both are limited by side effects. Fufang Kushen injection (FKI) is GMP produced, traditional Chinese medicine used alone or with chemotherapy to reduce cancer-associated pain. FKI limited mouse sarcoma growth both in vivo and in vitro, in part, by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT kinases and BAD. FKI inhibited TRPV1 mediated capsaicin-induced ERK phosphorylation and reduced tumor-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Thus, FKI limited cancer pain both directly by blocking TRPV1 signaling and indirectly by reducing tumor growth. PMID:25242356

  7. Model of avascular tumor growth and response to low dose exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Aguirre, J. M.; Custidiano, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    A single level cellular automata model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth, and the response of the tumor cells under low dose radiation affects. In this model the cell cycle of the population of normal and cancer cells is followed. The invasion mechanism of the tumor is simulated by a local factor that takes into account the microenvironment hardness to cell development, in a picture similar to the AMTIH model. The response of normal and cancer cells to direct effects of radiation is tested for various models and a model of bystander response is implemented.

  8. Tumor-induced osteomalacia with normal systemic fibroblast growth factor-23 level

    PubMed Central

    Amblee, Ambika; Uy, Juanito; Senseng, Carmencita; Hart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old man presenting with long bone/rib fractures was diagnosed with tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) caused by a giant cell tumor in the right foot with normal systemic fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) levels. Multiple imaging modalities done initially and one year later were unable to localize the tumor. New-onset foot pain discovered a right foot mass with resolution of metabolic abnormalities post-surgery. Sampling from both femoral veins showed an elevated FGF23 value on the right side. This case is unique in that the patient had a normal systemic FGF23 level even with severe clinical manifestations of TIO. PMID:25852869

  9. Antisense oligonucleotides and prevention of tumor growth: a different approach and proposal for a new method.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Deniz; Oztas, Haydar; Hilal Ates, Buse

    2005-01-01

    There have been several attempts to prevent tumor formation and growth. However, none of the developed methods gives a completely satisfying result for the treatment of tumor masses. The most often used therapies against tumor cells are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, utilization of these methods to treat cancer generally result in generation of undesired side effects. In recent years, the antisense oligonucleotide technology has been employed, with success to an extent, in prevention of tumor growth. However, this method has its limitations. One of the most important limitation is that all of the crucial genes that play certain roles and are specifically expressed in tumor cells have not yet been identified. Therefore, only a few numbers of genes that are shown to play a role in tumor cells are targeted by the antisense oligonucleotide method. The aim of the present study is to propose a hypotheses and outline the involved procedure which could be used to generate oligonucleotides that are antisense to genes or mRNAs that display certain specific functions in tumor cells but are yet to be identified. The proposed hypotheses involves first, a careful isolation of differentially expressed mRNAs by using the tumor and the corresponding normal cells. These mRNAs should represent the genes that operate in tumor cells but not in the corresponding normal cells. Following the isolation of the differentially expressed mRNAs, they will be reverse transcribed and the desired amounts of cDNA copies will be obtained. The cDNA copies will then be used differentially as a source for oligonucleotides that are antisense to genes or mRNAs. To obtain the desired length oligonucleotides that will be used as antisense oligonucleotides the cDNA copies will be subjected to Maxam-Gilbert fragmentation and/or controlled enodonuclease digestion. These two mentioned procedures could be optimized and used together or separately to obtain the desired length oligonucleotides that will be used against tumor cells. PMID:15607566

  10. MicroRNA-17 inhibits tumor growth by stimulating T-cell mediated host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haoran; Gupta, Shaan; Du, William W.; Yang, Burton B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Melanoma is one of the fastest-rising types of cancer in North American. Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-tumor immune tolerance plays a critical role in tumor development. Methods B16 melanoma cells were injected into wild type and miR-17 overexpressing transgenic mice. Tumor growth was monitored and tumor bearing mice were sacrificed by the end of the forth week. Peripheral blood and spleen cells were subject to flow cytometry analysis and tumor samples were subject to immunohistochemistry staining. Meanwhile, Jurkat cells transfected with mock-control or miR-17 overexpressing plasmid were co-cultured with B16 cells. The influence of miR-17 on cell cycle, proliferation and survival was evaluated. Results The melanoma tumors formed in mice overexpressing miR-17 were less than that in wild type mice. In addition, the miR-17 tumors were less invasive and less angiogenic. The percentage of CD8+ T cells was suppressed in miR-17 transgenic mice before melanoma cell injection. Its level was significantly increased upon tumor grafting. More tumor infiltrating CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte could be found in transgenic mice with tumor formation. Luciferase assay and protein analysis indicated that STAT3 was the target of miR-17. Decreased levels of STAT3 were associated with miR-17 over-expression. Down-regulation of STAT3 in Jurkat cells promoted cell proliferation and mitosis. Conclusions MiR-17 inhibits melanoma growth by stimulating CD8+ T cells mediated host immune response, which is due to its regulation of STAT3. PMID:25594054

  11. Arsenic trioxide disrupts glioma stem cells via promoting PML degradation to inhibit tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenchao; Cheng, Lin; Shi, Yu; Ke, Susan Q; Huang, Zhi; Fang, Xiaoguang; Chu, Cheng-Wei; Xie, Qi; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Rich, Jeremy N; Bao, Shideng

    2015-11-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor. Tumor relapse in GBM is inevitable despite maximal therapeutic interventions. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) have been found to be critical players in therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Therapeutic drugs targeting GSCs may significantly improve GBM treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (As2O3) effectively disrupted GSCs and inhibited tumor growth in the GSC-derived orthotopic xenografts by targeting the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML). As2O3 treatment induced rapid degradation of PML protein along with severe apoptosis in GSCs. Disruption of the endogenous PML recapitulated the inhibitory effects of As2O3 treatment on GSCs both in vitro and in orthotopic tumors. Importantly, As2O3 treatment dramatically reduced GSC population in the intracranial GBM xenografts and increased the survival of mice bearing the tumors. In addition, As2O3 treatment preferentially inhibited cell growth of GSCs but not matched non-stem tumor cells (NSTCs). Furthermore, As2O3 treatment or PML disruption potently diminished c-Myc protein levels through increased poly-ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. Our study indicated a potential implication of As2O3 in GBM treatment and highlighted the important role of PML/c-Myc axis in the maintenance of GSCs. PMID:26510911

  12. Food intake, tumor growth, and weight loss in EP2 receptor subtype knockout mice bearing PGE2-producing tumors

    PubMed Central

    Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Wang, Wenhua; Nilsberth, Camilla; Andersson, Marianne; Lönnroth, Christina; Smedh, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that prostaglandin (PG) E2 is involved in anorexia/cachexia development in MCG 101 tumor-bearing mice. In the present study, we investigate the role of PGE receptor subtype EP2 in the development of anorexia after MCG 101 implantation in wild-type (EP2+/+) or EP2-receptor knockout (EP2?/?) mice. Our results showed that host absence of EP2 receptors attenuated tumor growth and development of anorexia in tumor-bearing EP2 knockout mice compared to tumor-bearing wild-type animals. Microarray profiling of the hypothalamus revealed a relative twofold change in expression of around 35 genes including mRNA transcripts coding for Phospholipase A2 and Prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds) in EP2 receptor knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. Prostaglandin D2 synthase levels were increased significantly in EP2 receptor knockouts, suggesting that improved food intake may depend on altered balance of prostaglandin production in hypothalamus since PGE2 and PGD2 display opposing effects in feeding control. PMID:26197930

  13. A partial differential equation model and its reduction to an ordinary differential equation model for prostate tumor growth under intermittent hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Youshan; Guo, Qian; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-10-01

    Hormonal therapy with androgen suppression is a common treatment for advanced prostate tumors. The emergence of androgen-independent cells, however, leads to a tumor relapse under a condition of long-term androgen deprivation. Clinical trials suggest that intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) with alternating on- and off-treatment periods can delay the relapse when compared with continuous androgen suppression (CAS). In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for prostate tumor growth under IAS therapy. The model elucidates initial hormone sensitivity, an eventual relapse of a tumor under CAS therapy, and a delay of a relapse under IAS therapy, which are due to the coexistence of androgen-dependent cells, androgen-independent cells resulting from reversible changes by adaptation, and androgen-independent cells resulting from irreversible changes by genetic mutations. The model is formulated as a free boundary problem of partial differential equations that describe the evolution of populations of the abovementioned three types of cells during on-treatment periods and off-treatment periods. Moreover, the model can be transformed into a piecewise linear ordinary differential equation model by introducing three new volume variables, and the study of the resulting model may help to devise optimal IAS schedules. PMID:23982260

  14. CUEDC2 down-regulation is associated with tumor growth and poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Liu, Yangli; Cai, Jinghuang; Guo, Yubiao; Zhu, Zhiwen; Xie, Canmao

    2015-01-01

    CUE domain-containing 2 (CUEDC2) is a multi-functional protein, which regulates cell cycle, growth factor signaling and inflammation. We found that CUEDC2 was low in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and lung adenocarcinoma tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. Low levels of CUEDC2 were correlated with a shorter survival time in patients with lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.004). CUEDC2 expression was correlated with tumor T classification (P = 0.001) at clinical stage (P = 0.001) and tumor size (P = 0.033). Multivariate analysis suggested that CUEDC2 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Ectopic expression of CUEDC2 decreased cell proliferation in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in nude mice in vivo. Knockdown of endogenous CUEDC2 by short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) increased tumor growth. Inhibition of proliferation by CUEDC2 was associated with inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, induction of p21 and down-regulation of cyclin D1. Our results suggest that decreased expression of CUEDC2 contributes to tumor growth in lung adenocarcinoma, leading to a poor clinical outcome. PMID:26023733

  15. Systemic miRNA-7 delivery inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in murine xenograft glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Van Beijnum, Judy R.; Cerisoli, Francesco; Scaria, Puthupparampil V.; Verheul, Mark; Van Berkel, Maaike P.; Pieters, Ebel H. E.; Van Haastert, Rick J.; Yousefi, Afrouz; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Storm, Gert; Berezikov, Eugene; Cuppen, Edwin; Woodle, Martin; Schaapveld, Roel Q. J.; Prevost, Gregoire P.; Griffioen, Arjan W.; Van Noort, Paula I.; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-angiogenesis is the multi-factorial process of sprouting of endothelial cells (EC) into micro-vessels to provide tumor cells with nutrients and oxygen. To explore miRNAs as therapeutic angiogenesis-inhibitors, we performed a functional screen to identify miRNAs that are able to decrease EC viability. We identified miRNA-7 (miR-7) as a potent negative regulator of angiogenesis. Introduction of miR-7 in EC resulted in strongly reduced cell viability, tube formation, sprouting and migration. Application of miR-7 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay led to a profound reduction of vascularization, similar to anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib. Local administration of miR-7 in an in vivo murine neuroblastoma tumor model significantly inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. Finally, systemic administration of miR-7 using a novel integrin-targeted biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles that targets both EC and tumor cells, strongly reduced angiogenesis and tumor proliferation in mice with human glioblastoma xenografts. Transcriptome analysis of miR-7 transfected EC in combination with in silico target prediction resulted in the identification of OGT as novel target gene of miR-7. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of miR-7 as novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic miRNA that can be systemically delivered to both EC and tumor cells and offers promise for miR-7 as novel anti-tumor therapeutic. PMID:25149532

  16. Biomarker- versus drug-driven tumor growth inhibition models: an equivalence analysis.

    PubMed

    Sardu, Maria Luisa; Poggesi, Italo; De Nicolao, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    The mathematical modeling of tumor xenograft experiments following the dosing of antitumor drugs has received much attention in the last decade. Biomarker data can further provide useful insights on the pathological processes and be used for translational purposes in the early clinical development. Therefore, it is of particular interest the development of integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models encompassing drug, biomarker and tumor-size data. This paper investigates the reciprocal consistency of three types of models: drug-to-tumor, such as established drug-driven tumor growth inhibition (TGI) models, drug-to-biomarker, e.g. indirect response models, and biomarker-to-tumor, e.g. the more recent biomarker-driven TGI models. In particular, this paper derives a mathematical relationship that guarantees the steady-state equivalence of the cascade of drug-to-biomarker and biomarker-to-tumor models with a drug-to-tumor TGI model. Using the Simeoni TGI model as a reference, conditions for steady-state equivalence are worked out and used to derive a new biomarker-driven model. Simulated and real data are used to show that in realistic cases the steady-state equivalence extends also to transient responses. The possibility of predicting the drug-to-tumor potency of a new candidate drug based only on biomarker response is discussed. PMID:26209955

  17. Massive T-lymphocyte infiltration into the host stroma is essential for fibroblast growth factor-2-promoted growth and metastasis of mammary tumors via neovascular stability.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saito, Yurika; Ueno, Yoko; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saiki, Ikuo

    2009-02-01

    Inflammation in the tumor stroma greatly influences tumor development. In the present study, we investigated the roles of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2-induced chronic inflammation in the development of 4T1 murine mammary tumors. Administration of FGF-2 into the tumor inoculation site during the initial phase of tumor growth enhanced tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis as well as microvessel density in tumor tissues in normal but not in nude mice. Infiltration of T lymphocytes and macrophages, recruitment of pericytes/vascular mural cells in neovascular walls, and the expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were also enhanced in the FGF-2-activated host stroma of normal mice. In addition, FGF-2-induced tumor growth and metastasis was abrogated by administration of either an immunosuppressant, FK506, or a COX-2 inhibitor. FGF-2 enhanced prostaglandin E(2) secretion in cultured T lymphocytes. In addition, VEGFA secretion was increased in a co-culture of T lymphocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. These results indicate that the massive infiltration of T lymphocytes into FGF-2-activated host stroma during the initial phase of tumor growth enhances neovascular stability by regulating endogenous COX-2 and VEGFA levels because both compounds are known to play important roles in marked 4T1 mammary tumor development via FGF-2-induced inflammatory reactions. PMID:19116363

  18. Vav1 promotes lung cancer growth by instigating tumor-microenvironment cross-talk via growth factor secretion.

    PubMed

    Sebban, Shulamit; Farago, Marganit; Rabinovich, Shiran; Lazer, Galit; Idelchuck, Yulia; Ilan, Lena; Pikarsky, Eli; Katzav, Shulamit

    2014-10-15

    Vav1 is a signal transducer that functions as a scaffold protein and a regulator of cytoskeleton organization in the hematopoietic system, where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in diverse human cancers, including lung cancer. We demonstrate that lung cancer cells that abnormally express Vav1 secrete growth factors in a Vav1-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Vav1 depletion results in a marked reduction in the expression of colony-stimulating-factor-1 (CSF1), a hematopoietic growth factor. The association between Vav1 expression and CSF1 was further supported by signal transduction experiments, supporting involvement of Vav1 in regulating lung cancer secretome. Blocking of ERK phosphorylation, led to a decrease in CSF1 transcription, thus suggesting a role for ERK, a downstream effector of Vav1, in CSF1 expression. CSF1-silenced cells exhibited reduced focus formation, proliferation abilities, and growth in NOD/SCID mice. CSF1-silenced H358 cells resulted in significantly smaller tumors, showing increased fibrosis and a decrease in tumor infiltrating macrophages. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of primary human lung tumors revealed a positive correlation between Vav1 and CSF1 expression, which was associated with tumor grade. Additional results presented herein suggest a potential cross-talk between cancer cells and the microenvironment controlled by CSF1/Vav1 signaling pathways. PMID:25313137

  19. Vav1 promotes lung cancer growth by instigating tumor-microenvironment cross-talk via growth factor secretion

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Shiran; Lazer, Galit; Idelchuck, Yulia; Ilan, Lena; Pikarsky, Eli; Katzav, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Vav1 is a signal transducer that functions as a scaffold protein and a regulator of cytoskeleton organization in the hematopoietic system, where it is exclusively expressed. Recently, Vav1 was shown to be involved in diverse human cancers, including lung cancer. We demonstrate that lung cancer cells that abnormally express Vav1 secrete growth factors in a Vav1-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Vav1 depletion results in a marked reduction in the expression of colony-stimulating-factor-1 (CSF1), a hematopoietic growth factor. The association between Vav1 expression and CSF1 was further supported by signal transduction experiments, supporting involvement of Vav1 in regulating lung cancer secretome. Blocking of ERK phosphorylation, led to a decrease in CSF1 transcription, thus suggesting a role for ERK, a downstream effector of Vav1, in CSF1 expression. CSF1-silenced cells exhibited reduced focus formation, proliferation abilities, and growth in NOD/SCID mice. CSF1-silenced H358 cells resulted in significantly smaller tumors, showing increased fibrosis and a decrease in tumor infiltrating macrophages. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis of primary human lung tumors revealed a positive correlation between Vav1 and CSF1 expression, which was associated with tumor grade. Additional results presented herein suggest a potential cross-talk between cancer cells and the microenvironment controlled by CSF1/Vav1 signaling pathways. PMID:25313137

  20. Targeted doxorubicin nanotherapy strongly suppressing growth of multidrug resistant tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai Hai; Lee, Jung Seok; Bae, Jin Woo; Choi, Jong Hoon; Lee, Yunki; Son, Joo Young; Park, Ki Dong

    2015-11-10

    The rational design of nanomedicine to treat multidrug resistant (MDR) tumors in vivo is described in the study. We prepared multifunctionalized Pluronic micelles that are already well-established to be responsive to low pH and redox in order to systemically deliver doxorubicin (DOX) to MDR tumors. Folic acids (FAs) were introduced on the micelle surface as tumor-targeting molecules. In vitro, the DOX-loaded micelles exerted high cytotoxicity in the DOX-resistant cells by bypassing MDR efflux. Cellular uptake studies clearly demonstrated that FA-conjugated DOX micelles (FA/DOX micelles) were efficiently internalized and accumulated in the MDR cells. In vivo studies indicated significant efficacy of FA/DOX micelles for MDR tumors in mice, and that the volume of tumors was 3 times smaller in this group than that of tumors in the free DOX group, and 8 times smaller than the tumors in the saline group. To the best of our knowledge, this methodology has been recognized to have significantly high efficacy, compared to previously reported DOX nanoparticle formulations. This superior anti-tumor efficacy of FA/DOX micelles in MDR tumor-bearing mice can be attributed to FA-targeted and -mediated endocytosis, inhibition of MDR effect, and subsequent DOX release triggered by dual stimuli (low pH and redox) inside the tumor. Given the promise of the multifunctional micelle mediated delivery on inhibition of MDR tumor growth, FA/DOX micelle platform is a much sought after goal for cancer chemotherapy, especially for cancers resistant to anticancer drugs. PMID:26325307

  1. HOIL-1L Functions as the PKC? Ubiquitin Ligase to Promote Lung Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Queisser, Markus A.; Dada, Laura A.; Deiss-Yehiely, Nimrod; Angulo, Martin; Zhou, Guofei; Kouri, Fotini M.; Knab, Lawrence M.; Liu, Jing; Stegh, Alexander H.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Ciechanover, Aaron; Iwai, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Protein kinase C zeta (PKC?) has been reported to act as a tumor suppressor. Deletion of PKC? in experimental cancer models has been shown to increase tumor growth. However, the mechanisms of PKC? down-regulation in cancerous cells have not been previously described. Objectives: To determine the molecular mechanisms that lead to decreased PKC? expression and thus increased survival in cancer cells and tumor growth. Methods: The levels of expression of heme-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1L (HOIL-1L), HOIL-1–interacting protein (HOIP), Shank-associated RH domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN), and PKC? were analyzed by Western blot and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in different cell lines. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments were used to demonstrate the interaction between HOIL-1L and PKC?. Ubiquitination was measured in an in vitro ubiquitination assay and by Western blot with specific antibodies. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) was determined by gain/loss-of-function experiments. The effect of HOIL-1L expression on cell death was investigated using RNA interference approaches in vitro and on tumor growth in mice models. Increased HOIL-1L and decreased PKC? expression was assessed in lung adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma multiforme and documented in several other cancer types by oncogenomic analysis. Measurements and Main Results: Hypoxia is a hallmark of rapidly growing solid tumors. We found that during hypoxia, PKC? is ubiquitinated and degraded via the ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1L, a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). In vitro ubiquitination assays indicate that HOIL-1L ubiquitinates PKC? at Lys-48, targeting it for proteasomal degradation. In a xenograft tumor model and lung cancer model, we found that silencing of HOIL-1L increased the abundance of PKC? and decreased the size of tumors, suggesting that lower levels of HOIL-1L promote survival. Indeed, mRNA transcript levels of HOIL-1L were elevated in tumor of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and in a lung adenocarcinoma tissue microarray the levels of HOIL-1L were associated with high-grade tumors. Moreover, we found that HOIL-1L expression was regulated by HIFs. Interestingly, the actions of HOIL-1L were independent of LUBAC. Conclusions: These data provide first evidence of a mechanism of cancer cell adaptation to hypoxia where HIFs regulate HOIL-1L, which targets PKC? for degradation to promote tumor survival. We provided a proof of concept that silencing of HOIL-1L impairs lung tumor growth and that HOIL-1L expression predicts survival rate in cancer patients suggesting that HOIL-1L is an attractive target for cancer therapy. PMID:25118570

  2. Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear tumor growth–I. Model and numerical method

    PubMed Central

    Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Frieboes, H.B.; Cristini, V.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first paper in a two-part series in which we develop, analyze and simulate a diffuse interface continuum model of multispecies tumor growth and tumor-induced angiogenesis in two and three dimensions. Three dimensional simulations of nonlinear tumor growth and neovascularization using this diffuse interface model were recently presented in Frieboes et al. (2007), but that paper did not describe the details of the model or the numerical algorithm. This is done here. In this diffuse interface approach, sharp interfaces are replaced by narrow transition layers that arise due to differential adhesive forces among the cell-species. Accordingly, a continuum model of adhesion is introduced. The model is thermodynamically consistent, is related to recently developed mixture models, and thus is capable of providing a detailed description of tumor progression. The model is well-posed and consists of fourth-order nonlinear advection-reaction-diffusion equations (of Cahn-Hilliard-type) for the cell-species coupled with reaction-diffusion equations for the substrate components. We demonstrate analytically and numerically that when the diffuse interface thickness tends to zero, the system reduces to a classical sharp interface model. Using a new fully adaptive, nonlinear multigrid/finite difference method the system is simulated efficiently. In this first paper, we present simulations of unstable avascular tumor growth in two and three dimensions and demonstrate that our techniques now make large-scale three dimensional simulations of tumors with complex morphologies computationally feasible. In Part II of this study, we will investigate multispecies tumor invasion, tumor-induced angiogenesis and focus on the morphological instabilities that may underlie invasive phenotypes. PMID:18485374

  3. Ecto-5’-Nucleotidase Overexpression Reduces Tumor Growth in a Xenograph Medulloblastoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Cappellari, Angélica R.; Pillat, Micheli M.; Souza, Hellio D. N.; Dietrich, Fabrícia; Oliveira, Francine H.; Figueiró, Fabrício; Abujamra, Ana L.; Roesler, Rafael; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Battastini, Ana Maria O.; Ulrich, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Background Ecto-5’-nucleotidase/CD73 (ecto-5’-NT) participates in extracellular ATP catabolism by converting adenosine monophosphate (AMP) into adenosine. This enzyme affects the progression and invasiveness of different tumors. Furthermore, the expression of ecto-5’-NT has also been suggested as a favorable prognostic marker, attributing to this enzyme contradictory functions in cancer. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common brain tumor of the cerebellum and affects mainly children. Materials and Methods The effects of ecto-5’-NT overexpression on human MB tumor growth were studied in an in vivo model. Balb/c immunodeficient (nude) 6 to 14-week-old mice were used for dorsal subcutaneous xenograph tumor implant. Tumor development was evaluated by pathophysiological analysis. In addition, the expression patterns of adenosine receptors were verified. Results The human MB cell line D283, transfected with ecto-5’-NT (D283hCD73), revealed reduced tumor growth compared to the original cell line transfected with an empty vector. D283hCD73 generated tumors with a reduced proliferative index, lower vascularization, the presence of differentiated cells and increased active caspase-3 expression. Prominent A1 adenosine receptor expression rates were detected in MB cells overexpressing ecto-5’-NT. Conclusion This work suggests that ecto-5’-NT promotes reduced tumor growth to reduce cell proliferation and vascularization, promote higher differentiation rates and initiate apoptosis, supposedly by accumulating adenosine, which then acts through A1 adenosine receptors. Therefore, ecto-5’-NT might be considered an important prognostic marker, being associated with good prognosis and used as a potential target for therapy. PMID:26491983

  4. Tumor growth increases neuroinflammation, fatigue and depressive-like behavior prior to alterations in muscle function.

    PubMed

    Norden, Diana M; Bicer, Sabahattin; Clark, Yvonne; Jing, Runfeng; Henry, Christopher J; Wold, Loren E; Reiser, Peter J; Godbout, Jonathan P; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently suffer from fatigue, a complex syndrome associated with loss of muscle mass, weakness, and depressed mood. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) can be present at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and persists for years after treatment. CRF negatively influences quality of life, limits functional independence, and is associated with decreased survival in patients with incurable disease. Currently there are no effective treatments to reduce CRF. The aim of this study was to use a mouse model of tumor growth and discriminate between two main components of fatigue: loss of muscle mass/function and altered mood/motivation. Here we show that tumor growth increased fatigue- and depressive-like behaviors, and reduced body and muscle mass. Decreased voluntary wheel running activity (VWRA) and increased depressive-like behavior in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests were evident in tumor-bearing mice within the first two weeks of tumor growth and preceded the loss of body and muscle mass. At three weeks, tumor-bearing mice had reduced grip strength but this was not associated with altered expression of myosin isoforms or impaired contractile properties of muscles. These increases in fatigue and depressive-like behaviors were paralleled by increased expression of IL-1? mRNA in the cortex and hippocampus. Minocycline administration reduced tumor-induced expression of IL-1? in the brain, reduced depressive-like behavior, and improved grip strength without altering muscle mass. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroinflammation and depressed mood, rather than muscle wasting, contribute to decreased voluntary activity and precede major changes in muscle contractile properties with tumor growth. PMID:25102452

  5. Cellular and Tumor Radiosensitivity is Correlated to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein Expression Level in Tumors Without EGFR Amplification;Epidermal growth factor receptor; Radiotherapy; Squamous cell carcinoma; Biomarker; Local tumor control

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Saker, Jarob; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Krause, Mechthild; Yaromina, Ala; Meyer-Staeckling, Soenke; Scherkl, Benjamin; Kriegs, Malte; Brandt, Burkhard; Grenman, Reidar; Petersen, Cordula; Baumann, Michael; Dikomey, Ekkehard

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: There is conflicting evidence for whether the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in human tumors can be used as a marker of radioresponse. Therefore, this association was studied in a systematic manner using squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines grown as cell cultures and xenografts. Methods and Materials: The study was performed with 24 tumor cell lines of different tumor types, including 10 SCC lines, which were also investigated as xenografts on nude mice. Egfr gene dose and the length of CA-repeats in intron 1 were determined by polymerase chain reaction, protein expression in vitro by Western blot and in vivo by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and radiosensitivity in vitro by colony formation. Data were correlated with previously published tumor control dose 50% data after fractionated irradiation of xenografts of the 10 SCC. Results: EGFR protein expression varies considerably, with most tumor cell lines showing moderate and only few showing pronounced upregulation. EGFR upregulation could only be attributed to massive gene amplification in the latter. In the case of little or no amplification, in vitro EGFR expression correlated with both cellular and tumor radioresponse. In vivo EGFR expression did not show this correlation. Conclusions: Local tumor control after the fractionated irradiation of tumors with little or no gene amplification seems to be dependent on in vitro EGFR via its effect on cellular radiosensitivity.

  6. Tumor induced osteomalacia: associated with elevated circulating levels of fibroblast growth factor-7 in addition to fibroblast growth factor-23.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Shweta; Khazim, Khaled; Suri, Rajeev; Martin, DeAndra; Werner, Sherry; Fanti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Tumor induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, a phosphatonin i.e., phosphaturia-promoting hormone, is commonly implicated in the pathogenesis of TIO. However, very limited information is available about the circulating levels and clinical significance of other phosphatonins that are expressed by TIO-associated tumors. In addition, identification of the primary tumor constitutes a frequent major challenge in the management of TIO. Here, we report a patient with the clinical diagnosis of TIO with elevated blood levels of the phosphatonins FGF-23 and FGF-7; and extensive but unrewarding radiological search for the primary tumor. In selective venous sampling, both FGF-23 and FGF-7 displayed highest concentrations in the left femoral and iliac veins; although lateralization was much more pronounced for FGF-7 than FGF-23. This laboratory finding allowed us to focus on the left lower extremity as the likely location of the primary tumor. Our case is the first to show that FGF-7 can be analyzed in the circulation and used to assist in the diagnosis and localization of TIO-associated tumors. PMID:26521888

  7. Critical Role of Shp2 in Tumor Growth Involving Regulation of c-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yuan; Chen, Zhengming; Chen, Liwei; Fang, Bin; Win-Piazza, Hla; Haura, Eric; Koomen, John M.; Wu, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Activating mutants of Shp2 protein tyrosine phosphatase, encoded by the PTPN11 gene, are linked to leukemia. In solid tumors, however, PTPN11 mutations occur at low frequencies, while the wild-type Shp2 is activated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in cancer cells and mediates PTK signaling. Therefore, it is important to address whether the wild-type Shp2 plays a functional role critical for tumor growth. Using shRNAs and a PTP-inactive mutant to inhibit Shp2, we find here that tumor growth of DU145 prostate cancer and H292 lung cancer cells depends on Shp2. Suppression of Shp2 inhibited cell proliferation, decreased c-Myc, and increased p27 expression in cell cultures. In H292 tumor tissues, c-Myc–positive cells coincided with Ki67-positive cells, and smaller tumors from Shp2 knockdown cells had less c-Myc–positive cells and more nuclear p27. Shp2-regulated c-Myc expression was mediated by Src and Erk1/2. Down-regulation of c-Myc reduced cell proliferation, while up-regulation of c-Myc in Shp2 knockdown H292 cells partially rescued the inhibitory effect of Shp2 suppression on cell proliferation. Tyrosine phosphoproteomic analysis of H292 tumor tissues showed that Shp2 could both up-regulate and down-regulate tyrosine phosphorylation on cellular proteins. Among other changes, Shp2 inhibition increased phosphorylation of Src Tyr-530 and Cdk1 Thr-14/Tyr-15 and decreased phosphorylation of Erk1- and Erk2-activating sites in the tumors. Significantly, we found that Shp2 positively regulated Gab1 Tyr-627/Tyr-659 phosphorylation. This finding reveals that Shp2 can autoregulate its own activating signal. Shp2 Tyr-62/Tyr-63 phosphorylation was observed in tumor tissues, indicating that Shp2 is activated in the tumors. PMID:21442024

  8. Photoactivation of lysosomally sequestered sunitinib after angiostatic treatment causes vascular occlusion and enhances tumor growth inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Sliwinska, P; Weiss, A; van Beijnum, J R; Wong, T J; Kilarski, W W; Szewczyk, G; Verheul, H M W; Sarna, T; van den Bergh, H; Griffioen, A W

    2015-01-01

    The angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that acts mainly on the VEGF and PDGF pathways. We have previously shown that sunitinib is sequestered in the lysosomes of exposed tumor and endothelial cells. This phenomenon is part of the drug-induced resistance observed in the clinic. Here, we demonstrate that when exposed to light, sequestered sunitinib causes immediate destruction of the lysosomes, resulting in the release of sunitinib and cell death. We hypothesized that this photoactivation of sunitinib could be used as a vaso-occlusive vascular-targeting approach to treating cancer. Spectral properties of sunitinib and its lysosomal accumulation were measured in vitro. The human A2780 ovarian carcinoma transplanted onto the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and the Colo-26 colorectal carcinoma model in Balb/c mice were used to test the effects of administrating sunitinib and subsequently exposing tumor tissue to light. Tumors were subsequently resected and subject to immunohistochemical analysis. In A2780 ovarian carcinoma tumors, treatment with sunitinib+light resulted in immediate specific angio-occlusion, leading to a necrotic tumor mass 24?h after treatment. Tumor growth was inhibited by 70% as compared with the control group (**P<0.0001). Similar observations were made in the Colo-26 colorectal carcinoma, where light exposure of the sunitinib-treated mice inhibited tumor growth by 50% as compared with the control and by 25% as compared with sunitinib-only-treated tumors (N?4; P=0.0002). Histology revealed that photoactivation of sunitinib resulted in a change in tumor vessel architecture. The current results suggest that the spectral properties of sunitinib can be exploited for application against certain cancer indications. PMID:25675301

  9. Some Cancer Mutations Slow Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    A typical cancer cell has thousands of mutations scattered throughout its genome and hundreds of mutated genes. However, only a handful of those genes, known as drivers, are responsible for cancerous traits such as uncontrolled growth. Cancer biologists have largely ignored these so-called passenger mutations, believing they had little or no impact on cancer progression.

  10. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor in sacral giant cell tumors and the correlation with tumor microvessel density.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shaofeng; Bai, Rui; Zhao, Zhenqun; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yuxin; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Dianming; Zhu, Dezhi

    2014-11-01

    Although classified as benign, giant cell tumors of the bone (GCTB) may be aggressive, recur and even metastasize to the lungs. In addition, the pathogenesis and histogenesis remain unclear; thus, the driving factors behind the strong tumor growth capacity of GCTB require investigation. In the present study, the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are promoted by hypoxic conditions, were determined in 22 sacral GCTB samples using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Furthermore, CD34 expression was analyzed using these methods. The correlation between HIF-1? or VEGF expression and the tumor microvessel density (MVD) was then determined. The results demonstrated that HIF-1?, VEGF and CD34 were overexpressed in the 22 sacral GCTB specimens, and overexpression of HIF-1? and VEGF correlated with the tumor MVD. Thus, the present study has provided novel indicators for the tumor growth capacity of GCTBs. PMID:25289039

  11. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Thayath, Muhamad Nishad; Singh, Shikha; Sinha, Anju

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm and low birthweight children comprise approximately 6% of all live births. It is now a well-known fact that premature children experience many oral complications associated with their preterm births. Prematurely born infants have a short prenatal development period and they are prone to many serious medical problems during the neonatal period, which may affect the development of oral tissues. Adverse perinatal factors, premature birth and exceptional early adaptation to extra-uterine life and functional activity may influence dental occlusal development and symmetry in the jaws. Thus, the goal of the present paper is to elucidate further the effect of preterm birth on the development of the dentition. How to cite this article: Zaidi I, Thayath MN, Singh S, Sinha A. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 215-219. PMID:26628856

  12. Retarded growth rate and delayed onset of egg production associated with spirochaete infection in pullets.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, I B; Hunt, B W; Lister, S A; Lamont, M H

    1987-07-11

    Retarded growth rates and delayed onset of egg production were recorded in 22-week-old pullets reared on deep litter and with indirect contact with pigs. Birds reared in cages or transferred to cages were unaffected. Spirochaetes were isolated and identified from the intestines of the pullets reared on deep litter but not from those reared in cages. Birds kept solely on deep litter were more severely affected, with 24 per cent immature birds and 10 per cent mortality compared with those transferred from deep litter to cages where no mortality was recorded but 15 to 22 per cent were found to be immature. The histopathological changes are described and the significance of the findings is discussed. PMID:3307115

  13. An Adaptive Multigrid Algorithm for Simulating Solid Tumor Growth Using Mixture Models

    PubMed Central

    Wise, S.M.; Lowengrub, J.S.; Cristini, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we give the details of the numerical solution of a three-dimensional multispecies diffuse interface model of tumor growth, which was derived in (Wise et al., J. Theor. Biol. 253 (2008)) and used to study the development of glioma in (Frieboes et al., NeuroImage 37 (2007) and tumor invasion in (Bearer et al., Cancer Research, 69 (2009)) and (Frieboes et al., J. Theor. Biol. 264 (2010)). The model has a thermodynamic basis, is related to recently developed mixture models, and is capable of providing a detailed description of tumor progression. It utilizes a diffuse interface approach, whereby sharp tumor boundaries are replaced by narrow transition layers that arise due to differential adhesive forces among the cell-species. The model consists of fourth-order nonlinear advection-reaction-diffusion equations (of Cahn-Hilliard-type) for the cell-species coupled with reaction-diffusion equations for the substrate components. Numerical solution of the model is challenging because the equations are coupled, highly nonlinear, and numerically stiff. In this paper we describe a fully adaptive, nonlinear multigrid/finite difference method for efficiently solving the equations. We demonstrate the convergence of the algorithm and we present simulations of tumor growth in 2D and 3D that demonstrate the capabilities of the algorithm in accurately and efficiently simulating the progression of tumors with complex morphologies. PMID:21076663

  14. Multiphase modeling and qualitative analysis of the growth of tumor cords

    E-print Network

    Andrea Tosin

    2009-06-27

    In this paper a macroscopic model of tumor cord growth is developed, relying on the mathematical theory of deformable porous media. Tumor is modeled as a saturated mixture of proliferating cells, extracellular fluid and extracellular matrix, that occupies a spatial region close to a blood vessel whence cells get the nutrient needed for their vital functions. Growth of tumor cells takes place within a healthy host tissue, which is in turn modeled as a saturated mixture of non-proliferating cells. Interactions between these two regions are accounted for as an essential mechanism for the growth of the tumor mass. By weakening the role of the extracellular matrix, which is regarded as a rigid non-remodeling scaffold, a system of two partial differential equations is derived, describing the evolution of the cell volume ratio coupled to the dynamics of the nutrient, whose higher and lower concentration levels determine proliferation or death of tumor cells, respectively. Numerical simulations of a reference two-dimensional problem are shown and commented, and a qualitative mathematical analysis of some of its key issues is proposed.

  15. A cellular automata model for avascular solid tumor growth under the effect of therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, E. A.; Santos, L. B. L.; Pinho, S. T. R.

    2009-04-01

    Tumor growth has long been a target of investigation within the context of mathematical and computer modeling. The objective of this study is to propose and analyze a two-dimensional stochastic cellular automata model to describe avascular solid tumor growth, taking into account both the competition between cancer cells and normal cells for nutrients and/or space and a time-dependent proliferation of cancer cells. Gompertzian growth, characteristic of some tumors, is described and some of the features of the time-spatial pattern of solid tumors, such as compact morphology with irregular borders, are captured. The parameter space is studied in order to analyze the occurrence of necrosis and the response to therapy. Our findings suggest that transitions exist between necrotic and non-necrotic phases (no-therapy cases), and between the states of cure and non-cure (therapy cases). To analyze cure, the control and order parameters are, respectively, the highest probability of cancer cell proliferation and the probability of the therapeutic effect on cancer cells. With respect to patterns, it is possible to observe the inner necrotic core and the effect of the therapy destroying the tumor from its outer borders inwards.

  16. Melanoma Cell-Intrinsic PD-1 Receptor Functions Promote Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Kleffel, Sonja; Posch, Christian; Barthel, Steven R; Mueller, Hansgeorg; Schlapbach, Christoph; Guenova, Emmanuella; Elco, Christopher P; Lee, Nayoung; Juneja, Vikram R; Zhan, Qian; Lian, Christine G; Thomi, Rahel; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Cozzio, Antonio; Dummer, Reinhard; Mihm, Martin C; Flaherty, Keith T; Frank, Markus H; Murphy, George F; Sharpe, Arlene H; Kupper, Thomas S; Schatton, Tobias

    2015-09-10

    Therapeutic antibodies targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) activate tumor-specific immunity and have shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of melanoma. Yet, little is known about tumor cell-intrinsic PD-1 pathway effects. Here, we show that murine and human melanomas contain PD-1-expressing cancer subpopulations and demonstrate that melanoma cell-intrinsic PD-1 promotes tumorigenesis, even in mice lacking adaptive immunity. PD-1 inhibition on melanoma cells by RNAi, blocking antibodies, or mutagenesis of melanoma-PD-1 signaling motifs suppresses tumor growth in immunocompetent, immunocompromised, and PD-1-deficient tumor graft recipient mice. Conversely, melanoma-specific PD-1 overexpression enhances tumorigenicity, as does engagement of melanoma-PD-1 by its ligand, PD-L1, whereas melanoma-PD-L1 inhibition or knockout of host-PD-L1 attenuate growth of PD-1-positive melanomas. Mechanistically, the melanoma-PD-1 receptor modulates downstream effectors of mTOR signaling. Our results identify melanoma cell-intrinsic functions of the PD-1:PD-L1 axis in tumor growth and suggest that blocking melanoma-PD-1 might contribute to the striking clinical efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. PMID:26359984

  17. Growth Hormone Protects the Intestine Preserving Radiotherapy Efficacy on Tumors: A Short-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Caz, Victor; Elvira, Marcos; Tabernero, Maria; Grande, Antonio G.; Lopez-Plaza, Bricia; de Miguel, Enrique; Largo, Carlota; Santamaria, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of radiotherapy on tumors is hampered by its devastating adverse effects on healthy tissue, particularly that of the gastrointestinal tract. These effects cause acute symptoms that are so disruptive to patients that they can lead to interruption of the radiotherapy program. These adverse effects could limit the intensity of radiation received by the patient, resulting in a sublethal dose to the tumor, thus increasing the risk of tumor resistance. The lack of an effective treatment to protect the bowel during radiation therapy to allow higher radiation doses that are lethal to the tumor has become a barrier to implementing effective therapy. In this study, we present a comparative analysis of both intestinal and tumor tissue in regard to the efficacy and the preventive impact of a short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment in tumor-bearing rats as a protective agent during radiotherapy. Our data show that the exogenous administration of GH improved intestinal recovery after radiation treatment while preserving the therapeutic effect against the tumor. GH significantly increased proliferation in the irradiated intestine but not in the irradiated tumors, as assessed by Positron Emission Tomography and the proliferative markers Ki67, cyclin D3, and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. This proliferative effect was consistent with a significant increase in irradiated intestinal villi and crypt length. Furthermore, GH significantly decreased caspase-3 activity in the intestine, whereas GH did not produce this effect in the irradiated tumors. In conclusion, short-term GH treatment protects the bowel, inducing proliferation while reducing apoptosis in healthy intestinal tissue and preserving radiotherapy efficacy on tumors. PMID:26670463

  18. Absence of tumor growth stimulation in a panel of 26 human tumor cell lines by mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kelter, Gerhard; Fiebig, Heinz-Herbert

    2006-06-01

    Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts exhibit antitumor activity based on direct inhibition of tumor growth as well as modulation of immune response. Recent reports suggested potential stimulation of tumor growth at low doses of mistletoe extracts, particularly in hematological tumors and tumors responding to immunotherapy. Therefore, the direct effect of the three mistletoe extracts Iscador M Spezial, Iscador Qu Spezial and Iscador P on tumor growth was investigated in a panel of 26 human tumor cell lines in vitro using cellular proliferation assays. Antitumor activity of the three preparations at high concentrations was investigated in a panel of 12 cell lines. The results showed no evidence of stimulation of tumor growth by any of the three extracts, in particular the five tumor cell lines previously reported to be sensitive to direct mistletoe lectin stimulation. On the contrary, the lectin containing preparations Iscador M Spezial and Iscador Qu Spezial expressed a pronounced antitumor activity exhibiting a nearly identical antitumor profile compared to isolated mistletoe lectin 1. PMID:16927523

  19. Accumulation of mononuclear cells in tumors with growth slowing and elevation in host splenic histidine decarboxylase activity following repeated tumor injections with bradykinin.

    PubMed

    Koppelmann, L E; Moore, T C; Lemmi, C A; Porter, D D

    1975-08-01

    Repeated intratumor injections of SV-40 virus-induced and transplaned syngenic fibrosarcomsa in hamsters with bradykinin (BK) has produced markded slowing of tumor growth in comparison with control saline injections. Growth slowing was greatest when the injections were daily, with a decrease in growth slowing as injections became less frequent. The growth slowing also was dose dependent (greater with 250 mug BK injections than with 50 mug BK injections). BK-injected tumors, on histological study, were found to have marked infiltration with mononuclear cells. This was not encountered in noninjected or saline-injected tumors. Significant mononuclear cell infiltration of noninjected tumors was found in two tumor animals which had had one tumor injectecd with BK. Splenic histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity was higher in BK tumor-injected animals than in saline tumor-injected animals. Splenic HDC activity was higher when studed nearer the period of daily intratumor injections. The findings of this study suggest a potential role of inportance for inter-related vasoactive substances which act as mediators of inflammation in the study and therapy of neoplasia. PMID:1154262

  20. Luteolin and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in systemic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Shailendra

    2013-04-01

    Lamy et al have provided interesting data in their recent article in your esteemed journal. Luteolin augments apoptosis in a number of systemic malignancies. Luteolin reduces tumor growth in breast carcinomas. Luteolin mediates this effect by up-regulating the expression of Bax and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-xL. EGFR-induced MAPK activation is also attenuated. As a result there is increased G2/ M phase arrest. These effects have been seen both in vivo as well as in vitro. It also reduces ER? expression and causes inhibition of IGF-1 mediated PI3K–Akt pathway. Luteolin also activates p38 resulting in nuclear translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor. Simultaneously it also activates ERK. As a result there is increased intra-tumoral apoptosis which is caspase dependent as well as caspase independent. - Highlights: ? Luteolin and tumor growth in breast carcinomas. ? Luteolin and pulmonary cancer. ? Luteolin and colon cancer.

  1. Statins improve survival by inhibiting spontaneous metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse melanoma model

    PubMed Central

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Takeda, Tomoya; Kino, Toshiki; Obata, Naoya; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Mashimo, Kenji; Fujiwara, Daichiro; Sakaguchi, Katsuhiko; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a life-threatening disease for which no effective treatment is currently available. In melanoma cells, Rho overexpression promotes invasion and metastasis. However, the effect of statins on spontaneous metastasis and tumor growth remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of statin-mediated tumor growth and metastasis inhibition in an in vivo model. We found that statins significantly inhibited spontaneous metastasis and tumor growth. Statins inhibited the mRNA expression and enzymatic activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in vivo and also suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of very late antigens (VLAs). Moreover, statins inhibited the prenylation of Rho as well as the phosphorylation of LIM kinase, serum response factor (SRF), and c-Fos downstream of the Rho signaling pathway. In addition, statins enhanced p53, p21, and p27 expression and reduced phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase and expression of cyclin D1 and E2. These results indicate that statins suppress Rho signaling pathways, thereby inhibiting tumor metastasis and growth. Furthermore, statins markedly improved the survival rate in a metastasis model, suggesting that statins have potential clinical applications for the treatment of metastatic cancers. PMID:26693069

  2. Picropodophyllin inhibits tumor growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Shu-Cheng; Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 ; Guo, Wei; Tao, Ze-Zhang

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •We identified that PPP inhibits IGF-1R/Akt pathway in NPC cells. •PPP dose-dependently inhibits NPC cell proliferation in vitro. •PPP suppresses tumor growth of NPC in nude mice. •PPP have little effect on microtubule assembly. -- Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and plays important roles in cell transformation, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a selective IGF-1R inhibitor and shows promising antitumor effects for several human cancers. However, its antitumor effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of PPP in NPC using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. We found that PPP dose-dependently decreased the IGF-induced phosphorylation and activity of IGF-1R and consequently reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, one downstream target of IGF-1R. In addition, PPP inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PPP for NPC cell line CNE-2 was ?1 ?M at 24 h after treatment and ?0.5 ?M at 48 h after treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of PPP by intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the tumor growth of xenografted NPC in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest targeting IGF-1R by PPP may represent a new strategy for treatment of NPCs with positive IGF-1R expression.

  3. ture in vivo. So far, there is no evidence that tumors can stimulate the growth of

    E-print Network

    Chen, Christopher S.

    ture in vivo. So far, there is no evidence that tumors can stimulate the growth of new lymphatic metastasis via the lymphatic vasculature as well as in various other disorders involving the lym- phatic system and their treatment. REFERENCES AND NOTES ___________________________ 1. N. Ferrara and T. Davis

  4. Suppressing Activity of Common Intestinal Bacteria Reduces Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Over the past few years, cancer researchers have come to suspect that the bacteria living in our gastrointestinal system may play a role in the development of some types of cancer. Now, a team of investigators from the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine has discovered that common intestinal bacteria do promote tumor growth in genetically susceptible mice.

  5. Inhibitory effect of carbonyl reductase 1 on ovarian cancer growth via tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Miura, Rie; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Shigeto, Tatsuhiko; Futagami, Masayuki; Mizunuma, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of carbonyl reductase 1 (CR1) on ovarian cancer growth mediated by the activation of the tumor necrotic factor receptor (TNFR) pathway. OVCAR-3 and TOV21G cells overexpressing CR1 were constructed by transfecting them with CR1 cDNA by lipofection. CR1-overexpressing and control OVCAR-3 and TOV21G cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice and the tumor growth was compared between the two groups for 3-4 weeks. The expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in tumors was examined immunohistochemically at the end of the experiment. Expression levels of caspase-8 and -3 activated by TNFR1, c-Jun activated by TNFR2, and NF-?B activated by both TNFR1 and TNFR2 were determined using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed in mice injected with CR1-overexpressing cells. Tumor volume in the CR1 induction group decreased temporarily until 2 weeks. Tumor cell membranes in both CR1 induction and control groups were positive for TNFR1 expression; however, total protein levels did not differ between the two groups. TNFR-2 expression was comparatively weak in both groups. The expression of NF-?B and c-Jun was weaker in the CR1 induction group than in control. In contrast, caspase-8 and -3 expression was higher in the CR1 induction group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly greater in tumors that appeared after injections of both types of CR1-overexpressing cells than in those of control cancer cells. These results suggest that CR1 induces apoptosis by activating the caspase pathway via binding to TNFR1. PMID:26499922

  6. Forkhead box protein A1 is a prognostic predictor and promotes tumor growth of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyu; Zhang, Pei; Tang, Yong; Wu, Mengping; Zhang, Weikang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the cancer-type specific role of forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) in human malignancies. However, the clinical significance of FOXA1 and its biological function in gastric cancer remain unknown. In this study, the expression of FOXA1 in 80 pairs of gastric cancer tissues and corresponding non-tumor tissues was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found that the levels of FOXA1 protein and mRNA in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in matched tumor-adjacent tissues. Furthermore, clinical association analysis indicated that the positive expression of FOXA1 was associated with adverse clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer patients including poor tumor differentiation, large tumor size, and advanced tumor-node-metastasis tumor stage. Notably, gastric cancer patients with positive expression of FOXA1 had a poorer 5-year overall survival and recurrence-free survival. In addition, FOXA1 knockdown remarkably inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in both SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells. In vivo studies indicated that FOXA1 knockdown prominently suppressed tumor growth of gastric cancer in a nude mouse xenograft model. Mechanistically, we disclosed that the expression of Yes-associated protein was decreased accordingly after FOXA1 knockdown in both SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that FOXA1 may serve as a promising prognostic indicator and an attractive therapeutic target of gastric cancer. PMID:26527889

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation during pregnancy, and in adult nulliparous mice, delays the subsequent development of DMBA-induced mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gavin, Heather M.; Arlt, Volker M.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Medina, Daniel; Vorderstrasse, Beth A.

    2010-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), the prototypic ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), promotes tumor formation in some model systems. However with regard to breast cancer, epidemiological and animal studies are inconclusive as to whether exposure increases tumor incidence or may instead be protective. We have previously reported that mice exposed to TCDD during pregnancy have impaired differentiation of mammary tissue, including decreased branching and poor development of lobuloalveolar structures. Because normal pregnancy-induced mammary differentiation may protect against subsequent neoplastic transformation, we hypothesized that TCDD-treated mice would be more susceptible to chemical carcinogenesis after parturition. To test this, mice were treated with TCDD or vehicle during pregnancy. Four weeks later, DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) was administered to induce mammary tumor formation. Contrary to our hypothesis, TCDD-exposed parous mice showed a four-week delay in tumor formation relative to controls, and had a lower tumor incidence throughout the 27-week time course. The same results were obtained in nulliparous mice given TCDD and DMBA on the same schedule. We next addressed whether the delayed tumor incidence was a reflection of decreased tumor initiation, by testing the formation of DMBA-DNA adducts and preneoplastic lesions, induction of cytochrome P450s, and cell proliferation. None of these markers of tumor initiation differed between vehicle- and TCDD-treated animals. The expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 was also measured to address their possible role in tumorigenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that AhR activation by TCDD slows the promotion of preneoplastic lesions to overt mammary tumors. PMID:20521247

  8. Repair capacity and kinetics in spheroids from a lung metastasis of a human soft tissue sarcoma: A growth delay study

    SciTech Connect

    Stuschke, M.; Budach, V.; Sack, H.; Streffer, C. )

    1991-01-01

    Spheroids grown from the human cell line EF8 of a lung metastasis of a human malignant fibrous histiocytoma were given fractionated irradiation with 60Co gamma rays at passages 31 and 32. The mean diameter of the spheroids at the time of treatment was 250 microns. Growth delay was used as the end point in these studies. Two experiments were carried out to determine the capacity and kinetics of repair of sublethal damage. In the first experiment, one, two, and five fractions were given at three or four dose levels with fixed intervals of 360 min. In the second experiment, schedules with two and four dose fractions and intervals of 0, 20, 60, 120, and 360 min were used, each at two dose levels. Data analysis was performed by a direct method based on the alpha/beta model and first-order repair kinetics of radiation damage. In both experiments, the alpha/beta value of EF8 spheroids was estimated to be about 8 (6-10) Gy. The rate constant of repair, mu, and its 95% confidence interval were estimated to be 0.62 (0.40-0.84) 10(-2) min-1, equivalent to a half-time of repair (T1/2) of 112 (83-172) min. A more detailed analysis of the data of the second experiment revealed a significant dependence of the rate constant of repair, mu, on the total radiation effect induced by the fractionated radiation treatments with short overall times. With increasing level of effect, mu decreased. These data indicate that the half-time of recovery of a human tumor can be longer than that of the surrounding normal tissue, in this case lung, at least for a limited range of doses and for some fractionation schedules.

  9. MicroRNAs and Growth Factors: An Alliance Propelling Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kedmi, Merav; Sas-Chen, Aldema; Yarden, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression requires cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and attraction of blood and lymph vessels. These processes are tightly regulated by growth factors and their intracellular signaling pathways, which culminate in transcriptional programs. Hence, oncogenic mutations often capture growth factor signaling, and drugs able to intercept the underlying biochemical routes might retard cancer spread. Along with messenger RNAs, microRNAs play regulatory roles in growth factor signaling and in tumor progression. Because growth factors regulate abundance of certain microRNAs and the latter modulate the abundance of proteins necessary for growth factor signaling, the two classes of molecules form a dense web of interactions, which are dominated by a few recurring modules. We review specific examples of the alliance formed by growth factors and microRNAs and refer primarily to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. Clinical applications of the crosstalk between microRNAs and growth factors are described, including relevance to cancer therapy and to emergence of resistance to specific drugs. PMID:26287249

  10. Presence of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins Correlates With Tumor-Promoting Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in Breast Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hyun; Rasch, Morten Grønbech; Qiu, Jing; Lund, Ida Katrine; Egeblad, Mikala

    2015-01-01

    The stroma of breast cancer can promote the disease’s progression, but whether its composition and functions are shared among different subtypes is poorly explored. We compared stromal components of a luminal [mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)–Neu] and a triple-negative/basal-like [C3(1)–Simian virus 40 large T antigen (Tag)] genetically engineered breast cancer mouse model. The types of cytokines and their expression levels were very different in the two models, as was the extent of innate immune cell infiltration; however, both models showed infiltration of innate immune cells that expressed matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), an extracellular protease linked to the progression of many types of cancer. By intercrossing with Mmp9 null mice, we found that the absence of MMP9 delayed tumor onset in the C3(1)-Tag model but had no effect on tumor onset in the MMTV-Neu model. We discovered that protein levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), an MMP9 substrate, were increased in C3(1)-Tag;Mmp9?/? compared to C3(1)-Tag;Mmp9+/+ tumors. In contrast, IGFBP-1 protein expression was low in MMTV-Neu tumors regardless of Mmp9 status. IGFBP-1 binds and antagonizes IGFs, preventing them from activating their receptors to promote cell proliferation and survival. Tumors from C3(1)-Tag;Mmp9?/? mice had reduced IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation, consistent with slower tumor onset. Finally, gene expression analysis of human breast tumors showed that high expression of IGFBP mRNA was strongly correlated with good prognosis but not when MMP9 mRNA was also highly expressed. In conclusion, MMP9 has different effects on breast cancer progression depending on whether IGFBPs are expressed. PMID:26025665

  11. The B subunit of Escherichia coli enterotoxin helps control the in vivo growth of solid tumors expressing the Epstein–Barr virus latent membrane protein 2A

    PubMed Central

    Ondondo, Beatrice; Faulkner, Lee; Williams, Neil A; Morgan, Andrew J; Morgan, David J

    2015-01-01

    Latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) is expressed on almost all Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated tumors and is a potential target for immunotherapeutic intervention and vaccination. However, LMP2A is not efficiently processed and presented on major histocompatibility antigens class I molecules to generate potent cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) responses capable of killing these tumors. The B subunit of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (EtxB), causes rapid internalization and processing of membrane-bound LMP2A on EBV-infected B cells, and facilitates loading of processed-LMP2A peptides onto MHC class I. This re-directed trafficking/delivery of LMP2A to the MHC class I machinery enhances recognition and killing by LMP2A-specific CTL in vitro. To test the potential of EtxB to enhance immune targeting of LMP2A expressed in solid tumors, we generated a murine tumor model (Renca-LMP2A), in which LMP2A is expressed as a transgenic neoantigen on a renal carcinoma (Renca) cell line and forms solid tumors when injected subcutaneously into BALB/c mice. The data show that in BALB/c mice which have only low levels of peripheral Kd-LMP2A-specific CD8+ T cells, merely a transient inhibition of tumor growth is achieved compared with naïve mice; suggesting that there is suboptimal LMP2A-specifc CTL recognition and poorly targeted tumor killing. However, importantly, treatment of these mice with EtxB led to a significant delay in the onset of tumor growth and significantly lower tumor volumes compared with similar mice that did not receive EtxB. Moreover, this remarkable effect of EtxB was achieved despite progressive reduction in tumor expression of LMP2A and MHC class I molecules. These data clearly demonstrate the potential efficacy of EtxB as a novel therapeutic agent that could render EBV-associated tumors susceptible to immune control. PMID:25641882

  12. A Cahn-Hilliard model of vascularized tumor growth in a complex evolving confinement using a diffuse domain approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Yao-Li; Cristini, Vittorio; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiangrong; Frieboes, Hermann; Lowengrub, John

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal evolution of tumor growth is essential for developing effective strategies to treat cancers. Various studies have suggested that spatial heterogeneity during tumors growth is a key factor associated with subsequent tumor invasion and the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Spatial heterogeneity may arise due to morphological instability of the tumors and the complex tissue structure surrounding the tumors. In previous works, we have used a Cahn-Hilliard tumor growth model to study the morphological instability for tumors in non-resisting tissues. However, most tumors are surrounded by complex tissue structures and confined in the capsules of some organs or between certain basement membranes. The capsules and basement membranes may be distorted by interacting with the evolving tumors, affecting the morphological instability. Here we adopt a novel diffuse domain approach to adapt our previous Cahn-Hilliard model for tumor growth in such complex evolving environments. As an example, we apply the model to simulate the evolution of lymphoma in a lymph node, incorporating also the tumor-induced angiogenesis.

  13. Growth response of B16 melanoma to in vivo treatment with 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) at the initial stage after tumor transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Li, X. H.; Paulus, G.; Atassi, G.; Buyssens, N.

    1984-01-01

    The changes of implanted B16 melanoma fragments in situ following early treatment with 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) were studied by quantitative histopathologic methods from Day 1 to Day 7 and at Day 14 after transplantation. During the first 3-day period there were no apparent differences between the two groups in all the parameters studied. The most striking differences were observed on Day 5 after implantation, when the drug-treated tumor showed the lowest number of morphologically intact tumor cells and the lowest level of proliferative capacity, with a high proportion of melanotic cells. The late infiltration of host macrophages was more abundant in drug-treated tumors than in controls due to an enhanced production and liberation of melanin granules. The results suggest that a 7-day growth delay of drug-treated tumors is characterized not only by a reduced number (one order of magnitude) of intact tumor cells but also by a severely suppressed proliferative capacity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:6731586

  14. Insulin like growth factor binding protein-7 reduces growth of human breast cancer cells and xenografted tumors.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Y; Yang, W; Benatar, T; Nofech-Mozes, S; Yee, A; Kahn, H; Holloway, C; Seth, Arun

    2011-04-01

    Previously, we have shown that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP-7) expression is inversely correlated with disease progression in breast cancer and is associated with poor outcome. To further investigate the role of IGFBP-7 in the growth and metastatic behavior of breast cancer, primary breast tumors and metastatic tumors derived from the same patients were analyzed for IGFBP-7 expression. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that IGFBP-7 is downregulated in half of the human metastatic breast tumors tested. IGFBP-7 has been linked to suppression of oncogenic pathways and can directly restore cellular senescence in melanomas, leading to their regression. It is possible that breast tumors with metastatic potential have escaped from IGFBP-7-induced suppression by its down-regulation. Twenty-two human primary breast tumor specimens were transplanted into human-bone NOD/SCID mice. One of the two triple negative primary breast tumors was serially xenotransplanted more than five times. Each serial transplant resulted in increased tumor take and rate of growth. Expression of IGFBP-7 was downregulated upon each serial implantation. To investigate the role of IGFBP-7 in breast tumor suppression, IGFBP-7 was overexpressed in the triple negative MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer line by stable transfection of a pSec-tag2-IGFBP-7 vector. The parental MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells expressed extremely low levels of endogenous IGFBP-7. The production of IGFBP-7 protein by the MDA-MB-468 cells stably transfected with IGFBP-7 was confirmed by immunoblotting with anti-IGFBP-7 antibody. Ectopic overexpression of IGFBP-7 significantly reduced the growth of the IGFBP-7 transfected MDA-MB-468 cells compared to the parental MDA-MB-468 cells. We also assessed the role of IGFBP-7 on cell migration, a key determinant of malignant progression and metastasis. When parental MDA-MB-468 cells were treated with various amounts of conditioned medium derived from the IGFBP-7 overexpressing cell line, a significant difference in cell migration rate was observed between untreated and treated cells. IGFBP-7 strongly suppressed the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK-1/2, suggesting that IGFBP-7 mediates its anti-proliferative effects through negative feedback signaling. Levels of phospho-ERK-1/2 were higher in the parental MDA-MB-468 than in IGFBP-7-expressing cells derived from it. When injected subcutaneously into NOD/SCID mice, the increased expression of IGFBP-7 in the MDA-MB-468 transfected cells reduced the rate of tumor growth in comparison to the parental MDA-MB-468 controls. These results suggest that the growth of breast cancer could be prevented by the forced expression of IGFBP-7 protein. PMID:20464481

  15. Pre-existing Fas ligand (FasL) in cancer cells elicits tumor-specific protective immunity, but delayed induction of FasL expression after inoculation facilitates tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hsiao-Ying; Sun, Guang-Huan; Chen, Shiow-Yi; Wang, Hsiao-Hsien; Ho, Ming-Yi; Chu, Chia-Yi; Wu, Wan-Lin; Jhou, Ren-Shiang; Tsai, Yi-Lin; Huang, Rui-Ting; Sun, Kuang-Hui; Tang, Shye-Jye

    2013-09-01

    Overexpression of Fas ligand (FasL) in cancer cells elicits potential antitumor effects via recruitment of neutrophils. Conversely, FasL-expressing tumors may counterattack tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by delivering apoptotic death signals via Fas/FasL interactions, which may lead to tumor escape. In order to distinguish the role of FasL in antitumor activity and tumor progression, Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC-1) were used to establish the cell line LLC-FasL, in which FasL expression was repressed by doxycycline (Dox) treatment and induced in the absence of Dox. LLC-FasL cells promote tumor regression when expressing FasL, whereas tumor outgrowth is observed by depletion of FasL expression. To investigate whether initial expression of FasL during tumor formation is critical for FasL-mediated tumor regression, Dox-treated LLC-FasL cells were inoculated into Dox-treated mice, but Dox treatment was stopped 5 days after inoculation. When low cell numbers were inoculated, we observed 80% survival and no tumor formation, whereas no mice survived inoculation with high cell numbers, despite the delayed induction of FasL by Dox withdrawal. The inoculation of a high density of cells may establish a favorable tumor microenvironment before the expression of FasL. Our findings demonstrate that FasL may elicit antitumor activity when it is initially present on injected cancer cells and thus can act prior to tumor microenvironment formation. Furthermore, a well-established tumor microenvironment abrogates FasL-mediated antitumor activity. PMID:22488710

  16. A two-clones tumor model: Spontaneous growth and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Stura, Ilaria; Venturino, Ezio; Guiot, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at providing a general theoretical frame bridging the macroscopic growth law with the complex heterogeneous structure of real tumors. We apply the "Phenomenological Universality" approach to model the growth of cancer cells accounting for "populations", which are defined not as biologically pre-defined cellular ensemble but as groups of cells behaving homogeneously with respect to their position (e.g. primary or metastatic tumor), growth characteristics, response to treatment, etc. Populations may mutually interact, limit each other their growth or even mutate into another population. To keep the description as simple and manageable as possible only two populations are considered, but the extension to a multiplicity of cell populations is straightforward. Our findings indicate that the eradication of the metastatic population is much more critical in the presence of mutations, either spontaneous or therapy-induced. Furthermore, a treatment that eradicates only the primary tumor, having a low kill rate on the metastases, is ultimately not successful but promotes a "growth spurt" in the latter. PMID:26524141

  17. Characterizing inhibited tumor growth in stem-cell-driven non-spatial cancers.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Brenes, Ignacio A; Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L

    2015-12-01

    Healthy human tissue is highly regulated to maintain homeostasis. Secreted negative feedback factors that inhibit stem cell division and stem cell self-renewal play a fundamental role in establishing this control. The appearance of abnormal cancerous growth requires an escape from these regulatory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that for non-solid tumors if feedback inhibition on stem cell self-renewal is lost, but the feedback on the division rate is still intact, then the tumor dynamics are characterized by a relatively slow sub-exponential growth that we called inhibited growth. Here we characterize the cell dynamics of inhibited cancer growth by modeling feedback inhibition using Hill equations. We find asymptotic approximations for the growth rates of the stem cell and differentiated cell populations in terms of the strength of the inhibitory signal: stem cells grow as a power law t(1/k+1),and the differentiated cells grow as t(1/k), where k is the Hill coefficient in the feedback law regulating cell divisions. It follows that as the tumor grows, undifferentiated cells take up an increasingly large fraction of the population. Implications of these results for specific cancers including CML are discussed. Understanding how the regulatory mechanisms that continue to operate in cancer affect the rate of disease progression can provide important insights relevant to chronic or other slow progressing types of cancer. PMID:26344137

  18. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Stimulate Tumor Growth through Stabilization of ?-Catenin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeonwoo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Kollipara, Rahul K; Kapur, Payal; Pedrosa, Ivan; Brugarolas, James; Kittler, Ralf; Ye, Jin

    2015-10-20

    Some cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of free fatty acids (FAs) as well as high levels of ?-catenin, a transcriptional co-activator that promotes their growth. Here, we link these two phenomena by showing that unsaturated FAs inhibit degradation of ?-catenin. Unsaturated FAs bind to the UAS domain of Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1), a protein known to bind ?-catenin, accelerating its degradation. FA binding disrupts the FAF1/?-catenin complex, preventing proteasomal degradation of ubiquitinated ?-catenin. This mechanism for stabilization of ?-catenin differs from that of Wnt signaling, which blocks ubiquitination of ?-catenin. In clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells, unsaturated FAs stimulated cell proliferation through stabilization of ?-catenin. In tissues from biopsies of human ccRCC, elevated levels of unsaturated FAs correlated with increased levels of ?-catenin. Thus, targeting FAF1 may be an effective approach to treat cancers that exhibit elevated FAs and ?-catenin. PMID:26456834

  19. Causes, consequences, and remedies for growth-induced solid stress in murine and human tumors

    PubMed Central

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Martin, John D.; Chauhan, Vikash P.; Diop-Frimpong, Benjamin; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Smith, Barbara L.; Ferrone, Cristina R.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Boucher, Yves; Munn, Lance L.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of growth-induced solid stresses in tumors has been suspected for some time, but these stresses were largely estimated using mathematical models. Solid stresses can deform the surrounding tissues and compress intratumoral lymphatic and blood vessels. Compression of lymphatic vessels elevates interstitial fluid pressure, whereas compression of blood vessels reduces blood flow. Reduced blood flow, in turn, leads to hypoxia, which promotes tumor progression, immunosuppression, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis and lowers the efficacy of chemo-, radio-, and immunotherapies. Thus, strategies designed to alleviate solid stress have the potential to improve cancer treatment. However, a lack of methods for measuring solid stress has hindered the development of solid stress-alleviating drugs. Here, we present a simple technique to estimate the growth-induced solid stress accumulated within animal and human tumors, and we show that this stress can be reduced by depleting cancer cells, fibroblasts, collagen, and/or hyaluronan, resulting in improved tumor perfusion. Furthermore, we show that therapeutic depletion of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts with an inhibitor of the sonic hedgehog pathway reduces solid stress, decompresses blood and lymphatic vessels, and increases perfusion. In addition to providing insights into the mechanopathology of tumors, our approach can serve as a rapid screen for stress-reducing and perfusion-enhancing drugs. PMID:22932871

  20. Luteolin inhibits the Nrf2 signaling pathway and tumor growth in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chian, Song; Thapa, Ruby; Chi, Zhexu; Wang, Xiu Jun; Tang, Xiuwen

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Luteolin inhibits the Nrf2 pathway in mouse liver and in xenografted tumors. • Luteolin markedly inhibits the growth of xenograft tumors. • Luteolin enhances the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin in mice in vivo. • Luteolin could serve as an adjuvant in the chemotherapy of NSCLC. - Abstract: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is over-expressed in many types of tumor, promotes tumor growth, and confers resistance to anticancer therapy. Hence, Nrf2 is regarded as a novel therapeutic target in cancer. Previously, we reported that luteolin is a strong inhibitor of Nrf2 in vitro. Here, we showed that luteolin reduced the constitutive expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 in mouse liver in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further, luteolin inhibited the expression of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione transferases, decreasing the reduced glutathione in the liver of wild-type mice under both constitutive and butylated hydroxyanisole-induced conditions. In contrast, such distinct responses were not detected in Nrf2{sup ?/?} mice. In addition, oral administration of luteolin, either alone or combined with intraperitoneal injection of the cytotoxic drug cisplatin, greatly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line A549 cells grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. Cell proliferation, the expression of Nrf2, and antioxidant enzymes were all reduced in tumor xenograft tissues. Furthermore, luteolin enhanced the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin. Together, our findings demonstrated that luteolin inhibits the Nrf2 pathway in vivo and can serve as an adjuvant in the chemotherapy of NSCLC.

  1. Effects of Zeng Sheng Ping/ACAPHA on Malignant Brain Tumor Growth and Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kah Jing; Rajan, KDA; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Zeng Sheng Ping (ZSP) is a traditional herbal remedy used to prevent progression and growth of neoplastic lesions. It has been shown to inhibit Notch2 expression in a murine lung cancer model, leading us to investigate its therapeutic potential in Notch-dependent brain tumors. Materials and Methods 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), apoptosis, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses were performed in glioma and medulloblastoma cell lines, and morphological analyses in DAOY flank xenografts. Results ZSP inhibited brain tumor growth in vitro, in part by apoptotic induction. Down-regulation of the Notch2 receptor, the pathway target Hairy/Enhancer of Split homolog 1 (Hes1), and the stem cell markers Nestin and CD133 was also observed. Reductions in tumor mass and increases in the necrotic fraction of DAOY xenografts in mice treated with oral ZSP were also observed, but these were not significant. Conclusion ZSP can block brain tumor growth and the expression of Notch pathway members and stem cell markers in vitro. PMID:22753727

  2. Rapamycin Suppresses Tumor Growth and Alters the Metabolic Phenotype in T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kittipongdaja, Wasakorn; Wu, Xuesong; Garner, Justine; Liu, Xiping; Komas, Steven M; Hwang, Sam T; Schieke, Stefan M

    2015-09-01

    The mTOR pathway is a master regulator of cellular growth and metabolism. The biosynthetic and energetic demand of rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells is met by metabolic adaptations such as an increased glycolytic rate known as the Warburg effect. Herein, we characterize the anti-tumor effect of rapamycin in a mouse model of T-cell lymphoma and examine the metabolic effects in vitro. The murine T-cell lymphoma line, MBL2, and human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) lines, HH and Hut78, were used in syngeneic or standard NSG mouse models to demonstrate a marked suppression of tumor growth by rapamycin accompanied by inhibition of mTORC1/2. Analysis of the metabolic phenotype showed a substantial reduction in the glycolytic rate and glucose utilization in rapamycin-treated lymphoma cells. This was associated with reduced expression of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes in cultured cells and xenograft tumors. As a result of the decrease in glycolytic state, rapamycin-treated cells displayed reduced sensitivity to low-glucose conditions but continued to rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) with sensitivity to inhibition of OXPHOS. Taken together, we demonstrate that rapamycin suppresses growth of T-cell lymphoma tumors and leads to a reduction in aerobic glycolysis counteracting the Warburg effect of cancer cells. PMID:25897830

  3. Conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) inhibits transplanted tumor growth via membrane lipid peroxidation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Igarashi, Miki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-05-01

    Both conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have an antitumor effect. Hence, we hypothesized that a combination of conjugated double bonds and an (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acid would produce stronger bioactivity. To verify the antitumor effect of conjugated EPA (CEPA), we transplanted DLD-1 human colon tumor cells into nude mice, and compared the tumor growth between CEPA-fed mice and CLA- and EPA-fed mice. After tumor cell inoculation, mice were assigned to 1 of 4 groups (control, CLA, EPA, and CEPA) consisting of 10 mice each. The control group received only safflower oil fatty acids, whereas the remaining groups received a mixture of safflower oil fatty acids and 20 g/100 g of total fatty acids as CLA, EPA, or CEPA. Mice were fed once every 2 d for 4 wk at a dose of 50 mg/mouse at each feeding. After 4 wk, tumor growth in CEPA-fed mice was significantly suppressed, compared with that in CLA- (P < 0.005) and EPA-fed mice (P < 0.001). DNA fragmentation in the tumor tissues of the CEPA-fed mice occurred more frequently than in the CLA- (P < 0.001) and EPA-fed mice (P < 0.001), suggesting that CEPA induced apoptosis in the tumor tissues. To further investigate the mechanism, the level of oxidative stress in the tumor tissues was determined. The CEPA-fed mice showed significant lipid peroxidation, compared with the CLA- (P < 0.001) and EPA-fed mice (P < 0.001). Therefore, we verified that CEPA has a stronger in vivo antitumor effect than EPA and CLA, and that CEPA acts through induction of apoptosis via lipid peroxidation. PMID:15113964

  4. Growth hormone therapy and risk of recurrence/progression in intracranial tumors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Sun, Chun Ming; Li, Xue Tao; Liu, Chuan Jin; Zhou, You Xin

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone deficiency is common in intracranial tumors, which is usually treated with surgery and radiotherapy. A number of previous studies have investigated the relationship between the growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) and risk of tumor recurrence/progression; however, the evidence remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to estimate the potential relation between GHRT and intracranial tumors recurrence/progression. Three comprehensive databases, PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, were researched with no limitations, covering all published studies till the end of July, 2014. Reference lists from identified studies were also screened for additional database. The summary relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by fixed-effects models for estimation. Fifteen eligible studies, involving more than 2232 cases and 3606 controls, were included in our meta-analysis. The results indicated that intracranial tumors recurrence/progression was not associated with GHRT (RR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.39-0.56), and for children, the pooled RR was 0.44 and 95 % CI was 0.34-0.54. In subgroup analysis, risks of recurrence/progression were decreased for craniopharyngioma, medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, glioma, but not for pituitary adenomas, and non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), ependymoma. Results from our analysis indicate that GHRT decreases the risk of recurrence/progression in children with intracranial tumors, craniopharyngioma, medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, or glioma. However, GHRT for pituitary adenomas, NFPA, and ependymoma was not associated with the recurrence/progression of the tumors. GH replacement seems safe from the aspect of risk of tumor progression. PMID:26048536

  5. Toxicarioside A Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis: Involvement of TGF-?/Endoglin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Guang-hong; Dai, Hao-fu; Guo, Jun-li; Wang, Hua; Huang, Yong-hao; Zhao, Huan-ge; Zhou, Song-lin; Lin, Ying-ying

    2012-01-01

    Toxicarioside A is a cardenolide isolated mainly from plants and animals. Emerging evidence demonstrate that cardenolides not only have cardiac effects but also anticancer effects. In this study, we used in vivo models to investigate the antitumor activities of toxicarioside A and the potential mechanisms behind them. Murine colorectal carcinoma (CT26) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/2) models were established in syngeneic BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, respectively. We found that the optimum effective dose of toxicarioside A treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis in CT and LL/2 tumor models in vivo. Northern and Western blot analysis showed significant inhibition of endoglin expression in toxicarioside A-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and tumor tissues in vivo. Toxicarioside A treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, but did not cause significant cell apoptosis and affected other membrane protein (such as CD31 and MHC I) expression. In addition, TGF-? expression was also significantly inhibited in CT26 and LL/2 tumor cells treated with toxicarioside A. Western blot analysis indicated that Smad1 and phosphorylated Smad1 but not Smad2/3 and phosphorylated Smad2/3 were attenuated in HUVECs treated with toxicarioside A. Smad1 and Smad2/3 signaling remained unchanged in CT26 and LL/2 tumor cells treated with toxicarioside A. Endoglin knockout by small interfering RNA against endoglin induced alternations in Smad1 and Smad2/3 signaling in HUVECs. Our results indicate that toxicarioside A suppresses tumor growth through inhibition of endoglin-related tumor angiogenesis, which involves in the endoglin/TGF-? signal pathway. PMID:23209720

  6. An important role of the hepcidin-ferroportin signaling in affecting tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenli; Zhang, Shuping; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Daoqiang; Yuan, Lin; Cong, Haibo; Liu, Sijin

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that deregulated hepcidin-ferroportin (FPN) signaling is associated with the increased risk of cancers. However, the effects of deregulated hepcidin-FPN signaling on tumor behaviors such as metastasis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) have not been closely investigated. In this study, LL/2 cancer cells were found to exhibit an impaired propensity to home into lungs, and a reduced ability to develop tumors was also demonstrated in lungs of Hamp1(-/-) mice. Moreover, hepatic hepcidin deficiency was found to considerably favor tumor-free survival in Hamp1(-/-) mice, compared with wild-type mice. These data thus underscored a contributive role of hepatic hepcidin in promoting lung cancer cell homing and fostering tumor progression. To explore the role of FPN in regulating tumor progression, we genetically engineered 4T1 cells with FPN over-expression upon induction by doxycycline. With this cell line, it was discovered that increased FPN expression reduced cell division and colony formation in vitro, without eliciting significant cell death. Analogously, FPN over-expression impeded tumor growth and metastasis to lung and liver in mice. At the molecular level, FPN over-expression was identified to undermine DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. Importantly, FPN over-expression inhibited EMT, as reflected by the significant decrease of representative EMT markers, such as Snail1, Twist1, ZEB2, and vimentin. Additionally, there was also a reduction of lactate production in cells upon induction of FPN over-expression. Together, our results highlighted a crucial role of the hepcidin-FPN signaling in modulating tumor growth and metastasis, providing new evidence to understand the contribution of this signaling in cancers. PMID:26201356

  7. Over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor-D promotes tumor growth and invasion in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Haifeng; Hu, Weixu; Li, Shaoru; Yu, Jinjin

    2014-01-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D) was demonstrated to be able to promote tumor growth and invasion in human malignancies. However, little is known about its roles in endometrial cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression and functions of PDGF-D in human endometrial cancer. Alterations of PDGF-D mRNA and protein were determined by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Up-regulation of PDGF-D was achieved by stably transfecting the pcDNA3-PDGF-D plasmids into ECC-1 cells; and knockdown of PDGF-D was achieved by transient transfection with siRNA-PDGF-D into Ishikawa cells. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the effects of PDGF-D on cellular proliferation and invasion. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of PDGF-D in vivo. Compared to normal endometrium, more than 50% cancer samples showed over-expression of PDGF-D (p < 0.001), and high level of PDGF-D was correlated with late stage (p = 0.003), deep myometrium invasion (p < 0.001) and lympha vascular space invasion (p = 0.006). In vitro, over-expressing PDGF-D in ECC-1 cells significantly accelerated tumor growth and promoted cellular invasion by increasing the level of MMP2 and MMP9; while silencing PDGF-D in Ishikawa cells impaired cell proliferation and inhibited the invasion, through suppressing the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-expressed PDGF-D could induce EMT and knockdown of PDGF-D blocked the EMT transition. Consistently, in xenografts assay, PDGF-D over-expression significantly promoted tumor growth and tumor weights. We demonstrated that PDGF-D was commonly over-expressed in endometrial cancer, which was associated with late stage deep myometrium invasion and lympha vascular space invasion. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed PDGF-D could promote tumor growth and invasion through up-regulating MMP2/9 and inducing EMT. Thus, we propose targeting PDGF-D to be a potent strategy for endometrial cancer treatment. PMID:24646915

  8. Targeted Resequencing of the Pericentromere of Chromosome 2 Linked to Constitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Cousminer, Diana L.; Leinonen, Jaakko T.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Chheda, Himanshu; Surakka, Ida; Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Ellonen, Pekka; Ripatti, Samuli; Dunkel, Leo; Palotie, Aarno; Widén, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is the most common cause of pubertal delay. CDGP is defined as the proportion of the normal population who experience pubertal onset at least 2 SD later than the population mean, representing 2.3% of all adolescents. While adolescents with CDGP spontaneously enter puberty, they are at risk for short stature, decreased bone mineral density, and psychosocial problems. Genetic factors contribute heavily to the timing of puberty, but the vast majority of CDGP cases remain biologically unexplained, and there is no definitive test to distinguish CDGP from pathological absence of puberty during adolescence. Recently, we published a study identifying significant linkage between a locus at the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2 (chr 2) and CDGP in Finnish families. To investigate this region for causal variation, we sequenced chr 2 between the genomic coordinates of 79–124 Mb (genome build GRCh37) in the proband and affected parent of the 13 families contributing most to this linkage signal. One gene, DNAH6, harbored 6 protein-altering low-frequency variants (< 6% in the Finnish population) in 10 of the CDGP probands. We sequenced an additional 135 unrelated Finnish CDGP subjects and utilized the unique Sequencing Initiative Suomi (SISu) population reference exome set to show that while 5 of these variants were present in the CDGP set, they were also present in the Finnish population at similar frequencies. Additional variants in the targeted region could not be prioritized for follow-up, possibly due to gaps in sequencing coverage or lack of functional knowledge of non-genic genomic regions. Thus, despite having a well-characterized sample collection from a genetically homogeneous population with a large population-based reference sequence dataset, we were unable to pinpoint variation in the linked region predisposing delayed puberty. This study highlights the difficulties of detecting genetic variants under linkage regions for complex traits and suggests that advancements in annotation of gene function and regulatory regions of the genome will be critical for solving the genetic background of complex phenotypes like CDGP. PMID:26030606

  9. Chronic Dietary Administration of the Glycolytic Inhibitor 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG) Inhibits the Growth of Implanted Ehrlich’s Ascites Tumor in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Saurabh; Pandey, Sanjay; Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Chaudhary, Richa; Bhuria, Vikas; Kalra, Namita; Soni, Ravi; Roy, Bal Gangadhar; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary energy restriction (DER) has been well established as a potent anticancer strategy. Non-adoption of restricted diet for an extended period has limited its practical implementation in humans with a compelling need to develop agents that mimic effects similar to DER, without reduction in actual dietary intake. Glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), has recently been shown to possess potential as an energy restriction mimetic agent (ERMA). In the present study we evaluated the effect of dietary 2-DG administration on a mouse tumor model, with a focus on several potential mechanisms that may account for the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Swiss albino strain ‘A’ mice were administered with 0.2% and 0.4% w/v 2-DG in drinking water for 3 months prior to tumor implantation (Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma; EAC) and continued till the termination of the study with no adverse effects on general physiology and animal growth. Dietary 2-DG significantly reduced the tumor incidence, delayed the onset, and compromised the tumor growth along with enhanced survival. We observed reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels along with decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine positive (BrdU+) tumor cells in 2-DG fed mice. Also, reduced levels of certain key players of metabolic pathways such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated-Akt and hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) were also noted in tumors of 2-DG fed mice. Further, decrease in CD4+/CD8+ ratio and T-regulatory cells observed in 2-DG fed mice suggested enhanced antitumor immunity and T cell effector function. Conclusion/Significance These results strongly suggest that dietary 2-DG administration in mice, at doses easily achievable in humans, suitably modulates several pleotrophic factors mimicking DER and inhibits tumorigenesis, emphasizing the use of ERMAs as a promising cancer preventive strategy. PMID:26135741

  10. Paracrine activation of WNT/?-catenin pathway in uterine leiomyoma stem cells promotes tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Masanori; Yin, Ping; Navarro, Antonia; Moravek, Molly B.; Coon, John S.; Druschitz, Stacy A.; Serna, Vanida Ann; Qiang, Wenan; Brooks, David C.; Malpani, Saurabh S.; Ma, Jiajia; Ercan, Cihangir Mutlu; Mittal, Navdha; Monsivais, Diana; Dyson, Matthew T.; Yemelyanov, Alex; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Kim, J. Julie; Kurita, Takeshi; Gottardi, Cara J.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are extremely common estrogen and progesterone-dependent tumors of the myometrium and cause irregular uterine bleeding, severe anemia, and recurrent pregnancy loss in 15–30% of reproductive-age women. Each leiomyoma is thought to arise from a single mutated myometrial smooth muscle stem cell. Leiomyoma side-population (LMSP) cells comprising 1% of all tumor cells and displaying tumor-initiating stem cell characteristics are essential for estrogen- and progesterone-dependent in vivo growth of tumors, although they have remarkably lower estrogen/progesterone receptor levels than mature myometrial or leiomyoma cells. However, how estrogen/progesterone regulates the growth of LMSP cells via mature neighboring cells is unknown. Here, we demonstrate a critical paracrine role of the wingless-type (WNT)/?-catenin pathway in estrogen/progesterone-dependent tumorigenesis, involving LMSP and differentiated myometrial or leiomyoma cells. Estrogen/progesterone treatment of mature myometrial cells induced expression of WNT11 and WNT16, which remained constitutively elevated in leiomyoma tissues. In LMSP cells cocultured with mature myometrial cells, estrogen-progesterone selectively induced nuclear translocation of ?-catenin and induced transcriptional activity of its heterodimeric partner T-cell factor and their target gene AXIN2, leading to the proliferation of LMSP cells. This effect could be blocked by a WNT antagonist. Ectopic expression of inhibitor of ?-catenin and T-cell factor 4 in LMSP cells, but not in mature leiomyoma cells, blocked the estrogen/progesterone-dependent growth of human tumors in vivo. We uncovered a paracrine role of the WNT/?-catenin pathway that enables mature myometrial or leiomyoma cells to send mitogenic signals to neighboring tissue stem cells in response to estrogen and progesterone, leading to the growth of uterine leiomyomas. PMID:24082114

  11. Classical Mathematical Models for Description and Prediction of Experimental Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Benzekry, Sébastien; Lamont, Clare; Beheshti, Afshin; Tracz, Amanda; Ebos, John M. L.; Hlatky, Lynn; Hahnfeldt, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Despite internal complexity, tumor growth kinetics follow relatively simple laws that can be expressed as mathematical models. To explore this further, quantitative analysis of the most classical of these were performed. The models were assessed against data from two in vivo experimental systems: an ectopic syngeneic tumor (Lewis lung carcinoma) and an orthotopically xenografted human breast carcinoma. The goals were threefold: 1) to determine a statistical model for description of the measurement error, 2) to establish the descriptive power of each model, using several goodness-of-fit metrics and a study of parametric identifiability, and 3) to assess the models' ability to forecast future tumor growth. The models included in the study comprised the exponential, exponential-linear, power law, Gompertz, logistic, generalized logistic, von Bertalanffy and a model with dynamic carrying capacity. For the breast data, the dynamics were best captured by the Gompertz and exponential-linear models. The latter also exhibited the highest predictive power, with excellent prediction scores (?80%) extending out as far as 12 days in the future. For the lung data, the Gompertz and power law models provided the most parsimonious and parametrically identifiable description. However, not one of the models was able to achieve a substantial prediction rate (?70%) beyond the next day data point. In this context, adjunction of a priori information on the parameter distribution led to considerable improvement. For instance, forecast success rates went from 14.9% to 62.7% when using the power law model to predict the full future tumor growth curves, using just three data points. These results not only have important implications for biological theories of tumor growth and the use of mathematical modeling in preclinical anti-cancer drug investigations, but also may assist in defining how mathematical models could serve as potential prognostic tools in the clinic. PMID:25167199

  12. Stromal interactions as regulators of tumor growth and therapeutic response: A potential target for photodynamic therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Celli, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    It has become increasingly widely recognized that the stroma plays several vital roles in tumor growth and development and that tumor-stroma interactions can in many cases account poor therapeutic response. Inspired by an emerging body of literature, we consider the potential role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for targeting interactions with stromal fibroblasts and mechano-sensitive signaling with the extracellular matrix as a means to drive tumors toward a more therapeutically responsive state and synergize with other treatments. This concept is particularly relevant for cancer of the pancreas, which is characterized by tumors with a profoundly dense, rigid fibrous stroma. Here we introduce new in vitro systems to model interactions between pancreatic tumors and their mechanical microenvironment and restore signaling with stromal fibroblasts. Using one such model as a test bed it is shown here that PDT treatment is able to destroy fibroblasts in an in vitro 3D pancreatic tumor-fibroblast co-culture. These results and the literature suggest the further development of PDT as a potential modality for stromal depletion. PMID:23457416

  13. Multi-targeted inhibition of tumor growth and lung metastasis by redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles loading disulfiram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaopin; Xiao, Jisheng; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Yu, Haijun; Mao, Shirui; Li, Yaping

    2014-03-01

    Metastasis, the main cause of cancer related deaths, remains the greatest challenge in cancer treatment. Disulfiram (DSF), which has multi-targeted anti-tumor activity, was encapsulated into redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles to achieve intracellular targeted delivery and finally inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The crosslinked micelles demonstrated good stability in circulation and specifically released DSF under a reductive environment that mimicked the intracellular conditions of tumor cells. As a result, the DSF-loaded redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles (DCMs) dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and suppressed cell invasion, as well as impairing tube formation of HMEC-1 cells. In addition, the DCMs could accumulate in tumor tissue and stay there for a long time, thereby causing significant inhibition of 4T1 tumor growth and marked prevention in lung metastasis of 4T1 tumors. These results suggested that DCMs could be a promising delivery system in inhibiting the growth and metastasis of breast cancer.

  14. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing; Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ? CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ? The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have been studied in vitro and in vivo. ? CYP4Z1 regulates expression and production of VEGF-A and TIMP-2. ? CYP4Z1-induced angiogenesis is associated with PI3K and ERK1/2 activation. ? CYP4Z1 may be an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.

  15. Inhibition of tumor growth by replacing glutathione with N-acetyl-L-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Deniz

    2004-01-01

    There have been several attempts to prevent the tumor growth and the resulting death. However, almost none of the developed methods designed to inhibit tumor growth gives a satisfactorily result without deleterious side effects. Some of the existing methods employed on prevention of tumor growth and invasion target the metabolic differences between normal and tumor cells. The most pronounced metabolic differences between normal and tumor cells appear to be in the energy generating pathways. The energy generating pathways in normal cells are inter-regulated and the most developed pathway controls the activity of the least developed pathway. Cancer cells do not respond to these regulations and as a result energy generating pathways start to operate independently. Among the energy generating pathways, the least developed or the most primitive pathway is the non-phosphorylating glycolysis. The increased activity of this pathway has been suggested to provide the cells with sufficient mitotic activity. It has been suggested that in non-phosphorylating glycolysis, glucose is broken down to lactate in a manner that requires glutathione. Here, I hypothesize that manipulation of intracellular glutathione concentrations as protecting the cells form oxidative stress may efficiently inhibit tumor growth. Glutathione is a soluble antioxidant and its concentration is high in prenatal tissue and in cancer cells. Though its primary function seems to combat against oxidant injury and toxic xenobiotics, glutathione is implicated in many other different cellular processes including cell proliferation and DNA and RNA synthesis. Another function of glutathione relevant to the subject is its involvement in detoxification of methylglyoxal, a compound that is generated at high concentrations in rapidly proliferating cells possessing an inhibitory activity on cell proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of intracellular glutathione concentration may negatively impact the tumor cell growth by at least three ways. The first is through inhibition of non-phosphorylating glycolysis that provides mitotic energy for cells. The second is through the inhibition of methylglyoxal metabolism and the third is through the redox regulation of DNA and RNA synthesis. PMID:15193353

  16. Digital holographic microscopy for imaging growth and treatment response in 3D tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuyu; Petrovic, Ljubica; Celli, Jonathan P.; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.

    2014-03-01

    While three-dimensional tumor models have emerged as valuable tools in cancer research, the ability to longitudinally visualize the 3D tumor architecture restored by these systems is limited with microscopy techniques that provide only qualitative insight into sample depth, or which require terminal fixation for depth-resolved 3D imaging. Here we report the use of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a viable microscopy approach for quantitative, non-destructive longitudinal imaging of in vitro 3D tumor models. Following established methods we prepared 3D cultures of pancreatic cancer cells in overlay geometry on extracellular matrix beds and obtained digital holograms at multiple timepoints throughout the duration of growth. The holograms were digitally processed and the unwrapped phase images were obtained to quantify nodule thickness over time under normal growth, and in cultures subject to chemotherapy treatment. In this manner total nodule volumes are rapidly estimated and demonstrated here to show contrasting time dependent changes during growth and in response to treatment. This work suggests the utility of DHM to quantify changes in 3D structure over time and suggests the further development of this approach for time-lapse monitoring of 3D morphological changes during growth and in response to treatment that would otherwise be impractical to visualize.

  17. Ku80 cooperates with CBP to promote COX-2 expression and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Xuan, Yang; Jia, Yunlu; Hu, Wenxian; Yu, Wendan; Dai, Meng; Li, Zhenglin; Yi, Canhui; Zhao, Shilei; Li, Mei; Du, Sha; Cheng, Wei; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Chen, Yiming; Wu, Taihua; Meng, Songshu; Yuan, Yuhui; Liu, Quentin; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shusen; Deng, Wuguo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in lung cancer development and progression. Using streptavidin-agarose pulldown and proteomics assay, we identified and validated Ku80, a dimer of Ku participating in the repair of broken DNA double strands, as a new binding protein of the COX-2 gene promoter. Overexpression of Ku80 up-regulated COX-2 promoter activation and COX-2 expression in lung cancer cells. Silencing of Ku80 by siRNA down-regulated COX-2 expression and inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Ku80 knockdown suppressed phosphorylation of ERK, resulting in an inactivation of the MAPK pathway. Moreover, CBP, a transcription co-activator, interacted with and acetylated Ku80 to co-regulate the activation of COX-2 promoter. Overexpression of CBP increased Ku80 acetylation, thereby promoting COX-2 expression and cell growth. Suppression of CBP by a CBP-specific inhibitor or siRNA inhibited COX-2 expression as well as tumor cell growth. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis of lung adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between levels of Ku80 and COX-2 and clinicopathologic variables. Overexpression of Ku80 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancers. We conclude that Ku80 promotes COX-2 expression and tumor growth and is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. PMID:25797267

  18. A New Ghost Cell/Level Set Method for Moving Boundary Problems: Application to Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Macklin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a ghost cell/level set method for the evolution of interfaces whose normal velocity depend upon the solutions of linear and nonlinear quasi-steady reaction-diffusion equations with curvature-dependent boundary conditions. Our technique includes a ghost cell method that accurately discretizes normal derivative jump boundary conditions without smearing jumps in the tangential derivative; a new iterative method for solving linear and nonlinear quasi-steady reaction-diffusion equations; an adaptive discretization to compute the curvature and normal vectors; and a new discrete approximation to the Heaviside function. We present numerical examples that demonstrate better than 1.5-order convergence for problems where traditional ghost cell methods either fail to converge or attain at best sub-linear accuracy. We apply our techniques to a model of tumor growth in complex, heterogeneous tissues that consists of a nonlinear nutrient equation and a pressure equation with geometry-dependent jump boundary conditions. We simulate the growth of glioblastoma (an aggressive brain tumor) into a large, 1 cm square of brain tissue that includes heterogeneous nutrient delivery and varied biomechanical characteristics (white matter, gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid, and bone), and we observe growth morphologies that are highly dependent upon the variations of the tissue characteristics—an effect observed in real tumor growth. PMID:21331304

  19. Involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.C.; Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.

    1992-12-31

    In this paper we examine the role of growth factors (GF) and their receptors (GFR) in radon-induced rat lung tumors. Inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters induced lung tumors in rats, but the molecule/cellular mechanisms are not known. Recent evidence suggests that GF/GFR play a critical role in the growth and development of lung cancer in humans and animals. We have developed immunocytochemical methods for identifying sites of production and action of GF/GFR at the cellular level; for example, the avidin-biotin horseradish peroxidase technique. In radon-induced rat epidermoid carcinomas, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF-receptors (EGF-R), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}), and bombesin were found to be abnormally expressed. These abnormal expressions, mainly associated with epidermoid carcinomas of the lung, were not found in any other lung tumor types. Our data suggest that EGF, EGF-R, TGF-{alpha}, and bombesin are involved in radon oncogenesis in rat lungs, especially in epidermoid carcinomas, possibly through the autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  20. Oridonin inhibits tumor growth in glioma by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-H; Liu, Y-X; Jia, M; Han, J-S; Zhao, M; Ji, S-P; Li, A-M

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is the most common malignant intracranial tumors. Despite newly developed therapies, these treatments mainly target oncogenic signals, and unfortunately, fail to provide enough survival benefit in both human patients and mouse xenograft models, especially the first-generation therapies. Oridonin is purified from the Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens and considered to exert extensive anti-cancer effects on human tumorigenesis. In this study, we systemically investigated the role of Oridonin in tumor growth and the underlying mechanisms in human glioma. We found that Oridonin inhibited cell proliferations in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both glioma U87 and U251 cells. Moreover, these anti-cancer effects were also confirmed in a mouse model bearing glioma. Furthermore, cell cycle arrest in S phase was observed in Oridonin-mediated growth inhibition by flow cytometry. Cell cycle arrest in S phase led to eventual cell apoptosis, as revealed by Hoechst 33342 staining and annexin V/PI double-staining. The cell apoptosis might be accomplished through a mitochondrial manner. In all, we were the first to our knowledge to report that Oridonin could exert anti-cancer effects on tumor growth in human glioma by inducing cell cycle arrest and eventual cell apoptosis. The identification of Oridonin as a critical mediator of glioma growth may potentiate Oridonin as a novel therapeutic strategies in glioma treatments. PMID:25553351

  1. Role in Tumor Growth of a Glycogen Debranching Enzyme Lost in Glycogen Storage Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guin, Sunny; Pollard, Courtney; Ru, Yuanbin; Ritterson Lew, Carolyn; Duex, Jason E.; Dancik, Garrett; Owens, Charles; Spencer, Andrea; Knight, Scott; Holemon, Heather; Gupta, Sounak; Hansel, Donna; Hellerstein, Marc; Lorkiewicz, Pawel; Lane, Andrew N.; Fan, Teresa W.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system, yet our molecular understanding of this disease is incomplete, hampering therapeutic advances. Methods Here we used a genome-wide functional short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen to identify suppressors of in vivo bladder tumor xenograft growth (n = 50) using bladder cancer UMUC3 cells. Next-generation sequencing was used to identify the most frequently occurring shRNAs in tumors. Genes so identified were studied in 561 patients with bladder cancer for their association with stratification of clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The best prognostic marker was studied to determine its mechanism in tumor suppression using anchorage-dependent and -independent growth, xenograft (n = 20), and metabolomic assays. Statistical significance was determined using two-sided Student t test and repeated-measures statistical analysis. Results We identified the glycogen debranching enzyme AGL as a prognostic indicator of patient survival (P = .04) and as a novel regulator of bladder cancer anchorage-dependent (P < .001), anchorage-independent (mean ± standard deviation, 180 ± 23.1 colonies vs 20±9.5 in control, P < .001), and xenograft growth (P < .001). Rescue experiments using catalytically dead AGL variants revealed that this effect is independent of AGL enzymatic functions. We demonstrated that reduced AGL enhances tumor growth by increasing glycine synthesis through increased expression of serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2. Conclusions Using an in vivo RNA interference screen, we discovered that AGL, a glycogen debranching enzyme, has a biologically and statistically significant role in suppressing human cancer growth. PMID:24700805

  2. CD11b deficiency suppresses intestinal tumor growth by reducing myeloid cell recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Hu, Xi-Wen; Liu, Yi-Long; Ye, Zhi-Jin; Gui, Yi-He; Zhou, Da-Lei; Qi, Cui-Ling; He, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Honglin; Wang, Li-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Mac-1 (CD11b) is expressed on bone marrow-derived immune cells. CD11b binds to ligands to regulate leukocyte adhesion and migration across the endothelium or epithelium. Here, we employed CD11b knockout mice and an ApcMin/+ spontaneous intestinal adenoma mouse model to clarify the function of CD11b in intestinal tumorigenesis. We showed that CD11b deficiency may contribute to the inhibition of myeloid cell trafficking to the tumor microenvironment and inactivated Wnt/?-catenin pathway to suppress tumor growth. This effect was partly mediated by inhibiting the myeloid cell-mediated decrease in TNF-? secretion, which inhibits the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells to the tumor microenvironment and subsequently induces IFN-? and CXCL9 production. This work provides evidence for the mechanism by which CD11b may function as an important oncogene and highlights the potential of CD11b as a therapeutic target in CRC. PMID:26526388

  3. Dendrimer-based tumor cell targeting of fibroblast growth factor-1.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thommey P; Shukla, Rameshwer; Kotlyar, Alina; Kukowska-Latallo, Jola; Baker, James R

    2010-01-15

    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) is overexpressed in a wide variety of tumors, and therefore is an attractive target for drug delivery. Recombinant FGF-1 was purified and attached to a fifth-generation (G5) polyamidoamine dendrimer. The specific binding and internalization of this conjugate labeled with FITC was demonstrated by flow cytometry as well as by confocal microscopic analysis in cell lines expressing FGFR. The binding and uptake of FGF-conjugated dendrimers was completely blocked by excess nonconjugated FGF-1. Confocal microscopic analysis showed cytosolic as well as nuclear localization. Multivalent G5-FGF nanoparticles may serve as a platform for cytosolic as well as nuclear drug delivery in tumor cells, and as an FGF delivery agent for angiogenesis and wound healing. Our study shows for the first time the applicability of a dendrimer nanodevice for tumor cell targeting through FGFR. PMID:19962894

  4. Evaluation and Comparison of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression between Ameloblastoma and Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Priyadharsini, Nataraj; Gnanaselvi, U Punitha; Sathishkumar, Srinivasan; Srikanth, R P; Nagarathinam, A E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with an aggressive clinical behavior suggesting a change in its terminology from a cyst to a tumor and has now been renamed as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). The purpose of this study was to assess and compare angiogenesis in ameloblastoma and OKC. Materials and Methods: Angiogenesis was assessed by studying the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The study samples included 15 ameloblastomas and 15 KCOTs. The immunoreactivity was statistically evaluated using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: VEGF expression was higher in ameloblastoma than KCOTs. However, a non-significant difference of VEGF expression was noted between ameloblastoma and KCOTs (P = 0.345). Conclusion: The results suggest that tumor angiogenesis may play a significant role in aggressive biologic behavior of KCOT. Thus, angiogenesis could be a potent target for developing anatiangiogenic therapeutic strategies. PMID:25709368

  5. CD11b deficiency suppresses intestinal tumor growth by reducing myeloid cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Hu, Xi-Wen; Liu, Yi-Long; Ye, Zhi-Jin; Gui, Yi-He; Zhou, Da-Lei; Qi, Cui-Ling; He, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Honglin; Wang, Li-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Mac-1 (CD11b) is expressed on bone marrow-derived immune cells. CD11b binds to ligands to regulate leukocyte adhesion and migration across the endothelium or epithelium. Here, we employed CD11b knockout mice and an Apc(Min/+) spontaneous intestinal adenoma mouse model to clarify the function of CD11b in intestinal tumorigenesis. We showed that CD11b deficiency may contribute to the inhibition of myeloid cell trafficking to the tumor microenvironment and inactivated Wnt/?-catenin pathway to suppress tumor growth. This effect was partly mediated by inhibiting the myeloid cell-mediated decrease in TNF-? secretion, which inhibits the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells to the tumor microenvironment and subsequently induces IFN-? and CXCL9 production. This work provides evidence for the mechanism by which CD11b may function as an important oncogene and highlights the potential of CD11b as a therapeutic target in CRC. PMID:26526388

  6. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. PMID:22841774

  7. Sudden cold temperature delays plant carbon transport and shifts allocation from growth to respiratory demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, M.; Cieraad, E.; Zakharova, A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Since substrates for respiration are supplied mainly by recent photo-assimilates, there is a strong but time-lagged link between short-term above- and belowground carbon (C) cycling. However, regulation of this coupling by environmental variables is poorly understood. Whereas recent studies focussed on the effect of drought and shading on the link between above- and belowground short-term C cycling, the effect of temperature remains unclear. We used a 13CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiment to investigate the effect of a sudden temperature change from 25 to 10 °C on the short-term coupling between assimilatory C uptake and respiratory loss. The study was done in the laboratory using two-month-old perennial rye-grass plants (Lolium perenne L.). After label application, the ?13C signal of respired shoot and root samples was analysed at regular time intervals using laser spectroscopy. In addition, ?13C was analysed in bulk root and shoot samples. Cold temperature (10 °C) reduced the short-term coupling between shoot and roots by delaying belowground transfer of recent assimilates and its subsequent respiratory use, as indicated by the ?13C signal of root respiration (?13CRR). That is, the time lag from the actual shoot labelling to the first appearance of the label in 13CRR was about 1.5 times longer under cold temperature. Moreover, analysis of bulk shoot and root material revealed that plants at cold temperature invest relatively more carbon into respiration compared to growth or storage. While the whole plant C turnover increased under cold temperature, the turnover time of the labile C pool decreased, probably because less 13C is used for growth and/or storage. That is, (almost) all recent C remained in the labile pool serving respiration under these conditions. Overall, our results highlight the importance of temperature as a driver of C transport and relative C allocation within the plant-soil system.

  8. The novel herbal cocktail MA128 suppresses tumor growth and the metastatic potential of highly malignant tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Yim, Nam-Hiu; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-08-01

    MA128, a novel herbal medicine, was previously identified and its effectiveness in the treatment of asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) was demonstrated. In particular, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) in AD mice was improved by treatment with MA128. In addition, MA128 exhibited anti-melanogenic activity by inhibiting tyrosinase activity via the p38 MAPK and protein kinase A signaling pathways in B16F10 cells. In the present study, we examined whether oral administration of MA128 suppressed the in vivo tumor growth of HT1080 cells in athymic nude mice. The results showed that the daily oral administration of 75 and 150 mg/kg MA128 suppressed the tumorigenic growth of HT1080 cells efficiently. Since metastasis is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality and the greatest challenge during cancer treatment, we investigated the effect of non-toxic concentrations of MA128 on the metastatic potential of HT1080 cells. MA128 inhibited anchorage-independent colony formation, migration and invasion. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity under resting and PMA-stimulated conditions was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by MA128 in HT1080 cells. In addition, the daily oral administration of MA128 at doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg efficiently blocked the lung metastasis of B16F10 cells that had been injected into the tail veins of C57BL/6 mice. In particular, none of the mice treated with MA128 exhibited systemic toxicity, such as body weight loss or liver and kidney dysfunction. MA128 also inhibited tumor?induced angiogenesis. Taken together, the results suggest that MA128 is a potential therapeutic agent and a safe herbal medicine for controlling malignant and metastatic cancer. PMID:26035620

  9. STAT3 silencing inhibits glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Priester, Maike; Copanaki, Ekaterini; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Hensel, Sandra; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Seifert, Volker; Groner, Bernd; Kögel, Donat; Weissenberger, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffuse infiltration remains the fulcrum of glioblastoma's incurability, leading inevitably to recurrence. Therefore, uncovering the pathological mechanism is imperative. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) correlates with glioma malignancy and predicts poor clinical outcome, we determined its role in glioma single cell infiltration and tumor growth. Methods STAT3 was silenced in Tu-2449 glioma cells via lentiviral gene transfer. Target gene expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Microvilli were visualized by staining with wheat germ agglutinin. Migration and invasion were measured by Scratch and Matrigel chamber assays. Diffuse infiltration was studied in 350-?m-thick organotypic tissue cultures over 14 days using cells tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and live confocal laser scanning microscopy. Survival of tumor-bearing syngeneic, immunocompetent B6C3F1 mice was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier plots. Results STAT3 silencing reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro and stopped single cell infiltration ex vivo, while STAT3-expressing cells disseminated through the neuropil at ?100 µm/day. STAT3 silencing reduced transcription of several tumor progression genes. Mice with intracranial STAT3 knockdown tumors had a significant (P< .0007) survival advantage over controls, yielding 27% long-term survival. STAT3 knockdown reduced podoplanin expression 50-fold and inhibited concurrent microvilli formation. STAT3 knockdown tumors exhibited a weaker podoplanin immunoreactivity compared with controls. Podoplanin staining was diffuse, preferentially at tumor margins, and absent in normal brain. Conclusions Our results show compelling evidence that STAT3 is a key driver of diffuse infiltration and glioma growth and might therefore represent a promising target for an anti-invasive therapy. PMID:23486688

  10. Xanthatin, a novel potent inhibitor of VEGFR2 signaling, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yao; Yu, Jing; Pei, Chong Gang; Li, Yun Yan; Tu, Ping; Gao, Gui Ping; Shao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has emerged as an important tool for cancer treatment. In this study, we described a novel VEGFR2 inhibitor, xanthatin, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. The biochemical profiles of xanthatin were investigated using kinase assay, migration assay, tube formation, Matrigel plug assay, western blot, immunofluorescence and human tumor xenograft model. Xanthatin significantly inhibited growth, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cell as well as inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated angiogenesis. In addition, it inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling regulator. Moreover, xanthatin directly inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Oral administration of xanthatin could markedly inhibit human tumor xenograft growth and decreased microvessel densities (MVD) in tumor sections. Taken together, these preclinical evaluations suggest that xanthatin inhibits angiogenesis and may be a promising anticancer drug candidate. PMID:26617743

  11. Intravitreous transplantation of encapsulated fibroblasts secreting the human fibroblast growth factor 2 delays photoreceptor cell degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats

    PubMed Central

    Uteza, Yves; Rouillot, Jean-Sébastien; Kobetz, Alexandra; Marchant, Dominique; Pecqueur, Sèverine; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Prats, Hervé; Honiger, Jiri; Dufier, Jean-Louis; Abitbol, Marc; Neuner-Jehle, Martin

    1999-01-01

    We developed an experimental approach with genetically engineered and encapsulated mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to delay the progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells in dark-eyed Royal College of Surgeons rats. These xenogeneic fibroblasts can survive in 1.5-mm-long microcapsules made of the biocompatible polymer AN69 for at least 90 days under in vitro and in vivo conditions because of their stable transfection with the gene for the 18-kDa form of the human basic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF-2). Furthermore, when transferred surgically into the vitreous cavity of 21-day-old Royal College of Surgeons rats, the microencapsulated hFGF-2-secreting fibroblasts provoked a local delay of photoreceptor cell degeneration, as seen at 45 days and 90 days after transplantation. This effect was limited to 2.08 mm2 (45 days) and 0.95 mm2 (90 days) of the retinal surface. In both untreated eyes and control globes with encapsulated hFGF-2-deficient fibroblasts, the rescued area (of at most 0.08 mm2) was significantly smaller at both time points. Although, in a few ocular globes, surgical trauma induced a reorganization of the retinal cytoarchitecture, neither microcapsule rejection nor hFGF-2-mediated tumor formation were detected in any treated eyes. These findings indicate that encapsulated fibroblasts secreting hFGF-2 or perhaps other agents can be applied as potential therapeutic tools to treat retinal dystrophies. PMID:10077648

  12. Effect of survivin on tumor growth of colorectal cancer in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yongping; Ma, Wei; Huang, Xiaojuan; Cao, Liyu; Li, Hao; Jiang, Yan; Lu, Nana; Yin, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family regulates two critical processes in neoplastic transformation, namely, cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to detect the effect of survivin on tumor growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) in vivo. We found that inhibition of survivin by interference decreased the sizes and weights of xenografts in nude mice. The number of apoptotic cells of the shRNA survivin group was higher than that of the black group and the shRNA control group. The downregulated expression of survivin decreased the expression levels of bcl2 and ki67. Our results indicated that inhibition of survivin significantly enhanced the inhibition of tumor growth and induced apoptosis. Survivin is an attractive target for CRC treatment. PMID:26722528

  13. Metastasis Suppressor Genes: At the Interface Between the Environment and Tumor Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms and genetic programs required for cancer metastasis are sometimes overlapping, but components are clearly distinct from those promoting growth of a primary tumor. Every sequential, rate-limiting step in the sequence of events leading to metastasis requires coordinated expression of multiple genes, necessary signaling events, and favorable environmental conditions or the ability to escape negative selection pressures. Metastasis suppressors are molecules that inhibit the process of metastasis without preventing growth of the primary tumor. The cellular processes regulated by metastasis suppressors are diverse and function at every step in the metastatic cascade. As we gain knowledge into the molecular mechanisms of metastasis suppressors and cofactors with which they interact, we learn more about the process, including appreciation that some are potential targets for therapy of metastasis, the most lethal aspect of cancer. Until now, metastasis suppressors have been described largely by their function. With greater appreciation of their biochemical mechanisms of action, the importance of context is increasingly recognized especially since tumor cells exist in myriad microenvironments. In this review, we assemble the evidence that selected molecules are indeed suppressors of metastasis, collate the data defining the biochemical mechanisms of action, and glean insights regarding how metastasis suppressors regulate tumor cell communication to–from microenvironments. PMID:21199781

  14. Molecular Pathways: New Signaling Considerations When Targeting Cytoskeletal Balance to Reduce Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Kristi R; Hessler, Lindsay; Bhandary, Lekhana; Martin, Stuart S

    2015-12-01

    The dynamic balance between microtubule extension and actin contraction regulates mammalian cell shape, division, and motility, which has made the cytoskeleton an attractive and very successful target for cancer drugs. Numerous compounds in clinical use to reduce tumor growth cause microtubule breakdown (vinca alkaloids, colchicine-site, and halichondrins) or hyperstabilization of microtubules (taxanes and epothilones). However, both of these strategies indiscriminately alter the assembly and dynamics of all microtubules, which causes significant dose-limiting toxicities on normal tissues. Emerging data are revealing that posttranslational modifications of tubulin (detyrosination, acetylation) or microtubule-associated proteins (Tau, Aurora kinase) may allow for more specific targeting of microtubule subsets, thereby avoiding the broad disruption of all microtubule polymerization. Developing approaches to reduce tumor cell migration and invasion focus on disrupting actin regulation by the kinases SRC and ROCK. Because the dynamic balance between microtubule extension and actin contraction also regulates cell fate decisions and stem cell characteristics, disrupting this cytoskeletal balance could yield unexpected effects beyond tumor growth. This review will examine recent data demonstrating that cytoskeletal cancer drugs affect wound-healing responses, microtentacle-dependent reattachment efficiency, and stem cell characteristics in ways that could affect the metastatic potential of tumor cells, both beneficially and detrimentally. Clin Cancer Res; 21(23); 5209-14. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26463706

  15. Honokiol inhibits bladder tumor growth by suppressing EZH2/miR-143 axis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Zhao, Wei; Ye, Changxiao; Zhuang, Junlong; Chang, Cunjie; Li, Yuying; Huang, Xiaojing; Shen, Lan; Li, Yan; Cui, Yangyan; Song, Jiannan; Shen, Bing; Eliaz, Isaac; Huang, Ruimin; Ying, Hao; Guo, Hongqian; Yan, Jun

    2015-11-10

    The oncoprotein EZH2, as a histone H3K27 methyltransferase, is frequently overexpressed in various cancer types. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in urinary bladder cancer (UBC) cells have not yet fully understood. Herein, we reported that honokiol, a biologically active biphenolic compound isolated from the Magnolia officinalis inhibited human UBC cell proliferation, survival, cancer stemness, migration, and invasion, through downregulation of EZH2 expression level, along with the reductions of MMP9, CD44, Sox2 and the induction of tumor suppressor miR-143. Either EZH2 overexpression or miR-143 inhibition could partially reverse honokiol-induced cell growth arrest and impaired clonogenicity. Importantly, it was first revealed that EZH2 could directly bind to the transcriptional regulatory region of miR-143 and repress its expression. Furthermore, honokiol treatment on T24 tumor xenografts confirmed its anticancer effects in vivo, including suppression tumor growth and tumor stemness, accompanied by the dysregulation of EZH2 and miR-143 expressions. Our data suggest a promising therapeutic option to develop drugs targeting EZH2/miR-143 axis, such as honokiol, for bladder cancer treatment. PMID:26484567

  16. Biodegradable polymeric micelles encapsulated JK184 suppress tumor growth through inhibiting Hedgehog signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nannan; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Ning; Deng, Senyi; Song, Linjiang; Wu, Qinjie; Liu, Lei; Su, Weijun; Wei, Yuquan; Xie, Yongmei; Gong, Changyang

    2015-01-01

    JK184 can specially inhibit Gli in the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, which showed great promise for cancer therapeutics. For developing aqueous formulation and improving anti-tumor activity of JK184, we prepared JK184 encapsulated MPEG-PCL micelles by the solid dispersion method without using surfactants or toxic organic solvents. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of JK184 micelles were both increased compared with the free drug. JK184 micelles induced more apoptosis and blocked proliferation of Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumor cells. In addition, JK184 micelles exerted a sustained in vitro release behavior and had a stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration and invasion of HUVECs than free JK184. Furthermore, JK184 micelles had stronger tumor growth inhibiting effects in subcutaneous Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumor models. Histological analysis showed that JK184 micelles improved anti-tumor activity by inducing more apoptosis, decreasing microvessel density and reducing expression of CD31, Ki67, and VEGF in tumor tissues. JK184 micelles showed a stronger inhibition of Gli expression in Hh signaling, which played an important role in pancreatic carcinoma. Furthermore, circulation time of JK184 in blood was prolonged after entrapment in polymeric micelles. Our results suggested that JK184 micelles are a promising drug candidate for treating pancreatic tumors with a highly inhibitory effect on Hh activity.JK184 can specially inhibit Gli in the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, which showed great promise for cancer therapeutics. For developing aqueous formulation and improving anti-tumor activity of JK184, we prepared JK184 encapsulated MPEG-PCL micelles by the solid dispersion method without using surfactants or toxic organic solvents. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of JK184 micelles were both increased compared with the free drug. JK184 micelles induced more apoptosis and blocked proliferation of Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumor cells. In addition, JK184 micelles exerted a sustained in vitro release behavior and had a stronger inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration and invasion of HUVECs than free JK184. Furthermore, JK184 micelles had stronger tumor growth inhibiting effects in subcutaneous Panc-1 and BxPC-3 tumor models. Histological analysis showed that JK184 micelles improved anti-tumor activity by inducing more apoptosis, decreasing microvessel density and reducing expression of CD31, Ki67, and VEGF in tumor tissues. JK184 micelles showed a stronger inhibition of Gli expression in Hh signaling, which played an important role in pancreatic carcinoma. Furthermore, circulation time of JK184 in blood was prolonged after entrapment in polymeric micelles. Our results suggested that JK184 micelles are a promising drug candidate for treating pancreatic tumors with a highly inhibitory effect on Hh activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06300g

  17. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) supports the growth of aggressive experimental human breast cancer tumors.

    PubMed

    Laderoute, Keith R; Calaoagan, Joy M; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G

    2014-08-15

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [(13)C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  18. 5?-AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Supports the Growth of Aggressive Experimental Human Breast Cancer Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Laderoute, Keith R.; Calaoagan, Joy M.; Chao, Wan-ru; Dinh, Dominc; Denko, Nicholas; Duellman, Sarah; Kalra, Jessica; Liu, Xiaohe; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sambucetti, Lidia; Boros, Laszlo G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid tumor growth can establish metabolically stressed microenvironments that activate 5?-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous regulator of ATP homeostasis. Previously, we investigated the importance of AMPK for the growth of experimental tumors prepared from HRAS-transformed mouse embryo fibroblasts and for primary brain tumor development in a rat model of neurocarcinogenesis. Here, we used triple-negative human breast cancer cells in which AMPK activity had been knocked down to investigate the contribution of AMPK to experimental tumor growth and core glucose metabolism. We found that AMPK supports the growth of fast-growing orthotopic tumors prepared from MDA-MB-231 and DU4475 breast cancer cells but had no effect on the proliferation or survival of these cells in culture. We used in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling with [13C]glucose tracers to investigate the contribution of AMPK to core glucose metabolism in MDA-MB-231 cells, which have a Warburg metabolic phenotype; these experiments indicated that AMPK supports tumor glucose metabolism in part through positive regulation of glycolysis and the nonoxidative pentose phosphate cycle. We also found that AMPK activity in the MDA-MB-231 tumors could systemically perturb glucose homeostasis in sensitive normal tissues (liver and pancreas). Overall, our findings suggest that the contribution of AMPK to the growth of aggressive experimental tumors has a critical microenvironmental component that involves specific regulation of core glucose metabolism. PMID:24993821

  19. Model-Based Tumor Growth Dynamics and Therapy Response in a Mouse Model of De Novo Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hadjiandreou, Marios M.; Rizki, Gizem; Achilleos, Achilleas; Strati, Katerina; Mitsis, Georgios D.

    2015-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is a complex, multistep process that depends on numerous alterations within the cell and contribution from the surrounding stroma. The ability to model macroscopic tumor evolution with high fidelity may contribute to better predictive tools for designing tumor therapy in the clinic. However, attempts to model tumor growth have mainly been developed and validated using data from xenograft mouse models, which fail to capture important aspects of tumorigenesis including tumor-initiating events and interactions with the immune system. In the present study, we investigate tumor growth and therapy dynamics in a mouse model of de novo carcinogenesis that closely recapitulates tumor initiation, progression and maintenance in vivo. We show that the rate of tumor growth and the effects of therapy are highly variable and mouse specific using a Gompertz model to describe tumor growth and a two-compartment pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic model to describe the effects of therapy in mice treated with 5-FU. We show that inter-mouse growth variability is considerably larger than intra-mouse variability and that there is a correlation between tumor growth and drug kill rates. Our results show that in vivo tumor growth and regression in a double transgenic mouse model are highly variable both within and between subjects and that mathematical models can be used to capture the overall characteristics of this variability. In order for these models to become useful tools in the design of optimal therapy strategies and ultimately in clinical practice, a subject-specific modelling strategy is necessary, rather than approaches that are based on the average behavior of a given subject population which could provide erroneous results. PMID:26649886

  20. An increase in mouse tumor growth by an in vivo immunomodulating effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Yi; Yi, Geun-Hee; Kang, Jong-Soon; Lim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hwan-Mook; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2011-01-01

    Here, we investigated whether titanium dioxide (TiO?) nanoparticles affect in vivo tumor growth through the modulation of mononuclear leukocytes. In vitro lymphocyte proliferation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or concanavalin A (ConA) was reduced by < 25 nm TiO? with a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, TiO? nanoparticles inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production from bone marrow-derived macrophages obtained from naïve mice. When mice were intraperitoneally (IP) injected with < 25 or < 100 nm TiO? once a day for 7 days, total cell number of splenocytes was reduced in the spleen of TiO? nanoparticle-exposed mice. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers were significantly decreased and B-lymphocyte development was retarded by host exposure to the TiO? nanoparticles. LPS-stimulated spleen cell proliferation was significantly reduced by host exposure to < 25 or < 100 nm TiO?, but no changes were detected in ConA-stimulated spleen cell proliferation. Further, LPS-stimulated cytokine production by peritoneal macrophages and the percentage of NK1.1+ natural killer cells among splenocytes was reduced by the host exposures to the TiO? nanoparticles. When mice were IP injected with TiO? nanoparticles once a day for 28 days prior to the subcutaneous implantation of B16F10 melanoma cells, tumor growth was subsequently significantly increased. Collectively, these results show that TiO? nanoparticles may damage the development and proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes, reduce the activity of macrophages, and decrease natural killer (NK) cell population levels, outcomes that appear to lead to an increase in tumor growth in situ. These studies allow us to suggest that TiO? nanoparticles might have the potential to enhance tumor growth through immunomodulation of B- and T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells. PMID:21288165

  1. Prostate Tumor Growth Can Be Modulated by Dietarily Targeting the 15-Lipoxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase-2 Enzymes1

    PubMed Central

    Kelavkar, Uddhav P; Hutzley, Justin; McHugh, Kevin; Allen, Kenneth GD; Parwani, Anil

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to determine the bioavailability of omega-3 (?-3) to the tumor, to understand its mechanisms, and to determine the feasibility of targeting the ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) metabolizing 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways. Nude mice injected subcutaneously with LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells were randomly divided into three different isocaloric (and same percent [%] of total fat) diet groups: high ?-6 linoleic acid (LA), high ?-3 stearidonic acid (SDA) PUFAs, and normal (control) diets. Tumor growth and apoptosis were examined as end points after administration of short-term (5 weeks) ?-3 and ?-6 fatty acid diets. Tumor tissue membranes were examined for growth, lipids, enzyme activities, apoptosis, and proliferation. Tumors from the LA diet-fed mice exhibited the most rapid growth compared with tumors from the control and SDA diet-fed mice. Moreover, a diet switch from LA to SDA caused a dramatic decrease in the growth of tumors in 5 weeks, whereas tumors grew more aggressively when mice were switched from an SDA to an LA diet. Evaluating tumor proliferation (Ki-67) and apoptosis (caspase-3) in mice fed the LA and SDA diets suggested increased percentage proliferation index from the ?-6 diet-fed mice compared with the tumors from the ?-3 SDA-fed mice. Further, increased apoptosis was observed in tumors from ?-3 SDA diet-fed mice versus tumors from ?-6 diet-fed mice. Levels of membrane phospholipids of red blood cells reflected dietary changes and correlated with the levels observed in tumors. Linoleic or arachidonic acid and metabolites (eicosanoid/prostaglandins) were analyzed for 15-LO-1 and COX-2 activities by high-performance liquid chromatography. We also examined the percent unsaturated or saturated fatty acids in the total phospholipids, PUFA ?-6/?-3 ratios, and other major enzymes (elongase, Delta [?]-5-desaturase, and ?-6-desaturase) of ?-6 catabolic pathways from the tumors. We observed a 2.7-fold increase in the ?-6/?-3 ratio in tumors from LA diet-fed mice and a 4.2-fold decrease in the ratio in tumors from the SDA diet-fed mice. There was an increased ?-6-desaturase and ?-9 desaturase enzyme activities and reduced estimated ?-5-desaturase activity in tumors from mice fed the SDA diet. Opposite effects were observed in tumors from mice fed the LA diet. Together, these observations provide mechanistic roles of ?-3 fatty acids in slowing prostate cancer growth by altering ?-6/?-3 ratios through diet and by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation in tumors by directly competing with ?-6 fatty acids for 15-LO-1 and COX-2 activities. PMID:19568414

  2. Tumor cell growth arrest caused by subchromosomal transferable DNA fragments from chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Koi, M.; Johnson, L.A.; Kalikin, L.M.; Feinberg, A.P. ); Little, P.F.R. ); Nakamura, Yusuke )

    1993-04-16

    A fundamental problem in the identification and isolation of tumor suppressor and other growth-inhibiting genes is the loss of power of genetic complementation at the subchromosomal level. A direct genetic strategy was developed to isolate subchromosomal transferable fragments (STFs) from any chromosome, each containing a selectable marker within the human DNA, that could be transferred to any mammalian cells. As a test of the method, several overlapping STFs from 11p15 were shown to cause in vitro growth arrest of rhabdomyosarcoma cells. This activity mapped between the [beta]-globin and insulin genes. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Mathematical Modeling Shows Individual Mutations Are Slow to Promote Tumor Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Individual cancer-causing mutations have a minute effect on tumor growth, generating a selective growth advantage of just 0.4 percent on average, according to new mathematical modeling by scientists at Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, and other institutions. This research, which was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reinforces the idea that cancer is the culmination of many accumulated mutations. It also highlights the fundamental heterogeneity and randomness of many cancers, consistent with the observations of epidemiologists and clinicians.

  4. Oridonin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Anti-Angiogenesis by Blocking the Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjie; Deng, Huayun; Song, Yajuan; Zhai, Dong; Peng, Yi; Lu, Xiaoling; Liu, Mingyao; Zhao, Yongxiang; Yi, Zhengfang

    2014-01-01

    While significant progress has been made in understanding the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of the natural diterpenoid component Oridonin on tumor cells, little is known about its effect on tumor angiogenesis or metastasis and on the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, Oridonin significantly suppressed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation, migration, and apillary-like structure formation in vitro. Using aortic ring assay and mouse corneal angiogenesis model, we found that Oridonin inhibited angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo. In our animal experiments, Oridonin impeded tumor growth and metastasis. Immunohistochemistry analysis further revealed that the expression of CD31 and vWF protein in xenografts was remarkably decreased by the Oridonin. Furthermore, Oridonin reinforced endothelial cell-cell junction and impaired breast cancer cell transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, Oridonin not only down-regulated Jagged2 expression and Notch1 activity but also decreased the expression of their target genes. In conclusion, our results demonstrated an original role of Oridonin in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and propose a mechanism. This study also provides new evidence supporting the central role of Notch in tumor angiogenesis and suggests that Oridonin could be a potential drug candidate for angiogenesis related diseases. PMID:25485753

  5. Suppression of breast tumor growth by DNA vaccination against phosphatase of regenerating liver 3.

    PubMed

    Lv, J; Liu, C; Huang, H; Meng, L; Jiang, B; Cao, Y; Zhou, Z; She, T; Qu, L; Wei Song, S; Shou, C

    2013-08-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL)-3 is highly expressed in multiple cancers and has important roles in cancer development. Some small-molecule inhibitors and antibodies targeting PRL-3 have been recently reported to inhibit tumor growth effectively. To determine whether PRL-3-targeted DNA vaccination can induce immune response to prevent or inhibit the tumor growth, we established mouse D2F2 breast cancer cells expressing PRL-3 (D2F2/PRL-3) and control cells (D2F2/NC) with lentivirus, and constructed pVAX1-Ig?-PRL-3 plasmid (named as K-P3) as DNA vaccine to immunize BALB/c mice. We found that the K-P3 vaccine delivered by gene gun significantly prevented the growth of D2F2/PRL-3 compared with pVAX1-vector (P<0.01), but not of D2F2/NC, and improved the survival of D2F2/PRL-3-innoculated mice. Both PRL-3-targeted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and T-helper type 1 cell immune response (production of high levels of interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-?) were found to be involved in the preventive effect. Furthermore, PRL-3-targeted DNA immunization inhibited tumor growth of D2F2/PRL-3 cells in mice. We also evaluated the potential of immunization with PRL-3 protein, but no significant therapeutic or preventive effect was obtained on tumor growth. To enhance the immunity of PRL-3, we incorporated different molecular adjuvants, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat-shock protein, CTL antigen 4 and M. tuberculosis T-cell stimulatory epitope (MT), into K-P3 vaccine for expressing the fusion proteins. We found that these adjuvant molecules did not significantly improve the antitumor activity of PRL-3 vaccine, but enhanced the production of PRL-3 antibodies in immunized mice. Summarily, our findings demonstrate that PRL-3-targeted DNA vaccine can generate significantly preventive and therapeutic effects on the growth of breast cancer expressing PRL-3 through the induction of cellular immune responses to PRL-3. PMID:23364316

  6. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide, an organic peroxide, causes temporary delay in hair growth in a neonatal rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wikramanayake, T. C.; Simon, J.; Mauro, L. M.; Perez, C. I.; Roberts, B.; Elgart, G.; Alvarez-Connelly, E.; Schachner, L. A.; Jimenez, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), an organic peroxide, has been shown to cause irreversible damage to keratinocytes in vitro with prolonged administration at high concentrations, and reversible damage with short-term administration at low concentrations. To investigate the effects of tBHP on keratinocytes in vivo, we analysed hair growth in tBHP-treated neonatal rats. Sprague–Dawley and Long–Evans rat pups were injected subcutaneously with tBHP or vehicle once daily for 6 days, and hair growth was monitored. The tBHP-treated rats had a significant delay in hair growth. However, this delay reversed within days, and the hair coats, including hair pigmentation, of tBHP-treated and sham-treated rats were indistinguishable 2 weeks later. Histological analysis and BrdU labelling of S phase cells confirmed the delay in hair-follicle growth and its reversal in tBHP-treated rats. Our results indicated that the changes incurred in hair follicles by short-term use of high-dose oxidants in vivo are temporary and reversible. PMID:21418283

  7. tert-butyl hydroperoxide, an organic peroxide, causes temporary delay in hair growth in a neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, T C; Simon, J; Mauro, L M; Perez, C I; Roberts, B; Elgart, G; Alvarez-Connelly, E; Schachner, L A; Jimenez, J J

    2011-08-01

    tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP), an organic peroxide, has been shown to cause irreversible damage to keratinocytes in vitro with prolonged administration at high concentrations, and reversible damage with short-term administration at low concentrations. To investigate the effects of tBHP on keratinocytes in vivo, we analysed hair growth in tBHP-treated neonatal rats. Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rat pups were injected subcutaneously with tBHP or vehicle once daily for 6?days, and hair growth was monitored. The tBHP-treated rats had a significant delay in hair growth. However, this delay reversed within days, and the hair coats, including hair pigmentation, of tBHP-treated and sham-treated rats were indistinguishable 2?weeks later. Histological analysis and BrdU labelling of S phase cells confirmed the delay in hair-follicle growth and its reversal in tBHP-treated rats. Our results indicated that the changes incurred in hair follicles by short-term use of high-dose oxidants in vivo are temporary and reversible. PMID:21418283

  8. The H19 Non-Coding RNA Is Essential for Human Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Matouk, Imad J.; DeGroot, Nathan; Mezan, Shaul; Ayesh, Suhail; Abu-lail, Rasha; Hochberg, Abraham; Galun, Eithan

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations and epigenetic aberrant signaling of growth factors pathways contribute to carcinogenesis. Recent studies reveal that non-coding RNAs are controllers of gene expression. H19 is an imprinted gene that demonstrates maternal monoallelic expression without a protein product; although its expression is shut off in most tissues postnatally, it is re-activated during adult tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis. Moreover, H19 is highly expressed in liver metastasis derived from a range of carcinomas. The objective of this study is to explore the role of H19 in carcinogenesis, and to determine its identification as an anti-tumor target. Methodology/ Principle Findings By controlling oxygen pressure during tumor cell growth and H19 expression levels, we investigated the role of H19 expression in vitro and in vivo in hepatocellular (HCC) and bladder carcinoma. Hypoxia upregulates the level of H19 RNA. Ablations of tumorigenicity of HCC and bladder carcinomas in vivo are seen by H19 knockdown which also significantly abrogates anchorage-independent growth after hypoxia recovery, while ectopic H19 expression enhances tumorigenic potential of carcinoma cells in vivo. Knocking-down H19 message in hypoxic stress severely diminishes p57kip2 induction. We identified a number of potential downstream targets of H19 RNA, including angiogenin and FGF18. Conclusions H19 RNA harbors pro-tumorigenic properties, thus the H19 gene behaves as an oncogene and may serve as a potential new target for anti-tumor therapy. PMID:17786216

  9. Macroautophagy is dispensable for growth of KRAS mutant tumors and chloroquine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Eng, Christina H; Wang, Zuncai; Tkach, Diane; Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Ugwonali, Savuth; Liu, Shanming; Fitzgerald, Stephanie L; George, Elizabeth; Frias, Elizabeth; Cochran, Nadire; De Jesus, Rowena; McAllister, Gregory; Hoffman, Gregory R; Bray, Kevin; Lemon, LuAnna; Lucas, Judy; Fantin, Valeria R; Abraham, Robert T; Murphy, Leon O; Nyfeler, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Macroautophagy is a key stress-response pathway that can suppress or promote tumorigenesis depending on the cellular context. Notably, Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS)-driven tumors have been reported to rely on macroautophagy for growth and survival, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach of using autophagy inhibitors based on genetic stratification. In this study, we evaluated whether KRAS mutation status can predict the efficacy to macroautophagy inhibition. By profiling 47 cell lines with pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function tools, we were unable to confirm that KRAS-driven tumor lines require macroautophagy for growth. Deletion of autophagy-related 7 (ATG7) by genome editing completely blocked macroautophagy in several tumor lines with oncogenic mutations in KRAS but did not inhibit cell proliferation in vitro or tumorigenesis in vivo. Furthermore, ATG7 knockout did not sensitize cells to irradiation or to several anticancer agents tested. Interestingly, ATG7-deficient and -proficient cells were equally sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent often used as a pharmacological tool to evaluate the response to macroautophagy inhibition. Moreover, both cell types manifested synergistic growth inhibition when treated with chloroquine plus the tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib or sunitinib, suggesting that the antiproliferative effects of chloroquine are independent of its suppressive actions on autophagy. PMID:26677873

  10. Ovariectomy is associated with metabolic impairments and enhanced mammary tumor growth in MKR mice.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shmuel, Sarit; Scheinman, Eyal J; Rashed, Rola; Orr, Zila Shen; Gallagher, Emily J; LeRoith, Derek; Rostoker, Ran

    2015-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer incidence and mortality. Common features of obesity and T2D are insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. A mammary tumor promoting effect of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia was demonstrated in the transgenic female MKR mouse model of pre-diabetes inoculated with mammary cancer cells. Interestingly, in MKR mice, as well as in other diabetic mouse models, males exhibit severe hyperglycemia, while females display insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia with only a mild increase in blood glucose levels. This gender-specific protection from hyperglycemia may be attributed to estradiol, a key player in the regulation of the metabolic state, including obesity, glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and lipid profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ovariectomy (including the removal of endogenous estradiol) on the metabolic state of MKR female mice and subsequently on the growth of Mvt-1 mammary cancer cells, inoculated into the mammary fat pad of ovariectomized mice, compared with sham-operated mice. The results showed an increase in body weight, accompanied by increased fat mass, elevated blood glucose levels, and hypercholesterolemia, in ovariectomized MKR mice. In addition, mammary tumor growth was significantly higher in these mice. The results suggest that ovarian hormone deficiency may promote impaired metabolic homeostasis in the hyperinsulinemic MKR female mice, which in turn is associated with an increased growth of mammary tumors. PMID:26383532

  11. FBXW7 acts as an independent prognostic marker and inhibits tumor growth in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhanchun; Xiao, Jie; Hu, Kongzu; Wang, Gang; Li, Maoqiang; Zhang, Jidong; Cheng, Guangqi

    2015-01-01

    F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) is a potent tumor suppressor in human cancers including breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we found that the expressions of FBXW7 protein and mRNA levels in osteosarcoma (OS) cases were significantly lower than those in normal bone tissues. Clinical analysis indicated that FBXW7 was expressed at lower levels in OS patients with advanced clinical stage, high T classification and poor histological differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that high expression of FBXW7 was correlated with a better 5-year survival of OS patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that FBXW7 was an independent prognostic marker in OS. Our in vitro studies showed that FBXW7 overexpression inhibited cell cycle transition and cell proliferation, and promoted apoptosis in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. In a nude mouse xenograft model, FBXW7 overexpression slowed down tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest. Mechanistically, FBXW7 inversely regulated oncoprotein c-Myc and cyclin E levels in both U2OS and MG-63 cells. Together these findings suggest that FBXW7 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and inhibit tumor progression by inducing apoptosis and growth arrest in OS. PMID:25622249

  12. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors in Combination with Local OK-432 Injection Prolongs Survival and Suppresses Distant Tumor Growth in the Rabbit Model with Intra- and Extrahepatic VX2 Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kageyama, Ken Yamamoto, Akira Okuma, Tomohisa Hamamoto, Shinichi Takeshita, Toru Sakai, Yukimasa Nishida, Norifumi Matsuoka, Toshiyuki Miki, Yukio

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and distant tumor growth after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and local OK-432 injection at a single tumor site in a rabbit model with intra- and extrahepatic VX2 tumors and to examine the effect of this combination therapy, which we termed immuno-radiofrequency ablation (immunoRFA), on systemic antitumor immunity in a rechallenge test. Methods: Our institutional animal care committee approved all experiments. VX2 tumors were implanted to three sites: two in the liver and one in the left ear. Rabbits were randomized into four groups of seven to receive control, RFA alone, OK-432 alone, and immunoRFA treatments at a single liver tumor at 1 week after implantation. Untreated liver and ear tumor volumes were measured after the treatment. As the rechallenge test, tumors were reimplanted into the right ear of rabbits, which survived the 35 weeks and were followed up without additional treatment. Statistical significance was examined by log-rank test for survival and Student's t test for tumor volume. Results: Survival was significantly prolonged in the immunoRFA group compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Untreated liver and ear tumor sizes became significantly smaller after immunoRFA compared to controls (P < 0.05). In the rechallenge test, the reimplanted tumors regressed without further therapy compared to the ear tumors of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ImmunoRFA led to improved survival and suppression of distant untreated tumor growth. Decreases in size of the distant untreated tumors and reimplanted tumors suggested that systemic antitumor immunity was enhanced by immunoRFA.

  13. Immunoglobulin Fc-fused, neuropilin-1-specific peptide shows efficient tumor tissue penetration and inhibits tumor growth via anti-angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Jin; Bae, Jeomil; Shin, Tae-Hwan; Kang, Se Hun; Jeong, Moonkyoung; Han, Yunho; Park, Ji-Ho; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2015-10-28

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor, involved in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated vascular permeability and tumor angiogenesis, is targeted by peptides that bind to its VEGF-binding site. However, these peptides also cross-react with the structurally related receptor, NRP2. Here, we describe an immunoglobulin Fc-fused peptide, Fc-TPP11, which specifically binds to the VEGF-binding site of NRP1 with approximately 2nM affinity, but negligibly to that of NRP2. Fc-TPP11 triggered NRP1-dependent signaling, enhanced vascular permeability via vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin downregulation, and increased paracellular permeability via E-cadherin downregulation in tumor tissues. Fc-TPP11 also significantly enhanced the tumor penetration of co-injected anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, leading to the improved in vivo anti-tumor efficacy. Fc-TPP11 was easily adapted to the full-length anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) cetuximab (Erbitux), cetuximab-TPP11, exhibiting more than 2-fold improved tumor penetration than the parent cetuximab. Fc-TPP11 exhibited a similar whole-body half-life to that of intact Fc in tumor bearing mice. In addition to the tumor-penetrating activity, Fc-TPP11 suppressed VEGF-dependent angiogenesis by blocking VEGF binding to NRP1, thereby inhibiting tumor growth without promoting metastasis in the mouse model. Our results show that NRP1-specific, high-affinity binding of Fc-TPP11, is useful to validate NRP1 signaling, independent of NRP2. Thus, Fc-TPP11 can be used as a tumor penetration-promoting agent with anti-angiogenic activity or directly adapted to mAb-TPP11 format for more potent anti-cancer antibody therapy. PMID:26260451

  14. Restoring physiological levels of ascorbate slows tumor growth and moderates HIF-1 pathway activity in Gulo?/? mice

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet C M; Bozonet, Stephanie; Dyer, Arron; Robinson, Bridget A; Dachs, Gabi U

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) governs cellular adaption to the hypoxic microenvironment and is associated with a proliferative, metastatic, and treatment-resistant tumor phenotype. HIF-1 levels and transcriptional activity are regulated by proline and asparagine hydroxylases, which require ascorbate as cofactor. Ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF-1 activation in vitro, but only limited data are available in relevant animal models. There is no information of the effect of physiological levels of ascorbate on HIF activity and tumor growth, which was measured in this study. C57BL/6 Gulo?/? mice (a model of the human ascorbate dependency condition) were supplemented with 3300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L of ascorbate in their drinking water before and during subcutaneous tumor growth of B16-F10 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/2). Ascorbate levels in tumors increased significantly with elevated ascorbate intake and restoration of wild-type ascorbate levels led to a reduction in growth of B16-F10 (log phase P < 0.001) and LL/2 tumors (lag growth P < 0.001, log phase P < 0.05). Levels of HIF-1? protein in tumors decreased as dietary ascorbate supplementation increased for both tumor models (P < 0.001). Similarly, tumor ascorbate was inversely correlated with levels of the HIF-1 target proteins CA-IX, GLUT-1, and VEGF in both B16-F10 and LL/2 tumors (P < 0.05). The extent of necrosis was similar between ascorbate groups but varied between models (30% for B16-F10 and 21% for LL/2), indicating that ascorbate did not affect tumor hypoxia. Our data support the hypothesis that restoration of optimal intracellular ascorbate levels reduces tumor growth via moderation of HIF-1 pathway activity. PMID:25354695

  15. In Vivo Tumor Growth Rate Measured by US in Preoperative Period and Long Term Disease Outcome in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoon; Lee, Eunshin; Kim, Jongjin; Lee, Han-Byoel; Kang, Young Joon; Kim, Yun-Gyoung; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of tumor growth rate, calculated from tumor size measurements by US, on breast cancer patients’ outcome. Patients and Methods Breast cancer patients who received at least two serial breast ultrasonographies (US) in our institution during preoperative period and were surgically treated between 2002 and 2010 were reviewed. Tumor growth rate was determined by specific growth rate (SGR) using the two time point tumor sizes by US. Results A total of 957 patients were analyzed. The median duration between initial and second US was 28 days (range, 8–140). The median initial tumor size was 1.7cm (range, 0.4–7.0) and median second size was 1.9cm (range, 0.3–7.2). 523(54.6%) cases had increase in size. The median SGR(x10-2) was 0.59 (range, -11.90~31.49) and mean tumor doubling time was 14.51 days. Tumor growth rate was higher when initial tumor size was smaller. Lymphovascular invasion, axillary lymph node metastasis, and higher histologic grade were significantly associated with higher SGR. SGR was significantly associated with disease-free survival (DFS) in a univariate analysis (p = 0.04), but not in a multivariate Cox analysis (p>0.05). High SGR was significantly associated with worse DFS in a subgroup of initial tumor size >2cm (p = 0.018), but not in those with tumor size <2cm (p>0.05). Conclusion Our results showed that tumor growth rate measured by US in a relatively short time interval was associated with other worse prognostic factors and DFS, but it was not an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. PMID:26657267

  16. Tumor-induced osteomalacia with elevated fibroblast growth factor 23: a case of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed with connective tissue variants and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fang-Ke; Yuan, Fang; Jiang, Cheng-Ying; Lv, Da-Wei; Mao, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Qiang; Yuan, Zeng-Qiang; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO), or oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM), is a rare acquired Paraneoplastic disease characterized by renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia. Recent evidence shows that tumor-overexpressed fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is responsible for the hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. The tumors associated with TIO are usually phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissue variants (PMTMCT). Surgical removal of the responsible tumors is clinically essential for the treatment of TIO. However, identifying the responsible tumors is often difficult. Here, we report a case of a TIO patient with elevated serum FGF23 levels suffering from bone pain and hypophosphatemia for more than three years. A tumor was finally located in first metacarpal bone by octreotide scintigraphy and she was cured by surgery. After complete excision of the tumor, serum FGF23 levels rapidly decreased, dropping to 54.7% of the preoperative level one hour after surgery and eventually to a little below normal. The patient's serum phosphate level rapidly improved and returned to normal level in four days. Accordingly, her clinical symptoms were greatly improved within one month after surgery. There was no sign of tumor recurrence during an 18-month period of follow-up. According to pathology, the tumor was originally diagnosed as “glomangioma” based upon a biopsy sample, “proliferative giant cell tumor of tendon sheath” based upon sections of tumor, and finally diagnosed as PMTMCT by consultation one year after surgery. In conclusion, although an extremely rare disease, clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the existence of TIO and PMTMCT, respectively. PMID:22035861

  17. Suppression of Tumor Growth by Pleurotus ferulae Ethanol Extract through Induction of Cell Apoptosis, and Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weilan; Chen, Kaixu; Liu, Qing; Johnston, Nathan; Ma, Zhenghai; Zhang, Fuchun; Zheng, Xiufen

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Edible medicinal mushrooms have been used in traditional medicine as regimes for cancer patients. Recently anti-cancer bioactive components from some mushrooms have been isolated and their anti-cancer effects have been tested. Pleurotus ferulae, a typical edible medicinal mushroom in Xinjiang China, has also been used to treat cancer patients in folk medicine. However, little studies have been reported on the anti-cancer components of Pleurotus ferulae. This study aims to extract bioactive components from Pleurotus ferulae and to investigate the anti-cancer effects of the extracts. We used ethanol to extract anti-cancer bioactive components enriched with terpenoids from Pleurotus ferulae. We tested the anti-tumour effects of ethanol extracts on the melanoma cell line B16F10, the human gastric cancer cell line BGC 823 and the immortalized human gastric epithelial mucosa cell line GES-1 in vitro and a murine melanoma model in vivo. Cell toxicity and cell proliferation were measured by MTT assays. Cell cycle progression, apoptosis, caspase 3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), migration and gene expression were studied in vitro. PFEC suppressed tumor cell growth, inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cells at G0/G1 phases and was not toxic to non-cancer cells. PFEC also induced cell apoptosis and necrosis, increased caspase 3 activity, reduced the MMP, prevented cell invasion and changed the expression of genes associated with apoptosis and the cell cycle. PFEC delayed tumor formation and reduced tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, ethanol extracted components from Pleurotus ferulae exert anti-cancer effects through direct suppression of tumor cell growth and invasion, demonstrating its therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. PMID:25029345

  18. Inhibiting Vimentin or beta 1-integrin Reverts Prostate Tumor Cells in IrECM and Reduces Tumor Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V.; Ware, Joy L.; Bissell, Mina J.; Zehner, Zendra E.

    2009-07-27

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphological changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional (3D) lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the parental prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin or {alpha}6-, {beta}4- and {beta}1-integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via siRNA interference or {beta}1-integrin expression by the addition of the blocking antibody, AIIB2, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by subcutaneous injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in 3D lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1-integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acini in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis.

  19. Congenital hypoparathyroidism, seizure, extreme growth failure with developmental delay and dysmorphic features--another case of this new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalam, M A; Hafeez, W

    1992-09-01

    A 4-year-old Saudi female child with extreme failure to thrive, striking dysmorphic features, developmental delay, congenital hypoparathyroidism, UTI, seizures, chronic otitis media, chronic non-specific gastroenteritis and repeated life-threatening infections was followed from birth. She was the product of first-cousin consanguineous marriage. She had striking facies with frontal prominence, deep-set eyes, depressed nasal bridge, beaked nose, long philtrum with thin upper lip, micrognathia, large floppy ears, bifid uvula, and growth retardation with SD score less than -2 for height, weight and head circumference. We believe these features which include congenital hypoparathyroidism, severe growth failure and developmental delay in the absence of chromosomal abnormality represent a newly described genetically determined syndrome. PMID:1395080

  20. Preparation of selenium-enriched Bifidobacterium longum and its effect on tumor growth and immune function of tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yan; Wang, Rong-Rong; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jian-Jun; Xu, Gen-Xing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated selenium (Se) accumulation in Bifidobacterium longum strain (B. longum) and evaluated the effect of Se-enriched B. longum (Se-B. longum) on tumor growth and immune function in tumor-bearing mice. Analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) revealed that more than 99% of Se in Se-B. longum was organic, the main component of which was selenomethionine (SeMet). In the in vivo experiments, tumor-bearing mice (n=8) were orally administrated with different doses of Se-B. longum alone or combined with cyclophosphamide (CTX). The results showed that the middle and high dose of Se-B. longum significantly inhibited tumor growth. When Se-B. longum and CTX were combined, the antitumor effect was significantly enhanced and the survival time of tumor-bearing mice (n=12) was prolonged. Furthermore, compared with CTX alone, the combination of Se-B. longum and CTX stimulated the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, increasing the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and the leukocyte count of H22 tumor-bearing mice (n=12). PMID:24870777

  1. MicroRNA-340 suppresses osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis by directly targeting ROCK1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin; Wei, Min; Wang, Wei

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •miR-340 is downregulated in OS cell lines and tissues. •miR-340 suppresses OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. •miR-340 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of OS cells in nude mice. •ROCK1 is a target gene of miR-340. •ROCK1 is involved in miR-340-induced suppression of OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in cancer development and progression. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-340 in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS). Our results showed that miR-340 was frequently downregulated in OS tumors and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-340 in OS cell lines significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth and metastasis in a xenograft mouse model. ROCK1 was identified as a target of miR-340, and ectopic expression of miR-340 downregulated ROCK1 by direct binding to its 3? untranslated region. siRNA-mediated silencing of ROCK1 phenocopied the effects of miR-340 overexpression, whereas restoration of ROCK1 in miR-340-overexpressing OS cells reversed the suppressive effects of miR-340. Together, these findings indicate that miR-340 acts as a tumor suppressor and its downregulation in tumor tissues may contribute to the progression and metastasis of OS through a mechanism involving ROCK1, suggesting miR-340 as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target for the treatment of OS.

  2. Delphinidin Inhibits Tumor Growth by Acting on VEGF Signalling in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Anita; Justiniano, Hélène; Soleti, Raffaella; Alabed Alibrahim, Eid; Simard, Gilles; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Lugnier, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The vasculoprotective properties of delphinidin are driven mainly by its action on endothelial cells. Moreover, delphinidin displays anti-angiogenic properties in both in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis models and thereby might prevent the development of tumors associated with excessive vascularization. This study was aimed to test the effect of delphinidin on melanoma-induced tumor growth with emphasis on its molecular mechanism on endothelial cells. Delphinidin treatment significantly decreased in vivo tumor growth induced by B16-F10 melanoma cell xenograft in mice. In vitro, delphinidin was not able to inhibit VEGFR2-mediated B16-F10 melanoma cell proliferation but it specifically reduced basal and VEGFR2-mediated endothelial cell proliferation. The anti-proliferative effect of delphinidin was reversed either by the MEK1/2 MAP kinase inhibitor, U-0126, or the PI3K inhibitor, LY-294002. VEGF-induced proliferation was reduced either by U-0126 or LY-294002. Under these conditions, delphinidin failed to decrease further endothelial cell proliferation. Delphinidin prevented VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK and decreased the expression of the transcription factors, CREB and ATF1. Finally, delphinidin was more potent in inhibiting in vitro cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), PDE1 and PDE2, compared to PDE3-PDE5. Altogether delphinidin reduced tumor growth of melanoma cell in vivo by acting specifically on endothelial cell proliferation. The mechanism implies an association between inhibition of VEGF-induced proliferation via VEGFR2 signalling, MAPK, PI3K and at transcription level on CREB/ATF1 factors, and the inhibition of PDE2. In conjunction with our previous studies, we demonstrate that delphinidin is a promising compound to prevent pathologies associated with generation of vascular network in tumorigenesis. PMID:26694325

  3. CSF1-ETS2 Induced microRNA in Myeloid Cells Promote Metastatic Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Mathsyaraja, Haritha; Thies, Katie; Taffany, David A.; Deighan, Clayton; Liu, Tom; Yu, Lianbo; Fernandez, Soledad A.; Shapiro, Charles; Otero, Jose; Timmers, Cynthia; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Chalmers, Jeffrey; Leone, Gustavo; Ostrowski, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis of solid tumors is associated with poor prognosis and bleak survival rates. Tumor infiltrating myeloid cells (TIMs) are known to promote metastasis but the mechanisms underlying their collaboration with tumor cells remain unknown. Here we report an oncogenic role for microRNA in driving M2 reprogramming in TIMs, characterized by the acquisition of pro-tumor and pro-angiogenic properties. The expression of miR-21, miR-29a, miR-142-3p and miR-223 increased in myeloid cells during tumor progression in mouse models of breast cancer and melanoma metastasis. Further, we show that these miRs are regulated by the CSF1-ETS2 pathway in macrophages. A loss of function approach utilizing selective depletion of the microRNA processing enzyme Dicer in mature myeloid cells blocks angiogenesis and metastatic tumor growth. Ectopic expression of miR-21 and miR-29a promotes angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through the down-regulation of anti-angiogenic genes such as Col4a2, Spry1 and Timp3 whereas knockdown of the miRs impedes these processes. miR-21 and miR-29a are expressed in Csf1r+ myeloid cells associated with human metastatic breast cancer and levels of these miRs in CD115+ non-classical monocytes correlates with metastatic tumor burden in patients. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-21 and miR-29a are essential for the pro-tumor functions of myeloid cells and the CSF1-ETS2 pathway upstream of the miRs serves as an attractive therapeutic target for the inhibition of M2 remodeling of macrophages during malignancy. In addition, miR-21 and miR-29a in circulating myeloid cells may potentially serve as biomarkers to measure therapeutic efficacy of targeted therapies for CSF1 signaling. PMID:25241894

  4. Therapeutic targeting of BET bromodomain protein, Brd4, delays cyst growth in ADPKD.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Fan, Lucy X; Peters, Dorien J M; Trudel, Marie; Bradner, James E; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-07-15

    In this study, we identified a BET bromodomain (BRD) protein, Brd4, not only as a novel epigenetic regulator of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) but also as a novel client protein of Hsp90. We found that Brd4 was upregulated in Pkd1 mutant mouse renal epithelial cells and tissues. This upregulation of Brd4 appears to result from the chaperone activity of Hsp90 and escape proteasomal degradation. We further identify that Brd4 is an upstream regulator of the expression of c-Myc which has been upregulated in all rodent models of PKD and ADPKD patients with unknown mechanism. Inhibition of Brd4 in Pkd1 mutant renal epithelial cells with JQ1, a selective small-molecular inhibitor of BET BRD protein(s), (1) decreased the levels of c-Myc mRNA and protein; (2) increased the levels of p21 mRNA and protein, which was transcriptionally repressed by c-Myc; (3) decreased the phosphorylation of Rb; and (4) decreased cystic epithelial cell proliferation as shown by inhibition of S-phase entry. Most importantly, treatment with JQ1 strikingly delayed cyst growth and kidney enlargement, and preserved renal function in two early stage genetic mouse strains with Pkd1 mutations. This study not only provides one of the mechanisms of how c-Myc is upregulated in PKD but also suggests that targeting Brd4 with JQ1 may function as a novel epigenetic approach in ADPKD. The unraveled link between Brd4 and Hsp90 in ADPKD may also be a general mechanism for the upregulation of Brd4 in cancer cells and opens up avenues for combination therapies against ADPKD and cancer. PMID:25877301

  5. The soluble form of the tumor suppressor Lrig1 potently inhibits in vivo glioma growth irrespective of EGF receptor status

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mikael; Oudin, Anaïs; Tiemann, Katja; Bernard, Amandine; Golebiewska, Anna; Keunen, Olivier; Fack, Fred; Stieber, Daniel; Wang, Baofeng; Hedman, Håkan; Niclou, Simone P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Deregulated growth factor signaling is a major driving force in the initiation and progression of glioblastoma. The tumor suppressor and stem cell marker Lrig1 is a negative regulator of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Here, we addressed the therapeutic potential of the soluble form of Lrig1 (sLrig1) in glioblastoma treatment and the mechanism of sLrig1-induced growth inhibition. Methods With use of encapsulated cells, recombinant sLrig1 was locally delivered in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts generated from freshly isolated patient tumors. Tumor growth and mouse survival were evaluated. The efficacy of sLrig1 and the affected downstream signaling was studied in vitro and in vivo in glioma cells displaying variable expression of wild-type and/or a constitutively active EGFR mutant (EGFRvIII). Results Continuous interstitial delivery of sLrig1 in genetically diverse patient-derived glioma xenografts led to strong tumor growth inhibition. Glioma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo were potently inhibited by sLrig1, irrespective of EGFR expression levels. Of importance, tumor growth was also suppressed in EGFRvIII-driven glioma. sLrig1 induced cell cycle arrest without changing total receptor level or phosphorylation. Affected downstream effectors included MAP kinase but not AKT signaling. Of importance, local delivery of sLrig1 into established tumors led to a 32% survival advantage in treated mice. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that sLrig1 is a potent inhibitor of glioblastoma growth in clinically relevant experimental glioma models and that this effect is largely independent of EGFR status. The potent anti-tumor effect of sLrig1, in combination with cell encapsulation technology for in situ delivery, holds promise for future treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:23723255

  6. Combinatorial treatment using targeted MEK and SRC inhibitors synergistically abrogates tumor cell growth and induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition in non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kian Ngiap; Kong, Li Ren; Sim, Wen Jing; Ng, Hsien Chun; Ong, Weijie Richard; Thiery, Jean Paul; Huynh, Hung; Goh, Boon Cher

    2015-10-01

    Oncogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is regulated by a complex signal transduction network. Single-agent targeted therapy fails frequently due to treatment insensitivity and acquired resistance. In this study, we demonstrate that co-inhibition of the MAPK and SRC pathways using a PD0325901 and Saracatinib kinase inhibitor combination can abrogate tumor growth in NSCLC. PD0325901/Saracatinib at 0.25:1 combination was screened against a panel of 28 NSCLC cell lines and 68% of cell lines were found to be sensitive (IC50 < 2 ?M) to this combination. In Snail1 positive NSCLC lines, the drug combination complementarily enhanced mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), increasing both E-cadherin and Plakoglobin expression, and reducing Snail1, FAK and PXN expression. In addition, the drug combination abrogated cell migration and matrigel invasion. The co-inhibition of MAPK and SRC induced strong G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in the NSCLC lines, inhibited anchorage independent growth and delayed tumor growth in H460 and H358 mouse xenografts. These data provide rationale for further investigating the combination of MAPK and SRC pathway inhibitors in advanced stage NSCLC. PMID:26358373

  7. Biodegradable polymeric micelle-encapsulated quercetin suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in both transgenic zebrafish and mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qinjie; Deng, Senyi; Li, Ling; Sun, Lu; Yang, Xi; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Lei; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang

    2013-11-01

    Quercetin (Que) loaded polymeric micelles were prepared to obtain an aqueous formulation of Que with enhanced anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. A simple solid dispersion method was used, and the obtained Que micelles had a small particle size (about 31 nm), high drug loading, and high encapsulation efficiency. Que micelles showed improved cellular uptake, an enhanced apoptosis induction effect, and stronger inhibitory effects on proliferation, migration, and invasion of 4T1 cells than free Que. The enhanced in vitro antiangiogenesis effects of Que micelles were proved by the results that Que micelles significantly suppressed proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Subsequently, transgenic zebrafish models were employed to investigate anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of Que micelles, in which stronger inhibitory effects of Que micelles were observed on embryonic angiogenesis, tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor growth, and tumor metastasis. Furthermore, in a subcutaneous 4T1 tumor model, Que micelles were more effective in suppressing tumor growth and spontaneous pulmonary metastasis, and prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Besides, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent assays suggested that tumors in the Que micelle-treated group showed more apoptosis, fewer microvessels, and fewer proliferation-positive cells. In conclusion, Que micelles, which are synthesized as an aqueous formulation of Que, possess enhanced anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity, which can serve as potential candidates for cancer therapy.

  8. Inhibition of epithelial growth factor receptor can play an important role in reducing cell growth and survival in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Teresa; Gentilin, Erica; Tagliati, Federico; Benfini, Katiuscia; Di Pasquale, Carmelina; Feo, Carlo; Falletta, Simona; Riva, Eleonora; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2015-12-15

    Medical treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is still far from optimal, since even molecular targeted therapy failed to demonstrate striking results. Clinical trials enrolling ACC patients with high tissue vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) expression levels showed controversial results after treatment with Sunitinib, possibly due to variability in the expression of drug targets, which include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To better clarify this issue, we evaluated whether VEGFR may play a crucial role in ACC responsiveness to Sunitinib and whether EGFR may represent an alternative target in ACC medical treatment, by employing two ACC cell lines, the NCI-H295 and SW13 cells lines, and adrenocortical tissues primary cultures. Our data show that VEGF/VEGFR system may not be crucial in modulating ACC proliferation and responsiveness to Sunitinib. In addition, by cell viability, proliferation and caspase activation assays we found that Sunitinib inhibits adrenocortical cell viability acting, at least in part, through EGFR, that, in turn, is crucial for EGF proliferative effect on adrenocortical cells. The latter depends, at least in part, on ERK 1/2 activation. An EGFR selective inhibitor was highly effective in reducing cell viability in an adrenocortical tumor primary culture and in the SW13 cells, which express high EGFR levels. Our results suggest that EGFR inhibitors could represent effective therapeutic tools in ACC patients whose tumors express high EGFR levels, that, in turn, may be considered a predictive factor of response. Accurate molecular tumor profiling is crucial to predict drug efficacy and to tailor ACC patients therapeutic approach. PMID:26484875

  9. Proline biosynthesis augments tumor cell growth and aerobic glycolysis: involvement of pyridine nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Hancock, Chad N.; Fischer, Joseph W.; Harman, Meredith; Phang, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of the nonessential amino acid proline contributes to tumor metabolic reprogramming. Previously we showed that MYC increases proline biosynthesis (PB) from glutamine. Here we show MYC increases the expression of the enzymes in PB at both protein and mRNA levels. Blockade of PB decreases tumor cell growth and energy production. Addition of ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) or proline reverses the effects of P5C synthase knockdown but not P5C reductases knockdown. Importantly, the reversal effect of proline was blocked by concomitant proline dehydrogenase/oxidase (PRODH/POX) knockdown. These findings suggest that the important regulatory contribution of PB to tumor growth derives from metabolic cycling between proline and P5C rather than product proline or intermediate P5C. We further document the critical role of PB in maintaining pyridine nucleotide levels by connecting the proline cycle to glycolysis and to the oxidative arm of the pentose phosphate pathway. These findings establish a novel function of PB in tumorigenesis, linking the reprogramming of glucose, glutamine and pyridine nucleotides, and may provide a novel target for antitumor therapy. PMID:26598224

  10. Discrete functions of GSK3? and GSK3? isoforms in prostate tumor growth and micrometastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Al-Azayzih, Ahmad; Somanath, Payaningal R.

    2015-01-01

    Isoform specific function of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in cancer is not well defined. We report that silencing of GSK3?, but not GSK3? expression inhibited proliferation, survival and colony formation by the PC3, DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, and the growth of PC3 tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice. Silencing of GSK3?, but not GSK3? resulted in reduced proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in tumor xenografts. ShRNA-mediated knockdown of GSK3? and GSK3? equally inhibited the ability of prostate cancer cells to migrate and invade the endothelial-barrier in vitro, and PC3 cell micrometastasis to lungs in vivo. Mechanistically, whereas silencing GSK3? resulted in increased expression of pro-apoptotic markers cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 in LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 cells, silencing GSK3? resulted in the inhibition of cell scattering, establishment of cell-cell contacts, increased expression and membrane localization of ?-catenin, and reduced expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers such as Snail and MMP-9. This indicated the specific role of GSK3? in EMT, acquisition of motility and invasive potential. Overall, our data demonstrated the isoform specific role of GSK3? and GSK3? in prostate cancer cells in vitro, and tumor growth and micrometastasis in vivo, via distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms. PMID:25714023

  11. Proline biosynthesis augments tumor cell growth and aerobic glycolysis: involvement of pyridine nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Hancock, Chad N; Fischer, Joseph W; Harman, Meredith; Phang, James M

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of the nonessential amino acid proline contributes to tumor metabolic reprogramming. Previously we showed that MYC increases proline biosynthesis (PB) from glutamine. Here we show MYC increases the expression of the enzymes in PB at both protein and mRNA levels. Blockade of PB decreases tumor cell growth and energy production. Addition of ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) or proline reverses the effects of P5C synthase knockdown but not P5C reductases knockdown. Importantly, the reversal effect of proline was blocked by concomitant proline dehydrogenase/oxidase (PRODH/POX) knockdown. These findings suggest that the important regulatory contribution of PB to tumor growth derives from metabolic cycling between proline and P5C rather than product proline or intermediate P5C. We further document the critical role of PB in maintaining pyridine nucleotide levels by connecting the proline cycle to glycolysis and to the oxidative arm of the pentose phosphate pathway. These findings establish a novel function of PB in tumorigenesis, linking the reprogramming of glucose, glutamine and pyridine nucleotides, and may provide a novel target for antitumor therapy. PMID:26598224

  12. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression in phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Fukayama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) has been elucidated as a cause of tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) associated with mesenchymal neoplasm. TIO is associated with the production of phosphatonins, such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which participate in phosphate homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is a known receptor of FGF23, and it was recently found that the fibronectin 1 (FN1)-FGFR1 fusion gene is present in 60% of PMT cases. Immunohistochemical evaluation of FGFR1 expression in PMT has not been reported till date. We analyzed 11 cases of PMT in this study and found that 36% of cases (4/11 cases) exhibited cytoplasmic and membranous staining with strong intensity, and 64% of cases (7/11 cases) exhibited cytoplasmic dot-like staining with moderate to weak intensity. The aforementioned 36% of cases may reflect the presence of the FN1-FGFR1 fusion gene, as the FN1 promoter enhances FGFR1 expression. Although FGFR1 signaling increases FGF23 expression in an autocrine/paracrine loop, FGF23 serum level does not correlate with FGFR1 membranous expression (staining with strong intensity). Thus, we speculate that important factors other than FGFR1 are involved in the tumor biology of PMTs overexpressing FGF23. PMID:26464698

  13. p53: Protection against Tumor Growth beyond Effects on Cell Cycle and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuyi; Simpson, Evan R; Brown, Kristy A

    2015-12-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 has established functions in cancer. Specifically, it has been shown to cause cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage. It is also one of the most commonly mutated or silenced genes in cancer and for this reason has been extensively studied. Recently, the role of p53 has been shown to go beyond its effects on cell cycle and apoptosis, with effects on metabolism emerging as a key contributor to cancer growth in situations where p53 is lost. Beyond this, the role of p53 in the tumor microenvironment is poorly understood. The publication by Wang and colleagues demonstrates for the first time that p53 is a key negative regulator of aromatase and, hence, estrogen production in the breast tumor microenvironment. It goes further by demonstrating that an important regulator of aromatase, the obesity-associated and tumor-derived factor prostaglandin E2, inhibits p53 in the breast adipose stroma. This review presents these findings in the context of established and emerging roles of p53 and discusses possible implications for the treatment of breast cancer. Cancer Res; 75(23); 5001-7. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26573797

  14. MicroRNA-212 suppresses tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting FOXA1

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Changwei; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Chao; Liu, Zhikui; Jia, Yuli; Li, Qing; Yang, Wei; Yao, Yingmin; Liu, Qingguang; Tu, Kangsheng

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-212 (miR-212) has been reported to play oncogenic or tumor suppressive role in different human malignancies. Here, we demonstrated that the mean level of miR-212 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues was significantly lower than that in matched tumor-adjacent tissues. Similarly, the expression of miR-212 was obviously reduced in HCC cell lines as compared with a nontransformed hepatic cell line. Ectopic expression of miR-212 inhibited cell viability and proliferation, and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In contrast, down-regulation of miR-212 increased cell viability and proliferation, and suppressed apoptosis in Bel-7402 cells. In vivo studies showed that miR-212 inhibited tumor growth of HCC via suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, we confirmed that Forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) was a direct target of miR-212, and it abrogated the function of miR-212 in HCC. Finally, we disclosed that the aberrant expression of miR-212 and FOXA1 was evidently correlated with poor prognostic features of HCC. MiR-212, FOXA1 and their combination were valuable prognostic markers for predicting survival of HCC patients. In conclusion, miR-212 may serve as a prognostic indicator for HCC patients and exerts tumor suppressive role, at least in part, by inhibiting FOXA1. PMID:25965836

  15. Vaginal delivery of paclitaxel via nanoparticles with non-mucoadhesive surfaces suppresses cervical tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Yu, Tao; Wang, Ying-Ying; Lai, Samuel K.; Zeng, Qi; Miao, Bolong; Tang, Benjamin C.; Simons, Brian W.; Ensign, Laura; Liu, Guanshu; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Juang, Chih-Yin; Mert, Olcay; Wood, Joseph; Fu, Jie; McMahon, Michael T.; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Local delivery of chemotherapeutics in the cervicovaginal tract using nanoparticles may reduce adverse side effects associated with systemic chemotherapy, while improving outcomes for early stage cervical cancer. We hypothesize drug-loaded nanoparticles must rapidly penetrate cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) lining the female reproductive tract to effectively deliver their payload to underlying diseased tissues in a uniform and sustained manner. We develop paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles, composed entirely of polymers used in FDA-approved products, which rapidly penetrate human CVM and provide sustained drug release with minimal burst effect. We further employ a mouse model with aggressive cervical tumors established in the cervicovaginal tract to compare paclitaxel-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (conventional particles , or CP) and similar particles coated with Pluronic® F127 (mucus-penetrating particles , or MPP). CP are mucoadhesive and, thus, aggregated in mucus, while MPP achieve more uniform distribution and close proximity to cervical tumors. Paclitaxel-MPP suppress tumor growth more effectively and prolong median survival of mice compared to free paclitaxel or paclitaxel-CP. Histopathological studies demonstrate minimal toxicity to the cervicovaginal epithelia, suggesting paclitaxel-MPP may be safe for intravaginal use. These results demonstrate for the first time the in vivo advantages of polymer-based MPP for treatment of tumors localized to a mucosal surface. PMID:24339398

  16. Dysregulation of MicroRNA-34a Expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Promotes Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bhavna; Yadav, Arti; Lang, James; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Kumar, Pawan

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in cancer development where they can act as oncogenes or as tumor-suppressors. miR-34a is a tumor-suppressor that is frequently downregulated in a number of tumor types. However, little is known about the role of miR-34a in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Results miR-34a expression in tumor samples, HNSCC cell lines and endothelial cells was examined by real time PCR. Lipofectamine-2000 was used to transfect miR-34a in HNSCC cell lines and human endothelial cells. Cell-proliferation, migration and clonogenic survival was examined by MTT, Xcelligence system, scratch assay and colony formation assay. miR-34a effect on tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis was examined by in vivo SCID mouse xenograft model. Our results demonstrate that miR-34a is significantly downregulated in HNSCC tumors and cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-34a in HNSCC cell lines significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation, colony formation and migration. miR-34a overexpression also markedly downregulated E2F3 and survivin levels. Rescue experiments using microRNA resistant E2F3 isoforms suggest that miR-34a-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation is predominantly mediated by E2F3a isoform. In addition, tumor samples from HNSCC patients showed an inverse relationship between miR-34a and survivin as well as miR-34a and E2F3 levels. Overexpression of E2F3a completely rescued survivin expression in miR-34a expressing cells, thereby suggesting that miR-34a may be regulating survivin expression via E2F3a. Ectopic expression of miR-34a also significantly inhibited tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis in a SCID mouse xenograft model. Interestingly, miR-34a inhibited tumor angiogenesis by blocking VEGF production by tumor cells as well as directly inhibiting endothelial cell functions. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest that dysregulation of miR-34a expression is common in HNSCC and modulation of miR34a activity might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HNSCC. PMID:22629428

  17. Quilamine HQ1-44, an iron chelator vectorized toward tumor cells by the polyamine transport system, inhibits HCT116 tumor growth without adverse effect.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Stéphanie; Corcé, Vincent; Cannie, Isabelle; Ropert, Martine; Lepage, Sylvie; Loréal, Olivier; Deniaud, David; Gaboriau, François

    2015-08-01

    Tumor cell growth requires large iron quantities and the deprivation of this metal induced by synthetic metal chelators is therefore an attractive method for limiting the cancer cell proliferation. The antiproliferative effect of the Quilamine HQ1-44, a new iron chelator vectorized toward tumor cells by a polyamine chain, is related to its high selectivity for the Polyamine Transport System (PTS), allowing its preferential uptake by tumoral cells. The difference in PTS activation between healthy cells and tumor cells enables tumor cells to be targeted, whereas the strong dependence of these cells on iron ensures a secondary targeting. Here, we demonstrated in vitro that HQ1-44 inhibits DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of HCT116 cells by modulating the intracellular metabolism of both iron and polyamines. Moreover, in vivo, in xenografted athymic nude mice, we found that HQ1-44 was as effective as cis-platin in reducing HCT116 tumor growth, without its side effects. Furthermore, as suggested by in vitro data, the depletion in exogenous or endogenous polyamines, known to activate the PTS, dramatically enhanced the antitumor efficiency of HQ1-44. These data support the need for further studies to assess the value of HQ1-44 as an adjuvant treatment in cancer. PMID:26070250

  18. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is regulated at post-transcriptional levels by transforming growth factor-? signaling during tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? acts as a tumor suppressor during cancer initiation, but as a tumor promoter during tumor progression. It has become increasingly clear that TGF-? plays fundamental roles in multiple steps of tumor progression, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The EMT, first described by developmental biologists at the beginning of the 1980s, plays crucial roles in appropriate embryonic development, but also functions in adults during wound healing, organ fibrosis, and tumor progression. During EMT, epithelial cells lose their epithelial polarity and acquire mesenchymal phenotypes, endowing them with migratory and invasive properties. Many secreted polypeptides are implicated in this process, and act in a sequential or cooperative manner. TGF-? induces EMT by propagating intracellular signaling pathways and activating transcriptional factors. Here, I discuss new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying induction of EMT by TGF-? in cooperation with Ras or growth factors, along with the signals that induce EMT through transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. PMID:25664423

  19. [Changes in the redox potential of serum samples following in vitro irradiation--an indicator of malignant tumor growth].

    PubMed

    Hamann, D; Heinrich, H

    1989-01-01

    In serum samples of healthy persons and patients with malignant neoplasia the reduction-oxidation-potentials were determined. Measurements were made in untreated sera and after irradiation with different doses. Sera of healthy persons showed a decrease that of tumor patients an increase of redox-potential values. With this method malignant tumor growth can be demonstrated. It does not yet permit any statements on tumor localisation. On the other hand conclusions seem to be possible on growth speed of neoplasia. To our hitherto existing experiences estimations of redox-potential are applicable to the diagnosis of fast growing recurrences and metastases in tumor after-care, but can also support the therapeutic procedure decisively in defined differential diagnostic problems and in tumors of dignity in question. PMID:2608893

  20. CDDO-Me inhibits tumor growth and prevents recurrence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaohua; Deeb, Dorrah; Liu, Yongbo; Liu, Patricia; Zhang, Yiguan; Shaw, Jiajiu; Gautam, Subhash C

    2015-12-01

    Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) has shown potent antitumorigenic activity against a wide range of cancer cell lines in vitro and inhibited the growth of liver, lung and prostate cancer in vivo. In the present study, we examined the antitumor activity of CDDO-Me for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells with and without activating K-ras mutations. Treatment of K-ras mutant MiaPaCa-2 and K-ras normal BxPC-3 cells with CDDO-Me elicited strong antiproliferative and proapoptopic responses in both cell lines in culture. The inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis was accompanied by the inhibition of antiapoptotic/prosurvival p-Akt, NF-?B and p-mTOR signaling proteins. For testing efficacy of CDDO-Me in vivo heterotopic and orthotopic xenografts were generated by implanting BxPC-3 and MiaPaCa-2 cells subcutaneously and in the pancreatic tail, respectively. Treatment with CDDO-Me significantly inhibited the growth of BxPC-3 xenografts and reduced the levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR in tumor tissue. In mice with orthotopic MiaPaCa-2 xenografts, treatment with CDDO-Me prolonged the survival of mice when administered following the surgical resection of tumors. The latter was attributed to the eradication of residual PDAC remaining after resection of tumors. These preclinical data demonstrate the potential of CDDO-Me for treating primary PDAC tumors and for preventing relapse/recurrence through the destruction of residual disease. PMID:26497549

  1. Targeting receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression induces apoptosis and inhibits prostate tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Indira; Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Chen, Aoshuang; Zheng, Guoxing; Bosland, Maarten C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting RAGE by RNAi induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing RAGE expression abrogates rHMGB1 mediated cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down regulation of RAGE by RNAi inhibits PSA secretion of prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock down of RAGE abrogates prostate tumor growth in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of RAGE expression in prostate tumor activates death receptors. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of targeting RAGE expression in prostate cancer is not yet evaluated. Therefore in this study, we have investigated the effects of silencing the expression of RAGE by RNAi approach both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study showed that down regulation of RAGE expression by RNAi inhibited the cell proliferation of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (DU-145) prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, targeting RAGE expression resulted in apoptotic elimination of these prostate cancer cells by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 death signaling. Of note, the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) were also reduced in LNCaP cells transfected with RAGE RNAi constructs. Importantly, the RAGE RNAi constructs when administered in nude mice bearing prostate tumors, inhibited the tumor growth by targeting the expression of RAGE, and its physiological ligand, HMGB1 and by up regulating death receptors DR4 and DR5 expression. Collectively, the results of this study for the first time show that targeting RAGE by RNAi may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for treating prostate cancer.

  2. AT9283, a novel aurora kinase inhibitor, suppresses tumor growth in aggressive B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqing; Liu, Xiaobing; Cooke, Laurence S; Persky, Daniel O; Miller, Thomas P; Squires, Matthew; Mahadevan, Daruka

    2012-06-15

    Aurora kinases are oncogenic serine/threonine kinases that play key roles in regulating the mitotic phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Auroras are overexpressed in numerous tumors including B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are validated oncology targets. AT9283, a pan-aurora inhibitor inhibited growth and survival of multiple solid tumors in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that AT9283 had potent activity against Aurora B in a variety of aggressive B-(non-Hodgkin lymphoma) B-NHL cell lines. Cells treated with AT9283 exhibited endoreduplication confirming the mechanism of action of an Aurora B inhibitor. Also, treatment of B-NHL cell lines with AT9283 induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner and inhibited cell proliferation with an IC(50) < 1 ?M. It is well known that inhibition of auroras (A or B) synergistically enhances the effects of microtubule targeting agents such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids to induce antiproliferation and apoptosis. We evaluated whether AT9283 in combination with docetaxel is more efficient in inducing apoptosis than AT9283 or docetaxel alone. At very low doses (5 nM) apoptosis was doubled in the combination (23%) compared to AT9283 or docetaxel alone (10%). A mouse xenograft model of mantle cell lymphoma demonstrated that AT9283 at 15 mg/kg and docetaxel (10 mg/kg) alone had modest anti-tumor activity. However, AT9283 at 20 mg/kg and AT9283 (15 or 20 mg/kg) plus docetaxel (10 mg/kg) demonstrated a statistically significant tumor growth inhibition and enhanced survival. Together, our results suggest that AT9283 plus docetaxel may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in B-cell NHL and warrant early phase clinical trial evaluation. PMID:21796626

  3. Proprotein convertases: "master switches" in the regulation of tumor growth and progression.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Daniel E; Fu, Jian; Lopez de Cicco, Ricardo; Klein-Szanto, Andres J P

    2005-11-01

    Proprotein convertases (PCs) are a group of Ca2+-dependent serine proteases that have homology to the endoproteases subtilisin (bacteria) and kexin (yeast). This group is comprised of less than a dozen members, known as furin/PACE, PC1/PC3, PC2, PC4, PACE4, PC5/PC6, PC7/PC8/LPC, SKI/S1P, and NARC-1/PCSK9. Four PCs (Furin, PACE4, PC5, and PC7) have been localized to several different tissues and epithelial or nervous system tumors. PCs activate their cognate substrates by limited proteolysis at the consensus sequence RXR/KR downward arrow. Many PC substrates are well known cancer-associated proteins such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, integrins, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). For example, IGF-1 and its receptor, TGF-beta, VEGF-C, and MT-MMPs have direct roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Furin, a well-studied member of the PC family, has been associated with enhanced invasion and proliferation in head and neck, breast, and lung cancer. Conversely, inhibition of PC activity by PDX or several PC pro-segments, resulted in reduced processing of these key cancer-related substrates in human squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), colon adenocarcinoma, and astrocytoma cell lines. In parallel to these changes in cell proliferation and invasiveness as well as metastatic ability were markedly impaired. By controlling the maturation/activation of key cancer-associated proteins, PCs act as "master switches" at different levels during tumor development and progression. The manifold effects of PCs, influencing tumor cell proliferation, motility, adhesiveness, and invasiveness, should be exploited by further developing competitive/inhibitory therapeutic strategies that would be able to neutralize simultaneously the most salient cancer cell properties. PMID:16167351

  4. CDDO-Me inhibits tumor growth and prevents recurrence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    GAO, XIAOHUA; DEEB, DORRAH; LIU, YONGBO; LIU, PATRICIA; ZHANG, YIGUAN; SHAW, JIAJIU; GAUTAM, SUBHASH C.

    2015-01-01

    Methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) has shown potent antitumorigenic activity against a wide range of cancer cell lines in vitro and inhibited the growth of liver, lung and prostate cancer in vivo. In the present study, we examined the antitumor activity of CDDO-Me for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells with and without activating K-ras mutations. Treatment of K-ras mutant MiaPaCa-2 and K-ras normal BxPC-3 cells with CDDO-Me elicited strong antiproliferative and proapop-topic responses in both cell lines in culture. The inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis was accompanied by the inhibition of antiapoptotic/prosurvival p-Akt, NF-?B and p-mTOR signaling proteins. For testing efficacy of CDDO-Me in vivo heterotopic and orthotopic xenografts were generated by implanting BxPC-3 and MiaPaCa-2 cells subcutaneously and in the pancreatic tail, respectively. Treatment with CDDO-Me significantly inhibited the growth of BxPC-3 xenografts and reduced the levels of p-Akt and p-mTOR in tumor tissue. In mice with orthotopic MiaPaCa-2 xenografts, treatment with CDDO-Me prolonged the survival of mice when administered following the surgical resection of tumors. The latter was attributed to the eradication of residual PDAC remaining after resection of tumors. These preclinical data demonstrate the potential of CDDO-Me for treating primary PDAC tumors and for preventing relapse/recurrence through the destruction of residual disease. PMID:26497549

  5. Disruption of the protein interaction between FAK and IGF-1R inhibits melanoma tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Deniz A.; Kurenova, Elena; Garrett, Timothy J.; Cance, William G.; Nyberg, Carl; Cox, Audrey; Massoll, Nicole; Ostrov, David A.; Lawrence, Nicholas; Sebti, Said M.; Zajac-Kaye, Maria; Hochwald, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor receptor-1) directly interact with each other and thereby activate crucial signaling pathways that benefit cancer cells. Inhibition of FAK and IGF-1R function has been shown to significantly decrease cancer cell proliferation and increase sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. As a novel approach in human melanoma, we evaluated the effect of a small-molecule compound that disrupts the protein interaction of FAK and IGF-1R. Previously, using virtual screening and functional testing, we identified a lead compound (INT2–31) that targets the known FAK-IGF-1R protein interaction site. We studied the ability of this compound to disrupt FAK-IGF-1R protein interactions, inhibit downstream signaling, decrease human melanoma cell proliferation, alter cell cycle progression, induce apoptosis and decrease tumor growth in vivo. INT2–31 blocked the interaction of FAK and IGF-1R in vitro and in vivo in melanoma cells and tumor xenografts through precluding the activation of IRS-1, leading to reduced phosphorylation of AKT upon IGF-1 stimulation. As a result, INT2–31 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and viability (range 0.05–10 ?M). More importantly, 15 mg/kg of INT2–31 given for 21 d via intraperitoneal injection disrupted the interaction of FAK and IGF-1R and effectively decreased phosphorylation of tumor AKT, resulting in significant melanoma tumor regression in vivo. Our data suggest that the FAK-IGF-1R protein interaction is an important target, and disruption of this interaction with a novel small molecule (INT2–31) has potential anti-neoplastic therapeutic effects in human melanoma. PMID:22894899

  6. Rac2 Controls Tumor Growth, Metastasis and M1-M2 Macrophage Differentiation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shweta; Singh, Alok R.; Zulcic, Muamera; Bao, Lei; Messer, Karen; Ideker, Trey; Dutkowski, Janusz; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well-established that the macrophage M1 to M2 transition plays a role in tumor progression, the molecular basis for this process remains incompletely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the small GTPase, Rac2 controls macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and the metastatic phenotype in vivo. Using a genetic approach, combined with syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models we demonstrate that Rac2-/- mice display a marked defect in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Microarray, RT-PCR and metabolomic analysis on bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from the Rac2-/- mice identify an important role for Rac2 in M2 macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we define a novel molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the ?4?1 integrin and MCSF receptor lead to the activation of Rac2 and potentially regulate macrophage M2 differentiation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a macrophage autonomous process by which the Rac2 GTPase is activated downstream of the ?4?1 integrin and the MCSF receptor to control tumor growth, metastasis and macrophage differentiation into the M2 phenotype. Finally, using gene expression and metabolomic data from our Rac2-/- model, and information related to M1-M2 macrophage differentiation curated from the literature we executed a systems biologic analysis of hierarchical protein-protein interaction networks in an effort to develop an iterative interactome map which will predict additional mechanisms by which Rac2 may coordinately control macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and metastasis. PMID:24770346

  7. Blood flow velocity effects and role of activation delay time on growth and form of platelet Igor V. Pivkin, Peter D. Richardson, and George Karniadakis

    E-print Network

    of the thrombus, also when embolization occurs. With an activation delay time assigned to each platelet we and Born [Begent N, Born GV (1970) Nature 227:926­930]. With activated platelets having mutual tensilethrombi Blood flow velocity effects and role of activation delay time on growth and form

  8. Challenge to the suppression of tumor growth by the ?4-galactosyltransferase genes

    PubMed Central

    FURUKAWA, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that structural changes in glycans attached to proteins and lipids are associated with malignant transformation of cells. We focused on galactose residues among the sugars since they are involved in the galectin-mediated biology, and many carbohydrate antigens are frequently expressed on this sugar. We found changes in the expression of the ?4-galactosyltransferase (?4GalT) 2 and 5 genes in cancer cells: decreased expression of the ?4GalT2 gene and increased expression of the ?4GalT5 gene. The growth of mouse melanoma cells showing enhanced expression of the ?4GalT2 gene or reduced expression of the ?4GalT5 gene is inhibited remarkably in syngeneic mice. Tumor growth inhibition is probably caused by the induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, and/or reduced MAPK signals. Direct transduction of human ?4GalT2 cDNA together with the adenovirus vector into human hepatocellular carcinoma cells grown in SCID mice results in marked growth retardation of the tumors. ?4GalT gene-transfer appears to be a potential tool for cancer therapy. PMID:25743061

  9. MiR-34c suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by targeting MET

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y-Q; Ren, X-Y; He, Q-M; Xu, Y-F; Tang, X-R; Sun, Y; Zeng, M-S; Kang, T-B; Liu, N; Ma, J

    2015-01-01

    Our previous microarray analysis indicated that miR-34c was downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, little is known about the function and molecular mechanism of miR-34c in NPC. In this study, miR-34c was found to be significantly downregulated in NPC cell lines and clinical tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-34c suppressed NPC cell viability, colony formation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. MET proto-oncogene (MET) was identified as a direct target of miR-34c using luciferase reporter assays, quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Overexpression of miR-34c markedly reduced MET expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of MET suppressed NPC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas the restoration of MET rescued the suppressive effects of miR-34c. The demethylation agent 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (DAC) restored the expression of miR-34c in NPC cell lines. The promoter region of miR-34c was hypermethylated in NPC cells. In conclusion, miR-34c suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in NPC by targeting MET. The newly identified miR-34c/MET pathway provides further insights into the development and progression of NPC, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for NPC treatment. PMID:25611392

  10. MiR-34c suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by targeting MET.

    PubMed

    Li, Y-Q; Ren, X-Y; He, Q-M; Xu, Y-F; Tang, X-R; Sun, Y; Zeng, M-S; Kang, T-B; Liu, N; Ma, J

    2015-01-01

    Our previous microarray analysis indicated that miR-34c was downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, little is known about the function and molecular mechanism of miR-34c in NPC. In this study, miR-34c was found to be significantly downregulated in NPC cell lines and clinical tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-34c suppressed NPC cell viability, colony formation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. MET proto-oncogene (MET) was identified as a direct target of miR-34c using luciferase reporter assays, quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Overexpression of miR-34c markedly reduced MET expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of MET suppressed NPC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas the restoration of MET rescued the suppressive effects of miR-34c. The demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) restored the expression of miR-34c in NPC cell lines. The promoter region of miR-34c was hypermethylated in NPC cells. In conclusion, miR-34c suppresses tumor growth and metastasis in NPC by targeting MET. The newly identified miR-34c/MET pathway provides further insights into the development and progression of NPC, and may represent a novel therapeutic target for NPC treatment. PMID:25611392

  11. Serotonin metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma, which has implications for tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Alpini, Gianfranco; Invernizzi, Pietro; Gaudio, Eugenio; Venter, Julie; Kopriva, Shelley; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Onori, Paolo; Franchitto, Antonio; Stutes, Monique; Frampton, Gabriel; Alvaro, Domenico; Lee, Sum P.; Marzioni, Marco; Benedetti, Antonio; DeMorrow, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating cancer of biliary origin with limited treatment options. Symptoms are usually evident after blockage of the bile duct by the tumor and, at this late stage, they are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Therefore it is imperative that alternative treatment options are explored. We present novel data indicating that the metabolism of serotonin is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared to normal cholangiocytes and in tissue and bile from cholangiocarcinoma patients. Specifically there was an increased expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and a suppression of monoamine oxidase A expression (enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of serotonin respectively) in cholangiocarcinoma. This resulted in an increased secretion of serotonin from cholangiocarcinoma and increased serotonin in the bile from cholangiocarcinoma patients. Increased local serotonin release may have implications on cholangiocarcinoma cell growth. Serotonin administration increased cholangiocarcinoma cell growth in vitro, whereas inhibition of serotonin synthesis decreases tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. The data presented here represents the first evidence that serotonin metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma and that modulation of serotonin synthesis may represent an alternative target for the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:19010890

  12. Human Monoclonal Antibodies Cross-reacting to Insulin-like Growth Factors IGF-I and IGF-II as Potential Anti-tumor Agents

    Cancer.gov

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is over-expressed by many tumors and mediates proliferation, motility, and protection from apoptosis. Agents that inhibit IGF1R expression or function can potentially block tumor growth and metastasis. Its major ligands, IGF-I, and IGF-II are over-expressed by multiple tumor types.

  13. The hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive proteins semaphorin 4D and vascular endothelial growth factor promote tumor growth and angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua; Binmadi, Nada O.; Proia, Patrizia; Basile, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Growth and metastasis of solid tumors requires induction of angiogenesis to ensure the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to rapidly dividing transformed cells. Through either mutations, hypoxia generated by cytoreductive therapies, or when a malignancy outgrows its blood supply, tumor cells undergo a change from an avascular to a neovascular phenotype, a transition mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcriptional regulators. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one example of a gene whose transcription is stimulated by HIF. VEGF plays a crucial role in promoting tumor growth and survival by stimulating new blood vessel growth in response to such stresses as chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced hypoxia, and it therefore has become a tempting target for neutralizing antibodies in the treatment of advanced neoplasms. Emerging evidence has shown that the semaphorins, proteins originally associated with control of axonal growth and immunity, are regulated by changes in oxygen tension as well and may play a role in tumor-induced angiogenesis. Through the use of RNA interference, in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays and tumor xenograft experiments, we demonstrate that expression of semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D), which is under the control of the HIF-family of transcription factors, cooperates with VEGF to promote tumor growth and vascularity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We use blocking antibodies to show that targeting SEMA4D function along with VEGF could represent a novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OSCC and other solid tumors. PMID:22652457

  14. Anticancer activity of halofuginone in a preclinical model of osteosarcoma: inhibition of tumor growth and lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Lamora, Audrey; Mullard, Mathilde; Amiaud, Jérôme; Brion, Régis; Heymann, Dominique; Redini, Françoise; Verrecchia, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the main malignant primary bone tumor in children and adolescents for whom the prognosis remains poor, especially when metastases are present at diagnosis. Because we recently demonstrated that TGF-?/Smad cascade plays a crucial role in osteosarcoma metastatic progression, we investigated the effect of halofuginone, identified as an inhibitor of the TGF-?/Smad3 cascade, on osteosarcoma progression. A preclinical model of osteosarcoma was used to evaluate the impact of halofuginone on tumor growth, tumor microenvironment and metastasis development. In vivo experiments showed that halofuginone reduces primary tumor growth and lung metastases development. In vitro experiments demonstrated that halofuginone decreases cell viability mainly by its ability to induce caspase-3 dependent cell apoptosis. Moreover, halofuginone inhibits the TGF-?/Smad3 cascade and the response of TGF-? key targets involved in the metastases dissemination process such as MMP-2. In addition, halofuginone treatment affects the “vicious cycle” established between tumor and bone cells, and therefore the tumor-associated bone osteolysis. Together, these results demonstrate that halofuginone decreased primary osteosarcoma development and associated lung metastases by targeting both the tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. Using halofuginone may be a promising therapeutic strategy against tumor progression of osteosarcoma specifically against lung metastases dissemination. PMID:26015407

  15. Furin overexpression suppresses tumor growth and predicts a better postoperative disease-free survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Hui; Lin, Kwang-Huei; Liao, Chen-Hsin; Lai, Ming-Wei; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Furin is a member of the pro-protein convertase family. It processes several growth regulatory proteins into their active forms, which are critical to tumor progression, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Furin over-expression could occur in liver cancer and a previous study showed that over-expression of furin promoted HepG2 cell invasion in tail vein xenograft models. However, the clinical relevance of furin expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remained unknown. Surprisingly, in a postoperative survival analysis for HCC patients, it was found that the tumor/non-tumor (T/N) ratio of furin expression ? 3.5 in HCC tissues predicted a better postoperative disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.010; log-rank test). Furthermore, subcutaneous xenograft experiments demonstrated a significant suppression effect of tumor growth in the furin-overexpressed xenografts (Huh7-Furin) compared to the mock control. Administration of a synthetic furin inhibitor for inhibition of the pro-protein convertase activity, decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethylketone (decRVKR-CMK), to the Huh7-Furin xenograft bearing mice restored the repression effect of tumor growth. In contrast, administration of decRVKR-CMK to the mock Huh7 xenograft bearing mice showed no change in growth rate. In conclusion, furin overexpression inhibited HCC tumor growth in a subcutaneous xenograft model and predicted a better postoperative DFS in clinical analysis. PMID:22808247

  16. tRNAPhe and tRNAPro are the near-ultraviolet molecular targets triggering the growth delay effect

    SciTech Connect

    Blondel, M.O.; Favre, A.

    1988-02-15

    The illumination of Escherichia coli cells with UVA light, 320 nm less than or equal to lambda less than or equal to 380 nm, triggers a transient growth and division delay. The built-in 4-thiouridine chromophore which absorbs light at 340 nm leads to the quantitative 8-13 crosslinking of a number of tRNA species corresponding to 50% of the bulk tRNA molecules. Determination of the tRNA acylation level by the various aminoacids shows that only the tRNA species acylated by Phe and Pro are strikingly affected in vivo. Both acylation levels decrease to less than 10% of their initial value during the illumination period, remain stable all along the growth lag and increase concomitantly with cell mass when growth resumes. Hence tRNA(Phe) and tRNA(Pro) are the UVA light molecular targets triggering growth delay and related effects of biological significance such as cell volume reduction, photoprotection and protection against UV mutagenesis (antiphotomutagenesis).

  17. Action of hexachlorobenzene on tumor growth and metastasis in different experimental models

    SciTech Connect

    Pontillo, Carolina Andrea; Rojas, Paola; Chiappini, Florencia; Sequeira, Gonzalo; Cocca, Claudia; Crocci, Máximo; Colombo, Lucas; Lanari, Claudia; and others

    2013-05-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread organochlorine pesticide, considered a possible human carcinogen. It is a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We have found that HCB activates c-Src/HER1/STAT5b and HER1/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and cell migration, in an AhR-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of HCB (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 5 ?M) on cell invasion and metalloproteases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, we examined in vivo the effect of HCB (0.3, 3, 30 mg/kg b.w.) on tumor growth, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and metastasis using MDA-MB-231 xenografts and two syngeneic mouse breast cancer models (spontaneous metastasis using C4-HI and lung experimental metastasis using LM3). Our results show that HCB (5 ?M) enhances MMP2 expression, as well as cell invasion, through AhR, c-Src/HER1 pathway and MMPs. Moreover, HCB increases MMP9 expression, secretion and activity through a HER1 and AhR-dependent mechanism, in MDA-MB-231 cells. HCB (0.3 and 3 mg/kg b.w.) enhances subcutaneous tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 and C4-HI in vivo models. In vivo, using MDA-MB-231 model, the pesticide (0.3, 3 and 30 mg/kg b.w.) activated c-Src, HER1, STAT5b, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and increased MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels. Furthermore, we observed that HCB stimulated lung metastasis regardless the tumor hormone-receptor status. Our findings suggest that HCB may be a risk factor for human breast cancer progression. - Highlights: ? HCB enhances MMP2 and MMP9 expression and cell invasion in MDA-MB-231, in vitro. ? HCB-effects are mediated through AhR, HER1 and/or c-Src. ? HCB increases subcutaneous tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 and C4-HI in vivo models. ? HCB activates c-Src/HER1 pathway and increases MMPs levels in MDA-MB-231 tumors. ? HCB stimulates lung metastasis in C4-HI and LM3 in vivo models.

  18. Fluorescence imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor in mice tumors using targeted liposome ICG probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Xu, Yan; Backer, Marina V.; Backer, Joseph M.; Zhu, Quing

    2013-03-01

    Indocyanine Green encapsulating liposomes (Lip/ICG) and scVEGF-Lip/ICG liposomes, decorated with site-specifically lipidated engineered single-chain vascular endothelial growth factor (scVEGF) for targeting VEGF receptors were tested as potential tracers for fluorescent tomography. Two groups of experiments were conducted with tumor-bearing mice (n=4 to 6 per group) with tumors placed in a scattering medium at the imaging depths of 1.5 and 2.0 cm. Lip/ICG and scVEGF-Lip/ICG were injected intravenously in the amounts corresponding to 5 nmol of ICG/mouse. We detected kinetics of increase and decline in fluorescent signals in tumors for both imaging depths and for both targeted and untargeted Lip/ICG. Maximum fluorescent signals were approximately 2-fold higher at 1.5 cm vs. 2.0 cm imaging. A signal from untargeted Lip/ICG reached maximum at 15 min post-injection and then rapidly declined with t1/2 ~15 min. In contrast, a signal from targeted scVEGF-Lip/ICG reached maximum at 30 min post-injection and then slow declined with t1/2 ~60-90 min. Preferential retention of scVEGF-Lip(ICG) vs. Lip(ICG) was confirmed by the analysis of fluorescence in cryosections of corresponding tumors, harvested at 400 min post-injection. Our results suggest that targeted scVEGF-Lip/ICG can provide for significantly better post-injection time window for detection of relatively deeply seated tumors.

  19. Alendronate liposomes for antitumor therapy: activation of ?? T cells and inhibition of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Dikla; Epstein-Barash, Hila; Tsuriel, Moshe; Golomb, Gershon

    2012-01-01

    Circulating ?? T cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are unique to primates. Recent -studies have shown that amino-bisphosphonates (nBP) activate ?? T cells to kill tumor cells in an indirect mechanism, which requires antigen presenting cells (APC). We hypothesized that selective targeting of nBP to monocytes would result in a more potent ?? T cells activation in circulation, and in tissue associated macrophages (TAM) following monocytes-laden drug extravasation and liposomes accumulation at the tumor site. In addition, inhibition of TAM by alendronate liposomes (ALN-L) is expected. ALN was targeted exclusively to monocytes, but not to lymphocytes, by encapsulating it in negatively-charged liposomes. The proportion of human ?d-T cells in the CD3(+) population following treatment with ALN-L or the free drug was increased, from 5.6 ± 0.4% to 50.9 ;± 12.2% and 49.5 ± 12.9%, respectively. ALN solution and liposomes treatments resulted in an increased, and in a dose dependent manner, TNF? secretion from h-PBMC. Preliminary results showed that ALN-L inhibited tumor growth in a nude mouse breast tumor model. It is suggested that enhanced activation of ?? T cells could be obtained due to interaction with circulating monocytes as well as by TAM endocytosing liposomal nBP leading to a potentiated anti-tumor effect of nBP. It should be noted that this could be validated only in primates/humans since ?? T cells are unique in these species. PMID:22101722

  20. Activation of AKT signaling promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor growth in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Suman, Suman; Kurisetty, Vittal; Das, Trinath P; Vadodkar, Aditi; Ramos, Gabriel; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar; Damodaran, Chendil

    2014-02-01

    Activation of the serine-threonine protein kinase AKT has emerged as a central feature of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is the initial step for metastasis in many cancer models, including colorectal cancer. The focus of our study was to dissect the role of AKT and its molecular regulation of EMT in colorectal cancer. HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells stably overexpressing AKT (AKT/HCT-116) showed significantly higher cell proliferation compared with vector-transfected cells (pCMV/HCT-116). Elevated expression of important EMT-related transcription factors and genes such as Snail, Slug, ?-catenin, vimentin, and MMP-9 correlated with increased migration and invasion by AKT/HCT-116 cells. Further, in vivo studies confirmed that AKT/HCT-116 xenografts were highly aggressive and angiogenic in nature compared with pCMV/HCT-116 xenografts. Molecular analysis of tumor samples revealed transcriptional regulation of Snail, Slug, ?-catenin, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in AKT/HCT-116 tumors. These results were supported by immunohistochemistry analysis. Low levels of E-cadherin expression with a concomitant increase in and nuclear localization of ?-catenin were evident in AKT/HCT-116 tumors compared with control tumors. Increased microvessel formation coincident with high expression of Factor VIII and increased numbers of reticulocytes confirmed the angiogenic property of AKT/HCT-116 tumors. Our results confirm the potential role of AKT signaling in regulating EMT and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer and suggest that inhibition of AKT can serve as an important therapeutic strategy in modulating EMT in colorectal cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:24000138

  1. Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction-Mediated Delivery of a Transcription Factor Decoy Inhibits STAT3 Signaling and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kopechek, Jonathan A.; Carson, Andrew R.; McTiernan, Charles F.; Chen, Xucai; Hasjim, Bima; Lavery, Linda; Sen, Malabika; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in many cancers where it acts to promote tumor progression. A STAT3-specific transcription factor decoy has been developed to suppress STAT3 downstream signaling, but a delivery strategy is needed to improve clinical translation. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has been shown to enhance image-guided local delivery of molecular therapeutics to a target site. The objective of this study was to deliver STAT3 decoy to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tumors using UTMD to disrupt STAT3 signaling and inhibit tumor growth. Studies performed demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles inhibited STAT3 signaling in SCC cells in vitro. Studies performed in vivo demonstrated that UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles induced significant tumor growth inhibition (31-51% reduced tumor volume vs. controls, p < 0.05) in mice bearing SCC tumors. Furthermore, expression of STAT3 downstream target genes (Bcl-xL and cyclin D1) was significantly reduced (34-39%, p < 0.05) in tumors receiving UTMD treatment with STAT3 decoy-loaded microbubbles compared to controls. In addition, the quantity of radiolabeled STAT3 decoy detected in tumors eight hours after treatment was significantly higher with UTMD treatment compared to controls (70-150%, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that UTMD can increase delivery of a transcription factor decoy to tumors in vivo and that the decoy can inhibit STAT3 signaling and tumor growth. These results suggest that UTMD treatment holds potential for clinical use to increase the concentration of a transcription factor signaling inhibitor in the tumor. PMID:26681983

  2. Dietary fat modulation of mammary tumor growth and metabolism demonstrated by /sup 31/P-nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, K.L.; Buckman, D.K.; Hubbard, N.E.; Ross, B.

    1986-03-05

    The relationship of dietary fat concentration and saturation on the growth and metabolic activity of line 168 was studied using syngeneic mice fed 6 experimental diets before and during tumor growth. Tumor latency was significantly greater for mice fed a diet containing the minimum of essential fatty acids (EFA, 0.5% corn oil) or 8% coconut oil (SF) than for mice fed 8 or 20% safflower oil (PUF) or 20% SF. Changes in dietary fat resulted in alterations of tumor cell and serum fatty acid composition but not the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. /sup 31/P-surface coil NMR was used to measure possible changes in tumor metabolism in vivo. Although pH decreased from 7.2 to 6.6 as the tumor volume increased, there was no difference in pH among dietary groups. There was an inverse relationship between both sugar phosphate (SP)/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios and tumor volume; those ratios for mice fed an EFA deficient or minimal EFA diet decreased at a different rate than ratios for mice fed diets with additional fat. Tumors of mice fed diets containing no or a low level (0.3%) of 18:2 had higher SP/ATP ratios than mice fed diets containing a moderate level (approx. 4%) of 18:2. Thus, high levels of dietary fat had a significant effect on promotion of mammary tumors during early stages of tumor growth. Differences in tumor volume associated with dietary fat may be related to changes in the levels of high energy phosphate metabolites.

  3. Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can be focused at sites of tumor growth by products of macrophage activation

    SciTech Connect

    Migliori, R.J.; Gruber, S.A.; Sawyer, M.D.; Hoffman, R.; Ochoa, A.; Bach, F.H.; Simmons, R.L.

    1987-08-01

    Successful adoptive cancer immunotherapy presumably depends on the accumulation of tumoricidal leukocytes at the sites of tumor growth. Large numbers of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells can be generated in vitro by growth in high concentrations of interleukin-2 (IL-2), but relatively few arrive at the tumor site after intravenous injection. We hypothesize that the delivery of LAK cells to tumor sites may be augmented by previously demonstrated lymphocyte-recruiting factors, including activated macrophage products such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor. /sup 111/Indium-labeled LAK cells were injected intravenously into syngeneic mice bearing the macrophage activator endotoxin (LPS) in one hind footpad, and saline solution was injected into the contralateral footpad. Significantly more activity was recovered from the LPS-bearing footpad at all times during a 96-hour period. Recombinant IL-1 also attracted more LAK cells after injection into tumor-free hind footpads. Furthermore, LAK cells preferentially homed to hind footpads that were bearing 3-day established sarcomas after intralesional injections of LPS, IL-1, or tumor necrosis factor when compared with contralateral tumor-bearing footpads injected with saline solution alone. In preliminary experiments, mice with hind-footpad tumors appeared to survive longer after combined systemic IL-2 and LAK therapy if intralesional LPS was administered. These studies demonstrate that macrophage activation factors that have been shown capable of attracting circulating normal lymphocytes can also effectively attract LAK cells from the circulation. By the stimulation of macrophages at the sites of tumor growth, more LAK cells can be attracted. It is hoped that by focusing the migration of LAK cells to tumors, LAK cells and IL-2 would effect tumor regression more efficiently and with less toxicity.

  4. The analysis of feasibility and effectiveness of vascular targeting radiotherapy based on a model of tumor growth and angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yihong

    Targeting cytotoxic agents to tumor angiogenesis, instead of the tumor itself, is an attractive new approach in Radiation Oncology. Unlike tumor cells, endothelial cells are less likely to develop radio-resistance. Investigations have shown that radiation can cause a definite increase in cell permeability. Permeability changes in the tumor capillary endothelium can contribute to circulatory failure and serve as a site for clot formation. Therefore, radiation could initiate platelet aggregation and blood coagulation locally within the tumor vasculature, leading to tumor cell killing through depletion of oxygen and nutrients. In order to analyze the efficacy of a potential 90Y-labeled compound for vascular targeting radiotherapy and to evaluate the factors that may affect targets' absorbed dose, a tumor vasculature model including its angiogenesis process as a function of time and tumor growth are adopted and improved from the Liotta model. Its output is used to estimate targets' absorbed doses by Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that the effectiveness of vascular targeting therapy depends on the existence of available tumor endothelial cells and target expression. The alphavbeta3 antagonist model compound is less effective in the early stage tumors, which have very few vessels. Although a high administered dose, such as injecting of 2.1 mCi/kg to saturate all available binding sites, can destroy tumor endothelium network, the toxicity to bone marrow makes it impossible to inject such a dose. To a vascularized tumor, after giving one maximum allowable administered activity, 0.83 mCi/kg for the 90Y-labeled model compound, an average of 9.8%, 27.3%, 34.7% and 37.8% of endothelial cells would be killed when treatment starts at day 4, 7, 9 and 12 after tumor development, respectively. Therefore, recurrent treatment by vascular targeting therapy to well-vascularized tumor has the potential to slow down tumor growth or may even cause tumor regression at the primary site. Using an alternative radionuclide, 177Lu (0.498 MeV) to replace high-energy 90Y (2.282 MeV) in the model compound to treat small size tumors is also discussed. The low absorbed dose to tumor endothelium from 177Lu suggests that it is not an ideal choice for vascular targeting radiotherapy.

  5. Fluorescence imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor in tumors for mice embedded in a turbid medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Gamelin, John K.; Yuan, Baohong; Backer, Marina V.; Backer, Joseph M.; Zhu, Quing

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging of deeply seated tumors using mice injected with an angiogenesis tracer, a vascular endothelial growth factor conjugated with the infrared dye cyanine 7 (VEGF/Cy7). Our optical-only imaging reconstruction method separately estimates the target depth, and then applies this information to reconstruct functional information such as fluorophore concentration. Fluorescence targets with concentrations as low as sub-25 nM are well reconstructed at depths up to 2 cm in both homogeneous and heterogeneous media with this technique.

  6. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth? ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  7. Pharmacological targeting of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibits ovarian granulosa cell tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Rico, Charlène; Laguë, Marie-Noëlle; Lefèvre, Pavine; Tsoi, Mayra; Dodelet-Devillers, Aurore; Kumar, Vikas; Lapointe, Evelyne; Paquet, Marilène; Nadeau, Marie-Ève; Boerboom, Derek

    2012-11-01

    Few targeted therapies have been developed for ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT), even though it represents 5% of all malignant ovarian tumors in women. As misregulation of PI3K/AKT signaling has been implicated in GCT development, we hypothesized that the AKT signaling effector mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) may play a role in the pathogenesis of GCT and could represent a therapeutic target. Analyses of human GCT samples showed an increase in protein levels of mTOR and its downstream effectors RPS6KB1, RPS6, eIF4B and PPARG relative to normal granulosa cells, suggestive of an increase in mTOR pathway activity and increased translational activity and/or protein stability. We next sought to evaluate mTOR as a GCT therapeutic target using the Pten (tm1Hwu/tmiHwu);Ctnnb1 (tm1Mmt/+);Amhr2 (tm3(cre)Bhr/+) (PCA) mouse model, in which mTOR, RPS6KB1, eIF4B and PPARG are upregulated in tumor cells in a manner similar to human GCT. Treatment of PCA mice with the mTOR-specific inhibitor everolimus reduced tumor growth rate (1.5-fold; P < 0.05) and also reduced total tumor burden (4.7-fold; P < 0.05) and increased survival rate (78 versus 44% in the vehicle group) in a PCA surgical model of GCT peritoneal carcinomatosis. Everolimus decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell volume relative to controls (P < 0.05), whereas apoptosis was unaffected. Phosphorylation of RPS6KB1 and RPS6 were decreased (P < 0.05) by everolimus, but RPS6KB1, RPS6, eIF4B and PPARG expressions were not affected. These results suggest that mTOR is a valid and clinically useful pharmacological target for the treatment of GCT, although its inhibition does not reverse all consequences of aberrant PI3K/AKT signaling in the PCA model. PMID:22871496

  8. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid inhibits prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiufeng; Yi, Zhengfang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sung, Bokyung; Qu, Weijing; Lian, Xiaoyuan; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Liu, Mingyao

    2009-07-15

    The role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis is well established. Identification of a small molecule that blocks tumor angiogenesis and is safe and affordable has been a challenge in drug development. In this study, we showed that acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), an active component from an Ayurvedic medicinal plant (Boswellia serrata), could strongly inhibit tumor angiogenesis. AKBA suppressed tumor growth in the human prostate tumor xenograft mice treated daily (10 mg/kg AKBA) after solid tumors reached approximately 100 mm(3) (n = 5). The inhibitory effect of AKBA on tumor growth was well correlated with suppression of angiogenesis. When examined for the molecular mechanism, we found that AKBA significantly inhibited blood vessel formation in the Matrigel plug assay in mice and effectively suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced microvessel sprouting in rat aortic ring assay ex vivo. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited VEGF-induced cell proliferation, chemotactic motility, and the formation of capillary-like structures from primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis and in vitro kinase assay revealed that AKBA suppressed VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) kinase (KDR/Flk-1) with IC(50) of 1.68 micromol/L. Specifically, AKBA suppressed the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src family kinase, focal adhesion kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase. Our findings suggest that AKBA potently inhibits human prostate tumor growth through inhibition of angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathways. PMID:19567671

  9. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet suppresses intratumoral androgen synthesis and slows castration-resistant prostate tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Yieng Chin, Mei; Ho, Victor W; Adomat, Hans H; Soma, Kiran K; Fazli, Ladan; Nip, Ka Mun; Cox, Michael; Krystal, Gerald; Zoubeidi, Amina; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2015-06-01

    Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0.471) however, castrated mice on the Low Carb diet saw a statistically significant reduction in tumor growth rate compared with Western diet fed mice (P = 0.017). No correlation with serum PSA was observed. Steroid profiles, alongside serum cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels, were significantly altered by both diet and castration. Specifically, DHT concentration with the Low Carb diet was 58% that of the CRPC-bearing mice on the Western diet. Enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway were directly impacted and tumors isolated from intact mice on the Low Carb diet had higher AKR1C3 protein levels and lower HSD17B2 protein levels than intact mice on the Western diet (ARK1C3: P = 0.074; HSD17B2: P = 0.091, with ? = 0.1). In contrast, CRPC tumors from mice on Low Carb diets had higher concentrations of both HSD17B2 (P = 0.016) and SRD5A1 (P = 0.058 with ? = 0.1) enzymes. There was no correlation between tumor growth in castrated mice for Low Carb diet versus Western diet and (a) serum insulin (b) GH serum levels (c) insulin receptor (IR) or (d) IGF-1R in tumor tissue. Intact mice fed Western diet had higher serum insulin which was associated with significantly higher blood glucose and tumor tissue IR. We conclude that both diet and castration have a significant impact on the endocrinology of mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors. The observed effects of diet on cholesterol and steroid regulation impact tumor tissue DHT specifically and are likely to be mechanistic drivers behind the observed tumor growth suppression. PMID:25797030

  10. A peculiar molecular profile of umbilical cord-mesenchymal stromal cells drives their inhibitory effects on multiple myeloma cell growth and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Ciavarella, Sabino; Caselli, Anna; Tamma, Antonella Valentina; Savonarola, Annalisa; Loverro, Giuseppe; Paganelli, Roberto; Tucci, Marco; Silvestris, Franco

    2015-06-15

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are under intensive investigation in preclinical models of cytotherapies against cancer, including multiple myeloma (MM). However, the therapeutic use of stromal progenitors holds critical safety concerns due to their potential MM-supporting activity in vivo. Here, we explored whether MSCs from sources other than BM, such as adipose tissue (AD-MSCs) and umbilical cord (UC-MSCs), affect MM cell growth in comparison to either normal (nBM-MSCs) or myelomatous marrow MSCs (MM-BM-MSCs). Results from both proliferation and clonogenic assays indicated that, in contrast to nBM- and MM-BM-MSCs, both AD and particularly UC-MSCs significantly inhibit MM cell clonogenicity and growth in vitro. Furthermore, when co-injected with UC-MSCs into mice, RPMI-8226 MM cells formed smaller subcutaneous tumor masses, while peritumoral injections of the same MSC subtype significantly delayed the tumor burden growing in subcutaneous plasmocytoma-bearing mice. Finally, both microarrays and ELISA revealed different expression of several genes and soluble factors in UC-MSCs as compared with other MSCs. Our data suggest that UC-MSCs have a distinct molecular profile that correlates with their intrinsic anti-MM activity and emphasize the UCs as ideal sources of MSCs for future cell-based therapies against MM. PMID:25758779

  11. Olfactomedin 4 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis of Mouse Melanoma Cells through Downregulation of Integrin and MMP Genes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Key Sun; Kim, Kee Kwang; Piao, Zheng-Hao; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Hyun Jean; Kim, Yong Chan; Lee, Ki Sung; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoon Eon

    2012-01-01

    Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is highly expressed in gastrointestinal cancers and has an anti-apoptotic function. The roles of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis and how it functions in these processes remain elusive. We investigated the function of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells as an experimental system. Our results showed that OLFM4 had no positive effect on cell viability or cell cycle progression in B16F10 cells. However, it significantly suppressed the tumorigenicity of B16F10 cells, i.e., intradermal primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. OLFM4 also suppressed the migration and invasion of B16F10 cells in vitro. For further insight into the mechanisms underlying OLFM4-mediated suppression of tumor progression, we examined the effect of OLFM4 on the expression of integrin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), both of which are involved in tumor progression. Overexpression of OLFM4 clearly reduced the expression levels of integrin ?1, integrin ?4, integrin ?5, integrin ?6, and MMP9. Moreover, forced expression of MMP9 attenuated the inhibitory activity of OLFM4 on migration and invasiveness. Our findings provide the experimental evidence that OLFM4 may function as a tumor suppressor and an anti-metastatic gene during tumor progression. PMID:23161172

  12. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with epidermal growth factor (SPION–EGF) for targeting brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shevtsov, Maxim A; Nikolaev, Boris P; Yakovleva, Ludmila Y; Marchenko, Yaroslav Y; Dobrodumov, Anatolii V; Mikhrina, Anastasiya L; Martynova, Marina G; Bystrova, Olga A; Yakovenko, Igor V; Ischenko, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (SPION–EGF) were studied as a potential agent for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement of malignant brain tumors. Synthesized conjugates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry. The interaction of SPION–EGF conjugates with cells was analyzed in a C6 glioma cell culture. The distribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in an orthotopic model of C6 gliomas. SPION–EGF nanosuspensions had the properties of a negative contrast agent with high coefficients of relaxation efficiency. In vitro studies of SPION–EGF nanoparticles showed high intracellular incorporation and the absence of a toxic influence on C6 cell viability and proliferation. Intravenous administration of SPION–EGF conjugates in animals provided receptor-mediated targeted delivery across the blood–brain barrier and tumor retention of the nanoparticles; this was more efficient than with unconjugated SPIONs. The accumulation of conjugates in the glioma was revealed as hypotensive zones on T2-weighted images with a twofold reduction in T2 relaxation time in comparison to unconjugated SPIONs (P<0.001). SPION–EGF conjugates provide targeted delivery and efficient magnetic resonance contrast enhancement of EGFR-overexpressing C6 gliomas. PMID:24421639

  13. Crystalline silica-induced leukotrieneB4-dependent inflammation promotes lung tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Satpathy, Shuchismita R.; Jala, Venkatakrishna R.; Bodduluri, Sobha R.; Krishnan, Elangovan; Hegde, Bindu; Hoyle, Gary; Fraig, Mostafa; Luster, Andrew D.; Haribabu, Bodduluri

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to crystalline silica (CS) causes silicosis, an irreversible lung inflammatory disease that may eventually lead to lung cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that in K-rasLA1 mice, CS exposure markedly enhances the lung tumor burden and genetic deletion of leukotriene B4 receptor1 (BLT1?/?) attenuates this increase. Pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation induced by CS is significantly reduced in BLT1?/?K-rasLA1 mice. CS exposure induces LTB4 production by mast cells and macrophages independent of inflammasome activation. In an air pouch model, CS-induced neutrophil recruitment is dependent on LTB4 production by mast cells and BLT1 expression on neutrophils. In an implantable lung tumor model, CS exposure results in rapid tumor growth and decrease survival that is attenuated in the absence of BLT1. These results suggest that LTB4/BLT1 axis sets the pace of CS-induced sterile inflammation that promotes lung cancer progression. This knowledge will facilitate development of immunotherapeutic strategies to fight silicosis and lung cancer. PMID:25923988

  14. Inhibition of tumor cell growth by Sigma1 ligand mediated translational repression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Felix J.; Schrock, Joel M.; Spino, Christina M.; Marino, Jacqueline C.; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sigma1 ligand treatment mediates decrease in tumor cell mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of a Sigma1 ligand with reversible translational repressor actions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of a role for Sigma1 in cellular protein synthesis. -- Abstract: Treatment with sigma1 receptor (Sigma1) ligands can inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, the cellular pathways engaged in response to Sigma1 ligand treatment that contribute to these outcomes remain largely undefined. Here, we show that treatment with putative antagonists of Sigma1 decreases cell mass. This effect corresponds with repressed cap-dependent translation initiation in multiple breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Sigma1 antagonist treatment suppresses phosphorylation of translational regulator proteins p70S6K, S6, and 4E-BP1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Sigma1 also results in translational repression, consistent with the effects of antagonist treatment. Sigma1 antagonist mediated translational repression and decreased cell size are both reversible. Together, these data reveal a role for Sigma1 in tumor cell protein synthesis, and demonstrate that small molecule Sigma1 ligands can be used as modulators of protein translation.

  15. Platelets are associated with xenograft tumor growth and the clinical malignancy of ovarian cancer through an angiogenesis-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, LEI; LIU, XISHI

    2015-01-01

    Platelets are known to facilitate tumor metastasis and thrombocytosis has been associated with an adverse prognosis in ovarian cancer. However, the role of platelets in primary tumour growth remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that the expression levels of various markers in platelets, endothelial adherence and angiogenesis, including, platelet glycoprotein IIb (CD41), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD31), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), lysyl oxidase, focal adhesion kinase and breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1, were expressed at higher levels in patients with malignant carcinoma, compared with those with borderline cystadenoma and cystadenoma. In addition, the endothelial markers CD31 and VEGF were found to colocalize with the platelet marker CD41 in the malignant samples. Since mice transplanted with human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) demonstrated elevated tumor size and decreased survival rate when treated with thrombin or thrombopoietin (TPO), the platelets appeared to promote primary tumor growth. Depleting platelets using antibodies or by pretreating the cancer cells with hirudin significantly attenuated the transplanted tumor growth. The platelets contributed to late, but not early stages of tumor proliferation, as mice treated with platelet-depleting antibody 1 day prior to and 11 days after tumor transplantation had the same tumor volumes. By contrast, tumor size in the early TPO-injected group was increased significantly compared with the late TPO-injected group. These findings suggested that the interplay between platelets and angiogenesis may contribute to ovarian cancer growth. Therefore, platelets and their associated signaling and adhesive molecules may represent potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer. PMID:25502723

  16. CXCL1 promotes tumor growth through VEGF pathway activation and is associated with inferior survival in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhe-Wei; Xia, Guang-Kai; Wu, Ying; Chen, Wei; Xiang, Zhen; Schwarz, Roderich E; Brekken, Rolf A; Awasthi, Niranjan; He, Yu-Long; Zhang, Chang-Hua

    2015-04-10

    The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) regulates tumor-stromal interactions and tumor invasion. However, the precise role of CXCL1 on gastric tumor growth and patient survival remains unclear. In the current study, protein expressions of CXCL1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) in primary tumor tissues from 98 gastric cancer patients were measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). CXCL1 overexpressed cell lines were constructed using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent or lentiviral vectors. Effects of CXCL1 on VEGF expression and local tumor growth were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CXCL1 was positively expressed in 41.4% of patients and correlated with VEGF and p-STAT3 expression. Higher CXCL1 expression was associated with advanced tumor stage and poorer prognosis. In vitro studies in AGS and SGC-7901 cells revealed that CXCL1 increased cell migration but had little effect on cell proliferation. CXCL1 activated VEGF signaling in gastric cancer (GC) cells, which was inhibited by STAT3 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) blockade. CXCL1 also increased p-STAT3 expression in GC cells. In vivo, CXCL1 increased xenograft local tumor growth, phospho-Janus kinase 2 (p-JAK2), p-STAT3 levels, VEGF expression and microvessel density. These results suggested that CXCL1 increased local tumor growth through activation of VEGF signaling which may have mechanistic implications for the observed inferior GC survival. The CXCL1/CXCR2 pathway might be potent to improve anti-angiogenic therapy for gastric cancer. PMID:25641338

  17. CysLT1R Antagonists Inhibit Tumor Growth in a Xenograft Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21WAF/Cip1 (P<0.01), cleaved caspase 3, and the caspase-cleaved product of cytokeratin 18. Decreased levels of VEGF (P<0.01) and reduced vessel size (P<0.05) were also observed, the latter only in the ZM198,615-pretreatment group. Furthermore, we performed a series of in vitro studies using the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells. PMID:24039952

  18. CysLT(1)R antagonists inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Savari, Sayeh; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the inflammatory G-protein coupled receptor CysLT1R has been shown to be upregulated in colon cancer patients and associated with poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between CysLT1R and colon cancer development in vivo using CysLT1R antagonists (ZM198,615 or Montelukast) and the nude mouse xenograft model. Two drug administration regimens were established. The first regimen was established to investigate the importance of CysLT1R in tumor initiation. Nude mice were inoculated with 50 µM CysLT1R antagonist-pretreated HCT-116 colon cancer cells and received continued treatment (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). The second regimen aimed to address the role of CysLT1R in tumor progression. Nude mice were inoculated with non-pretreated HCT-116 cells and did not receive CysLT1R antagonist treatment until recordable tumor appearance. Both regimens resulted in significantly reduced tumor size, attributed to changes in proliferation and apoptosis as determined by reduced Ki-67 levels and increased levels of p21(WAF/Cip1) (P<0.01), cleaved caspase 3, and the caspase-cleaved product of cytokeratin 18. Decreased levels of VEGF (P<0.01) and reduced vessel size (P<0.05) were also observed, the latter only in the ZM198,615-pretreatment group. Furthermore, we performed a series of in vitro studies using the colon cancer cell line HCT-116 and CysLT1R antagonists. In addition to significant reductions in cell proliferation, adhesion and colony formation, we observed induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of Montelukast to inhibit growth of human colon cancer xenograft was further validated by using two additional colon cancer cell lines, SW-480 and HT-29. Our results demonstrate that CysLT1R antagonists inhibit growth of colon cancer xenografts primarily by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of the tumor cells. PMID:24039952

  19. Over-expression of p53 mutants in LNCaP cells alters tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Perryman, L.A.; Blair, J.M.; Kingsley, E.A.; Szymanska, B.; Ow, K.T.; Wen, V.W.; MacKenzie, K.L.; Vermeulen, P.B.; Jackson, P.; Russell, P.J. . E-mail: p.russell@unsw.edu.au

    2006-07-07

    This study has investigated the impact of three specific dominant-negative p53 mutants (F134L, M237L, and R273H) on tumorigenesis by LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mutant p53 proteins were associated with an increased subcutaneous 'take rate' in NOD-SCID mice, and increased production of PSA. Tumors expressing F134L and R273H grew slower than controls, and were associated with decreased necrosis and apoptosis, but not hypoxia. Interestingly, hypoxia levels were increased in tumors expressing M237L. There was less proliferation in F134L-bearing tumors compared to control, but this was not statistically significant. Angiogenesis was decreased in tumors expressing F134L and R273H compared with M237L, or controls. Conditioned medium from F134L tumors inhibited growth of normal human umbilical-vein endothelial cells but not telomerase-immortalized bone marrow endothelial cells. F134L tumor supernatants showed lower levels of VEGF and endostatin compared with supernatants from tumors expressing other mutants. Our results support the possibility that decreased angiogenesis might account for reduced growth rate of tumor cells expressing the F134L p53 mutation.

  20. SOX9, a potential tumor suppressor in cervical cancer, transactivates p21WAF1/CIP1 and suppresses cervical tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Lian, Ping; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2015-08-21

    Sex-determining region Y-box 9 protein (SOX9) is a transcription factor that may act as both oncogene and tumor suppressor depending on tumor origin. Here we found that SOX9 expression was progressively decreased in cervical carcinoma in situ and especially in invasive cervical carcinoma, compared with normal cervix tissue. The effects of SOX9 on the proliferation, viability, and tumor formation of cervical carcinoma cells were assessed through the silencing and overexpression of SOX9. Overexpression of SOX9 in cervical carcinoma cells (SiHa and C33A) inhibited cell growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. In agreement, the silencing of SOX9 in HeLa cells promoted cell growth in culture and tumor formation in mice. Overexpression of SOX9 transactivated p21WAF1/CIP1 via a specific promoter region, thus blocking G1/S transition. The quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed physical interaction between SOX9 and the specific region of the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. We suggest that SOX9 is a potential therapeutic target in cervical carcinoma, that specifically transactivates p21WAF1/CIP1. PMID:26036262

  1. SOX9, a potential tumor suppressor in cervical cancer, transactivates p21WAF1/CIP1 and suppresses cervical tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-yan; Lian, Ping; Zheng, Peng-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Sex-determining region Y-box 9 protein (SOX9) is a transcription factor that may act as both oncogene and tumor suppressor depending on tumor origin. Here we found that SOX9 expression was progressively decreased in cervical carcinoma in situ and especially in invasive cervical carcinoma, compared with normal cervix tissue. The effects of SOX9 on the proliferation, viability, and tumor formation of cervical carcinoma cells were assessed through the silencing and overexpression of SOX9. Overexpression of SOX9 in cervical carcinoma cells (SiHa and C33A) inhibited cell growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. In agreement, the silencing of SOX9 in HeLa cells promoted cell growth in culture and tumor formation in mice. Overexpression of SOX9 transactivated p21WAF1/CIP1 via a specific promoter region, thus blocking G1/S transition. The quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed physical interaction between SOX9 and the specific region of the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. We suggest that SOX9 is a potential therapeutic target in cervical carcinoma, that specifically transactivates p21WAF1/CIP1. PMID:26036262

  2. Modification of an apparatus for tumor-suppressor protein crystal growth in the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    Some human diseases as tumors are being studied continuously for the development of vaccines against them. And a way of doing that is by means of proteins research. There are some kinds of proteins, like the p53 and p73 proteins, which are tumor suppressors. There are other diseases such as A.I.D.S., hansenosis, the Parkinson's and Chagas' diseases which are protein-related. The determination of how proteins geometrically order themselves, during its biological functions is very necessary to understand how a protein's structure affects its function, to design vaccines that intercede in tumor-protein activities and in other proteins related to those other diseases. The protein crystal growth in microgravity environment produces purer crystallization than on the ground, and it is a powerful tool to produce better vaccines. Several data have already been acquired using ground-based research and in spaceflight experiments aboard the Spacelab and Space Shuttle missions, and in the MIR and in the International Space Station (ISS). Here in this paper, I propose to be performed in the ISS Biological Research Facility (which is being developed), multiple crystal growth of proteins related to cancer (as tumors suppressors and oncoproteins), A.I.D.S., hansenosis, the Parkinson's and Chagas' diseases, for the future obtaining of possible vaccines against them. I also propose a simple and practical equipment, a modification of the crystallization plates (which use a vapor diffusion technique) inside each cylinder of the Protein Crystallization Apparatus in Microgravity (PCAM), with multiple chambers with different sizes. Instead of using some chambers with the same size it is better to use several chambers with different sizes. Why is that? The answer is: the energy associated with the surface tension of the liquid in the chamber is directly related to the circle area of it. So, to minimize the total energy of the surface tension of a proteins liquid -making it more stable relative to the surface tension threshold point, thus making less perturbation on the molecules -the least energy geometrical configuration is of a small number of circles with greatest radius and a greater number of circles with smallest radius. The technology for the proteins crystal growth within these differential chambers already exists. This suggested modification, along with the use of gels inside the chambers, will increase the necessary quantity and quality of several kinds of proteins' crystals, for the later, on ground, continued study and possible manufacture of vaccines against such diseases, and to begin a possible first-stage small factory operated by astronauts aboard the ISS, for multiple crystals for future vaccines, for Human use.

  3. Crosstalk between KIT and FGFR3 Promotes Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Cell Growth and Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Javidi-Sharifi, Nathalie; Traer, Elie; Martinez, Jacqueline; Gupta, Anu; Taguchi, Takehiro; Dunlap, Jennifer; Heinrich, Michael C; Corless, Christopher L; Rubin, Brian P; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

    2015-03-01

    Kinase inhibitors such as imatinib have dramatically improved outcomes for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), but many patients develop resistance to these treatments. Although in some patients this event corresponds with mutations in the GIST driver oncogenic kinase KIT, other patients develop resistance without KIT mutations. In this study, we address this patient subset in reporting a functional dependence of GIST on the FGF receptor FGFR3 and its crosstalk with KIT in GIST cells. Addition of the FGFR3 ligand FGF2 to GIST cells restored KIT phosphorylation during imatinib treatment, allowing sensitive cells to proliferate in the presence of the drug. FGF2 expression was increased in imatinib-resistant GIST cells, the growth of which was blocked by RNAi-mediated silencing of FGFR3. Moreover, combining KIT and FGFR3 inhibitors synergized to block the growth of imatinib-resistant cells. Signaling crosstalk between KIT and FGFR3 activated the MAPK pathway to promote resistance to imatinib. Clinically, an IHC analysis of tumor specimens from imatinib-resistant GIST patients revealed a relative increase in FGF2 levels, with a trend toward increased expression in imatinib-naïve samples consistent with possible involvement in drug resistance. Our findings provide a mechanistic rationale to evaluate existing FGFR inhibitors and multikinase inhibitors that target FGFR3 as promising strategies to improve treatment of patients with GIST with de novo or acquired resistance to imatinib. PMID:25432174

  4. Anticancer activity of MPT0G157, a derivative of indolylbenzenesulfonamide, inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, Samir; Lai, Ssu-Chia; Liou, Jing-Ping; Yang, Chia-Ron

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) display multifaceted functions by coordinating the interaction of signal pathways with chromatin structure remodeling and the activation of non-histone proteins; these epigenetic regulations play an important role during malignancy progression. HDAC inhibition shows promise as a new strategy for cancer therapy; three HDAC inhibitors have been approved. We previously reported that N-hydroxy-3-{4-[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylsulfamoyl]-phenyl}-acrylamide (MPT0G157), a novel indole-3-ethylsulfamoylphenylacrylamide compound, demonstrated potent HDAC inhibition and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated its anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. MPT0G157 treatment significantly inhibited different tumor growth at submicromolar concentration and was particularly potent in human colorectal cancer (HCT116) cells. Apoptosis and inhibited HDACs activity induced by MPT0G157 was more potent than that by the marketed drugs PXD101 (Belinostat) and SAHA (Vorinostat). In an in vivo model, MPT0G157 markedly inhibited HCT116 xenograft tumor volume and reduced matrigel-induced angiogenesis. The anti-angiogenetic effect of MPT0G157 was found to increase the hyperacetylation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and promote hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) degradation followed by down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Our results demonstrate that MPT0G157 has potential as a new drug candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:26087180

  5. Plant-Made Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Inhibits HER2/Neu+ Cell Proliferation and Retards Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Frolova, Olga Y.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Skrypnik, Ksenia A.; Gleba, Yuri Y.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant biotechnology provides a valuable contribution to global health, in part because it can decrease the cost of pharmaceutical products. Breast cancer can now be successfully treated by a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb), trastuzumab (Herceptin). A course of treatment, however, is expensive and requires repeated administrations of the mAb. Here we used an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system to produce trastuzumab in plant cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the cloning and expression of gene constructs in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using intron-optimized Tobacco mosaic virus- and Potato virus X-based vectors encoding, respectively, the heavy and light chains of trastuzumab. Full-size antibodies extracted and purified from plant tissues were tested for functionality and specificity by (i) binding to HER2/neu on the surface of a human mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line, SK-BR-3, in fluorescence-activated cell sorting assay and (ii) testing the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of HER-2-expressing cancer cell proliferation. We show that plant-made trastuzumab (PMT) bound to the Her2/neu oncoprotein of SK-BR-3 cells and efficiently inhibited SK-BR-3 cell proliferation. Furthermore, mouse intraperitoneal PMT administration retarded the growth of xenografted tumors derived from human ovarian cancer SKOV3 Her2+ cells. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that PMT is active in suppression of cell proliferation and tumor growth. PMID:21390232

  6. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-Selective Ligands Modulate Endometrial Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Whitney K.; Dennis, Megan K.; Dai, Donghai; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Smith, Harriet O.; Hathaway, Helen J.; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract. GPER/GPR30 is a 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptor that has been identified as the third estrogen receptor, in addition to ER? and ER?. High GPER expression is predictive of poor survival in endometrial and ovarian cancer, but despite this, the estrogen-mediated signaling pathways and specific estrogen receptors involved in endometrial cancer remain unclear. Here, employing ER?-negative Hec50 endometrial cancer cells, we demonstrate that GPER mediates estrogen-stimulated activation of ERK and PI3K via matrix metalloproteinase activation and subsequent transactivation of the EGFR and that ER-targeted therapeutic agents (4-hydroxytamoxifen, ICI182,780/fulvestrant, and Raloxifene), the phytoestrogen genistein, and the “ER?-selective” agonist propylpyrazole triol also function as GPER agonists. Furthermore, xenograft tumors of Hec50 cells yield enhanced growth with G-1 and estrogen, the latter being inhibited by GPER-selective pharmacologic antagonism with G36. These results have important implications with respect to the use of putatively ER-selective ligands and particularly for the widespread long-term use of “ER-targeted” therapeutics. Moreover, our findings shed light on the potential mechanisms of SERM/SERD side effects reported in many clinical studies. Finally, our results provide the first demonstration that pharmacological inhibition of GPER activity in vivo prevents estrogen-mediated tumor growth. PMID:24379833

  7. Epigenetic silencing of EYA2 in pancreatic adenocarcinomas promotes tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Audrey; Hong, Seung-Mo; Hu, Chaoxin; Omura, Noriyuki; Young, Angela; Kim, Haeryoung; Yu, Jun; Knight, Spencer; Ayars, Michael; Griffith, Margaret; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Maitra, Anirban; Goggins, Michael

    2014-05-15

    To identify potentially important genes dysregulated in pancreatic cancer, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional analysis of pancreatic cancers and normal pancreatic duct samples and identified the transcriptional coactivator, EYA2 (Drosophila Eyes Absent Homologue-2) as silenced in the majority of pancreatic cancers. We investigated the role of epigenetic mechanisms of EYA2 gene silencing in pancreatic cancers, performed in vitro and in vivo proliferation and migration assays to assess the effect of EYA2 silencing on tumor cell growth and metastasis formation, and expression analysis to identify genes transcriptionally regulated by EYA2. We found loss of tumoral Eya2 expression in 63% of pancreatic cancers (120/189 cases). Silencing of EYA2 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines correlated with promoter methylation and histone deacetylation and was reversible with DNA methyltransferase and HDAC inhibitors. EYA2 knockdown in pancreatic cancer cell lines increased cell proliferation. Compared to parental pancreatic cancer cells, pancreatic cancers stably-expressing EYA2 grew more slowly and had fewer metastases in orthotopic models. The transcriptional changes after stable expression of EYA2 in pancreatic cancer cells included induction of genes in the TGFbeta pathway. Epigenetic silencing of EYA2 is a common event in pancreatic cancers and stable expression EYA2 limits the growth and metastases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:24810906

  8. Nucleolin antagonist triggers autophagic cell death in human glioblastoma primary cells and decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Elisabetta; Antonosante, Andrea; d'Angelo, Michele; Cristiano, Loredana; Galzio, Renato; Destouches, Damien; Florio, Tiziana Marilena; Dhez, Anne Chloé; Astarita, Carlo; Cinque, Benedetta; Fidoamore, Alessia; Rosati, Floriana; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Courty, José; Cimini, Annamaria

    2015-12-01

    Nucleolin (NCL) is highly expressed in several types of cancer and represents an interesting therapeutic target. It is expressed at the plasma membrane of tumor cells, a property which is being used as a marker for several human cancer including glioblastoma. In this study we investigated targeting NCL as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this pathology. To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of an antagonist of NCL, the multivalent pseudopeptide N6L using primary culture of human glioblastoma cells. In this system, N6L inhibits cell growth with different sensitivity depending to NCL localization. Cell cycle analysis indicated that N6L-induced growth reduction was due to a block of the G1/S transition with down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1 and B2. By monitoring autophagy markers such as p62 and LC3II, we demonstrate that autophagy is enhanced after N6L treatment. In addition, N6L-treatment of mice bearing tumor decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model and increase mice survival. The results obtained indicated an anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effect of N6L and point towards its possible use as adjuvant agent to the standard therapeutic protocols presently utilized for glioblastoma. PMID:26540346

  9. DAC can restore expression of NALP1 to suppress tumor growth in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C; Wang, B; Sun, J; Na, H; Chen, Z; Zhu, Z; Yan, L; Ren, S; Zuo, Y

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in the identification of genetic and molecular alternations in colorectal carcinoma, the precise molecular pathogenesis remains unclear. NALP1 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 1) is a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family of proteins that are key organization proteins in the inflammasome. It is reported that NALP1 plays a central role in cell apoptosis, pyroptosis, inflammatory reactions and autoimmune diseases. DAC (5-aza-2-deoxycytidine) is an antitumor drug useful to lung cancer, myelodysplastic disorders, myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we examined the expression of NALP1 in human normal and cancerous colon tissues using tissue microarray, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR and we measured the expression of NALP1 in three kinds of colon cancer cell lines and animal models before and after treatment with DAC. Furthermore, we examined the treatment effects of DAC on colon cancer in our animal model. Our data indicate that NALP1 is expressed low in human colorectal tumoral tissues relative to paratumoral tissues and was associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients. The expression of NALP1 increased after treatment with DAC both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, DAC suppressed the growth of colon cancer and increased lifespan in mouse model. Therefore, we conclude that NALP1 is expressed low in colon cancer and associated with the survival and tumor metastasis of patients, and treatment with DAC can restore NALP1 levels to suppress the growth of colon cancer. PMID:25611377

  10. RPRD1B promotes tumor growth by accelerating the cell cycle in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Haifeng; Hu, Weixu; Li, Shaoru; Yu, Jinjin

    2014-03-01

    RPRD1B, the regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 1B gene, functions as a cell cycle manipulator and has been found overexpressed in a small panel of endometrial cancer types. In the present study, we investigated the roles of RPRD1B in endometrial cancer using various in vitro and in vivo experiments. According to our results, RPRD1B mRNA was significantly upregulated in endometrial cancer tissues (P=0.0012). RPRD1B overexpression was correlated with tumor stage (P=0.0004), histology type (P=0.0146) and depth of myometrial invasion (P=0.024). In vitro, RPRD1B promoted cellular proliferation (P=0.032 for MTT assay and P=0.018 for colony formation assay), and accelerated the cell cycle (P=0.007) by upregulating cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6, while knockdown of RPRD1B suppressed cellular proliferation (P=0.02 for MTT assay and P=0.031 for colony formation assay), and led to G1 phase arrest (P=0.025) through downregulating cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6. Consistently, in the nude mice model, RPRD1B overexpression significantly accelerated the tumor xenograft growth (P=0.0012), accompanied by elevated Ki-67 and cyclin D1. In addition, we demonstrated that downregulating RPRD1B could sensitize Ishikawa cells to Raloxifene (P=0.01). In summary, we demonstrated that RPRD1B was frequently overexpressed in human endometrial cancer. Both in vitro and in vivo, over-abundant RPRD1B could promote tumor growth and accelerate cellular cell cycle. In addition, knockdown of RPRD1B also increased cell sensitivity to Raloxifene, making RPRD1B a potent therapeutic target for endometrial cancer, particularly in patients with resistance to the selective ER modulators. PMID:24452636

  11. Dietary intake of a plant phospholipid/lipid conjugate reduces lung cancer growth and tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen-Taubman, Sandra; Rubinstein, Danielle; Viole, Gary; Stetler-Stevenson, William G.

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that early detection and cancer prevention are significant armaments in the ‘war against cancer’. Changes in lifestyle and diet have significant impact on the global incidence of cancer. For over 30 years, many investigators have studied the concept of chemoprevention. More recently, with the demonstration that antiangiogenic activity reduces tumor growth, the concept of angioprevention has emerged as a novel strategy in the deterrence of cancer development (carcinogenesis). In this study, we utilized a fast growing, highly aggressive murine Lewis lung cancer model to examine the in vivo antitumor effects of a novel, dietary supplement, known as plant phospholipid/lipid conjugate (pPLC). Our goal was to determine if pPLC possessed direct antitumor activity with relatively little toxicity that could be developed as a chemoprevention therapy. We used pPLC directly in this in vivo model due to the lack of aqueous solubility of this novel formulation, which precludes in vitro experimentation. pPLC contains known antioxidants, ferulic acid and lipoic acid, as well as soy sterols, formulated in a unique aqueous-insoluble matrix. The pPLC dietary supplement was shown to suppress in vivo growth of this tumor model by 30%. We also demonstrated a significant decrease in tumor angiogenesis accompanied by increased apoptosis and present preliminary evidence of enhanced expression of the hypoxia-related genes pentraxin-3 and metallothionein-3, by 24.9-fold and 10.9-fold, respectively, compared with vehicle control. These findings lead us to propose using this plant phosolipid/lipid conjugate as a dietary supplement that may be useful in cancer prevention. PMID:24510111

  12. Tetrandrine inhibits Wnt/?-catenin signaling and suppresses tumor growth of human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Bai-Cheng; Gao, Jian-Li; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Kim, Stephanie H; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Yang, Ke; Wagner, Eric R; Wang, Linyuan; Tang, Ni; Luo, Jinyong; Liu, Xing; Li, Mi; Bi, Yang; Shen, Jikun; Luther, Gaurav; Hu, Ning; Zhou, Qixin; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; Zhao, Yingming; He, Tong-Chuan

    2011-02-01

    As one of the most common malignancies, colon cancer is initiated by abnormal activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Although the treatment options have increased for some patients, overall progress has been modest. Thus, there is a great need to develop new treatments. We have found that bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid tetrandrine (TET) exhibits anticancer activity. TET is used as a calcium channel blocker to treat hypertensive and arrhythmic conditions in Chinese medicine. Here, we investigate the molecular basis underlying TET's anticancer activity. We compare TET with six chemotherapy drugs in eight cancer lines and find that TET exhibits comparable anticancer activities with camptothecin, vincristine, paclitaxel, and doxorubicin, and better than that of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and carboplatin. TET IC?? is ?5 ?M in most of the tested cancer lines. TET exhibits synergistic anticancer activity with 5-FU and reduces migration and invasion capabilities of HCT116 cells. Furthermore, TET induces apoptosis and inhibits xenograft tumor growth of colon cancer. TET treatment leads to a decrease in ?-catenin protein level in xenograft tumors, which is confirmed by T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer factor and c-Myc reporter assays. It is noteworthy that HCT116 cells with allelic oncogenic ?-catenin deleted are less sensitive to TET-mediated inhibition of proliferation, viability, and xenograft tumor growth. Thus, our findings strongly suggest that the anticancer effect of TET in colon cancer may be at least in part mediated by targeting ?-catenin activity. Therefore, TET may be used alone or in combination as an effective anticancer agent. PMID:20978119

  13. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees.

    PubMed

    Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-11-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ?39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change. PMID:26149972

  14. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Vorinostat, Reduces Tumor Growth at the Metastatic Bone Site and Associated Osteolysis, but Promotes Normal Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Jitesh; Akech, Jacqueline; Wixted, John J.; Szabo, Gabriela; Hussain, Sadiq; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Li, Xiaodong; Bedard, Krystin; Dhillon, Robinder J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Lian, Jane B.

    2010-01-01

    Vorinostat, an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity, is in clinical trials for hematological and solid tumors that metastasize and compromise bone structure. Consequently, there is a requirement to establish the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth within bone. Breast (MDA-231) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells were injected into tibias of SCID/NCr mice and the effects of vorinostat on tumor growth and osteolytic disease were assessed by radiography, ?CT, histological and molecular analyses. Vorinostat-treated and control mice without tumors were also examined. Tumor growth in bone was reduced ~33% by vorinostat with inhibited osteolysis in the first few weeks of the experiment; however, osteolysis became more severe in both the vehicle and vorinostat-treated groups. Vorinostat increased the expression of tumor-derived factors promoting bone resorption, including PTHrP, IL-8 and osteopontin. After four weeks of vorinostat therapy the non-tumor bearing contra-lateral femurs as well as limbs from vorinostat-treated tumor-free SCID mice, showed significant bone loss (50% volume density of controls). Thus, our studies indicate that vorinostat effectively inhibits tumor growth in bone, but has a negative systemic effect reducing normal trabecular bone mass. Vorinostat treatment reduces tumor growth in bone and accompanying osteolytic disease as a result of decreased tumor burden in bone. However, vorinostat can promote osteopenia throughout the skeleton independent of tumor cell activity. PMID:21159607

  15. A human monoclonal antibody targeting the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) blocks tumor cell signaling and inhibits tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lebron, Maria B; Brennan, Laura; Damoci, Christopher B; Prewett, Marie C; O'Mahony, Marguerita; Duignan, Inga J; Credille, Kelly M; DeLigio, James T; Starodubtseva, Marina; Amatulli, Michael; Zhang, Yiwei; Schwartz, Kaben D; Burtrum, Douglas; Balderes, Paul; Persaud, Kris; Surguladze, David; Loizos, Nick; Paz, Keren; Kotanides, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) exerts multiple biological effects on target cells upon binding its ligand stem cell factor (SCF). Aberrant activation of c-Kit results in dysregulated signaling and is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. The development of more specific and effective c-Kit therapies is warranted given its essential role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we describe the biological properties of CK6, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the extracellular region of human c-Kit. CK6 specifically binds c-Kit receptor with high affinity (EC 50 = 0.06 nM) and strongly blocks its interaction with SCF (IC 50 = 0.41 nM) in solid phase assays. Flow cytometry shows CK6 binding to c-Kit on the cell surface of human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), melanoma, and leukemia tumor cell lines. Furthermore, exposure to CK6 inhibits SCF stimulation of c-Kit tyrosine kinase activity and downstream signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (AKT), in addition to reducing tumor cell line growth in vitro. CK6 treatment significantly decreases human xenograft tumor growth in NCI-H526 SCLC (T/C% = 57) and Malme-3M melanoma (T/C% = 58) models in vivo. The combination of CK6 with standard of care chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and etoposide for SCLC or dacarbazine for melanoma, more potently reduces tumor growth (SCLC T/C% = 24, melanoma T/C% = 38) compared with CK6 or chemotherapy alone. In summary, our results demonstrate that CK6 is a c-Kit antagonist antibody with tumor growth neutralizing properties and are highly suggestive of potential therapeutic application in treating human malignancies harboring c-Kit receptor. PMID:24921944

  16. Tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells used as vehicles for anti-tumor therapy exert different in vivo effects on migration capacity and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been promoted as an attractive option to use as cellular delivery vehicles to carry anti-tumor agents, owing to their ability to home into tumor sites and secrete cytokines. Multiple isolated populations have been described as MSCs, but despite extensive in vitro characterization, little is known about their in vivo behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of different MSC lineages derived from five different sources (bone marrow, adipose tissue, epithelial endometrium, stroma endometrium, and amniotic membrane), in order to assess their adequacy for cell-based anti-tumor therapies. Our study shows the crucial importance of understanding the interaction between MSCs and tumor cells, and provides both information and a methodological approach, which could be used to develop safer and more accurate targeted therapeutic applications. Methods We first measured the in vivo migration capacity and effect on tumor growth of the different MSCs using two imaging techniques: (i) single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT-CT), using the human sodium iodine symporter gene (hNIS) and (ii) magnetic resonance imaging using superparamagnetic iron oxide. We then sought correlations between these parameters and expression of pluripotency-related or migration-related genes. Results Our results show that migration of human bone marrow-derived MSCs was significantly reduced and slower than that obtained with the other MSCs assayed and also with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The qPCR data clearly show that MSCs and hiPSCs exert a very different pluripotency pattern, which correlates with the differences observed in their engraftment capacity and with their effects on tumor growth. Conclusion This study reveals differences in MSC recruitment/migration toward the tumor site and the corresponding effects on tumor growth. Three observations stand out: 1) tracking of the stem cell is essential to check the safety and efficacy of cell therapies; 2) the MSC lineage to be used in the cell therapy needs to be carefully chosen to balance efficacy and safety for a particular tumor type; and 3) different pluripotency and mobility patterns can be linked to the engraftment capacity of the MSCs, and should be checked as part of the clinical characterization of the lineage. PMID:23710709

  17. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

  18. Neuropilins are multifunctional coreceptors involved in tumor initiation, growth, metastasis and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Prud'homme, Gérald J.; Glinka, Yelena

    2012-01-01

    The neuropilins (Nrps) are multifunctional proteins involved in development, immunity and cancer. Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1), or its homologue neuropilin-2 (Nrp2), are coreceptors that enhance responses to several growth factors (GFs) and other mediators. Nrps are coreceptors for the class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3), involved in axonal guidance, and several members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. However, recent findings reveal they have a much broader spectrum of activity. They bind transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) and its receptors, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (cMet), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and integrins. Nrps also promote Hedgehog signaling. These ligands and pathways are all relevant to angiogenesis and wound healing. In the immune system, the Nrps are expressed primarily by dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs), and exert mainly inhibitory effects. In cancer, Nrps have been linked to a poor prognosis, which is consistent with their numerous interactions with ligands and receptors that promote tumor progression. We hypothesize that Nrps boost responses by capturing ligands, regulating GF receptor expression, endocytosis and recycling, and possibly also by signaling independently. Importantly, they promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the survival of cancer stem cells. The recent finding that Nrps bind and internalize cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) with arginine/lysine-rich C-terminal motifs (C-end rule; e.g., RXXR) is of interest. These CPPs can be coupled to large drugs for cancer therapy. Almost all studies have been preclinical, but findings suggest Nrps are excellent targets for anti-cancer drug development. PMID:22948112

  19. Protein interacting with C kinase 1 suppresses invasion and anchorage-independent growth of astrocytic tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Cockbill, Louisa M R; Murk, Kai; Love, Seth; Hanley, Jonathan G

    2015-12-15

    Astrocytic tumors are the most common form of primary brain tumor. Astrocytic tumor cells infiltrate the surrounding CNS tissue, allowing them to evade removal upon surgical resection of the primary tumor. Dynamic changes to the actin cytoskeleton are crucial to cancer cell invasion, but the specific mechanisms that underlie the particularly invasive phenotype of astrocytic tumor cells are unclear. Protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) is a PDZ and BAR domain-containing protein that inhibits actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization and is involved in regulating the trafficking of a number of cell-surface receptors. Here we report that, in contrast to other cancers, PICK1 expression is down-regulated in grade IV astrocytic tumor cell lines and also in clinical cases of the disease in which grade IV tumors have progressed from lower-grade tumors. Exogenous expression of PICK1 in the grade IV astrocytic cell line U251 reduces their capacity for anchorage-independent growth, two-dimensional migration, and invasion through a three-dimensional matrix, strongly suggesting that low PICK1 expression plays an important role in astrocytic tumorigenesis. We propose that PICK1 negatively regulates neoplastic infiltration of astrocytic tumors and that manipulation of PICK1 is an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26466675

  20. Lipid mediator lipoxin A4 inhibits tumor growth by targeting IL-10-producing regulatory B (Breg) cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Qiong; Tang, Ke; Sun, Yanling; Zhang, Keke; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Shunqun; Zhang, Huafeng; Ye, Duyun; Huang, Bo

    2015-08-10

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA4), an arachidonic acid-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediator, shows anti-tumor potential by regulating tumor immune microenvironments. However, the underlying molecular and cellular basis of this function remains unclear. IL-10-producing B (Breg) cells display tumor-promoting effects by negatively regulating anti-tumor immunity. Here we show that LXA4 inhibits tumor growth by suppressing the generation of Breg cells in tumor-bearing mice. The administration of LXA4 inhibited the induction of Breg cells. Breg cell deficiency, in turn, resulted in LXA4 losing its anti-tumor properties. Intriguingly, regulatory T (Treg) cells also had a role in this process. Targeting Breg cells by LXA4 decreased the number of Treg cells in draining lymph nodes and tumor tissues as well as enhanced cytotoxic T cell activities. In addition, we further demonstrated that LXA4 inhibited Breg cells through its dephosphorylating STAT3 and ERK. These findings unveil a new anti-tumor mechanism underlying LXA4 targeting Breg cells with potential clinical applications. PMID:25979229

  1. The Somatostatin Analog Rhenium Re-188-P2045 Inhibits the Growth of AR42J Pancreatic Tumor-xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Carol A.; Azure, Michael T.; Adams, Christopher T.; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    P2045 is a peptide analog of somatostatin with picomolar affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) upregulated in some pancreatic tumors. Studies were conducted in rat AR42J pancreatic tumor-xenograft mice to determine if Re-188-P2045 could inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer in an animal model. Methods Re-188-P2045 was intravenously administered every 3 days for 16 days to nude mice with AR42J tumor-xenografts that were ? 20 mm3 at study initiation. Tumor volumes were recorded throughout the dosing period. At necropsy all tissues were assessed for levels of radioactivity and evaluated for histological abnormalities. Clinical chemistry and hematology parameters were determined from terminal blood samples. The affinity of non-radioactive Re-185/187-P2045 for somatostatin receptors was compared in human NCI-H69 and rat AR42J tumor-cell membranes expressing predominantly SSTR2. Results In the 1.85 and 5.55 mBq groups tumor growth was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion. In the 11.1 mBq group tumor growth was completely inhibited throughout the dosing period and for 12 days after the last administered dose. The radioactivity level in tumors 4 hours post-injection was 10%ID/g, which was 2-fold higher than in the kidneys. Re-188-P2045 was well tolerated in all dose-groups with no adverse clinical, histological, or hematological findings. The non-radioactive Re-185/187-P2045 bound more avidly (0.2 nM) to SSTR2 in human than rat tumor membranes suggesting that these studies are relevant to human studies. Conclusion Re-188-P2045 is a promising therapeutic candidate for patients with somatostatin-receptor-positive cancer. PMID:25359879

  2. Knockdown of PKM2 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Zhu, Anyou; Zhang, Lunjun; Zhang, Jie; Zhong, Zhengrong; Wang, Fengchao

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that activity of the pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform is closely related to tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the relationship betweenPKM2 expression, tumor invasion, and the prognosis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed 65 cases of patients with lung adenocarcinoma who were divided into low and a high expression groups based on PKM2immunohistochemical staining. High PKM2 expression was significantly associated with reduced patient survival. We used small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology to investigate the effect of targeted PKM2-knockout on tumor growth at the cellular level. In vitro, siRNA-mediated PKM2-knockdown significantly inhibited the proliferation, glucose uptake (25%), ATP generation (20%) and fatty acid synthesis of A549 cells, while the mitochondrial respiratory capacity of the cells increased (13%).Western blotting analysis showed that PKM2-knockout significantly inhibited the expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1 and ATP citrate lyase, which is critical for fatty acid synthesis. Further Western blotting analysis showed that PKM2-knockdown inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are important in degradation of the extracellular matrix and angiogenesis, respectively. These observations show that PKM2 activates both glycolysis and lipid synthesis, thereby regulating cell proliferation and invasion. This information is important in elucidating the mechanisms by which PKM2 influences the growth and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma at the cellular and molecular level, thereby providing the basic data required for the development of PKM2-targeted gene therapy. PMID:26501265

  3. ARSENIC TRIOXIDE DOWNREGULATES SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND INHIBITS BLADDER CANCER CELL AND TUMOR GROWTH

    PubMed Central

    Jutooru, Indira; Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Lei, Ping; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert; Safe, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide exhibits antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and proapoptotic activity in cancer cells, and many genes associated with these responses are regulated by specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors. Treatment of cancer cells derived from urologic (bladder and prostate) and gastrointestinal (pancreas and colon) tumors with arsenic trioxide demonstrated that these cells exhibited differential responsiveness to the antiproliferative effects of this agent and this paralleled their differential repression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins in the same cell lines. Using arsenic trioxide responsive KU7 and non-responsive 253JB-V bladder cancer cells as models, we show that in KU7 cells, ? 5 ?M arsenic trioxide decreased Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and several Sp-dependent genes and responses including cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor, bcl-2, survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor, whereas at concentrations up to 15 ?M, minimal effects were observed in 253JB-V cells. Arsenic trioxide also inhibited tumor growth in athymic mice bearing KU7 cells as xenografts, and expression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 was significantly decreased. Inhibitors of oxidative stress such as glutathione or dithiothreitol protected KU7 cells from arsenic trioxide-induced antiproliferative activity and Sp repression, whereas glutathione depletion sensitized 253JB-V cells to arsenic trioxide. Mechanistic studies suggested that arsenic trioxide-dependent downregulation of Sp and Sp-dependent genes was due to decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and induction of reactive oxygen species, and the role of peroxides in mediating these responses was confirmed using hydrogen peroxide. PMID:20435036

  4. Mechanisms of growth-promoting and tumor-protecting effects of epithelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Chernyavsky, Alex I; Shchepotin, Igor B; Grando, Sergei A

    2015-11-01

    Although the role of nicotine as a carcinogen is debatable, it is widely accepted that it contributes to cancer by promoting growth and survival of mutated cell clones and protecting them from the chemo- and radiotherapy-induced apoptosis. On the cell membrane (cm), the nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) implement upregulation of proliferative and survival genes. Nicotine also can permeate cells and activate mitochondrial (mt)-nAChRs coupled to inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, thus preventing apoptosis. In this study, we sought to pin down principal mechanisms mediating the tumor-promoting activities of nicotine resulting from activation of cm- and mt-nAChRs in oral and lung cancer cells, SCC25 and SW900, respectively. Activated cm-nAChRs were found to form complexes with receptors for EGF and VEGEF via the ?7 and ?2 nAChR subunits, respectively, whereas activated mt-nAChRs physically associated with the intramitochondrial protein kinases PI3K and Src via the ?7 and ?4 subunits. This was associated with upregulated expression of cyclin D1/activation of ERK1/2 and inhibition of mPTP opening, respectively, as well as upregulated proliferation and resistance to H2O2-induced apoptosis. The molecular synergy between cm-nAChRs and growth factor receptors helps explain how one biological mediator, such as ACh, can modulate activity of the other, such as a growth factor, and vice versa. Establishment of functional coupling of mt-nAChRs to regulation of mPTP opening provides a novel mechanism of nicotine-dependent protection from cell death. Further elucidation of this novel mechanism of tumor-promoting activities of nicotine should have a strong translational impact, because extraneuronal nAChRs may provide a novel molecular target to prevent, reverse, or retard progression of both nicotine-related and unrelated cancers. PMID:26071223

  5. Effect of He-Ne laser irradiation and low-intensity millimeter waves on transplanted tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gregory E.; Panina, Nadezda P.

    1995-01-01

    In experiments on white rats the influence of He-Ne laser radiation ((lambda) -- 632.8 nm, power density -- 1.5 mW/cm2) and electromagnetic field of extremely high frequency (42.0 - 43.3 GHz, 1 mW/cm2) on transplantability and growth of fibroadenomas of mammary glands, and influence of low power laser irradiation on transplantability and growth of Walker carcinosarcoma were investigated. Skin at the site of future transplantation underwent irradiation. He-Ne laser and EHF-radiation were stated to change properties of tissue accepting tumor cells. A single laser irradiation of the inoculation site of Walker carcinosarcoma cells produced no effect on tumor transplantability, but increased the average life span of animals. Laser and EHF irradiation increase the transplantability of fibroadeonomas but depress growth and rate of multiplication of tumor cells.

  6. Over-expression of fibroblast activation protein alpha increases tumor growth in xenografts of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijuan; Ma, Li; Lai, Dongmei

    2013-11-01

    Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP?) is a 95-kDa serine protease of post-prolyl peptidase family on cell surface. FAP? is widely expressed in tumor microenvironment. The wide spread association of FAP? expression with cancer suggests that it has important functions in the disease. However, the nature of FAP?'s roles in cancer cell activity is not well-determined. It has been showed that FAP? silencing in SKOV3 cells induces ovarian tumors but significantly reduces tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. To further determine the role of FAP? in epithelial ovarian cancer cells, SKOV3-FAP? and HO8910-FAP? cell lines, which over-expressed FAP? stably, were constructed and then their biological behaviors were investigated. It was found that FAP? promoted ovarian cancer cell proliferation, drug resistance, invasiveness, and migration in vitro. Immunochemistry assay showed that FAP? significantly facilitated tumor growth in xenograft tumor tissues. These results suggested that FAP? might directly promote tumor growth and invasiveness in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:24028972

  7. A ten-year review of treatment of delayed union and nonunion with an implanted bone growth stimulator.

    PubMed

    Cundy, P J; Paterson, D C

    1990-10-01

    A ten-year clinical and roentgenographic review was conducted on the patients in the original Australian multicenter trial that evaluated use of an implantable bone growth stimulator for delayed union and nonunion. Of the original 81 patients, 38 patients were located, seven patients had died from unrelated causes, and 36 were unlocatable. Of the 38 patients located, 37 patients (representing 38 fractures) participated in a detailed clinical review and had a roentgenographic assessment. All fractures had remained united, and normal bone remodeling had occurred. There were no adverse effects of the generator or cathode wire. Six patients initially reported as failures had healed after further surgical intervention. Thus, normal osteogenesis occurs in association with electrical stimulation using an implantable bone growth stimulator. This ten-year review supports the long-term safety and effectiveness of this technique in treating nonuniting fractures. PMID:2208859

  8. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Kocik, Janusz; Ba?an, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopi?ski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 ?l daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 ?l daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days’ tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content. PMID:26155093

  9. Loss of E2F1 Extends Survival and Accelerates Oral Tumor Growth in HPV-Positive Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rong; Bechill, John; Spiotto, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with several human cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). HPV expresses the viral oncogene E7 that binds to the retinoblastoma protein (RB1) in order to activate the E2F pathway. RB1 can mediate contradictory pathways-cell growth and cell death via E2F family members. Here, we assessed the extent to which E2F1 mediates lethality of HPV oncogenes. Ubiquitous expression of the HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 caused lethality in mice that was associated with focal necrosis in hepatocytes and pancreatic tissues. Furthermore, all organs expressing HPV oncogenes displayed up-regulation of several E2F1 target genes. The E2F1 pathway mediated lethality in HPV-positive mice because deletion of E2F1 increased survival of mice ubiquitously expressing HPV oncogenes. E2F1 similarly functioned as a tumor suppressor in HPV-positive oral tumors as tumors grew faster with homozygous loss of E2F1 compared to tumors with heterozygous loss of E2F1. Re-expression of E2F1 caused decreased clonogenicity in HPV-positive cancer cells. Our results indicate that HPV oncogenes activated the E2F1 pathway to cause lethality in normal mice and to suppress oral tumor growth. These results suggest that selective modulation of the E2F1 pathway, which is activated in HPV tumors, may facilitate tumor regression. PMID:26670255

  10. Monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis potential in MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc human breast cancer xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Fang; Lin, Yi-Yu; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shen; Pang, Fei; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2007-02-01

    Molecular imaging of reporter gene expression provides a rapid, sensitive and non-invasive monitoring of tumor behaviors. In this study, we reported the establishment of a novel animal model for longitudinal examination of tumor growth kinetics and metastatic spreading in vivo. The highly metastatic human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435s cell line was engineered to stably express herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1- tk) and luciferase ( luc). Both 131I-FIAU and D-luciferin were used as reporter probes. For orthotopic tumor formation, MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc cells were implanted into the first nipple of 6-week-old female NOD/SCID mice. For metastatic study, cells were injected via the lateral tail vein. Mice-bearing MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc tumors were scanned for tumor growth and metastatsis using Xenogen IVIS50 system. Gamma scintigraphy and whole-body autoradiography were also applied to confirm the tumor localization. The results of bioluminescence imaging as well as histopathological finding showed that tumors could be detected in femur, spine, ovary, lungs, kidney, adrenal gland, lymph nodes and muscle at 16 weeks post i.v. injection, and correlated photons could be quantified. This MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc human breast carcinoma-bearing mouse model combined with multimodalities of molecular imaging may facilitate studies on the molecular mechanisms of cancer invasion and metastasis.

  11. Transfection of colorectal cancer cells with chemokine MCP-3 (monocyte chemotactic protein-3) gene retards tumor growth and inhibits tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jin-Yue; Li, Guan-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Meng; Zhu, Jian-Gao; Li, Yue-Fei; Zhou, Guo-Hua; Sun, Qu-Bing

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the possibility of the induction of anti-tumor immune response by transfecting the colorectal cancer cells with chemokine MCP-3 gene. METHODS: Mouse MCP-3 gene was transduced into mouse colorectal cancer cells CMT93 by using of Liposome. G418-resistant clones were selected and the MCP-3 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR. The chemotactic activity of MCP-3 in the cell culture supernatant was detected by Chemotaxis assay. The tumorigenicity of wild type CMT93 and CMT93 gene transfectants were detected by in vivo experiments. The immune cell infiltrations in tumor tissue and tumor metastasis were detected histopathologically. RESULTS: MCP-3 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR in gene-transfected cells (CMT93/MCP-3), but not in control groups. And MCP-3 secreted in the cell culture supernatant possessed chemotatic activity. The results from in vivo experiments showed that the tumorigenicity of CMT93/MCP-3 had not decreased, but the tumors derived from CMT93/MCP-3 cells grew more slowly than those from CMT93 cells (1.021 ± 0.253) cm2 vs (1.769 ± 0.371) cm2, P < 0.05) or CMT93/mock cells (1.021 ± 0.253) cm2 vs (1.680 ± 0.643) cm2, P < 0.05). Histophathological results showed few immune cells infiltrating in the tumor tissue derived from the controls. In the tumor tissue derived from CMT93/MCP-3, infiltrating immune cells increased. In addition, no tumor metastasis was found in all mice inoculated with CMT93/ MCP-3 tumor cells. But all mice had tumor metastasis in CMT93 controls and 4 in 5 mice had tumor metastasis in CMT93/mock controls. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the transfection of chemokine MCP-3 gene could promote the induction of anti-colorectal cancer immunity, but the tumor growth could not be inhibited completely by merely MCP-3 gene transfection. PMID:12439927

  12. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) functions as a tumor suppressor in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Yang, Qiong; Deng, Youhui; Yang, Yaran; Li, Yanming; Ruan, Xiuyan; Xie, Fang; Zhao, Hua; Fang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5), which is often dysregulated in human cancers, plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis and cancer development. However, the function and underlying mechanism of IGFBP5 in tumor growth and metastasis has been elusive, particularly in malignant human melanoma. Here, we reported that IGFBP5 acts as an important tumor suppressor in melanoma tumorigenicity and metastasis by a series of experiments including transwell assay, xenograft model, in vivo tumor metastasis experiment, and RNA-Seq. Overexpression of IGFBP5 in A375, a typical human melanoma cell line, inhibited cell malignant behaviors significantly, including in vitro proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion, as well as in vivo tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis. In addition, overexpression of IGFBP5 suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and decreased the expression of E-cadherin and the key stem cell markers NANOG, SOX2, OCT4, KLF4, and CD133. Furthermore, IGFBP5 exerts its inhibitory activities by reducing the phosphorylation of IGF1R, ERK1/2, and p38-MAPK kinases and abating the expression of HIF1? and its target genes, VEGF and MMP9. All these findings were confirmed by IGFBP5 knockdown in human melanoma cell line A2058. Taken together, these results shed light on the mechanism of IGFBP5 as a potential tumor-suppressor in melanoma progression, indicating that IGFBP5 might be a novel therapeutic target for human melanoma. PMID:26010068

  13. Suppression of Tumor Growth in Mice by Rationally Designed Pseudopeptide Inhibitors of Fibroblast Activation Protein and Prolyl Oligopeptidase1

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kenneth W.; Christiansen, Victoria J.; Yadav, Vivek R.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Lupu, Florea; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Zhang, Roy R.; McKee, Patrick A.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor microenvironments (TMEs) are composed of cancer cells, fibroblasts, extracellular matrix, microvessels, and endothelial cells. Two prolyl endopeptidases, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), are commonly overexpressed by epithelial-derived malignancies, with the specificity of FAP expression by cancer stromal fibroblasts suggesting FAP as a possible therapeutic target. Despite overexpression in most cancers and having a role in angiogenesis, inhibition of POP activity has received little attention as an approach to quench tumor growth. We developed two specific and highly effective pseudopeptide inhibitors, M83, which inhibits FAP and POP proteinase activities, and J94, which inhibits only POP. Both suppressed human colon cancer xenograft growth > 90% in mice. By immunohistochemical stains, M83- and J94-treated tumors had fewer microvessels, and apoptotic areas were apparent in both. In response to M83, but not J94, disordered collagen accumulations were observed. Neither M83- nor J94-treated mice manifested changes in behavior, weight, or gastrointestinal function. Tumor growth suppression was more extensive than noted with recently reported efforts by others to inhibit FAP proteinase function or reduce FAP expression. Diminished angiogenesis and the accompanying profound reduction in tumor growth suggest that inhibition of either FAP or POP may offer new therapeutic approaches that directly target TMEs. PMID:25622898

  14. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1? and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally, our results show that THL inhibited the growth of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts in NOD-SCID mice. This suppression of tumor growth was associated with decreased microvessel formation and increased apoptosis caused by THL. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that THL had broad-spectra anti-cancer activities and merits further evaluation for its use in cancer therapy. PMID:20429953

  15. A human novel gene DERPC on 16q22.1 inhibits prostate tumor cell growth and its expression is decreased in prostate and renal tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mei; Ma, Lanfeng; Xu, Linda; Li, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Makarem, Mazen; Sesterhenn, Isabell; Zhang, Mei; Blanchette-Mackie, E. Joan; Moul, Judd; Srivastava, Shiv; Zou, Zhiqiang

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deletion of chromosome 16q is frequently associated with diverse tumors. Numerous studies strongly suggest the presence of one or more tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 16q22 to 16qter including the widely studied cadherin gene family. However, the specific tumor suppressor genes residing in this region need better definition and characterization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Standard molecular biology approaches have been used to clone and characterize the DERPC cDNA and its protein product on chromosome 16q22.1. Northern blotting was used to define the expression pattern in a multiple human tissue blots. DERPC expression was examined in multi-tumor array (Clontech, CA, USA) dot blot as well as in laser capture microdissection (LCM) derived prostate cancer (CaP) specimens by quantitative RT-PCR. Western blot analysis and a fluorescent microscopy were used to characterize the molecular size and the cellular location of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged DERPC fusion proteins. A colony formation assay was conducted to determine the effects of DERPC expression on tumor cell growth. RESULTS: A novel gene DERPC (Decreased Expression in Renal and Prostate Cancer) was identified and characterized. DERPC encoded a strong basic, proline- and glycine-rich nuclear protein. DERPC was ubiquitously expressed, with abundant expression in kidney, skeletal muscle, testis, liver, ovary, and heart and moderate expression in prostate. DERPC expression was reduced in renal (67%) and prostate tumors (33%). Expression of DERPC has inhibitory potential on CaP cell growth. Further, overexpression of DERPC in LNCaP cells caused alterations of nuclear morphology. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that decreased expression of DERPC may be implicated in tumorigenesis of renal and CaPs. PMID:12477976

  16. Aspirin Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell and Tumor Growth and Downregulates Specificity Protein (Sp) Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pathi, Satya; Jutooru, Indira; Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Nair, Vijayalekshmi; Lee, Syng-Ook; Safe, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is highly effective for treating colon cancer patients postdiagnosis; however, the mechanisms of action of aspirin in colon cancer are not well defined. Aspirin and its major metabolite sodium salicylate induced apoptosis and decreased colon cancer cell growth and the sodium salt of aspirin also inhibited tumor growth in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. Colon cancer cell growth inhibition was accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and decreased expression of Sp-regulated gene products including bcl-2, survivin, VEGF, VEGFR1, cyclin D1, c-MET and p65 (NF?B). Moreover, we also showed by RNA interference that ?-catenin, an important target of aspirin in some studies, is an Sp-regulated gene. Aspirin induced nuclear caspase-dependent cleavage of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and this response was related to sequestration of zinc ions since addition of zinc sulfate blocked aspirin-mediated apoptosis and repression of Sp proteins. The results demonstrate an important underlying mechanism of action of aspirin as an anticancer agent and, based on the rapid metabolism of aspirin to salicylate in humans and the high salicylate/aspirin ratios in serum, it is likely that the anticancer activity of aspirin is also due to the salicylate metabolite. PMID:23110215

  17. Loss of Tumor Necrosis Factor ? Potentiates Transforming Growth Factor ?-mediated Pathogenic Tissue Response during Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Saika, Shizuya; Ikeda, Kazuo; Yamanaka, Osamu; Flanders, Kathleen C.; Okada, Yuka; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Kitano, Ai; Ooshima, Akira; Nakajima, Yuji; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka; Kao, Winston W.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    Animal cornea is an avascular transparent tissue that is suitable for research on wound healing-related scarring and neovascularization. Here we show that loss of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) potentiates the undesirable, pathogenic response of wound healing in an alkali-burned cornea in mice. Excessive invasion of macrophages and subsequent formation of a vascularized scar tissue were much more marked in TNF?-null knockout (KO) mice than in wild-type mice. Such an unfavorable outcome in KO mice was abolished by Smad7 gene introduction, indicating the involvement of transforming growth factor ? or activin/Smad signaling. Bone marrow transplantation from wild-type mice normalized healing of the KO mice, suggesting the involvement of bone marrow-derived inflammatory cells in this phenomenon. Co-culture experiments showed that loss of TNF? in macrophages, but not in fibroblasts, augmented the fibroblast activation as determined by detection of ?-smooth muscle actin, the hallmark of myofibroblast generation, mRNA expression of collagen I?2 and connective tissue growth factor, and detection of collagen protein. TNF? in macrophages may be required to suppress undesirable excessive inflammation and scarring, both of which are promoted by transforming growth factor ?, and for restoration of tissue architecture in a healing alkali-burned cornea in mice. PMID:16723700

  18. O-GlcNAcylation of G6PD promotes the pentose phosphate pathway and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Xiongjian; Duan, Xiaotao; Mao, Weimin; Li, Xuexia; Li, Zhonghua; Li, Qian; Zheng, Zhiguo; Xu, Haimiao; Chen, Min; Wang, Peng G.; Wang, Yingjie; Shen, Binghui; Yi, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) plays a critical role in macromolecule biosynthesis and maintaining cellular redox homoeostasis in rapidly proliferating cells. Upregulation of the PPP has been shown in several types of cancer. However, how the PPP is regulated to confer a selective growth advantage on cancer cells is not well understood. Here we show that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the PPP, is dynamically modified with an O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine sugar in response to hypoxia. Glycosylation activates G6PD activity and increases glucose flux through the PPP, thereby providing precursors for nucleotide and lipid biosynthesis, and reducing equivalents for antioxidant defense. Blocking glycosylation of G6PD reduces cancer cell proliferation in vitro and impairs tumor