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1

Friction factor for turbulent flow in rough pipes from Heisenberg's closure hypothesis  

E-print Network

We show that the main results of the analysis of the friction factor for turbulent pipe flow reported in G. Gioia and P. Chakraborty (GC), Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 044502 (1996) can be recovered by assuming the Heisenberg closure hypothesis for the turbulent spectrum. This highlights the structural features of the turbulent spectrum underlying GC's analysis.

Esteban Calzetta

2009-04-17

2

The friction factor of two-dimensional rough-boundary turbulent soap film flows  

E-print Network

We use momentum transfer arguments to predict the friction factor $f$ in two-dimensional turbulent soap-film flows with rough boundaries (an analogue of three-dimensional pipe flow) as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness $r$, considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of $f\\propto\\textrm{Re}^{-1/2}$ in flows dominated by the enstrophy cascade, distinct from the energy cascade scaling of $\\textrm{Re}^{-1/4}$. For large Re, $f \\sim r$ in the enstrophy-dominated case. We use conformal map techniques to perform direct numerical simulations that are in satisfactory agreement with theory, and exhibit data collapse scaling of roughness-induced criticality, previously shown to arise in the 3D pipe data of Nikuradse.

Nicholas Guttenberg; Nigel Goldenfeld

2009-03-25

3

Heat transfer and friction factor of turbulent flow through a horizontal semi-circular duct  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of air flow inside a horizontal semi-circular duct are investigated experimentally. The experiments are carried out on a semi-circular duct of 23 mm inner radius, 2 mm thickness, and 2,000 mm length within a range of Reynolds number (8,242 ? Re ? 57,794)., under uniform wall heat flux conditions. The friction factor is determined by measuring the axial static pressure at different selected axial stations along the semi-circular duct. The variations of surface and mean air temperatures, local heat transfer coefficient, local Nusselt number, and the friction factor with the axial dimensionless distance are presented. It is observed that, for a given value of Reynolds number, each of the local heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor has a relatively high value near the entrance of the semi-circular duct then it decreases with increasing the dimensionless axial distance until it approaches a nearly constant value at the fully developed region. Also, it is found that, with increasing the Reynolds number the average heat transfer coefficient is increased and the friction factor is decreased. Moreover, empirical correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number are obtained.

Berbish, N. S.; Moawed, M.; Ammar, M.; Afifi, R. I.

2011-04-01

4

On laminar and turbulent friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report deals, first with the theory of the laminar friction flow, where the basic concepts of Prandtl's boundary layer theory are represented from mathematical and physical points of view, and a method is indicated by means of which even more complicated cases can be treated with simple mathematical means, at least approximately. An attempt is also made to secure a basis for the computation of the turbulent friction by means of formulas through which the empirical laws of the turbulent pipe resistance can be applied to other problems on friction drag. (author)

Von Karman, TH

1946-01-01

5

Factors Affecting Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on what they have already learned about friction, students formulate hypotheses concerning the effects of weight and contact area on the amount of friction between two surfaces. In the Associated Activities (Does Weight Matter? and Does Area Matter?), students design and conduct simple experiments to test their hypotheses, using procedures similar to those used in the previous lesson (Discovering Friction). An analysis of their data will reveal the importance of weight to normal friction (the friction that occurs as a result of surface roughness) and the importance of surface area to the friction that occurs between smooth surfaces due to molecular attraction. Based on their data, students will also be able to calculate coefficients of friction for the materials tested, and compare these to published values for various materials.

Engineering K-Ph.D. Program,

6

Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material values on the flow near the wall is briefly analyzed. It was found that the velocity at the laminar boundary (in contrast to the thickness of the laminar layer) is approximately independent of the temperature distribution. The temperature gradient at the wall and the distribution of temperature and heat flow in the turbulent friction layers were calculated on the basis of the data under two equations. The derived formulas and the figures reveal the effects of the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the exchange quantities and the temperature relationship of the material values.

Reichardt, H.

1943-01-01

7

Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence  

E-print Network

Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence Thomas R. Bewley and Bartosz Protas Flow measurements are made of the two components of wall skin friction and the wall pressure, all terms the linear setting, this determination may be made based on skin friction measurements alone). Combining

Protas, Bartosz

8

Experimental determination of average turbulent heat transfer and friction factor in stator internal rib-roughened cooling channels.  

PubMed

In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics. PMID:11460662

Battisti, L; Baggio, P

2001-05-01

9

Factors affecting piston ring friction  

E-print Network

The piston ring pack friction is a major contributor to the internal combustion engine mechanical friction loss. The oil control ring decides the oil supply to the top two rings in addition to being the major friction ...

Liao, Kai, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

10

Tidal friction in rotating turbulent convectivestellar and planetary regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent friction in stellar and planetary convection zones is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the dissipation of the kinetic energy of tidal flows in stars and planets hosting companions. This friction acting both on the equilibrium tide and on tidal inertial waves thus deeply impacts the dynamics of the spin of the host star/planet and the orbital architecture of the surrounding system. It is thus very important to obtain robust prescription for this friction. In the current state-of-the-art, it is modeled by a turbulent viscosity coefficient using mixing-length theory. However, none of the existing prescriptions take into account the action of the possibly rapid rotation that strongly affects convective flows. In this work, we propose such a new prescription that takes into account rotation and discuss the possible implication for tidal dissipation in rotating stars and planets.

Mathis, S.; Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Guenel, M.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

2014-12-01

11

THEORETICAL SKIN-FRICTION LAW IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER A. CHESKIDOV  

E-print Network

THEORETICAL SKIN-FRICTION LAW IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER A. CHESKIDOV ABSTRACT. We study of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce-stream turbulence intensity, while one-parameter family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient

Cheskidov, Alexey

12

Compliant wall-turbulent skin-friction reduction research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous compliant-wall experiments successful in reducing skin-friction drag probably have had a (unplanned) membrane resonance at a favorable frequency, amplitude, wave shape, length, and speed. The most probable drag reduction mechanism involves a direct coupling between the fluid and the moving wall when the wall natural resonance frequencies are near the fundamental turbulent burst frequency. Local skin-friction reductions of 61% were measured with mylar/PVC plastisol compliant surfaces. These reductions were observed only at certain flow conditions, indicating that changing tunnel total temperature may have altered the substrate dynamic modulus, damping, and coupled mylar tension. Apparently, the coupled membrane/substrate must be excited in compatible narrow-band natural frequency modes. An accelerated effort is required to develop practical durable compliant surfaces optimized for maximum drag reduction. Application of compliant walls to other transportation modes appears feasible with liquid flows offering the greatest skin-friction drag reduction potential.

Fischer, M. C.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.; Ash, R. L.

1975-01-01

13

A phenomenological model to describe turbulent friction in permeable-wall flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Describing the canonical properties of turbulent flows over rough-permeable walls such as gravel beds, vegetated- or snow-covered surfaces have, to date, resisted complete theoretical treatment. The major complication in describing such geophysical flows is that the friction factor - Reynolds number relationships significantly deviate from their conventional Nikuradse curves or Moody diagrams derived over impermeable rough boundaries. A novel phenomenological model that describes such anomalous behavior is proposed. It expands the approach in Gioia and Chakraborty (2006) developed for rough-impermeable pipes to include finite velocity effects within the porous wall and canonical length scales governing the momentum exchanges between interstitial and superficial flows.

Manes, C.; Ridolfi, L.; Katul, G.

2012-07-01

14

Variable enstrophy flux and energy spectrum in two-dimensional turbulence with Ekman friction  

E-print Network

Experiments and numerical simulations reveal that in the forward cascade regime, the energy spectrum of two-dimensional turbulence with Ekman friction deviates from Kraichnan's prediction of $k^{-3}$ power spectrum. In this letter we explain this observation using an analytic model based on variable enstrophy flux arising due to Ekman friction. We derive an expression for the enstrophy flux which exhibits a logarithmic dependence in the inertial range for the Ekman-friction dominated flows. The energy spectrum obtained using this enstrophy flux shows a power law scaling for large Reynolds number and small Ekman friction, but has an exponential behaviour for large Ekman friction and relatively small Reynolds number.

Mahendra K. Verma

2012-03-23

15

An Experimental Study of Turbulent Skin Friction Reduction in Supersonic Flow Using a Microblowing Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new turbulent skin friction reduction technology, called the microblowing technique has been tested in supersonic flow (Mach number of 1.9) on specially designed porous plates with microholes. The skin friction was measured directly by a force balance and the boundary layer development was measured by a total pressure rake at the tailing edge of a test plate. The free stream Reynolds number was 1.0(10 exp 6) per meter. The turbulent skin friction coefficient ratios (C(sub f)/C(sub f0)) of seven porous plates are given in this report. Test results showed that the microblowing technique could reduce the turbulent skin friction in supersonic flow (up to 90 percent below a solid flat plate value, which was even greater than in subsonic flow).

Hwang, Danny P.

1999-01-01

16

Review of Research into the Concept of the Microblowing Technique for Turbulent Skin Friction Reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technology for reducing turbulent skin friction, called the Microblowing Technique (MBT), is presented. Results from proof-of-concept experiments show that this technology could potentially reduce turbulent skin friction by more than 50% of the skin friction of a solid flat plate for subsonic and supersonic flow conditions. The primary purpose of this review paper is to provide readers with information on the turbulent skin friction reduction obtained from many experiments using the MBT. Although the MBT has a penalty for obtaining the microblowing air associated with it, some combinations of the MBT with suction boundary layer control methods are an attractive alternative for a real application. Several computational simulations to understand the flow physics of the MBT are also included. More experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations are needed for the understanding of the unsteady flow nature of the MBT and the optimization of this new technology.

2004-01-01

17

Rotordynamic analysis for stepped-labyrinth gas seals using Moody’s friction-factor model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The governing equations are derived for the analysis of a stepped labyrinth gas seal generally used in high performance compressors,\\u000a gas turbines, and steam turbines. The bulk-flow is assumed for a single cavity control volume set up in a stepped labyrinth\\u000a cavity and the flow is assumed to be completely turbulent in the circumferential direction. The Moody’s wall-friction-factor\\u000a model is

Tae Woong Ha

2001-01-01

18

Skin-friction drag reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technologies for reducing hydrodynamic skin-friction drag have a huge potential for energy-savings in applications ranging from propulsion of marine vessels to transporting liquids through pipes. The majority of previous experimental studies using hydrophobic surfaces have successfully shown skin-friction drag reduction in the laminar and transitional flow regimes (typically Reynolds numbers less than ?106 for external flows). However, this hydrophobicity induced drag reduction is known to diminish with increasing Reynolds numbers in experiments involving wall bounded turbulent flows. Using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces (fabricated using large-length scalable thermal spray processes) on a flat plate geometry, we present water-tunnel test data with Reynolds numbers ranging from 106 to 9 × 106 that show sustained skin-friction drag reduction of 20%-30% in such turbulent flow regimes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that apart from the formation of a Cassie state and hydrophobicity, we also need a low surface roughness and an enhanced ability of the textured surface to retain trapped air, for sustained drag reduction in turbulent flow regimes. Specifically, for the hydrophobic test surfaces of the present and previous studies, we show that drag reduction seen at lower Reynolds numbers diminishes with increasing Reynolds number when the surface roughness of the underlying texture becomes comparable to the viscous sublayer thickness. Conversely, test data show that textures with surface roughness significantly smaller than the viscous sublayer thickness and textures with high porosity show sustained drag reduction in the turbulent flow regime. The present experiments represent a significant technological advancement and one of the very few demonstrations of skin-friction reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces in an external flow configuration. The scalability of the fabrication method, the passive nature of this surface technology, and the obtained results in the turbulent regime make such hydrophobic surfaces a potentially attractive option for hydrodynamic skin-friction drag reduction.

Bidkar, Rahul A.; Leblanc, Luc; Kulkarni, Ambarish J.; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc

2014-08-01

19

Analysis of turbulent skin friction generated in flow along a cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an extension of FIK identity [K. Fukagata et al., Phys. Fluids 14, L73 (2002)] to turbulent axial flow along a cylinder. This relation gives the contributions of both the mean flow and the turbulent fluctuating flow to the skin friction coefficient. The later contribution is then further decomposed more precisely as proposed by B. Frohnapfel, Y. Hasegawa, and N. Kasagi, "Reactive Flow Control for Skin Friction Drag Reduction based on Sensing of the Streamwise Wall-Shear Stress," Euromech Fluid Mechanics Conference 8 (EFMC8), Bad Reichenhall, Germany, 13-16 Sept. 2010, S4-30. The Reynolds shear stress can be linked to the eigenvalues of the anisotropy tensor, the angle between the principal axis of the Reynolds stress tensor, and the mean flow direction and the turbulent kinetic energy. These eigenvalues and the alignment are important elements of the Reynolds stress profile. The present analysis is based on high-fidelity Reynolds-Stress-Model-based simulations. The results are first validated using available DNS and experimental data. Then, results are used in order to investigate the variations of the skin friction componential contributions with respect to characteristic dimensionless radius a+, Reynolds numbers, Rea (cylinder-radius-based Reynolds number) and Re? (boundary-layer-thickness-based Reynolds number), or curvature ratio ? /a, and anisotropic decomposition of the Reynolds stress. Explicit empirical formula for surface responses of skin friction and its turbulent component is given.

Monte, Stephane; Sagaut, Pierre; Gomez, Thomas

2011-06-01

20

Dynamical turbulent flow on the Galton board with friction.  

PubMed

We study numerically and analytically the dynamics of charged particles on the Galton board, a regular lattice of disk scatters, in the presence of constant external force, magnetic field, and friction. It is shown that under certain conditions friction leads to the appearance of a strange chaotic attractor. In this regime the average velocity and direction of particle flow can be effectively affected by electric and magnetic fields. We discuss the applications of these results to the charge transport in antidot superlattices and the stream of suspended particles in a viscous flow through scatters. PMID:11461559

Chepelianskii, A D; Shepelyansky, D L

2001-07-16

21

Flow friction of the turbulent coolant flow in cryogenic porous cables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Considered are cryogenic power transmission cables with porous cores. Calculations of the turbulent coolant flow with injection or suction through the porous wall are presented within the framework of a two-layer model. Universal velocity profiles were obtained for the viscous sublayer and flow core. Integrating the velocity profile, the law of flow friction in the pipe with injection has been derived for the case when there is a tangential injection velocity component. The effect of tangential velocity on the relative law of flow friction is analyzed. The applicability of the Prandtl model to the problem under study is discussed. It is shown that the error due to the acceptance of the model increases with the injection parameter and at lower Reynolds numbers; under these circumstances, the influence of convective terms in the turbulent energy equation on the mechanism of turbulent transport should be taken into account.

Hendricks, R. C.; Yeroshenko, V. M.; Zaichik, L. I.; Yanovsky, L. S.

1979-01-01

22

Turbulent Friction in Rough Pipes and the Energy Spectrum of the Phenomenological Theory  

E-print Network

The classical experiments on turbulent friction in rough pipes were performed by J. Nikuradse in the 1930's. Seventy years later, they continue to defy theory. Here we model Nikuradse's experiments using the phenomenological theory of Kolmog\\'orov, a theory that is widely thought to be applicable only to highly idealized flows. Our results include both the empirical scalings of Blasius and Strickler, and are otherwise in minute qualitative agreement with the experiments; they suggest that the phenomenological theory may be relevant to other flows of practical interest; and they unveil the existence of close ties between two milestones of experimental and theoretical turbulence.

G. Gioia; Pinaki Chakraborty

2005-12-20

23

Skin friction and Reynolds stress measurements for a turbulent boundary layer following manipulation using flat plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research has been undertaken to experimentally study the alterations in turbulent boundary-layer properties due to turbulence manipulation using thin flat plates. Plate geometry and placement within the boundary layer were selected to coincide with recent studies. Direct, local measurements of skin friction and Reynolds stresses were made within the boundary layer downstream of the manipulator devices for cases with an approach momentum thickness Reynolds number of 3700. A strong tendency for recovery of the Reynolds stresses was observed, accompanied by local skin-friction reductions of up to 15 percent. The mean velocity profile in the manipulated flow displayed the same similarity shape in the logarithmic region as a natural boundary layer, but had an enhanced wake component. The results indicate that the plate wake plays an important role in the boundary layer response to this sort of manipulation.

Westphal, R. V.

1986-01-01

24

A skin friction model for axisymmetric turbulent boundary layers along long thin circular cylinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only a few engineering design models are presently available that adequately depict the axisymmetric skin friction (Cf) maturity along long thin turbulent cylinders. This deficit rests essentially on the experimental and numerical difficulties of measuring (or computing) the spatial evolution of the thin cylinder turbulence. Consequently, the present axisymmetric Cf models have questionable accuracy. Herein, we attempt to formulate a more robust Cf model that owns acceptable error. The formulation is founded on triple integration of the governing equation system that represents a thin cylinder turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at statistical steady-state in appropriate dimensionless units. The final model requires only the radius-based Reynolds number (Rea) and transverse curvature (?/a) as input parameters. We tuned the accompanying coefficients empirically via an expanded statistical database (over 60 data points) that house new Cf values from large-eddy simulations (LES). The LES computations employed a turbulence inflow generation procedure that permits spatial resolution of the TBL at low-high Reynolds numbers and transverse curvatures. Compared to the new skin friction database, the Cf model revealed averaged predictive errors under 5% with a 3.5% standard deviation. Apart from owning higher values than the flat plate TBL, the most distinguishing characteristic of the axisymmetric skin friction is its rising levels when the boundary layer thickness exceeds the cylinder radius. All Cf levels diminish with increasing Reynolds number. These unique features differentiate the axisymmetric TBL along thin cylinders as a separate canonical flow when compared to the turbulent wall shear-layers of channels, pipes, and planar-type geometries.

Jordan, Stephen A.

2013-07-01

25

Single-phase liquid friction factors in microchannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of friction factor theory based upon conventional sized passages for microchannel flows is still an active area of research. Several researchers have reported significant deviation from predicted values, while others have reported general agreement. The discrepancies in literature need to be addressed in order to generate a set of design equations to predict the pressure drop occurring in

Mark E. Steinke; Satish G. Kandlikar

2006-01-01

26

Friction Factor Characterization for High-Porosity Random Fiber Regenerators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center, the Department of Energy (DOE), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, Washington are developing a Stirling convertor for a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Power System to provide electric power for NASA Space Science Missions. STC is developing the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under contract to DOE. Steady-flow tests were completed to determine the friction factor for the high-porosity regenerators that are used in the TDC. STC fabricated a flow test fixture and three random fiber regenerator test samples, one each at approximately 80, 88, and 96 percent porosities. The flow tests were then completed by the NASA Glenn Flow Calibration Laboratory, and the data reduced to Reynolds number and friction factor. The results showed that the 80 and 88 percent porosity samples had similar characteristics while the 96 percent porosity sample had significantly higher friction factors for given Reynolds numbers compared to the samples with lower porosities. Comparisons were also made between the test data and existing correlations. STC used this data to derive a modified regenerator friction factor correlation for use in the Stirling design code GLIMPS for porosities greater than 88 percent. Using this new correlation, the final optimized regenerator design porosity was reduced from 96 to 90 percent.

Thieme, Lanny G.

2001-01-01

27

Laser interferometer skin-friction measurements of crossing-shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossing-shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 deg at Mach 3 and 15 deg at Mach 3.85. The measurements were made using a laser interferometer skin-friction meter, a device that determines the wall shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin-friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction center line. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k-epsilon model, are compared with the experimental results for the Mach 3.85, 15-deg interaction case. Although the k-epsilon model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin-friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near-surface flow in this complex interaction.

Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.; Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.

1994-06-01

28

Effects of friction factor and slip factor on the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Ma]or Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Approved as to style and content by...

Sheth, Ketankumar Kantilal

1985-01-01

29

Friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction\\u000a materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has\\u000a been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various\\u000a resins such as asphalt or resin

Yoshihiro Matsuo; Daryl D. Clarke; Shinichi Ozeki

2010-01-01

30

Laser interferometer skin-friction measurements of crossing-shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossing-shock-wave / turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symmetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 deg at Mach 3 and 15 deg at Mach 3.85. The measurements were made using a laser interferometer skin-friction meter, a device that determines the wall shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface.

Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.; Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.

1994-06-01

31

Statistically Steady Turbulence in Soap Films: Direct Numerical Simulations with Ekman Friction  

E-print Network

We present a detailed direct numerical simulation (DNS) designed to investigate the combined effects of walls and Ekman friction on turbulence in forced soap films. We concentrate on the forward-cascade regime and show how to extract the isotropic parts of velocity and vorticity structure functions and thence the ratios of multiscaling exponents. We find that velocity structure functions display simple scaling whereas their vorticity counterparts show multiscaling; and the probability distribution function of the Weiss parameter $\\Lambda$, which distinguishes between regions with centers and saddles, is in quantitative agreement with experiments.

Prasad Perlekar; Rahul Pandit

2008-11-09

32

Statistically Steady Turbulence in Soap Films: Direct Numerical Simulations with Ekman Friction  

E-print Network

We present a detailed direct numerical simulation (DNS) designed to investigate the combined effects of walls and Ekman friction on turbulence in forced soap films. We concentrate on the forward-cascade regime and show how to extract the isotropic parts of velocity and vorticity structure functions and thence the ratios of multiscaling exponents. We find that velocity structure functions display simple scaling whereas their vorticity counterparts show multiscaling; and the probability distribution function of the Weiss parameter $\\Lambda$, which distinguishes between regions with centers and saddles, is in quantitative agreement with experiments.

Perlekar, Prasad

2008-01-01

33

Effects of Riblets on Skin Friction in High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct numerical simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets are conducted to examine the effects of riblets on skin friction at supersonic speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers with an adiabatic wall, a Mach number of M1 = 2.5, and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Re = 1720 are considered. Simulations are conducted for boundary-layer flows over a clean surface and symmetric V- groove riblets with nominal spacings of 20 and 40 wall units. The DNS results confirm the few existing experimental observations and show that a drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved for riblets with proper spacing. The influence of riblets on turbulence statistics is analyzed in detail with an emphasis on identifying the differences, if any, between the drag reduction mechanisms for incompressible and high-speed boundary layers.

Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

2012-01-01

34

Simple LMFBR axial-flow friction-factor correlation  

SciTech Connect

Complicated LMFBR axial lead-length averaged friction-factor correlations are reduced to an easy, ready-to-use function of bundle Reynolds number for wire-wrapped bundles. The function together with the power curves to calculate the associated constants are incorporated in a computer preprocessor, EZFRIC. The constants required for the calculation of the subchannels and bundle friction factors are derived and correlated into power curves of geometrical parameters. A computer program, FRIC, which can alternatively be used to accurately calculate these constants is also included. The accurate values of the constants and the corresponding values predicted by the power curves and percentage error of prediction are tabulated for a wide variety of geometries of interest.

Chan, Y.N.; Todreas, N.E.

1982-12-01

35

Estimating Overwater Turbulence Intensity from Routine Gust-Factor Measurements.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For overwater diffusion estimates the Offshore and Coastal Dispersion (OCD) model is preferred by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The U.S. Minerals Management Service has recommended that the OCD model be used for emissions located on the outer continental shelf. During southerly winds over the Gulf of Mexico, for example, the pollutants from hundreds of offshore platforms may affect the gulf coasts. In the OCD model, the overwater plume is described by the Gaussian equation, which requires the computation of ?y and ?z, which are, in turn, related to the turbulence intensity, overwater trajectory, and atmospheric stability. On the basis of several air sea interaction experiments [the Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment (BOMEX), the Air-Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX), and, most recently, the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE)] and the extensive datasets from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), it is shown that under neutral and stable conditions the overwater turbulence intensities are linearly proportional to the gust factor (G), which is the ratio of the wind gust and mean wind speed at height z (Uz) as reported hourly by the NDBC buoys. Under unstable conditions, it is first shown that the popular formula relating the horizontal turbulence intensity (?u,/u, where u is the friction velocity) to the ratio of the mixing height (h) and the buoyancy length (L) (i.e., h/L) suffers from a self-correlation problem and cannot be used in the marine environment. Then, alternative formulas to estimate the horizontal turbulence intensities (?u,/Uz) using G are proposed for practical applications. Furthermore, formulas to estimate u and z/L are fundamentally needed in air sea interaction studies, in addition to dispersion meteorology.


Hsu, S. A.; Blanchard, Brian W.

2004-12-01

36

Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Kathleen Cummings Dominguez at the Illinois Institute of Technology provides a lesson plan on the concepts of friction. It describes a lesson plan which will engage students in active classroom learning.

2010-03-17

37

Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various resins such as asphalt or resin combined with pitch. These efforts were further developed by the use of woven asbestos material saturated by either rubber solution or liquid resin binder and functioned as an internal expanding brake, similar to brake lining system. The role of asbestos continued through the use of chopped asbestos saturated by rubber, but none was entirely successful due to the poor rubber heat resistance required for increased speeds and heavy gearing demands of the automobile industry. The use of phenolic resins as binder for asbestos friction materials provided the necessary thermal resistance and performance characteristics. Thus, the utility of asbestos as the main friction component, for over 100 years, has been significantly reduced in friction materials due to asbestos identity as a carcinogen. Steel and other fibrous components have displaced asbestos in disk pads. Currently, non-asbestos organics are the predominate friction material. Phenolic resins continue to be the preferred binder, and increased amounts are necessary to meet the requirements of highly functional asbestos-free disk pads for the automotive industry. With annual automobile production exceeding 70 million vehicles and additional automobile production occurring in developing countries worldwide and increasing yearly, the amount of phenolic resin for friction material is also increasing (Fig. 14.1). Fig. 14.1 Worldwide commercial vehicle production In recent years, increased fuel efficiency of passenger car is required due to the CO2 emission issue. One of the solutions to improve fuel efficiency is to lower the car body weight. It means that the weight of car components must be decreased. In the case of reduced weight for friction parts, the load applied to the friction parts would be higher (more heat also) and trend would lead to phenolic resins with improved heat resistance.

Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Clarke, Daryl D.; Ozeki, Shinichi

38

Skin friction and velocity profile family for compressible turbulent boundary layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents a general approach to constructing mean velocity profiles for compressible turbulent boundary layers with isothermal or adiabatic walls. The theory is based on a density-weighted transformation that allows the extension of the incompressible similarity laws of the wall to the compressible regions. The velocity profile family is compared to a range of experimental data, and excellent agreement is obtained. A self-consistent skin friction law, which satisfies the proposed velocity profile family, is derived and compared with the well-known Van Driest II theory for boundary layers in zero pressure gradient. The results are found to be at least as good as those obtained by using the Van Driest II transformation.

Huang, P. G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T. J.

1993-01-01

39

Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation demonstrates, through an animated, narrated slide-show, how frictional forces, including air resistance, can affect the motion of an object. This resource also includes an interactive test and review of the material. One is also able to download "myskoool" which allows allows one to download lessons to run offline and use anytime.

40

Measuring and modelling the frictional velocity u*, turbulence and heat fluxes above the North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we analyse the frictional velocity u*, drag coefficient, vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles observed at different met-masts in the German North and Baltic Sea. We present an analysis of different models for the frictional velocity u* in convective, neutral and stable thermal stratification of the atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements performed with ultra-sonic anemometers are compared to profile-derived values and a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric thermal stability. Modelling: An improved approach to model the vertical wind speed profile is presented and compared against meso-scale model results (WRF, COSMO): Bye-Ekman-Coupling (BEC) describes the flux of momentum from the Ekman layer of the atmosphere through the Prandtl layer down to the air-sea interface by a modified wave boundary layer with enhanced Charnock dynamics (Bye et al. 2010). The BEC model is based on the coupled pair of similarity relations for "aerodynamically rough flow" in both fluids (air and sea). The derived drag law is of Charnock form, almost independent of the wave age and consistent with the transfer of momentum to the wave spectrum - which takes place in the smaller rather than the dominant wavelengths. Measurements: It was found that the frictional velocity u* is considerably smaller than predicted by conventional approaches using the Charnock relation: For wind speeds between 10 m/s and 15 m/s at 40 m height above the sea surface, u*(observed) is 14% smaller than u*(Charnock). Most important, we found unexpected, strong and obviously artificial distortions concerning the three wind speed components in the 10Hz data of the three ultra-sonic anemometers at the offshore met-mast FINO1 at 40 m, 60 m and 80 m height. The pattern of these distortions is independent from different post-processing procedures (planar-fit etc.). We anticipate that these artefacts imply severe problems for the eddy covariance technique. Moreover, these artefacts may be relevant in other (previous and on-going) ultra-sonic measurement campaigns where turbulent parameters such as u* and heat fluxes are derived. A simple, but innovative analysis is proposed to check ultra-sonic measurements with respect to these artefacts, using the original temporal 10Hz resolution of the data: The instantaneous vertical wind speed component w is analysed versus the instantaneous wind direction (called wind.dir in the following), computed from the instantaneous horizontal components u and v. The observational density is then plotted in the (w; wind.dir)-space. We found a pattern of stripes of very strong densities for specific wind direction bins, which are thinner than 1° and which cannot be attributed directly to the geometry of the anemometer (transducers, physical structure etc.). The source of this artificial pattern is still unclear and open for discussion. References: Bye JAT, Ghantous M, Wolff J-O (2010) On the variability of the Charnock constant and the functional dependence of the drag coefficient on wind speed. Ocean Dynamics 60(4) 851-860

Tambke, Jens; Bye, John A. T.; Schmidt, Michael; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf

2014-05-01

41

Friction factor data for flat plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.

Ha, Tae Woong

1989-01-01

42

Laser Interferometer Skin-Friction measurements of crossing-shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossingshock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symmetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 degrees at Mach 3 and 15 degrees at Mach 4. The measurements were made using a Laser Interferometer Skin Friction (LISF) meter; a device which determines the wail shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction centerline. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k-~ model, are compared to the experimental results for the Mach 4, 15 degree interaction case. While the k-~ model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near surface flow in this complex interaction.

Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.

1993-07-01

43

Image analysis applied to study on frictional-drag reduction by electrolytic microbubbles in a turbulent channel flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate frictional-drag reduction with electrolytic microbubbles based on image measurement of a turbulent flow in a water channel at Re = 4800 (based on the half channel height). Microbubbles with a diameter ranging 30-200 ?m can reduce frictional drag by as much as 30% relative to single-phase flow even at low void fractions (? ? 3 × 10-4); however, drag reduction is only effective within a limited downstream distance from an electrode array. Arrangement of the optical system allows us to measure the bubble-production rate by water electrolysis from images near the wall and to trace the motion of bubbles. We also measure velocity fields using particle-tracking velocimetry based on a shallow depth-of-field approach by segregating tracer particles from microbubbles. Vertically oscillating microbubbles likely represent interaction with vortical structures near the wall, and bubbles approaching the wall appear to induce negative streamwise velocity relative to the surrounding fluid. We relate the wall friction with the double integral of the Reynolds-stress profile and show that its variation due to microbubbles decreases the drag on the wall. Microbubbles tend to coalesce downstream resulting in a fewer bubbles but with greater size; accordingly, the oscillatory motion diminishes, and the frictional drag rather increases.

Hara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Takao; Yamamoto, Fujio

2011-03-01

44

Understanding the friction factor behavior in liquid annular seals with deliberately roughened surfaces, a CFD approach  

E-print Network

Bulk flow theory has been widely used to estimate annular seals dynamic coefficients. To predict the flow behavior through the seal, this theory relies on empirical friction factor correlations based on pipe data. Several experiments have gathered...

Villasmil Urdaneta, Larry Alfonso

2002-01-01

45

Friction pressure correlations for turbulent flow of drag reducing polymer solutions in straight and coiled tubing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate determination of friction pressure losses of dilute drag reducing polymer solutions remains to be a challenge in many practical applications. These include a wide variety of hydraulic operations performed on a daily basis in the oil and gas industry. Most drilling, completions, and stimulation jobs require pumping fluids at high flow rates, which in turn generates high frictional pressure

Felipe Gallego; Subhash N. Shah

2009-01-01

46

Friction Factor Evaluation Using Experimental and Finite Element Methods for Al-4%Cu Preforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, ring compression tests and finite element (FE) simulations have been utilized to evaluate the friction factor, m, under different lubricating conditions for powder metallurgical (P/M) Al-4%Cu preforms. A series of ring compression tests were carried out to obtain friction factor ( m) for a number of lubricating conditions, including zinc stearate, graphite, molybdenum disulfide powder, and unlubricated condition. FE simulations were used to analyze materials deformation, densification, and geometric changes, and to derive the friction calibration curves. The friction factor has been determined for various initial relative densities and different lubricating conditions, and a proper lubricant for cold forging of P/M Al-4%Cu preforms is found. Studies show that the use of lubricants has reduced the friction. However, increase in the number of pores in the preforms leads to excessive friction. The FE simulation results demonstrate a shift in the neutral plane distance from the axis of ring specimen, which occurred due to variations in the frictional conditions and initial relative densities. The load requirement for deformation, effective stress, and effective strain induced, and bulging phenomena obtained by FE simulations have a good agreement with the experimental data.

Desalegn, Wogaso; Davidson, M. J.; Khanra, A. K.

2014-08-01

47

Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.

Elrod, David Alan

1988-01-01

48

Direct measurements and analysis of skin friction and cooling downstream of multiple flush-slot injection into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted to determine the reduction in surface skin friction and the effectiveness of surface cooling downstream of one to four successive flush slots injecting cold air at an angle of 10 deg into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer. Data were obtained by direct measurement of surface shear and equilibrium temperatures, respectively. Increasing the number of slots decreased the skin friction, but the incremental improvement in skin-friction reduction decreased as the number of slots was increased. Cooling effectiveness was found to improve, for a given total mass injection, as the number of slots was increased from one to four. Comparison with previously reported step-slot data, however, indicated that step slots with tangential injection are more effective for both reducing skin friction and cooling than the present flush-slot configuration. Finite-difference predictions are in reasonable agreement with skin-friction data and with boundary-layer profile data.

Howard, F. G.; Strokowski, A. J.

1978-01-01

49

Turbulent Reynolds analogy factors for nonplanar surface microgeometries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct measurements of turbulent Reynolds analogy factors are presented for 15 nonplanar surface microgeometries (including riblets, oscillating transverse curvature, wavy walls, and micro air bearings) for momentum thickness Reynolds numbers of 1638-2631. It is shown that certain types of nonplanar surface microgeometries will increase turbulent Reynolds analogy factors significantly above flat-plate levels. In several cases, the observed elevated heat-transfer efficiencies represent the combined effects of both heat-transfer increases and drag decreases. Generally, the results suggest that decreases of the order of 20 percent are possible in heat exchanger volume, cost, and weight for designs with extensive planar surfaces.

Lindemann, A. M.

1985-01-01

50

Turbulent Reynolds analogy factors for nonplanar surface microgeometries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct measurements of turbulent Reynolds analogy factors are presented for 15 nonplanar surface microgeometries (including riblets, oscillating transverse curvature, wavy walls, and micro air bearings) for momentum thickness Reynolds numbers of 1638-2631. It is shown that certain types of nonplanar surface microgeometries will increase turbulent Reynolds analogy factors significantly above flat-plate levels. In several cases, the observed elevated heat-transfer efficiencies represent the combined effects of both heat-transfer increases and drag decreases. Generally, the results suggest that decreases of the order of 20 percent are possible in heat exchanger volume, cost, and weight for designs with extensive planar surfaces.

Lindemann, A. M.

1985-10-01

51

Turbulence and mixing in a tube  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the friction factor correlation, estimate the pressure drop, turbulent viscosity and diffusivity, and large- and small-scale homogenization times for a substance introduced at the tube entrance.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2004-09-26

52

The behavior of the skin-friction coefficient of a turbulent boundary layer flow over a flat plate with differently configured transverse square grooves  

SciTech Connect

Skin-friction coefficient of turbulent boundary layer flow over a smooth-wall with transverse square grooves was investigated. Four grooved-wall cases were investigated. The four grooved-wall configurations are single 5mm square grooved-wall, and 5mm square grooves spaced 10, 20 and 40 element widths apart in the streamwise direction. Laser-Doppler Anemometer (LDA) was used for the mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements. The skin-friction coefficient determined from the velocity profile increases sharply just downstream of the groove. This overshoot is followed by an undershoot and then relaxation back to the smooth-wall value. This behavior is observed in most grooved-wall cases. Integrating the skin-friction coefficient in the streamwise direction indicates that there is an increase in the overall drag in all the grooved-wall cases.

Wahidi, R.; Chakroun, W.; Al-Fahed, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, 13060 Safat (Kuwait)

2005-11-01

53

Structure of atmospheric turbulence in the friction layer below 500 meters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of wind direction and speed, vertical velocity, and temperature were made from several levels of the 444 m tower near Oklahoma City. Turbulence quantities were calculated from the covariances between observed variables over periods ranging from 5 min to 1 hr. It was found that in some cases parameters such as mean wind speed, shearing stress, and vertical heat flux could be expressed by simple equations for periods of 15 min to 1 hr. Changes in these quantities with time are related to changes in vertical motion and stability. Power spectra were calculated for sequential 15 min, 30 min, and 1 hr periods. The effects of stability, wind speed, and surface roughness on the spectra of longitudinal and lateral velocity were examined, along with the effect of height on the spectrum of vertical velocity. This region was shown to be composed of a lower region in which mechanical turbulence dominates and an upper region dominated by convective turbulence.

Maas, S. J.; Scoggins, J. R.

1976-01-01

54

High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall pressure fluctuations with skin-friction reduction by air injection.  

PubMed

The hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations that occur on the solid surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer are a common source of flow noise. This paper reports multipoint surface pressure fluctuation measurements in water beneath a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer with wall injection of air to reduce skin-friction drag. The experiments were conducted in the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9-m-long, 3.05-m-wide hydrodynamically smooth flat plate at freestream speeds up to 20 ms and downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers exceeding 200 x 10(6). Air was injected from one of two spanwise slots through flush-mounted porous stainless steel frits (approximately 40 microm mean pore diameter) at volume flow rates from 17.8 to 142.5 l/s per meter span. The two injectors were located 1.32 and 9.78 m from the model's leading edge and spanned the center 87% of the test model. Surface pressure measurements were made with 16 flush-mounted transducers in an "L-shaped" array located 10.7 m from the plate's leading edge. When compared to no-injection conditions, the observed wall-pressure variance was reduced by as much as 87% with air injection. In addition, air injection altered the inferred convection speed of pressure fluctuation sources and the streamwise coherence of pressure fluctuations. PMID:18529171

Winkel, Eric S; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steven L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

2008-05-01

55

Application of artificial neural network to predict the friction factor of open channel flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The friction factor of an open channel flow is generally affected by the Reynolds number and the roughness conditions, and can be decided by laboratory or field measurements. During practical applications, researchers often find that a correct choice of the friction factor can be crucial to make a sound prediction of hydraulic problems. In this paper, a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) was set up to predict the friction factors of an open channel flow, with the Reynolds number and the relative roughness as two input parameters. The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithm was employed to train the model by using ? laboratory experimental data, and the trained network was tested by a single set separated from the rest of the data and a good correlation between the experimental and predicted results has been obtained. Finally, the ANN simulated results were compared with the calculated results obtained by the empirical formula and both comparisons showed that the ANN model can be used to predict the non-linear relationship between the friction factor and its influencing factors correctly once enough samples are provided. The successful application proved that ANN model can be used in engineering practice as a convenient and effective method, and those traditional hydraulic problems which are mostly based on laboratory tests can be analyzed by ANN modelling.

Yuhong, Zeng; Wenxin, Huai

2009-05-01

56

Calculation of skin-friction coefficients for low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer flows. M.S. Thesis - California Univ. at Davis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented of the reliability of various generally accepted empirical expressions for the prediction of the skin-friction coefficient C/sub f/ of turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers in zero-pressure-gradient flows on a smooth flat plate. The skin-friction coefficients predicted from these expressions were compared to the skin-friction coefficients of experimental profiles that were determined from a graphical method formulated from the law of the wall. These expressions are found to predict values that are consistently different than those obtained from the graphical method over the range 600 Re/sub theta 2000. A curve-fitted empirical relationship was developed from the present data and yields a better estimated value of C/sub f/ in this range. The data, covering the range 200 Re/sub theta 7000, provide insight into the nature of transitional flows. They show that fully developed turbulent boundary layers occur at Reynolds numbers Re/sub theta/ down to 425. Below this level there appears to be a well-ordered evolutionary process from the laminar to the turbulent profiles. These profiles clearly display the development of the turbulent core region and the shrinking of the laminar sublayer with increasing values of Re/sub theta/.

Barr, P. K.

1980-01-01

57

Update on the evaluation of different correlations for the flow friction factor and heat transfer of Stirling engine regenerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is intended to update the overview of different correlations for the friction factor and heat transfer of Stirling engine regenerators given by the Oscillating-Flow Regenerator Test Rig data. For that purpose the data was recalculated using the general applicable set of equations for Reynolds number, friction factor, pressure drop, Nusselt number and heat transfer area. Based on these

Bernd Thomas; Deborah Pittman

2000-01-01

58

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS  

E-print Network

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high Present address: Statoil's Research Center, 7005 Trondheim, Norway, esle@statoil.com #12;INTRODUCTION High

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

59

Analysis of Instabilities and Their Impact on Friction Factor in Hole-Pattern Seals  

E-print Network

The determination of the leakage and consequently the friction factor is an important part of analyzing the flow through a seal. This is done experimentally by means of a flat plate tester, which allows for the simplified representation of the seal...

Sekaran, Aarthi 1985-

2012-11-21

60

Friction factor and heat transfer of nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in laminar pipe flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of polyalphaolefins-Al2O3 nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in a laminar pipe flow are performed by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with term of cylindrical nanoparticles, the general dynamic equation for cylindrical nanoparticles, and equation for nanoparticle orientation. The distributions of particle number and volume concentration, the friction factor, and heat transfer are obtained and analyzed. The results show that distributions of nanoparticle number and volume concentration are non-uniform across the section, with larger and smaller values in the region near the pipe center and near the wall, respectively. The non-uniformity becomes significant with the increase in the axial distance from the inlet. The friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds number. The relationships between the friction factor and the nanoparticle volume concentration as well as particle aspect ratio are dependent on the Reynolds number. The Nusselt number of nanofluids, directly proportional to the Reynolds number, particle volume concentration, and particle aspect ratio, is higher near the pipe entrance than at the downstream locations. The rate of increase in Nusselt number at lower particle volume concentration is more than that at higher concentration. Finally, the expressions of friction factor and Nusselt number as a function of particle volume concentration, particle aspect ratio, and Reynolds number are derived based on the numerical data.

Lin, Jianzhong; Xia, Yi; Ku, Xiaoke

2014-10-01

61

Vortex avalanches and the onset of superfluid turbulence  

E-print Network

Quantized circulation, absence of Galilean invariance due to a clamped normal component, and the vortex mutual friction are the major factors that make superfluid turbulence behave in a way different from that in classical fluids. The model is developed for the onset of superfluid turbulence that describes the initial avalanche-like multiplication of vortices into a turbulent vortex tangle.

N. B. Kopnin

2003-09-30

62

Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations  

SciTech Connect

Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.

Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

1997-04-01

63

The obstacle block as a device to measure turbulent skin friction in compressible flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The obstacle block, developed as an alternative to the Preston tube for indirectly measuring skin friction on smooth surfaces in incompressible flows, is examined as a device for compressible flows as well. The block, which is congruent with a surface static pressure orifice, has a geometry which is easily specified and thus has a universal calibration. Data from two independent studies are used to establish such a calibration using 'wall' variables, valid for Mach numbers up to about 3. Various aspects concerning practical application of the device are examined, such as sensitivity to yaw and the minimum permissible axial spacing between blocks. Several examples showing the utility of the device are given.

Elfstrom, G. M.; Kostopoulos, C.; Peake, D. J.; Fisher, D. F.

1982-01-01

64

A robust post-processing method to determine skin friction in turbulent boundary layers from the velocity profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes a method to extrapolate the mean wall shear stress, , and the accurate relative position of a velocity probe with respect to the wall, , from an experimentally measured mean velocity profile in a turbulent boundary layer. Validation is made between experimental and direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer flows with independent measurement of the shear stress. The set of parameters which minimize the residual error with respect to the canonical description of the boundary layer profile is taken as the solution. Several methods are compared, testing different descriptions of the canonical mean velocity profile (with and without overshoot over the logarithmic law) and different definitions of the residual function of the optimization. The von Kármán constant is used as a parameter of the fitting process in order to avoid any hypothesis regarding its value that may be affected by different initial or boundary conditions of the flow. Results show that the best method provides an accuracy of for the estimation of the friction velocity and for the position of the wall. The robustness of the method is tested including unconverged near-wall measurements, pressure gradient, and reduced number of points; the importance of the location of the first point is also tested, and it is shown that the method presents a high robustness even in highly distorted flows, keeping the aforementioned accuracies if one acquires at least one data point in . The wake component and the thickness of the boundary layer are also simultaneously extrapolated from the mean velocity profile. This results in the first study, to the knowledge of the authors, where a five-parameter fitting is carried out without any assumption on the von Kármán constant and the limits of the logarithmic layer further from its existence.

Rodríguez-López, Eduardo; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Buxton, Oliver R. H.

2015-04-01

65

The effect of a turbulent wake on the stagnation point. I - Skin friction results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The response of a boundary layer in the stagnation region of a two-dimensional body to fluctuations in the freestream is examined. The analysis is restricted to laminar incompressible flow. The assumed form of the velocity distribution at the edge of the boundary layer represents both a pulsation of the incoming flow, and an oscillation of the stagnation point streamline. Both features are essential in accurately representing the effect which freestream spatial and temporal nonuniformities have upon the unsteady boundary layer. Finally, a simple model is proposed which relates the characteristic parameters in a turbulent wake to the unsteady boundary-layer edge velocity. Numerical results are presented for both an arbitrary two-dimensional geometry and a circular cylinder.

Wilson, Dennis E.; Hanford, Anthony J.

1990-01-01

66

Comparisons of rotordynamic coefficients in stepped labyrinth seals by using Colebrook-White friction factor model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to observe the effects of friction factors for the stepped labyrinth seals. The gas flow through\\u000a the seals creates net pressure and shear forces acting on the rotor. It is necessary to predict these forces for reliably\\u000a operating turbomachinery. So we investigated the effect of shear forces on the calculation of rotordynamic coefficients by

Dursun Eser; Y?lmaz Dereli

2007-01-01

67

Microstructures forming in friction welding of Inconel 718 alloy – joint performance and its controlling factors in friction welding of Inconel 718 alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructures forming in the friction welding of Inconel 718 alloy have been investigated in order to understand the phenomena occurring during the welding process and to determine the factor controlling the joint performance from a metallographic point of view. In the interfacial zone, liquation microstructures characterized by a eutectic structure consisting of ? and Laves phases, and Nb-rich microstructures along

Hongjie Wang; Kenji Ikeuchi; Masatoshi Aritoshi; Makoto Takahashi; Akio Ikeda

2009-01-01

68

A Model for Water Flow Through Rock Fractures Based on Friction Factor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rock fracture roughness and tortuosity caused by contact asperities produce extra resistance for fluid flow in comparison with the channel consisting of two smooth parallel plates. To characterise the role of roughness and tortuosity in water flow through rock fractures, the existing studies of the effect of fracture roughness and contact area (tortuosity) on fluid flow through rock fractures were firstly reviewed. Then, an explicit flow model was derived using the friction factor predictor previously proposed according to the flow data of sandstone fractures. Regarding the introduced relative roughness of rock fracture as the correction variable, the developed flow model can be considered as a corrected form of classic cubic law, where the relative roughness is defined as the ratio of the averaged peak asperity height to equivalent hydraulic aperture. Sensitivity analysis shows that the cubic law can overestimate the flow rate by 10 % when the relative roughness increases to 70.7. With further increase in relative roughness up to 300, which usually represents tight rock fractures, the flow rate is only approximately 64 % of that predicted by cubic law. The verification of this friction factor to granite and limestone fractures shows that the used friction factor predictor is in good accordance with the experimental data.

Zhang, Zhenyu; Nemcik, Jan; Qiao, Qiuqiu; Geng, Xueyu

2015-03-01

69

Parameters defining flow resistance and the friction factor behavior in liquid annular seals with deliberately roughened surfaces  

E-print Network

replaced with stators containing different roughness patterns to reduce leakage and enhance rotor response. Several roughened seal experiments with liquid and air have produced leakage data indicating that the friction factor increases as the seal clearance...

Villasmil Urdaneta, Larry Alfonso

2006-10-30

70

A comparison of rotordynamic-coefficient predictions for annular honeycomb gas seals using different friction-factor models  

E-print Network

Predictions of rotordynamic-coefficients for annular honeycomb gas seals are compared using different friction-factor models. Analysis shows that the fundamental improvement in predicting the rotordynamic-coefficients accurately is the two...

D'Sousa, Rohan Joseph

2000-01-01

71

Friction factor data for flat plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the degree of M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E M A Y 1989 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering FRICTION F A C T O R DATA F O R F L A T P L A T E T E S T S OF S M O O T H AND H O N E Y C O M B SURFACES A Thesis by T A E W O O N G HA... Approved as to style and content by: D. W. Childs (Chairman of Committee) / C . C. Nelson (Member) R. Dar (Member) D. Rhode (Member) Rabins (Head otjDepartment) May 1989 A B S T R A C T Friction Factor Data for Flat Plate Tests of Smooth...

Ha, Tae Woong

1989-01-01

72

Charge/mass dynamic structure factors of water and applications to dielectric friction and electroacoustic conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine time correlation functions and dynamic structure factors of the number and charge density of liquid water from molecular dynamics simulations. Using these correlation functions we consider dielectric friction and electro-acoustic coupling effects via linear response theory. From charge-charge correlations, the drag force on a moving point charge is derived and found to be maximal at a velocity of around 300 m/s. Strong deviations in the resulting friction coefficients from approximate theory employing a single Debye relaxation mode are found that are due to non-Debye-like resonances at high frequencies. From charge-mass cross-correlations the ultrasonic vibration potential is derived, which characterizes the conversion of acoustic waves into electric time-varying potentials. Along the dispersion relation for normal sound waves in water, the ultrasonic vibration potential is shown to strongly vary and to increase for larger wavelengths.

Sedlmeier, Felix; Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn; Netz, Roland R.

2014-02-01

73

Fluid Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use wood blocks and model boats to investigate how the shape of an object determines the friction it encounters as it is drawn through a towing tank. They learn the advantages of streamlining and increased waterline length and observe that the shape of an object affects its stability. Students are also introduced to the terms power, turbulence, hydrodynamics, work, and boat design, and explore the relationship of waterline length to speed.

74

Acoustics of friction.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of ultrasonic motors and other examples. Last, when considered phenomenologically, friction and boundary layer turbulence exhibit analogous properties and, when compared, each may provide clues to a better understanding of the other. PMID:12002837

Akay, Adnan

2002-04-01

75

Refinement of the dependences of the contact friction stresses in the deformation zone during cold rolling on the technological factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regression equation used to calculate the friction coefficient between a strip and rolls in the working stands of cold-rolling mills is refined using a database containing 580 friction coefficients. The reliability of this equation and the importance of the factors entering into it are proved by mathematical statistics methods. As compared to the calculations performed by alternative equations, the calculation of the rolling force by the refined formula decreases the difference between the calculated and experimental results more than twofold.

Garber, E. A.; Yagudin, I. V.; Traino, A. I.

2013-07-01

76

Friction WebQuest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's review what friction is and what it does! 1. Try this interactive game to see what factors make more or less friction. Sid Friction Experiment 2. Read the information on this page, then click the purple box at the bottom to take the quiz and see how much you remember about friction. Friction Info and Quiz 3. Here is another interactive game that lets you experiment with ...

Carrie Benson

2011-12-06

77

Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.  

PubMed

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238

Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

2014-03-01

78

New friction factor derived from study of Egyptian gas-field pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Evaluations of a newly developed friction-factor equation (and hence a new gas-flow formula) indicate that it produces higher accuracy than all equations currently in use. Further, the new equation can be conveniently sued to optimize operating conditions of any existing gas pipeline or aid in designing new, similar gas pipelines. The evaluation of the new equation showed it to be more flexible in accommodating many ranges of flow rate by developing the relevant new constant related to gas flow rate. The proposed new equation can be used to estimate the effect of any variable on gas flow in a horizontal or inclined system in addition to facilitating the optimum design of any new gas pipeline.

El-Emam, N. [Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt); Gad, F.K.; Nafey, A.S. [Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt); Zoghaib, N. [Balayim Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

1997-11-10

79

Turbulent flow in a channel with transverse rib heat transfer augmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbulent flow in a 2D channel with repeated rectangular rib roughness was numerically simulated using a low Reynolds number form of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Friction factors and average Stanton numbers were calculated for various pitch to rib height ratios and bulk Reynolds numbers. Comparisons with experiment were generally adequate, with the predictions of friction superior to those for heat transfer. The effect of variable properties for channel flow was investigated, and the results showed a greater effect for friction than for heat transfer. Comparison with experiment yielded no clear conclusions. The turbulence model was also validated for a related problem, that of flow downstream of an abrupt pipe expansion.

Chang, B. H.; Mills, A. F.

1993-01-01

80

Investigation Of The Friction Factor Behavior for Flat Plate Tests Of Smooth And Roughened Surfaces With Supply Pressures Up To 84 Bars  

E-print Network

friction factor data and measure dynamic pressure oscillations. A detailed description of the test facility is described, and a theory for determining the friction factor is reviewed. Three clearances were investigated: 0.635, 0.381, and 0.254 mm. Tests...

Kheireddin, Bassem A.

2010-10-12

81

In-flight compressible turbulent boundary layer measurements on a hollow cylinder at a Mach number of 3.0. [supersonic heat transfer and skin friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skin temperatures, shearing forces, surface static pressures, and boundary layer pitot pressures and total temperatures were measured on a hollow cylinder 3.04 meters long and 0.437 meter in diameter mounted beneath the fuselage of the YF-12A airplane. The data were obtained at a nominal free stream Mach number of 3.0 and at wall-to-recovery temperature ratios of 0.66 to 0.91. The free stream Reynolds number had a minimal value of 4.2 million per meter. Heat transfer coefficients and skin friction coefficients were derived from skin temperature time histories and shear force measurements, respectively. Boundary layer velocity profiles were derived from pitot pressure measurements, and a Reynolds analogy factor of 1.11 was obtained from the measured heat transfer and skin friction data. The skin friction coefficients predicted by the theory of van Driest were in excellent agreement with the measurements. Theoretical heat transfer coefficients, in the form of Stanton numbers calculated by using a modified Reynolds analogy between skin friction and heat transfer, were compared with measured values. The measured velocity profiles were compared to Coles' incompressible law-of-the-wall profile.

Quinn, R. D.; Gong, L.

1978-01-01

82

Correlation of turbulence factor and hot wire turbulence measurements in subsonic flows of air  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION C\\t1MB~ld lt b fS~ The existence of turbulence in wind tunnel work has long been recognised as an appreciable source of discrepancy between forces measured on a model in a wind. tunnel and fox"ces that wouM occur ou a model in free aix under...' or the Reduction of Wind. Tunnel Turbulence. Journal ~tA aa tt~?. AUT ~, 1, t~?. , A& t1, 1&AV. 8? Flow Corporation: Selected T~o ics in Hot Wire Anemometer T~heo Flow Corporation Bulletin No. 25. 9. Flow Corporation: Model HWB Hot Wire Anemometer-Theo and...

Wells, Curtis Sinclair

1959-01-01

83

Friction Factor Measurement, Analysis, and Modeling for Flat-Plates with 12.15 mm Diameter Hole-Pattern, Tested with Air at Different Clearances, Inlet Pressures, and Pressure Ratios  

E-print Network

Friction factor data are important for better prediction of leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of gas annular seals. A flat-plate test rig is used to determine friction factor of hole-pattern/honeycomb flat-plate surfaces representing annular...

Deva Asirvatham, Thanesh

2011-02-22

84

Diminishing friction of joint surfaces as initiating factor for destabilising permafrost rocks?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degrading alpine permafrost due to changing climate conditions causes instabilities in steep rock slopes. Due to a lack in process understanding, the hazard is still difficult to asses in terms of its timing, location, magnitude and frequency. Current research is focused on ice within joints which is considered to be the key-factor. Monitoring of permafrost-induced rock failure comprises monitoring of temperature and moisture in rock-joints. The effect of low temperatures on the strength of intact rock and its mechanical relevance for shear strength has not been considered yet. But this effect is signifcant since compressive and tensile strength is reduced by up to 50% and more when rock thaws (Mellor, 1973). We hypotheisze, that the thawing of permafrost in rocks reduces the shear strength of joints by facilitating the shearing/damaging of asperities due to the drop of the compressive/tensile strength of rock. We think, that decreasing surface friction, a neglected factor in stability analysis, is crucial for the onset of destabilisation of permafrost rocks. A potential rock slide within the permafrost zone in the Wetterstein Mountains (Zugspitze, Germany) is the basis for the data we use for the empirical joint model of Barton (1973) to estimate the peak shear strength of the shear plane. Parameters are the JRC (joint roughness coefficient), the JCS (joint compressive strength) and the residual friction angle (?r). The surface roughness is measured in the field with a profile gauge to create 2D-profiles of joint surfaces. Samples of rock were taken to the laboratory to measure compressive strength using a high-impact Schmidt-Hammer under air-dry, saturated and frozen conditions on weathered and unweathered surfaces. Plugs where cut out of the rock and sand blasted for shear tests under frozen and unfrozen conditions. Peak shear strength of frozen and unfrozen rocks will be calculated using Barton's model. First results show a mean decrease of compressive strength of around 40% when frozen water-saturated rock is exposed to thawing. The friction of sand-blasted rock-plugs decreases by a mean value of 32% considering degradation of rocks by freeze-thaw cycles. Surface roughness could be measured succesfully with the profile gauge and the results show a significant difference between untouched and sheared joint surfaces in the field. Here we show, that shear resistance of rock joints will be diminshed just by the thawing of intact rock. This study will help to establish a sound concept for the destabilization of rocks in permafrost and provide the data for first stability modelling. This will be crucial for predict rock instability in permafrost regions. References: Barton, N. (1973): Review of new shear strength criterion for rock jonts. Engineering Geology 7: 287-332 Mellor, M. (1973): Mechanical Properties of Rocks at Low Temperatures. 2nd International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, Siberia, 334-343.

Funk, Daniel; Krautblatter, Michael

2010-05-01

85

Propagation factors of cosine-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence.  

PubMed

Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function (WDF), we have studied the relative root-mean-square (rms) angular width and the propagation factor of cosine-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model (CGSM) beams propagating in non-Kolmogorov turbulence. It has been found that the CGSM beam has advantage over the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam for reducing the turbulence-induced degradation, and this advantage will be more obvious for the beams with larger parameter n and spatial coherence ? or under the condition of stronger fluctuation of turbulence. The CGSM beam with larger parameter n or smaller spatial coherence ? will be less affected by the turbulence. In addition, the effects of the slope-parameter ?, inner and outer scale and the refractive-index structure constant of the non-Kolmogorov's power spectrum on the propagation factor are also analyzed in detailed. PMID:25321718

Xu, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Zhou; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wei

2014-09-22

86

Studies on Fanning Friction (f) and Colburn (j) Factors of Offset and Wavy Fins Compact Plate Fin Heat Exchanger-A CFD Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to address the uncertainties in the estimation of the Fanning friction (f) and Colburn (j) factors in a compact offset plate fin heat exchanger, and the generation of flow friction and heat transfer correlations in the form of f and j for compact wavy plate fin heat exchangers. A typical offset fin has been

L. Sheik Ismail; R. Velraj

2009-01-01

87

The influence of free-stream turbulence on turbulent boundary layers with mild adverse pressure gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent bounday layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free stream to the boundary layers.

Hoffmann, Jon A.

1988-01-01

88

The influence of free-stream turbulence on turbulent boundary layers with mild adverse pressure gradients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free-stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free-stream to the boundary layers.

Hoffmann, J. A.; Kassir, S. M.; Larwood, S. M.

1989-01-01

89

Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the small-scale, random motions (i.e., turbulence) in clouds. Because the smallest scales of motion in clouds are many orders of magnitude smaller than the characteristic length scale of clouds, then the governing equations must be filtered (i.e., averaged) to make simulation possible. The Reynolds averaging approach is examined first, and several closure models for this system are

William R. Cotton; George Bryan; Susan C. van den Heever

2011-01-01

90

Fluid Friction of Fish Slimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHEN dissolved in water, the natural slimes of most of the fishes we have tested have a remarkable capacity to decrease greatly the friction of water when flowing in the turbulent state. In one species, a dilute solution of its slime was found to reduce the friction of water by as much as 65.9%; reductions of 57% to 63% were

Moe Wm. Rosen; Neri E. Cornford

1971-01-01

91

Is internal friction friction?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mogi [1974] proposed a simple model of the incipient rupture surface to explain the Coulomb failure criterion. We show here that this model can plausibly be extended to explain the Mohr failure criterion. In Mogi's model the incipient rupture surface immediately before fracture consists of areas across which material integrity is maintained (intact areas) and areas across which it is not (cracks). The strength of the incipient rupture surface is made up of the inherent strength of the intact areas plus the frictional resistance to sliding offered by the cracked areas. Although the coefficient of internal friction (slope of the strength versus normal stress curve) depends upon both the frictional and inherent strengths, the phenomenon of internal friction can be identified with the frictional part. The curvature of the Mohr failure envelope is interpreted as a consequence of differences in damage (cracking) accumulated in prefailure loading at different confining pressures.

Savage, J.C.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.A.

1996-01-01

92

Turbulent boundary layer of water waves near a smooth bottom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one?layer model describing wave?induced turbulent flows near a smooth bottom is presented. A time?invariant effective viscosity model, which is more realistic under natural conditions, is specified near a smooth bottom. The first and second order solutions are presented. These include the velocity profile, shear stress, friction Investigated. These include the velocity profile, shear stress, friction factor and mass transport.

1989-01-01

93

A new method for predicting friction pressures and rheology of proppant-laden fracturing fluids  

SciTech Connect

The prediction of fiction pressures for proppant-laden fracturing fluids requires estimations of both the base-gel friction factor and the effect of proppant on fluid rheology. This paper introduces two new expressions, each theoretically based with constants determined from data, that address these two issues for hydroxpropyl guar (HPG)-based fracturing fluids in laminar and turbulent flow. The paper first introduces a new expression for the turbulent friction factor of HPG base gels. This implicit expression for the friction factor is more theoretically correct and requires one less empirical constant than explicit forms currently used. The effect of proppant on the effective viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids is then discussed and a new expression, which includes shear rate, temperature, gel concentration, and proppant volume fraction as parameters, is derived. Developed from laboratory data and existing slurry rheology theories, this expression is shown to provide excellent predictions of laboratory and field data for both tubing and annulus injection.

Keck, R.G.; Nehmer, W.L.; Strumolo, G.S. (Dowell Schlumberger (US))

1992-02-01

94

Equivalence of Non-Equilibrium Ensembles and Representation of Friction in Turbulent Flows: The Lorenz 96 Model  

E-print Network

We construct different equivalent non-equilibrium statistical ensembles in a simple yet instructive $N$-degrees of freedom model of atmospheric turbulence, introduced by Lorenz in 1996. The vector field can be decomposed into an energy-conserving, time-reversible part, plus a non-time reversible part, including forcing and dissipation. We construct a modified version of the model where viscosity varies with time, in such a way that energy is conserved, and the resulting dynamics is fully time-reversible. For each value of the forcing, the statistical properties of the irreversible and reversible model are in excellent agreement, if in the latter the energy is kept constant at a value equal to the time-average realized with the irreversible model. In particular, the average contraction rate of the phase space of the time-reversible model agrees with that of the irreversible model, where instead it is constant by construction. We also show that the phase space contraction rate obeys the fluctuation relation, and we relate its finite time corrections to the characteristic time scales of the system. A local version of the fluctuation relation is explored and successfully checked. The equivalence between the two non-equilibrium ensembles extends to dynamical properties such as the Lyapunov exponents, which are shown to obey to a good degree of approximation a pairing rule. These results have relevance in motivating the importance of the chaotic hypothesis. in explaining that we have the freedom to model non-equilibrium systems using different but equivalent approaches, and, in particular, that using a model of a fluid where viscosity is kept constant is just one option, and not necessarily the only option, for describing accurately its statistical and dynamical properties.

Giovanni Gallavotti; Valerio Lucarini

2014-06-06

95

Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

1980-01-01

96

Factors controlling threshold friction velocity in semiarid and arid areas of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A physical model was developed to explain threshold friction velocities u*t for particles of the size 60a??120 I?m lying on a rough surface in loose soils for semiarid and arid parts of the United States. The model corrected for the effect of momentum absorption by the nonerodible roughness. For loose or disturbed soils the most important parameter that controls u*t is the aerodynamic roughness height z 0. For physical crusts damaged by wind the size of erodible crust pieces is important along with the roughness. The presence of cyanobacteriallichen soil crusts roughens the surface, and the biological fibrous growth aggregates soil particles. Only undisturbed sandy soils and disturbed soils of all types would be expected to be erodible in normal wind storms. Therefore disturbance of soils by both cattle and humans is very important in predicting wind erosion as confirmed by our measurements.

Marticorena, Beatrice; Bergametti, G.; Belnap, Jayne

1997-01-01

97

Simultaneous Investigation of Marine Factors Effect on Corrosion Rate of SS 304 in Turbulent Condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seawater is generally considered to be the most corrosive of the natural environments which threatens all the steel structures in their life time. The effect of environmental marine factors is extremely important in its corrosive behaviour. In this article, the influence of different marine parameters including pH, temperature, salinity and velocity is evaluated on the corrosion rate of SS 304 samples under turbulent condition. Since in actual marine environment, the entire parameters act simultaneously and as there is the possibility of differences between individual and synergistic influences of effecting factors, the influence of each considered parameter on the rate of corrosion has been studied under the combined effect of other factors. Finally, the results are presented via the graphs of dual factor effects which illustrate two-by-two influences of environmental parameters on corrosion rate variation. This research presents the difference between the qualitative and quantitative effects of a parameter under different ranges of considered parameter and also under the simultaneous effect of other combined acting factors, which emphasizes the importance of synergistic effects. In each case, the results obtained in turbulent condition are compared with previous study which had investigated the effect of marine parameters in laminar medium.

Atashin, S.; Toloei, A. S.; Pakshir, M.

2013-07-01

98

The numerical friction line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the numerical calculation of the friction resistance coefficient of an infinitely thin plate\\u000a as a function of the Reynolds number. Seven eddy-viscosity models have been selected: the one-equation turbulence models of\\u000a Menter and Spalart–Allmaras; the k-? two-equation model proposed by Wilcox and its TNT, BSL and SST variants and the $$ k \\\\text{-}\\\\!\\\\sqrt k

L. Eça; M. Hoekstra

2008-01-01

99

Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

Jaisankar, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oxford Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli 620009, Tamil Nadu (India); Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)

2009-11-15

100

Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system fitted with spacer at the trailing edge of twisted tapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of thermosyphon solar water heater system with full- length twist, twist fitted with rod and spacer fitted at the trailing edge for lengths of 100, 200 and 300mm for twist ratio 3 and 5 has been carried out and compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions. The experimental

S. Jaisankar; T. K. Radhakrishnan; K. N. Sheeba

2009-01-01

101

Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime for Re{sub TP} < 2000, a transition regime for 2000 {<=} Re{sub TP} < 8000 and a turbulent regime for Re{sub TP} {>=} 8000. The laminar zone yields a much sharper gradient than in single-phase flow. The transition regime is not predicted well by any of the prediction methods for two-phase frictional pressure drops available in the literature. This is not unexpected since only a few data are available for this region in the literature and most methods ignore this regime, jumping directly from laminar to turbulent flow at Re{sub TP} = 2000. The turbulent zone is best predicted by the Mueller-Steinhagen and Heck correlation. Also, a new homogeneous two-phase frictional pressure drop has been proposed here with a limited range of application. (author)

Revellin, Remi; Thome, John R. [EPFL, STI ISE LTCM, ME Gl 464, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2007-07-15

102

Factors Influencing Pitot Probe Centerline Displacement in a Turbulent Supersonic Boundary Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a total pressure probe is used for measuring flows with transverse total pressure gradients, a displacement of the effective center of the probe is observed (designated Delta). While this phenomenon is well documented in incompressible flow and supersonic laminar flow, there is insufficient information concerning supersonic turbulent flow. In this study, three NASA Lewis Research Center Supersonic Wind Tunnels (SWT's) were used to investigate pitot probe centerline displacement in supersonic turbulent boundary layers. The relationship between test conditions and pitot probe centerline displacement error was to be determined. For this investigation, ten circular probes with diameter-to-boundary layer ratios (D/delta) ranging from 0.015 to 0.256 were tested in the 10 ft x 10 ft SWT, the 15 cm x 15 cm SWT, and the 1 ft x 1 ft SWT. Reynolds numbers of 4.27 x 10(exp 6)/m, 6.00 x 10(exp 6)/in, 10.33 x 10(exp 6)/in, and 16.9 x 10(exp 6)/m were tested at nominal Mach numbers of 2.0 and 2.5. Boundary layer thicknesses for the three tunnels were approximately 200 mm, 13 mm, and 30 mm, respectively. Initial results indicate that boundary layer thickness, delta, and probe diameter, D/delta play a minimal role in pitot probe centerline offset error, Delta/D. It appears that the Mach gradient, dM/dy, is an important factor, though the exact relationship has not yet been determined. More data is needed to fill the map before a conclusion can be drawn with any certainty. This research provides valuable supersonic, turbulent boundary layer data from three supersonic wind tunnels with three very different boundary layers. It will prove a valuable stepping stone for future research into the factors influencing pitot probe centerline offset error.

Grosser, Wendy I.

1997-01-01

103

Geological and Physical Factors Affecting the Friction Angle of Compacted Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of physical characteristics and geologic factors on the shear strength of compacted sands from Wisconsin that are used as granular backfill for mechanically stabilized earth walls and reinforced soil slopes. Physical properties and shear strength were determined for 30 compacted sands collected from a broad range of geological deposits. Relationships between strength\\/deformation behavior, geologic origin,

Christopher A. Bareither; Tuncer B. Edil; Craig H. Benson; David M. Mickelson

2008-01-01

104

Fascinating Friction!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use wood, wax paper and oil to investigate the importance of lubrication between materials and to understand the concept of friction. Using wax paper and oil placed between pieces of wood, the function of lubricants between materials is illustrated. Students extend their understanding of friction to bones and joints in the skeletal system and become aware of what engineers can do to help reduce friction in the human body as well as in machines.

2014-09-18

105

Direct Measurements of Skin Friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

Dhawan, Satish

1953-01-01

106

Joint strength of Inconel 718 alloy and its improvement by post-weld heat treatment – joint performance and its controlling factors in friction welding of Inconel 718 alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of welding parameters on tensile properties of friction-welded joints of Inconel 718 alloy (subjected to a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) consisting of a solution treatment at 1253 K and double ageing treatments at 993 and 893 K) have been investigated to reveal the controlling factor of the joint performance. All joints obtained were fractured near the bond interface at smaller

Hongjie Wang; Kenji Ikeuchi; Masatoshi Aritoshi; Makoto Takahashi; Akio Ikeda

2009-01-01

107

Turbulence models and Reynolds analogy for two-dimensional supersonic compression ramp flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the application of turbulence models and the Reynolds analogy to the Navier-Stokes computations of Mach 2.9 two-dimensional compression ramp flows are presented. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model and the kappa-epsilon turbulence transport equations for the turbulent momentum flux modeling in the Navier-Stokes equations are studied. The Reynolds analogy for the turbulent heat flux modeling in the energy equation was also studied. The Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation were numerically solved for the flow properties. The Reynolds shear stress, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer rate were calculated and compared with their measurements. It was concluded that with a hybrid kappa-epsilon turbulence model for turbulence modeling, the present computations predicted the skin friction factors of the 8 deg and 16 deg compression ramp flows and with the turbulent Prandtl number Pr(sub t) = 0.93 and the ratio of the turbulent thermal and momentum transport coefficients mu(sub q)/mu(sub t) = 2/Prt, the present computations also predicted the surface heat transfer rates beneath the boundary layer flow of the 16 compression ramp.

Wang, Chi R.; Bidek, Maleina C.

1994-01-01

108

Friction welding.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of an exploratory study of the structure and properties of friction welds in Udimet 700 (U-700) and TD-nickel (TD-Ni) bar materials, as well as dissimilar U-700/TD-Ni friction welds. Butt welds were prepared by friction welding 12.7-mm-diam U-700 bars and TD-Ni bars. Specimens for elevated temperature tensile and stress rupture testing were machined after a postweld heat treatment. Friction welding of U-700 shows great potential because the welds were found to be as strong as the parent metal in stress rupture and tensile tests at 760 and 980 C. In addition, the weld line was not detectable by metallographic examination after postheating. Friction welds in TD-Ni or between U-700 and TD-Ni were extremely weak at elevated temperatures. The TD-Ni friction welds could support only 9% as much stress as the base metal for 10-hour stress rupture life at 1090 C. The U-700/TD-Ni weld could sustain only 15% as much stress as the TD-Ni parent metal for a 10-hour stress rupture life at 930 C. Thus friction welding is not a suitable joining method for obtaining high-strength TD-Ni or U-700/TD-Ni weldments.

Moore, T. J.

1972-01-01

109

A simple model for calculating the thickness of a turbulent liquid film moved by gravity and gas flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The model for calculating the thickness of a turbulent film moving under the action of gravity and shear stress of the gas flow friction is proposed. The simplest approximation of turbulent viscosity giving the cubic damping law in a viscous sublayer and logarithmic asymptotics of velocity at a distance from the wall was used. The study is aimed at derivation of explicit formulas for the film thickness depending on Reynolds number and friction factor of a gas flow. According to comparison of model calculations with published experimental data, the deviation is maximal at the laminar-wavy flows and it can be up to 10-20 %.

Geshev, P. I.

2014-12-01

110

The effect of safety factor and magnetic shear on turbulent transport in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on over 100 nonlinear simulations used to systematically study the effects of safety factor q and magnetic shear s on turbulent energy and particle transport due to ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM) for several reference cases using the GYRO gyrokinetic code. All the simulations are collisionless, electrostatic, and utilize shifted circle geometry. The motivation is to create a database for benchmarking and testing of turbulent transport models. In simulations varying q, it is found that the ion and electron energy transport exhibit an offset linear dependence on q for 1{<=}q{<=}4. This result is valid for cases in which the spectrum is dominated by either TEM or ITG modes. The particle transport also follows a linear q dependence if the diffusivity D is positive (outward). If a particle pinch is predicted, however, then D is found to be insensitive to q. In kinetic electron simulations varying the magnetic shear s, the particle transport can exhibit a null flow at a particular value of s. In the vicinity of the null flow point, the transport spectrum shows that some modes drive an inward flow while others drive an outward flow. For negative magnetic shear, the magnetohydrodynamic {alpha} parameter is shown to be stabilizing for both the energy and particle transport but can be destabilizing for large positive shear. Compared to the ITG dominated case, the TEM cases show the same linear q dependence, but a weaker s dependence is exhibited for positive magnetic shear values when TEM modes dominate the spectrum. In general, the q, s, and {alpha} dependence of the transport including kinetic electrons is consistent with ITG adiabatic electron simulation results.

Kinsey, J.E.; Waltz, R.E.; Candy, J. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

2006-02-15

111

Discovering Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a simple demonstration activity, students are introduced to the concept of friction as a force that impedes motion when two surfaces are in contact. Then, in the Associated Activity (Sliding and Stuttering), they work in teams to use a spring scale to drag an object such as a ceramic coffee cup along a table top or the floor. The spring scale allows them to measure the frictional force that exists between the moving cup and the surface it slides on. By modifying the bottom surface of the cup, students can find out what kinds of surfaces generate more or less friction. They also discover that both static and kinetic friction are involved when an object initially at rest is caused to slide across a surface.

2014-09-18

112

Frictional melting of peridotite and seismic slip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the frictional strength along a fault at seismic slip rates (about 1 m\\/s) is a key factor controlling earthquake mechanics. At mantle depths, friction-induced melting and melt lubrication may influence earthquake slip and seismological data. We report on laboratory experiments designed to investigate dynamic fault strength and frictional melting processes in mantle rocks. We performed 20 experiments

P. Del Gaudio; G. Di Toro; R. Han; T. Hirose; S. Nielsen; T. Shimamoto; A. Cavallo

2009-01-01

113

will appear in Journal of Geophysical Research, 2001. Observations of turbulence in a tidal beam and across a coastal ridge  

E-print Network

1 will appear in Journal of Geophysical Research, 2001. Observations of turbulence in a tidal beam varied by a factor of 100 with a semidiurnal tidal periodicity; the isopycnal displacement confirmed from the bottom and was clearly not generated by bottom friction. Although less well resolved in time

Lien, Ren-Chieh

114

Friction Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use LEGO® MINDSTORMS® robotics to help conceptualize and understand the force of friction. Specifically, they observe how different surfaces in contact result in different frictional forces. A LEGO robot is constructed to pull a two-wheeled trailer made of LEGO parts. The robot is programmed to pull the trailer 10 feet and trial runs are conducted on smooth and textured surfaces. The speed and motor power of the robot is kept constant in all trials so students observe the effect of friction between various combinations of surfaces and trailer wheels. To apply what they learn, students act as engineers and create the most effective car by designing the most optimal tires for given surface conditions.

2014-09-18

115

Exploring Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this activity, Students will learn several important characteristics about friction. Students will also learn why athletes who curl in the Winter Olympics try to understand and control friction.

2010-01-01

116

Investigation of twisted tape inserted solar water heaters—heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer in a solar water heater could be enhanced by means of twisted tapes, inserted inside the fluid flow tubes, which induce swirl flow and act as turbulence promoters. Experimental investigations for a solar water heater with twisted tape inserts having twist pitch to tube diameter ratio ranging from 3–12 have been carried out for varying mass flow rates.

A Kumar; B. N Prasad

2000-01-01

117

Active nematic materials with substrate friction  

E-print Network

Active turbulence in dense active systems is characterized by high vorticity on a length scale that is large compared to that of individual entities. We describe the properties of active turbulence as momentum propagation is screened by frictional damping. As friction is increased, the spacing between the walls in the nematic director field decreases as a consequence of the more rapid velocity decays. This leads to, first, a regime with more walls and an increased number of topological defects, and then to a jammed state in which the walls deliminate bands of opposing flow, analogous to the shear bands observed in passive complex fluids.

Sumesh P. Thampi; Ramin Golestanian; Julia M. Yeomans

2014-12-16

118

Active nematic materials with substrate friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active turbulence in dense active systems is characterized by high vorticity on a length scale that is large compared to that of individual entities. We describe the properties of active turbulence as momentum propagation is screened by frictional damping. As friction is increased, the spacing between the walls in the nematic director field decreases as a consequence of the more rapid velocity decays. This leads to, first, a regime with more walls and an increased number of topological defects, and then to a jammed state in which the walls deliminate bands of opposing flow, analogous to the shear bands observed in passive complex fluids.

Thampi, Sumesh P.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

2014-12-01

119

Equivalent viscous damping models of coulomb friction in multi-degree-of-freedom vibration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction is difficult to model in multi-degree-of-freedom mechanical systems. Experimental studies of damping in vibrating mechanical systems typically use modal damping factors to represent the damping. Energy lost by friction is included in these factors. This paper presents an analysis of the friction energy dissipated by each mode to derive several models of equivalent friction modal damping. These friction damping

X. Tan; R. J. Rogers

1995-01-01

120

Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics in a Circular Tube Fitted with V-Cut Twisted Tape Inserts  

PubMed Central

Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

2013-01-01

121

Skin friction drag measurements by LDV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser Doppler velocimeter employing a microscope objective as the receiving lens has been developed for measuring fluid velocity inside the boundary layer flow field with a spatial resolution of 40 microns. The method was applied for direct measurement of aerodynamic skin friction drag from the measured velocity gradient at the wall. Experimental results obtained on skin friction and on velocity components in a turbulent boundary layer on a low speed wind tunnel showed good agreement with previously reported data using conventional instruments such as hot-wire anemometers and Preston tubes. The method thus provides a tool for measurement and control of skin friction on aerodynamic bodies without perturbing the flow field.

Mazumder, M. K.; Wanchoo, S.; Mcleod, P. C.; Ballard, G. S.; Mozumdar, S.; Caraballo, N.

1981-01-01

122

Elasto-inertial turbulence  

PubMed Central

Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet even for the case of ordinary Newtonian fluids like water, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited. Many liquids of practical importance are more complicated (e.g., blood, polymer melts, paints), however; they exhibit elastic as well as viscous characteristics, and the relation between stress and strain is nonlinear. We demonstrate here for a model system of such complex fluids that at high shear rates, turbulence is not simply modified as previously believed but is suppressed and replaced by a different type of disordered motion, elasto-inertial turbulence. Elasto-inertial turbulence is found to occur at much lower Reynolds numbers than Newtonian turbulence, and the dynamical properties differ significantly. The friction scaling observed coincides with the so-called “maximum drag reduction” asymptote, which is exhibited by a wide range of viscoelastic fluids. PMID:23757498

Samanta, Devranjan; Dubief, Yves; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; Morozov, Alexander N.; Wagner, Christian; Hof, Björn

2013-01-01

123

Turbulence management: Application aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulence management for the reduction of turbulent friction drag is an important topic. Numerous research programs in this field have demonstrated that valuable net drag reduction is obtainable by techniques which do not involve substantial, expensive modifications or redesign of existing aircraft. Hence, large projects aiming at short term introduction of turbulence management technology into airline service are presently under development. The various points that have to be investigated for this purpose are presented. Both design and operational aspects are considered, the first dealing with optimizing of turbulence management techniques at operating conditions, and the latter defining the technical problems involved by application of turbulence management to in-service aircraft. The cooperative activities of Airbus Industrie and its partners are cited as an example.

Hirschel, E. H.; Thiede, P.; Monnoyer, F.

1989-04-01

124

Friction and Wear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the practical point of view, this analysis shows that each problem of friction or wear requires its particular solution. There is no universal solution; one or other of the factors predominates and defines the choice of the solution. In certain cases, copper alloys of great thermal conductivity are preferred; in others, plastics abundantly supplied with water. Sometimes, soft antifriction metals are desirable to distribute the load; at other times, hard metals with high resistance to abrasion or heat.

Pomey, Jacques

1952-01-01

125

Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow  

E-print Network

Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow MILIVOJE M@niu.edu * www.kostic.niu.edu Abstract: - An apparatus for exploring friction and heat transfer characteristics flow. Initial turbulent friction and heat transfer measurements for silica and carbon nanotube (CNT

Kostic, Milivoje M.

126

Tokamak magnetic turbulence over the safety factor range 0. 6 < q < 3  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic turbulence (..nu..<400kHz) has been measured both internal and external to a tokamak plasma as the edge q is varied from 0.6 to 3. The radial and poloidal spatial dependence fo the coherence is investigated. The spatial and frequency dependence of the fluctuations are similar over the wide range of q. 10 refs., 7 figs.

Graessle, D.E.; Prager, S.C.; Dexter, R.N.

1988-03-01

127

Turbulence control as a factor in improving visualization during subacromial shoulder arthroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bleeding in the subacromial space is an annoying but ever-present impediment to visualization during arthroscopic subacromial procedures. Direct (thermal electrocautery) and indirect (hypotensive anesthesia, arthroscopic pump) means of bleeding control have been used with varying degrees of success. However, the simplest technique of all has been ignored until now. Application of Bernoulli’s Principle to achieve turbulence control by means of

Stephen S. Burkhart; Steven M. Danaceau; Kyriacos A. Athanasiou

2001-01-01

128

Introduction Rolling and Friction  

E-print Network

Introduction Kinematics Solutions Rolling and Friction in Discrete Element Simulations Matthew R of rolling resistance Creep-friction definition Creep-friction vs. Cattaneo-Mindlin friction Classification / papers / EMI2011.pdf #12;Introduction Kinematics Solutions Classification of rolling resistance Creep-friction

Kuhn, Matthew R.

129

Quantum friction  

E-print Network

The Brownian motion of a light quantum particle in a heavy classical gas is theoretically described and a new expression for the friction coefficient is obtained for arbitrary temperature. At zero temperature it equals to the de Broglie momentum of the mean free path divided by the mean free path. Alternatively, the corresponding mobility of the quantum particle in the classical gas is equal to the square of the mean free path divided by the Planck constant. The Brownian motion of a quantum particle in a quantum environment is also discussed.

R. Tsekov

2012-12-05

130

Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Three-Dimensional Duct Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in straight ducts, with square, rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions over a range of Reynolds numbers. Iso-thermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled by gradient-diffusion type models. At high Reynolds numbers (>/= 10(exp 5)), wall functions are used for the velocity and temperature fields; while at low Reynolds numbers damping functions are introduced into the models. Hydraulic parameters such as friction factor and Nusselt number are well predicted even when damping functions are used, and the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Comparison between the models is presented in terms of the hydraulic parameters, friction factor and Nusselt number, as well as in terms of the secondary flow patterns occurring within the ducts.

Rokni, M.; Gatski, T. B.

1999-01-01

131

Elastomeric friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation examines the tribology of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) elastomers from a practical and a fundamental perspective. We examine the adhesive, energetic, and tribological properties of several commercial biofouling release coatings, and show that adhesive (and bioadhesive) release from an elastomer depends on the friction of its surface. Having shown that friction is an obstacle to release, we lubricate a model PDMS network by incorporating linear unreactive PDMS oils varying in molecular weight (0.8--423 kg/mol). Surface segregation upon curing depends on molecular weight and mass percentage. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used to detect the thickness of the lubricant layer. Surprisingly, high-viscosity oils lubricate better than low-viscosity oils, indicating a non-hydrodynamic lubrication. Applying this technology to a commercial elastomer, we see an improvement in bioadhesive release capabilities, as evidenced by a reduced tenacity of mussel adhesive protein. In comparing entangled polymer melts to crosslinked elastomers, we encountered an opportunity to study the tribology of the latter. We studied the effects of molecular weight, velocity, and temperature on the friction of crosslinked PDMS elastomers sliding against two model surfaces: a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of n-hexadecylsilane, and a thin (˜100mum) film of polystyrene (PS). The change from smooth to stick-slip (unstable) interfacial sliding occurs at a distinct velocity on each surface, implying that it's not necessarily attributable to a bulk glass transition of the PDMS, as popularly believed. The peak shear stress attained immediately before stick-slip sliding is found to be linear with the shear modulus raised to an exponent n of ¾, in contrast with the predictions of Chernyak and Leonov ( n = 1). Low-velocity behavior differs greatly between the SAM and the PS, implying a mechanistic difference. Whereas on the SAM, sliding likely proceeds purely by stochastic adsorption and desorption of polymer chains, on the PS it may also proceed by disentanglement of PDMS from the PS. Temperature-variant measurements allow us to estimate the activation energy of sliding, implying strongly that the velocity of instability depends on the van der Waals interfacial interaction.

Vorvolakos, Katherine

132

Turbulent pipe flow of a drag-reducing rigid “rod-like” polymer solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully developed turbulent pipe flow of an aqueous solution of a rigid “rod-like” polymer, scleroglucan, at concentrations of 0.005% (w\\/w) and 0.01% (w\\/w) has been investigated experimentally. Fanning friction factors were determined from pressure-drop measurements for the Newtonian solvent (water) and the polymer solutions and so levels of drag reduction for the latter. Mean axial velocity u and complete Reynolds

A. Japper-Jaafar; M. P. Escudier; R. J. Poole

2009-01-01

133

Experimental study of boundary layer transition with elevated freestream turbulence on a heated flat plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed investigation to document momentum and thermal development of boundary layers undergoing natural transition on a heated flat plate was performed. Experimental results of both overall and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional, and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are presented. Measurements were acquired in a low-speed, closed-loop wind tunnel with a freestream velocity of 100 ft/s and zero pressure gradient over a range of freestream turbulence intensities (TI) from 0.4 to 6 percent. The distributions of skin friction, heat transfer rate and Reynolds shear stress were all consistent with previously published data. Reynolds analogy factors for R(sub theta) is less than 2300 were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for an unheated starting length. The measured laminar value of Reynolds analogy factor was as much as 53 percent higher than the Pr(sup -2/3). A small dependence of turbulent results on TI was observed. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layer indicated the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, pronounced at certain low intermittencies, which is consistent with the cross-sectional shape of turbulent spots observed by others. Non-turbulent intervals were observed to possess large magnitudes of near-wall unsteadiness and turbulent intervals had peak values as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Non-turbulent and turbulent profiles in transitional boundary layers cannot be simply treated as Blasius and fully turbulent profiles, respectively. The boundary layer spectra indicate predicted selective amplification of T-S waves for TI is approximately 0.4 percent. However, for TI is approximately 0.8 and 1.1 percent, T-S waves are localized very near the wall and do not play a dominant role in transition process.

Sohn, Ki-Hyeon; Reshotko, Eli

1991-01-01

134

Friction, wear, and lubrication in vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of studies and observations on the friction, wear, and lubrication behavior of materials in a vacuum environment is presented. The factors that determine and influence friction and wear are discussed. They include topographical, physical, mechanical, and the chemical nature of the surface. The effects of bulk properties such as deformation characteristics, fracture behavior, and structure are included.

Buckley, D. H.

1971-01-01

135

DNS of Compressible Turbulent Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the first part of this paper direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to explore similarities and differences between\\u000a fully developed supersonic turbulent plane channel and axisymmetric pipe flow bounded by isothermal walls. The comparison\\u000a is based on equal friction Mach and Reynolds numbers. In the second part a comparison between supersonic turbulent nozzle\\u000a and diffuser flow is undertaken based

Rainer Ghosh; Somnath Ghosh

136

Continuum modeling of crowd turbulence.  

PubMed

With the growth in world population, the density of crowds in public places has been increasing steadily, leading to a higher incidence of crowd disasters at high densities. Recent research suggests that emergent chaotic behavior at high densities-known collectively as crowd turbulence-is to blame. Thus, a deeper understanding of crowd turbulence is needed to facilitate efforts to prevent and plan for chaotic conditions in high-density crowds. However, it has been noted that existing algorithms modeling collision avoidance cannot faithfully simulate crowd turbulence. We hypothesize that simulation of crowd turbulence requires modeling of both collision avoidance and frictional forces arising from pedestrian interactions. Accordingly, we propose a model for turbulent crowd simulation, which incorporates a model for interpersonal stress and acceleration constraints similar to real-world pedestrians. Our simulated results demonstrate a close correspondence with observed metrics for crowd turbulence as measured in known crowd disasters. PMID:25375558

Golas, Abhinav; Narain, Rahul; Lin, Ming C

2014-10-01

137

Prediction of Very High Reynolds Number Compressible Skin Friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat plate skin friction calculations over a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 3.5 at Reynolds numbers from 16 million to 492 million using a Navier Stokes method with advanced turbulence modeling are compared with incompressible skin friction coefficient correlations. The semi-empirical correlation theories of van Driest; Cope; Winkler and Cha; and Sommer and Short T' are used to transform the predicted skin friction coefficients of solutions using two algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence models in the Navier-Stokes method PAB3D. In general, the predicted skin friction coefficients scaled well with each reference temperature theory though, overall the theory by Sommer and Short appeared to best collapse the predicted coefficients. At the lower Reynolds number 3 to 30 million, both the Girimaji and Shih, Zhu and Lumley turbulence models predicted skin-friction coefficients within 2% of the semi-empirical correlation skin friction coefficients. At the higher Reynolds numbers of 100 to 500 million, the turbulence models by Shih, Zhu and Lumley and Girimaji predicted coefficients that were 6% less and 10% greater, respectively, than the semi-empirical coefficients.

Carlson, John R.

1998-01-01

138

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 3 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 16 JULY 2001 Dynamical Turbulent Flow on the Galton Board with Friction  

E-print Network

on the Galton Board with Friction A. D. Chepelianskii1 and D. L. Shepelyansky2 1 Lycée Pierre de Fermat, Parvis des Jacobins, 31068 Toulouse Cedex 7, France 2 Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, UMR 5626 du CNRS

Shepelyansky, Dima

139

Drag reduction: enticing turbulence, and then an industry.  

PubMed

We examine drag-reduction proposals, as presented in this volume and in general, first with concrete examples of how to bridge the distance from pure science through engineering to what makes inventions go into service; namely, the value to the public. We point out that the true drag reduction can be markedly different from an estimate based simply on the difference between turbulent and laminar skin friction over the laminarized region, or between the respective skin frictions of the baseline and the riblet-treated flow. In some situations, this difference is favourable, and is due to secondary differences in pressure drag. We reiterate that the benefit of riblets, if it is expressed as a percentage in skin-friction reduction, is unfortunately lower at full-size Reynolds numbers than in a small-scale experiment or simulation. The Reynolds number-independent measure of such benefits is a shift of the logarithmic law, or '?U(+)'. Anticipating the design of a flight test and then a product, we note the relative ease in representing riblets or laminarization in computational fluid dynamics, in contrast with the huge numerical and turbulence-modelling challenge of resolving active flow control systems in a calculation of the full flow field. We discuss in general terms the practical factors that have limited applications of concepts that would appear more than ready after all these years, particularly riblets and laminar-flow control. PMID:21382831

Spalart, Philippe R; McLean, J Douglas

2011-04-13

140

The effect of wall friction on magnetohydrodynamic generator performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of wall friction on magnetohydrodynamic generator performance is determined by introduction of a wall friction factor into the one-dimensional generator equations. This addition should be useful in improving generator analysis and determining optimum generator geometry. The curves presented can be used to determine the effects of changes in wall friction and generator performance. Wall friction has an increasing effect on the Mach number increases and a decreasing effect as the pressure drop across the generator increase.

Bishop, A. R.

1972-01-01

141

A skin friction gauge for impulsive flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new skin friction gauge has been designed for use in impulsive facilities. The gauge was tested in the T4 free piston shock tunnel, at the University of Queensland, using a 1.5 m long plate that formed one of the inner walls of a rectangular duct. The test gas was fair and the test section free stream flow had a stagnation enthalpy of 4.7 MJ/kg. Measurements were conducted in a laminar and turbulent boundary layer. The measurements compared well with laminar and turbulent analytical theory.

Goyne, C. P.; Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.

142

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar of touch interactions can be enhanced when using a touchscreen with dynamically varied surface friction. We

Levesque, Vincent

143

Riblets for aircraft skin-friction reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Energy conservation and aerodynamic efficiency are the driving forces behind research into methods to reduce turbulent skin friction drag on aircraft fuselages. Fuselage skin friction reductions as small as 10 percent provide the potential for a 250 million dollar per year fuel savings for the commercial airline fleet. One passive drag reduction concept which is relatively simple to implement and retrofit is that of longitudinally grooved surfaces aligned with the stream velocity. These grooves (riblets) have heights and spacings on the order of the turbulent wall streak and burst dimensions. The riblet performance (8 percent net drag reduction thus far), sensitivity to operational/application considerations such as yaw and Reynolds number variation, an alternative fabrication technique, results of extensive parametric experiments for geometrical optimization, and flight test applications are summarized.

Walsh, Michael J.

1986-01-01

144

Dahl friction modeling  

E-print Network

The drive behind improved friction models has been better prediction and control of dynamic systems. The earliest model was of classical Coulomb friction; however, the discontinuity during force reversal of the Coulomb ...

Chou, Danielle, 1981-

2004-01-01

145

Turbulent current drive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.

Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

2014-11-01

146

Friction in Our Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand the following: 1. Friction is a force that opposes motion, or makes it difficult for an object to move across a surface. 2. The amount of friction depends on the surface type and the force pressing two surfaces together. 3. Everyday life provides examples of how friction both helps and hinders everything we do.

Discovery

2012-01-17

147

On adaptive friction compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of compensating for friction in control systems is presented. The method entails the use of an observer to estimate the friction which is modeled as a constant times the sign of the velocity. The purpose of the observer is to estimate this constant. The observer model is selected to ensure that the error in estimation of the friction

Bernard Friedland; Young-Jin Park

1992-01-01

148

Rotational quantum friction.  

PubMed

We investigate the frictional forces due to quantum fluctuations acting on a small sphere rotating near a surface. At zero temperature, we find the frictional force near a surface to be several orders of magnitude larger than that for the sphere rotating in vacuum. For metallic materials with typical conductivity, quantum friction is maximized by matching the frequency of rotation with the conductivity. Materials with poor conductivity are favored to obtain large quantum frictions. For semiconductor materials that are able to support surface plasmon polaritons, quantum friction can be further enhanced by several orders of magnitude due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. PMID:23005949

Zhao, Rongkuo; Manjavacas, Alejandro; García de Abajo, F Javier; Pendry, J B

2012-09-21

149

Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction  

SciTech Connect

Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

Guo, Yi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Qu, Zhihua [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Braiman, Yehuda [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Barhen, Jacob [ORNL

2008-01-01

150

Rotational Quantum Friction  

E-print Network

We investigate the frictional forces due to quantum fluctuations acting on a small sphere rotating near a surface. At zero temperature, we find the frictional force near a surface to be several orders of magnitude larger than that for the sphere rotating in vacuum. For metallic materials with typical conductivity, quantum friction is maximized by matching the frequency of rotation with the conductivity. Materials with poor conductivity are favored to obtain large quantum frictions. For semiconductor materials that are able to support surface plasmon polaritons, quantum friction can be further enhanced by several orders of magnitude due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons.

Rongkuo Zhao; Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier García de Abajo; J. B. Pendry

2012-09-25

151

Microblowing Technique Demonstrated to Reduce Skin Friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. Reduced skin friction means less drag. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none of them has significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. An innovative skin-friction reduction technique, the Microblowing Technique (MBT), was invented in 1993. This is a unique concept in which an extremely small amount of air is blown vertically at a surface through very small holes. It can be used for aircraft or marine vehicles, such as submarines (where water is blown through the holes instead of air). As shown in the figure, the outer layer, which controls vertical flow, is a plate with high-vertical holes. The inner layer, which produces evenly distributed flow, is a low-permeability porous plate. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction.

Hwang, Danny P.; Biesiadny, Tom J.

1998-01-01

152

Micromachine friction test apparatus  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2002-01-01

153

Testing a Missing Spectral Link in Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the cardinal attribute of turbulence is the velocity fluctuations, these fluctuations have been ignored in theories of the frictional drag of turbulent flows. Our goal is to test a new theory that links the frictional drag to the spectral exponent ?, a property of the velocity fluctuations in a flow. We use a soap-film channel wherein for the first time the value of ? can be switched between 3 and 5/3, the two theoretically possible values in soap-film flows. To induce turbulence with ?=5/3, we make one of the edges of the soap-film channel serrated. Remarkably, the new theory of the frictional drag holds in both soap-film flows (for either value of the spectral exponent ?) and ordinary pipe flows (where ?=5/3), even though these types of flow are governed by different equations.

Kellay, Hamid; Tran, Tuan; Goldburg, Walter; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

2012-12-01

154

Do growing cumulus experience friction?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efforts to tune cumulus parameterisations, notably by adjusting entrainment rates, have yielded conflicting results with no single entrainment representation producing satisfactory representation of both the sensitivity of convection to ambient humidity (which requires a high rate) and accurate representation of the mean state (which may require convection to reach the tropopause more easily). This situation calls for a rethinking of the basic assumptions upon which convection schemes are built. We argue that a crucial target is the assumption that convective plumes or thermals experience heavy drag upon ascent, which is either explicit or implicit in basic models underlying convective schemes. Relaxation of this assumption appears to be justified on the basis of heuristic fluid dynamical arguments and laboratory studies, and would tend to alleviate some basic problems by allowing highly-entraining clouds to penetrate more deeply. We present analyses of the momentum budget of numerically-simulated cumulus updrafts to reassess the role of damping due to friction-like processes, in order to determine more rigorously whether friction should be reduced or eliminated in idealised cumulus models. A fundamental issue that arises in this computation is the ambiguity in defining what exactly constitutes the "parcel" that is represented in the idealised ascending-parcel calculation, in a realistic situation of a strongly deforming and turbulent fluid with rapid phase changes.

Sherwood, S.; Hernandez-Deckers, D.; Colin, M.; Robinson, F.

2012-04-01

155

Development and verification of general correlations for pressure drop and heat transfer in single-phase turbulent flow in enhanced tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

General correlations are developed and verified for friction factor and heat-transfer coefficient for single-phase turbulent flow in internally augmented tubes. Data from frequently referred investigations were gathered for a wide range of tube parameters with ed, 0.01 to 0.2; pd, 0.1 to 7.0; ?90, 0.3 to 1.0, and flow parameters Re, 5000 to 250,000 and Pr, 0.66 to 37.6. The

A. E. Bergles

1996-01-01

156

Tidal friction in the binary pulsar system PSR 1913 + 16  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that in the binary star system containing the pulsar PSR 1913 + 16, orbital-period changes produced by tidal friction may be significant. If the unseen companion is a white dwarf with a turbulent atmosphere, one expects orbital-period changes of the order of one part in one billion per year. This is larger than the predicted period change

S. A. Balbus; K. Brecher

1976-01-01

157

Friction of rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

Byerlee, J.

1978-01-01

158

Numerical investigation of pressure drop and heat transfer in developing laminar and turbulent nanofluid flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the study of laminar and turbulent force convection heat transfer and pressure drop between horizontal parallel plates with a nanofluid composed of Al2O3 and water. A set of governing equations are solved using a non-staggered SIMPLE procedure for the velocity-pressure coupling. For the convection-diffusion terms a power-law scheme is employed. A modified k-? model with a two-layer technique for the near-wall region has been used to predict the turbulent viscosity. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction in the base fluid on laminar and turbulent flow variables are presented and discussed. The velocity and temperature profiles, friction factor, pressure coefficient and Nusselt number at different Reynolds numbers in the entrance region for both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes are reported under different thermal boundary conditions. The results show that the effect of the presence of nanoparticles in the base fluid on hydraulic and thermal parameters for the turbulent flow is not very significant, while the rate of heat transfer for the laminar flow with nanoparticles is greater than that of the base liquid. Furthermore, the thermal boundary layer and consequently the Nusselt number more quickly reach their fully developed values by increasing the percentage of nanoparticles in the base fluid for the laminar flow regime, while no changes in the trend are observed for the turbulent flow.

Ziaei-Rad, Masoud

2013-07-01

159

Theory of Quantum Friction  

E-print Network

Here, we develop a comprehensive quantum theory for the phenomenon of quantum friction. Based on a theory of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics for unstable systems, we calculate the quantum expectation of the friction force, and link the friction effect to the emergence of system instabilities related to the Cherenkov effect. These instabilities may occur due to the hybridization of particular guided modes supported by the individual moving bodies, and selection rules for the interacting modes are derived. It is proven that the quantum friction effect can take place even when the interacting bodies are lossless and made of nondispersive dielectrics.

Mario G. Silveirinha

2014-06-09

160

Polymer/riblet combination for hydrodynamic skin friction reduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process is disclosed for reducing skin friction and inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence in a system involving the flow of a liquid along the surface of a body, e.g. a marine vehicle. This process includes injecting a drag reducing polymer into the valleys of adjacent, evenly spaced, longitudinal grooves extending along the length of the surface of the body, so that the rate of diffusion of the polymer from individual grooves into the liquid flow is predictably controlled by the groove dimensions. When the polymer has diffused over the tips of the grooves into the near wall region of the boundary layer, the polymer effectively reduces the turbulent skin friction. A substantial drag reducing effect is achieved with less polymer than must be used to lower skin friction when the surface of the body is smooth.

Reed, Jason C. (inventor.); Bushnell, Dennis M. (inventor.)

1995-01-01

161

Estimation of turbulence intensity and shear factor for diurnal and nocturnal periods with an URANS flow solver coupled with WRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale results using the WRF model were downscaled from 3 km to 250 m resolution in a one-way coupling with VENTOS®/M. The results were compared against field measurements at one site comprising 4 meteorological masts, each with two sets of cup anemometers and wind vanes. The results showed that the addition of VENTOS®/M to the model chain improved the wind speed RMSE. Regarding the prediction of wind direction ambivalent results were obtained. Special attention was given to the prediction of turbulence intensity, particularly in reproducing its inverse proportionality with increasing wind speed (cf. IEC 61400-1 standard). The typical use of computational models in wind resource assessment, i.e., relying on decoupled methodologies and neutrally-stratified regimes, does not allow the representation of turbulence intensity for all wind speeds. The results obtained with VENTOS®/M were in agreement with the measured turbulence characteristics at both high and low wind speeds. Such was achieved without the coupling of any turbulence related field, relying solely on the turbulence model embedded in VENTOS®/M and its respective wall boundary conditions, based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The behaviour under different stratification regimes was verified by analysing diurnal and nocturnal events separately.

Veiga Rodrigues, C.; Palma, J. M. L. M.

2014-06-01

162

Extended ion pumped vacuum friction test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boundary layer friction data under ion pumped vacuum was taken for sixteen material couples. The test series was an extension of a previous study of the effects of modified ion pumped environments. Sliding distances imposed in the present effort greatly exceeded any studied in the previous contiguous, flight or ground tests. Wear out of specific couples, in particular, thin film lubricants was noted. The behavior of the test hardware including wear out of the mechanisms was noted. As a result, the impact of test interruption was observed for several test couples. Recovery of the friction upon re-establishing sliding in vacuum was generally rapid. The results of the extended sliding study reinforce the previous conclusion that sliding distance (mechanical history) is the primary factor in establishing the force limiting boundary layer friction. General friction value under the extended sliding confirm those observed in previous orbital and the related ground test studies.

Hammel, R. L.

1971-01-01

163

Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.

Zeman, Otto

1993-01-01

164

In vitro friction and lubrication of large bearing hip prostheses.  

PubMed

New material combinations and designs of artificial hip implants are being introduced in an effort to improve proprioception and functional longevity. Larger joints in particular are being developed to improve joint stability, and it is thought that these larger implants will be more satisfactory for younger and more physically active patients. The study detailed here used a hip friction simulator to assess the friction and lubrication properties of large-diameter hip bearings of metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-reinforced-polymer couplings. Joints of different diameters were evaluated to determine what effect, if any, bearing diameter had on lubrication. In addition, the effects of lubricant type are considered, using carboxymethyl cellulose and bovine calf serum, and the physiological lubricant is shown to be considerably more effective at reducing friction. The frictional studies showed that the metal-on-metal joints worked under a mixed lubrication regime, producing similar friction factor values to each other. The addition of bovine calf serum (BCS) reduced the friction. The ceramic-on-reinforced-polymer samples were shown to operate with high friction factors and mixed lubrication. When tested with BCS, the larger-diameter bearings showed a decrease in friction compared with the smaller-size bearings, and the addition of BCS resulted in an increase in friction, unlike the metal-on-metal system. The study demonstrated that the component's diameter had little or no influence on the lubrication and friction of the large bearing combinations tested. PMID:20839653

Flanagan, S; Jones, E; Birkinshaw, C

2010-01-01

165

Friction of rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding

J. Byerlee

1978-01-01

166

The Force of Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first of two lessons of this curricular unit, students are introduced to the concept of friction as a force that impedes motion when two surfaces are in contact. Student teams use spring scales to drag objects, such as a ceramic coffee cup, along a table top or the floor, measuring the frictional force that exists between the moving object and the surface it slides on. By modifying the bottom surface of the object, students find out what kinds of surfaces generate more or less friction. They also discover that both static and kinetic friction are involved when an object initially at rest is caused to slide across a surface. In the second lesson of the unit, students design and conduct experiments to determine the effects of weight and surface area on friction. They discover that weight affects normal friction (the friction that results from surface roughness), but for very smooth surfaces, the friction due to molecular attraction is affected by contact area.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

167

Friction induced rail vibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of rail, considered as multiple supported beam, subjected on friction induced vibration is studied in this work using FEM. The model is presented as continuous system and the mass and elastic properties of a real object are taken into account. The friction forces are nonlinear functions of the relative velocity during slipping. The problem is solved using Matlab Simulink.

Kralov, Ivan; Sinapov, Petko; Nedelchev, Krasimir; Ignatov, Ignat

2012-11-01

168

Friction plug welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction plug welding (FPW) usage is advantageous for friction stir welding (FSW) hole close-outs and weld repairs in 2195 Al--Cu--Li fusion or friction stir welds. Current fusion welding methods of Al--Cu--Li have produced welds containing varied defects. These areas are found by non-destructive examination both after welding and after proof testing. Current techniques for repairing typically small (<0.25) defects weaken the weldment, rely heavily on welders' skill, and are costly. Friction plug welding repairs increase strength, ductility and resistance to cracking over initial weld quality, without requiring much time or operator skill. Friction plug welding while pulling the plug is advantageous because all hardware for performing the weld can be placed on one side of the workpiece.

Takeshita, Riki (Inventor); Hibbard, Terry L. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

169

Imagine Life without Friction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of inertia and its application to a world without the force of friction acting on moving objects. When an object is in motion, friction tends to be the force that acts on this object to slow it down and eventually come to a stop. By severely limiting friction through the use of hover pucks, students learn that the energy of one moving puck is transferred directly to another puck at rest when they collide. Students learn the concept of the conservation of energy via a "collision," and come to realize that with friction, energy is converted primarily to heat to slow and stop an object in motion. In the associated activity, "The Puck Stops Here," students investigate the frictional force of an object when different materials are placed between the object and the ground. They apply this understanding to the challenge to design a new hockey puck for the National Hockey League.

2014-09-18

170

Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Liquid or Gas Stream  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The,theory of heat.transfer from a solid body to a liquid stream could he presented previously** only with limiting assumptions about the movement of the fluid (potential flow, laminar frictional flow). (See references 1, 2, and 3). For turbulent flow, the most important practical case, the previous theoretical considerations did not go beyond dimensionless formulas and certain conclusions as to the analogy between the friction factor and the unit thermal conductance, (See references 4, 5, 6, and 7,) In order to obtain numerical results, an experimental treatment of the problem was resorted to, which gave rise to numerous investigations because of the importance of this problem in many branches of technology. However, the results of these investigations frequently deviate from one another. The experimental results are especially dependent upon the overall dimensions and the specific proportions of the equipment. In the present work, the attempt will be made to develop systematically the theory of the heat transfer and of the dependence of the unit thermal conductance upon shape and dimensions, using as a basis the velocity distribution for turbulent flow set up by Prandtl and Von Karman.

Latzko, H.

1944-01-01

171

Experimental and numerical investigation of transition to turbulent flow and heat transfer inside a horizontal smooth rectangular duct under uniform bottom surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, steady-state turbulent forced flow and heat transfer in a horizontal smooth rectangular duct both experimentally and numerically investigated. The study was carried out in the transition to turbulence region where Reynolds numbers range from 2,323 to 9,899. Flow is hydrodynamically and thermally developing (simultaneously developing flow) under uniform bottom surface temperature condition. A commercial CFD program Ansys Fluent 12.1 with different turbulent models was used to carry out the numerical study. Based on the present experimental data and three-dimensional numerical solutions, new engineering correlations were presented for the heat transfer and friction coefficients in the form of {{Nu}} = {{C}}2 {{Re}}^{{{{n}}_{ 1} }} and {{f}} = {{C}}3 {{Re}}^{{{{n}}3 }} , respectively. The results have shown that as the Reynolds number increases heat transfer coefficient increases but Darcy friction factor decreases. It is seen that there is a good agreement between the present experimental and numerical results. Examination of heat and mass transfer in rectangular cross-sectioned duct for different duct aspect ratio (?) was also carried out in this study. Average Nusselt number and average Darcy friction factor were expressed with graphics and correlations for different duct aspect ratios.

Arslan, Kamil; Onur, Nevzat

2013-07-01

172

Action of friction Frictional processes are not often considered in  

E-print Network

Action of friction Frictional processes are not often considered in any detail in studies are switched off, the pressure falls to just 921mb. Frictional processes can be thought of in terms of changes. The first term on the right­hand­side represents barotropic damping by friction, and the second

Plant, Robert

173

Interfacial friction in cocurrent upward annular flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocurrent upward annular flow is investigated, with an emphasis on correlating and predicting pressure drop. Attention is given to the characteristics of the liquid flow in the film, and the interaction of the core with the film. Alternate approaches are discussed for correlating suitably defined interfacial friction factors. Both approaches are dependent on knowledge of the entrainment in order to make predictions. Dimensional analysis is used to define characteristic parameters of the flow and an effort is made to determine, to the extent possible, the influences of these parameters on the interfacial friction factor.

Hossfeld, L. M.; Bharathan, D.; Wallis, G. B.; Richter, H. J.

1982-03-01

174

Kinetic Turbulence  

E-print Network

The weak collisionality typical of turbulence in many diffuse astrophysical plasmas invalidates an MHD description of the turbulent dynamics, motivating the development of a more comprehensive theory of kinetic turbulence. In particular, a kinetic approach is essential for the investigation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the dissipation of astrophysical turbulence and the resulting heating of the plasma. This chapter reviews the limitations of MHD turbulence theory and explains how kinetic considerations may be incorporated to obtain a kinetic theory for astrophysical plasma turbulence. Key questions about the nature of kinetic turbulence that drive current research efforts are identified. A comprehensive model of the kinetic turbulent cascade is presented, with a detailed discussion of each component of the model and a review of supporting and conflicting theoretical, numerical, and observational evidence.

Howes, Gregory G

2015-01-01

175

Kinetic Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weak collisionality typical of turbulence in many diffuse astrophysical plasmas invalidates an MHD description of the turbulent dynamics, motivating the development of a more comprehensive theory of kinetic turbulence. In particular, a kinetic approach is essential for the investigation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the dissipation of astrophysical turbulence and the resulting heating of the plasma. This chapter reviews the limitations of MHD turbulence theory and explains how kinetic considerations may be incorporated to obtain a kinetic theory for astrophysical plasma turbulence. Key questions about the nature of kinetic turbulence that drive current research efforts are identified. A comprehensive model of the kinetic turbulent cascade is presented, with a detailed discussion of each component of the model and a review of supporting and conflicting theoretical, numerical, and observational evidence.

Howes, Gregory G.

176

Static Friction Phenomena The following static friction phenomena have a direct dependency on velocity.  

E-print Network

Coulomb Friction Viscous Friction Stribeck Friction Static Friction Phenomena The following static friction phenomena have a direct dependency on velocity. Static Friction Model: Friction force opposes the direction of motion when the sliding velocity is zero. Coulomb Friction Model: Friction force

Simpkins, Alex

177

Iliotibial band friction syndrome  

PubMed Central

Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

2010-01-01

178

Turbulence modeling for sharp-fin-induced shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solutions of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are presented and compared with a family of experimental results for the 3-D interaction of a sharp fin induced shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Several algebraic and two equation eddy viscosity turbulence models are employed. The computed results are compared with experimental surface pressure, skin friction, and yaw angle data as well as the overall size of the interaction. Although the major feature of the flow fields are correctly predicted, several discrepancies are noted. Namely, the maximum skin friction values are significantly underpredicted for the strongest interaction cases. These and other deficiencies are discussed.

Horstman, C. C.

1990-01-01

179

Heat Transfer on Periodically Dimple-Protrusion Patterned Walls in Turbulent Channel Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, heat transfer characteristics and flow structures over periodically dimple-protrusion patterned walls in a turbulent channel flow were systematically investigated using Detached Eddy Simulation method. The periodically patterned surface is applied to the bottom wall only in the test channel. It is found that larger depth/height induces higher friction factor and heat transfer. Furthermore, the highest Nusselt number is found to be located at the upstream portion of protrusion and the downstream portion of dimple. Additionally, the distributions of Nusselt number exhibit symmetrical features for the small depth/height configuration and asymmetric characteristics for the large depth/height configuration.

Chen, Yu; Chew, T.; Khoo, B. C.

2014-11-01

180

Turbulence forecasting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to forecast turbulence, one needs to have an understanding of the cause of turbulence. Therefore, an attempt is made to show the atmospheric structure that often results when aircraft encounter moderate or greater turbulence. The analysis is based on thousands of hours of observations of flights over the past 39 years of aviation meteorology.

Chandler, C. L.

1987-01-01

181

Friction rendering of parametric surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a direct model-based friction rendering algorithm for continuous parametric surfaces. Unlike the existing approaches, friction rendering does not rely on the algorithms introduced for polyhedral surfaces. Our algorithm implements the stiction model of friction for haptic rendering by utilizing a feedback-stabilized closest point tracking algorithm developed for parametric surfaces. Therefore, our friction rendering algorithm is inherently stable and

Melda Ulusoy; Volkan Patoglu

2011-01-01

182

Science 101: What Causes Friction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

Robertson, Bill

2014-01-01

183

Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2010-05-21

184

Friction in levitated superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the friction commonly displayed by type II superconductors, which, when levitated above a magnet, have a continuous range of stable equilibrium positions and orientations where they can float rigidly without swinging or orbiting (unlike type I superconductors, which may oscillate freely). The observed internal friction holds the superconductor fast similarly to dry friction between elastic solids. The manifestation of the internal friction indicates the existence and unpinning of flux lines in type II superconductors levitated above liquid nitrogen. It is shown that the magnetic force on levitated type II superconductors is hysteretic. The levitation is, therefore, very stable, and a continuous range of stable positions and orientations exists, which increases with increasing pinning strength. For sufficiently strong pinning, a ceramic superconductor does not lift off when cooled on the magnet and may even be suspended below the magnet due to trapped flux.

Brandt, E. H.

1988-10-01

185

Friction stir welding tool  

DOEpatents

A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barnes, Timothy A. (Ammon, ID)

2008-04-15

186

Friction Stir Weld Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

187

Friction stir weld tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

188

Estimation of SO{sub 2} dry deposition using turbulence parameters observed by sonic anemometer-thermometer  

SciTech Connect

The dry deposition of pollutants can be calculated from the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere and deposition velocity. To calculate deposition velocity, turbulence parameters such as friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length are used. However, due to the difficulties in observation of turbulence parameters, usually mean values of wind speed and temperature observed using conventional meteorological instruments are used to estimate the dry deposition. The dry deposition velocity is the function of aerodynamic resistance (R{sub a}), sublayer resistance (R{sub b}), surface resistance (R{sub c}). R{sub a} and R{sub b} are calculated from turbulence parameters and R{sub c} is related to surface characteristics. The purpose of the present study is to compare the dry deposition obtained using the data sets of mean values and turbulence parameters measured by sonic anemometer-thermometer. The field observation was performed for 30 days from October 27 to November 25, 1995. The turbulence parameters were measured by 3 dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer and mean meteorological variables are obtained at two heights, 2.5 m and 10 m. The results show that the dry deposition velocity is large, in daytime and small in nighttime. The major factor of diurnal variation is Ra. In the daytime the dry deposition velocity calculated using mean meteorological data show relatively similar to the dry deposition velocity calculated using the turbulence data, however there are big differences at night.

Lee, Chong Bum; Kim, Jeong, Sik; Kim, Yong Goog; Cho, Chang Rae [Kangwon National Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Byun, D.W. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

189

Wall turbulence control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

1986-01-01

190

Friction Stir Welding Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research of this summer was a continuation of work started during the previous summer faculty fellowship period. The Friction Stir Welding process (FSW) patented by The Welding Institute (TWI), in Great Britain, has become a popular topic at the Marshall Space Flight Center over the past year. Last year it was considered a novel approach to welding but few people took it very seriously as a near term solution. However, due to continued problems with cracks in the new aluminum-lithium space shuttle external tank (ET), the friction stir process is being mobilized at full speed in an effort to mature this process for the potential manufacture of flight hardware. It is now the goal of NASA and Lockheed-Martin Corporation (LMC) to demonstrate a full-scale friction stir welding system capable of welding ET size barrel sections. The objectives this summer were: (1) Implementation and validation of the rotating dynamometer on the MSFC FSW system; (2) Collection of data for FSW process modeling efforts; (3) Specification development for FSW implementation on the vertical weld tool; (4) Controls and user interface development for the adjustable pin tool; and (5) Development of an instrumentation system for the planishing process. The projects started this summer will lead to a full scale friction stir welding system that is expected to produce a friction stir welded shuttle external tank type barrel section. The success of this could lead to the implementation of the friction stir process for manufacturing future shuttle external tanks.

Romine, Peter L.

1998-01-01

191

Impact of Friction and Scale-Dependent Initial Stress on Radiated Energy-Moment Scaling  

E-print Network

271 Impact of Friction and Scale-Dependent Initial Stress on Radiated Energy-Moment Scaling Bruce E from an event depends on a number of factors, including the friction and, crucially, the initial stress distribution of initial stresses consistent with the dynamics and a given friction. We examine a variety

Shaw, Bruce E.

192

Acting on Frictions: Learning Blocks and Flows in Knowledge Intensive Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: It is argued in this paper that opportunities for learning manifest themselves in the form of frictions between the structure-as-experienced by actors and the structure-as-preferred. These frictions are considered as potential triggers of learning processes. The concept of friction promises to contribute to our understanding of factors

Bijlsma-Frankema, Katinka; Rosendaal, Bastiaan; Taminiau, Yvette

2006-01-01

193

Turbulent shear flow in a rapidly rotating spherical annulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents experimental measurements of torque, wall shear stress, pressure, and velocity in the boundary-driven turbulent flow of water between concentric, independently rotating spheres, commonly known as spherical Couette flow. The spheres' radius ratio is 0.35, geometrically similar to that of Earth's core. The measurements are performed at unprecedented Reynolds number for this geometry, as high as fifty-six million. The role of rapid overall rotation on the turbulence is investigated. A number of different turbulent flow states are possible, selected by the Rossby number, a dimensionless measure of the differential rotation. In certain ranges of the Rossby number near state borders, bistable co-existence of states is possible. In these ranges the flow undergoes intermittent transitions between neighboring states. At fixed Rossby number, the flow properties vary with Reynolds number in a way similar to that of other turbulent flows. At most parameters investigated, the large scales of the turbulent flow are characterized by system-wide spatial and temporal correlations that co-exist with intense broadband velocity fluctuations. Some of these wave-like motions are identifiable as inertial modes. All waves are consistent with slowly drifting large scale patterns of vorticity, which include Rossby waves and inertial modes as a subset. The observed waves are generally very energetic, and imply significant inhomogeneity in the turbulent flow. Increasing rapidity of rotation as the Ekman number is lowered intensifies those waves identified as inertial modes with respect to other velocity fluctuations. The turbulent scaling of the torque on inner sphere is a focus of this dissertation. The Rossby-number dependence of the torque is complicated. We normalize the torque at a given Reynolds number in the rotating states by that when the outer sphere is stationary. We find that this normalized quantity can be considered a Rossby-dependent friction factor that expresses the effect of the self-organized flow geometry on the turbulent drag. We predict that this Rossby-dependence will change considerably in different physical geometries, but should be an important quantity in expressing the parameter dependence of other rapidly rotating shear flows.

Zimmerman, Daniel S.

194

Isolating Curvature Effects in Computing Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flow over the zero-pressure-gradient So-Mellor convex curved wall is simulated using the Navier-Stokes equations. An inviscid effective outer wall shape, undocumented in the experiment, is obtained by using an adjoint optimization method with the desired pressure distribution on the inner wall as the cost function. Using this wall shape with a Navier-Stokes method, the abilities of various turbulence models to simulate the effects of curvature without the complicating factor of streamwise pressure gradient can be evaluated. The one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model overpredicts eddy viscosity, and its boundary layer profiles are too full. A curvature-corrected version of this model improves results, which are sensitive to the choice of a particular constant. An explicit algebraic stress model does a reasonable job predicting this flow field. However, results can be slightly improved by modifying the assumption on anisotropy equilibrium in the model's derivation. The resulting curvature-corrected explicit algebraic stress model possesses no heuristic functions or additional constants. It lowers slightly the computed skin friction coefficient and the turbulent stress levels for this case (in better agreement with experiment), but the effect on computed velocity profiles is very small.

Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.

2001-01-01

195

Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures.  

PubMed

We study turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures in a developed turbulence. In our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 69 (1998)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.80.69] using a path-integral approach for a delta-correlated in a time random velocity field, we demonstrated a strong modification of turbulent transport in fluid flows with chemical reactions or phase transitions. In the present study we use the spectral ? approximation that is valid for large Reynolds and Peclet numbers and show that turbulent diffusion of the reacting species can be strongly depleted by a large factor that is the ratio of turbulent and chemical times (turbulent Damköhler number). We have demonstrated that the derived theoretical dependence of a turbulent diffusion coefficient versus the turbulent Damköhler number is in good agreement with that obtained previously in the numerical modeling of a reactive front propagating in a turbulent flow and described by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. We have found that turbulent cross-effects, e.g., turbulent mutual diffusion of gaseous admixtures and turbulent Dufour effect of the chemically reacting gaseous admixtures, are less sensitive to the values of stoichiometric coefficients. The mechanisms of the turbulent cross-effects differ from the molecular cross-effects known in irreversible thermodynamics. In a fully developed turbulence and at large Peclet numbers the turbulent cross-effects are much larger than the molecular ones. The obtained results are applicable also to heterogeneous phase transitions. PMID:25493875

Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Liberman, M; Rogachevskii, I

2014-11-01

196

Effect of frictional heating on brake materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory study of the properties of aircraft brake materials was made to determine ways of improving friction and wear behavior while minimizing surface temperatures. It is found that frictional variation at high temperature involves material softening and metal transfer, formation of oxides, and surface melting. The choice of proper materials to combat these effects is discussed. Minimum surface temperatures are found to result from use of materials with large density-specific heat and density-specific heat-conductivity factors, use of a higher load-lower friction system, and maximization of the contact area. Some useful trade-off criteria for the size of brake disks against weight considerations are suggested. Additional information on material behavior and peak braking temperatures was gathered from an inspection of used brake pads and rotor disks.

Ho, T.-L.; Peterson, M. B.; Ling, F. F.

1974-01-01

197

Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes.  

PubMed

Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386

Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L

2012-11-01

198

Skin friction balance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)

1989-01-01

199

Astrophysical Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of turbulence in astrophysics, or the challenges which it poses. Turbulence is responsible for dynamical pressure support, energy transport, angular momentum transport, chemical mixing, and magnetic field generation and evolution in a host of astrophysical settings. Turbulent astrophysical flows differ from terrestrial forms of turbulence which have been studied traditionally by virtue of their inherent compressibility, strong radiative cooling, self-gravity, and the importance in many environments of magnetic fields. Recent years have seen important advances in several distinct areas of astrophysical turbulence theory -- including modeling of turbulence in stars, accretion disks, and the interstellar medium, as well basic studies of MHD turbulence which provide the framework for all these applications. In one star, the Sun, helioseismologic data are allowing increasingly sophisticated comparison of observations with the theory of turbulent stellar interiors. Attempts to model the solar differential rotation has shown clearly that turbulent angular momentum transport is an essential ingredient, and attempts to model it are improving. Solar dynamo calculations are only slightly behind. Models of turbulent accretion disks are becoming increasingly realistic, with the dynamical role of magnetic fields a crucial element, and global, time-dependent modeling now feasible. It seems likely that the alpha viscosity parameter will be soon be supplanted by ab initio calculations of the accretion rate. Although the presence of interstellar turbulence has long been recognized, recent theoretical studies have significantly increased our understanding of its effects, particularly in the cold ISM where it plays a dominant role. Self-consistent dynamical studies will soon be able to identify how strong turbulence evolves and shapes the internal structure of magnetized interstellar clouds. Basic studies in MHD turbulence have made substantial recent progress in such longstanding problems as the nature of the turbulent cascade, dynamo generation of fields, and the process of magnetic reconnection. In all of these studies, a crucial new ingredient has been computational advances that now make possible direct hydrodynamic/MHD simulations of three-dimensional, time-dependent turbulence with inertial dynamic ranges of more than two orders of magnitude. These advances in numerical experimentation are inspiring new analytical work, new comparisons between models and observations, and advances in observations and data analysis themselves. The ITP program on Astrophysical Turbulence will provide a forum for intensive interaction among analytical theorists, computational physicists, and observers from all of the subspecialties, with prospects for major research progress through interdisciplinary discussions and collaborations.

Ostriker, Eve C.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

2000-04-01

200

Astrophysical Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of turbulence in astrophysics, or the challenges which it poses. Turbulence is responsible for dynamical pressure support, energy transport, angular momentum transport, chemical mixing, and magnetic field generation and evolution in a host of astrophysical settings. Turbulent astrophysical flows differ from terrestrial forms of turbulence which have been studied traditionally by virtue of their inherent compressibility, strong radiative cooling, self-gravity, and the importance in many environments of magnetic fields. Recent years have seen important advances in several distinct areas of astrophysical turbulence theory -- including modeling of turbulence in stars, accretion disks, and the interstellar medium, as well basic studies of MHD turbulence which provide the framework for all these applications. In one star, the Sun, helioseismologic data are allowing increasingly sophisticated comparison of observations with the theory of turbulent stellar interiors. Attempts to model the solar differential rotation has shown clearly that turbulent angular momentum transport is an essential ingredient, and attempts to model it are improving. Solar dynamo calculations are only slightly behind. Models of turbulent accretion disks are becoming increasingly realistic, with the dynamical role of magnetic fields a crucial element, and global, time-dependent modeling now feasible. It seems likely that the alpha viscosity parameter will be soon be supplanted by ab initio calculations of the accretion rate. Although the presence of interstellar turbulence has long been recognized, recent theoretical studies have significantly increased our understanding of its effects, particularly in the cold ISM where it plays a dominant role. Self-consistent dynamical studies will soon be able to identify how strong turbulence evolves and shapes the internal structure of magnetized interstellar clouds. Basic studies in MHD turbulence have made substantial recent progress in such longstanding problems as the nature of the turbulent cascade, dynamo generation of fields, and the process of magnetic reconnection. In all of these studies, a crucial new ingredient has been computational advances that now make possible direct hydrodynamic/MHD simulations of three-dimensional, time-dependent turbulence with inertial dynamic ranges of more than two orders of magnitude. These advances in numerical experimentation are inspiring new analytical work, new comparisons between models and observations, and advances in observations and data analysis themselves. The ITP program on Astrophysical Turbulence will provide a forum for intensive interaction among analytical theorists, computational physicists, and observers from all of the subspecialties, with prospects for major research progress through interdisciplinary discussions and collaborations.

Ostriker, Eve C.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

2000-05-01

201

ACTIVE CONTROL OF NEAR-WALL TURBULENCE WITH PERIODIC FORCING BY PLASMA ACTUATOR  

E-print Network

undertaken to reduce skin friction drag by applying spatially periodic forcing in the near wall region of a turbulent channel flow with micro plasma actuators. Measurements are made by a laser Doppler velocimeter

Kasagi, Nobuhide

202

Turbulent acceleration and heating in toroidal magnetized plasmas  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that turbulence is responsible for a source of momentum, which cannot be recast as a divergence of a momentum flux. This process is similar to turbulent heating, with similar properties. The sum over all species vanishes up to polarization contributions. Hence, toroidal momentum is transferred from species to species, mediated by turbulence. As for momentum flux, symmetry breaking is needed. Flow shear is investigated as a source of symmetry breaking, leading to a source of momentum proportional to the shear rate. Turbulent acceleration is significant for ion species. It is found that it is proportional to the charge number Z, while turbulent heating scales as Z{sup 2}/A, where A is the mass number. It is maximum in the edge, where the E × B flow shear rate and turbulence intensity are maximum. When both are large enough, the turbulent torque may overcome the collisional friction between impurities and main ions, thus leading to different toroidal velocities.

Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France)] [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Smolyakov, A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

2013-07-15

203

Some characteristics of turbulent boundary layers in rapidly accelerated flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of time-mean-turbulent boundary layer velocity profiles measured in a rapidly accelerating flow suggests that the outer region of the velocity profiles consists of essentially inviscid, rotational flow. The extent of this inviscid outer region was observed in some cases to exceed 90 percent of what is ordinarily thought of as the turbulent boundary layer thickness. On the other hand, the inner frictional region of these velocity profiles appears to have turbulent characteristics similar to those of more conventional turbulent boundary layers. Hence, the outer edge boundary condition for this inner region is more properly the external rotational flow region than the free stream.

Brinich, P. F.; Neumann, H. E.

1971-01-01

204

Micro Surface Texturing for Friction Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, surface texturing has gained momentum as a way to control the friction which is involved in various applications and systems, such as components of internal combustion engines, dies and punches of the metal forming processes and Micro-electrical-mechanical Systems (MEMS). This dissertation demonstrates that under dry sliding, there is a specific significant surface texturing parameter at which the coefficient of friction should be at a minimum. This dissertation met this objective through an extensive study of the relevant literature on surface texturing and friction, analysing the friction mechanisms involved in dry sliding, and highlighting the key factors that control friction as the real area of contact and material properties. An analytical proof is derived demonstrating that a minimum friction force exists if the two components of the friction force, adhesion and mechanical deformation, are differentiated with respect to the real contact area. In addition, numerical simulations and experimental work were performed to test this hypothesis. In the two and three dimensional finite element models, normal and sliding contact between a rigid indenter and elastic-plastic surfaces, which are textured by circular and hexagonal dimples of different sizes and densities, are simulated and analysed. Circular craters of different sizes and densities, are fabricated using laser ablation on hardened tool steel samples, while the hexagonal dimples are fabricated using photo-lithography. The dimples are arranged in adjacent equilateral triangles layout. Coefficients of friction were measured using a scratch tester under dry sliding conditions and constant load. In addition, adhesion forces were estimated using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The adhesion force is found to be exponentially decreasing with the increase of the spatial texture density. The dimensionless quantity, spatial texture density (D/L) was identified as the most significant texturing parameter. It is equal to the ratio of the size of the crater (D) to the distance between the centres of two consecutive craters (L). A minimum coefficient of friction exits at values of spatial texture densities that lie between 0.25 and 0.5.

Rashwan, Ola

205

Plasma turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

1998-07-01

206

Nonlinear friction in quantum mechanics  

E-print Network

The effect of nonlinear friction forces in quantum mechanics is studied via dissipative Madelung hydrodynamics. A new thermo-quantum diffusion equation is derived, which is solved for the particular case of quantum Brownian motion with a cubic friction. It is extended also by a chemical reaction term to describe quantum reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear friction as well.

Roumen Tsekov

2013-03-10

207

ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF DISC BRAKE FRICTION LINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are the analysis and estimation of disc brake friction linings deformation value and impact on the friction body (friction lining on steel base) loading given in this article. It allows to modulate the wear of friction lining in the future research. Such friction body construction was analyzed in this research - the friction body and brake lever are linked

Guntars Uzkli

2008-01-01

208

Heat release effects on decaying homogeneous compressible turbulence  

E-print Network

.78, Re? = 31.2) in Case 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Typicalenergyspectrumofturbulenceandmethodologiesforstudy- ing turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 Flow around hypersonic... turbulence. A good understanding of high-enthalpy compressible turbulence is crucial for analyzing the flow around re-entry spacecrafts and hypersonic flight vehicles, and inside scramjet engines. One main factor affecting turbulence in these high...

Lee, Kurn Chul

2009-05-15

209

Frictional effect of ultrasonic-vibration on upsetting.  

PubMed

The ultrasonic-vibration ring compression test and finite element analysis were performed on aluminum alloy specimens to explore the frictional effect of superimposing ultrasonic-vibration during upsetting. The extrapolated compression test was first adopted to obtain the frictionless material properties for finite element analysis. Experimental results of extrapolated compression test also indicate that ultrasonic-vibration can reduce the compressive force when friction is eliminated and can increase the temperatures of a material at the same time. The following results of the hot extrapolated compression test and the hot ring compression test reveal that increasing temperature by ultrasonic-vibration may reduce the flow stress and increase the interfacial friction. Finally, finite element analysis was conducted to derive the friction calibration curves and to evaluate the friction factor. PMID:17482231

Hung, Jung-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Chung; Hung, Chinghua

2007-06-01

210

Atomic scale friction of molecular adsorbates during diffusion.  

PubMed

Experimental observations suggest that molecular adsorbates exhibit a larger friction coefficient than atomic species of comparable mass, yet the origin of this increased friction is not well understood. We present a study of the microscopic origins of friction experienced by molecular adsorbates during surface diffusion. Helium spin-echo measurements of a range of five-membered aromatic molecules, cyclopentadienyl, pyrrole, and thiophene, on a copper(111) surface are compared with molecular dynamics simulations of the respective systems. The adsorbates have different chemical interactions with the surface and differ in bonding geometry, yet the measurements show that the friction is greater than 2 ps(-1) for all these molecules. We demonstrate that the internal and external degrees of freedom of these adsorbate species are a key factor in the underlying microscopic processes and identify the rotation modes as the ones contributing most to the total measured friction coefficient. PMID:23697433

Lechner, B A J; de Wijn, A S; Hedgeland, H; Jardine, A P; Hinch, B J; Allison, W; Ellis, J

2013-05-21

211

Rubber friction for tire tread compound on road surfaces.  

PubMed

We have measured the surface topography and calculated the surface roughness power spectrum for an asphalt road surface. For the same surface we have measured the friction for a tire tread compound for velocities 10(-6) m s(-1) < v < 10(-3) m s(-1) at three different temperatures (at -8 °C, 20 °C and 48 °C). The friction data was shifted using the bulk viscoelasticity shift factor a(T) to form a master curve. We have measured the effective rubber viscoelastic modulus at large strain and calculated the rubber friction coefficient (and contact area) during stationary sliding and compared it to the measured friction coefficient. We find that for the low velocities and for the relatively smooth road surface we consider, the contribution to friction from the area of real contact is very important, and we interpret this contribution as being due to shearing of a very thin confined rubber smear film. PMID:23334507

Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Fortunato, G; Giustiniano, M; Baldoni, F

2013-03-01

212

Atomic scale friction of molecular adsorbates during diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental observations suggest that molecular adsorbates exhibit a larger friction coefficient than atomic species of comparable mass, yet the origin of this increased friction is not well understood. We present a study of the microscopic origins of friction experienced by molecular adsorbates during surface diffusion. Helium spin-echo measurements of a range of five-membered aromatic molecules, cyclopentadienyl, pyrrole, and thiophene, on a copper(111) surface are compared with molecular dynamics simulations of the respective systems. The adsorbates have different chemical interactions with the surface and differ in bonding geometry, yet the measurements show that the friction is greater than 2 ps-1 for all these molecules. We demonstrate that the internal and external degrees of freedom of these adsorbate species are a key factor in the underlying microscopic processes and identify the rotation modes as the ones contributing most to the total measured friction coefficient.

Lechner, B. A. J.; de Wijn, A. S.; Hedgeland, H.; Jardine, A. P.; Hinch, B. J.; Allison, W.; Ellis, J.

2013-05-01

213

Static Friction Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will predict which objects have to overcome the most static friction to slide down a ramp. Learners then test their prediction as well as measure and calculate the ramp’s ratio of rise to run to quantify their results. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Kinetic Sculpture Challenge.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

214

Influence of High Freestream Turbulence on Smooth, Favorable Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted at the Corrsin Wind Tunnel at The Johns Hopkins University to understand the effects of high freestream turbulence on a smooth, favorable pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. Freestream turbulence (Tu<=6%) was generated using an active grid, and values of Re?<=2570 were obtained. Measurements of the streamwise and wall-normal components of the mean velocity deficit and Reynolds stresses have been performed using Laser Doppler Anemometry. It is shown than none of the existing scales are able to collapse the mean velocity profiles and strong evidence of multiple scales is observed. Furthermore, a reduction in the wake region caused a decrease in the mean velocity gradient near the edge of the boundary layer. Moreover, turbulence production will be evaluated to study if this is the cause of an increase in the Reynolds stresses. It is also found that high freestream turbulence causes the skin friction to increase due to a higher velocity gradient at the wall.

Lebron-Bosques, Jose; Torres-Nieves, Sheilla; Brzek, Brian; Castillo, Luciano; Bayoan Cal, Raul; Meneveau, Charles

2007-11-01

215

Dust diffusion in protoplanetary discs by magnetorotational turbulence  

E-print Network

We measure the turbulent diffusion coefficient of dust grains embedded in magnetorotational turbulence in a protoplanetary disc directly from numerical simulations and compare it to the turbulent viscosity of the flow. The simulations are done in a local coordinate frame comoving with the gas in Keplerian rotation. Periodic boundary conditions are used in all directions, and vertical gravity is not applied to the gas. Using a two-fluid approach, small dust grains of various sizes (with friction times up to $\\varOmega_0 \\tau_{\\rm f}=0.02$) are allowed to move under the influence of friction with the turbulent gas. We measure the turbulent diffusion coefficient of the dust grains by applying an external sinusoidal force field acting in the vertical direction on the dust component only. This concentrates the dust around the mid-plane of the disc, and an equilibrium distribution of the dust density is achieved when the vertical settling is counteracted by the turbulent diffusion away from the mid-plane. Comparing with analytical expressions for the equilibrium concentration we deduce the vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient. The vertical diffusion coefficient is found to be lower than the turbulent viscosity and to have an associated vertical diffusion Prandtl number of about 1.5. A similar radial force field also allows us to measure the radial turbulent diffusion coefficient. We find a radial diffusion Prandtl number of about 0.85 and also find that the radial turbulent diffusion coefficient is around 70% higher than the vertical. We also find evidence for trapping of dust grains of intermediate friction time in turbulent eddies.

Anders Johansen; Hubert Klahr

2005-08-17

216

PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark  

SciTech Connect

Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

2010-05-01

217

Internal rotor friction instability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

1990-01-01

218

Large-Eddy Simulations of Longitudinal Vortices Embedded in a Turbulent Boundary Layer  

E-print Network

or delay the boundary-layer separation on an airfoil surface [1] or to reduce the turbulent skin friction] and Ma [6]. They made 3-D laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) [5] and hot-wire [6] measurements of near the effects of vortices on local skin friction modification and found that the vortices significantly

Mittal, Rajat

219

Quantum friction and fluctuation theorems  

E-print Network

We use general concepts of statistical mechanics to compute the quantum frictional force on an atom moving at constant velocity above a planar surface. We derive the zero-temperature frictional force using a non-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation, and show that in the large-time, steady-state regime quantum friction scales as the cubic power of the atom's velocity. We also discuss how approaches based on Wigner-Weisskopf and quantum regression approximations fail to predict the correct steady-state zero temperature frictional force, mainly due to the low frequency nature of quantum friction.

F. Intravaia; R. O. Behunin; D. A. R. Dalvit

2014-05-19

220

Turbulence and diffusion: fossil turbulence  

E-print Network

Fossil turbulence processes are central to turbulence, turbulent mixing, and turbulent diffusion in the ocean and atmosphere, in astrophysics and cosmology, and in most other natural flows. George Gamov suggested in 1954 that galaxies might be fossils of primordial turbulence produced by the Big Bang. John Woods showed that breaking internal waves on horizontal dye sheets in the interior of the stratified ocean form highly persistent remnants of these turbulent events, which he called fossil turbulence. The dark mixing paradox of the ocean refers to undetected mixing that must exist somewhere to explain why oceanic scalar fields like temperature and salinity are so well mixed, just as the dark matter paradox of galaxies refers to undetected matter that must exist to explain why rotating galaxies don't fly apart by centrifugal forces. Both paradoxes result from sampling techniques that fail to account for the extreme intermittency of random variables involved in self-similar, nonlinear, cascades over a wide range of scales; turbulent vorticity for dark mixing, and accreting small-planetary-mass MACHO number density for dark matter.

Carl H. Gibson

2003-03-31

221

Evaluation of an incompressible energy-vorticity turbulence model for fully rough pipe flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional methods of closing the Boussinesq-based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are considered, and suggestions for improving two-equation turbulence models are made. The traditional smooth-wall boundary conditions are shown to be incorrect, and the correct boundary conditions are provided along with sample solutions to traditional models. The correct boundary condition at a smooth wall for dissipation-based turbulence models is that which forces both the turbulent kinetic energy and its first derivative to zero. Foundations for an energy-vorticity model suggested by Phillips are presented along with the near-smooth-wall behavior of the model. These results show that at a perfectly smooth wall, the turbulent kinetic energy may approach the wall at a higher order than is generally accepted. The foundations of this model are used in the development of a k-lambda model for fully rough pipe flow. Closure coefficients for the model are developed through gradient-based optimization techniques. Results of the model are compared to results from the Wilcox 1998 and 2006 k-o models as well as four eddy-viscosity models. The results show that the Phillips k-lambda model is much more accurate than other models for predicting the relationship between Reynolds number and friction factor for fully rough pipe flow. However, the velocity profiles resulting from the model deviate noticeably from the law of the wall.

Hunsaker, Douglas F.

222

In-Flight Capability for Evaluating Skin-Friction Gages and Other Near-Wall Flow Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An 8-in.-square boundary-layer sensor panel has been developed for in-flight evaluation of skin-friction gages and other near-wall flow sensors on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B/Flight Test Fixture (FTF). Instrumentation on the sensor panel includes a boundary-layer rake, temperature sensors, static pressure taps, and a Preston tube. Space is also available for skin-friction gages or other near-wall flow sensors. Pretest analysis of previous F-15B/FTF flight data has identified flight conditions suitable for evaluating skin-friction gages. At subsonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel closely approximates the two-dimensional (2D), law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layer, and skin-friction estimates from the Preston tube and the rake (using the Clauser plot method) can be used to evaluate skin-friction gages. At supersonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel becomes complex, and other means of measuring skin friction are needed to evaluate the accuracy of new skin-friction gages. Results from the flight test of a new rubber-damped skin-friction gage confirm that at subsonic Mach numbers, nearly 2D, law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers exist over the sensor panel. Sensor panel data also show that this new skin-friction gage prototype does not work in flight.

Bui, Trong T.; Pipitone, Brett J.; Krake, Keith L.; Richwine, Dave (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

223

Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts. The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is, how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow, is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model. The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.

Wirth, A.

2012-05-01

224

Laminar and weakly turbulent oceanic gravity currents performing inertial oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the same gravity current dynamics are systematically derived. Using this hierarchy and the numerical solutions of the mathematical models, the turbulent dynamics at the bottom and the interface is explored and their interaction investigated. Three different regimes of the small scale dynamics of the gravity current are identified, they are characterised by laminar flow, coherent roll vortices and turbulent dynamics with coherent streaks and bursts. The problem of the rectification of the turbulent fluxes, that is how to average out the fluctuations and calculate their average influence on the flow is considered. It is shown that two different regimes of friction are superposed, an Ekman friction applies to the average geostrophic flow and a linear friction, not influenced by rotation, to the inertial oscillations. The combination of the two makes the bulk friction non-local in time for the 0-D model. The implications of the results for parametrisations of the Ekman dynamics and the small scale turbulent fluxes in the planetary boundary layer are discussed.

Wirth, A.

2011-09-01

225

Friction at small displacement.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low contact resistance between metal surfaces is often observed in spite of interposed lubricant and/or oxide films. To study this effect an apparatus is used with which normal force and tangential microdisplacement are applied between a small lead rider and a gold flat with various surface film conditions. Under nonoxidized and nonlubricated conditions, and with either oxide or stearic acid lubricant film alone, friction is high and contact resistance is low. With oxide and lubricant together, friction is much lower and slide is smooth, but contact resistance remains low and Ohm's law is obeyed. The results are consistent with Greenwood's theory of contact resistance for a cluster of minute metallic contact spots within the load-supporting area. The contact resistance of such a cluster is indistinguishable, for practical purposes, from that given by complete metallic contact.

Campbell, W. E.; Aronstein, J.

1972-01-01

226

Friction in rail guns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

Kay, P. K.

1984-01-01

227

Burgers Turbulence  

E-print Network

The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions or random forcing. Such work was frequently motivated by new emerging applications of Burgers model to statistical physics, cosmology, and fluid dynamics. Also Burgers turbulence appeared as one of the simplest instances of a nonlinear system out of equilibrium. The study of random Lagrangian systems, of stochastic partial differential equations and their invariant measures, the theory of dynamical systems, the applications of field theory to the understanding of dissipative anomalies and of multiscaling in hydrodynamic turbulence have benefited significantly from progress in Burgers turbulence. The aim of this revie...

Bec, Jeremie

2007-01-01

228

Energy spectra of developed superfluid turbulence  

E-print Network

The spectrum of turbulence in superfluid liquid is modified by the nonlinear energy dissipation caused by the mutual friction between quantized vortices and the normal component of the liquid. In some region of two Reynolds parameters characterizing the flow of a superfluid, we found the new state of the fully developed turbulence. This state displays both the Kolmogorov-Obukhov 5/3-scaling law $E_k \\propto k^{-5/3}$ and the new "3-scaling law" $E_k \\propto k^{-3}$, each in a well separated range of $k$.

Victor S. L'vov; Sergey V. Nazarenko; Grigory E. Volovik

2004-09-03

229

Turbulence models for compressible boundary layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that to satisfy the general accepted compressible law of the wall derived from the Van Driest transformation, turbulence modeling coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. The transformed velocity profiles obtained by using standard turbulence model constants have too small a value of the effective von Karman constant kappa in the log-law region (inner layer). Thus, if the model is otherwise accurate, the wake component is overpredicted and the predicted skin friction is lower than the expected value.

Huang, P. G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T. J.

1994-01-01

230

High Speed Ice Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

2014-05-01

231

On the friction coefficient of straight-chain aggregates  

E-print Network

A methodology to calculate the friction coefficient of an aggregate in the continuum regime is proposed. The friction coefficient and the monomer shielding factors, aggregate-average or individual, are related to the molecule-aggregate collision rate that is obtained from the molecular diffusion equation with an absorbing boundary condition on the aggregate surface. Calculated friction coefficients of straight chains are in very good agreement with previous results, suggesting that the friction coefficients may be accurately calculated from the product of the collision rate and an average momentum transfer,the latter being independent of aggregate morphology. Langevin-dynamics simulations show that the diffusive motion of straight-chain aggregates may be described either by a monomer-dependent or an aggregate-average random force, if the shielding factors are appropriately chosen.

Lorenzo Isella; Yannis Drossinos

2011-01-31

232

Cluster Turbulence  

E-print Network

We report on results of recent, high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the formation and evolution of X-ray clusters of galaxies carried out within a cosmological framework. We employ the highly accurate piecewise parabolic method (PPM) on fixed and adaptive meshes which allow us to resolve the flow field in the intracluster gas. The excellent shock capturing and low numerical viscosity of PPM represent a substantial advance over previous studies using SPH. We find that in flat, hierarchical cosmological models, the ICM is in a turbulent state long after turbulence generated by the last major merger should have decayed away. Turbulent velocites are found to vary slowly with cluster radius, being $\\sim 25%$ of $\\sigma_{vir}$ in the core, increasing to $\\sim 60%$ at the virial radius. We argue that more frequent minor mergers maintain the high level of turbulence found in the core where dynamical times are short. Turbulent pressure support is thus significant throughout the cluster, and results in a somewhat cooler cluster ($T/T_{vir} \\sim .8$) for its mass. Some implications of cluster turbulence are discussed.

Michael L. Norman; Greg L. Bryan

1998-02-26

233

Cluster Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on results of recent, high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the formation and evolution of X-ray clusters of galaxies carried out within a cosmological framework. We employ the highly accurate piecewise parabolic method (PPM) on fixed and adaptive meshes which allow us to resolve the flow field in the intracluster gas. The excellent shock capturing and low numerical viscosity of PPM represent a substantial advance over previous studies using SPH. We find that in flat, hierarchical cosmological models, the ICM is in a turbulent state long after turbulence generated by the last major merger should have decayed away. Turbulent velocites are found to vary slowly with cluster radius, being $\\sim 25%$ of $\\sigma_{vir}$ in the core, increasing to $\\sim 60%$ at the virial radius. We argue that more frequent minor mergers maintain the high level of turbulence found in the core where dynamical times are short. Turbulent pressure support is thus significant throughout the cluster, and results in a somewhat cooler cluster ($T/T_{vir} \\sim .8$) for its mass. Some implications of cluster turbulence are discussed.

Norman, Michael L.; Bryan, Greg L.

234

Aqueous turbulence structure immediately adjacent to the air - water interface and interfacial gas exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air-sea interaction and the interfacial exchange of gas across the air-water interface are of great importance in coupled atmospheric-oceanic environmental systems. Aqueous turbulence structure immediately adjacent to the air-water interface is the combined result of wind, surface waves, currents and other environmental forces and plays a key role in energy budgets, gas fluxes and hence the global climate system. However, the quantification of turbulence structure sufficiently close to the air-water interface is extremely difficult. The physical relationship between interfacial gas exchange and near surface turbulence remains insufficiently investigated. This dissertation aims to measure turbulence in situ in a complex environmental forcing system on Lake Michigan and to reveal the relationship between turbulent statistics and the CO2 flux across the air-water interface. The major objective of this dissertation is to investigate the physical control of the interfacial gas exchange and to provide a universal parameterization of gas transfer velocity from environmental factors, as well as to propose a mechanistic model for the global CO2 flux that can be applied in three dimensional climate-ocean models. Firstly, this dissertation presents an advanced measurement instrument, an in situ free floating Particle Image Velocimetry (FPIV) system, designed and developed to investigate the small scale turbulence structure immediately below the air-water interface. Description of hardware components, design of the system, measurement theory, data analysis procedure and estimation of measurement error were provided. Secondly, with the FPIV system, statistics of small scale turbulence immediately below the air-water interface were investigated under a variety of environmental conditions. One dimensional wave-number spectrum and structure function sufficiently close to the water surface were examined. The vertical profiles of turbulent dissipation rate were intensively studied. Comparison between the turbulence structures measured during the wind wave initiation period and those obtained during the growing period was presented. Significant wave effects on near surface turbulence were found. A universal scaling law was proposed to parameterize turbulent dissipation rate immediately below the air-water interface with friction velocity, significant wave height and wave age. Finally, the gas transfer velocity was measured with a floating chamber (FC) system, along with simultaneously FPIV measurements. Turbulent dissipation rate both at the interface and at a short distance away from the interface (~ 10 cm) were analyzed and used to examine the small scale eddy model. The model coefficient was found to be dependent on the level of turbulence, instead of being a constant. An empirical relationship between the model coefficient and turbulent dissipation rate was provided, which improved the accuracy of the gas transfer velocity estimation by more than 100% for data acquired. Other data from the literature also supported this empirical relation. Furthermore, the relationship between model coefficient and turbulent Reynolds number was also investigated. In addition to physical control of gas exchange, the disturbance on near surface hydrodynamics by the FC was also discussed. Turbulent dissipation rates are enhanced at the short distance away from the interface, while the surface dissipation rates do not change significantly.

Wang, Binbin

235

Slab Analysis of Ring Rolling Assuming Constant Shear Friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, an analytic solution for ring rolling process based on the slab method theory is presented, in which the\\u000a non-uniformity of the normal and shear stresses across the section of the deforming material throughout the plastic region\\u000a is considered. The friction factor multiplied by the shear yield strength (? = mk) is used to present friction between the main roll

A. Parvizi; K. Abrinia; M. Salimi

236

Solid friction between soft filaments  

E-print Network

Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the prop...

Ward, Andrew; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

2015-01-01

237

Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings  

SciTech Connect

Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)

2012-08-15

238

Solid friction between soft filaments  

E-print Network

Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

Andrew Ward; Feodor Hilitski; Walter Schwenger; David Welch; A. W. C. Lau; Vincenzo Vitelli; L. Mahadevan; Zvonimir Dogic

2015-03-04

239

The Friction of Piston Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coefficient of friction between piston ring and cylinder liner was measured in relation to gliding acceleration, pressure, temperature, quantity of oil and quality of oil. Comparing former lubrication-technical tests, conclusions were drawn as to the state of friction. The coefficients of friction as figured out according to the hydrodynamic theory were compared with those measured by tests. Special tests were made on "oiliness." The highest permissible pressure was measured and the ratio of pressure discussed.

Tischbein, Hans W

1945-01-01

240

Tidal friction for semidiurnal tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quadratic law of bottom friction demands an increased frictional coefficient for the S2 and N2 tides with respect to a dominant M2 tidal signal. A numerical model of the semidiurnal tides in the northeast Atlantic gives an increase in friction of ˜35% for the N2, S2 and K2 tides with respect to the M2 tide and this value is

R. D. Pingree; D. K. Griffiths

1987-01-01

241

Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions.  

PubMed

In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (? = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584

Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

2014-01-01

242

Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (? = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces.

Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

2014-11-01

243

Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions  

PubMed Central

In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (? = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584

Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

2014-01-01

244

Turbulent heat transfer in a trapezoidal channel with transverse and v-shaped ribs on two opposite walls  

E-print Network

This study investigates the turbulent heat transfer and friction in a trapezoidal channel with opposite walls roughened with transverse and v-shaped ribs. The roughened channel depicts the internal cooling passage of an aerofoil near the trailing...

Subramanian, Karthik

2006-04-12

245

Computer modeling of granular and two-phase turbulent flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on developing a computational model for analyzing rapid granular and turbulent two-phase flows in various regions. In this work, a computational scheme for simulating dry frictional granular chute flows is developed. A kinetic-based model which includes the frictional energy loss effects is used, and the boundary conditions for a bumpy wall with small friction are derived by ensuring the balance of momentum and energy. At the free surface, the condition of vanishing solid volume fraction is used. The mean velocity, the fluctuation kinetic energy and the solid volume fraction profiles are evaluated. It is shown that steady granular gravity flow down a bumpy frictional chute could be achieved at arbitrary inclination angles. The computational results also show that the slip velocity may vary considerably depending on the granular layer height, the surface boundary roughness, the friction coefficient and the inclination angles. A small friction coefficient and a smooth wall lead to a region of low density and high fluctuation energy in the neighborhood of the wall. For high friction coefficients and rough walls, the solid volume fraction increases monotonically up to the wall, while a region of low fluctuation energy is formed near the solid surface. The model predictions are compared with the existing experimental and simulation data, and good agreement is observed. In particular, the model can well predictate the features of the variation of solid volume fraction and fluctuation energy profiles for different particle-wall friction and restitution coefficients and wall roughness. Two-phase gas-particle turbulent flows at various loadings in vertical, horizontal and inclined channels and in a vertical pipe are also analyzed. Thermodynamically consistent two- phase turbulent flow models that account for the particle-particle collisions and the phasic fluctuation kinetic energy interactions are used, and a computational model for analyzing dilute and dense turbulent flows in ducts is developed. The governing equations for the gas-phase turbulence are upgraded to a two-equation low Reynolds number turbulence closure model that can be integrated directly to the wall. Two specific models are used in the analysis. The first model is isotropic and the equations governing the phasic fluctuation kinetic energy and dissipation rates resemble the extended k-? type turbulence model. The second model is rate-dependent and anisotropic that allows capturing the anisotropy of particulate and fluid phase turbulent stresses. A no-slip boundary condition for the fluid phase and slip velocity boundary condition for the particle phase are used in both cases. The computational model is first applied to dilute gas- particle turbulent flows. The predicted mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles are compared with various experimental data, and good agreement is observed. Examples of additional flow properties such as the phasic fluctuation energy, phasic fluctuation energy production and dissipation, as well as interaction momentum and energy supply terms are also presented and discussed. Application of the model to relatively dense gas-particle turbulent flows are also described. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data of Miller and Gidaspow and reasonable agreement is observed. It is shown that flow behavior is strongly affected by the phasic fluctuation energy, and the momentum and energy transfer between the particulate and the fluid constituents. For aerosol particles, a new two-fluid model for evaluating the particle deposition velocity in turbulent channel flows is described. The rate-dependent model is first used to calculate the components of particle turbulence intensities for gas-particle turbulent flows in a vertical channel. Then the model of Reeks (1983) and Guha (1997) is used for evaluating the particle wall deposition rates. Variations of particle deposition velocity with particle relaxation time are evaluated and the results are compared with the available experimental data and ea

Cao, Jianfa

246

A computational technique for turbulent flow of wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique applied to the turbulent flow of wastewater sludge in horizontal, smooth-wall, circular pipes is presented. The technique uses the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method in conjunction with the variable secant method, an algorithm for determining the pressure gradient of the flow. A simple algebraic turbulence model is used. A Bingham-plastic rheological model is used to describe the shear stress/shear rate relationship for the wastewater sludge. The method computes velocity gradient and head loss, given a fixed volumetric flow, pipe size, and solids concentration. Solids concentrations ranging from 3 to 10% (by weight) and nominal pipe sizes from 0.15 m (6 in.) to 0.36 m (14 in.) are studied. Comparison of the CFD results for water to established values serves to validate the numerical method. The head loss results are presented in terms of a head loss ratio, R(hl), which is the ratio of sludge head loss to water head loss. An empirical equation relating R(hl) to pipe velocity and solids concentration, derived from the results of the CFD calculations, is presented. The results are compared with published values of Rhl for solids concentrations of 3 and 6%. A new expression for the Fanning friction factor for wastewater sludge flow is also presented. PMID:16121510

Bechtel, Tom B

2005-01-01

247

Soliton turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.

Tchen, C. M.

1986-01-01

248

Cluster Turbulence  

E-print Network

We report on results of recent, high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the formation and evolution of X-ray clusters of galaxies carried out within a cosmological framework. We employ the highly accurate piecewise parabolic method (PPM) on fixed and adaptive meshes which allow us to resolve the flow field in the intracluster gas. The excellent shock capturing and low numerical viscosity of PPM represent a substantial advance over previous studies using SPH. We find that in flat, hierarchical cosmological models, the ICM is in a turbulent state long after turbulence generated by the last major merger should have decayed away. Turbulent velocites are found to vary slowly with cluster radius, being $\\sim 25%$ of $\\sigma_{vir}$ in the core, increasing to $\\sim 60%$ at the virial radius. We argue that more frequent minor mergers maintain the high level of turbulence found in the core where dynamical times are short. Turbulent pressure support is thus significant throughout the cluster, and results in a somewh...

Norman, M L; Norman, Michael L.; Bryan, Greg L.

1998-01-01

249

Improved Skin Friction Interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

1986-01-01

250

Friction loss in piping  

SciTech Connect

This program for the HP-41C with one memory module computes pipe friction loss, velocity, and optimum diameter given pipe ID, flow rate, viscosity and density. Flow can be entered as 1.lb/h, 2.BPH-/sup 0/API, 3. gas mol. wt.-scfh, or 4. gpm-sp.gr. Density can be entered as 1.lb/ft, 2. mol. wt.-psig-/sup 0/F, or 3. /sup 0/API-/sup 0/F. For some standard strength pipes, nominal to actual diameter conversion is provided. A change in gas density with pressure can be taken into account if desired.

Patel, V.K.

1984-01-01

251

Cluster infall with friction  

SciTech Connect

A completely dissipationless N-body numerical simulation of the formation of a small galactic cluster is reported. Galaxy tracers are identified as the high-density regions of the galaxy-scale halos present prior to cluster formation. The largest cluster in the simulation is measured and found to have b(vr) of about 0.8 in the radial velocity dispersion with a galaxy population in better accord with cluster observations than the dark matter distribution. Comparison of the energy history of infalling material shows that the dense cores of dark halos, where galaxies are located, lose energy approximately as expected for dynamical friction terminated by tidal disruption. 40 refs.

Carlberg, R.G.; Dubinski, J. (Toronto Univ. (Canada))

1991-03-01

252

Quantum turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review physical properties of quantum fluids He II and 3He-B, where quantum turbulence (QT) has been studied experimentally. Basic properties of QT in these working fluids are discussed within the phenomenological two-fluid model introduced by Landau. We consider counterflows in which the normal and superfluid components flow against each other, as well as co-flows in which the direction of the two fluids is the same. We pay special attention to the important case of zero temperature limit, where QT represents an interesting and probably the simplest prototype of three-dimensional turbulence in fluids. Experimental techniques to explore QT such as second sound attenuation, Andreev reflection, NMR, ion propagation are briefly introduced and results of various experiments on so-called Vinen QT and Kolmogorov QT both in He II and 3He are discussed, emphasizing similarities and differences between classical and quantum turbulence.

Skrbek, L.

2011-12-01

253

An experimental study of changes in the structure of a turbulent boundary layer due to surface geometry changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation attempts to observe changes in the flow structure of a nominally zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer by altering the surface of a smooth plate with small triangular riblets oriented in the direction of flow and protruding just above the viscous sublayer. Hot-wire measurements show a reduction in the local skin friction over the riblet valleys by about 40% compared to the smooth surface near the end of the plate. Local skin friction increases by about 10% over the riblet peaks. Results showing the effects of the riblets on the mean, root-mean-square and skewness factor distributions of the streamwise velocity are presented. The mean profile displays characteristics similar to those of drag reducing additives; the streamwise turbulence intensity is reduced by approximately 10-15% near the surface by the riblets; the skewness factor distribution is virtually unchanged. A comparison of results from an application of the VITA 'burst' detection technique to smooth and riblet surface data is also presented although the results are rather inconclusive. Flow visualization of 'bursting' over both surfaces, while dramatically revealing the structure, reveals little difference resulting from the presence of the riblet.

1983-01-01

254

Numerical Estimation of Frictional Torques with Rate and State Friction  

E-print Network

In this paper, numerical estimation of frictional torques is carried out of a rotary elastic disc on a hard and rough surface under different rotating conditions. A one dimensional spring- mass rotary system is numerically solved under the quasistatic condition with the rate and state dependent friction model. It is established that torque of frictional strength as well as torque of steady dynamic stress increases with radius and found to be maximum at the periphery of the disc. Torque corresponding to frictional strength estimated using the analytical solution matches closely with the simulation only in the case of high stiffness of the connecting spring. In steady relaxation simulation, a steadily rotating disc is suddenly stopped and relaxational angular velocity and corresponding frictional torque decreases with both steady angular velocity and stiffness of the connecting spring in the velocity strengthening regime. In velocity weakening regime, in contrast, torque of relaxation stress deceases but relaxation velocity increases. The reason for the contradiction is explained.

Arun K. Singh; T. N. Singh

2015-01-20

255

Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch  

PubMed Central

Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

256

Holographic turbulence.  

PubMed

We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028

Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong

2014-04-18

257

Friction Stir Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

2008-01-01

258

Practical calculator programs. Part 9. Calculator program determines turbulence criteria  

SciTech Connect

A program developed for the TI-59 hand-held calculator determines whether the flow pattern for a given mud system is laminar or turbulent, calculating the Reynolds number for each pattern. Applicable to Newtonian, Bingham plastic, and power-law fluids, the program contributes to determining the frictional pressure loss in the pipe and annulus.

Chenevert, M.E.; Hollo, R.

1981-11-16

259

Orbital friction stir weld system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is an apparatus for joining the ends of two cylindrical (i.e., pipe-shaped) sections together with a friction stir weld. The apparatus holds the two cylindrical sections together and provides back-side weld support as it makes a friction stir weld around the circumference of the joined ends.

Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Carter, Robert W. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

260

Friction in a Moving Car  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)

Goldberg, Fred M.

1975-01-01

261

Orbital Friction Stir Weld System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is an apparatus for joining the ends of two cylindrical (i.e., pipe-shaped) sections together with a friction stir weld. The apparatus holds the two cylindrical sections together and provides back-side weld support as it makes a friction stir weld around the circumference of the joined ends.

Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Carter, Robert W. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

262

The Kinetic Friction of Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus based on a pendulum hanging around a revolving drum of ice was developed to measure the kinetic friction between a slider and an ice surface under conditions commonly experienced in ice skating (temperatures from -15 to -1 degrees C and velocities from 0.2 to 10 m s-1). The results are explained by a quantitative development of the frictional

D. C. B. Evans; J. F. Nye; K. J. Cheeseman

1976-01-01

263

Elastic model of dry friction  

SciTech Connect

Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.

Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E., E-mail: dekl2@cam.ac.uk [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-09-15

264

Constraint counting for frictional jamming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the frictionless jamming transition has been intensely studied in recent years, more realistic frictional packings are less well understood. In frictionless sphere packings, the transition is predicted by a simple mean-field constraint counting argument, the isostaticity argument. For frictional packings, a modified constraint counting argument, which includes slipping contacts at the Coulomb threshold, has had limited success in accounting for the transition. We propose that the frictional jamming transition is not mean field and is triggered by the nucleation of unstable regions, which are themselves dynamical objects due to the Coulomb criterion. We create frictional packings using MD simulations and test for the presence and shape of rigid clusters with the pebble game to identify the partition of the packing into stable and unstable regions. To understand the dynamics of these unstable regions we follow perturbations at contacts crucial to the stability of the ``frictional house of cards.''

Quint, D. A.; Henkes, S.; Schwarz, J. M.

2012-02-01

265

The statistics of frictional families  

E-print Network

We develop a theoretical description for mechanically stable frictional packings in terms of the difference between the total number of contacts required for isostatic packings of frictionless disks and the number of contacts in frictional packings, $m=N_c^0-N_c$. The saddle order $m$ represents the number of unconstrained degrees of freedom that a static packing would possess if friction were removed. Using a novel numerical method that allows us to enumerate disk packings for each $m$, we show that the probability to obtain a packing with saddle order $m$ at a given static friction coefficient $\\mu$, $P_m(\\mu)$, can be expressed as a power-series in $\\mu$. Using this form for $P_m(\\mu)$, we quantitatively describe the dependence of the average contact number on friction coefficient for static disk packings obtained from direct simulations of the Cundall-Strack model for all $\\mu$ and $N$.

Tianqi Shen; Stefanos Papanikolaou; Corey S. O'Hern; Mark D. Shattuck

2014-02-04

266

Skin-Friction Measurements in a 3-D, Supersonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental documentation of a three-dimensional shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a nominal Mach 3 cylinder, aligned with the free-stream flow, and 20 deg. half-angle conical flare offset 1.27 cm from the cylinder centerline. Surface oil flow, laser light sheet illumination, and schlieren were used to document the flow topology. The data includes surface-pressure and skin-friction measurements. A laser interferometric skin friction data. Included in the skin-friction data are measurements within separated regions and three-dimensional measurements in highly-swept regions. The skin-friction data will be particularly valuable in turbulence modeling and computational fluid dynamics validation.

Wideman, J. K.; Brown, J. L.; Miles, J. B.; Ozcan, O.

1994-01-01

267

Turbulence modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.

Bardina, Jorge E.

1995-01-01

268

Burgers Turbulence  

E-print Network

The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions or random forcing. Such work was frequently motivated by new emerging applications of Burgers model to statistical physics, cosmology, and fluid dynamics. Also Burgers turbulence appeared as one of the simplest instances of a nonlinear system out of equilibrium. The study of random Lagrangian systems, of stochastic partial differential equations and their invariant measures, the theory of dynamical systems, the applications of field theory to the understanding of dissipative anomalies and of multiscaling in hydrodynamic turbulence have benefited significantly from progress in Burgers turbulence. The aim of this review is to give a unified view of selected work stemming from these rather diverse disciplines.

Jeremie Bec; Konstantin Khanin

2007-04-12

269

Turbulent combustion  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01

270

Skin Friction and Transition Location Measurement on Supersonic Transport Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flow visualization techniques were used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative skin friction and transition location data in wind tunnel tests performed on two supersonic transport models at Mach 2.40. Oil-film interferometry was useful for verifying boundary layer transition, but careful monitoring of model surface temperatures and systematic examination of the effects of tunnel start-up and shutdown transients will be required to achieve high levels of accuracy for skin friction measurements. A more common technique, use of a subliming solid to reveal transition location, was employed to correct drag measurements to a standard condition of all-turbulent flow on the wing. These corrected data were then analyzed to determine the additional correction required to account for the effect of the boundary layer trip devices.

Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Goodsell, Aga M.; Olsen, Lawrence E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

271

Eliminating Friction with Friction: 2D Janssen Effect in a Friction-Driven System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Janssen effect is a unique property of confined granular materials experiencing gravitational compaction in which the pressure at the bottom saturates with an increasing filling height due to frictional interactions with side walls. In this Letter, we replace gravitational compaction with frictional compaction. We study friction-compacted 2D granular materials confined within fixed boundaries on a horizontal conveyor belt. We find that even with high-friction side walls the Janssen effect completely vanishes. Our results demonstrate that gravity-compacted granular systems are inherently different from friction-compacted systems in at least one important way: vibrations induced by sliding friction with the driving surface relax away tangential forces on the walls. Remarkably, we find that the Janssen effect can be recovered by replacing the straight side walls with a sawtooth pattern. The mechanical force introduced by varying the sawtooth angle ? can be viewed as equivalent to a tunable friction force. By construction, this mechanical friction force cannot be relaxed away by vibrations in the system.

Karim, M. Yasinul; Corwin, Eric I.

2014-05-01

272

Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport  

SciTech Connect

Up to now, the term ''transport-optimized'' stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely, gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations and stellarator optimization codes. Two initial proof-of-principle configurations are obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the National Compact Stellarator Experiment baseline design by a factor of 2-2.5.

Mynick, H. E.; Pomphrey, N. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Xanthopoulos, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

2010-08-27

273

Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wear is an inevitable product of frictional sliding of brittle rocks as evidenced by the ubiquitous occurrence of fault gouge and slickenside striations. We present here experimental observations designed to demonstrate the relationship between wear and friction and their governing mechanisms. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters. Stresses, wear and temperature were continuously monitored. We analyzed 86 experiments of Kasota dolomite, Sierra White granite, Pennsylvania quartzite, Karoo gabbro, and Tennessee sandstone at slip velocities ranging from 0.002 to 0.97 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. We conducted two types of runs: short slip experiments (slip distance < 25 mm) primarily on fresh, surface-ground samples, designed to analyze initial wear mechanisms; and long slip experiments (slip distance > 3 m) designed to achieve mature wear conditions and to observe the evolution of wear and friction as the fault surfaces evolved. The experiments reveal three wear stages: initial, running-in, and steady-state. The initial stage is characterized by (1) discrete damage striations, the length of which is comparable to total slip , and local pits or plow features; (2) timing and magnitude of fault-normal dilation corresponds to transient changes of normal and shear stresses; and (3) surface roughness increasing with the applied normal stress. We interpret these observations as wear mechanisms of (a) plowing into the fresh rock surfaces; (b) asperity breakage; and (c) asperity climb. The running-in stage is characterized by (1) intense wear-rate over a critical wear distance of Rd = 0.3-2 m; (2) drop of friction coefficient over a weakening distance of Dc = 0.2-4 m; (3) Rd and Dc display positive, quasi-linear relation with each other. We interpret these observations as indicating the organizing of newly-created wear particles into a 'three-body' structure that acts to lubricate the fault (Reches & Lockner, 2010). The steady-state stage is characterized by (1) relatively low wear-rate (approximately 10% of running-in wear-rate) and (2) quasi-constant friction coefficient. These observations suggest only small changes in the gouge layer in term of thickness (100 to 200 microns) and strength in this final stage. The present study indicates that (1) wear by plowing and asperity failure initiate early, during the first few millimeters of slip; and (2) wear and associated gouge formation appear as the controlling factors of friction evolution and fault weakening.

Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

2011-12-01

274

Towards Petascale DNS of High Reynolds-Number Turbulent Boundary Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In flight vehicles, a large portion of fuel consumption is due to skin-friction drag. Reduction of this drag will significantly reduce the fuel consumption of flight vehicles and help our nation to reduce CO 2 emissions. In order to reduce skin-friction drag, an increased understanding of wall-turbulence is needed. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers (SDTBL) can provide the fundamental understanding of wall-turbulence in order to produce models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulations (LES). DNS of SDTBL over a flat plate at Retheta = 1430 - 2900 were performed. Improvements were made to the DNS code allowing for higher Reynolds number simulations towards petascale DNS of turbulent boundary layers. Mesh refinement and improvements to the inflow and outflow boundary conditions have resulted in turbulence statistics that match more closely to experimental results. The Reynolds stresses and the terms of their evolution equations are reported.

Webster, Keegan R.

275

Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors

Blanpied, M.L.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

1995-01-01

276

Local nanoscale heating modulates single-asperity friction.  

PubMed

We demonstrate measurement and control of single-asperity friction by using cantilever probes featuring an in situ solid-state heater. The heater temperature was varied between 25 and 650 °C (tip temperatures from 25 ± 2 to 120 ± 20 °C). Heating caused friction to increase by a factor of 4 in air at ? 30% relative humidity, but in dry nitrogen friction decreased by ? 40%. Higher velocity reduced friction in ambient with no effect in dry nitrogen. These trends are attributed to thermally assisted formation of capillary bridges between the tip and substrate in air, and thermally assisted sliding in dry nitrogen. Real-time friction measurements while modulating the tip temperature revealed an energy barrier for capillary condensation of 0.40 ± 0.04 eV but with slower kinetics compared to isothermal measurements that we attribute to the distinct thermal environment that occurs when heating in real time. Controlling the presence of this nanoscale capillary and the associated control of friction and adhesion offers new opportunities for tip-based nanomanufacturing. PMID:20929204

Greiner, Christian; Felts, Jonathan R; Dai, Zhenting; King, William P; Carpick, Robert W

2010-11-10

277

Nanoscopic friction under electrochemical control.  

PubMed

We propose a theoretical model of friction under electrochemical conditions focusing on the interaction of a force microscope tip with adsorbed polar molecules whose orientation depends on the applied electric field. We demonstrate that the dependence of friction force on the electric field is determined by the interplay of two channels of energy dissipation: (i) the rotation of dipoles and (ii) slips of the tip over potential barriers. We suggest a promising strategy to achieve a strong dependence of nanoscopic friction on the external field based on the competition between long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range chemical interactions between tip and adsorbed polar molecules. PMID:24580609

de Wijn, A S; Fasolino, A; Filippov, A E; Urbakh, M

2014-02-01

278

Nanoscopic Friction under Electrochemical Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a theoretical model of friction under electrochemical conditions focusing on the interaction of a force microscope tip with adsorbed polar molecules whose orientation depends on the applied electric field. We demonstrate that the dependence of friction force on the electric field is determined by the interplay of two channels of energy dissipation: (i) the rotation of dipoles and (ii) slips of the tip over potential barriers. We suggest a promising strategy to achieve a strong dependence of nanoscopic friction on the external field based on the competition between long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range chemical interactions between tip and adsorbed polar molecules.

de Wijn, A. S.; Fasolino, A.; Filippov, A. E.; Urbakh, M.

2014-02-01

279

REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR  

SciTech Connect

This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston assembly in an engine. The model appears to produce the correct behavior, but we cannot quantify its strengths or weaknesses until our crank-angle-resolved measurements have been completed. Finally, we proposed and implemented a model for the effects of liner rotation on piston assembly friction. Here, we propose that the rotating liner design is analogous to the shaft-bushing mechanism. Therefore, we used the side-slip rolling friction model to simulate the effects of liner rotation. This model appears to be promising, but final analysis of its strengths and/or weaknesses must await our crank-angle-resolved measurements.

Ron Matthews

2005-05-01

280

Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

2012-01-01

281

Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.

Klebanoff, P S

1955-01-01

282

The ultra-low speed research on friction drive of large telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No periodical error and free of backlash are the main advantages of friction drive. So friction drive is applied in many ultra-low speed systems in the past years. With the trend that the aperture of optical telescope becomes bigger and bigger, there are some reports about friction drive employed to drive the telescopes. However friction drive also brings up challenge to control system because the inherent nonlinear characteristics of friction drive. This report describes the study on the friction drive finished in an experiment arranged by LAMOST project. It comprises three main parts. First, it introduces the experiment apparatus and presents a friction nonlinear curve to indicate the nonlinear characteristics of friction drive. Subsequently, this report illuminates the negative result that influenced by the nonlinear characteristic. Secondly, this report use nonlinear PID control algorithm to control friction drive. It achieves ultra-low speed and high precision position control. The ultra-low velocity is 0.2"/S and error is 0.032"(RMS). This report also lists some factors that influence the precision of speed. Lastly, this report gives the analysis fluctuating speed of friction drive and applies acceleration feedback to diminish this fluctuating.

Du, Fujia; Wang, Daxing

2006-06-01

283

Rubber friction: comparison of theory with experiment.  

PubMed

We have measured the friction force acting on a rubber block slid on a concrete surface. We used both unfilled and filled (with carbon black) styrene butadiene (SB) rubber and have varied the temperature from -10 °C to 100 °C and the sliding velocity from 1 ?m/s to 1000 ?m/s. We find that the experimental data at different temperatures can be shifted into a smooth master-curve, using the temperature-frequency shifting factors obtained from measurements of the bulk viscoelastic modulus. The experimental data has been analyzed using a theory which takes into account the contributions to the friction from both the substrate asperity-induced viscoelastic deformations of the rubber, and from shearing the area of real contact. For filled SB rubber the frictional shear stress ?(f) in the area of real contact results mainly from the energy dissipation at the opening crack on the exit side of the rubber-asperity contact regions. For unfilled rubber we instead attribute ?(f) to shearing of a thin rubber smear film, which is deposited on the concrete surface during run in. We observe very different rubber wear processes for filled and unfilled SB rubber, which is consistent with the different frictional processes. Thus, the wear of filled SB rubber results in micrometer-sized rubber particles which accumulate as dry dust, which is easily removed by blowing air on the concrete surface. This wear process seams to occur at a steady rate. For unfilled rubber a smear film forms on the concrete surface, which cannot be removed even using a high-pressure air stream. In this case the wear rate appears to slow down after some run in time period. PMID:22139094

Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Dieluweit, S; Tada, T

2011-12-01

284

Implications of Strong-Rate-Weakening Friction  

E-print Network

Implications of Strong-Rate- Weakening Friction for the Length-Scale Dependence of the Strength · Rapid transitions between high static friction and very low dynamic friction · Leads to slip-pulse rupture · Slip pulses are extremely localized and have strong positive feedback between friction and slip

Greer, Julia R.

285

Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction  

SciTech Connect

Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine- scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional, pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.

Blau, P.J.

1993-01-01

286

Filament turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How much information do you need to distinguish between different mechanisms for spatiotemporal chaos in three-dimensions? In this talk, I will show that the observation of the dynamics on the surface of a medium can be sufficient. Studying mechanisms for filament turbulence in the context of reaction-diffusion media, we found numerically that two major classes of instabilities leave a very different signature on what can be observed on the surface of a three-dimensional medium. These results are of direct relevance in the context of ventricular fibrillation - a turbulent electrical wave activity that destroys the coherent contraction of the ventricular muscle and its main pumping function leading to sudden cardiac death. While it has been proposed that the three-dimensional structure of the heart plays an important role in this type of filament turbulence, only the surface of the heart is currently accessible to experimental observation preventing the study of the full dynamics. Our results suggest that such observations might be sufficient.

Davidsen, Joern

2010-03-01

287

Nanotribology fundamentals: Predicting the viscous coefficient of friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, I have used the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to study nanoscale friction of monolayer adsorbates on (111) metals. The friction of these systems is viscous friction, defined as Ff = etanu = ( mt )nu. Here, eta is the viscous coefficient of friction, nu is the velocity of the adsorbate, m is adsorbate mass, and tau is the slip time, which is the time required for the film's speed to fall to 1/e of its original value. The main focus of this dissertation is to determine the factors that control eta, the viscous coefficient of friction. I have examined three different parameters in order to determine their effect on eta. An equation for predicting the viscous coefficient of friction has been proposed: eta = etasubs + aU2o . Here, etasubs is the damping of adsorbate sliding energy within the substrate, a is a constant depending on mainly temperature and adsorbate film coverage, and Uo is the atomic-scale surface corrugation. I have examined the sliding friction of n-octane on Cu(111) vs. Pb(11I) surfaces, which have gamma = 0.45 meV and gamma = 0.26 meV, respectively. I have observed that the slip time for a monolayer of n-octane/Cu(111) is 0.94 ns +/- 0.36 ns, and the slip time of noctane/Pb(111) is 0.59 ns +/- 0.13 ns. I therefore observe no direct evidence of a link between the damping of perpendicular FT modes and sliding friction. It is still possible, however, that the damping of the parallel FT phonon mode affects sliding friction. Finally, I studied the slippage of monolayer methanol films at room temperature on rotating, rigid, and slowly ratcheting C60 substrates, to examine the effect that the molecular rotation of the substrate surface has on the sliding friction of an adsorbate. I found that at all coverages, the slip time for methanol on rigid and slowly ratcheting C60 was longer (hence lower friction) than the slip time for methanol on rotating C 60, defying the ball bearing analogy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Coffey, Tonya S.

288

Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal motion can be chosen to be random with a flat spectrum over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 kHz, or to be sinusoidal at any peak-to-peak amplitude up to 0.8 in. (.2 cm) and fixed or varying frequency up to 1 kHz. The temperatures of the specimen and of the vessel are measured by thermocouples. A digital video camera mounted outside the pressure vessel is aimed into the vessel through a sapphire window, with its focus fixed on the interface between the two specimens. A position transducer monitors the displacement of the pneumatic-cylinder shaft. The pressure in the vessel is also monitored. During a test, the output of the video camera, the temperatures, and the pneumatic-shaft displacement are monitored and recorded. The test is continued for a predetermined amount of time (typically, 10 minutes) or until either (1) the output of the position transducer shows a sudden change indicative of degradation of either or both specimens, (2) ignition or another significant reaction is observed, or (3) pressure in the vessel increases beyond a pre-set level that triggers an automatic shutdown.

Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

2009-01-01

289

Friction and wear of friction materials containing two different phenolic resins reinforced with aramid pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and wear characteristics of automotive friction materials containing two different phenolic resins (a straight novolac resin and a modified novolac resin) were investigated using a pad-on-disk type friction tester. Six different friction materials with different relative amounts of the phenolic resins and aramid pulp were manufactured and tested. Two different test modes were employed to examine the friction characteristics

Seong Jin Kim; Ho Jang

2000-01-01

290

Adhesion energy between mica surfaces: Implications for the frictional coefficient under dry and wet conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

frictional strength of faults is a critical factor that contributes to continuous fault slip and earthquake occurrence. Frictional strength can be reduced by the presence of sheet-structured clay minerals. In this study, two important factors influencing the frictional coefficient of minerals were quantitatively analyzed by a newly developed computational method based on a combination of first-principles study and thermodynamics. One factor that helps reduce the frictional coefficient is the low adhesion energy between the layers under dry conditions. Potassium ions on mica surfaces are easily exchanged with sodium ions when brought into contact with highly concentrated sodium-halide solutions. We found that the surface ion exchange with sodium ions reduces the adhesion energy, indicating that the frictional coefficient can be reduced under dry conditions. Another factor is the lubrication caused by adsorbed water films on mineral surfaces under wet conditions. Potassium and sodium ions on mica surfaces have a strong affinity for water molecules. In order to remove the adsorbed water molecules confined between mica surfaces, a differential compressive stress of the order of tens of gigapascals was necessary at room temperature. These water molecules inhibit direct contact between mineral surfaces and reduce the frictional coefficient. Our results imply that the frictional coefficient can be modified through contact with fluids depending on their salt composition. The low adhesion energy between fault-forming minerals and the presence of an adsorbed water film is a possible reason for the low frictional coefficient observed at continuous fault slip zones.

Sakuma, Hiroshi

2013-12-01

291

Rubber friction and tire dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate ?-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

Persson, B. N. J.

2011-01-01

292

Rubber friction and tire dynamics.  

PubMed

We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate ?-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms. PMID:21406818

Persson, B N J

2011-01-12

293

Rubber friction and tire dynamics  

E-print Network

We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, e.g., in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (B.N.J. Persson, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 18, 7789 (2006)). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to calculate accurate mu-slip (and the self-aligning torque) curves for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g., braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of Anti-Blocking System (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

B. N. J. Persson

2010-07-16

294

Slab Analysis of Ring Rolling Assuming Constant Shear Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, an analytic solution for ring rolling process based on the slab method theory is presented, in which the non-uniformity of the normal and shear stresses across the section of the deforming material throughout the plastic region is considered. The friction factor multiplied by the shear yield strength (? = mk) is used to present friction between the main roll and the ring. The influence of the process parameters such as friction factor, feed speed, main roll rotational speed, and radii of the main roll and mandrel on process outputs is investigated. Complete expressions for the ring rolling pressure, force, and torque are obtained, and the position of neutral point is predicted. Comparison of the analytic results of this model with the experimental results of other investigators and FEM analysis show that they are in good agreement.

Parvizi, A.; Abrinia, K.; Salimi, M.

2011-12-01

295

Identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio based on road type recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle dynamics and control. However, it is always not easy to identify the maximum road friction coefficient with high robustness and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions. The existing investigations on robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient are unsatisfactory. In this paper, an identification approach based on road type recognition is proposed for the robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio. The instantaneous road friction coefficient is estimated through the recursive least square with a forgetting factor method based on the single wheel model, and the estimated road friction coefficient and slip ratio are grouped in a set of samples in a small time interval before the current time, which are updated with time progressing. The current road type is recognized by comparing the samples of the estimated road friction coefficient with the standard road friction coefficient of each typical road, and the minimum statistical error is used as the recognition principle to improve identification robustness. Once the road type is recognized, the maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio are determined. The numerical simulation tests are conducted on two typical road friction conditions(single-friction and joint-friction) by using CarSim software. The test results show that there is little identification error between the identified maximum road friction coefficient and the pre-set value in CarSim. The proposed identification method has good robustness performance to external disturbances and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions and road variations, and the identification results can be used for the adjustment of vehicle active safety control strategies.

Guan, Hsin; Wang, Bo; Lu, Pingping; Xu, Liang

2014-09-01

296

Occurrence of turbulent flow conditions in supercritical fluid chromatography.  

PubMed

Having similar densities as liquids but with viscosities up to 20 times lower (higher diffusion coefficients), supercritical CO2 is the ideal (co-)solvent for fast and/or highly efficient separations without mass-transfer limitations or excessive column pressure drops. Whereas in liquid chromatography the flow remains laminar in both the packed bed and tubing, except in extreme cases (e.g. in a 75 ?m tubing, pure acetonitrile at 5 ml/min), a supercritical fluid can experience a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in more typical operation modes. Due to the significant lower viscosity, this transition for example already occurs at 1.3 ml/min for neat CO2 when using connection tubing with an ID of 127 ?m. By calculating the Darcy friction factor, which can be plotted versus the Reynolds number in a so-called Moody chart, typically used in fluid dynamics, higher values are found for stainless steel than PEEK tubing, in agreement with their expected higher surface roughness. As a result turbulent effects are more pronounced when using stainless steel tubing. The higher than expected extra-column pressure drop limits the kinetic performance of supercritical fluid chromatography and complicates the optimization of tubing ID, which is based on a trade-off between extra-column band broadening and pressure drop. One of the most important practical consequences is the non-linear increase in extra-column pressure drop over the tubing downstream of the column which leads to an unexpected increase in average column pressure and mobile phase density, and thus decrease in retention. For close eluting components with a significantly different dependence of retention on density, the selectivity can significantly be affected by this increase in average pressure. In addition, the occurrence of turbulent flow is also observed in the detector cell and connection tubing. This results in a noise-increase by a factor of four when going from laminar to turbulent flow (e.g. going from 0.5 to 2.5 ml/min for neat CO2). PMID:25145564

De Pauw, Ruben; Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

2014-09-26

297

Radiation friction versus ponderomotive effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of ponderomotive potential is upgraded to a regime in which radiation friction becomes dominant. The radiation friction manifests itself in long-term capturing of the particles released at the focus and impenetrability of the focus from the exterior. We apply time scale separation to the Landau-Lifshitz equation splitting the particle motion into quivering and slow drift of a guiding center. The drift equation is deduced by averaging over fast motion.

Fedotov, A. M.; Elkina, N. V.; Gelfer, E. G.; Narozhny, N. B.; Ruhl, H.

2014-11-01

298

Observations of the vertical structure of turbulent oscillatory boundary layers above fixed roughness using a prototype wideband coherent Doppler profiler: 2. Turbulence and stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of turbulence and shear stress in oscillatory boundary layers are reported from experiments carried out with a prototype wideband coherent Doppler profiler above fixed roughness beds of 0.37 mm diameter sand and 3.9 mm diameter gravel. The 10 s oscillation period and 0.75 m to 1.5 m oscillation excursions correspond to roughness Reynolds numbers for the gravel bed in the 290 to 490 range, assuring fully rough turbulent conditions. Bottom stress was estimated via the law-of-the-wall, the vertical integral of the defect acceleration, and the Reynolds stress. The Reynolds stress was obtained from the second moment of the beam-coordinate velocities. Bed friction factors, fw, from the defect stresses are in reasonable agreement with predictions based on Swart's empirical relation as modified by Nielsen (1992) and with values determined using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) by Sleath (1987) via the defect method and by Jensen (1988) via the law-of-the-wall. The fw values determined here from the law-of-the-wall are higher than predicted (ca. 50% higher for the gravel bed), likely due to background vertical shear associated with residual motions in the tank. The Reynolds stresses are lower than the predictions by a factor of 3 to 4, compared to the factor of 5 to 10 obtained by Sleath (1987). Beam coordinate turbulent kinetic energy spectra indicate that the vertical momentum flux is mostly associated with fluctuations between the forcing frequency and the inertial subrange, the latter contributing typically less than 10% of the total observed Reynolds stress.

Hay, Alex E.; Zedel, Len; Cheel, Richard; Dillon, Jeremy

2012-03-01

299

Dynamical friction in pairs of elliptical galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors present numerical experiments on dynamical friction in pairs of elliptical galaxies of unequal mass. They confirm that the self-gravity of the response is not important and show the drastic effect of the deformability of the companion which reduces the decay time by more than a factor of 2. Almost the same amount of orbital energy is dissipated within the satellite as within the large galaxy. Finally, the authors discuss the importance of distant encounters for the dynamical evolution of systems of galaxies.

Prugniel, Philippe; Combes, Francoise

1990-01-01

300

Analytical skin friction and heat transfer formula for compressible internal flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic, closed-form friction formula for turbulent, internal, compressible, fully developed flow was derived by extending the incompressible law-of-the-wall relation to compressible cases. The model is capable of analyzing heat transfer as a function of constant surface temperatures and surface roughness as well as analyzing adiabatic conditions. The formula reduces to Prandtl's law of friction for adiabatic, smooth, axisymmetric flow. In addition, the formula reduces to the Colebrook equation for incompressible, adiabatic, axisymmetric flow with various roughnesses. Comparisons with available experiments show that the model averages roughly 12.5 percent error for adiabatic flow and 18.5 percent error for flow involving heat transfer.

Dechant, Lawrence J.; Tattar, Marc J.

1994-01-01

301

Jet impingement onto kerf: Effect of kerf wedge angle on heat transfer rates and skin friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jet impingement onto a kerf is considered in relation to laser cutting process. Flow and temperature fields are predicted using the three-dimensional modeling. In the simulations influence of kerf wall wedge angle on the Nusselt number and the skin friction at the surface of the kerf wall is examined. The RNG k-? model is incorporated to account for the turbulence. A control volume approach is introduced to discretize the governing flow equations. It is found that the kerf wall wedge angle has considerable influence on the Nusselt number and the skin friction.

Melhem, Omar A.; Yilbas, Bekir S.; Shuja, S. Z.

2014-03-01

302

Cloud Dispersal in Turbulent Flows  

E-print Network

Cold clouds embedded in warm media are very common objects in astrophysics. Their disruption timescale depends strongly on the dynamical configuration. We discuss the evolution of an initially homogeneous cold cloud embedded in warm turbulent gas. Within a couple of dynamical timescales, the filling factor of the cold gas within the original cloud radius drops below 50%. Turbulent diffusivities estimated from the time evolution of radial filling factor profiles are not constant with time. Cold and warm gas are bodily transported by turbulence and mixed. This is only mildly indicated by column density maps. The radiation field within the cloud, however, increases by several orders of magnitudes due to the mixing, with possible consequences for cloud chemistry and evolution within a few dynamical timescales.

F. Heitsch; A. D. Slyz; J. E. G. Devriendt; A. Burkert

2006-10-31

303

Modeling of Instabilities and Self-organization at the Frictional Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of friction-induced self-organization and its practical importance remains unknown territory to many tribologists. Friction is usually thought of as irreversible dissipation of energy and deterioration; however, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in-situ tribofilms and various patterns at the interface. This thesis studies self-organization and instabilities at the frictional interface, including the instability due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction, the transient process of frictional running-in, frictional Turing systems, the stick-and-slip phenomenon, and, finally, contact angle (CA) hysteresis as an example of solid-liquid friction and dissipation. All these problems are chosen to bridge the gap between fundamental interest in understanding the conditions leading to self-organization and practical motivation. We study the relationship between friction-induced instabilities and friction-induced self-organization. Friction is usually thought of as a stabilizing factor; however, sometimes it leads to the instability of sliding, in particular when friction is coupled with another process. Instabilities constitute the main mechanism for pattern formation. At first, a stationary structure loses its stability; after that, vibrations with increasing amplitude occur, leading to a limit cycle corresponding to a periodic pattern. The self-organization is usually beneficial for friction and wear reduction because the tribological systems tend to enter a state with the lowest energy dissipation. The introductory chapter starts with basic definitions related to self-organization, instabilities and friction, literature review, and objectives. We discuss fundamental concepts that provide a methodological tool to investigate, understand and enhance beneficial processes in tribosystems which might lead to self-organization. These processes could result in the ability of a frictional surface to exhibit "self-protection" and "self-healing" properties. Hence, this research is dealing with the fundamental concepts that allow the possibility of the development of a new generation of tribosystem and materials that reinforce such properties. In chapter 2, we investigate instabilities due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction. The temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction can have a significant effect on the frictional sliding stability, by leading to the formation of "hot" and "cold" spots on the contacting surfaces. We formulate a stability criterion and perform a case study of a brake disk. In chapter 3, we study frictional running-in. Running-in is a transient period on the onset of the frictional sliding, in which friction and wear decrease to their stationary values. In this research, running-in is interpreted as friction-induced self-organization process. We introduce a theoretical model of running-in and investigate rough profile evolution assuming that its kinetics is driven by two opposite processes or events, i.e., smoothening which is typical for the deformation-driven friction and wear, and roughening which is typical for the adhesion-driven friction and wear. In chapter 4, we investigate the possibility of the so-called Turing-type pattern formation during friction. Turing or reaction-diffusion systems describe variations of spatial concentrations of chemical components with time due to local chemical reactions coupled with diffusion. During friction, the patterns can form at the sliding interface due to the mass transfer (diffusion), heat transfer, various tribochemical reactions, and wear. In chapter 5, we investigate how interfacial patterns including propagating trains of stick and slip zones form due to dynamic sliding instabilities. These can be categorized as self-organized patterns. We treat stick and slip as two phases at the interface, and study the effects related to phase transitions. Our results show how interfacial patterns form, how

Mortazavi, Vahid

304

Numerical simulation of fully developed turbulent flow and heat transfer in annular-sector ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mixing length theory is employed to simulate the fully developed turbulent heat transfer in annular-sector ducts with five apex angles (?0=18,20,24,30,40?) and four radius ratios (Ro/Ri=2,3,4,5). The Reynolds number range is 104105. The numerical results agree well with an available correlation which was obtained in following parameter range: ?0=18,20,24,30,40?, Ro/Ri=4 and Re=1045×104. The present work demonstrates that the application range of the correlation can be much extended. Apart from the mixing length theory, the k? model with wall function and the Reynolds stress model are also employed. None of the friction factor results predicted by the three models agrees well with the test data. For the heat transfer prediction the mixing length theory seems the best for the cases studied.

Li, Z.-Y.; Hung, T.-C.; Tao, W.-Q.

305

Measurements of skin friction in water using surface stress sensitive films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of skin friction on hydrodynamic surfaces is of significant value for the design of advanced naval technology, particularly at high Reynolds numbers. Here we report on the development of a new sensor for measurement of skin friction and pressure that operates in both air and water. This sensor is based on an elastic polymer film that deforms under the action of applied normal and tangential loads. Skin friction and pressure gradients are determined by monitoring these deformations and then solving an inverse problem using a finite element model of the elastic film. This technique is known as surface stress sensitive films. In this paper, we describe the development of a sensor package specifically designed for two-dimensional skin friction measurements at a single point. The package has been developed with the goal of making two-dimensional measurements of skin friction in water. Quantitative measurements of skin friction are performed on a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer in the 12 inch water tunnel at Penn State University. These skin friction measurements are verified by comparing them to measurements obtained with a drag plate as well as by performing two-dimensional velocity measurements above the sensor using a laser Doppler velocimetry system. The results indicate that the sensor skin friction measurements are accurate to better than 5% and repeatable to better than 2%. The directional sensitivity of the sensor is demonstrated by positioning the sensor at several orientations to the flow. A final interesting feature of this sensor is that it is sensitive to pressure gradients, not to static pressure changes. This feature should prove useful for monitoring the skin friction on a seafaring vessel as the operating depth is changed.

Crafton, J. W.; Fonov, S. D.; Jones, E. G.; Goss, L. P.; Forlines, R. A.; Fontaine, A.

2008-07-01

306

High speed friction microscopy and nanoscale friction coefficient mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As mechanical devices in the nano/micro length scale are increasingly employed, it is crucial to understand nanoscale friction and wear especially at technically relevant sliding velocities. Accordingly, a novel technique has been developed for friction coefficient mapping (FCM), leveraging recent advances in high speed AFM. The technique efficiently acquires friction versus force curves based on a sequence of images at a single location, each with incrementally lower loads. As a result, true maps of the coefficient of friction can be uniquely calculated for heterogeneous surfaces. These parameters are determined at a scan velocity as fast as 2?mm?s?1 for microfabricated SiO2 mesas and Au coated pits, yielding results that are identical to traditional speed measurements despite being ~1000 times faster. To demonstrate the upper limit of sliding velocity for the custom setup, the friction properties of mica are reported from 200?µm?s?1 up to 2?cm?s?1. While FCM is applicable to any AFM and scanning speed, quantitative nanotribology investigations of heterogeneous sliding or rolling components are therefore uniquely possible, even at realistic velocities for devices such as MEMS, biological implants, or data storage systems.

Bosse, James L.; Lee, Sungjun; Andersen, Andreas Sø; Sutherland, Duncan S.; Huey, Bryan D.

2014-11-01

307

Specific impulse losses due to friction and dispersion in a gas-film cooled liquid rocket engine nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions The proposed method and program for calculating the compressible turbulent boundary layer in rocket engine nozzles with gas film cooling make it possible to determine the specific impulse losses due to friction, the heat fluxes and other characteristics of the flow. The calculations are based on the numerical solution of the equations of gas dynamics in the boundary layer

V. G. Lushchik; V. I. Sizov; L. E. Sternin; A. E. Yakubenko

1993-01-01

308

Finite Element Analysis of the Amontons-Coulomb's Model using Local and Global Friction Tests  

SciTech Connect

In spite of the abundant number of experimental friction tests that have been reported, the contact with friction modeling persists to be one of the factors that determine the effectiveness of sheet metal forming simulation. This difficulty can be understood due to the nature of the friction phenomena, which comprises the interaction of different factors connected to both sheet and tools' surfaces. Although in finite element numerical simulations friction models are commonly applied at the local level, they normally rely on parameters identified based on global experimental tests results. The aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of the Amontons-Coulomb's friction coefficient identified using complementary tests: (i) load-scanning, at the local level and (ii) draw-bead, at the global level; to the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes.

Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.; Ramalho, A. [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Polo II, Rua Luis Reis Santos, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Alves, J. L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Azurem, 4800-058, Guimaraes (Portugal)

2011-05-04

309

Characterization of frictional pressure drop for liquid flows through microchannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates pressure driven liquid flow through round and square microchannels fabricated from fused silica and stainless steel. Pressure drop data are used to characterize the friction factor for channel diameters in the range 15–150 ?m and over a Reynolds number range 8–2300. Distilled water, methanol, and isopropanol were used in this study based on their distinct polarity and

J. Judy; D. Maynes; B. W. Webb

2002-01-01

310

Aspects of Turbulent / Non-Turbulent Interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A distinct boundary between turbulent and non-turbulent regions in a fluid of otherwise constant properties is found in many laboratory and engineering turbulent flows, including jets, mixing layers, boundary layers and wakes. Generally, the flow has mean shear in at least one direction within t he turbulent zone, but the non-turbulent zones have no shear (adjacent laminar shear is a different case, e.g. transition in a boundary layer). There may be purely passive differences between the turbulent and non-turbulent zones, e.g. small variations in temperature or scalar concentration, for which turbulent mixing is an important issue. The boundary has several major characteristics of interest for the present study. Firstly, the boundary advances into the non-turbulent fluid, or in other words, nonturbulent fluid is entrained. Secondly, the change in turbulence properties across the boundary is remarkably abrupt; strong turbulent motions come close to the nonturbulent fluid, promoting entrainment. Thirdly, the boundary is irregular with a continually changing convoluted shape, which produces statistical intermittency. Its shape is contorted at all scales of the turbulent motion.

Bisset, D. K.; Hunt, J. C. R.; Rogers, M. M.; Koen, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

311

Decay of swirl in turbulent two phase flow  

E-print Network

-20 Axial Decay of Maximum Swirl Angle (Flow Valve 3/4 Open) 59 4-21 Radial Distribution of Eddy Viscosity (Flow Valve 3/4 Open; Z/d = 3. 3) . 62 ix ROUENCLATURE A angular momentum 1 P Re A internal diameter of test pipe mixing length mixing...-phase study was conducted by 1'abula (16) . He observed frictional pressure drop in the turbulent pipe-flow of very dilute sol. utions of tap water and six homologous polyethylene oxides. Correlation of the friction reductions was made accord- ing...

Neeley, Patrick Foster

1971-01-01

312

Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-[omega]) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, [omega], have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-[omega]) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

Nichols, F.A. (ed.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Henein, N.A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Center for Automotive Research)

1992-05-01

313

Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

Carter, Robert

2006-01-01

314

Friction between ring polymer brushes.  

PubMed

Friction between ring polymer brush bilayers sliding past each other at melt densities is studied using extensive coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling arguments, and the results are compared to the friction between bilayers of linear polymer brushes. We show that for a velocity range spanning over three decades, the frictional forces measured for ring polymer brushes are half of the corresponding friction in the case of linear brushes. In the linear-force regime, the weak inter-digitation between ring brush layers as compared to linear brushes leads also to a lower number of binary collisions between the monomers from opposing brushes. At high velocities, where the thickness of the inter-digitation between bilayers is on the order of monomer size regardless of brush topology, stretched segments of ring polymers adopt the double-stranded conformation. As a result, monomers of the double-stranded segments collide on average less with the monomers of the opposing ring brush even though a similar number of monomers occupies the inter-digitation layer for ring and linear brush bilayers. The numerical data obtained from our simulations are consistent with the proposed scaling analysis. Conformation-dependent friction reduction observed in ring brushes can have important consequences in non-equilibrium bulk systems. PMID:25747253

Erba?, Aykut; Paturej, Jaros?aw

2015-04-01

315

Superradiance-tidal friction correspondence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the work of Hartle in the 1970s, and the subsequent development of the membrane paradigm approach to black hole physics it has been widely accepted that superradiant scattering of gravitational waves bears strong similarities with the phenomenon of "tidal friction" (well known from Newtonian gravity) operating in binary systems of viscous material bodies. In this paper we revisit the superradiance-tidal friction analogy within the context of ultracompact relativistic bodies. We advocate that as long as these bodies have nonzero viscosity they should undergo tidal friction that can be construed as a kind of superradiant scattering from the point of view of the dynamics of an orbiting test body. In addition we consider the presence of anisotropic matter, which is required for at least some ultracompact bodies, if they are to sustain a radius very close to the gravitational radius. We find that the tidal friction/superradiance output is enhanced with increasing anisotropy and that strongly anisotropic systems exhibit an unconventional response to tidal and centrifugal forces. Finally, we make contact with the artificial system comprising a black hole with its horizon replaced by a mirror (sometimes used as a proxy for ultracompact material bodies) and discuss superradiance and tidal friction in relation to it.

Glampedakis, Kostas; Kapadia, Shasvath J.; Kennefick, Daniel

2014-01-01

316

Friction between Ring Polymer Brushes  

E-print Network

Friction between ring-polymer brushes at melt densities sliding past each other are studied using extensive course-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling arguments, and the results are compared to the friction between linear-polymer brushes. We show that for a velocity range spanning over three decades, the frictional forces measured for ring-polymer brushes are half the corresponding friction in case of linear brushes. In the linear-force regime, the weak inter-digitation of two ring brushes compared to linear brushes also leads to a lower number of binary collisions between the monomers of opposing brushes. At high velocities, where the thickness of the inter-digitation layer between two opposing brushes is on the order monomer size regardless of brush topology, stretched segments of ring polymers take a double-stranded conformation. As a result, monomers of the double-stranded segments collide less with the monomers of the opposing ring brush even though a similar number of monomers occupies the inter-digitation layer for ring and linear-brush bilayers. The numerical data obtained from our simulations is consistent with the proposed scaling analysis. Conformation-dependent frictional reduction observed in ring brushes can have important consequences in non-equilibrium bulk systems.

A. Erbas; J. Paturej

2015-01-07

317

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualize factors through building rectangular areas on a grid. First enter all the factorizations of a number, then draw each factor set as an area on the grid. Factorize is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

318

Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

Herring, J. R.

1973-01-01

319

Dynamical Friction in Cuspidal Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical friction is the process responsible for matter transport toward the inner region of galaxies in form of massive objects, like intermediate mass black holes, globular clusters and small satellite galaxies. While very bright galaxies show an almost flat luminosity profile in the inner region, fainter ones have, usually, a peaked, cuspidal, profile toward the center. This makes unreliable, in these cases, the use of the classic Chandrasekhar's formula for dynamical friction in its local approximation. Using both N-body simulations and a semi analytical approach, we have obtained reliable results for the orbital decay of massive objects in cuspidal galaxies. A relevant result is that of a shallower dependence of dynamical friction braking on the satellite mass than in the usual Chandrasekhar's local expression, at least in a range of large satellite masses.

Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

2015-01-01

320

Coherent Structure Formation in Turbulent Thermal Superfluids  

SciTech Connect

By means of numerical calculations, we show that in turbulent thermal superfluids the normal fluid induces coherent bundles of quantized line vortices in the superfluid. These filamentary structures are formed in between the normal fluid vortices, acquiring eventually comparable circulation. They are self-stretched and evolve according to self-regulating dynamics. Their spectrum mimics the normal fluid spectrum with the mutual friction force exciting the large scales and damping the small scales. Strongly interacting triads of them merge sporadically into stronger, braided vortex filaments, inducing strong fluctuations in the system's energetics. A theoretical account of the system's statistical mechanics is proposed.

Kivotides, Demosthenes [Department of Mathematics, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

2006-05-05

321

A Damping Length Scale for Superfluid Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that a damping length scale lsd exists for superfluid turbulence at nonzero temperatures, where the superfluid component is coupled by mutual friction to a viscous normal fluid. Superfluid vortex structures at length scales smaller than lsd will lose energy to the normal fluid and will be dissipated. We derive the Reynolds-number dependence of this length scale and discuss the consequences of this length scale for the possible existence of a Kolmogorov -5/3 power law for the superfluid energy spectrum.

Samuels, David C.; Kivotides, Demosthenes

1999-12-01

322

Vacuum friction in rotating particles  

E-print Network

We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

A. Manjavacas; F. J. García de Abajo

2010-09-21

323

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

Mr Clark

2012-10-31

324

Dynamics of sliding mechanisms in nanoscale friction  

E-print Network

Nanotribology is the study of friction and wear at the nanoscale, with relevance to such applications as micromechanical systems (MEMS) and thin, hard coatings. For these systems, classical laws of friction are inappropriate ...

Yim, Shon W., 1973-

2002-01-01

325

Rubber friction on ice and snow surfaces   

E-print Network

The friction of rubber on ice and snow surfaces is complex. Deeper scientific understanding is important for optimising performance of tyres in winter. Rubber, ice and snow systems exhibit frictional behaviour which ...

Skouvaklis, Gerasimos

2011-06-28

326

Turbulent boundary-layer control with plasma spanwise travelling waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arrays of dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuators have been designed to generate spanwise travelling waves in the turbulent boundary layer for possible skin-friction drag reductions. Particle image velocimetry was used to elucidate the modifications to turbulence structures created by the plasma spanwise travelling waves. It has been observed that the plasma spanwise travelling waves amalgamated streamwise vortices, lifting low-speed fluid from the near-wall region up and around the peripheries of their cores to form wide ribbons of low-speed streamwise velocity within the viscous sublayer.

Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So

2014-08-01

327

Skin Friction Measurements by a Dual-Laser-Beam Interferometer Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a "law-of-the-well" coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. (This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.)

Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

1981-01-01

328

Low-Friction Joint for Robot Fingers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical linkage allows adjacent parts to move relative to each other with low friction and with no chatter, slipping, or backlash. Low-friction joint of two surfaces in rolling contact, held in alinement by taut flexible bands. No sliding friction or "stick-slip" motion: Only rolling-contact and bending friction within bands. Proposed linkage intended for finger joints in mechanical hands for robots and manipulators.

Ruoff, C. F.

1985-01-01

329

Joint Winter Runway Friction Program Accomplishments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major program objectives are: (1) harmonize ground vehicle friction measurements to report consistent friction value or index for similar contaminated runway conditions, for example, compacted snow, and (2) establish reliable correlation between ground vehicle friction measurements and aircraft braking performance. Accomplishing these objectives would give airport operators better procedures for evaluating runway friction and maintaining acceptable operating conditions, providing pilots information to base go/no go decisions, and would contribute to reducing traction-related aircraft accidents.

Yager, Thomas J.; Wambold, James C.; Henry, John J.; Andresen, Arild; Bastian, Matthew

2002-01-01

330

The Science of Speed: Friction & Heat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science of Speed explains the scientific principles that are so essential to the NASCAR experience. Viewers learn how science makes cars powerful, agile, fast and safe--and how these same principles affect their own cars. Friction always creates heat. Brakes and tires depend on friction to work, but more friction isn’t always better. In the engine, friction is never good and engine builders use everything from oil to high-tech coatings to get a little extra horsepower.

Santa Fe Productions

331

Showing Area Matters: A Work of Friction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typically, we teach the simplified friction equation of the form F[subscript s] = [mu][subscript s]N for static friction, where F[subscript s] is the maximum static friction, [mu][subscript s] is the coefficient of static friction, and "N" is the normal force pressing the surfaces together. However, this is a bit too simplified, and doesn't work…

Van Domelen, David

2010-01-01

332

MHD Turbulence, Turbulent Dynamo and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MHD Turbulence is common in many space physics and astrophysics environments. We first discuss the properties of incompressible MHD turbulence. A well-conductive fluid amplifies initial magnetic fields in a process called small-scale dynamo. Below equipartition scale for kinetic and magnetic energies the spectrum is steep (Kolmogorov -5/3) and is represented by critically balanced strong MHD turbulence. In this Chapter we report the basic reasoning behind universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo and the inertial range of MHD turbulence. We measured the efficiency of the small-scale dynamo C E = 0. 05, Kolmogorov constant C K = 4. 2 and anisotropy constant C A = 0. 63 for MHD turbulence in high-resolution direct numerical simulations. We also discuss so-called imbalanced or cross-helical MHD turbulence which is relevant for in many objects, most prominently in the solar wind. We show that properties of incompressible MHD turbulence are similar to the properties of Alfvénic part of MHD cascade in compressible turbulence. The other parts of the cascade evolve according to their own dynamics. The slow modes are being cascaded by Alfvénic modes, while fast modes create an independent cascade. We show that different ways of decomposing compressible MHD turbulence into Alfvén, slow and fast modes provide consistent results and are useful in understanding not only turbulent cascade, but its interaction with fast particles.

Beresnyak, Andrey; Lazarian, Alex

333

Smooth-and enhanced-tube heat transfer and pressure drop : effect of Prandtl number and the role of transition to turbulence.  

SciTech Connect

An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics in laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow through one smooth tube and twenty-three enhanced tubes. The working fluids for the experiments were air, water, ethylene glycol, and ethylene glycol/water mixtures; Prandtl number (Pr) ranged from 0.7 to 125.3. The smooth-tube experiments were carried out with Pr values of 0.7, 6.8, 24.8, 39.1, and 125.3; Pr values of 0.7, 6.8, and 24.8 were tested with enhanced tubes. Reynolds number (Re) range (based on the maximum internal diameter of a tube) was 200 to 55,000, depending on Prandtl number and tube geometry. The enhanced-tube friction factors are no more than 5.5 times the smooth-tube values. For some tubes, the friction factors are practically the same for 0.7 {<=} Pr {<=} 25, with moderate differences in laminar, transitional, or turbulent flow for some of the tubes. Consistent with the low-pressure-drop characteristics of these enhanced tubes, the increases in heat transfer coefficient are no more than 2.5 times the smooth-tube values for the Re and Pr ranges covered in the study. For most enhanced tubes, heat-transfer coefficients are insensitive to variations in the Prandtl number for liquids. There is a definite connection between the attainable friction or heat transfer and the transition process.

Obot, N. T.; Das, L.; Rabas, T. J.; Clarkson Univ.

2002-12-01

334

Initial Friction Compensation by Disturbance Observer Based on Rolling Friction Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a rolling friction model-based initial friction compensation (IFC) by a disturbance observer for the fast and precise positioning of ball-screw-driven table systems. The effects of rolling friction in mechanisms should be suppressed in order to the achieve required control performance. In this study, therefore, a rolling friction model is adopted to compensate for the initial friction, so that delay-free friction estimation becomes possible. The proposed initial friction compensation method has been verified experimentally by using a prototype of industrial positioning devices.

Maeda, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Makoto

335

Anisotropic friction for deformable surfaces and solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for simulating anisotropic friction for deforming surfaces and solids. Frictional contact is a complex phenomenon that fuels research in mechanical engineering, computational contact mechan- ics, composite material design and rigid body dynamics, to name just a few. Many real-world materials have anisotropic surface properties. As an example, most textiles exhibit direction-dependent frictional behavior, but despite

Simon Pabst; Bernhard Thomaszewski; Wolfgang Straßer

2009-01-01

336

Performance of a disc brake friction material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The friction materials used in brakes are required to provide a stable coefficient of friction and a lower wear rate at various operating speeds, pressures, temperatures and environmental conditions. These friction materials must also be compatible with the rotor material in order to reduce its extensive wear, vibration and noise during braking. All of these requirements need to be achieved

Pradnya Kosbe; Chittaranjan More

2010-01-01

337

Friction Plug Weld Repair Geometric Innovations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation outlines the fundamentals of friction plug welding. A process overview is given for friction push plug welding, including different uses and strengths of push plug welding. Details are given for friction pull plug welding, including welding parameters, details on observed defects, expected benefits, and test results.

Coletta, Edmond R.; Cantrell, Mark A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

338

Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings  

Microsoft Academic Search

An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents,\\u000a friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin.\\u000a The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to wear and shows good temperature stability.

Arnab Ganguly; Raji George

2008-01-01

339

PHYSICS TODAYJULY isss LUBRICATION: FACTS AND FRICTION  

E-print Network

PHYSICS TODAYJULY isss LUBRICATION: FACTS AND FRICTION #12;SOFT MATTER IN A TIGHT SPOT My friends thought I was crazy when I began, ten years ago, to work on friction and lubrication-words that seemed or beautiful about friction? In this article, Lubricants are familiar and useful, yet their underlying physics

Granick, Steve

340

Geometry of frictionless and frictional sphere packings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense amorphous packings of frictionless spheres have proven to be an extremely useful paradigm in a number of physical contexts including glasses, colloidal crystals, and emulsions. Granular materials are one such system, with a major difference: grain-grain interactions involve frictional forces. We investigated friction's effect on packings through extensive molecular dynamics simulations of frictionless and frictional spheres in three dimensions.

Gary Grest; Deniz Ertas; Thomas C. Halsey; Dov Levine

2002-01-01

341

Friction in full view A. P. Merklea  

E-print Network

Friction in full view A. P. Merklea and L. D. Marksb Materials Science and Engineering proposed friction mechanisms explaining the unique tribological properties of graphite. Wear of graphite chemical or struc- tural information from the interface during a friction experi- ment. Examples

Marks, Laurence D.

342

Automotive friction-induced noises A. Elmaiana  

E-print Network

Automotive friction-induced noises A. Elmaiana , J.-M. Duffala , F. Gautiera , C. Pezeratb and J, France 3143 #12;Friction-induced noises are numerous in the automotive field. They also involve a large friction-induced noises with simple structures and automotive materials. Qualitative sensitivity studies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

343

Friction forces in cosmological models  

E-print Network

We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

2014-08-23

344

Coulomb Friction Driving Brownian Motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review a family of models recently introduced to describe Brownian motors under the influence of Coulomb friction, or more general non-linear friction laws. It is known that, if the heat bath is modeled as the usual Langevin equation (linear viscosity plus white noise), additional non-linear friction forces are not sufficient to break detailed balance, i.e. cannot produce a motor effect. We discuss two possibile mechanisms to elude this problem. A first possibility, exploited in several models inspired to recent experiments, is to replace the heat bath's white noise by a “collisional noise”, that is the effect of random collisions with an external equilibrium gas of particles. A second possibility is enlarging the phase space, e.g. by adding an external potential which couples velocity to position, as in a Klein—Kramers equation. In both cases, non-linear friction becomes sufficient to achieve a non-equilibrium steady state and, in the presence of an even small spatial asymmetry, a motor effect is produced.

Alessandro, Manacorda; Andrea, Puglisi; Alessandro, Sarracino

2014-10-01

345

Microstructures Produced by Dynamic Friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique in which an explosive charge induces sliding between two metals has been developed as part of a study of dry friction at very high sliding velocities and pressures. Aluminium alloy/stainless steel and pure aluminium/pure copper tribo-pairs have been investigated. Optical studies of cross-sections of the aluminium samples have shown that, depending on the stress/sliding velocity conditions, the sub-surface deformation is either deep, suggesting high friction, or concentrated near the surface suggesting low friction. Recent further studies of the microstructures near the surface of the samples are described. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that a clearly delineated layer of nanocrystalline material ˜1 ?m thick is created at the surface of the aluminium samples. Spectroscopic analysis shows evidence of inter-penetration of the two materials with mixing occurring at a very fine scale. The observations support the contention that, in a mechanism akin to adiabatic shear, thermal softening of the material at the sliding interface plays a key role in shock-induced friction.

Winter, R. E.; Keightley, P. T.; Kim, Hong Jin; Rigney, D. A.; Emge, A.

2007-12-01

346

Deformation During Friction Stir Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

White, Henry J.

2002-01-01

347

Tidal Friction and Ice Ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT the Editor's request I contribute a few remarks Mr. Brooks's letter. The suggestion that tidal friction might be a cause of changes in the distribution of land and water is not new. It will be found a ``Note'' in NATURE of April 25, 88g (vol. xxxix., 613), where it is attributed to M. A. Blytt; and that may not

A. E. H. Love

1914-01-01

348

Dynamical friction in binary systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy loss rate from dynamical friction for a binary traveling uniformly through a homogeneous collisionless background such as the dark matter in the Galactic disk is calculated for the case that the orbital velocity is small compared with the background's velocity dispersion. The basic equation for Fourier components of the perturbation imprinted on the background's distribution function by the

Jacob D. Bekenstein; Ran Zamir

1990-01-01

349

Pricing and Matching with Frictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that n buyers each want one unit and m sellers each have one or more units of a good. Sellers post prices, and then buyers choose sellers. In symmetric equilibrium, similar sellers all post one price, and buyers randomize. Hence, more or fewer buyers may arrive than a seller can accommodate. We call this frictions. We solve for prices

Kenneth Burdett; Shouyong Shi; Randall Wright

2001-01-01

350

Friction stir welding and processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. In particular, it can be used to join high-strength aerospace aluminum alloys and other metallic alloys that are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding. FSW is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in a

R. S. Mishra; Z. Y. Ma

2005-01-01

351

Dynamical friction on satellite galaxies  

E-print Network

For a rigid model satellite, Chandrasekhar's dynamical friction formula describes the orbital evolution quite accurately, when the Coulomb logarithm is chosen appropriately. However, it is not known if the orbital evolution of a real satellite with the internal degree of freedom can be described by the dynamical friction formula. We performed N-body simulation of the orbital evolution of a self-consistent satellite galaxy within a self-consistent parent galaxy. We found that the orbital decay of the simulated satellite is significantly faster than the estimate from the dynamical friction formula. The main cause of this discrepancy is that the stars stripped out of the satellite are still close to the satellite, and increase the drag force on the satellite through two mechanisms. One is the direct drag force from particles in the trailing tidal arm, a non-axisymmetric force that slows the satellite down. The other is the indirect effect that is caused by the particles remaining close to the satellite after escape. The force from them enhances the wake caused in the parent galaxy by dynamical friction, and this larger wake in turn slows the satellite down more than expected from the contribution of its bound mass. We found these two have comparable effects, and the combined effect can be as large as 20% of the total drag force on the satellite.

Michiko Fujii; Yoko Funato; Junichiro Makino

2006-06-23

352

Modeling and simulation of friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new models for 'slip-stick' friction are presented. One, called the 'bristle model,' is an approximation designed to capture the physical phenomenon of sticking. This model is relatively inefficient numerically. The other model, called the 'reset integrator model,' does not capture the details for the sticking phenomenon, but is numerically efficient and exhibits behavior similar to the model proposed by

David A. Haessig; Bernard Friedland

1991-01-01

353

Turbulent heat transfer and friction in a square channel with discrete rib turbulators  

E-print Network

Nnniber, t 'rossecl t 'ross-('ut D&s?rete k&b ('uses W 4 CA CA s EA CA 10. 0 8. 0 6. 0 4. 0 3. 0 2. 0 1. 0 2. 0 1. 0 0. 8 Case 4 0 Case 5b Case 6b o Case 7b (St, /S t ?)/(j/f?) '0 C) 0 (S t/S &. . )/(t/l, . ) '" 0~ 0 0 8 10 20... Bevnolds Xnntliet. , Parallel Bevels d [ttserete [&t1& Cases l~ V) 10. 0 8. 0 6. 0 4. 0 3. 0 2. 0 (St, /S t?)/(f/f?)"* v Case 4 + Case 9a Case 10a Case 11a 1. 0 2. 0 1. 0 0. 8 8 10 20 Re, x 10' 40 r 60 80 Figure 17 Thermal...

McMillin, Robert Dale

1989-01-01

354

Effect of Freestream Turbulence over Rough, Favorable Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Doppler anemometry measurements are performed downstream of an active grid in the Corrsin wind tunnel at The Johns Hopkins University to study the effect of freestream turbulence (Tu<=7%), surface roughness and external favorable pressure gradient. Overall, the effect of freestream turbulence has proven to be dominant over pressure gradient and roughness. Mean profiles show that freestream turbulence effects alter the entire boundary layer including the inner flow. A reduction in the wake is also seen. Moreover, freestream turbulence increases the Reynolds stresses, making the values near the edge of the boundary layer to be non-zero. For the streamwise fluctuations, turbulence intensity affects the inner and outer regions, while the wall-normal and shear stress only change in the outer flow. Also, it is seen that roughness prevents the streamwise fluctuations from increasing near the wall, mainly because of the destruction of the viscous regions. Furthermore, a 20% increase in the skin friction is reported, 25% more than the increase obtained over smooth surfaces.

Torres-Nieves, Sheilla; Lebron-Bosques, Jose; Brzek, Brian; Castillo, Luciano; Bayoan Cal, Raul; Meneveau, Charles

2007-11-01

355

Preface: Friction at the nanoscale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfacial friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and chemistry, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Everyday operations on a broad range of scales, from nanometer and up, depend upon the smooth and satisfactory functioning of countless tribological systems. Friction imposes serious constraints and limitations on the performance and lifetime of micro-machines and, undoubtedly, will impose even more severe constraints on the emerging technology of nano-machines. Standard lubrication techniques used for large objects are expected to be less effective in the nano-world. Novel methods for control and manipulation are therefore needed. What has been missing is a molecular level understanding of processes occurring between and close to interacting surfaces to help understand, and later manipulate friction. Friction is intimately related to both adhesion and wear, and all three require an understanding of highly non-equilibrium processes occurring at the molecular level to determine what happens at the macroscopic level. Due to its practical importance and the relevance to basic scientific questions there has been major increase in activity in the study of interfacial friction on the microscopic level during the last decade. Intriguing structural and dynamical features have been observed experimentally. These observations have motivated theoretical efforts, both numerical and analytical. This special issue focusses primarily on discussion of microscopic mechanisms of friction and adhesion at the nanoscale level. The contributions cover many important aspects of frictional behaviour, including the origin of stick-slip motion, the dependence of measured forces on the material properties, effects of thermal fluctuations, surface roughness and instabilities in boundary lubricants on both static and kinetic friction. An important problem that has been raised in this issue, and which has still to be resolved, concerns the possibility of controlling frictional response. The ability to control and manipulate frictional forces is extremely important for a variety of applications. These include magnetic storage and recording systems, miniature motors, and more. This special issue aims to provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental works on nanotribology and possible applications. In selecting the papers we have tried to maintain a balance between new results and review-like aspects, so that the present issue is self-contained and, we hope, readily accessible to non-specialists in the field. We believe that the particular appeal of this collection of papers also lies in the fusion of both experiment and theory, thus providing the connection to reality of the sometimes demanding, mathematically inclined contributions. Profound thanks go to all our colleagues and friends who have contributed to this special issue. Each has made an effort not only to present recent results in a clear and lucid way, but also to provide an introductory review that helps the reader to understand the different topics.

Fusc, Claudio; Smith, Roger; Urbakh, Michael; Vanossi, Andrea

2008-09-01

356

Friction of ice on ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New measurements have been made of the friction coefficient of freshwater polycrystalline ice sliding slowly (5 × 10-8 to 1 × 10-3 m s-1) upon itself at temperatures from 98 to 263 K under low normal stresses (?98 kPa). Sliding obeys Coulomb's law: the shear stress is directly proportional to the normal stress across the interface, while cohesion offers little contribution to frictional resistance. The coefficient of kinetic friction of smooth surfaces varies from ?k = 0.15 to 0.76 and, at elevated temperatures (?223 K), exhibits both velocity strengthening at lower velocities (<10-5 to 10-4 m s-1) and velocity weakening at higher velocities. Strengthening and weakening are attributed to creep deformation of asperities and localized melting, respectively. At intermediate temperatures of 173 and 133 K, the kinetic coefficient appears to not exhibit significant dependence upon velocity. However, at the low temperature of 98 K the coefficient of kinetic friction exhibits moderate velocity strengthening at both the lowest and the highest velocities but velocity independence over the range of intermediate velocities. No effect was detected of either grain size or texture. Over the range of roughness 0.4 × 10-6 m ? Ra ? 12 × 10-6 m, a moderate effect was detected, where ?k ? Ra0.08. Slide-hold-slide experiments revealed that the coefficient of static friction increases by an amount that scales logarithmically with holding time. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to shearing across "tiger stripe" faults within the icy crust of Saturn's Enceladus, sliding of the arctic sea ice cover and brittle compressive failure of cold ice.

Schulson, Erland M.; Fortt, Andrew L.

2012-12-01

357

Response of wind shear warning systems to turbulence with implication of nuisance alerts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to predict the inherent turbulence response characteristics of candidate wind shear warning system concepts and to assess the potential for nuisance alerts. Information on the detection system and associated signal processing, physical and mathematical models, wind shear factor root mean square turbulence response and the standard deviation of the wind shear factor due to turbulence is given in vugraph form.

Bowles, Roland L.

1988-01-01

358

Turbulent drag reduction by the seal fur surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The drag-reducing ability of the seal fur surface was tested in a rectangular channel flow using water and a glycerol-water mixture to measure the pressure drop along the channel in order to evaluate friction factors in a wide range of Reynolds number conditions, and the drag reduction effect was confirmed quantitatively. The maximum reduction ratio was evaluated to be 12% for the glycerol-water mixture. The effective range of the Reynolds number, where the drag reduction was remarkable, was wider for the seal fur surface compared to that of a riblet surface measured in this channel and in previous studies. It was also found that for the seal fur surface, unlike riblets, any drag increase due to the effect of surface roughness was not found up to the highest Reynolds number tested. Measurements of the seal fur surface using a 3D laser microscope revealed that there were riblet-like grooves, composed of arranged fibers, of which spacings were comparable to that of effective riblets and were distributed in various wavelengths. Using LDV measurements, it was found that the difference in the mean velocity scaled by the outer variable among the smooth, riblet, and seal fur surfaces did not appear at any spanwise locations. Streamwise turbulence intensity for the seal fur surface was found to be about 5% smaller than those for smooth and riblet surfaces.

Itoh, Motoyuki; Tamano, Shinji; Iguchi, Ryo; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Akino, Norio; Hino, Ryutaro; Kubo, Shinji

2006-06-01

359

Transitional and turbulent boundary layer with heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on our direct numerical simulation of an incompressible, nominally zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer from momentum thickness Reynolds number 80-1950. Heat transfer between the constant-temperature solid surface and the free-stream is also simulated with molecular Prandtl number Pr=1. Skin-friction coefficient and other boundary layer parameters follow the Blasius solutions prior to the onset of turbulent spots. Throughout the entire flat-plate, the ratio of Stanton number and skin-friction St/Cf deviates from the exact Reynolds analogy value of 0.5 by less than 1.5%. Mean velocity and Reynolds stresses agree with experimental data over an extended turbulent region downstream of transition. Normalized rms wall-pressure fluctuation increases gradually with the streamwise growth of the turbulent boundary layer. Wall shear stress fluctuation, ?w,rms'+, on the other hand, remains constant at approximately 0.44 over the range, 800Turbulent Prandtl number Prt peaks at around 1.9 at the wall, and decreases monotonically toward the boundary layer edge with no near-wall secondary peak, in good agreement with previous boundary layer heat transfer experiments. In the transitional region, turbulent spots are tightly packed with numerous hairpin vortices. With the advection and merging of turbulent spots, these young isolated hairpin forests develop into the downstream turbulent region. Isosurfaces of temperature up to Re?=1900 are found to display well-resolved signatures of hairpin vortices, which indicates the persistence of the hairpin forests.

Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz

2010-08-01

360

Turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of dilute water based Al2O3-Cu hybrid nanofluids.  

PubMed

A study on fully developed turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated circular tube is presented in this paper. For this, Al2O3-Cu nanocomposite powder was synthesized in a thermo chemical route using hydrogen reduction technique and dispersed the hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The prepared powder was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to confirm the chemical composition, determine the particle size and study the surface morphology. Stability of the nanofluid was ensured by pH and zeta potential measurements. The average heat transfer enhancement for Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 8.02% when compared to pure water. The experimental results also showed that 0.1% Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor compared to 0.1% Al2O3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor were well agreed with the experimental data. PMID:24745264

Suresh, S; Venkitaraj, K P; Hameed, M Shahul; Sarangan, J

2014-03-01

361

Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent flow in annular tubes with internal wave-like longitudinal fins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measured were pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics with uniform axial heat input using air as the working fluid in both the entrance and fully developed regions of annular tubes with wave-like longitudinal fins. Five series of experiments were performed for turbulent flow and heat transfer in the annular tubes with number of waves equal to 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20, respectively. The test tube has a double-pipe structure with the inner blocked tubes as an insertion. The wave-like fins are in the annulus and span its full width. The friction factor and Nusselt number in the fully developed region were obtained. The friction factor and Nusselt number can be well corrected by a power-law correction in the Reynolds number range tested. In order to evaluate the thermal performance of the longitudinal finned tubes over a plain circular tube, comparisons were made under three conditions: (1) identical pumping power; (2) identical pressure drop and (3) identical mass flow. It was found that under the three constraints all the wave-like finned tubes can enhance heat transfer with the tube with wave number 20 being superior. Finally, discussion on the enhancement mechanism is conducted and a general correlation for the fully developed heat transfer is provided, which can cover all the fifty data of the five tubes with a mean deviation of 9.3%.

Yu, B.; Tao, W. Q.

362

Frictional constraints on crustal faulting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We consider how variations in fault frictional properties affect the phenomenology of earthquake faulting. In particular, we propose that lateral variations in fault friction produce the marked heterogeneity of slip observed in large earthquakes. We model these variations using a rate- and state-dependent friction law, where we differentiate velocity-weakening behavior into two fields: the strong seismic field is very velocity weakening and the weak seismic field is slightly velocity weakening. Similarly, we differentiate velocity-strengthening behavior into two fields: the compliant field is slightly velocity strengthening and the viscous field is very velocity strengthening. The strong seismic field comprises the seismic slip concentrations, or asperities. The two "intermediate" fields, weak seismic and compliant, have frictional velocity dependences that are close to velocity neutral: these fields modulate both the tectonic loading and the dynamic rupture process. During the interseismic period, the weak seismic and compliant regions slip aseismically, while the strong seismic regions remain locked, evolving into stress concentrations that fail only in main shocks. The weak seismic areas exhibit most of the interseismic activity and aftershocks but can also creep seismically. This "mixed" frictional behavior can be obtained from a sufficiently heterogenous distribution of the critical slip distance. The model also provides a mechanism for rupture arrest: dynamic rupture fronts decelerate as they penetrate into unloaded complaint or weak seismic areas, producing broad areas of accelerated afterslip. Aftershocks occur on both the weak seismic and compliant areas around a fault, but most of the stress is diffused through aseismic slip. Rapid afterslip on these peripheral areas can also produce aftershocks within the main shock rupture area by reloading weak fault areas that slipped in the main shock and then healed. We test this frictional model by comparing the seismicity and the coseismic slip for the 1966 Parkfield, 1979 Coyote Lake, and 1984 Morgan Hill earthquakes. The interevent seismicity and aftershocks appear to occur on fault areas outside the regions of significant slip: these regions are interpreted as either weak seismic or compliant, depending on whether or not they manifest interevent seismicity.

Boatwright, J.; Cocco, M.

1996-01-01

363

Turbulent flow of gas in fractures  

E-print Network

was made to determine the variables which affect turbulent flow in fractures and the range in magnitude of the turbulence factors. Successful results were obtained on forty runs with lithologies of cores xanging from sandstone to shale~ with proppant... sises of 40 - 60, 20 - 40 and 10 - 20 mesh and with varying concentration of proppants . The confining pressure was varied for each core up to $, 000 psi step by step. The proppant concentration in each fracture was varied up to a complete monolayer...

Koh, Wong In

1974-01-01

364

Resonance enhanced turbulent transport  

SciTech Connect

The effect of oscillatory shear flows on turbulent transport of passive scalar fields is studied by numerical computations based on the results provided by E. Kim [Physics of Plasmas 13, 022308 (2006)]. Turbulent diffusion is found to depend crucially on the competition between suppression due to shearing and enhancement due to resonances, depending on the characteristic time and length scales of shear flow and turbulence. Enhancements in transport occur for turbulence with finite memory time either due to Doppler or parametric resonances. Scalings of turbulence amplitude and transport are provided in different parameter spaces. The results suggest that oscillatory shear flows are not only less efficient in regulating turbulence, but also can enhance the value of turbulent diffusion, accelerating turbulent transport.

Newton, Andrew P. L.; Kim, Eun-jin [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2007-12-15

365

Friction and the Intuition-Outcome Disparity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have evolved to follow their intuition, but as any high school physics teacher knows, relying on intuition often leads students to predict outcomes that are at odds with evidence. Over the years, we have attempted to make this intuition-outcome disparity a central theme running throughout our physics classes, with limited success. Part of the problem is making a very clear and direct link between intuition and evidence. Typically, we ask students to make predictions before they make measurements, but often the predictions are little more than non-intuitive guesses. What we needed was an investigation where students actually do have an intuitive prediction based on their life experience. This year, we think we have finally found a way to drive home the intuition-outcome disparity through an investigation into the factors that affect frictional force.

Kalajian, Peter; Makarova, Maria

2014-03-01

366

Friction and the Intuition-Outcome Disparity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have evolved to follow their intuition, but as any high school physics teacher knows, relying on intuition often leads students to predict outcomes that are at odds with evidence. Over the years, we have attempted to make this intuition-outcome disparity a central theme running throughout our physics classes, with limited success. Part of the problem is making a very clear and direct link between intuition and evidence. Typically, we ask students to make predictions before they make measurements, but often the predictions are little more than non-intuitive guesses. What we needed was an investigation where students actually do have an intuitive prediction based on their life experience. This year, we think we have finally found a way to drive home the intuition-outcome disparity through an investigation into the factors that affect frictional force.

Kalajian, Peter; Makarova, Maria

2014-02-01

367

Turbulent flow in graphene  

E-print Network

We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.

Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2010-06-05

368

Effects of Mach Number and Wall-Temperature Ratio on Turbulent Heat Transfer at Mach Numbers from 3 to 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat-transfer data were evaluated from temperature time histories measured on a cooled cylindrical model with a cone-shaped nose and with turbulent flow at Mach numbers 3.00, 3.44, 4.08, 4.56, and 5.04. The experimental data were compared with calculated values using a modified Reynold's analogy between skin-friction and heat-transfer. Theoretical skin- friction coefficients were calculated using the method of Van Driest the method of Sommer and Short. The heat-transfer data obtained from the model were found to correlate when the 'T' method of Sommer and Short was used. The increase in turbulent heat-transfer rate with a reduction in wall to freestream temperature ratio was of the same order of magnitude as has been found for the turbulent skin-friction coefficient.

Tendeland, Thorval

1959-01-01

369

Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first toroidal, gyrokinetic, electromagnetic simulations of small scale plasma turbulence are presented. The turbulence considered is driven by gradients in the electron temperature. It is found that electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence can induce experimentally relevant thermal losses in magnetic confinement fusion devices. For typical tokamak parameters, the transport is essentially electrostatic in character. The simulation results are qualitatively

W. Dorland; F. Jenko; M. Kotschenreuther; B. N. Rogers

2000-01-01

370

Quantum Gravity and Turbulence  

E-print Network

We apply recent advances in quantum gravity to the problem of turbulence. Adopting the AdS/CFT approach we propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. In the gravitational context, turbulence is intimately related to the properties of spacetime, or quantum, foam.

Vishnu Jejjala; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng; Chia-Hsiung Tze

2010-05-18

371

Friction, Wear, and Surface Damage of Metals as Affected by Solid Surface Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As predicted by friction theory, experiments showed that friction and surface damage of metals can be reduced by solid surface films. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding was a very important factor in wear of dry and boundary lubricated surfaces. Films of graphitic carbon on cast irons, nio on nickel alloys, and feo and fe sub 3 o sub 4 on ferrous materials were found to be beneficial. Abrasive films such as fe sub 2 o sub 3 or moo sub 3 were definitely detrimental. It appears that the importance of oxide films to friction and wear processes has not been fully appreciated.

Bisson, Edmond E; Johnson, Robert L; Swikert, Max A; Godfrey, Douglas

1956-01-01

372

Formation of low-speed ribbons in turbulent channel flow subject to a spanwise travelling wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulent flow control with skin-friction drag reduction subject to spanwise travelling wave (STW) induced by Lorentz force is investigated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) in a channel. The results show that STW produces a set of distinct longitudinal vortices, suppressing the regeneration of near-wall turbulence structures. It is also shown that the formation of low-speed ribbons by STW is associated with these longitudinal vortices, which weaken the sweep and ejection events in the near-wall region. At the same time, the production of counter-gradient Reynolds stresses is increased, leading to up to 30% of turbulent drag reduction by STW.

Huang, L. P.; Choi, K. S.; Fan, B. C.

2011-12-01

373

Friction Stir Process Mapping Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In FSW (friction stir welding), the weld process performance for a given weld joint configuration and tool setup is summarized on a 2-D plot of RPM vs. IPM. A process envelope is drawn within the map to identify the range of acceptable welds. The sweet spot is selected as the nominal weld schedule. The nominal weld schedule is characterized in the expected manufacturing environment. The nominal weld schedule in conjunction with process control ensures a consistent and predictable weld performance.

Kooney, Alex; Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

374

Precise Hinge Has Low Friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise hinge rotates with minimal friction and without "slop". Axis of rotation at central axis of concentric, self-retaining assembly. Blades in same plane, and both edges of blades and apexes of grooves lie along same line, allowing free rotation without either binding or slop. Blades on rotor engage grooves on stator. Blades pivot about edges through arc defined by slotted openings in stator housing.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1990-01-01

375

Tidal friction in triple stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal friction in close binaries, with periods of a few days, is expected to circularize the orbit on a time-scale long compared with human observation but shorter than, or comparable to, the lifetimes of main-sequence stars. In a hierarchical triple star, however, the perturbing effect of the distant third star may decircularize the inner orbit significantly on a time-scale of

L. G. Kiseleva; P. P. Eggleton; S. Mikkola

1998-01-01

376

Rubber friction on smooth surfaces  

E-print Network

We study the sliding friction for viscoelastic solids, e.g., rubber, on hard flat substrate surfaces. We consider first the fluctuating shear stress inside a viscoelastic solid which results from the thermal motion of the atoms or molecules in the solid. At the nanoscale the thermal fluctuations are very strong and give rise to stress fluctuations in the MPa-range, which is similar to the depinning stresses which typically occur at solid-rubber interfaces, indicating the crucial importance of thermal fluctuations for rubber friction on smooth surfaces. We develop a detailed model which takes into account the influence of thermal fluctuations on the depinning of small contact patches (stress domains) at the rubber-substrate interface. The theory predicts that the velocity dependence of the macroscopic shear stress has a bell-shaped f orm, and that the low-velocity side exhibits the same temperature dependence as the bulk viscoelastic modulus, in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Finally, we discuss the influence of small-amplitude substrate roughness on rubber sliding friction.

B. N. J. Persson; A. I. Volokitin

2006-07-04

377

A numerical treatment of steady, frictional boundary currents in a homogeneous ocean applied to a semi-enclosed basin  

E-print Network

= Tee. ns A 8;. 'vt L'n s-sr s iiF in ps: tial fulf'llr . ent ef th, . re:Iu;reorients or the de~sec of Ivfr, STISR OF SCI' 3 'Lr JQ' sion Suhj ct: ~ Ei SIC A L O'C 4, Q+l OGRAlof'Y A NUMERICAL TREATMENT OF STEADY, FRICTIONAL BOUNDARY CURRENTS IN A... shape of a homogeneous ocean of constant depth. Neglecting nonlinear field accelerations, a frictional model is formulated which allov;s for vertical and horizontal exchange of sno- r. eniuna due to turbulence. Two limiting cases of this complete...

Jacobs, Clifford Albert

1967-01-01

378

Oscillating friction on shape-tunable wrinkles.  

PubMed

Friction on soft materials is strongly correlated with the associated deformation, which may be controlled by the surface topography. We investigate the wearless sliding friction between a rigid hemispherical indenter and a deformable textured surface, which is shape-tunable wrinkles. The size of the indenter is comparable to the wavelength of the wrinkles. We evaluate the effects on the friction of the aspect ratio of the wrinkles, the applied normal load, and the alignment direction of the wrinkles relative to the sliding direction. The frictional oscillations are observed during sliding in the direction perpendicular to the alignment using optical images and friction profiles. The correlation of friction force oscillation with deformation of the wrinkles is elucidated using Hertz contact theory. Within a cycle of frictional oscillation, the friction force increases as the front part of the indenter elastically plows the crests. When the normal load is high and/or the aspect ratio of the wrinkles is low, the indenter continues to squash the wrinkles and remains in contact with them during sliding. Consequently, the amplitude of friction force oscillation relative to the averaged friction force decreases. PMID:24724925

Suzuki, Kosuke; Hirai, Yuji; Ohzono, Takuya

2014-07-01

379

Effect of anisotropic turbulence on aerodynamic noise. [Lighthill theory mathematical model for axisymmetric turbulence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model based on Lighthill's theory for predicting aerodynamic noise from a turbulent shear flow is developed. This model is a generalization of the one developed by Ribner. It does not require that the turbulent correlations factor into space and time-dependent parts. It replaces his assumption of isotropic turbulence by the more realistic one of axisymmetric turbulence. In the course of the analysis, a hierarchy of equations is developed wherein each succeeding equation involves more assumptions than the preceding equation but requires less experimental information for its use. The implications of the model for jet noise are discussed. It is shown that for the particular turbulence data considered anisotropy causes the high-frequency self-noise to be beamed downstream.

Goldstein, M.; Rosenbaum, B.

1973-01-01

380

Turbulence structures associated with fire-atmosphere interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fires radically modify the atmospheric boundary layer by emitting large sensible and latent heat fluxes. These fluxes drive fire-atmosphere interactions at multiple scales resulting in fire-induced circulations in and around the fire front. During the fire front passage, FFP, turbulence kinetic energy increases due to increased heating and wind shear that develops in response to both free convection and fire-induced winds. New field observations from multiple fire experiments have shown that turbulence spectral energy increases during the FFP as a result of small eddies being shed from the fire front and that that normalized velocity spectra using the friction velocity collapse into a narrow band in the inertial subrange, suggesting that Monin-Obukhov scaling is a valid scaling parameter that can be used for wildfire prediction systems. Additionally, during FFP the mean profiles of winds and sensible heat flux change compared to ambient conditions due to the fire-atmosphere interactions. These profiles are also different during different environmental conditions such as grass fires in open field and fires within a forest canopy. This presentation will discuss new turbulence observations from the FireFlux II field experiment conducted in 2013 which indicate that during FFP there are also an increases in horizontal mean winds, friction velocity, horizontal and vertical velocity variances and a decrease in anisotropy in turbulence kinetic energy and are similar to lower intensity fires.

Clements, C. B.; Seto, D.; Heilman, W. E.

2013-12-01

381

Turbulence intensity similarity laws for high Reynolds number boundary layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data obtained in the surface layer of the atmospheric boundary layer at the SLTEST (Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test) facility located on the western Utah salt flats are used to analyze current turbulence intensity similarity laws. The high Reynolds number data are shown to be consistent with the Marusic, Uddin and Perry (Phys. Fluids 1997) formulation which applies for the outer region of the boundary layer, approximately 100 <= z+ <= Re_?. Here z is wall-normal position and Re_? is the Reynolds number based on boundary layer thickness and friction velocity. This formulation is based on the attached eddy hypothesis and shows that the streamwise turbulence intensity normalized with friction velocity scales as a function of both z+ and Re_?, while the wall-normal turbulence intensity scales only with wall variables. Corresponding spectra will also be presented. Additional laboratory experimental data will be analyzed and a new extended formulation will be presented which applies across the entire boundary layer. The extended formulation appears to explain the empirical mixed inner and outer velocity scaling proposed by DeGraaff and Eaton ( J. Fluid Mech. 2000).

Kunkel, Gary; Marusic, Ivan

2002-11-01

382

Scaling properties of turbulence driven shear flow  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics and scaling properties of the turbulence driven shear flow are investigated in a cylindrical laboratory plasma device. For a given plasma pressure, the density fluctuation amplitude and radial particle flux increase with the applied magnetic field. Strong flow shear is found to coexist at high magnetic fields (>700 G) with approx10 kHz drift wave turbulence, but not at low magnetic fields (<700 G). The absolute value of the divergence of the turbulent Reynolds stress at the shear layer is shown to increase with the magnetic field as well. For a fixed magnetic field, the shear flow is found to decrease as the discharge gas pressure is increased. The density fluctuation amplitude and divergence of the turbulent Reynolds stress also decrease with the plasma pressure. For both situations the cross phase between the radial and azimuthal components of the velocity is found to be a key factor to determine variations in the turbulent Reynolds stress at different magnetic fields and discharge pressures. The results show that the generation of the shear flow is related to the development of specific frequency components of the drift wave turbulence for a variety of plasma conditions. The linear stability analysis shows that the observed variation in the turbulence and shear flow with magnetic field is also consistent with a critical gradient behavior.

Yan, Z. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Tynan, G. R.; Holland, C.; Xu, M.; Muller, S. H.; Yu, J. H. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2010-01-15

383

Introduction to quantum turbulence  

PubMed Central

The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870

Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

2014-01-01

384

Turbulence Lidar Development Status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph provides an overview of efforts conducted by Coherent Technologies, Inc. in conjunction with NASA Langley Research Center to develop a robust turbulence detection capability that spans full range of turbulence environments. Topics covered include: general principles of infrared doppler radar (lidar) turbulence measurement, performance simulation, complete detection capability provided by dual wavelength radar, algorithm development, technology development needs and turbulence detection problems. Versions of this turbulence lidar system were flight tested. Data analysis from these flight tests are presented. Future flight tests aboard DC-8 and B-757 are planned as well as continued algorithm development and performance simulation activities.

Clark, Ivan

2003-01-01

385

Modeling Compressed Turbulence  

SciTech Connect

From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.

Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13

386

Introduction to quantum turbulence.  

PubMed

The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870

Barenghi, Carlo F; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

2014-03-25

387

Correlation of two-phase friction for refrigerants in small-diameter tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-phase and adiabatic two-phase flow pressure drop were measured for R-134A, R-22 and R-404A flowing in a multi-port extruded aluminum tube with hydraulic diameter of 2.13 mm, and in two copper tubes having inside diameters of 6.25 and 3.25 mm, respectively. The single-phase friction factor was predicted within ±10% using the Blasius friction correlation. The Friedel correlation did not predict

Ming Zhang; Ralph L. Webb

2001-01-01

388

Effect of microstructural evolution on mechanical properties of friction stir welded ZK60 alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six millimeters thick extruded ZK60 plate was successfully friction stir welded at a rotation rate of 800rpm and a traverse speed of 100mm\\/min. Friction stir welding (FSW) resulted in breakup and dissolution of MgZn2 phase and remarkable grain refinement in the nugget zone. Relatively weak basal texture on the transverse plane of the nugget zone was not the dominant factor

G. M. Xie; Z. Y. Ma; L. Geng

2008-01-01

389

Shape-dependent adhesion and friction of Au nanoparticles probed with atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

The relation between surface structure and friction and adhesion is a long-standing question in tribology. Tuning the surface structure of the exposed facets of metal nanoparticles is enabled by shape control. We investigated the effect of the shape of Au nanoparticles on friction and adhesion. Two nanoparticle systems, cubic nanoparticles with a low-index (100) surface and hexoctahedral nanoparticles with a high-index (321) surface, were used as model nanoparticle surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was used to probe the nanoscale friction and adhesion on the nanoparticle surface. Before removing the capping layers, the friction results include contributions from both the geometric factor and the presence of capping layers. After removing the capping layers, we can see the exclusive effect of the surface atomic structure while the geometric effect is maintained. We found that after removing the capping layer, the cubic Au nanoparticles exhibited higher adhesion and friction, compared with cubes capped with layers covering 25% and 70%, respectively. On the other hand, the adhesion and friction of hexoctahedral Au nanoparticles decreased after removing the capping layers, compared with nanoparticles with capping layers. The difference in adhesion and friction forces between the bare Au surfaces and Au nanoparticles with capping layers cannot be explained by geometric factors, such as the slope of the nanoparticle surfaces. The higher adhesion and friction forces on cubic nanoparticles after removing the capping layers is associated with the atomic structure of (100) and (321) (i.e., the flat (100) surfaces of the cubic nanoparticles have a larger contact area, compared with the rough (321) surfaces of the hexoctahedral nanoparticles). This study implies an intrinsic relation between atomic structure and nanomechanical properties, with potential applications for controlling nanoscale friction and adhesion via colloid chemistry. PMID:25765817

Yuk, Youngji; Hong, Jong Wook; Lee, Hyunsoo; Han, Sang Woo; Young Park, Jeong

2015-03-27

390

Shape-dependent adhesion and friction of Au nanoparticles probed with atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between surface structure and friction and adhesion is a long-standing question in tribology. Tuning the surface structure of the exposed facets of metal nanoparticles is enabled by shape control. We investigated the effect of the shape of Au nanoparticles on friction and adhesion. Two nanoparticle systems, cubic nanoparticles with a low-index (100) surface and hexoctahedral nanoparticles with a high-index (321) surface, were used as model nanoparticle surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was used to probe the nanoscale friction and adhesion on the nanoparticle surface. Before removing the capping layers, the friction results include contributions from both the geometric factor and the presence of capping layers. After removing the capping layers, we can see the exclusive effect of the surface atomic structure while the geometric effect is maintained. We found that after removing the capping layer, the cubic Au nanoparticles exhibited higher adhesion and friction, compared with cubes capped with layers covering 25% and 70%, respectively. On the other hand, the adhesion and friction of hexoctahedral Au nanoparticles decreased after removing the capping layers, compared with nanoparticles with capping layers. The difference in adhesion and friction forces between the bare Au surfaces and Au nanoparticles with capping layers cannot be explained by geometric factors, such as the slope of the nanoparticle surfaces. The higher adhesion and friction forces on cubic nanoparticles after removing the capping layers is associated with the atomic structure of (100) and (321) (i.e., the flat (100) surfaces of the cubic nanoparticles have a larger contact area, compared with the rough (321) surfaces of the hexoctahedral nanoparticles). This study implies an intrinsic relation between atomic structure and nanomechanical properties, with potential applications for controlling nanoscale friction and adhesion via colloid chemistry.

Yuk, Youngji; Hong, Jong Wook; Lee, Hyunsoo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, Jeong Young

2015-03-01

391

Turbulent boundary-layer control with spanwise travelling waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been demonstrated through numerical simulations using Lorentz forcing that spanwise travelling waves on turbulent wall flows can lead to a skin-friction drag reduction on the order of 30%. As an aeronautical application of this innovative flow control technique, we have investigated into the use of Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to generate spanwise travelling waves in air. The near-wall structures modified by the spanwise travelling waves were studied using the PIV technique in a wind tunnel, while the associated turbulence statistics were carefully documented using hot-wire anemometry. We observed the spreading of low-speed fluid by the spanwise travelling streamwise vortices, which seems to have greatly attenuated the turbulence production process. This is very much in line with the finding of DNS studies, where wide low-speed ribbons replaced the low-speed streaks.

Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So

2011-12-01

392

Factorize  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet allows a student to visually explore the concept of factors by creating different rectangular arrays for a number. The user constructs the array by clicking and dragging on a grid. The length and width of the array are factors of the number. A student can elect an option of a randomly selected number or the student selects his own number between 2 and 50. Exploration questions are included to promote student discovery of mathematical concepts with factors.

2000-01-01

393

Planck-Kerr Turbulence  

E-print Network

A quantum gravitational instability is identified at Planck scales between non-spinning extreme Schwarzschild black holes and spinning extreme Kerr black holes, which produces a turbulent Planck particle gas. Planck inertial vortex forces balance gravitational forces as the Planck turbulence cascades to larger scales and the universe expands and cools. Turbulent mixing of temperature fluctuations and viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy provide irreversibilities necessary to sustain the process to the strong force freeze out temperature where inflation begins. Turbulent temperature fluctuations are fossilized when they are stretched by inflation beyond the horizon scale of causal connection. As the horizon of the expanding universe grows, the fluctuations seed patterns of nucleosynthesis, and these seed the formation of structure in the plasma epoch. Fossil big bang turbulence is supported by extended self similarity coefficients computed for cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies that match those for high Reynolds number turbulence.

Carl H. Gibson

2003-04-24

394

Dependence of Turbulent Velocities on Wind Speed and Stratification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the dependence of several turbulence quantities on the wind speed and stability using nocturnal data from the Shallow Cold Pool Experiment. The turbulent quantities (velocities) are defined in terms of the standard deviation of the horizontal and vertical velocity fluctuations, two different calculations of the friction velocity, and two turbulent velocities based on the heat flux. The dependence of the turbulent velocities on the wind speed shows a transition between the weak-wind regime of small slope and the stronger wind regime of larger slope, as found in previous studies. This transition occurs for all of the turbulent velocities examined and occurs for a wide range of averaging times. Although this study concentrates primarily on data over a flat surface above the valley, the transition also occurs at the other 18 stations that have non-zero local slopes up to about 10 %. At the same time, the relationship between the turbulence and the wind speed cannot be universal because of the influence of stratification and site-dependent non-stationarity in the weak-wind regime. The wind speed of the transition increases with increasing stratification at a rate that is an order of magnitude slower than that predicted by a constant transition bulk Richardson number. For the weakest winds, the impact of stratification is unexpectedly small.

Mahrt, L.; Sun, Jielun; Stauffer, David

2015-04-01

395

Toward Uncertainty Quantification in Turbulent Boundary Layer Shock Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of the interaction between shocks and turbulent boundary layers remains a challenge in computational fluid dynamics. The overall wall pressure and skin friction are typically misrepresented by conventional Reynolds-averaged approaches. Many modifications have been introduced to overcome model limitations: near wall behavior, turbulence anisotropy, response to compression, unsteadiness have been all identified as fundamental motivations for the incorrect predictions. This work attempts to clarify the relative importance of the various sources of errors in conventional two-equation turbulence models by introducing the concept of physics sensors. The first step is to determine the limitations of the various assumptions used in the model formulation. As an example the turbulence production across a shock is initially considered. It is well known that conventional models over predict the kinetic energy amplification. A sensor identifies the shock location and the turbulence production is locally modified by introducing a random variable representing the uncertainty is the precise amplification rate. Similarly the effect of turbulence anisotropy and near-wall treatment is considered. The corresponding stochastic problem is solved using a Monte Carlo technique and the solution envelope is compared to experimental data for the transonic flow over a bump.

Iaccarino, Gianluca

2008-11-01

396

Early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of polymer solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present quantitative experimental results on the transition to early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of water- and water-sugar-based polymer solutions compared to the transition to turbulence in their Newtonian solvents by measurements of solely global quantities as torque ?(t) and pressure p(t) with large statistics as a function of Re. For the first time the transition values of Re_c\\textit{turb} to fully developed turbulence and turbulent drag reduction regime Re_c\\textit{TDR} are obtained as functions of elasticity El by using the solvents with different viscosities and polymer concentrations ?. Two scaling regions for fundamental turbulent characteristics are identified and they correspond to the turbulent and TDR regimes. Both Re_c\\textit{turb} and Re_c\\textit{TDR} are found via the dependence of the friction coefficient Cf and Cp, defined through scaled average torque \\bar? and rms pressure fluctuations p\\textit{rms} , respectively, on Re for different El and ? and via the limits of the two scaling regions.

Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor

2015-01-01

397

The evaluation of a turbulent loads characterization system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors discuss an on-line turbulent load characterization system that has been designed to acquire loading spectra from turbines of the same design operating in several different environments and from different turbine designs operating in the same environment. This system simultaneously measures the rainflow-counted alternating and mean loading spectra and the hub-height turbulent mean shearing stress and atmospheric stability associated with the turbulent inflow. They discuss the theory behind the measurement configuration and the results of proof-of-concept testing recently performed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using a Bergey EXCEL-S 10-kW wind turbine. The on-line approach to characterizing the load spectra and the inflow turbulent scaling parameter produces results that are consistent with other measurements. The on-line approximation of the turbulent shear stress or friction velocity u* also is considered adequate. The system can be used to characterize turbulence loads during turbine deployment in a wide variety of environments. Using the WISPER protocol, the authors found that a wide-range, variable-speed turbine will accumulate a larger number of stress cycles in the low-cycle, high-amplitude (LCHA) region when compared with a constant speed rotor under similar inflow conditions.

Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). National Wind Technology Center

1996-10-01

398

The evaluation of a turbulent loads characterization system  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss an on-line turbulent load characterization system that has been designed to acquire loading spectra from turbines of the same design operating in several different environments and from different turbine designs operating in the same environment. This System simultaneously measures the rainflow-counted alternating and mean loading spectra and the hub-height turbulent mean shearing stress and atmospheric stability associated with the turbulent inflow. We discuss the theory behind the measurement configuration and the results of proof-of-concept testing recently performed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using a Bergey EXCEL-S 10-kW wind turbine. The on-line approach to characterizing the load spectra and the inflow turbulent scaling parameter produces results that are consistent with other measurements. The on-line approximation of the turbulent shear stress or friction velocity u* also is considered adequate. The system can be used to characterize turbulence loads during turbine deployment in a wide variety of environments. Using the WISPER protocol, we found that a wide-range, variable-speed turbine will accumulate a larger number of stress cycles in the low-cycle, high-amplitude (LCHA) region when compared with a constant speed rotor under similar inflow conditions.

Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-01-01

399

SRM propellant, friction/ESD testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the Pershing 2 incident in 1985 and the Peacekeeper ignition during core removal in 1987, it was found that propellant can be much more sensitive to Electrostatic Discharges (ESD) than ever before realized. As a result of the Peacekeeper motor near miss incident, a friction machine was designed and fabricated, and used to determine friction hazards during core removal. Friction testing with and electrical charge being applied across the friction plates resulted in propellant ignitions at low friction pressures and extremely low ESD levels. The objective of this test series was to determine the sensitivity of solid rocket propellant to combined friction pressure and electrostatic stimuli and to compare the sensitivity of the SRM propellant to Peacekeeper propellant. The tests are fully discussed, summarized and conclusions drawn.

Campbell, L. A.

1989-01-01

400

Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation  

PubMed Central

Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane

2012-01-01

401

Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging  

PubMed Central

Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

2013-01-01

402

Environmental effects on friction and wear of diamond and diamondlike carbon coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reciprocating sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural diamond flat, diamond film, and low and high density diamondlike carbon (DLC) films in contact with pin specimens of natural diamond and silicon nitride (Si3N4) both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. The results indicated that for natural diamond pin contacts the diamond films and the natural diamond flat were not susceptible to moisture but that moisture could increase both the coefficient of friction and the wear factors of the DLC films. The coefficients of friction and wear factors of the diamond films were generally similar to those of the natural diamond flat both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. In dry nitrogen the coefficients of friction of the high density DLC films in contact with pin specimens of both diamond and Si3N4 were generally low (about 0.02) and similar to those of the natural diamond flat and the diamond films. The wear factors of the materials in contact with both natural diamond and Si3N4 were generally in the ascending order of natural diamond flat, diamond film, high density DLC film, and low density DLC film. The moisture in the environment increased the coefficients of friction for Si3N4 pins in contact with all the materials. This increase in friction is due to the silicon oxide film produced on the surface of Si3N4 pins in humid air.

Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan

1992-01-01

403

Comparison between kinetic-ballooning-mode-driven turbulence and ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic turbulence driven by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) in high-? plasma is investigated based on the local gyrokinetic model. Analysis of turbulent fluxes, norms, and phases of fluctuations shows that KBM turbulence gives narrower spectra and smaller phase factors than those in ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-driven turbulence. This leads to the smaller transport fluxes in KBM turbulence than those in ITG turbulence even when they have similar linear growth rates. From the analysis of the entropy balance relation, it is found that the entropy transfer from ions to electrons through the field-particle interactions mainly drives electron perturbations, which creates radial twisted modes by rapid parallel motions of electrons in a sheared magnetic geometry. The nonlinear coupling between the dominant unstable mode and its twisted modes is important for the saturation of KBM turbulence, in contrast to the importance of zonal flow shearing in ITG turbulence. The coupling depends on the flux-tube domain with the one-poloidal-turn parallel length and on the torus periodicity constraint.

Maeyama, S., E-mail: maeyama.shinya@jaea.go.jp; Nakata, M.; Miyato, N.; Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Idomura, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan)

2014-05-15

404

Modification in drag of turbulent boundary layers resulting from manipulation of large-scale structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of placing a parallel-plate turbulence manipulator in a boundary layer are documented through flow visualization and hot wire measurements. The boundary layer manipulator was designed to manage the large scale structures of turbulence leading to a reduction in surface drag. The differences in the turbulent structure of the boundary layer are summarized to demonstrate differences in various flow properties. The manipulator inhibited the intermittent large scale structure of the turbulent boundary layer for at least 70 boundary layer thicknesses downstream. With the removal of the large scale, the streamwise turbulence intensity levels near the wall were reduced. The downstream distribution of the skin friction was also altered by the introduction of the manipulator.

Corke, T. C.; Guezennec, Y.; Nagib, H. M.

1981-01-01

405

High-velocity frictional properties of gabbro  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-velocity friction experiments have been performed on a pair of hollow-cylindrical specimens of gabbro initially at room temperature, at slip rates from 7.5 mm\\/s to 1.8 m\\/s, with total circumferential displacements of 125 to 174 m, and at normal stresses to 5 MPa, using a rotary-shear high-speed friction testing machine. Steady-state friction increases slightly with increasing slip rate at slip

Akito Tsutsumi; Toshihiko Shimamoto

1997-01-01

406

The coefficient of friction, particularly of ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The static and dynamic coefficients of friction are defined, and values from 0.3 to 0.6 are quoted for common materials. These drop to about 0.15 when oil is added as a lubricant. Water ice at temperatures not far below 0 °C is remarkable for low coefficients of around 0.05 for static friction and 0.04-0.02 for dynamic friction, but these figures

Allan Mills

2008-01-01

407

Friction stir welding for the transportation industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will focus on the relatively new joining technology—friction stir welding (FSW). Like all friction welding variants, the FSW process is carried out in the solid-phase. Generically solid-phase welding is one of the oldest forms of metallurgical joining processes known to man. Friction stir welding is a continuous hot shear autogenous process involving a non-consumable rotating probe of harder

W. M Thomas; E. D Nicholas

1997-01-01

408

Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces  

E-print Network

We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short wavelength roughness, which may give the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the substrate surface asperities. The presented results are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

M. Mofidi; B. Prakash; B. N. J. Persson; O. Albohl

2007-10-18

409

Wind shear and turbulence around airports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two part study was conducted to determine the feasibility of predicting the conditions under which wind/turbulence environments hazardous to aviation operations exist. The computer model used to solve the velocity temperature, and turbulence distributions in the atmospheric boundary layer is described, and the results of a parameteric analysis to determine the expected range of wind shear and turbulence to be encountered in the vicinity of airports are given. The second part describes the delineation of an ensemble of aircraft accidents in which low level wind shear and/or turbulence appeared to be causative factors. This set of accidents, encompassing a wide range of meteorological conditions, should prove useful in developing techniques for reconstructing hazardous wind environments for aircraft safety investigation purposes.

Lewellen, W. S.; Williamson, G. G.

1976-01-01

410

Inhomogeneous distribution of droplets in cloud turbulence  

E-print Network

We solve the problem of spatial distribution of inertial particles that sediment in turbulent flow with small ratio of acceleration of fluid particles to acceleration of gravity $g$. The particles are driven by linear drag and have arbitrary inertia. The pair-correlation function of concentration obeys a power-law in distance with negative exponent. Divergence at zero signifies singular distribution of particles in space. Independently of particle size the exponent is ratio of integral of energy spectrum of turbulence times the wavenumber to $g$ times numerical factor. We find Lyapunov exponents and confirm predictions by direct numerical simulations of Navier-Stokes turbulence. The predictions include typical case of water droplets in clouds. This significant progress in the study of turbulent transport is possible because strong gravity makes the particle's velocity at a given point unique.

Itzhak Fouxon; Yongnam Park; Roei Harduf; Changhoon Lee

2014-10-30

411

Density dependent friction of lipid monolayers.  

PubMed

We measure frictional properties of liquid-expanded and liquid-condensed phases of lipid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers by interfacial force microscopy. We find that over a reasonably broad surface-density range, the friction shear strength of the lipid monolayer film is proportional to the surface area (42-74 A2/molecule) occupied by each molecule. The increase in frictional force (i.e., friction shear strength with molecular area can be attributed to the increased conformational freedom and the resulting increase in the number of available modes for energy dissipation. PMID:17655211

Goertz, M P; Stottrup, B L; Houston, J E; Zhu, X-Y

2007-12-13

412

Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.

Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

1996-01-01

413

Geometry of Frictionless and Frictional Sphere Packings  

E-print Network

We study static packings of frictionless and frictional spheres in three dimensions, obtained via molecular dynamics simulations, in which we vary particle hardness, friction coefficient, and coefficient of restitution. Although frictionless packings of hard-spheres are always isostatic (with six contacts) regardless of construction history and restitution coefficient, frictional packings achieve a multitude of hyperstatic packings that depend on system parameters and construction history. Instead of immediately dropping to four, the coordination number reduces smoothly from $z=6$ as the friction coefficient $\\mu$ between two particles is increased.

Leonardo E. Silbert; Deniz Ertas; Gary S. Grest; Thomas C. Halsey; Dov Levine

2001-11-08

414

Estimation of the friction coefficient between wheel and rail surface using traction motor behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The friction coefficient between a railway wheel and rail surface is a crucial factor in maintaining high acceleration and braking performance of railway vehicles thus monitoring this friction coefficient is important. Restricted by the difficulty in directly measuring the friction coefficient, the creep force or creepage, indirect methods using state observers are used more frequently. This paper presents an approach using a Kalman filter to estimate the creep force and creepage between the wheel and rail and then to identify the friction coefficient using the estimated creep force-creepage relationship. A mathematic model including an AC motor, wheel and roller is built to simulate the driving system. The parameters are based on a test rig at Manchester Metropolitan University. The Kalman filter is designed to estimate the friction coefficient based on the measurements of the simulation model. Series of residuals are calculated through the comparison between the estimated creep force and theoretical values of different friction coefficient. Root mean square values of the residuals are used in the friction coefficient identification.

Zhao, Y.; Liang, B.; Iwnicki, S.

2012-05-01

415

Intraoral corrosion of self-ligating metallic brackets and archwires and the effect on friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how the frictional coefficient was affected due to intraoral use. A secondary aim of this study was to determine whether or not there was a relationship between corrosion of orthodontic alloys and friction via scanning electron microscopic qualitative analysis. Orthodontic brackets and 0.019 x 0.025 inch stainless steel archwires were collected and divided into three groups of n=10: used bracket and used wires (UBUW), used brackets and new wires (UBNW), and new brackets and new wires (NBNW). New materials were as-received from the manufacturer, and used materials were clinically used bracket and wires collected from patients following orthodontic treatment. Archwires were pulled through bracket slots at a rate of 0.5mm/min while friction forces were measured. Following a cleaning process, the surface topography of the bracket slots was examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on a 1-factor MANOVA, there was no significant group effect (all p>0.05) on frictional forces. Partial eta squared values indicated that intraoral exposure had only a small effect on frictional forces (? 3%). Qualitative analysis of SEM images did not show an association between surface characteristics of the bracket slots and magnitude of frictional force. Results suggest that surface corrosion from intraoral use does not significantly affect friction at the bracket wire interface.

Tima, Lori Lynn

416

Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.  

SciTech Connect

Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the mechanical response of wear surfaces. Coatings are often required to mitigate friction and wear. Amongst other factors, plastic deformation of the substrate determines the coating-substrate interface reliability. Finite element modeling has been applied to predict the plastic deformation for the specific case of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated Ni alloy substrates.

Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J. (University of Minnesota); Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)

2006-12-01

417

Integrated friction measurements in hip wear simulations: short-term results.  

PubMed

Hip joint wear simulators are used extensively to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the human hip joint and, through the wear rate, gain a concrete indicator about the overall wear performance of different coupled bearings. Present knowledge of the dynamic behaviour of important concurrent indicators, such as the coefficient of friction, could prove helpful for the continuing improvement in applied biomaterials. A limited number of commercial or custom-made simulators have been designed specifically for friction studies but always separately from wear tests; thus, analysis of these two important parameters has remained unconnected. As a result, a new friction sensor has been designed, built, and integrated in a commercial biaxial rocking motion hip simulator. The aim of this study is to verify the feasibility of an experimental set-up in which the dynamic measurement of the friction factor could effectively be implemented in a standard wear test without compromising its general accuracy and repeatability. A short wear test was run with the new set-up for 1 x 10(6) cycles. In particular, three soft-bearings (metal-on-polyethylene, phi = 28 mm) were tested; during the whole test, axial load and frictional torque about the vertical loading axis were synchronously recorded in order to calculate the friction factor. Additional analyses were performed on the specimens, before and after the test, in order to verify the accuracy of the wear test. The average friction factor was 0.110 +/- 0.025. The friction sensors showed good accuracy and repeatability throughout. This innovative set-up was able to reproduce stable and reliable measurements. The results obtained encourage further investigations of this set-up for long-term assessment and using different combinations of materials. PMID:20839654

Spinelli, M; Affatato, S; Tiberi, L; Carmignato, S; Viceconti, M

2010-01-01

418

Skin friction measurement in complex flows using thin oil film techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Grant NAG2-261 was initiated to support a program of research to study complex flows that occur in flight and laboratory experiments by building, testing and optimizing an on-board technique for direct measurement of surface shear stress using thin oil film techniques. The program of research has proceeded under the supervision of the NASA Ames Research Center and with further cooperation from the NASA Ames-Dryden and NASA Langley Research Centers. In accordance with the original statement of work, the following research milestones were accomplished: (1) design and testing of an internally mounted one-directional skin friction meter to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept; (2) design and construction of a compact instrument capable of measuring skin friction in two directions; (3) study of transitional and fully turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with and without longitudinal pressure gradients utilizing the compact two-directional skin friction meter; (4) study of the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a compression corner using the two-directional meter; and (5) flight qualification of the compact meter and accompanying electronic and pneumatic systems, preliminary installation into flight test fixture.

1994-01-01

419

AEconoguide - The low friction piston  

SciTech Connect

The AEconoguide specification provides a piston with a skirt bearing area which depending mainly on skirt length, is from 45% to 70% less than normal without detriment to lubrication or guidance. Such pistons can only be produced by diamond turning on special machines. The lower friction associated with AEconoguide has either increased power or reduced fuel consumption in 5 gasoline and 4 diesel engine tests to date. Power was improved by (1.8 +- .4)% and fuel economy by (3.4 +- .6)% at part load in those engines, expressed as (mean+-r.m.s. error of mean)%.

Rhodes, M.L.P.; Parker, D.A.

1984-01-01

420

Friction Forces in General Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction forces play an important role in a wide class of phenomena both in the contexts of classical mechanics and general relativity. This paper discusses the Poynting-Robertson approach to the description of the motion of a massive test particle inside a perfect fluid undergoing dissipative effects in curved space. Specific cases of motions 1) inside a photon gas near a Schwarzschild black hole; 2) inside a photon gas in the Tolman metric are then discussed with applications to models of accretion disks of a black hole and to motion inside a static radiation dominated Universe.

Bini, D.; Gregoris, D.; Rosquist, K.

2015-01-01

421

Some Hamiltonian Models of Friction  

E-print Network

Mathematical results on some models describing the motion of a tracer particle through a Bose-Einstein condensate are described. In the limit of a very dense, very weakly interacting Bose gas and for a very large particle mass, the dynamics of the coupled system is determined by classical non-linear Hamiltonian equations of motion. The particle's motion exhibits deceleration corresponding to friction (with memory) caused by the emission of Cerenkov radiation of gapless modes into the gas. Precise results are stated and outlines of proofs are presented. Some technical details are deferred to forthcoming papers.

Juerg Froehlich; Zhou Gang; Avy Soffer

2010-11-15

422

A new turbulence model for predicting fluid flow and heat transfer in separating and reattaching flow. 1: Flow field calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To calculate complex turbulent flows with separation and heat transfer, we have developed a new turbulence model for flow field, which is modified from the latest low-Reynolds-number kappa-epsilon model. The main improvement is achieved by the introduction of the Kolmogorov velocity scale, upsilon(sub c) equivalent to (nu epsilon)(exp 0.25), instead of the friction velocity upsilon(sub t), to account for the

K. Abe; T. Kondoh; Y. Nagano

1994-01-01

423

Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' abilities to find factors of whole numbers. The lesson also introduces prime numbers. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to factors as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, reading level is not indicated because the lesson does not include student reading material.

2011-05-24

424

Factoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson we will explore prime numbers and factors A prime number has only two factors, 1 and itself. The Greek scholar, Eratosthenes of Cyrene lived from approximately 275 to 195 BC. He is know for being the first to have computed the size of the Earth and served as the director of the famous library in

Mrs. Taylor

2010-10-19

425

Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate of simulated gouge fails to quantitatively account for the experimental observations.

Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.

1996-01-01

426

Collisionless inter-species energy transfer and turbulent heating in drift wave turbulence  

SciTech Connect

We reconsider the classic problems of calculating 'turbulent heating' and collisionless inter-species transfer of energy in drift wave turbulence. These issues are of interest for low collisionality, electron heated plasmas, such as ITER, where collisionless energy transfer from electrons to ions is likely to be significant. From the wave Poynting theorem at steady state, a volume integral over an annulus r{sub 1}=-S{sub r}|{sub r{sub 1}{sup r{sub 2}}}{ne}0. Here S{sub r} is the wave energy density flux in the radial direction. Thus, a wave energy flux differential across an annular region indeed gives rise to a net heating, in contrast to previous predictions. This heating is related to the Reynolds work by the zonal flow, since S{sub r} is directly linked to the zonal flow drive. In addition to net heating, there is inter-species heat transfer. For collisionless electron drift waves, the total turbulent energy source for collisionless heat transfer is due to quasilinear electron cooling. Subsequent quasilinear ion heating occurs through linear ion Landau damping. In addition, perpendicular heating via ion polarization currents contributes to ion heating. Since at steady state, Reynolds work of the turbulence on the zonal flow must balance zonal flow frictional damping ({approx}{nu}{sub ii}{sup 2}{approx}|(e{phi}(tilde sign)/T)|{sup 4}), it is no surprise that zonal flow friction appears as an important channel for ion heating. This process of energy transfer via zonal flow has not previously been accounted for in analyses of energy transfer. As an application, we compare the rate of turbulent energy transfer in a low collisionality plasma with the rate of the energy transfer by collisions. The result shows that the collisionless turbulent energy transfer is a significant energy coupling process for ITER plasma.

Zhao, L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States); Diamond, P. H. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-08-15

427

30 CFR 57.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 57.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2014-07-01

428

30 CFR 57.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 57.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2012-07-01

429

30 CFR 56.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 56.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2011-07-01

430

30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2014-07-01

431

30 CFR 57.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 57.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2013-07-01

432

30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2010-07-01

433

30 CFR 57.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 57.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2011-07-01

434

30 CFR 56.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 56.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2014-07-01

435

40 CFR 1066.260 - Parasitic friction compensation evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Parasitic friction compensation evaluation. 1066.260...Specifications § 1066.260 Parasitic friction compensation evaluation. (a) Overview...verify the accuracy of the dynamometer's friction compensation. (b) Scope and...

2012-07-01

436

30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2013-07-01

437

30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2010-07-01

438

30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2011-07-01

439

30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2012-07-01

440

30 CFR 57.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 57.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2010-07-01

441

30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2013-07-01

442

30 CFR 56.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 56.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2012-07-01

443

30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2011-07-01

444

30 CFR 56.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 56.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2013-07-01

445

30 CFR 56.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 56.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...

2010-07-01

446

30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2014-07-01

447

30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...

2012-07-01

448

40 CFR 1066.260 - Parasitic friction compensation evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Parasitic friction compensation evaluation. 1066.260...Specifications § 1066.260 Parasitic friction compensation evaluation. (a) Overview...verify the accuracy of the dynamometer's friction compensation. (b) Scope and...

2013-07-01

449

40 CFR 1066.260 - Parasitic friction compensation evaluation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Parasitic friction compensation evaluation. 1066.260...Specifications § 1066.260 Parasitic friction compensation evaluation. (a) Overview...verify the accuracy of the dynamometer's friction compensation. (b) Scope and...

2014-07-01

450

Characterizing deformability and surface friction of cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Metastasis requires the penetration of cancer cells through tight spaces, which is mediated by the physical properties of the cells as well as their interactions with the confined environment. Various microfluidic approaches have been devised to mimic traversal in vitro by measuring the time required for cells to pass through a constriction. Although a cell’s passage time is expected to depend on its deformability, measurements from existing approaches are confounded by a cell's size and its frictional properties with the channel wall. Here, we introduce a device that enables the precise measurement of (i) the size of a single cell, given by its buoyant mass, (ii) the velocity of the cell entering a constricted microchannel (entry velocity), and (iii) the velocity of the cell as it transits through the constriction (transit velocity). Changing the deformability of the cell by perturbing its cytoskeleton primarily alters the entry velocity, whereas changing the surface friction by immobilizing positive charges on the constriction's walls primarily alters the transit velocity, indicating that these parameters can give insight into the factors affecting the passage of each cell. When accounting for cell buoyant mass, we find that cells possessing higher metastatic potential exhibit faster entry velocities than cells with lower metastatic potential. We additionally find that some cell types with higher metastatic potential exhibit greater than expected changes in transit velocities, suggesting that not only the increased deformability but reduced friction may be a factor in enabling invasive cancer cells to efficiently squeeze through tight spaces. PMID:23610435

Byun, Sangwon; Son, Sungmin; Amodei, Dario; Cermak, Nathan; Shaw, Josephine; Kang, Joon Ho; Hecht, Vivian C.; Winslow, Monte M.; Jacks, Tyler; Mallick, Parag; Manalis, Scott R.

2013-01-01

451

Multiscale physics-based modeling of friction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frictional contacts between solids exist in nature and in a wide range of engineering applications. Friction causes energy loss, and it is the main source of wear and surface degradation which limits the lifetime of mechanical systems. Yet, friction is needed to walk, run, accelerate, slow down or stop moving systems. Whether desirable or not, friction is a very complex physical phenomenon. The behavior of systems with friction is nonlinear, and the physical mechanisms governing friction behavior span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. A thorough study of friction should employ experimentalists and theoreticians in chemistry, materials science, tribology, mechanics, dynamics, and structural engineering. High spatial and temporal resolutions are required to capture and model essential physics of a frictional contact. However, such a detailed model is impractical in large-scale structural dynamics simulations; especially since frictional contacts can be numerous in a given application. Reduced-order models (ROMs) achieve broader applicability by compromising several aspects and accounting for the important physics. Hence, rather simple Coulomb friction is still the most ubiquitous model in the modeling and simulation literature. As an alternative, a reduced-order friction model built-up from micromechanics of surfaces is proposed in this work. Continuum-scale formulation of pre-sliding friction behavior is combined with material-strength-based friction coefficients to develop a physics-based friction model at asperity-scale. Then, the statistical summation technique is utilized to build a multiscale modeling framework. A novel joint fretting setup is designed for friction experiments in a practical setting, and the developed models are tested. Both asperity and rough surface friction models show good agreement with experimental data. The influences of materials, surface roughness and contact contamination on the friction are also studied. Finally, the developed models are incorporated in to a simple dynamical system to illustrate broader applicability. The models proposed in this work account for loading-history dependence, partial slip, gross slip, nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation characteristics of frictional contacts. In doing so, the models require no curve-fit or look-up parameters. Instead, the formulations are developed from continuum mechanics, and the required parameters can be determined from simple tension/compression and surface roughness tests. In this sense, the developed models are physics-based and predictive. The parameters employed in the models depend on the contact conditions, surface roughness and material properties. For instance, the developed models use a dry-contact formulation at asperity-scale, and the macroscale friction predictions are tested only for dry contacts. However, the multiscale modeling approach can be applied to model the effect of lubrication provided that asperity-scale contact accounts for it. Besides, frictional contacts of certain materials exhibit severe adhesion, cold welding and galling behavior as demonstrated experimentally in this work. If these behaviors are modeled at asperity-scale, then the friction at rough contact scale can be obtained by the same procedure presented in this work. This flexibility is another significant advantage of the proposed modeling approach.

Eriten, Melih

452

Comparison of Frictional Heating Models  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to compare the predicted temperature rises using four well-known models for frictional heating under a few selected conditions in which similar variable inputs are provided to each model. Classic papers by Archard, Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Lim and Ashby, and Rabinowicz have been examined, and a spreadsheet (Excel ) was developed to facilitate the calculations. This report may be used in conjunction with that spreadsheet. It explains the background, assumptions, and rationale used for the calculations. Calculated flash temperatures for selected material combinations, under a range of applied loads and sliding speeds, are tabulated. The materials include AISI 52100 bearing steel, CDA 932 bronze, NBD 200 silicon nitride, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and carbon-graphite material. Due to the assumptions made by the different models, and the direct way in which certain assumed quantities, like heat sink distances or asperity dimensions, enter into the calculations, frictional hearing results may differ significantly; however, they can be similar in certain cases in light of certain assumptions that are shared between the models.

Davies, Nicholas R [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2013-10-01

453

Deterministic chaos in frictional wedges.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A triangular wedge, composed of a frictional material such as sand, and accreting additional material at its front, is the classical prototype for accretionary wedges and fold-and-thrust belts. The Sequential Limit Analysis method is applied to capture the internal deformation to these structures resulting from a large number of faulting events during compression. The method combines the application of the kinematic approach of limit analysis to predict the optimum thrust-fold and a set of geometrical rules to update the geometry accordingly, at each increment of shortening. It is shown that the topography remains planar to first order with an average slope predicted by the critical Coulomb wedge theory. Failure by faulting occurs anywhere within the wedge at criticality and its exact position is sensitive to topographic perturbations resulting from the deformation history. The convergence analysis in terms of the shortening increments and of the topography discretisation reveals that the timing and the position of a single faulting event cannot be predicted. The convergence is achieved nevertheless in terms of the statistics of the distribution of the faulting events throughout the structure and during the entire deformation history. These two convergence properties plus the perturbation sensitivity justify the claim that these compressed frictional wedges are imperfection sensitive, chaotic systems. This fundamental system has to be understood before considering the influence of softening on activated ramps and of erosion which are also discussed.

Mary, Baptiste; Maillot, Bertrand; Leroy, Yves M.

2013-04-01

454

Friction boosted by equilibrium misalignment of incommensurate two-dimensional colloid monolayers.  

PubMed

Colloidal two-dimensional monolayers sliding in an optical lattice are of recent importance as a frictional system. In the general case when the monolayer and optical lattices are incommensurate, we predict two important novelties, one in the static equilibrium structure, the other in the frictional behavior under sliding. Structurally, realistic simulations show that the colloid layer should possess in full equilibrium a small misalignment rotation angle relative to the optical lattice, an effect so far unnoticed but visible in some published experimental moiré patterns. Under sliding, this misalignment has the effect of boosting the colloid monolayer friction by a considerable factor over the hypothetical aligned case discussed so far. A frictional increase of similar origin must generally affect other incommensurate adsorbed monolayers and contacts, to be sought out case by case. PMID:25815971

Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

2015-03-13

455

A review of the physics of ice surface friction and the development of ice skating.  

PubMed

Our walking and running movement patterns require friction between shoes and ground. The surface of ice is characterised by low friction in several naturally occurring conditions, and compromises our typical locomotion pattern. Ice skates take advantage of this slippery nature of ice; the first ice skates were made more than 4000 years ago, and afforded the development of a very efficient form of human locomotion. This review presents an overview of the physics of ice surface friction, and discusses the most relevant factors that can influence ice skates' dynamic friction coefficient. It also presents the main stages in the development of ice skating, describes the associated implications for exercise physiology, and shows the extent to which ice skating performance improved through history. This article illustrates how technical and materials' development, together with empirical understanding of muscle biomechanics and energetics, led to one of the fastest forms of human powered locomotion. PMID:24950115

Formenti, Federico

2014-01-01

456

Friction Boosted by Equilibrium Misalignment of Incommensurate Two-Dimensional Colloid Monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloidal two-dimensional monolayers sliding in an optical lattice are of recent importance as a frictional system. In the general case when the monolayer and optical lattices are incommensurate, we predict two important novelties, one in the static equilibrium structure, the other in the frictional behavior under sliding. Structurally, realistic simulations show that the colloid layer should possess in full equilibrium a small misalignment rotation angle rela