Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1994-01-21
Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used inmore » the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less
Single-Phase, Turbulent Heat-Transfer Friction-Factor Data Base Flow Enhanced Tb
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1994-01-21
Heat-exchanger designers need to know what type of performance improvement can be obtained before they will consider enhanced tubes. In particular, they need access to the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factor values of enhanced tube types that are commercially available. To compile these data from the numerous publications and reports in the open literature is a formidable task that can discourage the designer from using them. A computer program that contains a comprehensive data base withmore » a search feature would be a handy tool for the designer to obtain an estimate of the performance improvement that can be obtained with a particular enhanced tube geometry. In addition, it would be a valuable tool for researchers who are developing and/or validating new prediction methods. This computer program can be used to obtain friction-factor and/or heat-transfer data for a broad range of internally enhanced tube geometries with forced-convective turbulent flow. The program has search features; that is the user can select data for tubes with a particular enhancement geometry range or data obtained from a particular source or publication. The friction factor data base contains nearly 5,000 points and the heat-transfer data base contains more than 4,700 points. About 360 different tube geometries are included from the 36 different sources. Data for tubes with similar geometries and the same and/or different types can be easily extracted with the sort feature of this data base and compared. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taslim, M. E.; Spring, S. D.
1987-06-01
In advanced turbine airfoil cooling designs where multiple-pass cooling circuits are used, a range of cooling passage aspect ratios (height/width) are encountered. The objective of this experimental investigation was to determine the effect that increasing aspect ratios have on friction factors and Nusselt numbers in internal cooling passages with rib-roughened (turbulated) surfaces. Aspect ratios ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 were tested over a Reynolds number range of 30,000 to 190,000. Each aspect ratio was tested at three different turbulator-height/hydraulic-diameter ratios and at a constant turbulator-height/pitch ratio of 0.10.
On laminar and turbulent friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Karman, TH
1946-01-01
Report deals, first with the theory of the laminar friction flow, where the basic concepts of Prandtl's boundary layer theory are represented from mathematical and physical points of view, and a method is indicated by means of which even more complicated cases can be treated with simple mathematical means, at least approximately. An attempt is also made to secure a basis for the computation of the turbulent friction by means of formulas through which the empirical laws of the turbulent pipe resistance can be applied to other problems on friction drag. (author)
Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reichardt, H.
1943-01-01
The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material values on the flow near the wall is briefly analyzed. It was found that the velocity at the laminar boundary (in contrast to the thickness of the laminar layer) is approximately independent of the temperature distribution. The temperature gradient at the wall and the distribution of temperature and heat flow in the turbulent friction layers were calculated on the basis of the data under two equations. The derived formulas and the figures reveal the effects of the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the exchange quantities and the temperature relationship of the material values.
Friction-factor characteristics for narrow channels with honeycomb surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ha, T. W.; Morrison, G. L.; Childs, D. W.
1992-01-01
The experimental determination of friction-factors for the flow of air in a narrow channel lined with various honeycomb geometries has been carried out. Test results show that, generally, the friction-factor is nearly constant or slightly decreases as the Reynolds number increases, a characteristic common to turbulent flow in pipes. However, in some test geometries this trend is remarkably different. The friction factor dramatically drops and then rises as the Reynolds number increases. This phenomenon can be characterized as a 'friction-factor jump'. Further investigations of the acoustic spectrum and friction-factor measurements for a broad range of Reynolds numbers indicate that the 'friction-factor jump' phenomenon is accompanied by an onset of a normal mode resonance excited coherent flow fluctuation structure, which occurs at Reynolds number of the order of 10,000. The purpose of this paper is to explain the friction-factor-jump phenomenon and friction-factor characteristics.
Practical values of friction factors
Prosser, B.S.; Wallace, K.G.
1999-07-01
Over the past fifteen years, engineers from Mine Ventilation Services, Inc. (MVS) have measured numerous friction factors at many different types of mining operations. The results of these measurements indicate that standardized friction factors referenced in most ventilation textbooks are greater than those measured in the field for similar airway support systems. Many referenced friction factors are still based on G.E. McElroy's classic paper Engineering Factors in the Ventilation of Metal Mines published in 1935. Most mechanized mines now incorporate airways that are larger, have more advanced support systems, and more uniform openings. This paper describes the measurement techniques and results from friction factor measurements taken during ventilation surveys at various mines with differing support systems. A comparison between textbook and measured values is also presented.
Battisti, L; Baggio, P
2001-05-01
In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics. PMID:11460662
Phenomenological Blasius-type friction equation for turbulent power-law fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anbarlooei, H. R.; Cruz, D. O. A.; Ramos, F.; Silva Freire, A. P.
2015-12-01
We propose a friction formula for turbulent power-law fluid flows, a class of purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids commonly found in applications. Our model is derived through an extension of the friction factor analysis based on Kolmogorov's phenomenology, recently proposed by Gioia and Chakraborty. Tests against classical empirical data show excellent agreement over a significant range of Reynolds number. Limits of the model are also discussed.
The process of separation in the turbulent friction layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gruschwitz, E
1933-01-01
The separation of the flow which occurs at large angles of attack on the suction side of an airplane wing is attributable to phenomena in the flowing fluid layer adjacent to the surface; the fluid particles slowed up by the friction on the surface can no longer advance against an unduly great pressure rise. It is of vital importance that there exist two types of flow - laminar and turbulent - in the fluid layer flowing in the immediate vicinity of a body. According to Prandtl, by whom the whole theory was developed, we speak in the first case of a laminar boundary layer, in the second, of a turbulent friction layer. (author)
Tidal friction in rotating turbulent convectivestellar and planetary regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathis, S.; Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Guenel, M.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
2014-12-01
Turbulent friction in stellar and planetary convection zones is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the dissipation of the kinetic energy of tidal flows in stars and planets hosting companions. This friction acting both on the equilibrium tide and on tidal inertial waves thus deeply impacts the dynamics of the spin of the host star/planet and the orbital architecture of the surrounding system. It is thus very important to obtain robust prescription for this friction. In the current state-of-the-art, it is modeled by a turbulent viscosity coefficient using mixing-length theory. However, none of the existing prescriptions take into account the action of the possibly rapid rotation that strongly affects convective flows. In this work, we propose such a new prescription that takes into account rotation and discuss the possible implication for tidal dissipation in rotating stars and planets.
Compliant wall-turbulent skin-friction reduction research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, M. C.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.; Ash, R. L.
1975-01-01
Previous compliant-wall experiments successful in reducing skin-friction drag probably have had a (unplanned) membrane resonance at a favorable frequency, amplitude, wave shape, length, and speed. The most probable drag reduction mechanism involves a direct coupling between the fluid and the moving wall when the wall natural resonance frequencies are near the fundamental turbulent burst frequency. Local skin-friction reductions of 61% were measured with mylar/PVC plastisol compliant surfaces. These reductions were observed only at certain flow conditions, indicating that changing tunnel total temperature may have altered the substrate dynamic modulus, damping, and coupled mylar tension. Apparently, the coupled membrane/substrate must be excited in compatible narrow-band natural frequency modes. An accelerated effort is required to develop practical durable compliant surfaces optimized for maximum drag reduction. Application of compliant walls to other transportation modes appears feasible with liquid flows offering the greatest skin-friction drag reduction potential.
Theoretical prediction of turbulent skin friction on geometrically complex surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peet, Yulia; Sagaut, Pierre
2009-10-01
This article can be considered as an extension of the paper of Fukagata et al. [Phys. Fluids 14, L73 (2002)] which derived an analytical expression for the constituent contributions to skin friction in a turbulent channel, pipe, and plane boundary layer flows. In this paper, we extend the theoretical analysis of Fukagata et al. (formerly limited to canonical cases with two-dimensional mean flow) to a fully three-dimensional situation allowing complex wall shapes. We start our analysis by considering arbitrarily shaped surfaces and then formulate a restriction on a surface shape for which the current analysis is valid. A theoretical formula for skin friction coefficient is thus given for streamwise and spanwise homogeneous surfaces of any shape, as well as some more complex configurations, including spanwise-periodic wavy patterns. The theoretical analysis is validated using the results of large eddy simulations of a turbulent flow over straight and wavy riblets with triangular and knife-blade cross-sections. Decomposition of skin friction into different constituent contributions allows us to analyze the influence of different dynamical effects on a skin friction modification by riblet-covered surfaces.
Predicting friction factor in herbaceous emergent wetlands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wynn-Thompson, T.; Hall, K.
2012-12-01
Over 53% of all wetlands in the US have been lost since the mid-1780s; to counteract wetland losses, wetland land area is being replaced through wetland restoration and mitigation. Development of the target wetland hydroperiod is critical to restoration success. For wetlands in which outflow is a component of the water budget, such as in riparian wetlands, surface water stage is controlled all or in part by the hydraulic resistance within the wetland, requiring accurate simulation of hydraulic resistance due to vegetation. Hydraulic models that consider vegetation rely on an accurate determination of a resistance parameter such as a friction factor or drag coefficient. At low Reynolds numbers typical of flows in wetlands, hydraulic resistance is orders of magnitude higher than fully turbulent flows and resistance parameters are functions of the flow regime as well as the vegetation density and structure. The exact relationship between hydraulic resistance, flow regime, and vegetation properties at the low-Reynolds number flows remains unclear. Prior research has typically involved laboratory studies of flow through idealized, individual stems. However, emergent wetland vegetation frequently grows as clumps. The goals of this research were to investigate the effect of clumping vegetation on flow resistance and to develop a prediction equation for use in wetland design. A 6-m by 1-m by 0.4-m recirculating flume was planted with mature common rush, Juncus effusus, a common emergent wetland plant. Three different flow rates (3, 4, and 5 L/s) and three different tailgate heights (0, 2.5, and 5 cm) were used to simulate a range of flow conditions. Plant spacing and clump diameter were varied (20 and 25 cm, 8 and 12 cm, respectively). Friction factors ranged from 9 to 40 and decreased with increasing plant density. Non-dimensional parameters determined through Buckingham Pi analysis were used in a regression analysis to develop a prediction model. Results of the regression analysis showed that the fraction of vegetated occupied area was most significant factor in determining friction factor.
Turbulent Skin Friction at High Mach Numbers and Reynolds Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matting, Fred W.; Chapman, Dean R.
1958-01-01
For a number of years now, experimenters have been making measurements of skin friction. Formerly, the main interest was at low Mach numbers; later, measurements were made at supersonic Mach numbers. However, almost all of these measurements were over a limited range of Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, these measurements fairly well determined the effects of Mach number and heat transfer on skin friction. The purpose of this paper is to give the results of skin-friction measurements in turbulent boundary layers at high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers where data have not previously existed. The equipment used was expressly designed to provide these conditions. As is well known, it is difficult to obtain high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers simultaneously with air in a wind tunnel. In order to avoid condensation, it is necessary to heat the air, with a resulting loss in density and Reynolds number. It is desirable, then, to use a gas that does not condense at high Mach numbers. This suggested helium, which was used as a working fluid in some of the tests. At high Mach numbers in a given wind tunnel, higher Reynolds numbers can be obtained with helium than with air, principally because no heating of the helium is required. The different ratios of specific heats also contribute to the increase. In using helium as a working fluid, it is, of course, necessary to determine the equivalence of air and helium in the turbulent boundary layer.
Experimental verification of turbulent skin friction reduction with compliant walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinstein, L. M.; Fischer, M. C.; Ash, R. L.
1975-01-01
Preliminary compliant wall skin friction test results obtained in a low-turbulence pressure tunnel are reported. Compliant surface skins consisted of 0.0025 cm thick mylar, stretched under tension and area-bonded or longitudinally strip-bonded with silicone rubber adhesive to polyurethane foam. Mean velocity and fluctuating survey data were obtained with a single slanted hot wire. Mean velocity profiles for the area-bonded mylar surface skins indicated up to a 20% reduction in boundary-layer thickness (and lower momentum thickness) over rigid surfaces. This reduction in boundary-layer thickness indicates that a drag reduction occurred. In addition, a 16% reduction in wall shear was evident for the mylar/compressor foam compliant surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
A new technology for reducing turbulent skin friction, called the Microblowing Technique (MBT), is presented. Results from proof-of-concept experiments show that this technology could potentially reduce turbulent skin friction by more than 50% of the skin friction of a solid flat plate for subsonic and supersonic flow conditions. The primary purpose of this review paper is to provide readers with information on the turbulent skin friction reduction obtained from many experiments using the MBT. Although the MBT has a penalty for obtaining the microblowing air associated with it, some combinations of the MBT with suction boundary layer control methods are an attractive alternative for a real application. Several computational simulations to understand the flow physics of the MBT are also included. More experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations are needed for the understanding of the unsteady flow nature of the MBT and the optimization of this new technology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Danny P.
1999-01-01
A new turbulent skin friction reduction technology, called the microblowing technique has been tested in supersonic flow (Mach number of 1.9) on specially designed porous plates with microholes. The skin friction was measured directly by a force balance and the boundary layer development was measured by a total pressure rake at the tailing edge of a test plate. The free stream Reynolds number was 1.0(10 exp 6) per meter. The turbulent skin friction coefficient ratios (C(sub f)/C(sub f0)) of seven porous plates are given in this report. Test results showed that the microblowing technique could reduce the turbulent skin friction in supersonic flow (up to 90 percent below a solid flat plate value, which was even greater than in subsonic flow).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.
1943-01-01
In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.
Skin-friction drag reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bidkar, Rahul A.; Leblanc, Luc; Kulkarni, Ambarish J.; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc
2014-08-01
Technologies for reducing hydrodynamic skin-friction drag have a huge potential for energy-savings in applications ranging from propulsion of marine vessels to transporting liquids through pipes. The majority of previous experimental studies using hydrophobic surfaces have successfully shown skin-friction drag reduction in the laminar and transitional flow regimes (typically Reynolds numbers less than ≃106 for external flows). However, this hydrophobicity induced drag reduction is known to diminish with increasing Reynolds numbers in experiments involving wall bounded turbulent flows. Using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces (fabricated using large-length scalable thermal spray processes) on a flat plate geometry, we present water-tunnel test data with Reynolds numbers ranging from 106 to 9 × 106 that show sustained skin-friction drag reduction of 20%-30% in such turbulent flow regimes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that apart from the formation of a Cassie state and hydrophobicity, we also need a low surface roughness and an enhanced ability of the textured surface to retain trapped air, for sustained drag reduction in turbulent flow regimes. Specifically, for the hydrophobic test surfaces of the present and previous studies, we show that drag reduction seen at lower Reynolds numbers diminishes with increasing Reynolds number when the surface roughness of the underlying texture becomes comparable to the viscous sublayer thickness. Conversely, test data show that textures with surface roughness significantly smaller than the viscous sublayer thickness and textures with high porosity show sustained drag reduction in the turbulent flow regime. The present experiments represent a significant technological advancement and one of the very few demonstrations of skin-friction reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces in an external flow configuration. The scalability of the fabrication method, the passive nature of this surface technology, and the obtained results in the turbulent regime make such hydrophobic surfaces a potentially attractive option for hydrodynamic skin-friction drag reduction.
Dynamical Turbulent Flow on the Galton Board with Friction
Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2001-07-16
We study numerically and analytically the dynamics of charged particles on the Galton board, a regular lattice of disk scatters, in the presence of constant external force, magnetic field, and friction. It is shown that under certain conditions friction leads to the appearance of a strange chaotic attractor. In this regime the average velocity and direction of particle flow can be effectively affected by electric and magnetic fields. We discuss the applications of these results to the charge transport in antidot superlattices and the stream of suspended particles in a viscous flow through scatters.
Analysis of turbulent skin friction generated in flow along a cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monte, Stephane; Sagaut, Pierre; Gomez, Thomas
2011-06-01
This paper presents an extension of FIK identity [K. Fukagata et al., Phys. Fluids 14, L73 (2002)] to turbulent axial flow along a cylinder. This relation gives the contributions of both the mean flow and the turbulent fluctuating flow to the skin friction coefficient. The later contribution is then further decomposed more precisely as proposed by B. Frohnapfel, Y. Hasegawa, and N. Kasagi, "Reactive Flow Control for Skin Friction Drag Reduction based on Sensing of the Streamwise Wall-Shear Stress," Euromech Fluid Mechanics Conference 8 (EFMC8), Bad Reichenhall, Germany, 13-16 Sept. 2010, S4-30. The Reynolds shear stress can be linked to the eigenvalues of the anisotropy tensor, the angle between the principal axis of the Reynolds stress tensor, and the mean flow direction and the turbulent kinetic energy. These eigenvalues and the alignment are important elements of the Reynolds stress profile. The present analysis is based on high-fidelity Reynolds-Stress-Model-based simulations. The results are first validated using available DNS and experimental data. Then, results are used in order to investigate the variations of the skin friction componential contributions with respect to characteristic dimensionless radius a+, Reynolds numbers, Rea (cylinder-radius-based Reynolds number) and Re? (boundary-layer-thickness-based Reynolds number), or curvature ratio ? /a, and anisotropic decomposition of the Reynolds stress. Explicit empirical formula for surface responses of skin friction and its turbulent component is given.
Skin-Friction Drag Reduction in Turbulent Channel Flow by a Scale-Dependent Molecular Viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Dong-Hyun; Akhavan, Rayhaneh
2011-11-01
In prior work, we have proposed that the primary mechanism of drag reduction by dilute polymer solutions is the polymer's extraction of a minute amount of turbulence kinetic energy from the large turbulent scales. Here, we mimic this mechanism by performing DNS with a scale-dependent molecular viscosity in turbulent channel flow. Simulations were performed in channels of size 10 h 5 h 2 h and 40 h 10 h 2 h at a base Reynolds number of Re? ~ 230 . Drag reductions of 50 % and higher were observed when the molecular viscosity was artificially raised from ?s to (3 - 4) ?s in a band of large-scale wavenumbers corresponding to 0 . 01 turbulence structure, interruption of the turbulent energy cascade, a pileup of turbulence kinetic energy at the large scales in the streamwise component of the fluctuating velocity, and a shift of the peak of turbulence production away from the wall. These results open up new possibilities for devising novel turbulent skin-friction drag reduction strategies in wall flows. Supported by The Martin R. Prince Foundation & Teragrid Allocation CTS070070.
Turbulent Reynolds analogy factors of stacked large-eddy breakup devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindemann, A. M.
1986-01-01
Direct measurements are made of turbulent Reynolds analogy factors, referenced to a flat plate, for turbulent boundary layer flows altered by stacked arrays of large eddy breakup devices (LEBUs). These are of interest as drag reducers when inserted into a boundary layer transverse to the flow. The data thus obtained furnish evidence that heat transfer, skin friction drag, and LEBU performance factors in low Reynolds number flows are sensitive to flow history. Attention is given to the apparatus and measurement procedures used.
Riblets. [for aerodynamic drag reduction of turbulent skin friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walsh, Michael J.
1990-01-01
In addition to characterizing the various concepts reported in the literature on longitudinally-ribbed surface for aerodynamic surface drag reduction, the present development status evaluation of this technology correlates all available experimental data. An analysis of these data is then conducted to ascertain the parameters most directly involved in drag reduction, and to evaluate the effects which have thus far been exerted on turbulent boundary layer structures. Such advanced riblet techniques as compound and three-dimensional riblets, riblets in combination with large-eddy breakup devices, and riblets with suction/blowing, are also discussed.
Preliminary numerical assessment of turbulent skin friction control with plasma actuators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frohnapfel, Bettina; Criscione, Antonio; Tropea, Cameron; Hasegawa, Yosuke; Kasagi, Nobuhide
2009-11-01
Plasma actuators (PA) introduce a body force in the near-wall region of a fluid flow. This body force has already been successfully used for separation and transition flow control. We investigate the possibility of applying PAs to turbulent skin friction drag reduction by testing the effect of a modelled PA's body force in a numerically simulated turbulent channel flow. The body force is implemented into a control loop, which aims at impeding the spanwise velocity component near the wall surface. We assume to employ distributed sensors and actuators of finite size in order to investigate optimum actuator sizes for practical applications. Since the detailed physics of the body force generation by PAs and the resulting force distributions are still under study and a matter of discussion, we employ different models for the force distribution with the goal to identify the critical requirements for skin friction drag reduction with PAs.
Skin-friction Drag Reduction in Turbulent Channel Flow with Idealized Superhydrophobic Walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratsegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh
2013-11-01
Skin-friction drag reduction by super-hydrophobic (SH) surfaces was investigated using Lattice Boltzmann DNS in turbulent channel flow with SH longitudinal microgrooves on both walls. The liquid/gas interfaces in the SH microgrooves were modeled as flat, shear-free surfaces. Drag reductions (DR) ranging from 5 % to 47 % were observed for microgrooves of size 4 <=g+0 =w+0 <= 128 in channels of bulk Reynolds number Reb =Ub h / ? = 3600 (Re?0 =u?0 h / ? ~ 230), where g+0 and w+0 denote the widths of the slip and no-slip surfaces in base flow wall units. It is shown that in both laminar and turbulent flow, DR scales as DR =Us /Ub + ? . In laminar flow, where DR is purely due to surface slip, ? = 0 . In turbulent flow, ? remains negligible when the slip length is smaller than the thickness of the viscous sublayer. For DR > 40 % , where the effect of surface slip can be felt in the buffer layer, ? attains a small non-zero value. Analysis of turbulence statistics and turbulence kinetic energy budgets confirms that outside of a layer of size approximately one slip length from the walls, the turbulence dynamics proceeds as in regular channel flow with no-slip walls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hyunwook; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, John
2013-11-01
Superhydrophobic surfaces have attracted much attention lately as they present the possibility of achieving a substantial skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flows. In this paper, the effects of a superhydrophobic surface, consisting of microgrates aligned in the flow direction, on skin-friction drag in turbulent flows were investigated through direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flows. The superhydrophobic surface was modeled through a shear-free boundary condition on the air-water interface. Dependence of the effective slip length and resulting skin-friction drag on Reynolds number and surface geometry was examined. In laminar flows, the effective slip length depended on surface geometry only, independent of Reynolds number, consistent with an existing analysis. In turbulent flows, the effective slip length was a function of Reynolds number, indicating its dependence on flow conditions near the surface. The resulting drag reduction was much larger in turbulent flows than in laminar flows, and near-wall turbulence structures were significantly modified, suggesting that indirect effects resulting from modified turbulence structures played a more significant role in reducing drag in turbulent flows than the direct effect of the slip, which led to a modest drag reduction in laminar flows. It was found that the drag reduction in turbulent flows was well correlated with the effective slip length normalized by viscous wall units.
Heat transfer and friction factors in the ribbed square convergent and divergent channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, M. S.; Ahn, S. W.
2015-07-01
Heat transfer and friction factors are reported for the measurements of turbulent flows in the convergent and divergent square channels with one-sided ribbed wall as well as two opposite in-line ribbed walls. The study covers three different hydraulic diameter ratios between inlet and exit at the test section such as Dho/Dhi = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.33 and Reynolds numbers in the range of 25,000-79,000. The channels, composing of ten isolated copper sections in the length of test section of 1 m, have the hydraulic diameter of 87.5 mm for the straight channel (Dho/Dhi = 1.0); the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter is 0.114; the rib pitch-to-height ratio equals 10. On the contrary to public opinion that the friction factor depends on the portion of the ribbed area, the total friction factor in the two opposite ribbed walls are lower than in the one-sided ribbed wall in the divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 because the total pressure, summing positive dynamic and negative static pressures, is acted. The results show that the two opposite ribbed divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 provides the best heat transfer enhancement and the two opposite ribbed convergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 0.75 provides the worst friction factor enhancement, and the ribbed divergent channels are generally recommended.
Effects of Riblets on Skin Friction in High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2012-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets are conducted to examine the effects of riblets on skin friction at supersonic speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers with an adiabatic wall, a Mach number of M1 = 2.5, and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Re = 1720 are considered. Simulations are conducted for boundary-layer flows over a clean surface and symmetric V- groove riblets with nominal spacings of 20 and 40 wall units. The DNS results confirm the few existing experimental observations and show that a drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved for riblets with proper spacing. The influence of riblets on turbulence statistics is analyzed in detail with an emphasis on identifying the differences, if any, between the drag reduction mechanisms for incompressible and high-speed boundary layers.
Friction Factor Characterization for High-Porosity Random Fiber Regenerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thieme, Lanny G.
2001-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center, the Department of Energy (DOE), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, Washington are developing a Stirling convertor for a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Power System to provide electric power for NASA Space Science Missions. STC is developing the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under contract to DOE. Steady-flow tests were completed to determine the friction factor for the high-porosity regenerators that are used in the TDC. STC fabricated a flow test fixture and three random fiber regenerator test samples, one each at approximately 80, 88, and 96 percent porosities. The flow tests were then completed by the NASA Glenn Flow Calibration Laboratory, and the data reduced to Reynolds number and friction factor. The results showed that the 80 and 88 percent porosity samples had similar characteristics while the 96 percent porosity sample had significantly higher friction factors for given Reynolds numbers compared to the samples with lower porosities. Comparisons were also made between the test data and existing correlations. STC used this data to derive a modified regenerator friction factor correlation for use in the Stirling design code GLIMPS for porosities greater than 88 percent. Using this new correlation, the final optimized regenerator design porosity was reduced from 96 to 90 percent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Clarke, Daryl D.; Ozeki, Shinichi
Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various resins such as asphalt or resin combined with pitch. These efforts were further developed by the use of woven asbestos material saturated by either rubber solution or liquid resin binder and functioned as an internal expanding brake, similar to brake lining system. The role of asbestos continued through the use of chopped asbestos saturated by rubber, but none was entirely successful due to the poor rubber heat resistance required for increased speeds and heavy gearing demands of the automobile industry. The use of phenolic resins as binder for asbestos friction materials provided the necessary thermal resistance and performance characteristics. Thus, the utility of asbestos as the main friction component, for over 100 years, has been significantly reduced in friction materials due to asbestos identity as a carcinogen. Steel and other fibrous components have displaced asbestos in disk pads. Currently, non-asbestos organics are the predominate friction material. Phenolic resins continue to be the preferred binder, and increased amounts are necessary to meet the requirements of highly functional asbestos-free disk pads for the automotive industry. With annual automobile production exceeding 70 million vehicles and additional automobile production occurring in developing countries worldwide and increasing yearly, the amount of phenolic resin for friction material is also increasing (Fig. 14.1).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Danny P.
2002-01-01
Characteristics of micro-hole porous skins for the turbulent skin friction reduction technology called the micro-blowing technique (MBT) were assessed experimentally at Mach 0.4 and blowing fractions from zero to 0.005. The objective of this study was to provide guidelines for the selection of porous plates for MBT. The hole angle, pattern, diameter, aspect ratio, and porosity were the parameters considered for this study. The additional effort to angle and stagger the holes was experimentally determined to be unwarranted in terms of skin friction benefit; therefore, these parameters were systematically eliminated from the parametric study. The impact of the remaining three parameters was evaluated by fixing two parameters at the reference values while varying the third parameter. The best hole-diameter Reynolds number was found to be around 400, with an optimum aspect ratio of about 6. The optimum porosity was not conclusively discerned because the range of porosities in the test plates considered was not great enough. However, the porosity was estimated to be about 15 percent or less.
Simple LMFBR axial-flow friction-factor correlation
Chan, Y.N.; Todreas, N.E.
1982-12-01
Complicated LMFBR axial lead-length averaged friction-factor correlations are reduced to an easy, ready-to-use function of bundle Reynolds number for wire-wrapped bundles. The function together with the power curves to calculate the associated constants are incorporated in a computer preprocessor, EZFRIC. The constants required for the calculation of the subchannels and bundle friction factors are derived and correlated into power curves of geometrical parameters. A computer program, FRIC, which can alternatively be used to accurately calculate these constants is also included. The accurate values of the constants and the corresponding values predicted by the power curves and percentage error of prediction are tabulated for a wide variety of geometries of interest.
Friction Factor Measurements in an Equally Spaced Triangular Tube Array
Vassallo P, Symolon P
2007-03-19
Friction factor data for adiabatic cross-flow of water in a staggered tube array was obtained over a Reynolds number range (based on hydraulic diameter and gap velocity) of about 10,000 to 250,000. The tubes were 12.7mm (0.5 inch) outer diameter, in a uniformly spaced triangular arrangement with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. The friction factor was compared to several literature correlations, and was found to be best matched by the Idelchik correlation. Other correlations were found to vary significantly from the test data. Based on the test data, a new correlation is proposed for this tube bundle geometry which covers the entire Reynolds number range tested.
Linear modeling of turbulent skin-friction reduction due to spanwise wall motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duque-Daza, Carlos; Baig, Mirza; Lockerby, Duncan; Chernyshenko, Sergei; Davies, Christopher; University of Warwick Team; Imperial College Team; Cardiff University Team
2012-11-01
We present a study on the effect of streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise wall velocity on the growth of near-wall turbulent streaks using a linearized formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The changes in streak amplification due to the travelling waves induced by the wall velocity are compared to published results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) predictions of the turbulent skin-friction reduction over a range of parameters; a clear correlation between these two sets of results is observed. Additional linearized simulations but at a much higher Reynolds numbers, more relevant to aerospace applications, produce results that show no marked differences to those obtained at low Reynolds number. It is also observed that a close correlation exists between DNS data of drag reduction and a very simple characteristic of the ``generalized'' Stokes layer generated by the streamwise-travelling waves. Carlos.Duque-Daza@warwick.ac.uk - School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK caduqued@unal.edu.co - Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Dorothy B; Faget, Maxime A
1956-01-01
A modified method of Van Driest's flat-plate theory for turbulent boundary layer has been found to simplify the calculation of local skin-friction coefficients which, in turn, have made it possible to obtain through Reynolds analogy theoretical turbulent heat-transfer coefficients in the form of Stanton number. A general formula is given and charts are presented from which the modified method can be solved for Mach numbers 1.0 to 12.0, temperature ratios 0.2 to 6.0, and Reynolds numbers 0.2 times 10 to the 6th power to 200 times 10 to the 6th power.
Measuring and modelling the frictional velocity u*, turbulence and heat fluxes above the North Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tambke, Jens; Bye, John A. T.; Schmidt, Michael; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf
2014-05-01
In this study, we analyse the frictional velocity u*, drag coefficient, vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles observed at different met-masts in the German North and Baltic Sea. We present an analysis of different models for the frictional velocity u* in convective, neutral and stable thermal stratification of the atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements performed with ultra-sonic anemometers are compared to profile-derived values and a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric thermal stability. Modelling: An improved approach to model the vertical wind speed profile is presented and compared against meso-scale model results (WRF, COSMO): Bye-Ekman-Coupling (BEC) describes the flux of momentum from the Ekman layer of the atmosphere through the Prandtl layer down to the air-sea interface by a modified wave boundary layer with enhanced Charnock dynamics (Bye et al. 2010). The BEC model is based on the coupled pair of similarity relations for "aerodynamically rough flow" in both fluids (air and sea). The derived drag law is of Charnock form, almost independent of the wave age and consistent with the transfer of momentum to the wave spectrum - which takes place in the smaller rather than the dominant wavelengths. Measurements: It was found that the frictional velocity u* is considerably smaller than predicted by conventional approaches using the Charnock relation: For wind speeds between 10 m/s and 15 m/s at 40 m height above the sea surface, u*(observed) is 14% smaller than u*(Charnock). Most important, we found unexpected, strong and obviously artificial distortions concerning the three wind speed components in the 10Hz data of the three ultra-sonic anemometers at the offshore met-mast FINO1 at 40 m, 60 m and 80 m height. The pattern of these distortions is independent from different post-processing procedures (planar-fit etc.). We anticipate that these artefacts imply severe problems for the eddy covariance technique. Moreover, these artefacts may be relevant in other (previous and on-going) ultra-sonic measurement campaigns where turbulent parameters such as u* and heat fluxes are derived. A simple, but innovative analysis is proposed to check ultra-sonic measurements with respect to these artefacts, using the original temporal 10Hz resolution of the data: The instantaneous vertical wind speed component w is analysed versus the instantaneous wind direction (called wind.dir in the following), computed from the instantaneous horizontal components u and v. The observational density is then plotted in the (w; wind.dir)-space. We found a pattern of stripes of very strong densities for specific wind direction bins, which are thinner than 1° and which cannot be attributed directly to the geometry of the anemometer (transducers, physical structure etc.). The source of this artificial pattern is still unclear and open for discussion. References: Bye JAT, Ghantous M, Wolff J-O (2010) On the variability of the Charnock constant and the functional dependence of the drag coefficient on wind speed. Ocean Dynamics 60(4) 851-860
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadian, Arun Kumar; Biswas, Pankaj
2015-10-01
Friction stir welding has been quite successful in joining aluminum alloy which has gained importance in almost all industrial sectors over the past two decades. It is a newer technique and therefore needs more attention in many sectors, flow of material being one among them. The material flow pattern actually helps in deciding the parameters required for particular tool geometry. The knowledge of material flow is very significant in removing defects from the weldment. In the work presented in this paper, the flow behavior of AA6061 under a threaded tool has been studied. The convective heat loss has been considered from all the surfaces, and a comparative study has been made with and without the use of temperature-dependent properties and their significance in the finite volume method model. The two types of models that have been implemented are turbulent and laminar models. Their thermal histories have been studied for all the cases. The material flow velocity has been analyzed to predict the flow of material. A swirl inside the weld material has been observed in all the simulations.
Friction Factor for Flow in Rectangular Ducts with One Side Rib-Roughened
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youn, B.; Yuen, C.; Mills, A. F.
1994-01-01
Numerical simulations of incompressible turbulent flow through rectangular ducts with one side rib-roughened were performed to determine pressure drop. The "PHOENICS " software package was used for the computations, which required provision of a wall function for transverse rib-roughened surfaces. The present study was conducted in the range of 10(exp 5) less than or equal to Reynolds number less than or equal to 10(exp 7), 0.01 less than or equal to rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio less than or equal to 0.04, 10 less than or equal to pitch to rib height ratio less than or equal to 40. Using the numerical results, friction factor charts for various aspect ratios were generated. The numerical results agreed well with experimental data that was obtained for 10(exp 5) less than Reynolds less than 2 x 10(exp 5). In addition, a scheme for predicting friction factor using existing correlations for smooth and rough walls was developed.
Friction factor data for flat plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ha, Tae Woong
1989-01-01
Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.
Friction-factor data for flat-plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ha, T. W.; Childs, Dara W.
1992-01-01
Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, F. G.; Strokowski, A. J.
1978-01-01
Experiments were conducted to determine the reduction in surface skin friction and the effectiveness of surface cooling downstream of one to four successive flush slots injecting cold air at an angle of 10 deg into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer. Data were obtained by direct measurement of surface shear and equilibrium temperatures, respectively. Increasing the number of slots decreased the skin friction, but the incremental improvement in skin-friction reduction decreased as the number of slots was increased. Cooling effectiveness was found to improve, for a given total mass injection, as the number of slots was increased from one to four. Comparison with previously reported step-slot data, however, indicated that step slots with tangential injection are more effective for both reducing skin friction and cooling than the present flush-slot configuration. Finite-difference predictions are in reasonable agreement with skin-friction data and with boundary-layer profile data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bala Sundar Rao, R.; Ranganath, G.; Ranganayakulu, C.
2013-07-01
A numerical model has been developed for plain fin of plate fin heat exchanger. Plain fin performance has been analyzed with the help of CFD by changing the various parameters of the fin, Colburn ` j' and fanning friction ` f' factors are calculated. These values compared with the standard values. The correlations have been developed between Reynolds number Re, fin height h, fin thickness t, fin spacing s, Colburn factor ` j' and friction factor ` f'.
Wahidi, R.; Chakroun, W.; Al-Fahed, S.
2005-11-01
Skin-friction coefficient of turbulent boundary layer flow over a smooth-wall with transverse square grooves was investigated. Four grooved-wall cases were investigated. The four grooved-wall configurations are single 5mm square grooved-wall, and 5mm square grooves spaced 10, 20 and 40 element widths apart in the streamwise direction. Laser-Doppler Anemometer (LDA) was used for the mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements. The skin-friction coefficient determined from the velocity profile increases sharply just downstream of the groove. This overshoot is followed by an undershoot and then relaxation back to the smooth-wall value. This behavior is observed in most grooved-wall cases. Integrating the skin-friction coefficient in the streamwise direction indicates that there is an increase in the overall drag in all the grooved-wall cases.
Friction Factor Evaluation Using Experimental and Finite Element Methods for Al-4%Cu Preforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desalegn, Wogaso; Davidson, M. J.; Khanra, A. K.
2014-08-01
In this study, ring compression tests and finite element (FE) simulations have been utilized to evaluate the friction factor, m, under different lubricating conditions for powder metallurgical (P/M) Al-4%Cu preforms. A series of ring compression tests were carried out to obtain friction factor ( m) for a number of lubricating conditions, including zinc stearate, graphite, molybdenum disulfide powder, and unlubricated condition. FE simulations were used to analyze materials deformation, densification, and geometric changes, and to derive the friction calibration curves. The friction factor has been determined for various initial relative densities and different lubricating conditions, and a proper lubricant for cold forging of P/M Al-4%Cu preforms is found. Studies show that the use of lubricants has reduced the friction. However, increase in the number of pores in the preforms leads to excessive friction. The FE simulation results demonstrate a shift in the neutral plane distance from the axis of ring specimen, which occurred due to variations in the frictional conditions and initial relative densities. The load requirement for deformation, effective stress, and effective strain induced, and bulging phenomena obtained by FE simulations have a good agreement with the experimental data.
Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elrod, David Alan
1988-01-01
The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.
Structure of atmospheric turbulence in the friction layer below 500 meters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maas, S. J.; Scoggins, J. R.
1976-01-01
Measurements of wind direction and speed, vertical velocity, and temperature were made from several levels of the 444 m tower near Oklahoma City. Turbulence quantities were calculated from the covariances between observed variables over periods ranging from 5 min to 1 hr. It was found that in some cases parameters such as mean wind speed, shearing stress, and vertical heat flux could be expressed by simple equations for periods of 15 min to 1 hr. Changes in these quantities with time are related to changes in vertical motion and stability. Power spectra were calculated for sequential 15 min, 30 min, and 1 hr periods. The effects of stability, wind speed, and surface roughness on the spectra of longitudinal and lateral velocity were examined, along with the effect of height on the spectrum of vertical velocity. This region was shown to be composed of a lower region in which mechanical turbulence dominates and an upper region dominated by convective turbulence.
Wall mass transfer and pressure gradient effects on turbulent skin friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, R. D.; Balasubramanian, R.
1984-01-01
The effects of mass injection and pressure gradients on the drag of surfaces were studied theoretically with the aid of boundary-layer and Navier-Stokes codes. The present investigation is concerned with the effects of spatially varying the injection in the case of flat-plate drag. Effects of suction and injection on wavy wall surfaces are also explored. Calculations were performed for 1.2 m long surfaces, one flat and the other sinusoidal with a wavelength of 30.5 cm. Attention is given to the study of the effect of various spatial blowing variations on flat-plate skin friction reduction, local skin friction coefficient calculated by finite difference boundary-layer code and Navier-Stokes code, and the effect of phase-shifting sinusoidal mass transfer on the drag of a sinusoidal surface.
Turbulent Reynolds analogy factors for nonplanar surface microgeometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindemann, A. M.
1985-01-01
Direct measurements of turbulent Reynolds analogy factors are presented for 15 nonplanar surface microgeometries (including riblets, oscillating transverse curvature, wavy walls, and micro air bearings) for momentum thickness Reynolds numbers of 1638-2631. It is shown that certain types of nonplanar surface microgeometries will increase turbulent Reynolds analogy factors significantly above flat-plate levels. In several cases, the observed elevated heat-transfer efficiencies represent the combined effects of both heat-transfer increases and drag decreases. Generally, the results suggest that decreases of the order of 20 percent are possible in heat exchanger volume, cost, and weight for designs with extensive planar surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, P. K.
1980-01-01
An analysis is presented of the reliability of various generally accepted empirical expressions for the prediction of the skin-friction coefficient C/sub f/ of turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers in zero-pressure-gradient flows on a smooth flat plate. The skin-friction coefficients predicted from these expressions were compared to the skin-friction coefficients of experimental profiles that were determined from a graphical method formulated from the law of the wall. These expressions are found to predict values that are consistently different than those obtained from the graphical method over the range 600 Re/sub theta 2000. A curve-fitted empirical relationship was developed from the present data and yields a better estimated value of C/sub f/ in this range. The data, covering the range 200 Re/sub theta 7000, provide insight into the nature of transitional flows. They show that fully developed turbulent boundary layers occur at Reynolds numbers Re/sub theta/ down to 425. Below this level there appears to be a well-ordered evolutionary process from the laminar to the turbulent profiles. These profiles clearly display the development of the turbulent core region and the shrinking of the laminar sublayer with increasing values of Re/sub theta/.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyoungyoun; Adrian, Ronald; Balachandar, S.; Sureshkumar, R.
2007-11-01
We portray, for the first time, the nonlinear auto-generation of new vortices and formation of hairpin packets in the presence of polymer stress by performing a series of dynamic simulations and explain the effect of such dynamics on the reduction in turbulent stresses and hence, drag reduction. In the dynamical simulations, an initially isolated vortical structure is evolved in the viscoelastic flow where the polymer stress is modeled by the FENE-P model (finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin). The initial conditions are given by the conditionally averaged flow fields for Reynolds-stress-maximizing Q2 event obtained from fully turbulent channel flow at Re?=395 with drag reduction of 0%, 18% and 61%. We found that the threshold of initial vortex strength for the auto-generation of new hairpins increases as the viscoelasticity increases, especially in the buffer layer. The result suggests that the auto-generation of new vortices is suppressed by the polymer stresses, thereby the coherent as well as incoherent Reynolds stress decrease and ultimately turbulent drag is reduced.
Friction factor and mean velocity profile for pipe flow at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furuichi, N.; Terao, Y.; Wada, Y.; Tsuji, Y.
2015-09-01
The friction factor for a fully developed pipe flow is examined at high Reynolds numbers up to ReD = 1.8 × 107 with high accuracy using the high Reynolds number actual flow facility "Hi-Reff" at AIST, NMIJ. The precise measurement of the friction factor is achieved by the highly accurate measurement of the flow rate, and the measurement uncertainty is estimated to be approximately 0.9% with a coverage factor of k = 2. The result examined here is obviously different from the Prandtl equation and the experimental results from the superpipe at Princeton University. The deviation of the present result from the Prandtl equation in the lower Reynolds number region is approximately 2.5% and -3% at the higher Reynolds number. For ReD < 2.0 × 105, the present friction factor obtained here agrees very well with the results at the superpipe, but a deviation is observed for ReD > 2.0 × 105, and it increases with the Reynolds number and reaches -6% at ReD = 1.0 × 107. The Kármán constant estimated by the measured friction factor is 0.385. Using inner scale variables estimated by the present friction factor, the velocity profile measured by laser Doppler velocimetry in the same measurement configuration for the friction factor is normalized in order to observe the consistency of the Kármán constants between both the measurements. The Kármán constant estimated by the measured velocity profiles for ReD > 3.0 × 105 is 0.382.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodrguez-Lpez, Eduardo; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Buxton, Oliver R. H.
2015-04-01
The present paper describes a method to extrapolate the mean wall shear stress, , and the accurate relative position of a velocity probe with respect to the wall, , from an experimentally measured mean velocity profile in a turbulent boundary layer. Validation is made between experimental and direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer flows with independent measurement of the shear stress. The set of parameters which minimize the residual error with respect to the canonical description of the boundary layer profile is taken as the solution. Several methods are compared, testing different descriptions of the canonical mean velocity profile (with and without overshoot over the logarithmic law) and different definitions of the residual function of the optimization. The von Krmn constant is used as a parameter of the fitting process in order to avoid any hypothesis regarding its value that may be affected by different initial or boundary conditions of the flow. Results show that the best method provides an accuracy of for the estimation of the friction velocity and for the position of the wall. The robustness of the method is tested including unconverged near-wall measurements, pressure gradient, and reduced number of points; the importance of the location of the first point is also tested, and it is shown that the method presents a high robustness even in highly distorted flows, keeping the aforementioned accuracies if one acquires at least one data point in . The wake component and the thickness of the boundary layer are also simultaneously extrapolated from the mean velocity profile. This results in the first study, to the knowledge of the authors, where a five-parameter fitting is carried out without any assumption on the von Krmn constant and the limits of the logarithmic layer further from its existence.
An annular gas seal analysis using empirical entrance and exit region friction factors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elrod, D. A.; Childs, D. W.; Nelson, C. C.
1990-01-01
Wall shear stress results from stationary-rotor flow tests of five annular gas seals are used to develop entrance and exit region friction factor models. The friction factor models are used in a bulk-flow seal analysis which predicts leakage and rotor-dynamic coefficients. The predictions of the analysis are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis (1985). The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb-stators. The present analysis predicts the destabilizing cross-coupled stiffness of a seal better than Nelson's analysis. Both analyses predict direct damping well and direct stiffness poorly.
Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations
Chivers, T.C.
1997-04-01
Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, Sanjib
Various thermophysical properties, fluid flow parameter and heat transfer characteristics were measured for nanofluid with 6% volume concentration of solid Al2O3 nanoparticles in water. Thermal conductivity measurements showed that there is a definite enhancement in thermal conductivity of the nanofluid compared to that of water. At 7°C, the enhancement was 16% which decreased to 6.96% at 50°C. The viscosity measurements of the 6% volume concentration Al2O 3/water nanofluid showed that its viscosity is higher by a factor of 1.25 to 10.24 than the viscosity of water. Also the measurements of the viscosity of different volume concentration of Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that, the viscosity decreases as the volume concentration decreases. The plot between the shear stress and strain rate for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it is a Newtonian fluid for the range of strain rate between 6-122 s-1. Several readings of viscosity were taken by subjecting the nanofluid to heating and cooling cycle. It was found that above 62.65°C, the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid experiences an irrecoverable increase in viscosity and when cooled from beyond this temperature, a hysteresis effect on the viscosity is seen. The friction factor results for laminar flow for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it matches the value given by the Hagen-Poiseulle equation (f = 64/Re ). The transition from laminar flow to turbulent was found to occur at a Reynolds number of approximately 1500. The convective heat transfer results were in agreement with that proposed by the Lienhard correlation (Lienhard and Lienhard, 2008). For fully developed laminar flow, the Nusselt number under constant heat flux condition was found to be within ±7% of 4.36. In the laminar flow regime, the Nusselt numbers for thermally developing flow were within ±10% of the value calculated from the Lienhard correlation.
Biomechanical risk factors and flexor tendon frictional work in the cadaveric carpal tunnel.
Kociolek, Aaron M; Tat, Jimmy; Keir, Peter J
2015-02-01
Pathological changes in carpal tunnel syndrome patients include fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) adjacent to the flexor tendons in the carpal tunnel. These clinical findings suggest an etiology of excessive shear-strain force between the tendon and SSCT, underscoring the need to assess tendon gliding characteristics representative of repetitive and forceful work. A mechanical actuator moved the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon proximally and distally in eight fresh frozen cadaver arms. Eighteen experimental conditions tested the effects of three well-established biomechanical predictors of injury, including a combination of two wrist postures (0° and 30° flexion), three tendon velocities (50, 100, 150mm/sec), and three forces (10, 20, 40N). Tendon gliding resistance was determined with two light-weight load cells, and integrated over tendon displacement to represent tendon frictional work. During proximal tendon displacement, frictional work increased with tendon velocity (58.0% from 50-150mm/sec). There was a significant interaction between wrist posture and tendon force. In wrist flexion, frictional work increased 93.0% between tendon forces of 10 and 40N. In the neutral wrist posture, frictional work only increased 33.5% (from 10-40N). During distal tendon displacement, there was a similar multiplicative interaction on tendon frictional work. Concurrent exposure to multiple biomechanical work factors markedly increased tendon frictional work, thus providing a plausible link to the pathogenesis of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome. Additionally, our study provides the conceptual basis to evaluate injury risk, including the multiplicative repercussions of combined physical exposures. PMID:25553671
A Model for Water Flow Through Rock Fractures Based on Friction Factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhenyu; Nemcik, Jan; Qiao, Qiuqiu; Geng, Xueyu
2015-03-01
Rock fracture roughness and tortuosity caused by contact asperities produce extra resistance for fluid flow in comparison with the channel consisting of two smooth parallel plates. To characterise the role of roughness and tortuosity in water flow through rock fractures, the existing studies of the effect of fracture roughness and contact area (tortuosity) on fluid flow through rock fractures were firstly reviewed. Then, an explicit flow model was derived using the friction factor predictor previously proposed according to the flow data of sandstone fractures. Regarding the introduced relative roughness of rock fracture as the correction variable, the developed flow model can be considered as a corrected form of classic cubic law, where the relative roughness is defined as the ratio of the averaged peak asperity height to equivalent hydraulic aperture. Sensitivity analysis shows that the cubic law can overestimate the flow rate by 10 % when the relative roughness increases to 70.7. With further increase in relative roughness up to 300, which usually represents tight rock fractures, the flow rate is only approximately 64 % of that predicted by cubic law. The verification of this friction factor to granite and limestone fractures shows that the used friction factor predictor is in good accordance with the experimental data.
Losses in Channels with Increased External Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaryankin, A. Y.; Soloveva, G. S.
1986-01-01
An approximate method for determining the effect of the level of turbulence on the aerodynamic characteristics of convergent and diffuser channels is examined. A momentum equation for the boundary layer is in the method, introducing external flow turbulence on the basis of experimental values of the coefficient of friction and the form factor. It is found that at significant levels of external turbulence, losses must be considered not only in the boundary layer but also in the central region of the channel.
The influence of void fraction on the submerged perforated sheet hydraulic friction factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blinkov, V. N.; Elkin, I. V.; Emelianov, D. A.; Melikhov, V. I.; Melikhov, O. I.; Nerovnov, A. A.; Nikonov, S. M.; Parfenov, Yu. V.
2015-07-01
The results from an experimental investigation of two-phase flow motion through a submerged perforated sheet (SPS) obtained at the Elektrogorsk Research Center test facility are presented. The test facility, the test section of which is a transverse "cutout" from the full-scale PGV-1000 steam generator with the models of vessel internals, is described in detail. The procedure for carrying out trial startups is outlined, and the system of instrument and control devices is described. The SPS used in all experimental modes of operation had the perforation ratio (the hole area to the sheet area ratio) equal to 5.7%. The pressure in the system was around 7 MPa, and the flow rate of supplied steam was varied from 4.23 to 7.94 t/h, which corresponded to the steam velocity at the evaporation surface equal to 0.15-0.29 m/s. Distributions of pressure difference across the SPS and void fractions under the SPS and above it are obtained. The SPS hydraulic friction factor for a two-phase flow is determined as a result of processing the experimental data. A correction for two-phase nature of the flow for the SPS operating conditions is determined by comparing the obtained SPS hydraulic friction factor for a two-phase flow with the SPS hydraulic friction factor to single-phase flow of steam. It is shown that this correction can be either greater than unity (at low void fractions) or less than unity (at high void fractions).
Apparatus for measuring internal friction Q factors in brittle materials. [applied to lunar samples
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tittmann, B. R.; Curnow, J. M.
1976-01-01
A flexural analog of the torsion pendulum for measuring the Young's modulus and the internal friction Q factor of brittle materials has been developed for Q greater than 10 to the 3rd measurements at a zero static stress and at 10 to the -7th strains of brittle materials in the Hz frequency range. The present design was motivated by the desire to measure Q in fragile lunar return samples at zero static stress to shed light on the anomalously low attenuation of seismic waves on the moon. The use of the apparatus is demonstrated with data on fused silica and on a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, Uriel
1996-01-01
Written five centuries after the first studies of Leonardo da Vinci and half a century after A.N. Kolmogorov's first attempt to predict the properties of flow, this textbook presents a modern account of turbulence, one of the greatest challenges in physics. "Fully developed turbulence" is ubiquitous in both cosmic and natural environments, in engineering applications and in everyday life. Elementary presentations of dynamical systems ideas, probabilistic methods (including the theory of large deviations) and fractal geometry make this a self-contained textbook. This is the first book on turbulence to use modern ideas from chaos and symmetry breaking. The book will appeal to first-year graduate students in mathematics, physics, astrophysics, geosciences and engineering, as well as professional scientists and engineers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brücker, Ch.
2015-03-01
The recent discovery of rare backflow events in turbulent boundary layer flows based on the analysis of simulation data has again raised the need of experimental visualizations of wall-shear stress fields in unsteady flows. The localization of critical points, which are thought to strongly correlate with large-scale events in the log-layer, is of importance. Up to now, there is no experimental proof of these rare events and their topological patterns. Their existence in a turbulent boundary-layer flow along a flat plate is shown herein by means of imaging with 2D arrays of flexible micropillars attached at the wall.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zhaosheng; Wang, Yu; Shao, Xueming
2012-11-01
A direct-forcing fictitious domain method was employed to perform fully-resolved numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow laden with large neutrally buoyant particles at constant pressure gradients. The effects of the particles on the turbulence (including the fluid-phase average velocity, the root-mean-square (rms) of the velocity fluctuation, the probability density function of the velocity and the vortex structures) at the friction Reynolds number of 180 and 395 were investigated. The results show that the drag-reduction effect caused by the spherical particle at low particle volumes is very small. The presence of particles decreases the maximum rms of streamwise velocity fluctuation near wall via weakening the large-scale streamwise vortices, and on the other hand increases the rms of transverse and spanwise fluctuating velocities in vicinity of the wall via inducing smaller-scale vortices. The effects of the particles on the fluid velocity PDF (probability density function) normalized with the rms velocity are small, irrespective of the particle size, particle volume fraction and Reynolds number. The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11072217 and 11132008), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University.
Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.
Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P
2014-03-01
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campo, A.; Chang, J.
Finned tubes are commonly employed in tubular heat exchangers to augment the heat transfer rates between two dissimilar fluid streams. The goal of this study is two-fold: a) to determine the laminar, fully developed velocity and temperature fields for long, internal, longitudinal finned tubes; and b) to construct empirical correlation equations applicable for the asymptotic friction factor and the asymptotic Nusselt numbers as a function of the number of fins and the relative fin height in the bundle. Neither the fluid dynamics nor the heat transfer literature provides information for the second goal, which can be extremely useful to thermal engineers for the implementation of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) of internal, longitudinal finned tubes in heat exchange devices. Moreover, for the validity of the correlation equations, a seldom adopted criterion for the critical Reynolds number has also been introduced as an indispensable guideline to warrant laminar regimes.
Turbulent flow in a channel with transverse rib heat transfer augmentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, B. H.; Mills, A. F.
1993-01-01
Turbulent flow in a 2D channel with repeated rectangular rib roughness was numerically simulated using a low Reynolds number form of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Friction factors and average Stanton numbers were calculated for various pitch to rib height ratios and bulk Reynolds numbers. Comparisons with experiment were generally adequate, with the predictions of friction superior to those for heat transfer. The effect of variable properties for channel flow was investigated, and the results showed a greater effect for friction than for heat transfer. Comparison with experiment yielded no clear conclusions. The turbulence model was also validated for a related problem, that of flow downstream of an abrupt pipe expansion.
Choi, U.S.; Liu, K.V.
1988-02-01
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has identified two concepts for developing advanced energy transmission fluids for thermal systems, in particular district heating and cooling systems. A test series was conducted at ANL to prove these concepts. This paper presents experimental results and discusses the degradation behavior of linear polymer additives and the flow and heat transfer characteristics of non-melting slurry flows. The test results furnished strong evidence that the use of friction reducing additives and slurries can yield improved thermal-hydraulic performance of thermal systems. 5 refs., 5 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, U. S.; Liu, K. V.
1988-02-01
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has identified two concepts for developing advanced energy transmission fluids for thermal systems, in particular district heating and cooling systems. A test series was conducted at ANL to prove these concepts. This paper presents experimental results and discusses the degradation behavior of linear polymer additives and the flow and heat transfer characteristics of non-melting slurry flows. The test results furnished strong evidence that the use of friction reducing additives and slurries can yield improved thermal-hydraulic performance of thermal systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, Robert G
1955-01-01
The expression for eddy diffusivity from a previous analysis was modified in order to account for the effect of kinematic viscosity on the turbulence in the region close to a wall. By using the modified expression, good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental results for heat and mass transfer at Prandtl and Schmidt numbers between 0.5 and 3000. The effects of length-to-diameter ratio and of variable viscosity were also investigated for a wide range of Prandtl numbers.
Turbulent developing fluid flow in helical pipes
Lin, C.X.; Ebadian, M.A.
1996-12-31
A fully elliptic numerical study has been carried out to investigate three-dimensional turbulent developing fluid flow in helical pipes with finite pitch. The {kappa}-{epsilon} standard two-equation turbulence model is applied. The governing equations are solved by a Control-Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM). The results presented here cover a Reynolds number range of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 4}--2.5 {times} 10{sup 5}, a pitch range of 0.0 {approximately} 0.6, and a curvature ratio range of 0.025--0.050. The developments of main and secondary flow fields, turbulent kinetic energy fields, and local and average friction factors are reported and discussed. It has been found that three parameters--Reynolds number, pitch and curvature ratio--generate very complex effects on the development of the turbulent flow fields. Moreover, along the axial direction, the friction factor experiences an oscillatory period before the flow becomes fully developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalkilic, A. S.; Krekci, N. A.; Wongwises, S.
2012-01-01
The theoretical flow models of homogeneous and separated flow are applied to in-tube condensation to predict the pressure drop characteristics of R134a. The homogeneous flow model is modified by ten different dynamic viscosity correlations and various alternative correlations of total, frictional and momentum pressure drops to take account of the partial condensation inside the tube. Numerical analyses were performed to determine the average and local homogeneous wall shear stresses and friction factors by means of a CFD program. The equivalent Reynolds number model is modified by six different two-phase friction factors to determine the total condensation pressure drop in the separated flow model. The refrigerant side total pressure drops, frictional pressure drops, friction factors and wall shear stresses are determined within a 30% error band. The importance of using the alternative total, momentum and frictional pressure drop correlations for the homogeneous flow model is also shown.
Landram, C.S.
1997-10-27
The purpose of this work is to present generalized graphical results to readily permit passage design for monatomic gases, the results including accommodation of any independently specified friction factor, heat transfer coefficient, and wall heat flux. Only constant area passages are considered, and the specified wall heat flux is taken to be uniform.
Effects of unsteady free-stream velocity and free-stream turbulence at a stagnation point
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorla, R. S. R.
1982-01-01
The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and turbulence at a stagnation point on a cylinder situated in a crossflow is investigated analytically, and a model is formulated for the eddy diffusivity induced by free-stream turbulence. The steepest descent method is used to integrate the governing momentum expression, and numerical solutions are given for the unsteady wall shear stress function for specific free-stream transients. It is found after correlation of the results by means of a new turbulence parameter that wall friction increases with increasing free-stream turbulence intensity, and that the friction factor increases with increasing reduced frequency of oscillation values.
Diminishing friction of joint surfaces as initiating factor for destabilising permafrost rocks?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Funk, Daniel; Krautblatter, Michael
2010-05-01
Degrading alpine permafrost due to changing climate conditions causes instabilities in steep rock slopes. Due to a lack in process understanding, the hazard is still difficult to asses in terms of its timing, location, magnitude and frequency. Current research is focused on ice within joints which is considered to be the key-factor. Monitoring of permafrost-induced rock failure comprises monitoring of temperature and moisture in rock-joints. The effect of low temperatures on the strength of intact rock and its mechanical relevance for shear strength has not been considered yet. But this effect is signifcant since compressive and tensile strength is reduced by up to 50% and more when rock thaws (Mellor, 1973). We hypotheisze, that the thawing of permafrost in rocks reduces the shear strength of joints by facilitating the shearing/damaging of asperities due to the drop of the compressive/tensile strength of rock. We think, that decreasing surface friction, a neglected factor in stability analysis, is crucial for the onset of destabilisation of permafrost rocks. A potential rock slide within the permafrost zone in the Wetterstein Mountains (Zugspitze, Germany) is the basis for the data we use for the empirical joint model of Barton (1973) to estimate the peak shear strength of the shear plane. Parameters are the JRC (joint roughness coefficient), the JCS (joint compressive strength) and the residual friction angle (φr). The surface roughness is measured in the field with a profile gauge to create 2D-profiles of joint surfaces. Samples of rock were taken to the laboratory to measure compressive strength using a high-impact Schmidt-Hammer under air-dry, saturated and frozen conditions on weathered and unweathered surfaces. Plugs where cut out of the rock and sand blasted for shear tests under frozen and unfrozen conditions. Peak shear strength of frozen and unfrozen rocks will be calculated using Barton's model. First results show a mean decrease of compressive strength of around 40% when frozen water-saturated rock is exposed to thawing. The friction of sand-blasted rock-plugs decreases by a mean value of 32% considering degradation of rocks by freeze-thaw cycles. Surface roughness could be measured succesfully with the profile gauge and the results show a significant difference between untouched and sheared joint surfaces in the field. Here we show, that shear resistance of rock joints will be diminshed just by the thawing of intact rock. This study will help to establish a sound concept for the destabilization of rocks in permafrost and provide the data for first stability modelling. This will be crucial for predict rock instability in permafrost regions. References: Barton, N. (1973): Review of new shear strength criterion for rock jonts. Engineering Geology 7: 287-332 Mellor, M. (1973): Mechanical Properties of Rocks at Low Temperatures. 2nd International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, Siberia, 334-343.
Is internal friction friction?
Savage, J.C.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.A.
1996-01-01
Mogi [1974] proposed a simple model of the incipient rupture surface to explain the Coulomb failure criterion. We show here that this model can plausibly be extended to explain the Mohr failure criterion. In Mogi's model the incipient rupture surface immediately before fracture consists of areas across which material integrity is maintained (intact areas) and areas across which it is not (cracks). The strength of the incipient rupture surface is made up of the inherent strength of the intact areas plus the frictional resistance to sliding offered by the cracked areas. Although the coefficient of internal friction (slope of the strength versus normal stress curve) depends upon both the frictional and inherent strengths, the phenomenon of internal friction can be identified with the frictional part. The curvature of the Mohr failure envelope is interpreted as a consequence of differences in damage (cracking) accumulated in prefailure loading at different confining pressures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffmann, J. A.; Kassir, S. M.; Larwood, S. M.
1989-01-01
The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free-stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free-stream to the boundary layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffmann, Jon A.
1988-01-01
The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent bounday layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free stream to the boundary layers.
Chun, M.H.; Kim, Y.S.
1995-09-01
A semi-empirical correlation for an adiabatic interfacial friction factor (f{sub ia}) in a stratified wavy flow, based on the simultaneous measurements of the main flow parameters in air-water countercurrent stratified flows and the concept of surface roughness in a wavy flow, has been developed. The functional form for f{sub ia} in particular, has been obtained by making an analogy between the effect of surface roughness on the gas-to-wall friction factor (f{sub g}) in a wavy flow. A total of 186 data points from the present countercurrent flow test and 15 from the concurrent pipe flow reported by others have been used in the present analysis. Comparisons between the data and the predictions of the present correlation shows that the agreement is within {+-}30%.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elrod, D.; Nelson, C.; Childs, D.
1989-01-01
A friction factor model is developed for the entrance-region of a duct. The model is used in an annular gas seal analysis similar to Nelson's (1984). Predictions of the analysis are compared to experimental results for a smooth-stator/smooth-rotor seal and three honeycomb-stator/smooth-rotor seals. The model predicts a leakage and direct damping well. The model overpredicts the dependence of cross-coupled stiffness on fluid prerotation. The model predicts direct stiffness poorly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.
1980-01-01
An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, Scott
1999-01-01
This paper presents results of three minor studies into the behavior of the OVERFLOW with respect to the prediction of skin friction drag on wing bodies at cruise Mach number and wind tunnel Reynolds number. The studies include a preliminary assessment of the behavior of the two new 2-equation turbulence models introduced with the latest version of OVERFLOW (v. 1.8f), an investigation into potential improvements in the matrix dissipation scheme currently implemented in OVERFLOW, and an analysis of the observed sensitivity of the code's skin friction predictions to grid stretching at solid surface boundaries.
A new method for predicting friction pressures and rheology of proppant-laden fracturing fluids
Keck, R.G.; Nehmer, W.L.; Strumolo, G.S. )
1992-02-01
The prediction of fiction pressures for proppant-laden fracturing fluids requires estimations of both the base-gel friction factor and the effect of proppant on fluid rheology. This paper introduces two new expressions, each theoretically based with constants determined from data, that address these two issues for hydroxpropyl guar (HPG)-based fracturing fluids in laminar and turbulent flow. The paper first introduces a new expression for the turbulent friction factor of HPG base gels. This implicit expression for the friction factor is more theoretically correct and requires one less empirical constant than explicit forms currently used. The effect of proppant on the effective viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids is then discussed and a new expression, which includes shear rate, temperature, gel concentration, and proppant volume fraction as parameters, is derived. Developed from laboratory data and existing slurry rheology theories, this expression is shown to provide excellent predictions of laboratory and field data for both tubing and annulus injection.
Prashant, P. S.; Nandan, Hemant; Gopalakrishnan, Meera
2015-01-01
Conventional wisdom suggests that resistance to sliding (RS) generated at the wire-bracket interface has a bearing on the force transmitted to the teeth. The relative importance of static and kinetic friction and also the effect of friction on anchorage has been a topic of debate. Lot of research work has been done to evaluate the various factors that affect friction and thus purportedly retards the rate of tooth movement. However, relevancy of these studies is questionable as the methodology used hardly simulates the oral conditions. Lately studies have concluded that more emphasis should be laid on binding and notching of archwires as these are considered to be the primary factors involved in retarding the tooth movement. This article reviews the various components involved in RS and the factors affecting friction. Further, research work should be carried out to provide cost effective alternatives aimed at reducing friction. PMID:26538873
Prashant, P S; Nandan, Hemant; Gopalakrishnan, Meera
2015-08-01
Conventional wisdom suggests that resistance to sliding (RS) generated at the wire-bracket interface has a bearing on the force transmitted to the teeth. The relative importance of static and kinetic friction and also the effect of friction on anchorage has been a topic of debate. Lot of research work has been done to evaluate the various factors that affect friction and thus purportedly retards the rate of tooth movement. However, relevancy of these studies is questionable as the methodology used hardly simulates the oral conditions. Lately studies have concluded that more emphasis should be laid on binding and notching of archwires as these are considered to be the primary factors involved in retarding the tooth movement. This article reviews the various components involved in RS and the factors affecting friction. Further, research work should be carried out to provide cost effective alternatives aimed at reducing friction. PMID:26538873
Hans, V.S.; Saini, R.P.; Saini, J.S.
2010-06-15
The use of artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate is an effective and economic way to improve the thermal performance of a solar air heater. Several experimental investigations, involving different types of roughness elements, have been carried out to improve the heat transfer from the absorber plate to air flowing in solar air heaters. This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of multiple v-rib roughness on heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in an artificially roughened solar air heater duct. The experiment encompassed Reynolds number (Re) from 2000 to 20000, relative roughness height (e/D) values of 0.019-0.043, relative roughness pitch (P/e) range of 6-12, angle of attack ({alpha}) range of 30-75 and relative roughness width (W/w) range of 1-10. Extensive experimentation has been conducted to collect data on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a rectangular duct roughened with multiple v-ribs. Using these experimental data, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of roughness geometry and flow parameters have been developed. (author)
Spectrally condensed turbulence in thin layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, H.; Shats, M.; Falkovich, G.
2009-12-01
We present experimental results on the properties of bounded turbulence in thin fluid layers. In contrast with the theory of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, the effects of the bottom friction and of the spectral condensation of the turbulence energy are important in our experiment. Here we investigate how these two factors affect statistical moments of turbulent fluctuations. The inverse energy cascade in a bounded turbulent quasi-2D flow leads to the formation of a large coherent vortex (condensate) fed by turbulence. This vortex, depending on its strength, can substantially affect the turbulence statistics, even at small scales. Up to the intermediate strength of the condensate, the velocity moments similar to those in isotropic 2D turbulence are recovered by subtracting the coherent component from the velocity fields. A strong condensate leaves a footprint on the underlying turbulence; it generates stronger non-Gaussianity and reduces the efficiency of the inverse energy cascade. Remarkably, the energy flux in the cascade derived from the third-order structure function using the Kolmogorov flux relation gives physically meaningful values in a broad range of experimental parameters regardless of the condensate strength. This result has important implications for the analysis of the atmospheric wind data in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.
Factors controlling threshold friction velocity in semiarid and arid areas of the United States
Marticorena, Beatrice; Bergametti, G.; Belnap, Jayne
1997-01-01
A physical model was developed to explain threshold friction velocities u*t for particles of the size 60a??120 I?m lying on a rough surface in loose soils for semiarid and arid parts of the United States. The model corrected for the effect of momentum absorption by the nonerodible roughness. For loose or disturbed soils the most important parameter that controls u*t is the aerodynamic roughness height z 0. For physical crusts damaged by wind the size of erodible crust pieces is important along with the roughness. The presence of cyanobacteriallichen soil crusts roughens the surface, and the biological fibrous growth aggregates soil particles. Only undisturbed sandy soils and disturbed soils of all types would be expected to be erodible in normal wind storms. Therefore disturbance of soils by both cattle and humans is very important in predicting wind erosion as confirmed by our measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atashin, S.; Toloei, A. S.; Pakshir, M.
2013-07-01
Seawater is generally considered to be the most corrosive of the natural environments which threatens all the steel structures in their life time. The effect of environmental marine factors is extremely important in its corrosive behaviour. In this article, the influence of different marine parameters including pH, temperature, salinity and velocity is evaluated on the corrosion rate of SS 304 samples under turbulent condition. Since in actual marine environment, the entire parameters act simultaneously and as there is the possibility of differences between individual and synergistic influences of effecting factors, the influence of each considered parameter on the rate of corrosion has been studied under the combined effect of other factors. Finally, the results are presented via the graphs of dual factor effects which illustrate two-by-two influences of environmental parameters on corrosion rate variation. This research presents the difference between the qualitative and quantitative effects of a parameter under different ranges of considered parameter and also under the simultaneous effect of other combined acting factors, which emphasizes the importance of synergistic effects. In each case, the results obtained in turbulent condition are compared with previous study which had investigated the effect of marine parameters in laminar medium.
Factors Influencing Pitot Probe Centerline Displacement in a Turbulent Supersonic Boundary Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grosser, Wendy I.
1997-01-01
When a total pressure probe is used for measuring flows with transverse total pressure gradients, a displacement of the effective center of the probe is observed (designated Delta). While this phenomenon is well documented in incompressible flow and supersonic laminar flow, there is insufficient information concerning supersonic turbulent flow. In this study, three NASA Lewis Research Center Supersonic Wind Tunnels (SWT's) were used to investigate pitot probe centerline displacement in supersonic turbulent boundary layers. The relationship between test conditions and pitot probe centerline displacement error was to be determined. For this investigation, ten circular probes with diameter-to-boundary layer ratios (D/delta) ranging from 0.015 to 0.256 were tested in the 10 ft x 10 ft SWT, the 15 cm x 15 cm SWT, and the 1 ft x 1 ft SWT. Reynolds numbers of 4.27 x 10(exp 6)/m, 6.00 x 10(exp 6)/in, 10.33 x 10(exp 6)/in, and 16.9 x 10(exp 6)/m were tested at nominal Mach numbers of 2.0 and 2.5. Boundary layer thicknesses for the three tunnels were approximately 200 mm, 13 mm, and 30 mm, respectively. Initial results indicate that boundary layer thickness, delta, and probe diameter, D/delta play a minimal role in pitot probe centerline offset error, Delta/D. It appears that the Mach gradient, dM/dy, is an important factor, though the exact relationship has not yet been determined. More data is needed to fill the map before a conclusion can be drawn with any certainty. This research provides valuable supersonic, turbulent boundary layer data from three supersonic wind tunnels with three very different boundary layers. It will prove a valuable stepping stone for future research into the factors influencing pitot probe centerline offset error.
Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.
2009-11-15
Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)
Sivashanmugam, P.; Suresh, S.
2007-02-15
Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with full-length helical screw element of different twist ratio, and helical screw inserts with spacer length 100, 200, 300 and 400mm have been studied with uniform heat flux under laminar flow condition. The experimental data obtained are verified with those obtained from plain tube published data. The effect of spacer length on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor, and the effect of twist ratio on heat transfer augmentation and friction factor have been presented separately. The decrease in Nusselt number for the helical twist with spacer length is within 10% for each subsequent 100mm increase in spacer length. The decrease in friction factor is nearly two times lower than the full length helical twist at low Reynolds number, and four times lower than the full length helical twist at high Reynolds number for all twist ratio. The regularly spaced helical screw inserts can safely be used for heat transfer augmentation without much increase in pressure drop than full length helical screw inserts. (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pappas, C C
1954-01-01
Local heat-transfer rates on the surface of a heated flat plate at zero incidence to an air stream flowing at Mach numbers of 1.69 and 2.27 are presented. The Reynolds number range for both Mach numbers was 1 million to 10 million. Surface temperatures were maintained near recovery temperature. It was found that the variation of heat transfer with Mach number was in agreement with previously reported variations of directly measured skin friction with Mach number on unheated bodies. The variation with Mach number of the average skin coefficient, as determined from impact-pressure surveys, was in agreement with that from other momentum loss measurements but differed from the variation obtained from directly measured skin friction as reported by others. (author)
Direct Measurements of Skin Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dhawan, Satish
1953-01-01
A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.
Use of a Stanton Tube for Skin-Friction Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abarbanel, S. S.; Hakkinen, R. J.; Trilling, L.
1959-01-01
A small total-pressure tube resting against a flat-plate surface was used as a Stanton tube and calibrated as a skin-friction meter at various subsonic and supersonic speeds. Laminar flow was maintained for the supersonic runs at a Mach number M(sub infinity) of 2. At speeds between M(sub infinity) = 1.33 and M(sub infinity) = 1.87, the calibrations were carried-out in a turbulent boundary layer. The subsonic flows were found to be in transition. The skin-friction readings of a floating-element type of balance served as the reference values against which the Stanton tube was calibrated. A theoretical model was developed which, for moderate values of the shear parameter tau, accurately predicts the performance of the Stanton tube in subsonic and supersonic flows. A "shear correction factor" was found to explain the deviations from the basic model when T became too large. Compressibility effects were important only in the case of turbulent supersonic flows, and they did not alter the form of the calibration curve. The test Reynolds numbers, based on the distance from the leading edge and free-stream conditions, ranged from 70,000 to 875,000. The turbulent-boundary-layer Reynolds numbers, based on momentum thickness, varied between 650 and 2,300. Both laminar and turbulent velocity profiles were taken and the effect of pressure gradient on the calibration was investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, T. J.
1972-01-01
Results of an exploratory study of the structure and properties of friction welds in Udimet 700 (U-700) and TD-nickel (TD-Ni) bar materials, as well as dissimilar U-700/TD-Ni friction welds. Butt welds were prepared by friction welding 12.7-mm-diam U-700 bars and TD-Ni bars. Specimens for elevated temperature tensile and stress rupture testing were machined after a postweld heat treatment. Friction welding of U-700 shows great potential because the welds were found to be as strong as the parent metal in stress rupture and tensile tests at 760 and 980 C. In addition, the weld line was not detectable by metallographic examination after postheating. Friction welds in TD-Ni or between U-700 and TD-Ni were extremely weak at elevated temperatures. The TD-Ni friction welds could support only 9% as much stress as the base metal for 10-hour stress rupture life at 1090 C. The U-700/TD-Ni weld could sustain only 15% as much stress as the TD-Ni parent metal for a 10-hour stress rupture life at 930 C. Thus friction welding is not a suitable joining method for obtaining high-strength TD-Ni or U-700/TD-Ni weldments.
Buhl, M.L., Jr.
2005-08-01
Wind turbines sometimes experience the turbulent windmill state during startup or shutdown. This rarely happens during normal operation, so it has little effect on power curves or energy production. However, for completeness we need to be able to model situations where the axial induction factor exceeds 0.5. Classical momentum theory, which shows a relationship between the thrust coefficient and the axial induction factor, is not valid in this region. Glauert plotted some experimental data taken by Lock in the 1920s against this parabolic relationship and found very poor agreement for operation in this high-induction state. He proposed a new empirical relationship to fit the experimental data. Unfortunately, the new empirical curve does not account for tip or hub losses. Others have proposed multiplying the axial induction factor by the loss factor to correct the curve, but this still leaves a mathematical no-man's-land between the classical curve and the modified version of Glauert's empirical curve. The purpose of this paper is to document the derivation of a new curve that accounts for tip and hub losses and eliminates the numerical problems of the previous approaches.
Turbulence models and Reynolds analogy for two-dimensional supersonic compression ramp flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Chi R.; Bidek, Maleina C.
1994-01-01
Results of the application of turbulence models and the Reynolds analogy to the Navier-Stokes computations of Mach 2.9 two-dimensional compression ramp flows are presented. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model and the kappa-epsilon turbulence transport equations for the turbulent momentum flux modeling in the Navier-Stokes equations are studied. The Reynolds analogy for the turbulent heat flux modeling in the energy equation was also studied. The Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation were numerically solved for the flow properties. The Reynolds shear stress, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer rate were calculated and compared with their measurements. It was concluded that with a hybrid kappa-epsilon turbulence model for turbulence modeling, the present computations predicted the skin friction factors of the 8 deg and 16 deg compression ramp flows and with the turbulent Prandtl number Pr(sub t) = 0.93 and the ratio of the turbulent thermal and momentum transport coefficients mu(sub q)/mu(sub t) = 2/Prt, the present computations also predicted the surface heat transfer rates beneath the boundary layer flow of the 16 compression ramp.
Semiempirical methods for computing turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belov, I. A.; Ginzburg, I. P.
1986-01-01
Two semiempirical theories which provide a basis for determining the turbulent friction and heat exchange near a wall are presented: (1) the Prandtl-Karman theory, and (2) the theory utilizing an equation for the energy of turbulent pulsations. A comparison is made between exact numerical methods and approximate integral methods for computing the turbulent boundary layers in the presence of pressure, blowing, or suction gradients. Using the turbulent flow around a plate as an example, it is shown that, when computing turbulent flows with external turbulence, it is preferable to construct a turbulence model based on the equation for energy of turbulent pulsations.
Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Chi R.
2005-01-01
This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one-equation turbulence model is an effective approach for turbulence modeling in the near solid wall surface region of flow over a concave wall.
On the scaling of temperature fluctuations induced by frictional heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bos, Wouter J. T.; Chahine, Robert; Pushkarev, Andrey V.
2015-09-01
The temperature fluctuations generated by viscous dissipation in an isotropic turbulent flow are studied using direct numerical simulation. It is shown that their scaling with Reynolds number is at odds with predictions from recent investigations. The origin of the discrepancy is traced back to the anomalous scaling of the dissipation rate fluctuations. Phenomenological arguments are presented which explain the observed results. The study shows that previously proposed models underpredict the variance of frictional temperature fluctuations by a factor proportional to the square of the Taylor-scale Reynolds number.
Samanta, Devranjan; Dubief, Yves; Holzner, Markus; Schfer, Christof; Morozov, Alexander N.; Wagner, Christian; Hof, Bjrn
2013-01-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet even for the case of ordinary Newtonian fluids like water, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited. Many liquids of practical importance are more complicated (e.g., blood, polymer melts, paints), however; they exhibit elastic as well as viscous characteristics, and the relation between stress and strain is nonlinear. We demonstrate here for a model system of such complex fluids that at high shear rates, turbulence is not simply modified as previously believed but is suppressed and replaced by a different type of disordered motion, elasto-inertial turbulence. Elasto-inertial turbulence is found to occur at much lower Reynolds numbers than Newtonian turbulence, and the dynamical properties differ significantly. The friction scaling observed coincides with the so-called maximum drag reduction asymptote, which is exhibited by a wide range of viscoelastic fluids. PMID:23757498
Skin friction drag measurements by LDV
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazumder, M. K.; Wanchoo, S.; Mcleod, P. C.; Ballard, G. S.; Mozumdar, S.; Caraballo, N.
1981-01-01
A laser Doppler velocimeter employing a microscope objective as the receiving lens has been developed for measuring fluid velocity inside the boundary layer flow field with a spatial resolution of 40 microns. The method was applied for direct measurement of aerodynamic skin friction drag from the measured velocity gradient at the wall. Experimental results obtained on skin friction and on velocity components in a turbulent boundary layer on a low speed wind tunnel showed good agreement with previously reported data using conventional instruments such as hot-wire anemometers and Preston tubes. The method thus provides a tool for measurement and control of skin friction on aerodynamic bodies without perturbing the flow field.
Skin-Friction Measurements in Incompressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Donald W.; Walker, John H.
1959-01-01
Experiments have been conducted to measure the local surface-shear stress and the average skin-friction coefficient in Incompressible flow for a turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate having zero pressure gradient. Data were obtained for a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 million to 45 million. The local surface-shear stress was measured by a floating-element skin-friction balance and also by a calibrated total head tube located on the surface of the test wall. The average skin-friction coefficient was obtained from boundary-layer velocity profiles.
Free-stream turbulence and concave curvature effects on heated, transitional boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, J.; Simon, T. W.
1991-01-01
An experimental investigation of the transition process on flat-plate and concave curved-wall boundary layers for various free-stream turbulence levels was performed. Results show that for transition of a flat-plate, the two forms of boundary layer behavior, identified as laminar-like and turbulent-like, cannot be thought of as separate Blasius and fully-turbulent profiles, respectively. Thus, simple transition models in which the desired quantity is assumed to be an average, weighted on intermittency, of the theoretical laminar and fully turbulent values is not expected to be successful. Deviation of the flow identified as laminar-like from theoretical laminar behavior is shown to be due to recovery after the passage of a turbulent spot, while deviation of the flow identified as turbulent-like from the full-turbulent values is thought to be due to incomplete establishment of the fully-turbulent power spectral distribution. Turbulent Prandtl numbers for the transitional flow, computed from measured shear stress, turbulent heat flux and mean velocity and temperature profiles, were less than unity. For the curved-wall case with low free-stream turbulence intensity, the existence of Gortler vortices on the concave wall within both laminar and turbulent flows was established using liquid crystal visualization and spanwise velocity and temperature traverses. Transition was found to occur via a vortex breakdown mode. The vortex wavelength was quite irregular in both the laminar and turbulent flows, but the vortices were stable in time and space. The upwash was found to be more unstable, with higher levels of u' and u'v', and lower skin friction coefficients and shape factors. Turbulent Prandtl numbers, measured using a triple-wire probe, were found to be near unity for all post-transitional profiles, indicating no gross violation of Reynolds analogy. No evidence of streamwise vortices was seen in the high turbulence intensity case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakabayashi, Koichi; Kitoh, Osami; Katoh, Yoshitaka
2004-05-01
Similarity laws of mean velocity profiles and turbulence characteristics of Couette Poiseuille turbulent flow (C-P flow) have been studied experimentally. The global parameters of C-P flow are the Reynolds number Re(*) and the dimensionless shear stress gradient mu and flow parameter beta . The effects of these parameters on the turbulence structure have also been considered in the wall region and turbulent core region, respectively. In the wall region, the wall law varies greatly with mu but slightly with Re(*) . Typically, the additive constant B of the logarithmic law (or Van Driest damping factor A(+) ) is shown to depend only on mu . Turbulence characteristics are also strongly influenced by mu , but not much by Re(*) . Because the relation mu {=} {-}Re(*) holds in plane Poiseuille flow and Re(*) has little effect on the similarity laws for C-P flows, the low-Reynolds-number effect on the additive constant and turbulence quantities for plane Poiseuille flow can be attributed to the mu effect. In the turbulent core region, however, there is a great difference in the defect law of the velocity profile and the distribution of turbulence intensity between Poiseuille (P)- and Couette (C)-types flows. For P-type flow, an effective friction velocity u(*}_{e) and a new coordinate eta {=} y- h_{s} are recommended for the universal profile, where y {=} h_{s} {=} delta _{p} is the position of tau {=} 0 and delta _{p} is considered to be appropriate as a characteristic length scale of turbulence. For C-type flow, a different effective friction velocity u(*}_{c,) the characteristic length scale 2h and the wall coordinate y are preferred. The turbulence activity away from the wall is extremely high for mu {>} 0 and low for mu {<} 0. A strong sweep event plays a dominant role in the Reynolds shear stress when 0 {<} mu {<} 50, whereas strong ejection from the near-wall region prevails in the case of negative mu with a small absolute value.
Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar
2013-01-01
Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795
Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar
2013-01-01
Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pomey, Jacques
1952-01-01
From the practical point of view, this analysis shows that each problem of friction or wear requires its particular solution. There is no universal solution; one or other of the factors predominates and defines the choice of the solution. In certain cases, copper alloys of great thermal conductivity are preferred; in others, plastics abundantly supplied with water. Sometimes, soft antifriction metals are desirable to distribute the load; at other times, hard metals with high resistance to abrasion or heat.
Hidano, A; Mizuguchi, M; Higaki, Y
1984-01-01
We describe 23 cases of unusual brownish pigmentation occurring over the bony tissues such as clavicle, scapula or vertebrae. There were 19 females and 4 males. The age ranged from 18 to 59, mostly between 20 and 35 years. Since the first observation in 1977, cases gradually increased. The pigmentation usually showed ripple pattern on the upper back and clavicular region, zebra-like pattern over the ribs and postage-stamp-like macule over the vertebral column. Although there was no inflammatory sign such as itching or scaling, histology revealed postinflammatory melanin deposit in the upper dermis. Exceptional detection of amyloid deposit in the papillary layer in one case could be secondary to the slight epidermal damage actually disappeared. The general condition was not affected, and laboratory data remained within normal limits. This unique melanosis should be separated from other pigmentary disorders and macular amyloidosis. We would like to propose the name of friction melanosis, because this condition should be intimately related with the repeated friction by nylon towel or brush, widely used by young peoples in the bathroom. PMID:6529077
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Juan-Cheng; Li, Feng-Chen; Cai, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Na; Yu, Bo
2015-08-01
Our previous experimental studies have confirmed that viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluid (VFBN) prepared by suspending nanoparticles in a viscoelastic base fluid (VBF, behaves drag reduction at turbulent flow state) can reduce turbulent flow resistance as compared with water and enhance heat transfer as compared with VBF. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed in this study to explore the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement (HTE) and flow drag reduction (DR) for the VFBN turbulent flow. The Giesekus model is used as the constitutive equation for VFBN. Our previously proposed thermal dispersion model is adopted to take into account the thermal dispersion effects of nanoparticles in the VFBN turbulent flow. The DNS results show similar behaviors for flow resistance and heat transfer to those obtained in our previous experiments. Detailed analyses are conducted for the turbulent velocity, temperature, and conformation fields obtained by DNSs for different fluid cases, and for the friction factor with viscous, turbulent, and elastic contributions and heat transfer rate with conductive, turbulent and thermal dispersion contributions of nanoparticles, respectively. The mechanisms of HTE and DR of VFBN turbulent flows are then discussed. Based on analogy theory, the ratios of Chilton-Colburn factor to friction factor for different fluid flow cases are investigated, which from another aspect show the significant enhancement in heat transfer performance for some cases of water-based nanofluid and VFBN turbulent flows. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51276046), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561037), and the President Fund of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. Y3510213N00).
Modeling Transition to Turbulence using the Turbulent Potential Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Wang; Perot, Blair
2001-11-01
While transition is a very different phenomenon from fully developed turbulence, it is governed, on average, by equations with are mathematically the same as the RANS equations for fully turbulent flow. It is therefore theoretically possible for RANS equation systems to display transition-like behavior a very rapid growth in turbulent kinetic energy levels, skin friction, etc. In this work, the ability of the turbulent potential model to accurately predict laminar to turbulent transition in flat plate boundary layers is examined. The model accurately predicts the entire range of free-stream turbulence levels from strong bypass transition (6natural transition (0.03It shows correct sensitivity to favorable and adverse pressure gradients, as well as acoustic noise levels. Past results indicated the ability of the model to relaminarize the flow. Recent work has focused attention on the models ability to predict transition in mixing layers.
Hydrodynamic skin-friction reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Jason C. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
A process for reducing skin friction, inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence, and decreasing heat transfer in a system involving flow of a liquid along a surface of a body includes applying a substantially integral sheet of a gas, e.g., air, immediately adjacent to the surface of the body, e.g., a marine vehicle, which has a longitudinally grooved surface in proximity with the liquid and with a surface material having high contact angle between the liquid and said wall to reduce interaction of the liquid, e.g., water, with the surface of the body, e.g., the hull of the marine vehicle.
A Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Flow in Noncircular Ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Hsiao C.
1994-01-01
Since turbulent duct flows play an important role in engineering, continuous efforts to investigate this problem have been made. Until recently, these investigations were limited mostly to experiments and various semi-analytic methods. Owing to the improvement of turbulence modeling, the prevailing method of prediction is now mainly numerical. The majority of these studies deals, however, with turbulent flows in circular or square ducts and only limited information is available for straight noncircular ducts. In view of this situation, we propose to conduct a numerical investigation of turbulent flow in a class of ducts, whose cross sections vary from a circle to a near square. Turbulent flow in a noncircular duct is characterized by the presence of secondary flow for which a more refined turbulence model than the k-epsilon equations is required. In order to show that the calculated results are credible, various modes of verification were used to examine the results for a selected configuration, including an accuracy check by a scaling law and observing the decay of secondary flow as the cross section changes from a noncircular shape to a circle. After this was done, computations were performed for other configurations and with different Reynolds numbers from which wall shear stresses and friction factors are plotted.
Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Three-Dimensional Duct Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rokni, M.; Gatski, T. B.
1999-01-01
The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in straight ducts, with square, rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions over a range of Reynolds numbers. Iso-thermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled by gradient-diffusion type models. At high Reynolds numbers (>/= 10(exp 5)), wall functions are used for the velocity and temperature fields; while at low Reynolds numbers damping functions are introduced into the models. Hydraulic parameters such as friction factor and Nusselt number are well predicted even when damping functions are used, and the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Comparison between the models is presented in terms of the hydraulic parameters, friction factor and Nusselt number, as well as in terms of the secondary flow patterns occurring within the ducts.
Wang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Da-Wei; Wang, Yan; Niu, Di; Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Ding, Gui-Fu
2015-01-01
This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process and used as turbulators to improve the heat transfer rate of the microfluidic heat sink. The results indicate that the utilizing of micro-ribs provides a better heat transfer rate, but also increases the pressure drop penalty for microchannels. Furthermore, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microchannels are strongly affected by the rib shape. In comparison, the triangular ribbed microchannel possesses the highest Nusselt number and friction factor among the three rib types. PMID:25912351
Prediction of Very High Reynolds Number Compressible Skin Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, John R.
1998-01-01
Flat plate skin friction calculations over a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 3.5 at Reynolds numbers from 16 million to 492 million using a Navier Stokes method with advanced turbulence modeling are compared with incompressible skin friction coefficient correlations. The semi-empirical correlation theories of van Driest; Cope; Winkler and Cha; and Sommer and Short T' are used to transform the predicted skin friction coefficients of solutions using two algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence models in the Navier-Stokes method PAB3D. In general, the predicted skin friction coefficients scaled well with each reference temperature theory though, overall the theory by Sommer and Short appeared to best collapse the predicted coefficients. At the lower Reynolds number 3 to 30 million, both the Girimaji and Shih, Zhu and Lumley turbulence models predicted skin-friction coefficients within 2% of the semi-empirical correlation skin friction coefficients. At the higher Reynolds numbers of 100 to 500 million, the turbulence models by Shih, Zhu and Lumley and Girimaji predicted coefficients that were 6% less and 10% greater, respectively, than the semi-empirical coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohn, Ki-Hyeon; Reshotko, Eli
1991-01-01
A detailed investigation to document momentum and thermal development of boundary layers undergoing natural transition on a heated flat plate was performed. Experimental results of both overall and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional, and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are presented. Measurements were acquired in a low-speed, closed-loop wind tunnel with a freestream velocity of 100 ft/s and zero pressure gradient over a range of freestream turbulence intensities (TI) from 0.4 to 6 percent. The distributions of skin friction, heat transfer rate and Reynolds shear stress were all consistent with previously published data. Reynolds analogy factors for R(sub theta) is less than 2300 were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for an unheated starting length. The measured laminar value of Reynolds analogy factor was as much as 53 percent higher than the Pr(sup -2/3). A small dependence of turbulent results on TI was observed. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layer indicated the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, pronounced at certain low intermittencies, which is consistent with the cross-sectional shape of turbulent spots observed by others. Non-turbulent intervals were observed to possess large magnitudes of near-wall unsteadiness and turbulent intervals had peak values as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Non-turbulent and turbulent profiles in transitional boundary layers cannot be simply treated as Blasius and fully turbulent profiles, respectively. The boundary layer spectra indicate predicted selective amplification of T-S waves for TI is approximately 0.4 percent. However, for TI is approximately 0.8 and 1.1 percent, T-S waves are localized very near the wall and do not play a dominant role in transition process.
Friction surfacing and linear friction welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicholas, E. D.
The paper describes the development of the friction-surfacing and linear-friction welding technologies, with particular attention given to the equipment evolution and the application of the processes and advanced materials (such as intermetallics, metal-matrix composites (MMCs), ODS alloys, and powder metallurgy alloys) for the aerospace industry. The use of friction surfacing to modify the surface material with MMCs, to repair defects by plugging, and manufacture/reprocess materials is described.
Friction, wear, and lubrication in vacuum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buckley, D. H.
1971-01-01
A review of studies and observations on the friction, wear, and lubrication behavior of materials in a vacuum environment is presented. The factors that determine and influence friction and wear are discussed. They include topographical, physical, mechanical, and the chemical nature of the surface. The effects of bulk properties such as deformation characteristics, fracture behavior, and structure are included.
Correlations between adhesion hysteresis and friction at molecular scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szoszkiewicz, R.; Bhushan, B.; Huey, B. D.; Kulik, A. J.; Gremaud, G.
2005-04-01
Correlations between adhesion hysteresis and local friction are theoretically and experimentally investigated. The model is based on the classical theory of adhesional friction, contact mechanics, capillary hysteresis, and nanoscale roughness. Adhesion hysteresis was found to scale with friction through the scaling factor containing a varying ratio of adhesion energy over the reduced Young's modulus. Capillary forces can offset the relationship between adhesion hysteresis and friction. Measurements on a wide range of engineering samples with varying adhesive and elastic properties confirm the model. Adhesion hysteresis is investigated under controlled, low humidity atmosphere via ultrasonic force microscopy. Friction is measured by the friction force microscopy.
Stirring turbulence with turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Joosten, Ren; van de Water, Willem
2015-12-01
We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada shell model, which is a simple dynamical model of turbulence that produces a velocity field displaying inertial-range scaling behavior. The range of scales can be adjusted by selection of shells. We find that the largest energy input and the smallest anisotropy are reached when the time scale of the random numbers matches that of the largest eddies of the wind-tunnel turbulence. A large mismatch of these times creates a highly intermittent random flow with interesting but quite anomalous statistics.
Drag reduction: enticing turbulence, and then an industry.
Spalart, Philippe R; McLean, J Douglas
2011-04-13
We examine drag-reduction proposals, as presented in this volume and in general, first with concrete examples of how to bridge the distance from pure science through engineering to what makes inventions go into service; namely, the value to the public. We point out that the true drag reduction can be markedly different from an estimate based simply on the difference between turbulent and laminar skin friction over the laminarized region, or between the respective skin frictions of the baseline and the riblet-treated flow. In some situations, this difference is favourable, and is due to secondary differences in pressure drag. We reiterate that the benefit of riblets, if it is expressed as a percentage in skin-friction reduction, is unfortunately lower at full-size Reynolds numbers than in a small-scale experiment or simulation. The Reynolds number-independent measure of such benefits is a shift of the logarithmic law, or '?U(+)'. Anticipating the design of a flight test and then a product, we note the relative ease in representing riblets or laminarization in computational fluid dynamics, in contrast with the huge numerical and turbulence-modelling challenge of resolving active flow control systems in a calculation of the full flow field. We discuss in general terms the practical factors that have limited applications of concepts that would appear more than ready after all these years, particularly riblets and laminar-flow control. PMID:21382831
Riblets for aircraft skin-friction reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walsh, Michael J.
1986-01-01
Energy conservation and aerodynamic efficiency are the driving forces behind research into methods to reduce turbulent skin friction drag on aircraft fuselages. Fuselage skin friction reductions as small as 10 percent provide the potential for a 250 million dollar per year fuel savings for the commercial airline fleet. One passive drag reduction concept which is relatively simple to implement and retrofit is that of longitudinally grooved surfaces aligned with the stream velocity. These grooves (riblets) have heights and spacings on the order of the turbulent wall streak and burst dimensions. The riblet performance (8 percent net drag reduction thus far), sensitivity to operational/application considerations such as yaw and Reynolds number variation, an alternative fabrication technique, results of extensive parametric experiments for geometrical optimization, and flight test applications are summarized.
Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.
Dechant, Lawrence; Smith, Justin
2016-01-01
Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by
CFD Modeling of ITER Cable-in-Conduit Superconductors. Part I: Friction in the Central Channel
Zanino, R.; Giors, S.; Mondino, R.
2006-04-27
In this paper, the first of a series, we propose a novel approach, based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), to understand the complex transverse thermal-hydraulic processes in the dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC), which are used for the superconducting magnets of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Advanced 2D and 3D CFD, including sophisticated turbulence models, is used to compute the mass flow rate corresponding to an imposed pressure drop in rib-roughened pipes, including spirals mimicking the central channel of an ITER CICC and used in several experiments. The results of the calculation are validated against measured data and can be used to deduce the friction factor fH in the central channel, throwing at the same time some light on the role played by the different parameters (Reynolds number, spiral geometry, etc.) in the central channel friction process for an ITER CICC.
Skin friction drag measurements by LDV.
Mazumder, M K; Wanchoo, S; McLeod, P C; Ballard, G S; Mozumdar, S; Caraballo, N
1981-08-15
A laser Doppler velocimeter employing a microscope objective as the receiving lens has been developed for measuring fluid velocity inside the boundary layer flow field with a spatial resolution of 40 microm. The method was applied for direct measurement of aerodynamic skin friction drag from the measured velocity gradient at the wall. Experimental results obtained on skin friction and on velocity components in a turbulent boundary layer on a low speed wind tunnel showed good agreement with previously reported data using conventional instruments such as hot-wire anemometers and Preston tubes. The method thus provides a tool for measurement and control of skin friction on aerodynamic bodies without perturbing the flow field. PMID:20333049
Distinguishing ichthyogenic turbulence from geophysical turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujiana, Kandaga; Moum, James N.; Smyth, William D.; Warner, Sally J.
2015-05-01
Measurements of currents and turbulence beneath a geostationary ship in the equatorial Indian Ocean during a period of weak surface forcing revealed unexpectedly strong turbulence beneath the surface mixed layer. Coincident with the turbulence was a marked reduction of the current speeds registered by shipboard Doppler current profilers, and an increase in their variability. At a mooring 1 km away, measurements of turbulence and currents showed no such anomalies. Correlation with the shipboard echo sounder measurements indicate that these nighttime anomalies were associated with fish aggregations beneath the ship. The fish created turbulence by swimming against the strong zonal current in order to remain beneath the ship, and their presence affected the Doppler speed measurements. The principal characteristics of the resultant ichthyogenic turbulence are (i) low wave number roll-off of shear spectra in the inertial subrange relative to geophysical turbulence, (ii) Thorpe overturning scales that are small compared with the Ozmidov scale, and (iii) low mixing efficiency. These factors extend previous findings by Gregg and Horne (2009) to a very different biophysical regime and support the general conclusion that the biological contribution to mixing the ocean via turbulence is negligible.
Valiant, G A
1993-12-01
The minimum translational traction requirements of outsoles for shoes used for walking, running, and activities involving lateral movements are presented. Since it will be shown that the classical friction relationships described by Coulomb do not always apply to the elastomeric materials used in modern day athletic footwear, empirical measures of the traction characteristics of candidate materials and designs must be made. A physical traction testing device has been developed to make measurements of the traction characteristics of shoe outsoles will be described. This device quantifies both translational and rotational traction characteristics. Examples of factors affecting both of these variables are presented. Combining a knowledge of the traction characteristics of materials and designs and the factors influencing traction with knowledge of the traction requirements of different activities permits the matching of appropriate outsoles to shoes used for specific activities. PMID:8146755
The effect of wall friction on magnetohydrodynamic generator performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, A. R.
1972-01-01
The effect of wall friction on magnetohydrodynamic generator performance is determined by introduction of a wall friction factor into the one-dimensional generator equations. This addition should be useful in improving generator analysis and determining optimum generator geometry. The curves presented can be used to determine the effects of changes in wall friction and generator performance. Wall friction has an increasing effect on the Mach number increases and a decreasing effect as the pressure drop across the generator increase.
Evolution of turbulence characteristics from straight to curved pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Khoury, George K.; Noorani, Azad; Schlatter, Philipp; Fischer, Paul F.
2012-11-01
Large-scale direct numerical simulations are performed to study turbulent flow in straight and bent pipes at four different Reynolds numbers: Reb = 5300 , 11700 (bent and straight) and 19000 and 37700 (only straight). We consider a pipe of radius R and axial length 25 R with curvature parameter ? taken to be 0 , 0 . 01 and 0 . 1 for zero, mild and strong curvatures, respectively. The code used is Nek5000 based on the spectral element method. In the straight configuration, the obtained DNS data is carefully checked against other recent simulations, highlighting minute differences between the available data. Owing to a centrifugal instability mechanism, the flow in bent pipe (? ? 0) develops counter-rotating vortices, so-called Dean vortices. The presence of the secondary motion thus induces substantial asymmetries both in the mean flow and turbulence characteristics for the bent pipe. These asymmetries tend to damp turbulence along the inner side and correspondingly enhance it along the upper side. The results are validated with recent experiments, and we could confirm the peculiar behaviour of the friction factor for specific curvatures and Re , leading to a lower friction in curved pipes than in straight pipes for the same mass flux.
Active Dynamic Frictional Probes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo
2015-03-01
In biological systems there are a myriad of interactions occurring instantaneously and these interactions can vary drastically in the strength of the interaction, the speed at which this interaction occurs, and the duration of the interaction. When multiple interactions occur any of these factors can determine which particular interaction is dominant. However, currently it is extremely difficult to measure binding affinity, Kon, and Koff rates in a relatively high throughput manner. Here we propose a novel and versatile system that will be able to detect differences in binding affinity of wide range of transient interactions and will be able to extract the relevant time scales of these interactions. Our system will utilize ferromagnetic particles that can be easily functionalized with a receptor of interest and the substrate will be coated in the corresponding ligand. A rotating magnetic field will cause particles, henceforth referred to as rollers, to rotate and this rotational motion will be converted into translational motion via the effective frictional force induced by interaction that is being probed. By measuring the translation of the rollers to a baseline, where only hydrodynamic friction occurs, we can measure the relative strength of the interactions. We can also potentially measure kinetic information by changing the frequency at which the magnetic field rotates, since changing the frequency at which the bead rotates is akin to changing the time allowed for bond formation. We will measure a wide range of interaction including ionic, metal-ion coordination, IgG-Protein A complex, and biotin-streptavidin complex.
Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction
Guo, Yi; Qu, Zhihua; Braiman, Yehuda; Zhang, Zhenyu; Barhen, Jacob
2008-01-01
Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.
Frictional Characteristics of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Changgu; Carpick, Robert; Hone, James
2009-03-01
The frictional characteristics of graphene were characterized using friction force microscopy (FFM). The frictional force for monolayer graphene is more than twice that of bulk graphite, with 2,3, and 4 layer samples showing a monotonic decrease in friction with increasing sample thickness. Measurements on suspended graphene membranes show identical results, ruling out substrate effects as the cause of the observed variation. Likewise, the adhesion force is identical for all samples. The frictional force is independent of load within experimental uncertainty, consistent with previous measurements on graphite. We consider several possible explanations for the origin of the observed thickness dependence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Jose; Carraminana, Alberto
1999-06-01
1. Turbulence in the interstellar medium: a retrospective review; 2. Mechanism of formation of atmospheric turbulence relevant for optical astronomy; 3. Properties of atomic gas in spiral galaxies; 4. Turbulence in the ionized gas in spiral galaxies; 5. Probing interstellar turbulence in the warm ionized medium using emission lines; 6. The spectrum and galactic distribution of microturbulence in diffuse ionized gas; 7. Small scale structure and turbulence in the interstellar medium; 8. What is the Reynolds number of the Reynolds' layer?; 9. Photoionized gas in the galactic halo; 10. Turbulent heating of the diffuse ionized gas; 11. Cosmic rays in interstellar turbulence; 12. Turbulence in line-driven stellar winds; 13. An introduction to compressible MHD turbulence; 14. Turbulence in atomic hydrogen; 15. Supershells in spiral galaxies; 16. The size distribution of superbubbles in the interstellar medium; 17. Large-scale motions in the ISM of elliptical and spiral galaxies; 18. Vortical motions driven by supernova explosions; 19. The intermittent dissipation of turbulence: is it observed in the interstellar medium?; 20. Chemistry in turbulent flows; 21. Supersonic turbulence in giant extragalactic HII regions; 22. Turbulence in HII regions: new results; 23. Hypersonic turbulence of H2O masers; 24. Water masers tracing alfvenic turbulence and magnetic fields in W51 M and W49 N; 25. Turbulence in the Ursa Major cirrus cloud; 26. The collisions of HVCs with a magnetized gaseous disk; 27. The initial stellar mass function as a statistical sample of turbulent cloud structure; 28. The structure of molecular clouds: are they fractal?; 29. Diagnosing properties of turbulent flows from spectral line observations of the molecular interstellar medium; 30. Centroid velocity increments as a probe of the turbulent velocity field in interstellar molecular clouds; 31. High-resolution C18O mapping observations of Heiles' cloud 2 - statistical properties of the line width; 32. Observations of magnetic fields in dense interstellar clouds: implications for MHD turbulence and cloud evolution; 33. The density PDFs of supersonic random flows; 34. Turbulence as an organizing agent in the ISM; 35. Turbulence and magnetic reconnection in the interstellar medium; 36. The evolution of self-gravitating, magnetized, turbulent clouds: numerical experiments; 37. Super-Alfvénic turbulent fragmentation in molecular clouds; 38. Decay timescales of MHD turbulence in molecular clouds; 39. Numerical magnetohydrodynamic studies of turbulence and star formation; 40. Direct numerical simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamical turbulence; 41. Fragmentation in molecular clouds: the formation of a stellar cluster; 42. Accretion disk turbulence.
Microblowing Technique Demonstrated to Reduce Skin Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Danny P.; Biesiadny, Tom J.
1998-01-01
One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. Reduced skin friction means less drag. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none of them has significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. An innovative skin-friction reduction technique, the Microblowing Technique (MBT), was invented in 1993. This is a unique concept in which an extremely small amount of air is blown vertically at a surface through very small holes. It can be used for aircraft or marine vehicles, such as submarines (where water is blown through the holes instead of air). As shown in the figure, the outer layer, which controls vertical flow, is a plate with high-vertical holes. The inner layer, which produces evenly distributed flow, is a low-permeability porous plate. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, C. R.
1988-01-01
The present analyses of boundary layer flow and turbulence transport attempt to characterize the influence of freestream turbulence on the surface heat-transfer rate and stagnation point region skin friction of a circular cross-section cylinder in turbulent flow. The Reynolds stress-transport equations and k-epsilon two-equation turbulence modeling are used, yielding time-averaged turbulence double-correlations, mean-flow properties, surface heat-transfer rate, and skin-friction with freestream isotropic turbulence. A comparison of analytical results with experimental data indicates that large Reynolds normal stresses are induced at the boundary layer edge by the kinetic energy of the turbulence.
Micromachine friction test apparatus
deBoer, Maarten P.; Redmond, James M.; Michalske, Terry A.
2002-01-01
A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.
Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes with Two-Dimensional Rib Roughness
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1994-01-24
A commonly used internal enhancement for single-phase forced-convective turbulent flow applications is tranverse and/or near tranverse ribs. These enhanced surfaces consist of a uniform inside diameter with periodic and discrete disruption of ribs. Enhanced tubes of this type are made by an extrusion process and are used in some condensers and evaporators in refrigeration systems. Tubes of this type fall into an enhancement category called separation and reattachment that has been identified as one ofmore » the most energy efficient. Lacking are prediction methods that are mechanistic based that can be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factors for tubes with this enhancement type. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor for enhanced tubes with tranverse, rectangular ribs with a spacing exceeding the reattachment length. The input quantities are the enhancement height, spacing, and the width. The Nusselt number and friction factor are calculated for a specific Reynolds number or for a range of Reynolds numbers. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods. The manufacturers of refrigeration heat exchangers and enhanced tube suppliers are potential users of this software.« less
Turbulent boundary layers over nonstationary plane boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roper, A. T.
1976-01-01
Methods of predicting integral parameters and skin-friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers developing over moving-ground-planes are evaluated using test information from three different wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. These data include test information from the VSTOL tunnel which is presented for the first time. The three methods evaluated were: (1) relative integral parameter method, (2) relative power law method, and (3) modified law of the wall method. Methods (1) and (2) can be used to predict moving-ground-plane shape factors with an expected accuracy of + or - 10%. They may also be used to predict moving-ground-plane displacement and momentum thicknesses with lower expected accuracy. This decrease in accuracy can be traced to the failure of approximations upon which these methods are based to prove universal when compared with VSTOL tunnel test results.
Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.
Dechant, Lawrence
2016-01-01
Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.
Scale-invariant cascades in turbulence and evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guttenberg, Nicholas Ryan
In this dissertation, I present work addressing three systems which are traditionally considered to be unrelated: turbulence, evolution, and social organization. The commonality between these systems is that in each case, microscopic interaction rules give rise to an emergent behavior that in some way makes contact with the macroscopic scale of the problem. The open-ended evolution of complexity in evolving systems is analogous to the scale-free structure established in turbulent flows through local transportation of energy. In both cases, an invariance is required for the cascading behavior to occur, and in both cases the scale-free structure is built up from some initial scale from which the behavior is fed. In turbulence, I examine the case of two-dimensional turbulence in order to support the hypothesis that the friction factor and velocity profile of turbulent pipe flows depend on the turbulent energy spectrum in a way unpredicted by the classic Prandtl theory. By simulating two-dimensional flows in controlled geometries, either an inverse energy cascade or forward enstrophy cascade can be produced. The friction factor scaling of the flow changes depending on which cascade is present, in a way consistent with momentum transfer theory and roughness-induced criticality. In the problem of evolution, I show that open-ended growth of complexity can be obtained by ensuring that the evolutionary dynamics are invariant with respect to changes in complexity. Finite system size, finite point mutation rate, and fixed points in the fitness landscape can all interrupt this cascade behavior, producing an analogue to the integral scale of turbulence. This complexity cascade can exist both for competing and for symbiotic sets of organisms. Extending this picture to the qualitatively-different levels of organization of real lifeforms (viruses, unicellular, biofilms, multicellular) requires an understanding of how the processes of evolution themselves evolve. I show that a separation of spatial or temporal scales can enhance selection pressure on parameters that only matter several generations down the line. Because of this, I conclude that the prime candidates for the emergence of novel evolutionary mechanisms are biofilms and things living in oscillating environments. Finally, in the problem of social organization, I show that different types of control hierarchies - leaders or communal decision making - can emerge depending on the relationship between the environment in which members of the social group act and the development and exchange of information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkes, Kevin W.; Kirk, R. G.; Elrod, David A.
1993-04-01
An analysis procedure is presented which determines the rotordynamic stiffness, damping, and added mass coefficients for circumferentially-grooved annular seals with turbulent incompressible flow. Hirs' turbulent lubrication theory is used as the basis for the governing equations. Friction factors in the groove are based on theory for a turbulent shear layer and an entrance loss model is applied at the inlet and land regions of the seal. The governing equations are expanded into zeroth and first order equations for small rotor displacements about a centered position. The zeroth order solution determines the velocity distribution and seal leakage. The first order solution determines the dynamic pressure distribution which is integrated to yield the fluid force reactions. Comparison to published experimental results shows moderate quantitative agreement and good qualitative agreement with seal test data.
Passive and active control of near-wall turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollard, A.
1998-04-01
Wall skin friction reduction is the primary focus of this paper. Turbulent boundary layer structure and near-wall turbulence structure are considered in particular along with how passive and active modifications to the structure can lead to reductions in drag. Direct numerical simulation of low Reynolds number turbulent flow over streamwise aligned micro-grooved striations or riblets, particularly V-groove riblets and the application of a near-wall viscous model to the flow over more complicated riblet shapes (V and U groove, thin element, compound and spanwise non-continuous V-groove) are assessed. This assessment provides a qualitative basis for identifying features that may limit riblets to skin friction reduction of about 10%. This leads to consideration of three dimensional riblets or humplets, use of oscillations (both fluid and structural), selective interference with existing turbulence and selective introduction of new scales of turbulence with the aim always towards reducing skin friction.
Byerlee, J.
1978-01-01
Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.
Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flat-plate Turbulent Boundary Layer at High Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Michio
The near-wall, subgrid-scale (SGS) model [Chung and Pullin, "Large-eddy simulation and wall-modeling of turbulent channel flow'', J. Fluid Mech. 631, 281--309 (2009)] is used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of the incompressible developing, smooth-wall, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. In this model, the stretched-vortex, SGS closure is utilized in conjunction with a tailored, near-wall model designed to incorporate anisotropic vorticity scales in the presence of the wall. The composite SGS-wall model is presently incorporated into a computer code suitable for the LES of developing flat-plate boundary layers. This is then used to study several aspects of zero- and adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. First, LES of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are performed at Reynolds numbers Retheta based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness in the range Retheta = 103-1012. Results include the inverse skin friction coefficient, 2/Cf , velocity profiles, the shape factor H, the Karman "constant", and the Coles wake factor as functions of Re theta. Comparisons with some direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiment are made, including turbulent intensity data from atmospheric-layer measurements at Retheta = O (106). At extremely large Retheta , the empirical Coles-Fernholz relation for skin-friction coefficient provides a reasonable representation of the LES predictions. While the present LES methodology cannot of itself probe the structure of the near-wall region, the present results show turbulence intensities that scale on the wall-friction velocity and on the Clauser length scale over almost all of the outer boundary layer. It is argued that the LES is suggestive of the asymptotic, infinite Reynolds-number limit for the smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer and different ways in which this limit can be approached are discussed. The maximum Retheta of the present simulations appears to be limited by machine precision and it is speculated, but not demonstrated, that even larger Retheta could be achieved with quad- or higher-precision arithmetic. Second, the time series velocity signals obtained from LES within the logarithmic region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are used in combination with an empirical, predictive inner--outer wall model [Marusic et al., "Predictive model for wall-bounded turbulent flow'', Science 329, 193 (2010)] to calculate the statistics of the fluctuating streamwise velocity in the inner region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. Results, including spectra and moments up to fourth order, are compared with equivalent predictions using experimental time series, as well as with direct experimental measurements at Reynolds numbers Retau based on the friction velocity and the boundary layer thickness, Retau = 7,300, 13,600 and 19,000. LES combined with the wall model are then used to extend the inner-layer predictions to Reynolds numbers Retau = 62,000, 100,000 and 200,000 that lie within a gap in log(Retau) space between laboratory measurements and surface-layer, atmospheric experiments. The present results support a log-like increase in the near-wall peak of the streamwise turbulence intensities with Retau and also provide a means of extending LES results at large Reynolds numbers to the near-wall region of wall-bounded turbulent flows. Finally, we apply the wall model to LES of a turbulent boundary layer subject to an adverse pressure gradient. Computed statistics are found to be consistent with recent experiments and some Reynolds number similarity is observed over a range of two orders of magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howes, Gregory G.
The weak collisionality typical of turbulence in many diffuse astrophysical plasmas invalidates an MHD description of the turbulent dynamics, motivating the development of a more comprehensive theory of kinetic turbulence. In particular, a kinetic approach is essential for the investigation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the dissipation of astrophysical turbulence and the resulting heating of the plasma. This chapter reviews the limitations of MHD turbulence theory and explains how kinetic considerations may be incorporated to obtain a kinetic theory for astrophysical plasma turbulence. Key questions about the nature of kinetic turbulence that drive current research efforts are identified. A comprehensive model of the kinetic turbulent cascade is presented, with a detailed discussion of each component of the model and a review of supporting and conflicting theoretical, numerical, and observational evidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muzychka, Yuri Stephan
1999-11-01
Analysis of fluid friction and heat transfer in low Reynolds number flow heat exchangers is undertaken. Three configurations typically utilized in compact heat exchangers are examined. These are: the plain non- circular duct of constant cross-sectional area, the offset or interrupted strip fin, and the turbulator strip. Analytical models for each of these geometries are developed by combining asymptotic solutions using simple non-linear superposition. Models for predicting the friction factor-Reynolds number product, f Re, and Nusselt number, Nu, in non-circular ducts for hydrodynamically fully developed flow (HFDF), hydrodynamically developing flow (HDF), thermally fully developed flow (TFDF), thermally developing flow (TDF), and simultaneously developing flow (SDF) are developed. Thermal and hydrodynamic entrance models are developed by combining the asymptotic solutions for small and large values of the dimensionless duct length. Through the use of a novel characteristic length, the square root of the cross-sectional flow area, scatter in the dimensionless data for fully developed laminar flows is considerably reduced. Most numerical and analytical data are predicted within +/-10% for HFDF and TFDF, +/-12% for HDF and TDF, and +/-15% for SDF for most non-circular ducts. Simple analytic models for predicting the Fanning friction factor, f, and Colburn j factor of two common enhancement devices, the offset strip fin and the turbulator strip are developed from fundamental solutions of fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Models for the offset strip fin are valid over the full range of Reynolds numbers for rectangular and other non-circular sub-channel cross- sections. Model predictions for the offset strip fin agree with published experimental data within +/-20%. Models for the turbulator strip are valid over the full Reynolds number range for both straight and curved turbulator profiles. Model predictions for the turbulator strip agree with new experimental data to within +/-20%. Finally, a detailed experimental study of the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of turbulator strips is undertaken. Simple design correlations are presented along with a performance evaluations of each device using the constant mass flow rate and constant pumping power criteria.
New DNS and modeling results for turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Arne; El Khoury, George; Grundestam, Olof; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Linne Flow Centre Team
2013-11-01
The near-wall region of turbulent pipe and channel flows (as well as zero-pressure gradient boundary layers) have been shown to exhibit a very high degree of similarity in terms of all statistical moments and many other features, while even the mean velocity profile in the two cases exhibits significant differences between in the outer region. The wake part of the profile, i.e. the deviation from the log-law, in the outer region is of substantially larger amplitude in pipe flow as compared to channel flow (although weaker than in boundary layer flow). This intriguing feature has been well known but has no simple explanation. Model predictions typically give identical results for the two flows. We have analyzed a new set of DNS for pipe and channel flows (el Khoury et al. 2013, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion) for friction Reynolds numbers up to 1000 and made comparing calculations with differential Reynolds stress models (DRSM). We have strong indications that the key factor behind the difference in mean velocity in the outer region can be coupled to differences in the turbulent diffusion in this region. This is also supported by DRSM results, where interesting differences are seen depending on the sophistication of modeling the turbulent diffusion coefficient.
Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeman, Otto
1993-01-01
A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, C. L.
1987-01-01
In order to forecast turbulence, one needs to have an understanding of the cause of turbulence. Therefore, an attempt is made to show the atmospheric structure that often results when aircraft encounter moderate or greater turbulence. The analysis is based on thousands of hours of observations of flights over the past 39 years of aviation meteorology.
Polymer/riblet combination for hydrodynamic skin friction reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Jason C. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
A process is disclosed for reducing skin friction and inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence in a system involving the flow of a liquid along the surface of a body, e.g. a marine vehicle. This process includes injecting a drag reducing polymer into the valleys of adjacent, evenly spaced, longitudinal grooves extending along the length of the surface of the body, so that the rate of diffusion of the polymer from individual grooves into the liquid flow is predictably controlled by the groove dimensions. When the polymer has diffused over the tips of the grooves into the near wall region of the boundary layer, the polymer effectively reduces the turbulent skin friction. A substantial drag reducing effect is achieved with less polymer than must be used to lower skin friction when the surface of the body is smooth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veiga Rodrigues, C.; Palma, J. M. L. M.
2014-06-01
Mesoscale results using the WRF model were downscaled from 3 km to 250 m resolution in a one-way coupling with VENTOS/M. The results were compared against field measurements at one site comprising 4 meteorological masts, each with two sets of cup anemometers and wind vanes. The results showed that the addition of VENTOS/M to the model chain improved the wind speed RMSE. Regarding the prediction of wind direction ambivalent results were obtained. Special attention was given to the prediction of turbulence intensity, particularly in reproducing its inverse proportionality with increasing wind speed (cf. IEC 61400-1 standard). The typical use of computational models in wind resource assessment, i.e., relying on decoupled methodologies and neutrally-stratified regimes, does not allow the representation of turbulence intensity for all wind speeds. The results obtained with VENTOS/M were in agreement with the measured turbulence characteristics at both high and low wind speeds. Such was achieved without the coupling of any turbulence related field, relying solely on the turbulence model embedded in VENTOS/M and its respective wall boundary conditions, based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The behaviour under different stratification regimes was verified by analysing diurnal and nocturnal events separately.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takeshita, Riki (Inventor); Hibbard, Terry L. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
Friction plug welding (FPW) usage is advantageous for friction stir welding (FSW) hole close-outs and weld repairs in 2195 Al--Cu--Li fusion or friction stir welds. Current fusion welding methods of Al--Cu--Li have produced welds containing varied defects. These areas are found by non-destructive examination both after welding and after proof testing. Current techniques for repairing typically small (<0.25) defects weaken the weldment, rely heavily on welders' skill, and are costly. Friction plug welding repairs increase strength, ductility and resistance to cracking over initial weld quality, without requiring much time or operator skill. Friction plug welding while pulling the plug is advantageous because all hardware for performing the weld can be placed on one side of the workpiece.
Frictional drag reduction by bubble injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murai, Yuichi
2014-07-01
The injection of gas bubbles into a turbulent boundary layer of a liquid phase has multiple different impacts on the original flow structure. Frictional drag reduction is a phenomenon resulting from their combined effects. This explains why a number of different void-drag reduction relationships have been reported to date, while early works pursued a simple universal mechanism. In the last 15 years, a series of precisely designed experimentations has led to the conclusion that the frictional drag reduction by bubble injection has multiple manifestations dependent on bubble size and flow speed. The phenomena are classified into several regimes of two-phase interaction mechanisms. Each regime has inherent physics of bubbly liquid, highlighted by keywords such as bubbly mixture rheology, the spectral response of bubbles in turbulence, buoyancy-dominated bubble behavior, and gas cavity breakup. Among the regimes, bubbles in some selected situations lose the drag reduction effect owing to extra momentum transfer promoted by their active motions. This separates engineers into two communities: those studying small bubbles for high-speed flow applications and those studying large bubbles for low-speed flow applications. This article reviews the roles of bubbles in drag reduction, which have been revealed from fundamental studies of simplified flow geometries and from development of measurement techniques that resolve the inner layer structure of bubble-mixed turbulent boundary layers.
Near-bed turbulence and relict waveformed sand ripples: Observations from the inner shelf
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hay, Alex E.
2008-04-01
Results are presented from a field investigation of near-bed turbulence above degrading waveformed sand ripples in 17-m water depth on the inner shelf. The heights of the 50-cm wavelength primary ripples were about 5 cm at the start of the observation period, and decreased by a factor of 2 within 15 days. The principal degradation mechanism involved fish making pits in the seafloor. Near-bed turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates are estimated both from the energy spectrum and from the vertical structure function within the inertial subrange, and ranged from 0.1 10-6 to 3 10-6 W/kg. The friction velocity, u*, at the bed ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 cm/s, and the wave friction factor, fw, from 0.017 to 0.02. The nearbed turbulence intensities and consequently the estimated values of u2* and fw are likely too small by a factor of 2, partly to satisfy the smooth-wall constraint, and partly to account for the effects of small-scale turbulence within the finite-volume range cells of the coherent Doppler system used to make the turbulence estimates. Finally, the results indicate that the hydraulic roughness of relict ripples is likely a function of both ripple height and steepness, and that the relative roughness should also depend on the near-bed wave orbital excursion. For modeling purposes, Nielsen's ripple roughness formula is recommended, with a reduced proportionality constant to account for the effects of irregular wave forcing and non-equilibrium ripple history.
Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Liquid or Gas Stream
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Latzko, H.
1944-01-01
The,theory of heat.transfer from a solid body to a liquid stream could he presented previously** only with limiting assumptions about the movement of the fluid (potential flow, laminar frictional flow). (See references 1, 2, and 3). For turbulent flow, the most important practical case, the previous theoretical considerations did not go beyond dimensionless formulas and certain conclusions as to the analogy between the friction factor and the unit thermal conductance, (See references 4, 5, 6, and 7,) In order to obtain numerical results, an experimental treatment of the problem was resorted to, which gave rise to numerous investigations because of the importance of this problem in many branches of technology. However, the results of these investigations frequently deviate from one another. The experimental results are especially dependent upon the overall dimensions and the specific proportions of the equipment. In the present work, the attempt will be made to develop systematically the theory of the heat transfer and of the dependence of the unit thermal conductance upon shape and dimensions, using as a basis the velocity distribution for turbulent flow set up by Prandtl and Von Karman.
Iliotibial band friction syndrome
2010-01-01
Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495
Turbulence modeling for sharp-fin-induced shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, C. C.
1990-01-01
Solutions of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are presented and compared with a family of experimental results for the 3-D interaction of a sharp fin induced shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Several algebraic and two equation eddy viscosity turbulence models are employed. The computed results are compared with experimental surface pressure, skin friction, and yaw angle data as well as the overall size of the interaction. Although the major feature of the flow fields are correctly predicted, several discrepancies are noted. Namely, the maximum skin friction values are significantly underpredicted for the strongest interaction cases. These and other deficiencies are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1991-01-01
The performance of existing two-equation eddy viscosity models was examined. An effort was made to develop better models for near-wall turbulence using direct numerical simulations of plane channel and boundary layer flows. The asymptotic near-wall behavior of turbulence was used to examine the problems of current second order closure models and develop new models with the correct near-wall behavior. Rapid Distortion Theory was used to analytically study the effects of mean deformation on turbulence, obtain analytical solutions for the spectrum tensor, Reynolds stress tensor, anisotropy tensor and its invariants, which can be used in the turbulence model development. The potential of the renormalization group theory in turbulence modeling was studied, as well as compressible turbulent flows, and modeling of bypass transition.
Tolle; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy A.
2008-04-15
A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.
Frictional melt and seismic slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, S.; di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.; Shimamoto, T.
2008-01-01
Frictional melt is implied in a variety of processes such as seismic slip, ice skating, and meteorite combustion. A steady state can be reached when melt is continuously produced and extruded from the sliding interface, as shown recently in a number of laboratory rock friction experiments. A thin, low-viscosity, high-temperature melt layer is formed resulting in low shear resistance. A theoretical solution describing the coupling of shear heating, thermal diffusion, and extrusion is obtained, without imposing a priori the melt thickness. The steady state shear traction can be approximated at high slip rates by the theoretical form ?ss = ?n1/4 (A/?) ? under a normal stress ?n, slip rate V, radius of contact area R (A is a dimensional normalizing factor and W is a characteristic rate). Although the model offers a rather simplified view of a complex process, the predictions are compatible with experimental observations. In particular, we consider laboratory simulations of seismic slip on earthquake faults. A series of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on rocks, performed for ?n in the range 1-20 MPa and slip rates in the range 0.5-2 m s-1, is confronted to the theoretical model. The behavior is reasonably well reproduced, though the effect of radiation loss taking place in the experiment somewhat alters the data. The scaling of friction with ?n, R, and V in the presence of melt suggests that extrapolation of laboratory measures to real Earth is a highly nonlinear, nontrivial exercise.
Science 101: What Causes Friction?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robertson, Bill
2014-01-01
Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ergun Cekli, Hakki; van de Water, Willem
2009-11-01
Many turbulent flows are subject to periodic modulation, examples are the pulsatile flow of blood through arteries and geophysical flows driven by periodic tides. When the modulation is slow, the turbulence will adjust adiabatically, but when the modulation period comes close to an internal time scale of the flow, the turbulence may resonate with the driving. The possibility of a resonance is intriguing as one may object that turbulence does not have a single dominant timescale, but a continuum of strongly fluctuating times. In our experiment we periodically modulate a turbulent windtunnel flow with an active grid. An active grid is a regular grid of axes with attached vanes which are rotated by servo motors. By controlling the time-dependent angle of all axes precisely, the grid cycles through a sequence of transparency patterns. Thus we modulate turbulence in space, characterized by these patterns, and time, characterized by the modulation frequency. We consider 3 distinct spatial modes, all share the same transparency sequence. We find a large resonant enhancement of the mean turbulent dissipation rate at a modulation frequency which equals the large-eddy turnover rate. Thus, we find the best frequency to inject energy in a turbulent flow. The resonant enhancement depends on the spatial mode of the grid, but all spatial modes share the same behavior of the response. Modulation only affects the large-scale spatial structure of turbulence, leaving the small-scale motion unaltered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McPhee, M. G.; Stevens, C. L.; Smith, I. J.; Robinson, N. J.
2015-11-01
Late winter measurements of turbulent quantities in tidally modulated flow under land-fast sea ice near the Erebus Glacier Tongue, McMurdo Sound, identified processes that influence growth at the interface of an ice surface in contact with supercool seawater. The data suggest that turbulent heat exchange at the ocean-ice boundary is characterized by the product of friction velocity and (negative) water temperature departure from freezing, analogous to similar results for moderate melting rates in seawater above freezing. Platelet ice growth appears to increase the hydraulic roughness (drag) of fast ice compared with undeformed fast ice without platelets. We hypothesize that platelet growth in supercool water under thick ice is rate-limited by turbulent heat transfer and that this is a significant factor to be considered in mass transfer at the under-side of ice shelves and sea ice in the vicinity of ice shelves.
Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S.; Chandra Bose, A.
2010-02-15
In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)
Horton, W.; Hu, G.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walowit, Jed A.
1994-01-01
A viewgraph presentation is made showing the capabilities of the computer code SPIRALI. Overall capabilities of SPIRALI include: computes rotor dynamic coefficients, flow, and power loss for cylindrical and face seals; treats turbulent, laminar, Couette, and Poiseuille dominated flows; fluid inertia effects are included; rotor dynamic coefficients in three (face) or four (cylindrical) degrees of freedom; includes effects of spiral grooves; user definable transverse film geometry including circular steps and grooves; independent user definable friction factor models for rotor and stator; and user definable loss coefficients for sudden expansions and contractions.
Heat Transfer on Periodically Dimple-Protrusion Patterned Walls in Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Chew, T.; Khoo, B. C.
2014-11-01
In this study, heat transfer characteristics and flow structures over periodically dimple-protrusion patterned walls in a turbulent channel flow were systematically investigated using Detached Eddy Simulation method. The periodically patterned surface is applied to the bottom wall only in the test channel. It is found that larger depth/height induces higher friction factor and heat transfer. Furthermore, the highest Nusselt number is found to be located at the upstream portion of protrusion and the downstream portion of dimple. Additionally, the distributions of Nusselt number exhibit symmetrical features for the small depth/height configuration and asymmetric characteristics for the large depth/height configuration.
Experimental measurements of skin friction on upper surface blown wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miner, D. D.; Campbell, J. F.
1975-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to obtain skin-friction measurements on a wing with a circular jet exhausting above it. A Preston tube was used to determine the local shear stress at a point on the wing's upper surface. Data were obtained for four nozzle pressures and four vertical displacements of the jet above the wing. The results indicated that the highest skin-friction values occurred with the jet closest to the wing and with the highest nozzle pressure. These data trends were validated by calculations which combined two-dimensional, turbulent boundary-layer theory with axisymmetric co-flowing jet theory.
Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows
Li Zhigang
2010-05-21
We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.
Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures.
Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Liberman, M; Rogachevskii, I
2014-11-01
We study turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures in a developed turbulence. In our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 69 (1998)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.80.69] using a path-integral approach for a delta-correlated in a time random velocity field, we demonstrated a strong modification of turbulent transport in fluid flows with chemical reactions or phase transitions. In the present study we use the spectral ? approximation that is valid for large Reynolds and Peclet numbers and show that turbulent diffusion of the reacting species can be strongly depleted by a large factor that is the ratio of turbulent and chemical times (turbulent Damkhler number). We have demonstrated that the derived theoretical dependence of a turbulent diffusion coefficient versus the turbulent Damkhler number is in good agreement with that obtained previously in the numerical modeling of a reactive front propagating in a turbulent flow and described by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. We have found that turbulent cross-effects, e.g., turbulent mutual diffusion of gaseous admixtures and turbulent Dufour effect of the chemically reacting gaseous admixtures, are less sensitive to the values of stoichiometric coefficients. The mechanisms of the turbulent cross-effects differ from the molecular cross-effects known in irreversible thermodynamics. In a fully developed turbulence and at large Peclet numbers the turbulent cross-effects are much larger than the molecular ones. The obtained results are applicable also to heterogeneous phase transitions. PMID:25493875
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparrow, S W; Thorne, M A
1928-01-01
The first portion of this report discusses measurements of friction made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards between 1920 and 1926 under research authorization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. These are discussed with reference to the influence of speed, barometric pressure, jacket-water temperature, and throttle opening upon the friction of aviation engines. The second section of the report deals with measurements of the friction of a group of pistons differing from each other in a single respect, such as length, clearance, area of thrust face, location of thrust face, etc. Results obtained with each type of piston are discussed and attention is directed particularly to the fact that the friction chargeable to piston rings depends upon piston design as well as upon ring design. This is attributed to the effect of the rings upon the thickness and distribution of the oil film which in turn affects the friction of the piston to an extent which depends upon its design.
Numerical study of turbulent nanofluid flow at the entrance region of a ribbed pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziaei-Rad, Masoud; Beigi, Maryam
2016-03-01
In this paper, we perform a numerical study on the heat transfer and pressure drop in hydraulically and thermally developing turbulent flow of nanofluid through an internally ribbed pipe. The effects of volume fraction of nanoparticles and the distance between the ribs are investigated on the heat transfer and skin friction coefficients at the entrance region of the pipe. The set of governing equations followed by a two-layer zonal turbulence model are solved numerically by a velocity-pressure coupling algorithm based on finite-volume method. Moreover, available empirical relations are used to calculate the nanofluid properties in terms of the nanoparticles and the base fluid. The obtained results illustrate that increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles makes the thermal entrance length decrease and consequently, the heat transfer increases. It reveals that 10% increase in the volume fraction of nanoparticles causes about 15% rise in average Nusselt number. In addition, it is found that the friction factor rises by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles compared with turbulent flow of the base-fluid. Also, the average Nusselt number in nanofluid flow increases with the interval between the ribs compared with pure-fluid flow.
Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, T.; Chakraborty, P.; Guttenberg, N.; Prescott, A.; Kellay, H.; Goldburg, W.; Goldenfeld, N.; Gioia, G.
2010-11-01
There is a missing link between macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. To seek the missing link we carry out unprecedented experimental measurements of the frictional drag in turbulent soap-film flows over smooth walls. These flows are effectively two-dimensional, and we are able to create soap-film flows with the two types of turbulent spectrum that are theoretically possible in two dimensions: the "enstrophy cascade," for which the spectral exponent ?= 3, and the "inverse energy cascade," for which the spectral exponent ?= 5/3. We find that the functional relation between the frictional drag f and the Reynolds number Re depends on the spectral exponent: where ?= 3, f Re-1/2; where ?= 5/3, f Re-1/4. Each of these scalings may be predicted from the attendant value of ? by using a recently proposed spectral theory of the frictional drag. In this theory the frictional drag of turbulent flows on smooth walls is predicted to be f Re^(1-?)/(1+?).
Lee, Chong Bum; Kim, Jeong, Sik; Kim, Yong Goog; Cho, Chang Rae; Byun, D.W.
1996-12-31
The dry deposition of pollutants can be calculated from the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere and deposition velocity. To calculate deposition velocity, turbulence parameters such as friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length are used. However, due to the difficulties in observation of turbulence parameters, usually mean values of wind speed and temperature observed using conventional meteorological instruments are used to estimate the dry deposition. The dry deposition velocity is the function of aerodynamic resistance (R{sub a}), sublayer resistance (R{sub b}), surface resistance (R{sub c}). R{sub a} and R{sub b} are calculated from turbulence parameters and R{sub c} is related to surface characteristics. The purpose of the present study is to compare the dry deposition obtained using the data sets of mean values and turbulence parameters measured by sonic anemometer-thermometer. The field observation was performed for 30 days from October 27 to November 25, 1995. The turbulence parameters were measured by 3 dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer and mean meteorological variables are obtained at two heights, 2.5 m and 10 m. The results show that the dry deposition velocity is large, in daytime and small in nighttime. The major factor of diurnal variation is Ra. In the daytime the dry deposition velocity calculated using mean meteorological data show relatively similar to the dry deposition velocity calculated using the turbulence data, however there are big differences at night.
Watson, Gregory S; Myhra, Sverre; Watson, Jolanta A
2010-04-01
Layered materials which can be easily cleaved have proved to be excellent samples for the study of atomic scale friction. The layered transition metal dichalcogenides have been particularly popular. These materials exhibit a number of interesting properties ranging from superconductivity to low frictional coefficients. In this paper we have investigated the tribology of the dichalcogenide-WTe2. The coefficient of friction is less than 0.040 along the Te rows and increases to over 0.045 across the rows. The frictional forces almost doubled at normal loads of 5000 nN when scanning in the [010] direction in comparison to the [100] direction. The frictional responses of the AFM probe have been monitored in the frictional force and force-versus-distance (f-d) mode. A comparison between the outcomes using the two different modes demonstrates the factors which need to be considered for accurate measurements. PMID:20355449
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Namiko
Studies in turbulence often focus on two flow conditions, both of which occur frequently in real-world flows and are sought-after for their value in advancing turbulence theory. These are the high Reynolds number regime and the effect of wall surface roughness. In this dissertation, a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) recreates both conditions over a wide range of Reynolds numbers Retau = O(102) - O(108) and accounts for roughness by locally modeling the statistical effects of near-wall anisotropic fine scales in a thin layer immediately above the rough surface. A subgrid, roughness-corrected wall model is introduced to dynamically transmit this modeled information from the wall to the outer LES, which uses a stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model operating in the bulk of the flow. Of primary interest is the Reynolds number and roughness dependence of these flows in terms of first and second order statistics. The LES is first applied to a fully turbulent uniformly-smooth/rough channel flow to capture the flow dynamics over smooth, transitionally rough and fully rough regimes. Results include a Moody-like diagram for the wall averaged friction factor, believed to be the first of its kind obtained from LES. Confirmation is found for experimentally observed logarithmic behavior in the normalized stream-wise turbulent intensities. Tight logarithmic collapse, scaled on the wall friction velocity, is found for smooth-wall flows when Re tau ? O(106) and in fully rough cases. Since the wall model operates locally and dynamically, the framework is used to investigate non-uniform roughness distribution cases in a channel, where the flow adjustments to sudden surface changes are investigated. Recovery of mean quantities and turbulent statistics after transitions are discussed qualitatively and quantitatively at various roughness and Reynolds number levels. The internal boundary layer, which is defined as the border between the flow affected by the new surface condition and the unaffected part, is computed, and a collapse of the profiles on a length scale containing the logarithm of friction Reynolds number is presented. Finally, we turn to the possibility of expanding the present framework to accommodate more general geometries. As a first step, the whole LES framework is modified for use in the curvilinear geometry of a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, with implementation carried out in a spectral element solver capable of handling complex wall profiles. The friction factors have shown favorable agreement with the superpipe data, and the LES estimates of the Karman constant and additive constant of the log-law closely match values obtained from experiment.
Isolating Curvature Effects in Computing Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.
2001-01-01
The flow over the zero-pressure-gradient So-Mellor convex curved wall is simulated using the Navier-Stokes equations. An inviscid effective outer wall shape, undocumented in the experiment, is obtained by using an adjoint optimization method with the desired pressure distribution on the inner wall as the cost function. Using this wall shape with a Navier-Stokes method, the abilities of various turbulence models to simulate the effects of curvature without the complicating factor of streamwise pressure gradient can be evaluated. The one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model overpredicts eddy viscosity, and its boundary layer profiles are too full. A curvature-corrected version of this model improves results, which are sensitive to the choice of a particular constant. An explicit algebraic stress model does a reasonable job predicting this flow field. However, results can be slightly improved by modifying the assumption on anisotropy equilibrium in the model's derivation. The resulting curvature-corrected explicit algebraic stress model possesses no heuristic functions or additional constants. It lowers slightly the computed skin friction coefficient and the turbulent stress levels for this case (in better agreement with experiment), but the effect on computed velocity profiles is very small.
TURBULENCE-INDUCED RELATIVE VELOCITY OF DUST PARTICLES. IV. THE COLLISION KERNEL
Pan, Liubin; Padoan, Paolo E-mail: ppadoan@icc.ub.edu
2014-12-20
Motivated by its importance for modeling dust particle growth in protoplanetary disks, we study turbulence-induced collision statistics of inertial particles as a function of the particle friction time, τ{sub p}. We show that turbulent clustering significantly enhances the collision rate for particles of similar sizes with τ{sub p} corresponding to the inertial range of the flow. If the friction time, τ{sub p,} {sub h}, of the larger particle is in the inertial range, the collision kernel per unit cross section increases with increasing friction time, τ{sub p,} {sub l}, of the smaller particle and reaches the maximum at τ{sub p,} {sub l} = τ{sub p,} {sub h}, where the clustering effect peaks. This feature is not captured by the commonly used kernel formula, which neglects the effect of clustering. We argue that turbulent clustering helps alleviate the bouncing barrier problem for planetesimal formation. We also investigate the collision velocity statistics using a collision-rate weighting factor to account for higher collision frequency for particle pairs with larger relative velocity. For τ{sub p,} {sub h} in the inertial range, the rms relative velocity with collision-rate weighting is found to be invariant with τ{sub p,} {sub l} and scales with τ{sub p,} {sub h} roughly as ∝ τ{sub p,h}{sup 1/2}. The weighting factor favors collisions with larger relative velocity, and including it leads to more destructive and less sticking collisions. We compare two collision kernel formulations based on spherical and cylindrical geometries. The two formulations give consistent results for the collision rate and the collision-rate weighted statistics, except that the spherical formulation predicts more head-on collisions than the cylindrical formulation.
Friction and Phase Synchronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braiman, Y.; Protopopescu, V.; Family, F.; Hentschel, H. G. E.
2000-03-01
Spatiotemporal fluctuations in small discrete nonlinear arrays affect the dynamics of the center of mass. We derive the equations describing the dynamics of the center of mass and the spatial fluctuations for each coherent mode of the array. Analysis of these equations indicates that depending on array stiffness, size, and the external forcing - quantized jumps occur in the minimum friction (maximum velocity) of the array. We propose an analytical formalism to determine the occurrences of these jumps. We present numerical evidence indicating that phase synchronization is related to the frictional properties of sliding objects at the atomic scale and discuss mechanisms of tuning and controlling nanoscale friction. Y. Braiman, F. Family, H. G. E. Hentschel, C. Mak, and J. Krim, Phys. Rev. E 59, R4737 (1999). H. G. E. Hentschel, F. Family, and Y. Braiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 104 (1999).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ping, Tcheng (Inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).
Friction causing unpredictability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oldham, Joshua; Weigert, Stefan
2016-03-01
We study the effect of friction on the dynamics of a classical point particle in a one-dimensional double-well potential. It turns out that finite uncertainty in the initial conditions of the particle may prevent us from reliably predicting the well in which the particle will come to rest. This difficulty—to make reliable long-term predictions—originates from the layered structure of phase-space regions sending the particle to the left and the right well, respectively. Similar structures are known to arise in models used, for example, to described the tossing of a coin where friction is, however, not the root cause of the phenomenon.
Active wall motions for skin-friction drag reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Sangmo; Choi, Haecheon
2000-12-01
In the present study we investigate a possibility of reducing skin-friction drag in a turbulent channel flow with active wall motions. The wall is locally deformed according to two successful control strategies [J. Fluid Mech. 262, 75 (1994); J. Fluid Mech. 358, 245 (1998)]. Results show that overall 13-17% drag reductions are obtained with the active wall motions, and turbulence intensities and near-wall streamwise vortices are significantly weakened. It is remarkable that instantaneous wall shapes are elongated in the streamwise direction and resemble riblets in appearance. However, the mechanism of the present drag reduction is essentially different from that of riblets.
Turbulent acceleration and heating in toroidal magnetized plasmas
Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.
2013-07-15
It is shown that turbulence is responsible for a source of momentum, which cannot be recast as a divergence of a momentum flux. This process is similar to turbulent heating, with similar properties. The sum over all species vanishes up to polarization contributions. Hence, toroidal momentum is transferred from species to species, mediated by turbulence. As for momentum flux, symmetry breaking is needed. Flow shear is investigated as a source of symmetry breaking, leading to a source of momentum proportional to the shear rate. Turbulent acceleration is significant for ion species. It is found that it is proportional to the charge number Z, while turbulent heating scales as Z{sup 2}/A, where A is the mass number. It is maximum in the edge, where the E B flow shear rate and turbulence intensity are maximum. When both are large enough, the turbulent torque may overcome the collisional friction between impurities and main ions, thus leading to different toroidal velocities.
Increase in friction force with sliding speed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cross, Rod
2005-09-01
A block sliding down an inclined plane normally accelerates. However, if the friction force increases with speed, then the block can slide at a constant terminal speed in a manner similar to the fall of an object through a fluid. Measurements of the increase in the coefficient of friction for tennis ball cloth sliding on a smooth surface are described over speeds varying by a factor of 9000. For the low speed measurements, the ball cloth was attached to the bottom of a weighted box and pulled along a horizontal surface by a constant horizontal force. Results at higher speeds were obtained by bouncing a tennis ball off the surface.
Effects of surface roughness on rolling friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cross, Rod
2015-11-01
Rolling friction is commonly associated with deformation of the rolling object or surface, particularly if the object or surface is soft. When a hard object rolls on a hard surface, surface roughness is also a significant factor. Several experiments are described where the effects of surface roughness on rolling resistance were investigated using very rough rolling objects (gear wheels), and smooth balls on very rough surfaces. In all cases it was found that the coefficient of rolling friction increased with rolling speed and surface roughness, and decreased as the ball diameter increased.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Appleberry, W. T.
1983-01-01
Standard hydraulic shock absorber modified to form coulomb (linear friction) damper. Device damps very small velocities and is well suited for use with large masses mounted on soft springs. Damping force is easily adjusted for different loads. Dampers are more reliable than fluid dampers and also more economical to build and to maintain.
Barnett, Stephen M.; Cresser, James D.
2005-08-15
We present a Markovian quantum theory of friction. Our approach is based on the idea that collisions between a Brownian particle and single molecules of the surrounding medium constitute, as far as the particle is concerned, instantaneous simultaneous measurements of its position and momentum.
Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes.
Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L
2012-11-01
Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386
Acting on Frictions: Learning Blocks and Flows in Knowledge Intensive Organizations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bijlsma-Frankema, Katinka; Rosendaal, Bastiaan; Taminiau, Yvette
2006-01-01
Purpose: It is argued in this paper that opportunities for learning manifest themselves in the form of frictions between the structure-as-experienced by actors and the structure-as-preferred. These frictions are considered as potential triggers of learning processes. The concept of friction promises to contribute to our understanding of factors
Effects of Different Ligature Materials on Friction in Sliding Mechanics
Khamatkar, Aparna; Sonawane, Sushma; Narkhade, Sameer; Gadhiya, Nitin; Bagade, Abhijit; Soni, Vivek; Betigiri, Asha
2015-01-01
Background: During orthodontic tooth movement friction occurs at the bracket wire interface. Out of the total force applied to the tooth movement, some of it is dissipated as friction, and the remainder is transferred to the supporting structures of the tooth to mediate tooth movement. However many factors affect friction, and method of arch wire ligation being an important contributing factor. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different ligature materials on friction in sliding mechanics and to compare the effect of environment (dry and wet) on friction produced in sliding mechanics. Materials and Methods: The evaluation of friction between the bracket and the archwire consisted of a simulated half arch fixed appliance with archwire ligated in a vertical position. Four 0.022 maxillary stainless steel premolar brackets having a - 0 torque and 0 angulation were aligned with a 0.019 0.025 stainless steel arch wire onto a rigid Plexiglass sheet. The movable test bracket was fitted with a 10 mm long, 0.045 thick stainless steel power arm on the bonding surface. Testing was performed on a Hounsfield material testing machine. A total of 100 g weight was suspended from the power arm and the load needed to move the bracket over the distance of not <4 mm across the central span was recorded separately. Fifteen representative readings were taken with one reading per test sample. Results: The results showed that the mean frictional force of different groups in dry and wet state was statistically significantly different. The mean frictional force in a dry state was statistically significantly higher than wet state in elastomeric group. Conclusion: The type of ligation material and environment significantly affected the degree of friction generated during sliding mechanics. Teflon coated stainless steel ligatures produced the least friction among the materials tested in both dry and wet conditions and there was no significant effect on friction in this group caused due to lubrication. PMID:26028900
Internal rotor friction instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1990-01-01
The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, C. W.; Chan, T. L.; Chen, S.
Experimental investigation had been conducted to study the steady-state forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the hydrodynamic fully-developed turbulent flow in the air-cooled horizontal equilateral triangular ducts, which were fabricated with the same length and hydraulic diameter. Inner surfaces of the ducts were fixed with square ribs with different side lengths of 6.35, 9.525 and 12.7mm, respectively, and the uniform separation between the centre lines of two adjacent ribs was kept constant at 57.15mm. Both the triangular ducts and the ribs were fabricated with duralumin. The experiments were performed with the hydraulic diameter based Reynolds number ranged from 3100 to 11300. The entire inner wall of the duct was heated uniformly, while the outer surface was thermally insulated. It was found that the Darcy friction factor of the duct was increasing rather linearly with the rib size, and forced convection could be enhanced by an internally ribbed surface. However, the heat transfer enhancement was not proportional to the rib size but a maximum forced convection heat transfer augmentation was obtained at the smallest rib of 6.35mm. Non-dimensional expressions for the determination of the steady-state heat transfer coefficient and Darcy friction factor of the equilateral triangular ducts, which were internally fabricated with uniformly spaced square ribs of different sizes, were also developed.
The low friction contradiction (low friction or fiction).
Champagne, Michel; Lavalle, Jean-Noel; Huynh, Phuc; Martel, Daniel; Pellan, Pierre
2007-01-01
Low friction is on everyone' lips, from companies to lecturers, some are just whispering and others are shouting the advantages of low friction self-ligating brackets. The low friction appliances get tremendous attention and publicity. Most major companies have a bracket that they describe as low fiction. Many clinicians have switched or are considering the switch to these brackets. Most companies present their low friction line describing and promoting their bracket design. In our opinion low friction is not only a question of bracket design. Low friction must be looked at, promoted and used as a complete philosophy. To insure maximum results the low friction clinicians will have to choose and respect the philosophy of the system. Using only a so-called low friction bracket will not assure the clinician the performance of low friction mechanics. This article will try to expose a low friction philosophy which goes beyond the bracket design. We will describe a global approach to low friction philosophy using the Damon System as an example. We do not imply that the Damon System is the only system that can get excellent results but it is a system that has a good track record and that has been on the market for many years. PMID:17784573
PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark
Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag
2010-05-01
Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.
Micro Surface Texturing for Friction Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashwan, Ola
Recently, surface texturing has gained momentum as a way to control the friction which is involved in various applications and systems, such as components of internal combustion engines, dies and punches of the metal forming processes and Micro-electrical-mechanical Systems (MEMS). This dissertation demonstrates that under dry sliding, there is a specific significant surface texturing parameter at which the coefficient of friction should be at a minimum. This dissertation met this objective through an extensive study of the relevant literature on surface texturing and friction, analysing the friction mechanisms involved in dry sliding, and highlighting the key factors that control friction as the real area of contact and material properties. An analytical proof is derived demonstrating that a minimum friction force exists if the two components of the friction force, adhesion and mechanical deformation, are differentiated with respect to the real contact area. In addition, numerical simulations and experimental work were performed to test this hypothesis. In the two and three dimensional finite element models, normal and sliding contact between a rigid indenter and elastic-plastic surfaces, which are textured by circular and hexagonal dimples of different sizes and densities, are simulated and analysed. Circular craters of different sizes and densities, are fabricated using laser ablation on hardened tool steel samples, while the hexagonal dimples are fabricated using photo-lithography. The dimples are arranged in adjacent equilateral triangles layout. Coefficients of friction were measured using a scratch tester under dry sliding conditions and constant load. In addition, adhesion forces were estimated using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The adhesion force is found to be exponentially decreasing with the increase of the spatial texture density. The dimensionless quantity, spatial texture density (D/L) was identified as the most significant texturing parameter. It is equal to the ratio of the size of the crater (D) to the distance between the centres of two consecutive craters (L). A minimum coefficient of friction exits at values of spatial texture densities that lie between 0.25 and 0.5.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Dollison, W.W.
1990-04-24
This patent describes a sucker rod coupling adapted to reduce friction within production tubing in a well bore. It comprises: a substantially cylindrical body member and roller assemblies; the body member comprising means at each end thereof for attaching the coupling to a sucker rod, and axially and circumferentially spaced recesses, each recess containing a roller guide connected to the body, and each recess being further adapted to receive and support a roller assembly around the roller guide in such manner that the roller assembly can revolve around the roller guide; the roller assemblies each comprising rollers rotatably mounted on and linked by a chain, the rollers being adapted to reduce frictional contact between the body member and the tubing by rotating between the roller guide and the tubing while the chain revolves around the roller guide.
Rubber friction for tire tread compound on road surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.; Fortunato, G.; Giustiniano, M.; Baldoni, F.
2013-03-01
We have measured the surface topography and calculated the surface roughness power spectrum for an asphalt road surface. For the same surface we have measured the friction for a tire tread compound for velocities 10-6 m s-1 < v < 10-3 m s-1 at three different temperatures (at -8?C, 20?C and 48?C). The friction data was shifted using the bulk viscoelasticity shift factor aT to form a master curve. We have measured the effective rubber viscoelastic modulus at large strain and calculated the rubber friction coefficient (and contact area) during stationary sliding and compared it to the measured friction coefficient. We find that for the low velocities and for the relatively smooth road surface we consider, the contribution to friction from the area of real contact is very important, and we interpret this contribution as being due to shearing of a very thin confined rubber smear film.
Rubber friction for tire tread compound on road surfaces.
Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Fortunato, G; Giustiniano, M; Baldoni, F
2013-03-01
We have measured the surface topography and calculated the surface roughness power spectrum for an asphalt road surface. For the same surface we have measured the friction for a tire tread compound for velocities 10(-6) m s(-1) < v < 10(-3) m s(-1) at three different temperatures (at -8 C, 20 C and 48 C). The friction data was shifted using the bulk viscoelasticity shift factor a(T) to form a master curve. We have measured the effective rubber viscoelastic modulus at large strain and calculated the rubber friction coefficient (and contact area) during stationary sliding and compared it to the measured friction coefficient. We find that for the low velocities and for the relatively smooth road surface we consider, the contribution to friction from the area of real contact is very important, and we interpret this contribution as being due to shearing of a very thin confined rubber smear film. PMID:23334507
Atomic scale friction of molecular adsorbates during diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lechner, B. A. J.; de Wijn, A. S.; Hedgeland, H.; Jardine, A. P.; Hinch, B. J.; Allison, W.; Ellis, J.
2013-05-01
Experimental observations suggest that molecular adsorbates exhibit a larger friction coefficient than atomic species of comparable mass, yet the origin of this increased friction is not well understood. We present a study of the microscopic origins of friction experienced by molecular adsorbates during surface diffusion. Helium spin-echo measurements of a range of five-membered aromatic molecules, cyclopentadienyl, pyrrole, and thiophene, on a copper(111) surface are compared with molecular dynamics simulations of the respective systems. The adsorbates have different chemical interactions with the surface and differ in bonding geometry, yet the measurements show that the friction is greater than 2 ps-1 for all these molecules. We demonstrate that the internal and external degrees of freedom of these adsorbate species are a key factor in the underlying microscopic processes and identify the rotation modes as the ones contributing most to the total measured friction coefficient.
Frictional effect of ultrasonic-vibration on upsetting.
Hung, Jung-Chung; Tsai, Yu-Chung; Hung, Chinghua
2007-06-01
The ultrasonic-vibration ring compression test and finite element analysis were performed on aluminum alloy specimens to explore the frictional effect of superimposing ultrasonic-vibration during upsetting. The extrapolated compression test was first adopted to obtain the frictionless material properties for finite element analysis. Experimental results of extrapolated compression test also indicate that ultrasonic-vibration can reduce the compressive force when friction is eliminated and can increase the temperatures of a material at the same time. The following results of the hot extrapolated compression test and the hot ring compression test reveal that increasing temperature by ultrasonic-vibration may reduce the flow stress and increase the interfacial friction. Finally, finite element analysis was conducted to derive the friction calibration curves and to evaluate the friction factor. PMID:17482231
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kay, P. K.
1984-01-01
The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben
2014-05-01
Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.
Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong
2014-04-18
We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028
Turbulence in Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.
DPIV, LDV and SSS investigations of forced laminar-turbulent transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bobba, Kumar; Gharib, Morteza; Doyle, John
2004-11-01
A systematical experimental study conducted to understand the role of external environment---free stream turbulence---on the boundary layer laminar-turbulent transition on a flat plate will be presented. The experiments are conducted in the GALCIT free surface water tunnel using flow visualization, DPIV, and MEMS based LDV and shear stress sensors (SSS). The results indicate that various transition parameters like shape factor, skin friction coefficient, mean profile, etc., are strong function of the external turbulence level. Neither T-S waves nor turbulent spots were found, but the flow is always embedded with stream wise vortical structures in the parametric range explored. An interesting observation is that the vortical structures are found even at such low Reynolds numbers as 289 (based on displacement thickness). A real time study of the structures in the flow shed more light on their dynamics and evolution. Space-time auto-correlation functions and probability density functions revealed that the wavelength of the span wise and stream wise structures in the boundary layer are independent of the Reynolds number in the parametric range explored. Finally, the experimental observations are compared with the results from our robust flow stability theory and the agreement is good.
Bioinspired orientation-dependent friction.
Xue, Longjian; Iturri, Jagoba; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jrgen; del Campo, Arnzazu
2014-09-23
Spatular terminals on the toe pads of a gecko play an important role in directional adhesion and friction required for reversible attachment. Inspired by the toe pad design of a gecko, we study friction of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars terminated with asymmetric (spatular-shaped) overhangs. Friction forces in the direction of and against the spatular end were evaluated and compared to friction forces on symmetric T-shaped pillars and pillars without overhangs. The shape of friction curves and the values of friction forces on spatula-terminated pillars were orientation-dependent. Kinetic friction forces were enhanced when shearing against the spatular end, while static friction was stronger in the direction toward the spatular end. The overall friction force was higher in the direction against the spatula end. The maximum value was limited by the mechanical stability of the overhangs during shear. The aspect ratio of the pillar had a strong influence on the magnitude of the friction force, and its contribution surpassed and masked that of the spatular tip for aspect ratios of >2. PMID:25178923
In-Flight Capability for Evaluating Skin-Friction Gages and Other Near-Wall Flow Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.; Pipitone, Brett J.; Krake, Keith L.; Richwine, Dave (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
An 8-in.-square boundary-layer sensor panel has been developed for in-flight evaluation of skin-friction gages and other near-wall flow sensors on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B/Flight Test Fixture (FTF). Instrumentation on the sensor panel includes a boundary-layer rake, temperature sensors, static pressure taps, and a Preston tube. Space is also available for skin-friction gages or other near-wall flow sensors. Pretest analysis of previous F-15B/FTF flight data has identified flight conditions suitable for evaluating skin-friction gages. At subsonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel closely approximates the two-dimensional (2D), law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layer, and skin-friction estimates from the Preston tube and the rake (using the Clauser plot method) can be used to evaluate skin-friction gages. At supersonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel becomes complex, and other means of measuring skin friction are needed to evaluate the accuracy of new skin-friction gages. Results from the flight test of a new rubber-damped skin-friction gage confirm that at subsonic Mach numbers, nearly 2D, law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers exist over the sensor panel. Sensor panel data also show that this new skin-friction gage prototype does not work in flight.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, Jorge E.
1995-01-01
The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.
Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.
1993-12-01
Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.
Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings
Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.
2012-08-15
Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.
Solid friction between soft filaments.
Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir
2015-06-01
Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes's drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials. PMID:25730393
Solid friction between soft filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A. W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir
2015-06-01
Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.
Kolmogorov Behavior of Near-Wall Turbulence and Its Application in Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.
1992-01-01
The near-wall behavior of turbulence is re-examined in a way different from that proposed by Hanjalic and Launder and followers. It is shown that at a certain distance from the wall, all energetic large eddies will reduce to Kolmogorov eddies (the smallest eddies in turbulence). All the important wall parameters, such as friction velocity, viscous length scale, and mean strain rate at the wall, are characterized by Kolmogorov microscales. According to this Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence, the turbulence quantities, such as turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, etc. at the location where the large eddies become Kolmogorov eddies, can be estimated by using both direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and asymptotic analysis of near-wall turbulence. This information will provide useful boundary conditions for the turbulent transport equations. As an example, the concept is incorporated in the standard k-epsilon model which is then applied to channel and boundary flows. Using appropriate boundary conditions (based on Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence), there is no need for any wall-modification to the k-epsilon equations (including model constants). Results compare very well with the DNS and experimental data.
Friction and wear of plasma-deposited diamond films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan; Barnes, Paul N.; Jackson, Howard E.
1993-01-01
Reciprocating sliding friction experiments in humid air and in dry nitrogen and unidirectional sliding friction experiments in ultrahigh vacuum were conducted with a natural diamond pin in contact with microwave-plasma-deposited diamond films. Diamond films with a surface roughness (R rms) ranging from 15 to 160 nm were produced by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In humid air and in dry nitrogen, abrasion occurred when the diamond pin made grooves in the surfaces of diamond films, and thus the initial coefficients of friction increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. In vacuum the friction for diamond films contacting a diamond pin arose primarily from adhesion between the sliding surfaces. In these cases, the initial and equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were 0.02 to 0.04 in humid air and in dry nitrogen, but 1.5 to 1.8 in vacuum. The wear factor of the diamond films depended on the initial surface roughness, regardless of environment; it increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The wear factors were considerably higher in vacuum than in humid air and in dry nitrogen.
Intermittent of Atmospheric Turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahrt, L.
1989-01-01
Dimensionless structure functions such as kurtosis of the velocity gradients are computed from aircraft data for a variety of atmospheric situations in order to characterize the intermittency of the turbulence. It is necessary to distinguish between small scale intermittency of the velocity gradients organized by the individual main eddies and global intermittency associated with patchiness of turbulence on scales larger than the main eddies. Failure to make such a distinction can lead to ambiguity and inability to recognize contamination of statistics by sampling problems.The sharp edges of the main eddies contribute to the small scale intermittency as measured by the kurtosis of the velocity gradients and other intermittency statistics. However, for some of the strongly stratified cases, global intermittency increases the kurtosis by a factor of 2 or 3 in which case the statistics reflect the global spatial variability of the turbulence (patchiness) more than the local characteristics of the turbulence itself. As a result, the kurtosis increases with record length as more of the larger scale spatial variability is incorporated. in such case record partitioning is employed to construct more useful estimates of the small scale intermittency.The variation of the structure kurtosis with separation distance is normally found to obey the Kolmogorov similarity theory which has been modified to include the influence of small scale intermittency. However, the modified theory does not describe decaying turbulence nor turbulence with strong global intermittency.The dimensionless structure function for artificial turbulence and mixtures of distributions are studied analytically. The usual dimensional structure function responds to the scale of the main building blocks (simulated eddies) while the structure kurtosis and other dimensionless moments respond to the spatial scale of the edges of the building blocks where gradients are particularly large and contribute to the tails of the frequency distribution. The dimensionless structure function of the artificial turbulence is also augmented by global intermittency posed in terms of mixtures of frequency distributions. This analytical analysis appears to explain the observed enhancement of the dimensionless structure kurtosis by the sharp edges of the main eddies and by the global intermittency of those records with strong thermal stratification.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tischbein, Hans W
1945-01-01
The coefficient of friction between piston ring and cylinder liner was measured in relation to gliding acceleration, pressure, temperature, quantity of oil and quality of oil. Comparing former lubrication-technical tests, conclusions were drawn as to the state of friction. The coefficients of friction as figured out according to the hydrodynamic theory were compared with those measured by tests. Special tests were made on "oiliness." The highest permissible pressure was measured and the ratio of pressure discussed.
Improved Skin Friction Interferometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.
1986-01-01
An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.
Skin Friction following BLADE manipulation in a turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoo, B. C.; Chew, Y. T.; Mah, Y. A.
1993-09-01
This study attempts to analyze the measured wall shear stress distribution downstream of single and tandem BLADEs in fully developed pipe flow. Previous works have indicated the adverse effect of overall drag increase with the single BLADE in both channel and pipe flows, and an even larger drag increase with the tandem BLADES. This is contrary to that observed for external boundary layer flow. Extensive comparisons are then made to the wall shear stress distribution following BLADEs in boundary layer flow, leading to the conclusion of little or no potential in the application of BLADEs alone to pipe flow.
Friction loss in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride.
Iwasaki, T; Ojima, J
1996-01-01
In order to design proper ductwork for a local exhaust system, airflow characteristics were investigated in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A linear decrease in static pressure was observed downstream at points from the opening of the VU pipes (JIS K 6741) located at distances greater than 10 times the pipe diameter, for velocities ranging between 10.18-36.91 m/s. Roughness inside pipes with small diameters was found to be 0.0042-0.0056 mm and the friction factor was calculated on the basis of Colebrook's equation for an airflow transition zone. An extended friction chart was then constructed on the basis of the roughness value and the friction factor. This chart can be applied when designing a local exhaust system with the ducts of diameters ranging from 40 to 900 mm. The friction loss of the PVC pipe was found to be approximately 2/3 of that of a galvanized steel pipe. PMID:8768669
General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.
2015-05-01
The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci laws of friction.
General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction.
Fortunato, G; Ciaravola, V; Furno, A; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J
2015-05-01
The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1mms(-1). We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci 'laws' of friction. PMID:25873527
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorla, R. S. R.
1984-01-01
The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on heat transfer at a stagnation point over a cylinder situated in a crossflow are studied. An eddy diffusivity model was formulated and the governing momentum and energy equations are integrated by means of the steepest descent method. The numerical results for the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate are correlated by a turbulence parameter. The wall friction and heat transfer rate increase with increasing free stream turbulence intensity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Masaaki; Inoue, Haruo; Kusaka, Masahiro; Kaizu, Koichi; Fuji, Akiyoshi
This paper describes an analysis method of the friction torque and weld interface temperature during the friction process for steel friction welding. The joining mechanism model of the friction welding for the wear and seizure stages was constructed from the actual joining phenomena that were obtained by the experiment. The non-steady two-dimensional heat transfer analysis for the friction process was carried out by calculation with FEM code ANSYS. The contact pressure, heat generation quantity, and friction torque during the wear stage were calculated using the coefficient of friction, which was considered as the constant value. The thermal stress was included in the contact pressure. On the other hand, those values during the seizure stage were calculated by introducing the coefficient of seizure, which depended on the seizure temperature. The relationship between the seizure temperature and the relative speed at the weld interface in the seizure stage was determined using the experimental results. In addition, the contact pressure and heat generation quantity, which depended on the relative speed of the weld interface, were solved by taking the friction pressure, the relative speed and the yield strength of the base material into the computational conditions. The calculated friction torque and weld interface temperatures of a low carbon steel joint were equal to the experimental results when friction pressures were 30 and 90 MPa, friction speed was 27.5 s-1, and weld interface diameter was 12 mm. The calculation results of the initial peak torque and the elapsed time for initial peak torque were also equal to the experimental results under the same conditions. Furthermore, the calculation results of the initial peak torque and the elapsed time for initial peak torque at various friction pressures were equal to the experimental results.
Green's function of the linearized Saint-Venant equations in laminar and turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristo, Cristiana; Iervolino, Michele; Vacca, Andrea
2012-02-01
In the present paper, an analytical expression of the Green's function of linearized Saint-Venant equations (LSVEs) for shallow water waves is provided and applied to analyse the propagation of a perturbation superposed to a uniform flow. Independently of the kinematic character of the base flow, i.e., subcritical or supercritical uniform flow, the effects of a non-uniform vertical velocity profile and a non-constant resistance coefficient are accounted for. The use of the Darcy-Weisbach friction law allows a unified treatment of both laminar and turbulent conditions. The influence on the wave evolution of the wall roughness and the fluid viscosity are finally discussed, showing that in turbulent regime the assumption of constant friction coefficient may lead to an underestimation of both amplification and damping factors on the wave fronts, especially at low Reynolds numbers. This conclusion has to be accounted for, particularly in describing hyper-concentrated suspensions or other kinds of Newtonian mixtures, for which the high values of the kinematic viscosity may lead to relatively low Reynolds numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.
2008-01-01
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newell, Alan C.; Rumpf, Benno
2011-01-01
In this article, we state and review the premises on which a successful asymptotic closure of the moment equations of wave turbulence is based, describe how and why this closure obtains, and examine the nature of solutions of the kinetic equation. We discuss obstacles that limit the theory's validity and suggest how the theory might then be modified. We also compare the experimental evidence with the theory's predictions in a range of applications. Finally, and most importantly, we suggest open challenges and encourage the reader to apply and explore wave turbulence with confidence. The narrative is terse but, we hope, delivered at a speed more akin to the crisp pace of a Hemingway story than the wordjumblingtumbling rate of a Joycean novel.
Eiamsa-ard, Smith; Seemawute, Panida; Wongcharee, Khwanchit
2010-09-15
Effects of peripherally-cut twisted tape insert on heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance factor characteristics in a round tube were investigated. Nine different peripherally-cut twisted tapes with constant twist ratio (y/W = 3.0) and different three tape depth ratios (DR = d/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33), each with three different tape width ratios (WR = w/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33) were tested. Besides, one typical twisted tape was also tested for comparison. The measurement of heat transfer rate was conducted under uniform heat flux condition while that of friction factor was performed under isothermal condition. Tests were performed with Reynolds number in a range from 1000 to 20,000, using water as a working fluid. The experimental results revealed that both heat transfer rate and friction factor in the tube equipped with the peripherally-cut twisted tapes were significantly higher than those in the tube fitted with the typical twisted tape and plain tube, especially in the laminar flow regime. The higher turbulence intensity of fluid in the vicinity of the tube wall generated by the peripherally-cut twisted tape compared to that induced by the typical twisted tape is referred as the main reason for achieved results. The obtained results also demonstrated that as the depth ratio increased and width ratio decreased, the heat transfer enhancement increased. Over the range investigated, the peripherally-cut twisted tape enhanced heat transfer rates in term of Nusselt numbers up to 2.6 times (turbulent regime) and 12.8 times (laminar regime) of that in the plain tube. These corresponded to the maximum performance factors of 1.29 (turbulent regime) and 4.88 (laminar regime). (author)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.
1987-01-01
Recent developments at several levels of statistical turbulence modeling applicable to aerodynamics are briefly surveyed. Emphasis is on examples of model improvements for transonic, two-dimensional flows. Experience with the development of these improved models is cited to suggest methods of accelerating the modeling process necessary to keep abreast of the rapid movement of computational fluid dynamics into the computation of complex three-dimensional flows.
An experimental study of turbulent mixing of viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartels, Paul Vincent
1988-07-01
The viscoelastic behavior of fluids was related to the hydrodynamics, energy dissipation, and homogenization for turbulent pipeline flow and stirred tank reactors. For both mixing systems a significant influence of viscoelasticity on the hydrodynamics is found in locations with a high shear rate, such as occur in the boundary layer of pipeline flow and in the trailing vortices of the blade of a Rushton turbine. This results in a dramatic drop of the overall energy dissipation for very low values of elasticity number. In tube flow there is a threshold for the drag reduction phenomenon. The friction factor appears to be also a function of the elasticity number. The homogenization process of polymer solutions is also slower due to the lower energy dissipation, causing less dispersion. The energy dissipation and homogenization can be related to a characteristic fluid time and the elasticity number. The effect of inserted mixing elements on turbulent pipe flow was studied. The pressure drop of the mixers is almost independent of the concentration of polyacrylamide, but mixing will be less when the characteristic time of the solutions increases.
Inflow length and tripping effects in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Örlü, Ramis; Schlatter, Philipp
2011-12-01
A recent assessment of available direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from turbulent boundary layer flows [Schlatter & Örlü, J. Fluid Mech. 659, 116 (2010)] showed surprisingly large differences not only in the skin friction coefficient or shape factor, but also in their predictions of mean and fluctuation profiles far into the sublayer. For the present paper the DNS of a zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer flow by Schlatter et al. [Phys. Fluids 21, 051702 (2009)] serving as the baseline simulation, was re-simulated, however with physically different inflow conditions and tripping effects. The downstream evolution of integral and global quantities as well as mean and fluctuation profiles are presented and results indicate that different inflow conditions and tripping effects explain most of the differences observed when comparing available DNS. It is also found, that if transition is initiated at a low enough Reynolds number (based on the momentum-loss thickness) Reθ < 300, all data agree well for both inner and outer layer for Reθ > 2000; a result that gives a lower limit for meaningful comparisons between numerical and/or wind tunnel experiments.
Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E.
2013-09-15
Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.
Orbital Friction Stir Weld System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Carter, Robert W. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
This invention is an apparatus for joining the ends of two cylindrical (i.e., pipe-shaped) sections together with a friction stir weld. The apparatus holds the two cylindrical sections together and provides back-side weld support as it makes a friction stir weld around the circumference of the joined ends.
Orbital friction stir weld system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Carter, Robert W. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
This invention is an apparatus for joining the ends of two cylindrical (i.e., pipe-shaped) sections together with a friction stir weld. The apparatus holds the two cylindrical sections together and provides back-side weld support as it makes a friction stir weld around the circumference of the joined ends.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Fred M.
1975-01-01
Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)
Turbulence-induced Relative Velocity of Dust Particles V. Testing Previous Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Liubin; Padoan, Paolo
2015-10-01
Coagulation models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks usually adopt the prediction of Vlk et al. or its later developments (hereafter Vlk-type models) for the collision velocity of dust particles induced by turbulent motions. We review the formulation and the underlying physical picture of these models, test their predictions against a numerical simulation, and examine the accuracy of the commonly used prescription for dust particle collisions. We show that Vlk-type models typically overestimate the rms of the particle relative velocity by a factor of two, if the particle friction times lie in the inertial range of the flow. The commonly used prescription for the collision kernel has several inaccuracies, and, in particular, it neglects the effect of turbulent clustering. Interestingly, for particles of equal sizes, the inaccuracies happen to cancel out, and by coincidence, the commonly used kernel prescription based on Vlk-type models is in good agreement with our simulation result. For particles of different sizes, the prescription shows a larger discrepancy from the measured kernel, and may overestimate the collision rate by up to a factor of 2.5. We find that the predicted rms relative velocity by Vlk-type models provides reasonable estimates for the average collision velocity per collision. We also make an effort to improve the accuracy of Vlk-type models for the rms relative velocity by tuning the correlation time of turbulent eddies and modifying the criterion for eddy classification.
Friction in surface micromachined microengines
Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; LaVigne, G.; McWhorter, P.J.
1996-03-01
Understanding the frictional properties of advanced Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is essential in order to develop optimized designs and fabrication processes, as well as to qualify devices for commercial applications. We develop and demonstrate a method to experimentally measure the forces associated with sliding friction of devices rotating on a hub. The method is demonstrated on the rotating output gear of the microengine recently developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In-situ measurements of an engine running at 18300 rpm give a coefficient of friction of 0.5 for radial (normal) forces less than 4 {mu}N. For larger forces the effective coefficient of friction abruptly increases, suggesting a fundamental change in the basic nature of the interaction between the gear and hub. The experimental approach we have developed to measure the frictional forces associated with the microengine is generically applicable to other MEMS devices.
Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions
Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin
2014-01-01
In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (? = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584
Wall friction measurement in the absence of mean shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefanus, Stefanus; Castiglione, James; Cerbus, Rory; Goldburg, Walter
2012-02-01
The dimensionless frictional force f between a pipe wall and a flowing turbulent fluid is f=?s /U^2, where U is mean flow speed in the x-direction, ? is kinematic viscosity, and s=u y , where the y axis is perpendicular to the flow direction. The derivative is evaluated at the wall, y = 0. Described here a scheme for measuring f in a turbulent fluid where s is close to zero. Hence the source of frictional dissipation is from fluctuations in the shear about its mean, namely s^2. This type of shear is encountered in turbulence in a closed container such as a food mixer. The scheme, which involves photon correlation spectroscopy, averages the shear rate over a laser spot size w 100 ?m or smaller. The scheme yields the probability density function (PDF) of components of the shear rate tensor and the moments of of the PDF. The theory will be described briefly and measurements will be presented where s 0. In that limit f is redefined to be f =u' sij/?, where sij is the dominant component being measured, and u' is the rms fluctuations of the velocity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Chi R.
1988-01-01
Boundary layer flow and turbulence transport analyses to study the influence of the free-stream turbulence on the surface heat transfer rate and the skin friction around the stagnation point of a circular cylinder in a turbulent flow are presented. The analyses are formulated with the turbulent boundary layer equations, the Reynolds stress transport equations and the k - epsilon two-equation turbulence modeling. The analyses are used to calculate the time-averaged turbulence double correlations, the mean flow properties, the surface heat transfer rate and the skin friction with an isotropic turbulence in the freestream. The analytical results are described and compared with the existing experimental measurements. Depending on the free-stream turbulence properties, the turbulence kinetic energy can increase or decrease as the flow moves toward the surface. However, the turbulence kinetic energy induces large Reynolds normal stresses at the boundary layer edge. The Reynolds normal stresses change the boundary layer profiles of the time-averaged double correlations of the velocity and temperature fluctuations, the surface heat transfer rate and the skin friction. The free-stream turbulence dissipation rate can affect the stagnation-point heat transfer rate but the influence of the free-stream temperature fluctuation on the heat transfer rate is insignificant.
Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport
H.E. Mynick, N.Pomphrey, and P. Xanthopoulos
2010-05-27
Up to now, the term "transport-optimized" stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.
Rolling friction robot fingers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vranish, John M. (inventor)
1992-01-01
A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.
Friction drive position transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waclawik, Ronald E.; Cayer, James L.; Lapointe, Kenneth M.
1993-06-01
A spring force loaded contact wheel mounted in a stationary position relative to a reciprocating shaft is disclosed. The apparatus of the present invention includes a tensioning assembly for maintaining absolute contact between the contact wheel and the reciprocating shaft wherein the tensioning assembly urges the contact wheel against the shaft to maintain contact there between so that the wheel turn as the shaft is linearly displaced. A rotary encoding device is coupled to the wheel for translating the angular and rotational movement thereof into an electronic signal for providing linear displacement information and derivative data with respect to displacement of the shaft. Absolute friction contact and cooperative interaction between the shaft and the contact wheel is further enhanced in the preferred embodiment by advantageously selecting the type of surface finish and the amount of surface area of the contact wheel relative to the surface condition of the shaft as well as by reducing the moment of inertia of the contact wheel.
Friction drive position transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waclawik, Ronald E.; Cayer, James L.; Lapointe, Kenneth M.
1991-10-01
A spring force loaded contact wheel mounted in a stationary position relative to a reciprocating shaft is disclosed. The apparatus of the present invention includes a tensioning assembly for maintaining absolute contact between the contact wheel and the reciprocating shaft wherein the tensioning assembly urges the contact wheel against the shaft to maintain contact therebetween so that the wheel turns as the shaft is linearly displaced. A rotary encoding device is coupled to the wheel for translating the angular and rotational movement thereof into an electronic signal for providing linear displacement information and derivative data with respect to displacement of the shaft. Absolute friction contact and cooperative interaction between the shaft and the contact wheel is further enhanced in the preferred embodiment by advantageously selecting the types of surface finish and the amount of surface area of the contact wheel relative to the surface condition of the shaft as well as by reducing the moment of inertia of the contact wheel.
Eliminating Friction with Friction: 2D Janssen Effect in a Friction-Driven System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karim, M. Yasinul; Corwin, Eric I.
2014-05-01
The Janssen effect is a unique property of confined granular materials experiencing gravitational compaction in which the pressure at the bottom saturates with an increasing filling height due to frictional interactions with side walls. In this Letter, we replace gravitational compaction with frictional compaction. We study friction-compacted 2D granular materials confined within fixed boundaries on a horizontal conveyor belt. We find that even with high-friction side walls the Janssen effect completely vanishes. Our results demonstrate that gravity-compacted granular systems are inherently different from friction-compacted systems in at least one important way: vibrations induced by sliding friction with the driving surface relax away tangential forces on the walls. Remarkably, we find that the Janssen effect can be recovered by replacing the straight side walls with a sawtooth pattern. The mechanical force introduced by varying the sawtooth angle ? can be viewed as equivalent to a tunable friction force. By construction, this mechanical friction force cannot be relaxed away by vibrations in the system.
Eliminating friction with friction: 2D Janssen effect in a friction-driven system.
Karim, M Yasinul; Corwin, Eric I
2014-05-01
The Janssen effect is a unique property of confined granular materials experiencing gravitational compaction in which the pressure at the bottom saturates with an increasing filling height due to frictional interactions with side walls. In this Letter, we replace gravitational compaction with frictional compaction. We study friction-compacted 2D granular materials confined within fixed boundaries on a horizontal conveyor belt. We find that even with high-friction side walls the Janssen effect completely vanishes. Our results demonstrate that gravity-compacted granular systems are inherently different from friction-compacted systems in at least one important way: vibrations induced by sliding friction with the driving surface relax away tangential forces on the walls. Remarkably, we find that the Janssen effect can be recovered by replacing the straight side walls with a sawtooth pattern. The mechanical force introduced by varying the sawtooth angle ? can be viewed as equivalent to a tunable friction force. By construction, this mechanical friction force cannot be relaxed away by vibrations in the system. PMID:24856724
Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.
Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis
2013-03-01
Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185
Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch
Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis
2013-01-01
Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185
Active control of boundary layer transition and turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maestrello, Lucio
1990-06-01
The invention is a system and method for controlling boundary layer flow such that flow separation can be delayed and skin friction drag can be reduced. The invention consists of heater elements used to trigger turbulent flow and audio speakers used to suppress turbulent oscillations. By inducing turbulent oscillations into the flow in a region of positive pressure gradient, pressure patterns became more regular. The suppression of these patterns can be accomplished by imposing an out-of-phase suppressing wave. This wave is the audio output generated by a feedback amplifier using inputs from a hot-wire anemometer reading downstream turbulence. The novel features of the present invention are the tripping of boundary layer flow in a region of positive pressure gradient and the cooperative use of the feedback means to control turbulence. The result is a significant reduction in drag and separation problems.
Friction boosted by spontaneous epitaxial rotations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio
2015-03-01
It is well known in surface science that incommensurate adsorbed monolayers undergo a spontaneous, energy-lowering epitaxial rotation from aligned to misaligned relative to a periodic substrate. We show first of all that a model 2D colloidal monolayer in an optical lattice, of recent importance as a frictional model, also develops in full equilibrium a small rotation angle, easy to detect in the Moir pattern. The colloidal monolayer misalignment is then shown by extensive sliding simulations to increase the dynamic friction by a considerable factor over the aligned case. More generally, this example suggests that spontaneous rotations are rather ubiquitous and should not be ignored in all tribological phenomena between mismatched lattices. This work was mainly supported by the ERC Advanced Grant No. 320796-MODPHYSFRICT, and partly by SINERGIA contract CRSII2 136287, by PRIN/COFIN Contract 2010LLKJBX 004, by COST Action MP1303.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Yu; Gilles, Jrme
2012-06-01
We recently developed a new approach to get a stabilized image from a sequence of frames acquired through atmospheric turbulence. The goal of this algorihtm is to remove the geometric distortions due by the atmosphere movements. This method is based on a variational formulation and is efficiently solved by the use of Bregman iterations and the operator splitting method. In this paper we propose to study the influence of the choice of the regularizing term in the model. Then we proposed to experiment some of the most used regularization constraints available in the litterature.
Heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kays, W. M.
1972-01-01
This paper contains a summarization of five years work on an investigation on heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer. Experimental results are presented for friction coefficient and Stanton number over a wide range of blowing and suction for the case of constant free-stream velocity, holding certain blowing parameters constant. The problem of the accelerated turbulent boundary layer with transpiration is considered, experimental data are presented and discussed, and theoretical models for solution of the momentum equation under these conditions are presented. Data on turbulent Prandtl number are presented so that solutions to the energy equation may be obtained. Some examples of boundary layer heat transfer and friction coefficient predictions are presented using one of the models discussed, employing a finite difference solution method.
Skin Friction and Transition Location Measurement on Supersonic Transport Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Goodsell, Aga M.; Olsen, Lawrence E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Flow visualization techniques were used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative skin friction and transition location data in wind tunnel tests performed on two supersonic transport models at Mach 2.40. Oil-film interferometry was useful for verifying boundary layer transition, but careful monitoring of model surface temperatures and systematic examination of the effects of tunnel start-up and shutdown transients will be required to achieve high levels of accuracy for skin friction measurements. A more common technique, use of a subliming solid to reveal transition location, was employed to correct drag measurements to a standard condition of all-turbulent flow on the wing. These corrected data were then analyzed to determine the additional correction required to account for the effect of the boundary layer trip devices.
Bi-directional, buried-wire skin-friction gage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Higuchi, H.; Peake, D. J.
1978-01-01
A compact, nonobtrusive, bi-directional, skin-friction gage was developed to measure the mean shear stress beneath a three-dimensional boundary layer. The gage works by measuring the heat flux from two orthogonal wires embedded in the surface. Such a gage was constructed and its characteristics were determined for different angles of yaw in a calibration experiment in subsonic flow with a Preston tube used as a standard. Sample gages were then used in a fully three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer on a circular cone at high relative incidence, where there were regimes of favorable and adverse pressure gradients and three-dimensional separation. Both the direction and magnitude of skin friction were then obtained on the cone surface.
Direct measurements of skin friction in a scramjet combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deturris, D. J.; Schetz, J. A.; Hellbaum, R. F.
1990-01-01
A direction experimental measurement was made of the skin friction in the turbulent boundary layer of three-dimensional supersonic combustor flows. A floating element configuration was designed to detect two components of the small tangential shear forces due to the flow passing over a nonobtrusive instrument. A cantilevered sensing head extending from a very sensitive piezoresistive displacement transducer simultaneously measured displacement in the axial and transverse directions to the flow. The small overall deflection means that no self-nulling is required. Consistently repeatable output from the gage during testing show the skin friction with supersonic combustion is higher than for a corresponding noncombusting flow. The results are probably accurate to within 10 percent for the mean streamwise component.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
This investigation attempts to observe changes in the flow structure of a nominally zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer by altering the surface of a smooth plate with small triangular riblets oriented in the direction of flow and protruding just above the viscous sublayer. Hot-wire measurements show a reduction in the local skin friction over the riblet valleys by about 40% compared to the smooth surface near the end of the plate. Local skin friction increases by about 10% over the riblet peaks. Results showing the effects of the riblets on the mean, root-mean-square and skewness factor distributions of the streamwise velocity are presented. The mean profile displays characteristics similar to those of drag reducing additives; the streamwise turbulence intensity is reduced by approximately 10-15% near the surface by the riblets; the skewness factor distribution is virtually unchanged. A comparison of results from an application of the VITA 'burst' detection technique to smooth and riblet surface data is also presented although the results are rather inconclusive. Flow visualization of 'bursting' over both surfaces, while dramatically revealing the structure, reveals little difference resulting from the presence of the riblet.
Correlation between friction and thickness of vanadium-pentoxide nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Taekyeong
2015-11-01
We investigated the correlation between friction and thickness of vanadium-pentoxide nanowires (V2O5 NWs) by using friction/atomic force microscopy (FFM/AFM). We observed that the friction signal generally increased with thickness in the FFM/AFM image of the V2O5 NWs. We constructed a two-dimensional (2D) correlation distribution of the frictional force and the thickness of the V2O5 NWs and found that they are strongly correlated; i.e., thicker NWs had higher friction. We also generated a histogram for the correlation factors obtained from each distribution and found that the most probable factor is ~0.45. Furthermore, we found that the adhesion force between the tip and the V2O5 NWs was about -3 nN, and that the friction increased with increasing applied load for different thicknesses of V2O5 NWs. Our results provide an understanding of tribological and nanomechanical studies of various one-dimensional NWs for future fundamental research.
Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.
Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M
2013-06-21
We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence. PMID:23829741
Skin-Friction Measurements in a 3-D, Supersonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wideman, J. K.; Brown, J. L.; Miles, J. B.; Ozcan, O.
1994-01-01
The experimental documentation of a three-dimensional shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a nominal Mach 3 cylinder, aligned with the free-stream flow, and 20 deg. half-angle conical flare offset 1.27 cm from the cylinder centerline. Surface oil flow, laser light sheet illumination, and schlieren were used to document the flow topology. The data includes surface-pressure and skin-friction measurements. A laser interferometric skin friction data. Included in the skin-friction data are measurements within separated regions and three-dimensional measurements in highly-swept regions. The skin-friction data will be particularly valuable in turbulence modeling and computational fluid dynamics validation.
Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle
2012-01-01
"Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.
REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR
Ron Matthews
2005-05-01
This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston assembly in an engine. The model appears to produce the correct behavior, but we cannot quantify its strengths or weaknesses until our crank-angle-resolved measurements have been completed. Finally, we proposed and implemented a model for the effects of liner rotation on piston assembly friction. Here, we propose that the rotating liner design is analogous to the shaft-bushing mechanism. Therefore, we used the side-slip rolling friction model to simulate the effects of liner rotation. This model appears to be promising, but final analysis of its strengths and/or weaknesses must await our crank-angle-resolved measurements.
Frictional disturbances in superconducting magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kensley, R. S.; Iwasa, Y.; Maeda, H.
1981-01-01
An experiment is reported that uses a liner-friction apparatus to study the frictional and sliding behavior of metal/insulator pairs commonly used in superconducting magnet windings. Both copper G-10 and CDIF-G-10 pairs show similar friction behavior: first-run slips (and sometimes second runs) are very fast, while subsequent runs are slow. The fast slip is attributed to the plowing effect of the glass fibers. Coating with a thin layer of soft material or sanding the surface have been found effective in eliminating slip.
Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clingman, W. Dean
1991-01-01
Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.
The frictional response of patterned soft polymer surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rand, Charles J.
2008-10-01
Friction plays an intricate role in our everyday lives, it is therefore critical to understand the underlying features of friction to better help control and manipulate the response anywhere two surfaces in contact move past each other by a sliding motion. Here we present results targeting a thorough understanding of soft material friction and how it can be manipulated with patterns. We found that the naturally occurring length scale or periodicity (lambda) of frictionally induced patterns, Schallamach waves, could be described using two materials properties (critical energy release rate Gc and complex modulus (E*), i.e. lambdainfinity Gc /E*). Following this, we evaluated the effect of a single defect at a sliding interface. Sliding over a defect can be used to model the sliding from one feature to another in a patterned surface. Defects decreased the sliding frictional force by as much as 80% sliding and this decrease was attributed to changes in tangential stiffness of the sliding interface. The frictional response of surface wrinkles, where multiple edges or defects are acting in concert, was also evaluated. Wrinkles were shown to decrease friction (F) and changes in contact area (A) could not describe this decrease. A tangential stiffness correction factor (fx) and changes in the critical energy release rate were used to describe this deviation (F infinity Gc *A*fx/?, where ? is a materials defined length scale of dissipation). This scaling can be used to describe the friction of any topographically patterned surface including the Gecko's foot, where the feature size is smaller than ? and thus replaces ?, increasing the friction compared to a flat surface. Also, mechanically-induced surface defects were used to align osmotically driven surface wrinkles by creating stress discontinuities that convert the global biaxial stress state to local uniaxial stresses. Defect spacing was used to control the alignment process at the surface of the wrinkled rigid film/soft elastomer interface. These aligned wrinkled surfaces can be used to tune the adhesion and friction of an interface. The work presented here gives insight into tuning the friction of a soft polymeric surface as well as understanding the friction of complex hierarchical structures.
Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen
2009-01-01
The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal motion can be chosen to be random with a flat spectrum over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 kHz, or to be sinusoidal at any peak-to-peak amplitude up to 0.8 in. (.2 cm) and fixed or varying frequency up to 1 kHz. The temperatures of the specimen and of the vessel are measured by thermocouples. A digital video camera mounted outside the pressure vessel is aimed into the vessel through a sapphire window, with its focus fixed on the interface between the two specimens. A position transducer monitors the displacement of the pneumatic-cylinder shaft. The pressure in the vessel is also monitored. During a test, the output of the video camera, the temperatures, and the pneumatic-shaft displacement are monitored and recorded. The test is continued for a predetermined amount of time (typically, 10 minutes) or until either (1) the output of the position transducer shows a sudden change indicative of degradation of either or both specimens, (2) ignition or another significant reaction is observed, or (3) pressure in the vessel increases beyond a pre-set level that triggers an automatic shutdown.
Experimental study of plane turbulent wakes in a shallow water layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Daoyi; Jirka, Gerhard H.
1995-07-01
Shallow two-dimensional turbulent wake flows have been studied experimentally on a large water table. In the experiments, the ambient Reynolds number Re h = UaH/ ?, in which Ua is the depth-averaged ambient velocity, H the water depth, and ? the kinematic viscosity, is large, well above a lower critical value of the order of 500 for open-channel flows so that the ambient base flow is fully turbulent. Different types of blunt bodies extending over the full depth are inserted in that base flow, including cylinders and flat solid and porous plates oriented transversely to the ambient flow. In all cases, the transverse body dimension D greatly exceeds the water depthy, D/H ? 1 . With that condition, the wake Reynolds number Re d = UaD/ ? is very large, greater than 10 4. The shallow near-wake characteristics of plane wakes from blunt bodies extending over the full water depth have been found to fall into one of three classes: (i) the vortex street (VS) type with an oscillating vortex shedding mechanism, (ii) the unsteady bubble (UB) wake type with flow instabilities growing downstream of a recirculating bubble attached to the body, and (iii) the steady bubble (SB) wake type with an attached bubble followed by a turbulent wake that contains no growing instabilities. When Re h > 1500, the flow classification is uniquely dependent on a shallow wake parameter, S = c fD/H in which cf is a quadratic law friction coefficient. For circular cylindrical bodies the VS-UB transition is characterized by a critical value, Sca ? 0.2, and the UB-SB transition by Scc ? 0.5. Solid plates, oriented transversely, differ by a factor of 1.25. The shallow far-wake behavior has been investigated with a special variable porosity wake device that reduces the wake velocity deficit and completely suppresses the VS instabilities in the near-field. Thus, only UB and SB wake types are found in that case. Furthermore, the shallow plane wake is obsserved to "stabilize" for large downstream distances, x/H, in the sense that the growth and maintenance of the large scale structures in the wake flow become suppressed and the wake collapses into a more ordered flow that, however, still contains small scale (of scale H) turbulence. This wake stabilization is controlled by two factors: first, the usual evolution in a turbulent wake that reduces the velocity deficit while increasing the wake parameter S, and secondly, the exponential loss of the momentum deficit flux in the wake due to bottom friction.
Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.
2011-12-01
Wear is an inevitable product of frictional sliding of brittle rocks as evidenced by the ubiquitous occurrence of fault gouge and slickenside striations. We present here experimental observations designed to demonstrate the relationship between wear and friction and their governing mechanisms. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters. Stresses, wear and temperature were continuously monitored. We analyzed 86 experiments of Kasota dolomite, Sierra White granite, Pennsylvania quartzite, Karoo gabbro, and Tennessee sandstone at slip velocities ranging from 0.002 to 0.97 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. We conducted two types of runs: short slip experiments (slip distance < 25 mm) primarily on fresh, surface-ground samples, designed to analyze initial wear mechanisms; and long slip experiments (slip distance > 3 m) designed to achieve mature wear conditions and to observe the evolution of wear and friction as the fault surfaces evolved. The experiments reveal three wear stages: initial, running-in, and steady-state. The initial stage is characterized by (1) discrete damage striations, the length of which is comparable to total slip , and local pits or plow features; (2) timing and magnitude of fault-normal dilation corresponds to transient changes of normal and shear stresses; and (3) surface roughness increasing with the applied normal stress. We interpret these observations as wear mechanisms of (a) plowing into the fresh rock surfaces; (b) asperity breakage; and (c) asperity climb. The running-in stage is characterized by (1) intense wear-rate over a critical wear distance of Rd = 0.3-2 m; (2) drop of friction coefficient over a weakening distance of Dc = 0.2-4 m; (3) Rd and Dc display positive, quasi-linear relation with each other. We interpret these observations as indicating the organizing of newly-created wear particles into a 'three-body' structure that acts to lubricate the fault (Reches & Lockner, 2010). The steady-state stage is characterized by (1) relatively low wear-rate (approximately 10% of running-in wear-rate) and (2) quasi-constant friction coefficient. These observations suggest only small changes in the gouge layer in term of thickness (100 to 200 microns) and strength in this final stage. The present study indicates that (1) wear by plowing and asperity failure initiate early, during the first few millimeters of slip; and (2) wear and associated gouge formation appear as the controlling factors of friction evolution and fault weakening.
Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blau, P. J.
Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine-scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.
Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction
Blau, P.J.
1993-01-01
Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine- scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional, pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.
Turbulence, Chondrules, and Planetesimals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cuzzi, Jeffrey; Hogan, Robert C.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; Paque, Julie M.
1998-01-01
It has been shown both numerically and experimentally that 3-D turbulence concentrates aerodynamically size-selected particles by orders of magnitude. In a previous review chapter, in "Chondrules and the protoplanetary disk" we illustrated the initial predictions of Turbulent Concentration (TC) as applied to the solar nebula. We predicted the particle size which will be most effectively concentrated by turbulence; it is the particle which has a gas drag stopping time equal to the overturn time of the smallest (Kolmogorov scale) eddy. The primary uncertainty is the level of nebula turbulence, or Reynolds number Re, which can be expressed in terms of the standard nebula eddy viscosity parameter alpha = Re(nu)(sub m)/cH, where nu(sub m) is molecular viscosity, c is sound speed, and H is vertical scale height. Several studies, and observed lifetimes of circumstellar disks, have suggested that the level of nebula turbulence can be described by alpha = 10(exp -2) - 10(exp -4). There is some recent concern about how energy is provided to maintain this turbulence, but the issue remains open. We adopt a canonical minimum mass nebula with a range of alpha > 0. We originally showed that chondrule-sized particles are selected for concentration in the terrestrial planet region if alpha = 10(exp -3) - 10(exp -4). In addition, Paque and Cuzzi found that the size distribution of chondrules is an excellent match for theoretical predictions. One then asks by what concentration factor C these particles can be concentrated; our early numerical results indicated an increase of C with alpha, and were supported by simple scaling arguments, but the extrapolation range was quite large and the predictions (C 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6) not unlikely) uncertain. The work presented here, which makes use of our recent demonstration that the particle density field is a multifractal with flow-independent properties provides a far more secure ground for such predictions. We also indicate how fine-grained dust rims on chondrules might enter into constraining the situation.
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, Carl H.
2010-12-01
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begin with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretions on a spinning pair release 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscous stresses and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, extracting mass-energy and space-time from the vacuum. Turbulence mixes cooling temperatures until strong-force viscous stresses freeze out turbulent mixing patterns as the first fossil turbulence. Cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies show big bang turbulence fossils along with fossils of weak plasma turbulence triggered as plasma photon-viscous forces permitting gravitational fragmentation on supercluster to galaxy mass scales. Turbulent morphologies and viscous-turbulent lengths appear as linear gas-protogalaxy-clusters in the Hubble ultra-deep field at z~7. Protogalaxies fragment into Jeans mass clumps of primordial-gas planets at decoupling: the dark matter of galaxies. Shortly after the plasma-to-gas transition, planet mergers produce stars that explode on overfeeding to fertilize and distribute the first life.
Effects of Turbulence on the Critical Conditions of Explosion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mabanta, Quintin; Murphy, Jeremiah Wayne
2016-01-01
Turbulence is an important factor to consider in the supernova problem; computer simulations show that turbulence reduces the critical conditions necessary for a successful explosion. We propose a global turbulence model that captures the effects of previous simulations, and we use this turbulence model to derive the reduced critical conditions. Enthalpy flux, turbulent dissipation, and Reynolds stress are all potentially impactful components in reducing the threshold for explosion. To examine the weight of these effects, we isolate each element's contribution and compare their respective magnitudes to the neutrino heating. By exploring these reduced critical curves, we hope to further understand how turbulence aids explosion.
Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klebanoff, P S
1955-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.
Rubber friction and tire dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Persson, B. N. J.
2011-01-01
We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate ?-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.
Rubber friction and tire dynamics.
Persson, B N J
2011-01-12
We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter187789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate ?-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms. PMID:21406818
Reducing Friction by Quenched Disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braiman, Y.; Family, F.; Hentschel, H. G. E.
1998-03-01
We present numerical and theoretical evidence that quenched disorder can reduce dry friction in array of coupled particles moving on periodic and rough surfaces. We discuss possible mechanisms of such behavior in three different dynamical regimes : (a) in a limit when the nonlinear substrate potential dominates the dynamics, and therefore attractor hopping and the interplay between the basins of attraction leads to decrease in friction by disorder; (b) in a limit when thermal noise and dissipation is large, and stick-slip motion controls the dynamics; (c) in the limit where dissipation is small, and friction is reduced by disorder at short times, leading to a transition from the pinned state to sliding, though friction will be increased by disorder for long times. We will discuss possible experimental setups to observe this behavior.
Cyriax's Friction Massage: A Review.
Chamberlain, G J
1982-01-01
This article reviews the existing literature on connective tissue in an attempt to provide additional substantiation for the use of Dr. James Cyriax's friction massage. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1982;4(1):16-22. PMID:18810110
Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions
Blanpied, M.L.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.
1995-01-01
To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors
Tire/runway friction interface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yager, Thomas J.
1990-01-01
An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.
Rolling-Friction Robotic Gripper
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vranish, John M.
1992-01-01
Robotic gripper using rolling-friction fingers closes in on object with interface designed to mate with rollers somewhat misaligned initially, aligns object with respect to itself, then holds object securely in uniquely determined position and orientation. Operation of gripper causes minimal wear and burring of gripper and object. Exerts minimal friction forces on object when grasping and releasing. Releases object easily and reliably even when side forces and torques are between itself and object.
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
Local friction in polyolefin blends
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta
2005-07-01
Processes on different length scales affect the dynamics of chain molecules. The friction experienced by a short chain segment depends on both small-scale chain properties and on the local environment of the segment. As a consequence, the (monomeric) friction coefficients of the two components of a binary polymer blend will, in general, differ from each other and from the friction coefficients of the corresponding melts. In this work, we investigate local friction in polyolefin blends with the aid of a small-scale simulation approach. The polymer chains, in united atom representation, are assumed to occupy the sites of a partially filled simple cubic lattice. The simulation focuses on short chain sections with straight backbones and enumerates all possible binary contacts and relative movements of such sections. By evaluating the exact enumeration results in conjunction with equations of state for the blends, we are able to make predictions about the variation of the friction coefficients with local chain architecture and thermodynamic state (temperature, pressure, and composition). We calculate relative values of friction coefficients at temperatures well above the glass transition for blends of PEP, an alternating copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene, with polyethylene and polyisobutylene and for blends of polyethylene and atactic polypropylene. We also investigate a blend of PEP with head-to-head polypropylene and compare our results with experimental data.
Solid friction between soft filaments
Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A.W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir
2015-01-01
Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments1,2. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokess drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filaments elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials. PMID:25730393
Experiment study on friction drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guomin; Ma, Lisheng; Yao, Zhengqiu; Li, Guoping
2004-09-01
In the past years, friction drive was developed to overcome the inherent deficiencies in both worm drive and gear drive. No periodical error and free of backlash are the main advantages of friction drive. With the trend towards bigger and bigger aperture of the optical telescopes, there are some reports about friction drive employed to drive the telescopes. However friction drive has its own deficiencies, such as slippage and creepage. This report here describes the study on the friction drive finished in an experiment arranged by LAMOST project. It comprises three main parts. First, it introduces the experiment apparatus and proposes a new kind of measurement and adjustment mechanisms. Secondly, the report gives the analysis of friction drive characteristics theoretically, such as slippage, creepage and gives the results of corresponding experiments. The experiment shows that the lowest stable speed reaches 0.05?/s with precision of 0.009?(RMS), the preload has little influence on the drive precision in the case of constant velocity and the variable velocity when the angle acceleration is less than 5?/s2 with close loop control and the creepage velocity of this experiment system is 1.47?/s. Lastly, the analysis in the second section lists some measures to improve the precision and stability further. These measures have been actually conducted in the testing system and proved to be reliable.
Frictional resistance to accelerating slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, J. C.
1984-09-01
General analytical expressions for the friction stress and state variable, based on a rate and state-dependent constitutive friction law proposed by Dieterich and Ruina, have been obtained as an explicit function of slip rate V or slip time t or slip displacement δ under the assumption that slip acceleration a is constant or piecewise constant. Properties of the solutions have been discussed, and reviewed, for uniformly accelerating (or decelerating) slip, the following. 1. Frictional stress increases (or decreases) with increasing time, or slip rate, or slippage at the beginning of motion, until a maximum (or a minimum) value (when it exists) has been reached, then decreases (or increases), and finally approaches a special frictional state, namely a steady state, for which stress depends on instantaneous slip rate. 2. The maximal value of frictional stress is dependent on acceleration a; the larger the a, the larger the magnitude of the maximum. The energy expense ɛ needed to overcome the frictional stress has been estimated. And therefore the optimal value of acceleration for saving energy for a slipping mechanical system has been obtained. The energy release rate G for an abrupt rupture process of a crack or fault has been estimated.
The Effect of Friction on Penetration in Friction Stir Welding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rapp, Steve
2002-01-01
"Friction stir butt welding," as it was originally termed by Wayne Thomas and Christopher Dawes, in the early 1990s, but now commonly called "friction stir welding," has made great progress as a new welding technique. Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating the use of FSW for assembly of the Shuttle's external fuel tank since the late 1990s and hopes to have the process in use by the summer of 2002. In FSW, a cylindrical pin tool of hardened steel, is rotated and plunged into the abutting edges of the parts to be joined. The tool is plunged into the weldment to within about .050 in of the bottom to assure full penetration. As the tool moves along the joint, the tool shoulder helps produce frictional heating, causing the material to plasticize. The metal of the two abutting plates flows from the front of the tool to the back where it cools and coalesces to form a weld in the solid phase. One quarter inch thick plates of aluminum alloy 2219 were used in this study. Two samples, each consisting of two 4 in x 12 in plates, were friction stir welded. The anvil for one sample was coated with molybdenum sulfide, while for the other sample a sheet of roughened stainless steel was placed between the anvil and the sample. The retractable pin tool was used so that the depth of the pin tool penetration could be varied. As welding proceeded, the length of the pin tool was gradually increased from the starting point. The purpose of this investigation is to find out at what point, in the down ramp, penetration occurs. Differences in root structure of the friction stir weld due to differences in anvil friction will be observed. These observations will be analyzed using friction stir weld theory.
Occurrence of turbulent flow conditions in supercritical fluid chromatography.
De Pauw, Ruben; Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken
2014-09-26
Having similar densities as liquids but with viscosities up to 20 times lower (higher diffusion coefficients), supercritical CO2 is the ideal (co-)solvent for fast and/or highly efficient separations without mass-transfer limitations or excessive column pressure drops. Whereas in liquid chromatography the flow remains laminar in both the packed bed and tubing, except in extreme cases (e.g. in a 75 μm tubing, pure acetonitrile at 5 ml/min), a supercritical fluid can experience a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in more typical operation modes. Due to the significant lower viscosity, this transition for example already occurs at 1.3 ml/min for neat CO2 when using connection tubing with an ID of 127 μm. By calculating the Darcy friction factor, which can be plotted versus the Reynolds number in a so-called Moody chart, typically used in fluid dynamics, higher values are found for stainless steel than PEEK tubing, in agreement with their expected higher surface roughness. As a result turbulent effects are more pronounced when using stainless steel tubing. The higher than expected extra-column pressure drop limits the kinetic performance of supercritical fluid chromatography and complicates the optimization of tubing ID, which is based on a trade-off between extra-column band broadening and pressure drop. One of the most important practical consequences is the non-linear increase in extra-column pressure drop over the tubing downstream of the column which leads to an unexpected increase in average column pressure and mobile phase density, and thus decrease in retention. For close eluting components with a significantly different dependence of retention on density, the selectivity can significantly be affected by this increase in average pressure. In addition, the occurrence of turbulent flow is also observed in the detector cell and connection tubing. This results in a noise-increase by a factor of four when going from laminar to turbulent flow (e.g. going from 0.5 to 2.5 ml/min for neat CO2). PMID:25145564
Role of critical points of the skin friction field in formation of plumes in thermal convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandaru, Vinodh; Kolchinskaya, Anastasiya; Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Schumacher, Jrg
2015-10-01
The dynamics in the thin boundary layers of temperature and velocity is the key to a deeper understanding of turbulent transport of heat and momentum in thermal convection. The velocity gradient at the hot and cold plates of a Rayleigh-Bnard convection cell forms the two-dimensional skin friction field and is related to the formation of thermal plumes in the respective boundary layers. Our analysis is based on a direct numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Bnard convection in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio ? =1 and focused on the critical points of the skin friction field. We identify triplets of critical points, which are composed of two unstable nodes and a saddle between them, as the characteristic building block of the skin friction field. Isolated triplets as well as networks of triplets are detected. The majority of the ridges of linelike thermal plumes coincide with the unstable manifolds of the saddles. From a dynamical Lagrangian perspective, thermal plumes are formed together with an attractive hyperbolic Lagrangian coherent structure of the skin friction field. We also discuss the differences from the skin friction field in turbulent channel flows from the perspective of the Poincar-Hopf index theorem for two-dimensional vector fields.
Role of critical points of the skin friction field in formation of plumes in thermal convection.
Bandaru, Vinodh; Kolchinskaya, Anastasiya; Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Schumacher, Jrg
2015-10-01
The dynamics in the thin boundary layers of temperature and velocity is the key to a deeper understanding of turbulent transport of heat and momentum in thermal convection. The velocity gradient at the hot and cold plates of a Rayleigh-Bnard convection cell forms the two-dimensional skin friction field and is related to the formation of thermal plumes in the respective boundary layers. Our analysis is based on a direct numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Bnard convection in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio ?=1 and focused on the critical points of the skin friction field. We identify triplets of critical points, which are composed of two unstable nodes and a saddle between them, as the characteristic building block of the skin friction field. Isolated triplets as well as networks of triplets are detected. The majority of the ridges of linelike thermal plumes coincide with the unstable manifolds of the saddles. From a dynamical Lagrangian perspective, thermal plumes are formed together with an attractive hyperbolic Lagrangian coherent structure of the skin friction field. We also discuss the differences from the skin friction field in turbulent channel flows from the perspective of the Poincar-Hopf index theorem for two-dimensional vector fields. PMID:26565331
Nanotribology fundamentals: Predicting the viscous coefficient of friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coffey, Tonya S.
In this work, I have used the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to study nanoscale friction of monolayer adsorbates on (111) metals. The friction of these systems is viscous friction, defined as Ff = etanu = ( mt )nu. Here, eta is the viscous coefficient of friction, nu is the velocity of the adsorbate, m is adsorbate mass, and tau is the slip time, which is the time required for the film's speed to fall to 1/e of its original value. The main focus of this dissertation is to determine the factors that control eta, the viscous coefficient of friction. I have examined three different parameters in order to determine their effect on eta. An equation for predicting the viscous coefficient of friction has been proposed: eta = etasubs + aU2o . Here, etasubs is the damping of adsorbate sliding energy within the substrate, a is a constant depending on mainly temperature and adsorbate film coverage, and Uo is the atomic-scale surface corrugation. I have examined the sliding friction of n-octane on Cu(111) vs. Pb(11I) surfaces, which have gamma = 0.45 meV and gamma = 0.26 meV, respectively. I have observed that the slip time for a monolayer of n-octane/Cu(111) is 0.94 ns +/- 0.36 ns, and the slip time of noctane/Pb(111) is 0.59 ns +/- 0.13 ns. I therefore observe no direct evidence of a link between the damping of perpendicular FT modes and sliding friction. It is still possible, however, that the damping of the parallel FT phonon mode affects sliding friction. Finally, I studied the slippage of monolayer methanol films at room temperature on rotating, rigid, and slowly ratcheting C60 substrates, to examine the effect that the molecular rotation of the substrate surface has on the sliding friction of an adsorbate. I found that at all coverages, the slip time for methanol on rigid and slowly ratcheting C60 was longer (hence lower friction) than the slip time for methanol on rotating C 60, defying the ball bearing analogy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Frictional Heterogeneities Along Carbonate Faults
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collettini, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Scuderi, M.; Tesei, T.
2014-12-01
The understanding of fault-slip behaviour in carbonates has an important societal impact as a) a significant number of earthquakes nucleate within or propagate through these rocks, and b) half of the known petroleum reserves occur within carbonate reservoirs, which likely contain faults that experience fluid pressure fluctuations. Field studies on carbonate-bearing faults that are exhumed analogues of currently active structures of the seismogenic crust, show that fault rock types are systematically controlled by the lithology of the faulted protolith: localization associated with cataclasis, thermal decomposition and plastic deformation commonly affect fault rocks in massive limestone, whereas distributed deformation, pressure-solution and frictional sliding along phyllosilicates are observed in marly rocks. In addition, hydraulic fractures, indicating cyclic fluid pressure build-ups during the fault activity, are widespread. Standard double direct friction experiments on fault rocks from massive limestones show high friction, velocity neutral/weakening behaviour and significant re-strengthening during hold periods, on the contrary, phyllosilicate-rich shear zones are characterized by low friction, significant velocity strengthening behavior and no healing. We are currently running friction experiments on large rock samples (20x20 cm) in order to reproduce and characterize the interaction of fault rock frictional heterogeneities observed in the field. In addition we have been performing experiments at near lithostatic fluid pressure in the double direct shear configuration within a pressure vessel to test the Rate and State friction stability under these conditions. Our combination of structural observations and mechanical data have been revealing the processes and structures that are at the base of the broad spectrum of fault slip behaviors recently documented by high-resolution geodetic and seismological data.
Dynamical friction in pairs of elliptical galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prugniel, Philippe; Combes, Francoise
1990-01-01
The authors present numerical experiments on dynamical friction in pairs of elliptical galaxies of unequal mass. They confirm that the self-gravity of the response is not important and show the drastic effect of the deformability of the companion which reduces the decay time by more than a factor of 2. Almost the same amount of orbital energy is dissipated within the satellite as within the large galaxy. Finally, the authors discuss the importance of distant encounters for the dynamical evolution of systems of galaxies.
Analytical skin friction and heat transfer formula for compressible internal flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dechant, Lawrence J.; Tattar, Marc J.
1994-01-01
An analytic, closed-form friction formula for turbulent, internal, compressible, fully developed flow was derived by extending the incompressible law-of-the-wall relation to compressible cases. The model is capable of analyzing heat transfer as a function of constant surface temperatures and surface roughness as well as analyzing adiabatic conditions. The formula reduces to Prandtl's law of friction for adiabatic, smooth, axisymmetric flow. In addition, the formula reduces to the Colebrook equation for incompressible, adiabatic, axisymmetric flow with various roughnesses. Comparisons with available experiments show that the model averages roughly 12.5 percent error for adiabatic flow and 18.5 percent error for flow involving heat transfer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Hsin; Wang, Bo; Lu, Pingping; Xu, Liang
2014-09-01
The identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle dynamics and control. However, it is always not easy to identify the maximum road friction coefficient with high robustness and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions. The existing investigations on robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient are unsatisfactory. In this paper, an identification approach based on road type recognition is proposed for the robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio. The instantaneous road friction coefficient is estimated through the recursive least square with a forgetting factor method based on the single wheel model, and the estimated road friction coefficient and slip ratio are grouped in a set of samples in a small time interval before the current time, which are updated with time progressing. The current road type is recognized by comparing the samples of the estimated road friction coefficient with the standard road friction coefficient of each typical road, and the minimum statistical error is used as the recognition principle to improve identification robustness. Once the road type is recognized, the maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio are determined. The numerical simulation tests are conducted on two typical road friction conditions(single-friction and joint-friction) by using CarSim software. The test results show that there is little identification error between the identified maximum road friction coefficient and the pre-set value in CarSim. The proposed identification method has good robustness performance to external disturbances and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions and road variations, and the identification results can be used for the adjustment of vehicle active safety control strategies.
The influence of high temperatures on the tribological properties of automotive friction materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savage, Luke
Temperatures of over 800C can be generated at the frictional interface within the brake systems of large vehicles, such high temperatures result in severe wear at the frictional interface, and can also lead to a very dangerous condition known as brake fade, characterised by a sharp fall in the coefficient of friction between the pad and disc, resulting in a catastrophic loss of braking efficiency. Common friction materials are very specialised composites often containing up to 15 components bound together within a phenolic resin matrix. The high temperature behaviour of the various constituents of friction materials were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, focusing in particular on the thermal decomposition of the phenolic resin matrix material, where it has been firmly established that the thermal decomposition products of phenolic resin are the primary cause of brake fade. This has lead to the development of a novel approach for reducing fade in conventional resin based friction materials, involving a partial carbonisation to 400C. The high temperature wear characteristics of both modified and conventional friction materials were examined using standard dynamometer tests, as well as a 'continuous drag' type test machine, equipped with a heating facility. During this study a number of factors were identified as the main influences on the overall wear behaviour of friction materials. These included test temperature, sample test history, and the various effects of friction films, which were the subject of a detailed analysis. The formation of friction films was found to be an important facet of a successful friction material, producing a reduction in wear at the frictional interface. Films were examined and analysed using EDX, SEM, and X-ray diffraction techniques, which revealed the presence of a high proportion of magnetite (Fe3O4), containing iron which originated from the disc surface. It was established that the incorporation of iron in friction material formulations encouraged film formation, thereby reducing disc wear substantially.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubry, Nadine; Guyonnet, Rgis; Lima, Ricardo
1992-04-01
The scaling invariance of the Navier-Stokes equations in the limit of infinite Reynolds number is used to derive laws for the inertial range of the turbulence spectrum. Whether the flow is homogeneous or not, the spectrum is chosen to be that given by a well-chosen biorthogonal decomposition. If the flow is hoogeneous, this spectrum coincides with the classical Fourier (energy) spectrum which exhibits Kolmogorov's k-5/3 power law if the scaling exponent is assumed to be 1/3. In the more general case where the homogeneity assumption is relaxed, the spectrum is discrete and decays exponentially fast under the assumption that the flow is invariant (in a deterministic or statistical sense) under only one subgroup of the scaling coefficient ? of one scaling group of the equations (corresponding to one value of the scaling exponent). If the flow is invariant under two subgroups of scaling coefficients ? and ?', the spectrum becomes maximal, equal to R +. Finally, when a full symmetry, namely an invariance under a whole group, is assumed and the spectrum becomes continuous, the decaying law for the spectral density is derived and found to be independent of the specific value of h These ideas are then applied to locally self-similar flows with multiple dilation centers (localized in space and time) and multiple scaling exponents, extending the concept of multifractals to space and time.
Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Robert
2006-01-01
A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.
Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction
Nichols, F.A. ); Henein, N.A. . Center for Automotive Research)
1992-05-01
The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-[omega]) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, [omega], have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-[omega]) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.
Energy Balance in Driven Soap-Film Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, M.; Wu, X. L.
1999-11-01
Turbulence in freely suspended soap film is excited by electromagnetic forcing and measured by particle imaging velocimetry. It is shown that velocity fluctuations in the film can be adequately described by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation with a linear drag term that mimics air friction. Based on this equation, all of the energy-rate constants, including the energy injection and the energy dissipations by air and by fluid's viscosity, can be determined. It is established that air friction is a more effective energy sink, whereas viscosity is a more effective enstrophy sink in the flowing soap film.
Frictional ignition with coal mining
Courtney, W.G.
1990-01-01
This paper reviews recent U.S. Bureau of Mine studies of frictional ignition of a methane-air environment by coal mining bits cutting into sandstone and the effectiveness of remedial techniques to reduce the likelihood of frictional ignition. Frictional ignition with a minim bit always involves a worn bit having a wear flat on the tip of the bit. The worn bit forms hot spots on the surface of the sandstone because of frictional abrasion. The hot spots then can ignite the methane-air environment. A small wear flat forms a small hot spot, which does not give ignition, while a large wear flat forms a large hot spot, which gives ignition. The likelihood of frictional ignition can be somewhat reduced by using a mushroom-shaped tungsten-carbide bit tip on the mining bit and by increasing the bit clearance angle; it can be significantly reduced by using a water spray nozzle in back of each bit, which is carefully oriented to direct the water spray onto the sandstone surface directly behind the bit and thereby cool the hot spots formed by the worn bit. A bit replacement schedule must be used to avoid the formation of a dangerously worn bit.
Friction characteristics of graphite and graphite-metal combinations at various temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manjoine, M. J.
1970-01-01
Characteristics of the coefficient of friction of graphite and of graphitic combinations between 70 and 4000 degrees F are given. Graphite's good frictional quality is attributed to a gas film on surface platelets. Major factors investigated are, surface finish and ''wear in'', surface conditioning, temperature, and interfacial pressure.
Numerical study of axial turbulent flow over long cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neves, J. C.; Moin, P.; Moser, R. D.
1991-01-01
The effects of transverse curvature are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations of turbulent axial flow over cylinders. Two cases of Reynolds number of about 3400 and layer-thickness-to-cylinder-radius ratios of 5 and 11 were simulated. All essential turbulence scales were resolved in both calculations, and a large number of turbulence statistics were computed. The results are compared with the plane channel results of Kim et al. (1987) and with experiments. With transverse curvature the skin friction coefficient increases and the turbulence statistics, when scaled with wall units, are lower than in the plane channel. The momentum equation provides a scaling that collapses the cylinder statistics, and allows the results to be interpreted in light of the plane channel flow. The azimuthal and radial length scales of the structures in the flow are of the order of the cylinder diameter. Boomerang-shaped structures with large spanwise length scales were observed in the flow.
Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander
2015-07-01
We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing.
Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean.
Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander
2015-07-01
We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing. PMID:26274279
Perception and Haptic Rendering of Friction Moments.
Kawasaki, H; Ohtuka, Y; Koide, S; Mouri, T
2011-01-01
This paper considers moments due to friction forces on the human fingertip. A computational technique called the friction moment arc method is presented. The method computes the static and/or dynamic friction moment independent of a friction force calculation. In addition, a new finger holder to display friction moment is presented. This device incorporates a small brushless motor and disk, and connects the human's finger to an interface finger of the five-fingered haptic interface robot HIRO II. Subjects' perception of friction moment while wearing the finger holder, as well as perceptions during object manipulation in a virtual reality environment, were evaluated experimentally. PMID:26962953
Numerical approach to frictional fingers.
Eriksen, Jon Alm; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik; Sandnes, Bjørnar
2015-09-01
Experiments on confined two-phase flow systems, involving air and a dense suspension, have revealed a diverse set of flow morphologies. As the air displaces the suspension, the beads that make up the suspension can accumulate along the interface. The dynamics can generate "frictional fingers" of air coated by densely packed grains. We present here a simplified model for the dynamics together with a new numerical strategy for simulating the frictional finger behavior. The model is based on the yield stress criterion of the interface. The discretization scheme allows for simulating a larger range of structures than previous approaches. We further make theoretical predictions for the characteristic width associated with the frictional fingers, based on the yield stress criterion, and compare these to experimental results. The agreement between theory and experiments validates our model and allows us to estimate the unknown parameter in the yield stress criterion, which we use in the simulations. PMID:26465465
Counterflow-induced decoupling in superfluid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khomenko, Dmytro; L'vov, Victor S.; Pomyalov, Anna; Procaccia, Itamar
2016-01-01
In mechanically driven superfluid turbulence, the mean velocities of the normal- and superfluid components are known to coincide: Un=Us . Numerous laboratory, numerical, and analytical studies showed that under these conditions, the mutual friction between the normal- and superfluid velocity components also couples their fluctuations: un'(r,t) ? us'(r,t), almost at all scales. We show that this is not the case in thermally driven superfluid turbulence; here the counterflow velocity Uns?Un-Us?0 . We suggest a simple analytic model for the cross-correlation function
Ohira, Yutaka
2013-04-10
We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.
Low temperature friction force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunckle, Christopher Gregory
The application of friction force techniques within atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for direct measurements of friction forces at a sliding, single-asperity interface. The temperature dependence of such single-asperity contacts provides key insight into the comparative importance of dissipative mechanisms that result in dry sliding friction. A variable temperature (VT), ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) AFM was used with an interface consisting of a diamond coated AFM tip and diamond-like carbon sample in a nominal sample temperature range of 90 to 275K. The results show that the coefficient of kinetic friction, mu k, has a linear dependence that is monotonically increasing with temperature varying from 0.28 to 0.38. To analyze this data it is necessary to correlate the sample temperature to the interface temperature. A detailed thermal model shows that the sample temperature measured by a macroscopic device can be very different from the temperature at the contact point. Temperature gradients intrinsic to the design of VT, UHV AFMs result in extreme, non-equilibrium conditions with heat fluxes on the order of gigawatts per squared meter through the interface, which produce a discontinuous step in the temperature profile due to thermal boundary impedance. The conclusion from this model is that measurements acquired by VT, UHV AFM, including those presented in this thesis, do not provide meaningful data on the temperature dependence of friction for single-asperities. Plans for future work developing an isothermal AFM capable of the same measurements without the introduction of temperature gradients are described. The experimental results and thermal analysis described in this thesis have been published in the Journal of Applied Physics, "Temperature dependence of single-asperity friction for a diamond on diamondlike carbon interface", J. App. Phys., 107(11):114903, 2010.
Frictional processes in volcanic conduits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavallee, Y.; Kendrick, J. E.; Petrakova, L.; Mitchell, T. M.; Heap, M. J.; Hirose, T.; Di Toro, G.; Hess, K.; Dingwell, D. B.
2012-12-01
The ascent of high-viscosity magma in upper conduits proceeds via the development of shear zones, which commonly fracture, producing fault surfaces that control the last hundreds of meters of ascent by frictional slip. Frictional slip in conduits may occur along magma-rock, rock-rock and magma-magma interfaces, with or without the presence of gouge material. During slip, frictional work is converted to heat, which may result in strong geochemical disequilibria as well as rheological variations, with important consequences on the dynamics of magma ascent. Here, we present a thermo-mechanical study on the ability of volcanic rocks (with different proportions of interstitial glass, crystals and vesicles) to sustain friction, and in some cases to melt, using a high-velocity rotary apparatus. The friction experiments were conducted at a range of slip velocities (1.3 mm/s to 1.3 m/s) along a (fault) plane subjected to different normal stresses (0.5-10 MPa). We observe that the behaviour of volcanic rocks during slip events varies remarkably. Frictional slip along dense crystal-rich rocks is characterized by the occurrence of comminution, commonly followed by melting. In contrast, slip along dense glass rocks rarely proceeds along a discrete plane - a glass subjected to slip tends to shatter as temperature enters the glass transition interval. Alternatively, glass can be slipped against a crystalline material. In the case of porous material, slip generally results in rapid abrasion of the porous material, producing a high amount of ash particles. The inability of the material to preserve its slip surface inhibits the generation of significant heat. Finally, during experiments in which ash gouge occupies the slip zone, friction generates a modest amount of heat and does not induce significant comminution along the slip plane. Mechanically, the frictional coefficients of the tested volcanic material vary significantly, depending whether the material may sustain slip (and comminute and melt) or whether it abrades or fails. We discuss the implications of our findings to case studies of lava dome eruptions.
Vacuum Friction in Rotating Particles
Manjavacas, A.; Garcia de Abajo, F. J.
2010-09-10
We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.
A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kibbey, Timothy P.
2014-01-01
A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.
Heat transfer in turbulent flow
Amano, R.S. ); Crawford, M.E.; Anand, N.K. )
1990-01-01
This book reports on heat transfer and turbulent flow. The topics covered include fundamental research on turbulence in heat transfer processes, boundary layer flows, temperature turbulence spectrum, turbulence modeling, and applications to heat exchangers, gas turbines, and other engineering problems.
Rotational effects in turbulence driven by convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meirellesfilho, C.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Luo, C.
1994-01-01
We have treated turbulence with rotation in a thin Keplerian disk. Highlighting implicit assumptions already existent in the alpha model together with a geometrical but physically reasonable deduction of the degrees of freedom of the largest eddies, which is of paramount importance in our formulation, we were able to obtain relations satisfied by parameters of the turbulence, such as turnover time and alpha. The effects of rotation in the turbulence we have taken implictly through an anisotropy factor (x) which is simply related to the Rossby number. Convection is the process assumed to generate turbulence, and we have used Canuto and Goldman's treatment of convective instability, whose characteristic growth time we have assumed equal to the turnover time. We have also used their procedure to obtain the turbulent viscosity.
Effects of transverse oscillatory waves on turbulent boundary waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matulevich, Jonathan; Jacobs, Harold R.
1994-01-01
Studies of the interaction of unsteady (oscillatory) flows with the growth of a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate have primarily dealt with an oscillatory component in the primary flow direction. Past studies of the 2-D flow have shown little or no increase in the time averaged heat transfer. The present paper deals with a steady axial and an oscillatory transverse flow. It is shown that for such flows the temporal variation for both the turbulent skin friction and heat transfer are such as to yield increased time averaged values.
Turbulent boundary-layer control with plasma spanwise travelling waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So
2014-08-01
Arrays of dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuators have been designed to generate spanwise travelling waves in the turbulent boundary layer for possible skin-friction drag reductions. Particle image velocimetry was used to elucidate the modifications to turbulence structures created by the plasma spanwise travelling waves. It has been observed that the plasma spanwise travelling waves amalgamated streamwise vortices, lifting low-speed fluid from the near-wall region up and around the peripheries of their cores to form wide ribbons of low-speed streamwise velocity within the viscous sublayer.
Finite Element Analysis of the Amontons-Coulomb's Model using Local and Global Friction Tests
Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.; Ramalho, A.; Alves, J. L.
2011-05-04
In spite of the abundant number of experimental friction tests that have been reported, the contact with friction modeling persists to be one of the factors that determine the effectiveness of sheet metal forming simulation. This difficulty can be understood due to the nature of the friction phenomena, which comprises the interaction of different factors connected to both sheet and tools' surfaces. Although in finite element numerical simulations friction models are commonly applied at the local level, they normally rely on parameters identified based on global experimental tests results. The aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of the Amontons-Coulomb's friction coefficient identified using complementary tests: (i) load-scanning, at the local level and (ii) draw-bead, at the global level; to the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes.
A Study on the Friction Characteristics of Automotive Composite Brake Pads Using Taguchi Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Yun Hae; Lee, Jung Ju; Nisitani, H.
It has many variables and factors to design the friction materials for automotive brake pads. The purpose of this study is to develop the proper method to design at low-cost and to find friction characteristics of each raw materials. For the purpose of examining the effect of each major raw materials, we used the Taguchi L9(34) orthogonal matrix and 1/5 scale dynamo machine for evaluation of the friction characteristics of composite brake pads. Using Taguchi method, it is easy to investigate the influence of each component in complicated composites friction materials. After analyzing the testing results by the Taguchi method, the effect of factors and levels influenced friction behavior was studied.
Dimonte, G.; Schneider, M.; Frerking, E.
1995-10-01
This report is a reproduction of a set of viewgraphs that describes experimental work done to test mathematical models of turbulent mixing and computer codes for simulating it, to quantify turbulent mix scaling laws.
Resonance enhanced turbulent transport
Newton, Andrew P. L.; Kim, Eun-jin
2007-12-15
The effect of oscillatory shear flows on turbulent transport of passive scalar fields is studied by numerical computations based on the results provided by E. Kim [Physics of Plasmas 13, 022308 (2006)]. Turbulent diffusion is found to depend crucially on the competition between suppression due to shearing and enhancement due to resonances, depending on the characteristic time and length scales of shear flow and turbulence. Enhancements in transport occur for turbulence with finite memory time either due to Doppler or parametric resonances. Scalings of turbulence amplitude and transport are provided in different parameter spaces. The results suggest that oscillatory shear flows are not only less efficient in regulating turbulence, but also can enhance the value of turbulent diffusion, accelerating turbulent transport.
Tool Wear in Friction Drilling
Miller, Scott F; Blau, Peter Julian; Shih, Albert J.
2007-01-01
This study investigated the wear of carbide tools used in friction drilling, a nontraditional hole-making process. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool uses the heat generated by friction to soften and penetrate a thin workpiece and create a bushing without generating chips. The wear of a hard tungsten carbide tool used for friction drilling a low carbon steel workpiece has been investigated. Tool wear characteristics were studied by measuring its weight change, detecting changes in its shape with a coordinate measuring machine, and making observations of wear damage using scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was applied to analyze the change in chemical composition of the tool surface due to drilling. In addition, the thrust force and torque during drilling and the hole size were measured periodically to monitor the effects of tool wear. Results indicate that the carbide tool is durable, showing minimal tool wear after drilling 11000 holes, but observations also indicate progressively severe abrasive grooving on the tool tip.
Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, N.; Radhika, R.; Kozakov, A. T.; Pandian, R.; Chakravarty, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.
2015-01-01
Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1-0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2-0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.
Deformation During Friction Stir Welding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Henry J.
2002-01-01
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.
Dynamical friction in cuspy galaxies
Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.
2014-04-10
In this paper, we treat the problem of the dynamical friction decay of a massive object moving in an elliptical galaxy with a cuspidal inner distribution of the mass density. We present results obtained by both self-consistent, direct summation, N-body simulations, as well as by a new semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction valid in such cuspy central regions of galaxies. A comparison of these results indicates that the proposed semi-analytical approximation is the only reliable one in cuspy galactic central regions, where the standard Chandrasekhar's local approximation fails and also gives estimates of decay times that are correct at 1% with respect to those given by N-body simulations. The efficiency of dynamical friction in cuspy galaxies is found definitively higher than in core galaxies, especially on more radially elongated satellite orbits. As another relevant result, we find a proportionality of the dynamical friction decay time to the 0.67 power of the satellite mass, M, shallower than the standardly adopted M {sup 1} dependence.
Friction-formed liquid droplets.
Lockwood, A J; Anantheshwara, K; Bobji, M S; Inkson, B J
2011-03-11
The formation of nanoscale liquid droplets by friction of a solid is observed in real-time. This is achieved using a newly developed in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) triboprobe capable of applying multiple reciprocating wear cycles to a nanoscale surface. Dynamical imaging of the nanoscale cyclic rubbing of a focused-ion-beam (FIB) processed Al alloy by diamond shows that the generation of nanoscale wear particles is followed by a phase separation to form liquid Ga nanodroplets and liquid bridges. The transformation of a two-body system to a four-body solid-liquid system within the reciprocating wear track significantly alters the local dynamical friction and wear processes. Moving liquid bridges are observed in situ to play a key role at the sliding nanocontact, interacting strongly with the highly mobile nanoparticle debris. In situ imaging demonstrates that both static and moving liquid droplets exhibit asymmetric menisci due to nanoscale surface roughness. Nanodroplet kinetics are furthermore dependent on local frictional temperature, with solid-like surface nanofilaments forming on cooling. TEM nanotribology opens up new avenues for the real-time quantification of cyclic friction, wear and dynamic solid-liquid nanomechanics, which will have widespread applications in many areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. PMID:21289398
Improved Coulomb-Friction Damper
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, G. E.
1985-01-01
Equal damping provided on forward and reverse strokes. Improved damper has springs and wedge rings symmetrically placed on both ends of piston wedge, so friction force same in both directions of travel. Unlike conventional automotive shock absorbers, they resemble on outside, both versions require no viscous liquid and operate over wide temperature range.
Critical length limiting superlow friction.
Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael
2015-02-01
Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:25699452
From measurements to quantum friction.
Barnett, Stephen M; Jeffers, John; Cresser, James D
2006-04-26
We present a quantum theory of friction in which interactions with the surrounding medium are described by generalized measurements of the particle's position and momentum. The theory predicts intrinsically quantum contributions to the particle's steady-state energy and to the associated diffusion in position. We discuss the physical significance of these and demonstrate their significance in ensuring a well behaved theory. PMID:21690742
Showing Area Matters: A Work of Friction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Domelen, David
2010-01-01
Typically, we teach the simplified friction equation of the form F[subscript s] = [mu][subscript s]N for static friction, where F[subscript s] is the maximum static friction, [mu][subscript s] is the coefficient of static friction, and "N" is the normal force pressing the surfaces together. However, this is a bit too simplified, and doesn't work
Joint Winter Runway Friction Program Accomplishments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yager, Thomas J.; Wambold, James C.; Henry, John J.; Andresen, Arild; Bastian, Matthew
2002-01-01
The major program objectives are: (1) harmonize ground vehicle friction measurements to report consistent friction value or index for similar contaminated runway conditions, for example, compacted snow, and (2) establish reliable correlation between ground vehicle friction measurements and aircraft braking performance. Accomplishing these objectives would give airport operators better procedures for evaluating runway friction and maintaining acceptable operating conditions, providing pilots information to base go/no go decisions, and would contribute to reducing traction-related aircraft accidents.
Low-Friction Joint for Robot Fingers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruoff, C. F.
1985-01-01
Mechanical linkage allows adjacent parts to move relative to each other with low friction and with no chatter, slipping, or backlash. Low-friction joint of two surfaces in rolling contact, held in alinement by taut flexible bands. No sliding friction or "stick-slip" motion: Only rolling-contact and bending friction within bands. Proposed linkage intended for finger joints in mechanical hands for robots and manipulators.
Mixing and bottom friction: parametrization and application to the surf zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.; Lepesqueur, J.
2012-04-01
Wave breaking has been observed to impact the bottom boundary layer in surf zones, with potential impacts on bottom friction. Observations in the inner surf zone have also shown a tendency to an underestimation of the wave-induced set-up when using usual model parameterizations. The present study investigates the possible impact of wave breaking on bottom friction and set-up using a recently proposed parameterization of the wave-induced turbulent kinetic energy in the vertical mixing parameterization of the wave-averaged flow. This parametrization proposed by Mellor (2002) allows us to take account the oscillations of the bottom boundary layer with the wave phases thanks to some additional turbulent source terms. First, the behavior of this parameterization, is investigated by comparing phase-resolving and phase-averaged solutions. The hydrodynamical model MARS (Lazure et Dumas, 2008) is used for this, using a modified k-epsilon model to take account the Mellor (2002) parametrization. It is shown that the phase averaged solution strongly overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy, which is similar to the situation of the air flow over waves (Miles 1996). The waves inhibits the turbulence and the wave-averaged parametrization is not able to reproduce correctly this phenomenom. Cases with wave breaking at the surface are simulated in order to study the influence of surface wave breaking on the bottom boundary layer. This parametrization is applied in the surf zone for two differents cases, one for a planar beach and one other for a barred beach with rip currents. The coupled model MARS-WAVEWATCH III is used for this (Bennis et al, 2011) and for a realistic planar beach, the mixing parameterization has only a limited impact on the bottom friction and the wave set-up, unless the bottom roughness is greatly enhanced in very shallow water, or for a spatially varying roughness. The use of the mixing parametrization requires an adjustement of the bottom roughness to fit the observations probably due to the expression of the additional source of turbulent kinetic energy. For an idealized barred beach, the results given by the mixing parametrization are compared with others from parametrizations that take account the wave effects on the bottom friction via the wave orbital velocity, and no via the turbulent kinetic energy as in Mellor (2002). The vertical profile of the rip current is significantly modified by the bottom friction parametrization, while the feedback of the waves on the flow (ie. two-way mode) changes the pattern of the rip currents in comparison with the one-way mode.
Preface: Friction at the nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fusc, Claudio; Smith, Roger; Urbakh, Michael; Vanossi, Andrea
2008-09-01
Interfacial friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and chemistry, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Everyday operations on a broad range of scales, from nanometer and up, depend upon the smooth and satisfactory functioning of countless tribological systems. Friction imposes serious constraints and limitations on the performance and lifetime of micro-machines and, undoubtedly, will impose even more severe constraints on the emerging technology of nano-machines. Standard lubrication techniques used for large objects are expected to be less effective in the nano-world. Novel methods for control and manipulation are therefore needed. What has been missing is a molecular level understanding of processes occurring between and close to interacting surfaces to help understand, and later manipulate friction. Friction is intimately related to both adhesion and wear, and all three require an understanding of highly non-equilibrium processes occurring at the molecular level to determine what happens at the macroscopic level. Due to its practical importance and the relevance to basic scientific questions there has been major increase in activity in the study of interfacial friction on the microscopic level during the last decade. Intriguing structural and dynamical features have been observed experimentally. These observations have motivated theoretical efforts, both numerical and analytical. This special issue focusses primarily on discussion of microscopic mechanisms of friction and adhesion at the nanoscale level. The contributions cover many important aspects of frictional behaviour, including the origin of stick-slip motion, the dependence of measured forces on the material properties, effects of thermal fluctuations, surface roughness and instabilities in boundary lubricants on both static and kinetic friction. An important problem that has been raised in this issue, and which has still to be resolved, concerns the possibility of controlling frictional response. The ability to control and manipulate frictional forces is extremely important for a variety of applications. These include magnetic storage and recording systems, miniature motors, and more. This special issue aims to provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental works on nanotribology and possible applications. In selecting the papers we have tried to maintain a balance between new results and review-like aspects, so that the present issue is self-contained and, we hope, readily accessible to non-specialists in the field. We believe that the particular appeal of this collection of papers also lies in the fusion of both experiment and theory, thus providing the connection to reality of the sometimes demanding, mathematically inclined contributions. Profound thanks go to all our colleagues and friends who have contributed to this special issue. Each has made an effort not only to present recent results in a clear and lucid way, but also to provide an introductory review that helps the reader to understand the different topics.
Wall Cooling Effects on Hypersonic Transitional/Turbulent Boundary Layers at High Reynolds Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Ralph D.
1975-01-01
A 4 degree wedge was used to produce a thick turbulent boundary layer with an edge Mach number of 11. By using a two-dimensional model, the boundary layer was nearly free from upstream history effects associated with nozzle wall turbulent boundary layers. Heat-transfer distributions were used to define regions of laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow at several values of T(sub w)/T(sub t) for an edge unit Reynolds number of 0.47 x lot per cm. Pitot and total temperature profiles and skin-friction measurements were obtained at selected stations along the model. Turbulence parameters (mixing length/sigma and epsilon) were derived from the fully turbulent profiles and used to more completely define the "low Reynolds number" effect. Turbulent Prandtl number distributions are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuge, S.
The state of art in the kinetic theory of turbulence is reviewed. A time average which separates coherent time dependence from chaotic one is introduced. Particular emphases are on the macroscopic results not reachable through phenomenological theories. Applications to shear and windtunnel turbulence are presented. Turbulent chemical reaction, its anomalous rate increase, in particular, is discussed.
Experimental study of error sources in skin-friction balance measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, J. M.
1977-01-01
An experimental study has been performed to determine potential error sources in skin-friction balance measurements. A floating-element balance, large enough to contain the instrumentation needed to systematically investigate these error sources has been constructed and tested in the thick turbulent boundary layer on the sidewall of a large supersonic wind tunnel. Test variables include element-to-case misalignment, gap size, and Reynolds number. The effects of these variables on the friction, lip, and normal forces have been analyzed. It was found that larger gap sizes were preferable to smaller ones; that small element recession below the surrounding test surface produced errors comparable to the same amount of protrusion above the test surface; and that normal forces on the element were, in some cases, large compared to the friction force.
An intrinsic velocity-independent criterion for superfluid turbulence.
Finne, A P; Araki, T; Blaauwgeers, R; Eltsov, V B; Kopnin, N B; Krusius, M; Skrbek, L; Tsubota, M; Volovik, G E
2003-08-28
Hydrodynamic flow in classical and quantum fluids can be either laminar or turbulent. Vorticity in turbulent flow is often modelled with vortex filaments. While this represents an idealization in classical fluids, vortices are topologically stable quantized objects in superfluids. Superfluid turbulence is therefore thought to be important for the understanding of turbulence more generally. The fermionic 3He superfluids are attractive systems to study because their characteristics vary widely over the experimentally accessible temperature regime. Here we report nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and numerical simulations indicating the existence of sharp transition to turbulence in the B phase of superfluid 3He. Above 0.60T(c) (where T(c) is the transition temperature for superfluidity) the hydrodynamics are regular, while below this temperature we see turbulent behaviour. The transition is insensitive to the fluid velocity, in striking contrast to current textbook knowledge of turbulence. Rather, it is controlled by an intrinsic parameter of the superfluid: the mutual friction between the normal and superfluid components of the flow, which causes damping of the vortex motion. PMID:12944960
Basic characteristics of canopy turbulence in a homogeneous rice paddy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Jinkyu; Kim, Joon; Miyata, Akira; Harazono, Yoshinobu
2002-11-01
To assess the interactions of key ecosystems with the overlying atmosphere, it is fundamental to understand the turbulence structure within and above their canopies. Rice is a staple crop particularly in Asia, and, yet, information on canopy turbulence of this vital food resource is limited by the scarcity of field measurement. The purpose of this study was to examine whether rice canopy shows an organized turbulence structure and, if so, whether such coherent structure scales to the patterns found in other canopies. Using the field data obtained during the 1996 International Rice Experiment (IREX96), we computed turbulence statistics such as mean, standard deviation, covariance, skewness, kurtosis, and turbulence length scales. When appropriately scaled with canopy height and friction velocity, these turbulence statistics showed coherent structures, which agreed well within the ranges of those reported for other canopies. Both quadrant and spectrum analyses confirmed that the intermittent and energetic eddies with length scale of the order of canopy height dominated the transfer processes within and above rice canopy. Such results were further substantiated by the countergradient fluxes observed during the IREX96. Furthermore, within-canopy turbulence became more intermittent under stable conditions.
Turbulent Mixing and Flow Resistance over Dunes and Scours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorrell, R. M.; Arfaie, A.; Burns, A. D.; Eggenhuisen, J. T.; Ingham, D. B.; McCaffrey, W. D.
2014-12-01
Flows in both submarine and fluvial channels are subject to lower boundary roughness. Lower boundary roughness occurs as frictional roughness suffered by the flow as it moves over the bed (skin friction) or drag suffered by the flow as it moves past a large obstacle (form drag). Critically, to overcome such roughness the flow must expend (lose) energy and momentum. However, whilst overcoming bed roughness the degree of turbulent mixing in the flow may be enhanced increasing the potential energy of the flow. This is of key importance to density driven flows as the balance between kinetic energy lost and potential energy gained (through turbulent diffusion of suspended particulate material) may critically affect the criterion for autosuspension. Moreover, this effect of lower boundary roughness may go as far as helping to explain why, even on shallow slopes, channelized submarine density currents can run out over ultra long distances. Such effects are also important in fluvial systems, where they will be responsible for maximizing or minimizing sediment capacity and competence in different flow environments. Numerical simulations are performed at a high Reynolds number (O (106)) for a series of crestal length to height ratio (c/h) at a fixed width to height ratio (w/h). Here, we present key findings of shear flow over a range of idealized bedform shapes. We show how the total basal shear stress is split into skin friction and form drag and identify how the respective magnitudes vary as a function of bedform shape and scale. Moreover we demonstrate how said bedforms affect the balance of energy lost (frictional) and energy gained (turbulent mixing). Overall, results demonstrate a slow reduction in turbulent mixing and flow resistance with decreasing bedform side slope angle. This suggests that both capacity and competence of the flow may be reduced through decrease in of the potential energy of the flow as a result of change in slope angles.
Skin Friction Measurements by a Dual-Laser-Beam Interferometer Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.
1981-01-01
A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a "law-of-the-well" coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. (This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.)
Modeling Compressed Turbulence
Israel, Daniel M.
2012-07-13
From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.
Introduction to quantum turbulence
Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2014-01-01
The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic BoseEinstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870
Influence of particle characteristics on granular friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthony, Jennifer L.; Marone, Chris
2005-08-01
We report on laboratory experiments designed to illuminate grain-scale deformation mechanisms within fault gouge. We vary particle size distribution, grain and surface roughness, and gouge layer thickness to better understand how grain sliding, rolling, dilation, and compaction affect the strength and stability of granular fault gouge. The experiments employed the double direct shear testing geometry and were run at room temperature, controlled humidity, and shearing rates from 0.1 to 3000 ?m/s. Experiments were carried out under constant normal stress of 5 and 10 MPa and thus within a nonfracture loading regime where sliding friction for smooth, spherical particles is measurably lower than for rough, angular particles. We compare results from shear between smooth boundaries, where we hypothesize that grain boundary sliding is the dominant deformation mechanism, and roughened surfaces, where rolling and granular dilation contribute to shear deformation. We find that particle angularity and bounding surface roughness increase the frictional strength within sheared layers, indicating differences in particle reorganization due to these factors. In gouge material composed of <30% angular grains we observe repetitive stick-slip sliding where stress drop decreases while preinstability creep increases with increasing gouge layer thickness. Our data show significant differences in stick-slip characteristics as a function of gouge layer thickness and particle size, which we interpret in terms of the mechanics of grain bridges that support forces on the layers. We suggest that force chains exhibit qualitative differences as a function of grain angularity and bounding surface roughness.
Frictional constraints on crustal faulting
Boatwright, J.; Cocco, M.
1996-01-01
We consider how variations in fault frictional properties affect the phenomenology of earthquake faulting. In particular, we propose that lateral variations in fault friction produce the marked heterogeneity of slip observed in large earthquakes. We model these variations using a rate- and state-dependent friction law, where we differentiate velocity-weakening behavior into two fields: the strong seismic field is very velocity weakening and the weak seismic field is slightly velocity weakening. Similarly, we differentiate velocity-strengthening behavior into two fields: the compliant field is slightly velocity strengthening and the viscous field is very velocity strengthening. The strong seismic field comprises the seismic slip concentrations, or asperities. The two "intermediate" fields, weak seismic and compliant, have frictional velocity dependences that are close to velocity neutral: these fields modulate both the tectonic loading and the dynamic rupture process. During the interseismic period, the weak seismic and compliant regions slip aseismically, while the strong seismic regions remain locked, evolving into stress concentrations that fail only in main shocks. The weak seismic areas exhibit most of the interseismic activity and aftershocks but can also creep seismically. This "mixed" frictional behavior can be obtained from a sufficiently heterogenous distribution of the critical slip distance. The model also provides a mechanism for rupture arrest: dynamic rupture fronts decelerate as they penetrate into unloaded complaint or weak seismic areas, producing broad areas of accelerated afterslip. Aftershocks occur on both the weak seismic and compliant areas around a fault, but most of the stress is diffused through aseismic slip. Rapid afterslip on these peripheral areas can also produce aftershocks within the main shock rupture area by reloading weak fault areas that slipped in the main shock and then healed. We test this frictional model by comparing the seismicity and the coseismic slip for the 1966 Parkfield, 1979 Coyote Lake, and 1984 Morgan Hill earthquakes. The interevent seismicity and aftershocks appear to occur on fault areas outside the regions of significant slip: these regions are interpreted as either weak seismic or compliant, depending on whether or not they manifest interevent seismicity.
Impurity transport in temperature gradient driven turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skyman, A.; Nordman, H.; Strand, P.
2012-03-01
In the present paper, the transport of impurities driven by trapped electron (TE) mode turbulence is studied. Non-linear (NL) gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE are compared with results from quasilinear (QL) gyrokinetic simulations and a computationally efficient fluid model. The main focus is on model comparisons for electron temperature gradient driven turbulence regarding the sign of the convective impurity velocity (pinch) and the impurity density gradient R /LnZ (peaking factor) for zero impurity flux. In particular, the scaling of the impurity peaking factors with impurity charge Z and with driving temperature gradient is investigated and compared with results for the more studied ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. The question of helium ash removal in TE mode turbulence is also investigated. In addition, the impurity peaking is compared to the main ion peaking obtained by a self-consistent fluid calculation of the density gradients corresponding to zero particle fluxes. For the scaling of the peaking factor with impurity charge Z, a weak dependence is obtained from NL GENE and fluid simulations. The QL GENE results show a stronger dependence for low Z impurities and overestimates the peaking factor by up to a factor of two in this region. As in the case of ITG dominated turbulence, the peaking factors saturate as Z increases, at a level much below neoclassical predictions. The scaling with Z is, however, weak or reversed as compared to the ITG case. The results indicate that TE mode turbulence is as efficient as ITG turbulence at removing He ash, with DHe/?eff>1.0. The scaling of impurity peaking with the background temperature gradients is found to be weak in the NL GENE and fluid simulations. The QL results are also here found to significantly overestimate the peaking factor for low Z values. For the parameters considered, the background density gradient for zero particle flux is found to be slightly larger than the corresponding impurity zero flux gradient.
A New Friction Law for Seismicity Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mcclure, M.; Horne, R.
2011-12-01
Fracture friction is important in a variety of fields, including shear stimulation and induced seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The way that friction is treated in a stimulation model has a first order effect on the behavior of the system. There is not a universally accepted method for modeling friction. A variety of approaches have been used, each with relative strengths and weaknesses. A constant friction approach is unable to model seismicity. Kinematic models can lead to results that are not in force equilibrium. Methods imposing an instantaneous drop in frictional strength or an instantaneous displacement suffer from a problem of causality and lack the ability to model aseismic slip. Rate and state friction is well established physically, but is very computationally intensive. Velocity weakening friction cannot model aseismic slip, leads to chaotic results, and does not provide a mechanism for friction restrengthening. We propose a friction treatment that is roughly based on these other approaches, but combines the best aspects of each. Our method of handling friction can model either seismic or aseismic slip, does not impose instantaneous changes in physical parameters, ensures force equilibrium, can be used with explicit time stepping, and leads to reasonable accuracy for even a coarse spatial discretization. Our friction treatment is also flexible enough to be adapted easily to suit particular applications.
Turbulent drag reduction by the seal fur surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itoh, Motoyuki; Tamano, Shinji; Iguchi, Ryo; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Akino, Norio; Hino, Ryutaro; Kubo, Shinji
2006-06-01
The drag-reducing ability of the seal fur surface was tested in a rectangular channel flow using water and a glycerol-water mixture to measure the pressure drop along the channel in order to evaluate friction factors in a wide range of Reynolds number conditions, and the drag reduction effect was confirmed quantitatively. The maximum reduction ratio was evaluated to be 12% for the glycerol-water mixture. The effective range of the Reynolds number, where the drag reduction was remarkable, was wider for the seal fur surface compared to that of a riblet surface measured in this channel and in previous studies. It was also found that for the seal fur surface, unlike riblets, any drag increase due to the effect of surface roughness was not found up to the highest Reynolds number tested. Measurements of the seal fur surface using a 3D laser microscope revealed that there were riblet-like grooves, composed of arranged fibers, of which spacings were comparable to that of effective riblets and were distributed in various wavelengths. Using LDV measurements, it was found that the difference in the mean velocity scaled by the outer variable among the smooth, riblet, and seal fur surfaces did not appear at any spanwise locations. Streamwise turbulence intensity for the seal fur surface was found to be about 5% smaller than those for smooth and riblet surfaces.
Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russian Education and Society, 2012
2012-01-01
The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of problems in…
Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russian Education and Society, 2012
2012-01-01
The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of problems in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Lakshmanan, B.; Carlson, John R.
1995-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to determine how accurately computations can predict local and average skin friction coefficients for attached and separated flows for simple experimental geometries. Algebraic and transport equation closures were used to model turbulence. To simulate anisotropic turbulence, the standard two-equation turbulence model was modified by adding nonlinear terms. The effects of both grid density and the turbulence model on the computed flow fields were also investigated and compared with available experimental data for subsonic and supersonic free-stream conditions.
Krim, J.
1997-01-01
Considering the current race to manufacture machine components with astoundingly small dimensions, what is today considered fundamental research on the atomic scale may give way tomorrow to direct applications. For instance, the authors now know why substances made of branched-chain molecules make better lubricant than straight-chain molecules, even though the branched-chain one are, in bulk form, more viscous. (They remain as a liquid under greater forces than do the straight-chained molecules and thus are better able to keep two solid surfaces from touching.) Nanotribologists working with known contact geometries may one day help chemists understand friction-induced reaction taking place on surfaces or aid materials scientists in designing substances that resist wear. As the need to conserve both energy and raw materials becomes more urgent, physicists` rush to understand basic frictional processes can be expected only to accelerate.
End to end loop formation in a single polymer chain with internal friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, Nairhita; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi
2013-09-01
We use Rouse and Zimm models with solvent viscosity independent internal friction to study the end to end loop formation of a single polymer chain within the Wilemski-Fixmann theoretical framework. Our calculation shows internal friction makes loop formation between two ends of a polymer chain slower but has a weaker dependence on the chain length as compared to no internal friction. The average looping time shows not linear but fractional dependence on the solvent viscosity. Also the effect of the internal friction to the looping time is neither additive nor multiplicative but always additive to the reconfiguration time. Our numerical results show internal friction can reduce the looping rate by a factor of two to an order of magnitude depending on the time scale associated with it.
Development of an enstrophy-based two-equation turbulence closure model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, David Franklin
The development of a new two-equation turbulence closure model based on the exact turbulent kinetic energy, k and the variance of vorticity, or enstrophy, zeta is presented. The primary motivation was to develop a model, applicable to complex three-dimensional flowfields, that employs one set of model constants and does not use damping functions or geometrical factors. Development begins by considering a number of two-dimensional and axisymmetric flowfields in order to determine the appropriate closure coefficients. First, similarity solutions of a variety of both planar and axisymmetric free shear flows are considered. Next, a variety of wall bounded flows are examined beginning with a boundary layer solution of a flat plate and proceeding to the Navier-Stokes solutions for a variety of two-dimensional airfoils. The airfoils considered range from a low speed stalled airfoil to a transonic airfoil with shock induced separation. Final model validation was performed by considering a supersonic three-dimensional Cylinder-Offset flare. In general, good agreement with experiment is indicated. Moreover, the k-zeta model performed, in most cases, as well as or better than the other models. The above objective has been achieved. The current model is shown to accurately predict growth rates as well as similarity profiles of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, and shear stress for a variety of both planar and axisymmetric free shear flows. Moreover, the model predicts skin-friction, pressure distribution, and shock position with good accuracy for a variety of wall bounded flows, including flows with large adverse pressure gradients and shock induced separation. Also, the current model solves both the free shear and wall bounded flows using only one set of closure coefficients and boundary conditions. Furthermore, the current model is free of wall damping functions and geometrical factors in both the governing equations and in the definition of eddy viscosity. This makes the model highly suited for three-dimensional applications.
Fault rheology beyond frictional melting
Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.
2015-01-01
During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or “pseudotachylytes.” It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123
Friction Stir Process Mapping Methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kooney, Alex; Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In FSW (friction stir welding), the weld process performance for a given weld joint configuration and tool setup is summarized on a 2-D plot of RPM vs. IPM. A process envelope is drawn within the map to identify the range of acceptable welds. The sweet spot is selected as the nominal weld schedule. The nominal weld schedule is characterized in the expected manufacturing environment. The nominal weld schedule in conjunction with process control ensures a consistent and predictable weld performance.
Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.
Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B
2015-07-28
During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123
Development of a turbulent boundary layer beneath finite-amplitude continuous freestream turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz
2011-11-01
Following the earlier work of Wu & Moin (JFM 2009, PoF 2010) and Wu (JFM 2010), here we will present our third, most recent, direct numerical simulation of the incompressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer. Heat transfer between the constant-temperature plate and the free-stream is also simulated with unit molecular Prandtl number. The freestream of the present boundary layer has continuous isotropic turbulence whose inlet strength is 3% of the mean velocity. Its decay characteristics agree with existing water channel experiments. Despite the finite-level freestream perturbation, the boundary layer is clean in the sense that the deviation of skin-friction from Blasius prior to breakdown is less than 1%. Both the statistics and structures from this simulation will be compared with our previous DNS studies using periodically fed patches of isotropic turbulence. The associated bypass transition process will also be evaluated.
Numerical simulation of premixed turbulent methane combustion
Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.
2001-12-14
In this paper we study the behavior of a premixed turbulent methane flame in three dimensions using numerical simulation. The simulations are performed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number combustion algorithm based on a second-order projection formulation that conserves both species mass and total enthalpy. The species and enthalpy equations are treated using an operator-split approach that incorporates stiff integration techniques for modeling detailed chemical kinetics. The methodology also incorporates a mixture model for differential diffusion. For the simulations presented here, methane chemistry and transport are modeled using the DRM-19 (19-species, 84-reaction) mechanism derived from the GRIMech-1.2 mechanism along with its associated thermodynamics and transport databases. We consider a lean flame with equivalence ratio 0.8 for two different levels of turbulent intensity. For each case we examine the basic structure of the flame including turbulent flame speed and flame surface area. The results indicate that flame wrinkling is the dominant factor leading to the increased turbulent flame speed. Joint probability distributions are computed to establish a correlation between heat release and curvature. We also investigate the effect of turbulent flame interaction on the flame chemistry. We identify specific flame intermediates that are sensitive to turbulence and explore various correlations between these species and local flame curvature. We identify different mechanisms by which turbulence modulates the chemistry of the flame.
Turbulence structures associated with fire-atmosphere interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clements, C. B.; Seto, D.; Heilman, W. E.
2013-12-01
Wildland fires radically modify the atmospheric boundary layer by emitting large sensible and latent heat fluxes. These fluxes drive fire-atmosphere interactions at multiple scales resulting in fire-induced circulations in and around the fire front. During the fire front passage, FFP, turbulence kinetic energy increases due to increased heating and wind shear that develops in response to both free convection and fire-induced winds. New field observations from multiple fire experiments have shown that turbulence spectral energy increases during the FFP as a result of small eddies being shed from the fire front and that that normalized velocity spectra using the friction velocity collapse into a narrow band in the inertial subrange, suggesting that Monin-Obukhov scaling is a valid scaling parameter that can be used for wildfire prediction systems. Additionally, during FFP the mean profiles of winds and sensible heat flux change compared to ambient conditions due to the fire-atmosphere interactions. These profiles are also different during different environmental conditions such as grass fires in open field and fires within a forest canopy. This presentation will discuss new turbulence observations from the FireFlux II field experiment conducted in 2013 which indicate that during FFP there are also an increases in horizontal mean winds, friction velocity, horizontal and vertical velocity variances and a decrease in anisotropy in turbulence kinetic energy and are similar to lower intensity fires.
Response of wind shear warning systems to turbulence with implication of nuisance alerts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowles, Roland L.
1988-01-01
The objective was to predict the inherent turbulence response characteristics of candidate wind shear warning system concepts and to assess the potential for nuisance alerts. Information on the detection system and associated signal processing, physical and mathematical models, wind shear factor root mean square turbulence response and the standard deviation of the wind shear factor due to turbulence is given in vugraph form.
The effect of surface friction on the development of tropical cyclones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Juan; Tang, Jianping; Wu, Rongsheng
2009-11-01
When tropical cyclones (hereafter referred as TCs) are over the ocean, surface friction plays a dual role in the development of TCs. From the viewpoint of water vapor supply, frictional convergence and Ekman pumping provide a source of moisture for organized cumulus convection and is propitious to the spin-up of TCs. On the other hand, surface friction leads to a dissipation of kinetic energy that impedes the intensification of TCs. Which role is dominant in the developing stage of TCs is a controversial issue. In the present work, the influence of surface friction on the growth of TCs is re-examined in detail by conducting two sets of numerical experiments initialized with different cyclonic disturbances. Results indicate that, because of the inherent complexities of TCs, the impact of surface friction on the evolution of TCs can not be simply boiled down to being positive or negative. In the case that a TC starts from a low-level vortex with a warm core, surface friction and the resultant vertical motion makes an important contribution to the convection in the early developing stage of the TC by accelerating the build-up of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and ensuring moisture supply and the lifting of air parcels. This effect is so prominent that it dominates the friction-induced dissipation and makes surface friction a facilitative factor in the spin-up of the TC. However, for a TC formed from a mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) spawned in a long-lasting mesoscale convective system (MCS), the initial fields, and especially the low-level humidity and cold core, enable the prerequisites of convection (i.e., conditional instability, moisture, and lifting), to be easily achieved even without the help of boundary-layer pumping induced by surface friction. Accordingly, the reliance of the development of TCs on surface friction is not as heavy as that derived from a lowlevel vortex. The positive effect of surface friction on the development of TCs realized through facilitating favorable conditions for convection is nearly cancelled out by the friction-induced dissipation. However, as SST is enhanced in the latter case, the situation may be changed, and different development speeds may emerge between model TCs with and without surface friction considered. In short, owing to the fact that TC development is a complicated process affected by many factors such as initial perturbations, SST, etc., the importance of surface friction to the intensification of TCs may vary enormously from case to case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawaguchi, Y.; Li, F. C.; Yu, B.; Wei, J. J.
It is well known that a small amount of chemicals such as water-soluble polymers or surfactants dramatically suppresses turbulence when they are added to liquid flow at large Reynolds number. In the last two decades, the application of surfactants to heat transportation systems such as district heating and cooling systems has attracted much interest among researchers. It has been revealed that 70% of the pumping power used to drive hot water in primary pipelines or district heating systems was saved by adding only a few hundred ppm of surfactant into the circulating water. The technological achievement requires a new design strategy for pipeline networks and heat exchangers to handle the drag reducing liquid flow. In the case of a Newtonian fluid such as water or air, the knowledge for designing fluid systems has been accumulated and the accuracy of numerical prediction is sufficient. On the other hand, the design system for surfactant solutions is not mature because drag-reducing flow phenomena are much more complicated than for Newtonian flow, for example, the friction factor for a surfactant solution depends not only on Reynolds number but also pipe diameter. In order to provide a design strategy for heat transportation systems using surfactant additives, we are now carrying out both experimental and numerical studies for surfactant solutions. In this lecture, experimental and numerical studies on the turbulence structure in drag reducing flow will be introduced. The result of an application study relating to the air conditioning system will be also shown.
Turbulent boundary layers: Inflow effects and cross-validation of simulation and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oerlue, Ramis; Schlatter, Philipp
2011-11-01
A recent assessment of available direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from turbulent boundary layer flows [Schlatter & Örlü, J. Fluid Mech. 659, 116 (2010)] showed surprisingly large differences not only in the skin friction coefficient or shape factor, but also in their predictions of mean and fluctuation profiles far into the sublayer. Several DNS of a zero pressure-gradient (ZPG) turbulent boundary layer (TBL) à la Schlatter et al. [Phys. Fluids 21, 051702 (2009)] with physically different inflow conditions and tripping effects were performed. Most of the differences observed when comparing available DNS could thereby be traced back to different initial conditions. It was also found, that if transition is initiated at a low enough Reynolds number (based on the momentum-loss thickness) Reθ < 300, all data agree well for both inner and outer layer for Reθ > 2000 a result that gives a lower limit for meaningful comparisons between numerical and/or wind tunnel experiments. Based on these results a detailed comparison between DNS and experiment of a ZPG TBL flow at Reθ = 2500 and 4000 is presented. Good agreement is obtained for integral quantities, mean and fluctuating streamwise velocity profiles, but also for the probability distribution and spectral map throughout the boundary layer.
Turbulent melt flow arising under the action of an anharmonic rotating magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tilman, B.; Kapusta, A.
2008-09-01
Turbulent flow of conducting melts under the action of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), synchronously amplitude-modulated in a special way, is theoretically described in the induction-free approximation using the "external" friction model. Analytical expressions describing the magnetic field, current density, electromagnetic body forces and velocity field in the melt are presented. Figs 3, Refs 3.
TURBULENCE EFFECTS ON THE CHARGE CAPTURE PROCESS IN WEAK TURBULENT PLASMAS
Na, Sang-Chul; Jung, Young-Dae
2009-12-10
The turbulence effects on the charge capture process are investigated in weak turbulent plasmas. The effective interaction potential taking into account the correction factor to the nonlinear dielectric function due to the fluctuation of the electric fields and Bohr-Lindhard model are employed in order to obtain the electron capture radius and electron capture cross section in turbulent plasmas. It is shown that the influence of the fluctuating electric fields in the plasma considerably decreases the electron charge capture radius and electron capture probability. Hence, we have found that the turbulence effect strongly suppresses the electron capture cross section in weak turbulent plasmas. In addition, it is found that the electron capture radius and electron cross section decrease with an increase of the projectile energy.
Prediction of High-Lift Flows using Turbulent Closure Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.; Ying, Susan X.; Bertelrud, Arild
1997-01-01
The flow over two different multi-element airfoil configurations is computed using linear eddy viscosity turbulence models and a nonlinear explicit algebraic stress model. A subset of recently-measured transition locations using hot film on a McDonnell Douglas configuration is presented, and the effect of transition location on the computed solutions is explored. Deficiencies in wake profile computations are found to be attributable in large part to poor boundary layer prediction on the generating element, and not necessarily inadequate turbulence modeling in the wake. Using measured transition locations for the main element improves the prediction of its boundary layer thickness, skin friction, and wake profile shape. However, using measured transition locations on the slat still yields poor slat wake predictions. The computation of the slat flow field represents a key roadblock to successful predictions of multi-element flows. In general, the nonlinear explicit algebraic stress turbulence model gives very similar results to the linear eddy viscosity models.
Turbulent drag reduction over air- and liquid- impregnated surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Brian J.; Van Buren, Tyler; Fu, Matthew K.; Smits, Alexander J.
2016-01-01
Results on turbulent skin friction reduction over air- and liquid-impregnated surfaces are presented for aqueous Taylor-Couette flow. The surfaces are fabricated by mechanically texturing the inner cylinder and chemically modifying the features to make them either non-wetting with respect to water (air-infused, or superhydrophobic case), or wetting with respect to an oil that is immiscible with water (liquid-infused case). The drag reduction, which remains fairly constant over the Reynolds number range tested (100 ≤ Reτ ≤ 140), is approximately 10% for the superhydrophobic surface and 14% for the best liquid-infused surface. Our results suggest that liquid-infused surfaces may enable robust drag reduction in high Reynolds number turbulent flows without the shortcomings associated with conventional superhydrophobic surfaces, namely, failure under conditions of high hydrodynamic pressure and turbulent flow fluctuations.
Turbulent boundary-layer control with spanwise travelling waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So
2011-12-01
It has been demonstrated through numerical simulations using Lorentz forcing that spanwise travelling waves on turbulent wall flows can lead to a skin-friction drag reduction on the order of 30%. As an aeronautical application of this innovative flow control technique, we have investigated into the use of Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to generate spanwise travelling waves in air. The near-wall structures modified by the spanwise travelling waves were studied using the PIV technique in a wind tunnel, while the associated turbulence statistics were carefully documented using hot-wire anemometry. We observed the spreading of low-speed fluid by the spanwise travelling streamwise vortices, which seems to have greatly attenuated the turbulence production process. This is very much in line with the finding of DNS studies, where wide low-speed ribbons replaced the low-speed streaks.
Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanpied, Michael L.; Lockner, David A.; Byerlee, James D.
1995-07-01
Sliding on faults in much of the continental crust likely occurs at hydrothermal conditions, i.e., at elevated temperature and elevated pressure of aqueous pore fluids, yet there have been few relevant laboratory studies. To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, we slid laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge). Velocity stepping experiments were performed at temperatures of 23 to 600C, pore fluid pressures PH2O of 0 ("dry") and 100 MPa ("wet"), effective normal stress of 400 MPa, and sliding velocities V of 0.01 to 1 ?m/s (0.32 to 32 m/yr). Conditions were similar to those in earlier tests on dry granite to 845C by Lockner et al. (1986). The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845 and wet granite below 250C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above 350C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. We infer that one or more fluid-assisted deformation mechanisms are activated in the second, hydrothermal, regime and operate concurrently with cataclastic flow. Slip in the first (cool and/or dry) regime is characterized by pervasive shearing and particle size reduction. Slip in the second (hot and wet) regime is localized primarily onto narrow shear bands adjacent to the gouge-rock interfaces. Weakness of these boundary shears may result either from an abundance of phyllosilicates preferentially aligned for easy dislocation glide, or from a dependence of strength on gouge particle size. Major features of the granite data set can be fit reasonably well by a rate- and temperature-dependent, three-regime friction constitutive model (Chester, this issue). We extrapolate the experimental data and model fit in order to estimate steady state shear strength versus depth along natural, slipping faults for sliding rates as low as 31 mm/yr. We do this for two end-member cases. In the first case, pore pressure is assumed hydrostatic at all depths. Shallow crustal strength in this case is similar to that calculated in previous work from room temperature friction data, while at depths below about 9-13 km (depending on slip rate), strength becomes less sensitive to depth but sensitive to slip rate. In the second case, pore pressure is assumed to be near-lithostatic at depths below 5 km. Strength is low at all depths in this case (<20 MPa, in agreement with observations of "weak" faults such as the San Andreas). The predicted depth of transition from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening lies at about 13 km depth for a slip rate of 31 mm/yr, in rough agreement with the seismic-aseismic transition depth observed on mature continental faults. These results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubbard, D. W.; Trevino, G.
1986-02-01
When turbulent jets or wakes interact with a free surface, the turbulent eddies are apparently damped in the vertical direction and extended in the horizontal direction. Turbulent velocities are being measured for this zone of interaction to enable verifying turbulence modelling techniques. A two-dimensional jet is formed by pumping water through a rectangular slit into a channel filled with still water. Hot-film anemometry techniques measure velocity fluctuations in the jet and in the immediate neighborhood outside the jet. Some effects of jet flow rate and jet submergence have been studied. The raw data are sampled time records of the anemometer output voltages obtained at different positions in the jet. These time records together with the sensor calibration information are analyzed using digital signal processing techniques. The mean velocities, turbulence intensities, and velocity correlation functions are being calculated, and the results used to develop a two-point closure scheme and a mathematical model for jet flow turbulence.
High drag reduction in viscoelastic turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Housiadas, Kostas; Beris, Antony
2003-03-01
We investigate the high drag reduction region in viscoelastic turbulent channel flow with polymers through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). This work improves and enhances our previous investigations which resulted in predictions of polymer-induced drag reduction up to 38the FENE-P model at a friction Weissenberg number of 50 and maximum extensibility parameter 50. A new numerical algorithm has been developed in order to effectively perform the simulations under high drag reduction conditions. The main new features of the fully spectral algorithm are: (a) full implicit scheme for both the momentum and the constitutive equation and (b) dealiasing for all the non-linear terms. The simulations are performed for a constant friction Reynolds number of 395 for which our previous simulations have shown that the viscous layer is fully developed. We study high drag reductions by using parameters in the viscoelastic constitutive equations that maximize the extensional viscosity. That includes (a) the FENE-P model with maximum extensibility parameter greater than or equal to 50 and friction Weissenberg numbers greater than or equal to 50 (b) the OLDROYD-B model with friction Weissenberg number above 25 and (c) the GIESEKUS model with friction Weissenberg number above 50. In addition to the drag reduction, mean statistics quantities, Reynolds stresses and energy spectra results will also be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takabi, Behrouz; Shokouhmand, Hossein
2015-09-01
In this paper, forced convection of a turbulent flow of pure water, Al2O3/water nanofluid and Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid (a new advanced nanofluid composited of Cu and Al2O3 nanoparticles) through a uniform heated circular tube is numerically analyzed. This paper examines the effects of these three fluids as the working fluids, a wide range of Reynolds number (10 000 ? Re ? 10 0000) and also the volume concentration (0% ? ? ? 2%) on heat transfer and hydrodynamic performance. The finite volume discretization method is employed to solve the set of the governing equations. The results indicate that employing hybrid nanofluid improves the heat transfer rate with respect to pure water and nanofluid, yet it reveals an adverse effect on friction factor and appears severely outweighed by pressure drop penalty. However, the average increase of the average Nusselt number (when compared to pure water) in Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 32.07% and the amount for the average increase of friction factor would be 13.76%.
Suresh, S; Venkitaraj, K P; Hameed, M Shahul; Sarangan, J
2014-03-01
A study on fully developed turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated circular tube is presented in this paper. For this, Al2O3-Cu nanocomposite powder was synthesized in a thermo chemical route using hydrogen reduction technique and dispersed the hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The prepared powder was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to confirm the chemical composition, determine the particle size and study the surface morphology. Stability of the nanofluid was ensured by pH and zeta potential measurements. The average heat transfer enhancement for Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 8.02% when compared to pure water. The experimental results also showed that 0.1% Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor compared to 0.1% Al2O3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor were well agreed with the experimental data. PMID:24745264
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
George, Albert R.
1996-01-01
In the present research, tilt rotor aeroacoustics have been studied experimentally and computationally. Experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. To date, these flow measurements are the only ones in existence for a hovering tilt rotor. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3) basic configuration changes (increasing the rotor/rotor spacing, reducing the rotor plane/wing clearance, operating the rotors out of phase). Also, an approximation to Sikorsky's Variable Diameter Tilt Rotor (VDTR) configuration was tested, and some flow measurements were made on a semi-span configuration of the model. Acoustic predictions were made using LOWSON.M, a Mathematica code. This hover prediction code, from HOVER.FOR, used blade element theory for the aerodynamics, and Prandtl's Vortex theory to model the wake, along with empirical formulas for the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, and stall. Aerodynamic models were developed from 7-hole pressure probe measurements of the mean velocity into the model rotors. LOWSON.M modeled a rotor blade as a single force and source/sink combination separated in the chordwise direction, at an effective blade radius. Spanwise, Mach-weighted integrals were used to find the equivalent forces and equivalent source strengths.
Maeyama, S. Nakata, M.; Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Idomura, Y.
2014-05-15
Electromagnetic turbulence driven by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) in high-β plasma is investigated based on the local gyrokinetic model. Analysis of turbulent fluxes, norms, and phases of fluctuations shows that KBM turbulence gives narrower spectra and smaller phase factors than those in ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-driven turbulence. This leads to the smaller transport fluxes in KBM turbulence than those in ITG turbulence even when they have similar linear growth rates. From the analysis of the entropy balance relation, it is found that the entropy transfer from ions to electrons through the field-particle interactions mainly drives electron perturbations, which creates radial twisted modes by rapid parallel motions of electrons in a sheared magnetic geometry. The nonlinear coupling between the dominant unstable mode and its twisted modes is important for the saturation of KBM turbulence, in contrast to the importance of zonal flow shearing in ITG turbulence. The coupling depends on the flux-tube domain with the one-poloidal-turn parallel length and on the torus periodicity constraint.
Tactical missile turbulence problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickson, Richard E.
1987-01-01
Of particular interest is atmospheric turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, since this affects both the launch and terminal phase of flight, and the total flight for direct fire systems. Brief discussions are presented on rocket artillery boost wind problems, mean wind correction, turbulent boost wind correction, the Dynamically Aimed Free Flight Rocket (DAFFR) wind filter, the DAFFR test, and rocket wake turbulence problems. It is concluded that many of the turbulence problems of rockets and missiles are common to those of aircraft, such as structural loading and control system design. However, these problems have not been solved at this time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jejjala, Vishnu; Minic, Djordje; Ng, Y. Jack; Tze, Chia-Hsiung
We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.
Switching friction with thermal- responsive gels.
Wu, Yang; Cai, Meirong; Pei, Xiaowei; Liang, Yongmin; Zhou, Feng
2013-11-01
The thermosensitive graphene oxide (GO)/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM) composite hydrogels are prepared, and their tribological properties in response to external stimuli are evaluated. The frictional coefficient of the hydrogels is closely related to the gel composition and ambient temperature. When the gel is in swelling state below the low critical solution temperature (LCST), it shows ultra-low friction and exhibits high friction at a shrunk state above the LCST. The huge difference of frictional coefficient under two states can be reversibly switched many times by altering the temperature. The incorporation of a nonthermal sensitive monomer into pNIPAM could change the LCST and thus the transformation point of frictional coefficient can be altered. These reversible and tunable frictional hydrogels have potential application in the design of intelligent control equipment. PMID:24249089
Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging
Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando
2013-01-01
Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227
Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation
Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane
2012-01-01
Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751
SRM propellant, friction/ESD testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, L. A.
1989-01-01
Following the Pershing 2 incident in 1985 and the Peacekeeper ignition during core removal in 1987, it was found that propellant can be much more sensitive to Electrostatic Discharges (ESD) than ever before realized. As a result of the Peacekeeper motor near miss incident, a friction machine was designed and fabricated, and used to determine friction hazards during core removal. Friction testing with and electrical charge being applied across the friction plates resulted in propellant ignitions at low friction pressures and extremely low ESD levels. The objective of this test series was to determine the sensitivity of solid rocket propellant to combined friction pressure and electrostatic stimuli and to compare the sensitivity of the SRM propellant to Peacekeeper propellant. The tests are fully discussed, summarized and conclusions drawn.
Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.
Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando
2013-01-01
Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227
Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A. H.; Flores-Johnson, E. A.; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming
2015-09-01
Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.
Friction Forces during Sliding of Various Brackets for Malaligned Teeth: An In Vitro Study
Crincoli, Vito; Di Bisceglie, Maria Beatrice; Balsamo, Antonio; Serpico, Vitaliano; Chiatante, Francesco; Pappalettere, Carmine; Boccaccio, Antonio
2013-01-01
Aims. To measure the friction force generated during sliding mechanics with conventional, self-ligating (Damon 3 mx, Smart Clip, and Time 3) and low-friction (Synergy) brackets using different archwire diameters and ligating systems in the presence of apical and buccal malalignments of the canine. Methods. An experimental setup reproducing the right buccal segment of the maxillary arch was designed to measure the friction force generated at the bracket/wire and wire/ligature interfaces of different brackets. A complete factorial plan was drawn up and a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate whether the following factors affect the values of friction force: (i) degree of malalignment, (ii) diameter of the orthodontic wire, and (iii) bracket/ligature combination. Tukey post hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant differences between the bracket/ligature combinations analyzed. Results. ANOVA showed that all the above factors affect the friction force values. The friction force released during sliding mechanics with conventional brackets is about 5-6times higher than that released with the other investigated brackets. A quasilinear increase of the frictional forces was observed for increasing amounts of apical and buccal malalignments. Conclusion. The Synergy bracket with silicone ligature placed around the inner tie-wings appears to yield the best performance. PMID:23533364
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corke, T. C.; Guezennec, Y.; Nagib, H. M.
1981-01-01
The effects of placing a parallel-plate turbulence manipulator in a boundary layer are documented through flow visualization and hot wire measurements. The boundary layer manipulator was designed to manage the large scale structures of turbulence leading to a reduction in surface drag. The differences in the turbulent structure of the boundary layer are summarized to demonstrate differences in various flow properties. The manipulator inhibited the intermittent large scale structure of the turbulent boundary layer for at least 70 boundary layer thicknesses downstream. With the removal of the large scale, the streamwise turbulence intensity levels near the wall were reduced. The downstream distribution of the skin friction was also altered by the introduction of the manipulator.
Fractional trajectories: Decorrelation versus friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svenkeson, A.; Beig, M. T.; Turalska, M.; West, B. J.; Grigolini, P.
2013-11-01
The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation of a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. Heretofore what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction, a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. We apply the general theory developed herein to the Lotka-Volterra ecological model, providing new insight into the final equilibrium state. The relaxation time to achieve this state is also considered.
Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.
1996-01-01
Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.
Friction, Wear, and Surface Damage of Metals as Affected by Solid Surface Films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bisson, Edmond E; Johnson, Robert L; Swikert, Max A; Godfrey, Douglas
1956-01-01
As predicted by friction theory, experiments showed that friction and surface damage of metals can be reduced by solid surface films. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding was a very important factor in wear of dry and boundary lubricated surfaces. Films of graphitic carbon on cast irons, nio on nickel alloys, and feo and fe sub 3 o sub 4 on ferrous materials were found to be beneficial. Abrasive films such as fe sub 2 o sub 3 or moo sub 3 were definitely detrimental. It appears that the importance of oxide films to friction and wear processes has not been fully appreciated.
Particle Dynamics in Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Haitao
2008-03-01
The interaction between particles and turbulence features in many environmental and engineering problems, e.g., the formation of rain, the dispersion of particulate pollutants, and sedimentation in rivers and oceans. In addition, tracer particles are routinely used in scientific research to study the flow itself. Understanding the behavior of particles in turbulent flows is not only an important practical problem, but also an intriguing scientific challenge. Our group has developed a three-dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT) system. Using high speed CMOS cameras, the system is capable of following simultaneously hundreds of particles in a turbulent flow with Taylor microscale Reynolds number R? up to 10^3. The LPT measurements provide both single- and multi-particle statistics following Lagrangian trajectories, at temporal resolutions better than the Kolmogorov time scales of the turbulence. Using the LPT system, we investigated the Lagrangian properties of turbulence by tracking tracer particles seeded in the flow. In the study of turbulent relative dispersion, our measurement of the separation of pairs of fluid elements in turbulence demonstrated that only when the separation between a time scale related to the initial separation between the pair and the turbulence integral time scale is large enough, or equivalently, at very large Reynolds numbers, the long-believed Richardson's t^3 law may be observed. Furthermore, measurements of multiple particles in the flow showed the evolution of geometric structures in turbulence. Due to its ability to follow individual particles, the LPT system is an ideal tool to study the behavior of non-tracer particles in turbulence. The inertial particles have density different from the fluid, but size smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale of turbulence. On the other hand, neutrally buoyant particles with size larger than the Kolmogorov scale behave very differently from inertial particles. We will present results from both cases.
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J; Baltzer, Jon R
2015-06-30
The precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody's correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition. PMID:26080447
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.; Baltzer, Jon R.
2015-01-01
The precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody’s correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition. PMID:26080447
CHEMICALLY REACTING TURBULENT JETS
The paper reports additional experimental evidence supporting a new description of the mechanism of turbulent entrainment, mixing, and chemical reactions that is emerging from experiments in the last few years which reveal the presence of large scale structures in turbulent shear...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, David
1988-01-01
Three areas of study in MHD turbulence are considered. These are the turbulent relaxation of the toroidal Z pinch, density fluctuations in MHD fluids, and MHD cellular automata. A Boolean computer game that updates a cellular representation in parallel and that has macroscopic averages converging to solutions of the two-dimensional MHD equations is discussed.
A thermodynamic model of turbulent motions in a granular material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luca, I.; Fang, C.; Hutter, K.
. This paper is devoted to a thermodynamic theory of granular materials subjected to slow frictional as well as rapid flows with strong collisional interactions. The microstructure of the material is taken into account by considering the solid volume fraction as a basic field. This variable is of a kinematic nature and enters the formulation via the balance law of the configurational momentum, including corresponding contributions to the energy balance, as originally proposed by Goodman and Cowin [1], but modified here. Complemented by constitutive equations, the emerging field equations are postulated to be adequate for motions, be they laminar or turbulent, if the resolved length scales are sufficiently small. On large length scales the sub-grid motion may be interpreted as fluctuations, which manifest themselves in correspondingly filtered equations as correlation products, like in the turbulence theory. We apply an ergodic (Reynolds) filter to these equations and thus deduce averaged equations for the mean motions. The averaged equations comprise balances of mass, linear and configurational momenta, energy, and turbulent kinetic energy as well as turbulent configurational kinetic energy. They are complemented by balance laws for two internal fields, the dissipation rates of the turbulent kinetic energy and of the turbulent configurational kinetic energy. We formulate closure relations for the averages of the laminar constitutive quantities and for the correlation terms by using the rules of material and turbulent objectivity, including equipresence. Many versions of the second law of thermodynamics are known in the literature. We follow the Mller-Liu theory and extend Mller's entropy principle to allow the satisfaction of the second law of thermodynamics for both laminar and turbulent motions. Its exploitation, performed in the spirit of the Mller-Liu theory, delivers restrictions on the dependent constitutive quantities (through the Liu equations) and a residual inequality, from which thermodynamic equilibrium properties are deduced. Finally, linear relationships are proposed for the nonequilibrium closure relations.
Comparison of Frictional Heating Models
Davies, Nicholas R; Blau, Peter Julian
2013-10-01
The purpose of this work was to compare the predicted temperature rises using four well-known models for frictional heating under a few selected conditions in which similar variable inputs are provided to each model. Classic papers by Archard, Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Lim and Ashby, and Rabinowicz have been examined, and a spreadsheet (Excel ) was developed to facilitate the calculations. This report may be used in conjunction with that spreadsheet. It explains the background, assumptions, and rationale used for the calculations. Calculated flash temperatures for selected material combinations, under a range of applied loads and sliding speeds, are tabulated. The materials include AISI 52100 bearing steel, CDA 932 bronze, NBD 200 silicon nitride, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and carbon-graphite material. Due to the assumptions made by the different models, and the direct way in which certain assumed quantities, like heat sink distances or asperity dimensions, enter into the calculations, frictional hearing results may differ significantly; however, they can be similar in certain cases in light of certain assumptions that are shared between the models.
Quantum Friction in Different Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klatt, Juliane; Buhmann, Stefan
2015-03-01
Quantum friction is the velocity-dependent force between two polarizable objects in relative motion, resulting from field-fluctuation mediated transfer of energy and momentum between them. Due to its short-ranged nature it has proven difficult to observe experimentally. Theoretical attempts to determine the precise velocity-dependence of the quantum drag experienced by a polarizable atom moving parallel to a surface arrive at contradicting results. Scheel and Barton predict a force linear in relative velocity v - the former using the quantum regression theorem and the latter employing time-dependent perturbation theory. Intravaia, however, predicts a v3 power-law starting from a non-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In order to learn where exactly the above approaches part, we set out to perform all three calculations within one and the same framework: macroscopic QED. In addition, we include contributions to quantum friction from Doppler shift and Röntgen interaction, which play a role for perpendicular motion and retarded distances, respectively, and consider non-stationary states of atom and field. DFG Emmy-Noether Program.
Kozai Cycles and Tidal Friction
L, K; P.P., E
2009-07-17
Several studies in the last three years indicate that close binaries, i.e. those with periods of {approx}< 3 d, are very commonly found to have a third body in attendance. We argue that this proves that the third body is necessary in order to make the inner period so short, and further argue that the only reasonable explanation is that the third body causes shrinkage of the inner period, from perhaps a week or more to the current short period, by means of the combination of Kozai cycles and tidal friction (KCTF). In addition, once KCTF has produced a rather close binary, magnetic braking also combined with tidal friction (MBTF) can decrease the inner orbit further, to the formation of a contact binary or even a merged single star. Some of the products of KCTF that have been suggested, either by others or by us, are W UMa binaries, Blue Stragglers, X-ray active BY Dra stars, and short-period Algols. We also argue that some components of wide binaries are actually merged remnants of former close inner pairs. This may include such objects as rapidly rotating dwarfs (AB Dor, BO Mic) and some (but not all) Be stars.
Shape-dependent adhesion and friction of Au nanoparticles probed with atomic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuk, Youngji; Hong, Jong Wook; Lee, Hyunsoo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, Jeong Young
2015-03-01
The relation between surface structure and friction and adhesion is a long-standing question in tribology. Tuning the surface structure of the exposed facets of metal nanoparticles is enabled by shape control. We investigated the effect of the shape of Au nanoparticles on friction and adhesion. Two nanoparticle systems, cubic nanoparticles with a low-index (100) surface and hexoctahedral nanoparticles with a high-index (321) surface, were used as model nanoparticle surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was used to probe the nanoscale friction and adhesion on the nanoparticle surface. Before removing the capping layers, the friction results include contributions from both the geometric factor and the presence of capping layers. After removing the capping layers, we can see the exclusive effect of the surface atomic structure while the geometric effect is maintained. We found that after removing the capping layer, the cubic Au nanoparticles exhibited higher adhesion and friction, compared with cubes capped with layers covering 25% and 70%, respectively. On the other hand, the adhesion and friction of hexoctahedral Au nanoparticles decreased after removing the capping layers, compared with nanoparticles with capping layers. The difference in adhesion and friction forces between the bare Au surfaces and Au nanoparticles with capping layers cannot be explained by geometric factors, such as the slope of the nanoparticle surfaces. The higher adhesion and friction forces on cubic nanoparticles after removing the capping layers is associated with the atomic structure of (100) and (321) (i.e., the flat (100) surfaces of the cubic nanoparticles have a larger contact area, compared with the rough (321) surfaces of the hexoctahedral nanoparticles). This study implies an intrinsic relation between atomic structure and nanomechanical properties, with potential applications for controlling nanoscale friction and adhesion via colloid chemistry.
Active Wall Motion for the Skin-Friction Drag Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Sangmo; Choi, Haecheon
1999-11-01
In this study, we investigate a possibility of reducing the skin-friction drag in a turbulent channel flow with active wall motion using direct numerical simulation at Re_? = 140. The strategy of moving the wall is based on the successful active control strategy used by Choi, Moin & Kim (1994, JFM). They prescribed the blowing/suction at the wall to be exactly opposite to the wall-normal velocity at y^+ ~= 10 and obtained about 25% drag reduction. In the present study, the wall is locally deformed such that the induced velocity by the wall motion matches the wall-normal velocity at y^+ ~= 10 with an opposite sign, while the amount of maximum wall deformation is limited to be 5 in wall units. In order to effectively address the small amplitude of wall deformation, the Navier-Stokes equations are coordinate-transformed with an approximation of Taylor-series truncation. Results show that overall 17% drag reduction is obtained with active wall motion, and turbulence intensities and near-wall streamwise vortices are significantly weakened. It is also remarkable that instantaneous wall shapes are elongated in the streamwise direction and resemble riblets in appearance. However, the spanwise spacing of the wall peak-to-peak is about 80 - 90 in wall units, indicating that the mechanism of present drag reduction is essentially different from that of riblets. Wall motions based on open-loop control strategies are underway and the results will be also presented.
Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults
Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.
1996-01-01
The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate of simulated gouge fails to quantitatively account for the experimental observations.
Resonances in modulated turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Water, Willem
2005-11-01
The question is whether there exist preferred frequencies with which to periodically excite turbulence. The possibility of such a resonance is intriguing as one may object that turbulence does not have a single dominating timescale but a continuum of strongly fluctuating times. We present evidence for such a resonance in windtunnel experiments where turbulence is modulated using an active grid. This grid can be controlled such that both the temporal frequency and the symmetry of the imposed spatial pattern can be changed. The results highlight the importance of the spatial structure of the modulation and the way in which the turbulent response is characterized. These experiments have been inspired by numerical studies of simple turbulence models, but resonances are now also found in direct numerical simulations which completely resolve the velocity field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hegseth, John
1998-03-01
One of the most interesting pattern forming processes occurs when separated spatial regions of turbulent and laminar flows (turbulent spots) form in shear flows. Examples include the spots in boundary layer flows, pipe flow slugs, and Spiral Turbulence in circular Couette flow. This process was studied in detail in a plane Couette flow apparatus where spots can easily be created through a subcritical (or metastable) transition and can easily be observed in the laboratory frame. The results from this study showed pervasive vortex structures with their rotation axes aligned in the direction of the wall velocity. An interpretation of the visualization evidence from this experiment is presented. This interpretation suggests that the stress on the laminar flow from the turbulence induces vortex stretching and vortex tilting in the laminar flow that result in the before mentioned pervasive vortex structures. These vortex structures and their complex interactions constitute the smaller scale turbulence.
Evaluation of analytical procedures for prediction of turbulent boundary layers on a porous wall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Towne, C. E.
1974-01-01
An analytical study has been made to determine how well current boundary layer prediction techniques work when there is mass transfer normal to the wall. The data that were considered in this investigation were for two-dimensional, incompressible, turbulent boundary layers with suction and blowing. Some of the bleed data were taken in an adverse pressure gradient. An integral prediction method was used three different porous wall skin friction relations, in addition to a solid-surface relation for the suction cases. A numerical prediction method was also used. Comparisons were made between theoretical and experimental skin friction coefficients, displacement and momentum thicknesses, and velocity profiles. The integral method with one of the porous wall skin friction laws gave very good agreement with data for most of the cases considered. The use of the solid-surface skin friction law caused the integral to overpredict the effectiveness of the bleed. The numerical techniques also worked well for most of the cases.
Market Assessment of Forward-Looking Turbulence Sensing Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kauffmann, Paul; Sousa-Poza, Andres
2001-01-01
In recognition of the importance of turbulence mitigation as a tool to improve aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program developed a Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Sub-element. The objective of this effort is to develop highly reliable turbulence detection technologies for commercial transport aircraft to sense dangerous turbulence with sufficient time warning so that defensive measures can be implemented and prevent passenger and crew injuries. Current research involves three forward sensing products to improve the cockpit awareness of possible turbulence hazards. X-band radar enhancements will improve the capabilities of current weather radar to detect turbulence associated with convective activity. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a laser-based technology that is capable of detecting turbulence in clear air. Finally, a possible Radar-LIDAR hybrid sensor is envisioned to detect the full range of convective and clear air turbulence. To support decisions relating to the development of these three forward-looking turbulence sensor technologies, the objective of this study was defined as examination of cost and implementation metrics. Tasks performed included the identification of cost factors and certification issues, the development and application of an implementation model, and the development of cost budget/targets for installing the turbulence sensor and associated software devices into the commercial transport fleet.
Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team
2013-11-01
In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).
Skin friction measurement in complex flows using thin oil film techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The NASA Grant NAG2-261 was initiated to support a program of research to study complex flows that occur in flight and laboratory experiments by building, testing and optimizing an on-board technique for direct measurement of surface shear stress using thin oil film techniques. The program of research has proceeded under the supervision of the NASA Ames Research Center and with further cooperation from the NASA Ames-Dryden and NASA Langley Research Centers. In accordance with the original statement of work, the following research milestones were accomplished: (1) design and testing of an internally mounted one-directional skin friction meter to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept; (2) design and construction of a compact instrument capable of measuring skin friction in two directions; (3) study of transitional and fully turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with and without longitudinal pressure gradients utilizing the compact two-directional skin friction meter; (4) study of the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a compression corner using the two-directional meter; and (5) flight qualification of the compact meter and accompanying electronic and pneumatic systems, preliminary installation into flight test fixture.
Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.
Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)
2006-12-01
Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the mechanical response of wear surfaces. Coatings are often required to mitigate friction and wear. Amongst other factors, plastic deformation of the substrate determines the coating-substrate interface reliability. Finite element modeling has been applied to predict the plastic deformation for the specific case of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated Ni alloy substrates.
Generalized Similarity in Finite Range Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Chapman, S. C.; Nicol, R. M.
2009-12-11
Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum - with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approx2 in power - provides a test of this invariance.
Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Chapman, S C; Nicol, R M
2009-12-11
Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum--with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approximately 2 in power--provides a test of this invariance. PMID:20366193
Multiscale physics-based modeling of friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eriten, Melih
Frictional contacts between solids exist in nature and in a wide range of engineering applications. Friction causes energy loss, and it is the main source of wear and surface degradation which limits the lifetime of mechanical systems. Yet, friction is needed to walk, run, accelerate, slow down or stop moving systems. Whether desirable or not, friction is a very complex physical phenomenon. The behavior of systems with friction is nonlinear, and the physical mechanisms governing friction behavior span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. A thorough study of friction should employ experimentalists and theoreticians in chemistry, materials science, tribology, mechanics, dynamics, and structural engineering. High spatial and temporal resolutions are required to capture and model essential physics of a frictional contact. However, such a detailed model is impractical in large-scale structural dynamics simulations; especially since frictional contacts can be numerous in a given application. Reduced-order models (ROMs) achieve broader applicability by compromising several aspects and accounting for the important physics. Hence, rather simple Coulomb friction is still the most ubiquitous model in the modeling and simulation literature. As an alternative, a reduced-order friction model built-up from micromechanics of surfaces is proposed in this work. Continuum-scale formulation of pre-sliding friction behavior is combined with material-strength-based friction coefficients to develop a physics-based friction model at asperity-scale. Then, the statistical summation technique is utilized to build a multiscale modeling framework. A novel joint fretting setup is designed for friction experiments in a practical setting, and the developed models are tested. Both asperity and rough surface friction models show good agreement with experimental data. The influences of materials, surface roughness and contact contamination on the friction are also studied. Finally, the developed models are incorporated in to a simple dynamical system to illustrate broader applicability. The models proposed in this work account for loading-history dependence, partial slip, gross slip, nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation characteristics of frictional contacts. In doing so, the models require no curve-fit or look-up parameters. Instead, the formulations are developed from continuum mechanics, and the required parameters can be determined from simple tension/compression and surface roughness tests. In this sense, the developed models are physics-based and predictive. The parameters employed in the models depend on the contact conditions, surface roughness and material properties. For instance, the developed models use a dry-contact formulation at asperity-scale, and the macroscale friction predictions are tested only for dry contacts. However, the multiscale modeling approach can be applied to model the effect of lubrication provided that asperity-scale contact accounts for it. Besides, frictional contacts of certain materials exhibit severe adhesion, cold welding and galling behavior as demonstrated experimentally in this work. If these behaviors are modeled at asperity-scale, then the friction at rough contact scale can be obtained by the same procedure presented in this work. This flexibility is another significant advantage of the proposed modeling approach.
Optimal Length Scale for a Turbulent Dynamo.
Sadek, Mira; Alexakis, Alexandros; Fauve, Stephan
2016-02-19
We demonstrate that there is an optimal forcing length scale for low Prandtl number dynamo flows that can significantly reduce the required energy injection rate. The investigation is based on simulations of the induction equation in a periodic box of size 2πL. The flows considered are the laminar and turbulent ABC flows forced at different forcing wave numbers k_{f}, where the turbulent case is simulated using a subgrid turbulence model. At the smallest allowed forcing wave number k_{f}=k_{min}=1/L the laminar critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{c}^{lam} is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the turbulent critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{c}^{turb} due to the hindering effect of turbulent fluctuations. We show that this hindering effect is almost suppressed when the forcing wave number k_{f} is increased above an optimum wave number k_{f}L≃4 for which Rm_{c}^{turb} is minimum. At this optimal wave number, Rm_{c}^{turb} is smaller by more than a factor of 10 than the case forced in k_{f}=1. This leads to a reduction of the energy injection rate by 3 orders of magnitude when compared to the case where the system is forced at the largest scales and thus provides a new strategy for the design of a fully turbulent experimental dynamo. PMID:26943538
Optimal Length Scale for a Turbulent Dynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadek, Mira; Alexakis, Alexandros; Fauve, Stephan
2016-02-01
We demonstrate that there is an optimal forcing length scale for low Prandtl number dynamo flows that can significantly reduce the required energy injection rate. The investigation is based on simulations of the induction equation in a periodic box of size 2 π L . The flows considered are the laminar and turbulent A B C flows forced at different forcing wave numbers kf, where the turbulent case is simulated using a subgrid turbulence model. At the smallest allowed forcing wave number kf=kmin=1 /L the laminar critical magnetic Reynolds number R mclam is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the turbulent critical magnetic Reynolds number Rmc turb due to the hindering effect of turbulent fluctuations. We show that this hindering effect is almost suppressed when the forcing wave number kf is increased above an optimum wave number kfL ≃4 for which Rmc turb is minimum. At this optimal wave number, Rmc turb is smaller by more than a factor of 10 than the case forced in kf=1 . This leads to a reduction of the energy injection rate by 3 orders of magnitude when compared to the case where the system is forced at the largest scales and thus provides a new strategy for the design of a fully turbulent experimental dynamo.
Semi-local scaling and turbulence modulation in variable property turbulent channel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Ashish; Peeters, Jurriaan W. R.; Boersma, Bendiks J.; Pecnik, Rene
2015-09-01
We theoretically and numerically investigate the effect of temperature dependent density and viscosity on turbulence in channel flows. First, a mathematical framework is developed to support the validity of the semi-local scaling as proposed based on heuristic arguments by Huang, Coleman, and Bradshaw ["Compressible turbulent channel flows: DNS results and modelling," J. Fluid Mech. 305, 185-218 (1995)]. Second, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent channel flows with different constitutive relations for density and viscosity are performed to assess and validate the semi-local scaling for turbulent statistics. The DNS database is obtained by solving the low-Mach number approximation of the Navier-Stokes equation. Finally, we quantify the modulation of turbulence due to changes in fluid properties. In the simulations, the fluid is internally heated and the temperature at both channel walls is fixed, such that the friction Reynolds number based on wall quantities is Reτ = 395 for all cases investigated. We show that for a case with variable density ρ and viscosity μ, but constant semi-local Reynolds number R eτ ∗ ≡ √{ ( ρ ¯ / ρ w ) } / ( μ ¯ / μ w ) R e τ (where bar and subscript w, denote Reynolds averaging and averaged wall quantity, respectively), across the whole channel height, the turbulent statistics exhibit quasi-similarity with constant property turbulent flows. For cases where R eτ ∗ ≠ R e τ across the channel, we found that quasi-similarity is maintained for cases with similar R eτ ∗ distributions, even if their individual mean density and viscosity profiles substantially differ. With a decrease of R eτ ∗ towards the channel center ( R eτ ∗ < R e τ ), we show that the anisotropy increases and the pre-multiplied stream-wise spectra reveal that this increase is associated with strengthening of the large scale streaks in the buffer layer. The opposite effect is observed when R eτ ∗ increases towards the channel center. The present results provide an effective framework for categorizing turbulence modulation in wall-bounded flows with variable property effects, and can be applied to any Newtonian fluid that is heated or cooled.
Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction
Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri
2015-01-01
Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel ribs inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ?-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ? of the order of 10. Further increase in ? is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ? in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634
Wiping Metal Transfer in Friction Stir Welding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Much evidence suggests that as the friction stir pin-tool moves along a weld seam the displacement of metal takes place by a wiping action at the surface of a plug of metal that rotates with the tool. The wiping model is explained and some consequences for the friction stir welding process are drawn.
Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.
Studying the Frictional Force Directions via Bristles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prasitpong, S.; Chitaree, R.; Rakkapao, S.
2010-01-01
We present simple apparatus designed to help Thai high school students visualize the directions of frictional forces. Bristles of toothbrushes, paintbrushes and scrubbing brushes are used to demonstrate the frictional forces acting in a variety of situations. These demonstrations, when followed by discussion of free-body diagrams, were found to be
Studying the Frictional Force Directions via Bristles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prasitpong, S.; Chitaree, R.; Rakkapao, S.
2010-01-01
We present simple apparatus designed to help Thai high school students visualize the directions of frictional forces. Bristles of toothbrushes, paintbrushes and scrubbing brushes are used to demonstrate the frictional forces acting in a variety of situations. These demonstrations, when followed by discussion of free-body diagrams, were found to be…
Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mungan, Carl E.
2012-01-01
A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of
Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction.
Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri
2015-01-01
Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel 'ribs' inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ξ-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ξ of the order of 10. Further increase in ξ is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ξ in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634
Effect of Friction on Shear Jamming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert
2015-03-01
Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient ? ~ 0 . 6 (Bi et al. Nature (2011)). Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ? between ?J (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ?S for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how reducing friction affects shear jamming. We put the Teflon-wrapped photoelastic disks, lowering the friction substantially from previous experiments, in a well-studied 2D shear apparatus (Ren et al. PRL (2013)), which provides a uniform simple shear. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ?J -?S is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger anisotropies in fragile states compared to experiments with higher friction particles at the same density. In ongoing work we are studying systems using photoelastic disks with fine gears on the edge to generate very large effective friction. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant DMR1206351, NSF Grant DMS-1248071, NASA Grant NNX10AU01G and William M. Keck Foundation.
Device measures static friction of magnetic tape
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, P. T.
1967-01-01
Device measures the coefficient of static friction of magnetic tape over a range of temperatures and relative humidities. It uses a strain gage to measure the force of friction between a reference surface and the tape drawn at a constant velocity of approximately 0.0001 inch per second relative to the reference surface.
ANALYSIS OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.
FEDOTOV, A.V.; BRUHWILER, D.L.; SIDORIN, A.O.
2006-05-29
A comprehensive examination of theoretical models for the friction force, in use by the electron cooling community, was performed. Here, they present their insights about the models gained as a result of comparison between the friction force formulas and direct numerical simulations, as well as studies of the cooling process as a whole.
Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mungan, Carl E.
2012-01-01
A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…
Environmental effects on friction and wear of diamond and diamondlike carbon coatings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan
1992-01-01
Reciprocating sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural diamond flat, diamond film, and low and high density diamondlike carbon (DLC) films in contact with pin specimens of natural diamond and silicon nitride (Si3N4) both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. The results indicated that for natural diamond pin contacts the diamond films and the natural diamond flat were not susceptible to moisture but that moisture could increase both the coefficient of friction and the wear factors of the DLC films. The coefficients of friction and wear factors of the diamond films were generally similar to those of the natural diamond flat both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. In dry nitrogen the coefficients of friction of the high density DLC films in contact with pin specimens of both diamond and Si3N4 were generally low (about 0.02) and similar to those of the natural diamond flat and the diamond films. The wear factors of the materials in contact with both natural diamond and Si3N4 were generally in the ascending order of natural diamond flat, diamond film, high density DLC film, and low density DLC film. The moisture in the environment increased the coefficients of friction for Si3N4 pins in contact with all the materials. This increase in friction is due to the silicon oxide film produced on the surface of Si3N4 pins in humid air.
Characteristics of turbulence in a boundary layer with zero pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klebanoff, P S
1954-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation, spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.
Estimation of the friction coefficient between wheel and rail surface using traction motor behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y.; Liang, B.; Iwnicki, S.
2012-05-01
The friction coefficient between a railway wheel and rail surface is a crucial factor in maintaining high acceleration and braking performance of railway vehicles thus monitoring this friction coefficient is important. Restricted by the difficulty in directly measuring the friction coefficient, the creep force or creepage, indirect methods using state observers are used more frequently. This paper presents an approach using a Kalman filter to estimate the creep force and creepage between the wheel and rail and then to identify the friction coefficient using the estimated creep force-creepage relationship. A mathematic model including an AC motor, wheel and roller is built to simulate the driving system. The parameters are based on a test rig at Manchester Metropolitan University. The Kalman filter is designed to estimate the friction coefficient based on the measurements of the simulation model. Series of residuals are calculated through the comparison between the estimated creep force and theoretical values of different friction coefficient. Root mean square values of the residuals are used in the friction coefficient identification.
Lubrication and friction prediction in metal-on-metal hip implants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, F. C.; Brockett, C.; Williams, S.; Udofia, I.; Fisher, J.; Jin, Z. M.
2008-03-01
A general methodology of mixed lubrication analysis and friction prediction for a conforming spherical bearing in hip implants was developed, with particular reference to a typical metal-on-metal hip replacement. Experimental measurement of frictional torque for a similar implant was carried out to validate the theoretical prediction. A ball-in-socket configuration was adopted to represent the articulation between the femoral head and the acetabular cup under cyclic operating conditions of representative load and motion. The mixed lubrication model presented in this study was first applied to identify the contact characteristics on the bearing surfaces, consisting of both fluid-film and boundary lubricated regions. The boundary lubricated contact was assumed to occur when the predicted fluid film thickness was less than a typical boundary protein layer absorbed on the bearing surfaces. Subsequently, the friction was predicted from the fluid-film lubricated region with viscous shearing due to both Couette and Poiseuille flows and the boundary protein layer contact region with a constant coefficient of friction. The predicted frictional torque of the typical metal-on-metal hip joint implant was compared with the experimental measurement conducted in a functional hip simulator and a reasonably good agreement was found. The mixed lubrication regime was found to be dominant for the conditions considered. Although the percentage of the boundary lubricated region was quite small, the corresponding contribution to friction was quite large and the resultant friction factor was quite high.
Intraoral corrosion of self-ligating metallic brackets and archwires and the effect on friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tima, Lori Lynn
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the frictional coefficient was affected due to intraoral use. A secondary aim of this study was to determine whether or not there was a relationship between corrosion of orthodontic alloys and friction via scanning electron microscopic qualitative analysis. Orthodontic brackets and 0.019 x 0.025 inch stainless steel archwires were collected and divided into three groups of n=10: used bracket and used wires (UBUW), used brackets and new wires (UBNW), and new brackets and new wires (NBNW). New materials were as-received from the manufacturer, and used materials were clinically used bracket and wires collected from patients following orthodontic treatment. Archwires were pulled through bracket slots at a rate of 0.5mm/min while friction forces were measured. Following a cleaning process, the surface topography of the bracket slots was examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on a 1-factor MANOVA, there was no significant group effect (all p>0.05) on frictional forces. Partial eta squared values indicated that intraoral exposure had only a small effect on frictional forces (? 3%). Qualitative analysis of SEM images did not show an association between surface characteristics of the bracket slots and magnitude of frictional force. Results suggest that surface corrosion from intraoral use does not significantly affect friction at the bracket wire interface.
Turbulence and heat exchange in condensing vapor-liquid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakehal, Djamel; Fulgosi, Marco; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Yadigaroglu, George
2008-06-01
Turbulence and heat exchange during condensation of a vapor stream countercurrently flowing to a subcooled liquid stream in a slightly inclined channel has been investigated by direct numerical simulation (DNS). Condensation rates and imposed pressure gradients have been varied, and capillary-gravity waves have been allowed to develop at the (deformable) vapor-liquid interface. These simulations extend our previous DNS of turbulence and scalar exchange in stratified gas-liquid flows without condensation. The previous studies indicated that for conditions in which the gas-liquid interface remained continuous, i.e., did not "break," scalar exchange rates on both the gas and liquid sides were largely determined by sweeps which brought high momentum fluid from the bulk flow to the interface. As sweep frequencies were found to scale with interfacial friction velocities, scalar exchange coefficients could be parametrized with a surface renewal theory. The issue addressed in the current work is how these findings are altered by condensation which acts somewhat like suction through a wall on the vapor side and injection through a wall on the liquid side. Both suction and injection have been found to affect shear stresses, turbulence characteristics, and scalar exchange rates, and hence similar effects might be expected during condensation. The present simulations indicate that the turbulence characteristics in both phases are affected, with turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses being enhanced on the vapor side and attenuated on the liquid side. For a given imposed pressure gradient, the interfacial shear stress decreases as a result of the interfacial momentum exchange due to condensation. Interfacial waves are also found to be damped by condensation and the streamwise vortical structures on the liquid side are attenuated. The frequencies of sweeps and ejections, however, do scale with the interfacial friction velocity, reduced due to condensation, as does the liquid-side heat transfer coefficient. The simulations indicate that the scaling relationship between the interfacial friction velocity and the liquid-side heat transfer coefficient is similar to that in the absence of condensation, although the interfacial friction velocity itself is different, being dependent on condensation rates. As condensation rates depend in turn on the liquid-side heat transfer, their prediction becomes a coupled problem. A procedure for determining condensation rates as a function of imposed pressure gradient and liquid subcooling is derived from the simulations.
Observation of Joining Phenomena in Friction Stage and Improving Friction Welding Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Masaaki; Seo, Kenji; Kusaka, Masahiro; Fuji, Akiyoshi
This report describes the observation result of joining phenomena in the friction stage, and an improvement of the conventional friction welding method with similar materials. The materials used were carbon steels and a brake type (direct drive) friction welding machine was used for joining. As the improving friction welding method, relative speed was instantaneously rendered to zero at the end of each friction time. The wear of both surfaces started at periphery portion (outer surface) of the joint and moved to center portion (center axis). Seizure and joining began at center portion and then extended toward periphery portion. The friction torque reached to initial peak torque when the welded interface was joined completely and upsetting of both base metals started. It was determined that friction welded joints with 100% joint efficiency and good bend ductility could be obtained by using only the friction stage up to initial peak torque and without the need for the forging (upsetting) stage. As a conclusion, friction welded joints made without using the forging stage has the same mechanical properties as those welded by the conventional friction welding process including that stage. The friction welding method without forging stage has the advantages of less burn-off (axial shortening) and less burr.
Frictional ageing from interfacial bonding and the origins of rate and state friction.
Li, Qunyang; Tullis, Terry E; Goldsby, David; Carpick, Robert W
2011-12-01
Earthquakes have long been recognized as being the result of stick-slip frictional instabilities. Over the past few decades, laboratory studies of rock friction have elucidated many aspects of tectonic fault zone processes and earthquake phenomena. Typically, the static friction of rocks grows logarithmically with time when they are held in stationary contact, but the mechanism responsible for this strengthening is not understood. This time-dependent increase of frictional strength, or frictional ageing, is one manifestation of the 'evolution effect' in rate and state friction theory. A prevailing view is that the time dependence of rock friction results from increases in contact area caused by creep of contacting asperities. Here we present the results of atomic force microscopy experiments that instead show that frictional ageing arises from the formation of interfacial chemical bonds, and the large magnitude of ageing at the nanometre scale is quantitatively consistent with what is required to explain observations in macroscopic rock friction experiments. The relative magnitude of the evolution effect compared with that of the 'direct effect'--the dependence of friction on instantaneous changes in slip velocity--determine whether unstable slip, leading to earthquakes, is possible. Understanding the mechanism underlying the evolution effect would enable us to formulate physically based frictional constitutive laws, rather than the current empirically based 'laws', allowing more confident extrapolation to natural faults. PMID:22139421
Friction forces on phase transition fronts
Mgevand, Ariel
2013-07-01
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.
Large Friction Anisotropy of a Polydiacetylene Monolayer
Burns, A.R.; Carpick, R.W.; Sasaki, D.Y.
1999-05-11
Friction force microscopy measurements of a polydiacetylene monolayer film reveal a 300% friction anisotropy that is correlated with the film structure. The film consists of a monolayer of the red form of N-(2-ethanol)- 10,12 pentacosadiynamide, prepared on a Langmuir trough and deposited on a mica substrate. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the monolayer consists of domains of linearly oriented conjugated backbones with pendant hydrocarbon side chains above and below the backbones. Maximum friction occurs when the sliding direction is perpendicular to the backbone. We propose that the backbones impose anisotropic packing of the hydrocarbon side chains which leads to the observed friction anisotropy. Friction anisotropy is therefore a sensitive, optically-independent indicator of polymer backbone direction and monolayer structural properties.
Magnetic friction in Ising spin systems.
Kadau, Dirk; Hucht, Alfred; Wolf, Dietrich E
2008-09-26
A new contribution to friction is predicted to occur in systems with magnetic correlations: Tangential relative motion of two Ising spin systems pumps energy into the magnetic degrees of freedom. This leads to a friction force proportional to the area of contact. The velocity and temperature dependence of this force are investigated. Magnetic friction is strongest near the critical temperature, below which the spin systems order spontaneously. Antiferromagnetic coupling leads to stronger friction than ferromagnetic coupling with the same exchange constant. The basic dissipation mechanism is explained. A surprising effect is observed in the ferromagnetically ordered phase: The relative motion can act like a heat pump cooling the spins in the vicinity of the friction surface. PMID:18851490
Frictional properties of jointed welded tuff
Teufel, L.W.
1981-07-01
The results of the experiments on simulated joints in welded tuff from the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff warrant the following conclusions: (1) The coefficient of friction of the joints is independent of normal stress at a given sliding velocity. (2) The coefficient of friction increases with both increasing time of stationary contact and decreasing sliding velocity. (3) Time and velocity dependence of friction is due to an increase in the real area of contact on the sliding surface, caused by asperity creep. (4) Joints in water-saturated tuff show a greater time and velocity dependence of friction than those in dehydrated tuff. (5) The enhanced time and velocity dependence of friction with water saturation is a result of increased creep at asperity contacts, which is in turn due to a reduction in the surface indentation hardness by hydrolytic weakening and/or stress corrosion cracking.
Novel friction law for the static friction force based on local precursor slipping.
Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi
2014-01-01
The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient M, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of M decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control. PMID:25205283
Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen
2015-11-16
Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this work, two theoretical atmosphere refractive-index fluctuations spectral models are derived for optical waves propagating through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. They consider simultaneously the finite turbulence inner and outer scales and the asymmetric property of turbulence eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane throughout the path. Two anisotropy factors which parameterize the asymmetry of turbulence eddies in both horizontal and vertical directions are introduced in the orthogonal xy-plane, so that the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence eddies in the xy-plane is no longer required. Deviations from the classic 11/3 power law behavior in the spectrum model are also allowed by assuming power law value variations between 3 and 4. Based on the derived anisotropic spectral model and the Rytov approximation theory, expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived spectral models and the variance of AOA fluctuations. PMID:26698490
Ecke, R.; Li, Ning; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yuanming
1996-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a study of turbulence in fluids that are subject to different body forces and to external temperature gradients. Our focus was on the recent theoretical prediction that the Kolomogorov picture of turbulence may need to be modified for turbulent flows driven by buoyancy and subject to body forces such as rotational accelerations. Models arising from this research are important in global climate modeling, in turbulent transport problems, and in the fundamental understanding of fluid turbulence. Experimentally, we use (1) precision measurements of heat transport and local temperature; (2) flow visualization using digitally- enhanced optical shadowgraphs, particle-image velocimetry, thermochromic liquid-crystal imaging, laser-doppler velocimetry, and photochromic dye imaging; and (3) advanced image- processing techniques. Our numerical simulations employ standard spectral and novel lattice Boltzmann algorithms implemented on parallel Connection Machine computers to simulate turbulent fluid flow. In laboratory experiments on incompressible fluids, we measure probability distribution functions and two-point spatial correlations of temperature T and velocity V (both T-T and V-T correlations) and determine scaling relations for global heat transport with Rayleigh number. We also explore the mechanism for turbulence in thermal convection and the stability of the thermal boundary layer.
Modeling turbulent flame propagation
Ashurst, W.T.
1994-08-01
Laser diagnostics and flow simulation techniques axe now providing information that if available fifty years ago, would have allowed Damkoehler to show how turbulence generates flame area. In the absence of this information, many turbulent flame speed models have been created, most based on Kolmogorov concepts which ignore the turbulence vortical structure, Over the last twenty years, the vorticity structure in mixing layers and jets has been shown to determine the entrainment and mixing behavior and these effects need to be duplicated by combustion models. Turbulence simulations reveal the intense vorticity structure as filaments and simulations of passive flamelet propagation show how this vorticity Creates flame area and defines the shape of the expected chemical reaction surface. Understanding how volume expansion interacts with flow structure should improve experimental methods for determining turbulent flame speed. Since the last decade has given us such powerful new tools to create and see turbulent combustion microscopic behavior, it seems that a solution of turbulent combustion within the next decade would not be surprising in the hindsight of 2004.
Asymptotic similarity in turbulent boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duncan, Richard D.
The turbulent boundary layer is one of the most fundamental and important applications of fluid mechanics. Despite great practical interest and its direct impact on frictional drag among its many important consequences, no theory absent of significant inference or assumption exists. Numerical simulations and empirical guidance are used to produce models and adequate predictions, but even minor improvements in modeling parameters or physical understanding could translate into significant improvements in the efficiency of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic vehicles. Classically, turbulent boundary layers and fully-developed turbulent channels and pipes are considered members of the same "family," with similar "inner" versus "outer" descriptions. However, recent advances in experiments, simulations, and data processing have questioned this, and, as a result, their fundamental physics. To address a full range of pressure gradient boundary layers, a new approach to the governing equations and physical description of wall-bounded flows is formulated, using a two variable similarity approach and many of the tools of the classical method with slight but significant variations. A new set of similarity requirements for the characteristic scales of the problem is found, and when these requirements are applied to the classical "inner" and "outer" scales, a "similarity map" is developed providing a clear prediction of what flow conditions should result in self-similar forms. An empirical model with a small number of parameters and a form reminiscent of Coles' "wall plus wake" is developed for the streamwise Reynolds stress, and shown to fit experimental and numerical data from a number of turbulent boundary layers as well as other wall-bounded flows. It appears from this model and its scaling using the free-stream velocity that the true asymptotic form of u'2 may not become self-evident until Retheta ? 275,000 or delta+ ? 105, if not higher. A perturbation expansion made possible by the novel inclusion of the scaled streamwise coordinate is used to make an excellent prediction of the shear Reynolds stress in zero pressure gradient boundary layers and channel flows, requiring only a streamwise mean velocity profile and the new similarity map. Extension to other flows is promising, though more information about the normal Reynolds stresses is needed. This expansion is further used to infer a three layer structure in the turbulent boundary layer, and modified two layer structure in fully-developed flows, by using the classical inner and logarithmic profiles to determine which portions of the boundary layer are dominated by viscosity, inertia, or turbulence. A new inner function for U+ is developed, based on the three layer description, providing a much more simplified representative form of the streamwise mean velocity nearest the wall.
Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca
2014-12-19
The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow. PMID:25554885
Friction Stir Welding and Processing
Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Clarke, Kester D.; Krajewski, Paul E.
2015-05-01
With nearly twenty years of international research and collaboration in friction stir welding (FSW) and processing industrial applications have spread into nearly every feasible market. Currently applications exist in aerospace, railway, automotive, personal computers, technology, marine, cutlery, construction, as well as several other markets. Implementation of FSW has demonstrated diverse opportunities ranging from enabling new materials to reducing the production costs of current welding technologies by enabling condensed packaging solutions for traditional fabrication and assembly. TMS has sponsored focused instruction and communication in this technology area for more than fifteen years, with leadership from the Shaping and Forming Committee, which organizes a biannual symposium each odd year at the annual meeting. A focused publication produced from each of these symposia now comprises eight volumes detailing the primary research and development activities in this area over the last two decades. The articles assembled herein focus on both recent developments and technology reviews of several key markets from international experts in this area.
Reflection type skin friction meter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.
Macrostructure of Friction Stir Welds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Vargas, R.; McClure, J. C.; Murr, L. E.; Nunes, A. C.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper will discuss two of the well know large scale features of friction stir welds: the "onion rings" seen in transverse sections, and the striations on the surface of the work piece. It will be shown that the surface features (sometimes called "tool marks") are the result of irregularities on the rotating shoulder of the pin tool and disappear when the shoulder is polished. The "onion ring" structure seen in transverse cross sections is formed by parts of the "carousel", the zone of material adjacent to and rotating with the pin tool, that are shed off in each rotation. The relation between the carousel and the "ring vortex", a rotational flow extending both in and out of the carousel and resembling a smoke-ring with the hole centered on the pin tool, will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Childress, Stephen
1995-04-01
We formulate and study an elementary one-dimensional model mimicking some of the features of fluid turbulence. The underlying vorticity field corresponds to a parallel flow. Structure on all scales down to the numerical resolution is generated by the action of Baker's maps acting on the vorticity of the flow. These transformations conserve kinetic energy locally in the Euler model, while viscous diffusion of vorticity occurs in the Navier-Stokes case. We apply the model to the study of homogeneous fully developed turbulence, and to turbulent channel flow.
Investigation of large-scale features in turbulent duct flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, Henry; Monty, Jason; Hutchins, Nicholas; Chong, Min; Marusic, Ivan; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram
2008-11-01
Recent studies reveal that long low-speed meandering structures (referred to as ``superstructures'' or Very Large Scale Motions) exist in the log region of fully developed turbulent pipe and channel flows as well as the turbulent boundary layer. These studies have been carried out using hot-wire arrays which are physically limited in terms of wall proximity. Here we use an array of multiple wall skin friction sensors to study the ``footprint,'' that is, the influence of these large scale features at the wall. Hot-wire velocity profiles measured in conjunction with the multiple skin-friction sensor array are used to study the three dimensional coherence of the large scale structure and the ensemble averaged statistics. Experiments are carried out in fully developed turbulent pipe and channel flow facilities with a similar outer length scale (pipe radius, R = 49.4mm and channel half height, h = 50mm) enabling direct comparison of the flows at a matched Reynolds number.
Characterizing deformability and surface friction of cancer cells
Byun, Sangwon; Son, Sungmin; Amodei, Dario; Cermak, Nathan; Shaw, Josephine; Kang, Joon Ho; Hecht, Vivian C.; Winslow, Monte M.; Jacks, Tyler; Mallick, Parag; Manalis, Scott R.
2013-01-01
Metastasis requires the penetration of cancer cells through tight spaces, which is mediated by the physical properties of the cells as well as their interactions with the confined environment. Various microfluidic approaches have been devised to mimic traversal in vitro by measuring the time required for cells to pass through a constriction. Although a cells passage time is expected to depend on its deformability, measurements from existing approaches are confounded by a cell's size and its frictional properties with the channel wall. Here, we introduce a device that enables the precise measurement of (i) the size of a single cell, given by its buoyant mass, (ii) the velocity of the cell entering a constricted microchannel (entry velocity), and (iii) the velocity of the cell as it transits through the constriction (transit velocity). Changing the deformability of the cell by perturbing its cytoskeleton primarily alters the entry velocity, whereas changing the surface friction by immobilizing positive charges on the constriction's walls primarily alters the transit velocity, indicating that these parameters can give insight into the factors affecting the passage of each cell. When accounting for cell buoyant mass, we find that cells possessing higher metastatic potential exhibit faster entry velocities than cells with lower metastatic potential. We additionally find that some cell types with higher metastatic potential exhibit greater than expected changes in transit velocities, suggesting that not only the increased deformability but reduced friction may be a factor in enabling invasive cancer cells to efficiently squeeze through tight spaces. PMID:23610435
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick
2002-01-01
This research addresses turbulent gas flows laden with fine solid particles at sufficiently large mass loading that strong two-way coupling occurs. By two-way coupling we mean that the particle motion is governed largely by the flow, while the particles affect the gas-phase mean flow and the turbulence properties. Our main interest is in understanding how the particles affect the turbulence. Computational techniques have been developed which can accurately predict flows carrying particles that are much smaller than the smallest scales of turbulence. Also, advanced computational techniques and burgeoning computer resources make it feasible to fully resolve very large particles moving through turbulent flows. However, flows with particle diameters of the same order as the Kolmogorov scale of the turbulence are notoriously difficult to predict. Some simple flows show strong turbulence attenuation with reductions in the turbulent kinetic energy by up to a factor of five. On the other hand, some seemingly similar flows show almost no modification. No model has been proposed that allows prediction of when the strong attenuation will occur. Unfortunately, many technological and natural two-phase flows fall into this regime, so there is a strong need for new physical understanding and modeling capability. Our objective is to study the simplest possible turbulent particle-laden flow, namely homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with a uniform dispersion of monodisperse particles. We chose such a simple flow for two reasons. First, the simplicity allows us to probe the interaction in more detail and offers analytical simplicity in interpreting the results. Secondly, this flow can be addressed by numerical simulation, and many research groups are already working on calculating the flow. Our detailed data can help guide some of these efforts. By using microgravity, we can further simplify the flow to the case of no mean velocity for either the turbulence or the particles. In fact the addition of gravity as a variable parameter may help us to better understand the physics of turbulence attenuation. The experiments are conducted in a turbulence chamber capable of producing stationary or decaying isotropic turbulence with nearly zero mean flow and Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers up to nearly 500. The chamber is a 410 mm cubic box with the corners cut off to make it approximately spherical. Synthetic jet turbulence generators are mounted in each of the eight corners of the box. Each generator consists of a loudspeaker forcing a plenum and producing a pulsed jet through a 20 mm diameter orifice. These synthetic jets are directed into ejector tubes pointing towards the chamber center. The ejector tubes increase the jet mass flow and decrease the velocity. The jets then pass through a turbulence grid. Each of the eight loudspeakers is forced with a random phase and frequency. The resulting turbulence is highly Isotropic and matches typical behavior of grid turbulence. Measurements of both phases are acquired using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The gas is seeded with approximately 1 micron diameter seeding particles while the solid phase is typically 150 micron diameter spherical glass particles. A double-pulsed YAG laser and a Kodak ES-1.0 10-bit PIV camera provide the PIV images. Custom software is used to separate the images into individual images containing either gas-phase tracers or large particles. Modern high-resolution PIV algorithms are then used to calculate the velocity field. A large set of image pairs are acquired for each case, then the results are averaged both spatially and over the ensemble of acquired images. The entire apparatus is mounted in two racks which are carried aboard NASA's KC-135 Flying Microgravity Laboratory. The rack containing the turbulence chamber, the laser head, and the camera floats freely in the airplane cabin (constrained by competent NASA personnel) to minimize g-jitter.
Turbulence Effect of the Intergalactic Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, W. S.
2013-07-01
The turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and its impact on the clustering of baryonic matter are investigated with the cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in the ΛCDM framework. The observational tools that may be used to verify the possibility of the turbulence in the IGM are also discussed. A brief review of modern cosmology is given in chapter 1, mainly focusing on the dynamical equation of the scale factor -- Friedmann equation, and the theory background of the structure formation. Then the method of cosmological numerical simulation is introduced, as well as the cosmological hydrodynamic code WIGEON. After a short review of the turbulence in classic fluid mechanics, the IGM turbulence on large scales is investigated with simulations in chapter 2. The vorticity in the IGM velocity field significantly increases with time, as it can be effectively generated by shocks and complex structures. The vorticity field shows highly non-Gaussian and intermittent features. Its power spectrum is then used to measure the development of turbulence. The relation between the power spectra of vorticity and velocity indicates that the cosmic baryonic and velocity fields are in the state of fully developed turbulence within the scale range of 0.2h^{-1}˜ 3.0h^{-1} Mpc at z≈0. The dynamical effect of the IGM turbulence on the baryon clustering is studied in chapter 3. The random motion of the turbulent fluid yields non-thermal turbulent pressure, which would enlarge the Jeans length, and hence delay and partly prevent the IGM from falling into the gravitational well of dark matter halos. Consequently, the baryon fraction f_{b} will deviate from its cosmic mean f_{b}^{cosmic}, and become highly nonuniform on the scales from a few hundred kpc to several Mpc, varying from as low as 1% to a few times of f_{b}^{cosmic}. The turbulence pressure in the IGM is weakly scale-dependent, and comparable to the gravitational energy density of the halos with masses of approximate 10^{11}h^{-1} M_{⊙}. f_{b} decreases from 0.8f_{b}^{cosmic} in the halos with masses of approximate 10^{12}h^{-1} M_{⊙} to 0.3f_{b}^{cosmic} in the halos with masses of approximate 10^{11}h^{-1} M_{⊙}, and shows further decrease when the halo mass is under 10^{11}h^{-1} M_{⊙}. The trend is similar to the observations, although the simulated f_{b} in halos is higher than the observed value by a factor of 2˜4. The turbulence of the IGM should be an important dynamical factor leading to the remarkable missing of the baryonic matter in the halos with masses of less than 10^{12}h^{-1} M_{⊙}. The IGM turbulence may introduce uncertainties to the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect and the Lyman alpha forest, and in turn could be constrained by future observations, which are discussed in chapter 4. The kSZ effect is sensitive to the curl component of the motions of the IGM. The structure functions of 2D simulated kSZ maps show strong intermittence, and the intermittent exponents follow a law similar to the She-Leveque scaling of fully developed turbulence. On the other hand, the intermittence is weak in the maps of thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. Nevertheless, the superposition of the kSZ and tSZ effects still contains significant intermittence. The turbulent behavior of the IGM may be revealed by the observation of the SZ effect on angular scales equal to or less than 0.5'. The main results in this thesis are summarized in chapter 5, where future works are also discussed.
Rolling friction and energy dissipation in a spinning disc
Ma, Daolin; Liu, Caishan; Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Hongjian
2014-01-01
This paper presents the results of both experimental and theoretical investigations for the dynamics of a steel disc spinning on a horizontal rough surface. With a pair of high-speed cameras, a stereoscopic vision method is adopted to perform omnidirectional measurements for the temporal evolution of the disc's motion. The experiment data allow us to detail the dynamics of the disc, and consequently to quantify its energy. From our experimental observations, it is confirmed that rolling friction is a primary factor responsible for the dissipation of the energy. Furthermore, a mathematical model, in which the rolling friction is characterized by a resistance torque proportional to the square of precession rate, is also proposed. By employing the model, we perform qualitative analysis and numerical simulations. Both of them provide results that precisely agree with our experimental findings. PMID:25197246
Threshold friction velocities for large pebble gravel beds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batt, R. G.; Peabody, S. A.
1999-10-01
Experiments have been performed in a high-speed wind tunnel to determine threshold friction velocities for the onset of continuous particle motion (the fluid threshold velocity per Bagnold [1941]) for two types of gravel soil beds. The 50% finer-by-weight particle diameter ? for the fine gravel sample was 6.35 mm and for the coarse gravel bed was 42 mm. Measured threshold friction velocities (u*t), as determined with rake-mounted Pitot-static probes, were 3.1 and 9.9 m/s for the fine and coarse gravel soils, respectively. Corresponding free-stream threshold velocities (u?t) were 41.8 and 94.3 m/s. Summarized results from the current measurements and other natural soil experiments [Gillette, 1978, 1988] vary approximately with the square root of particle diameter, in agreement with the prediction of Bagnold [1941] but exceed his results by a factor of 2-3.
Frictional wave dissipation on a remarkably rough reef
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monismith, Stephen G.; Rogers, Justin S.; Koweek, David; Dunbar, Robert B.
2015-05-01
We present a week of observations of wave dissipation on the south forereef of Palmyra Atoll. Using wave measurements made in 6.2 m and 11.2 m of water offshore of the surf zone, we computed energy fluxes and near-bottom velocity. Equating the divergence of the shoreward energy flux to its dissipation by bottom friction and parameterizating dissipation in terms of the root-mean-square velocity cubed, we find that the wave friction factor, fw, for this reef is 1.80 0.07, nearly an order of magnitude larger than values previously found for reefs. We attribute this remarkably high value of fw to the complex canopy structure of the reef, which we believe may be characteristic of healthy reefs. This suggests that healthy reefs with high coral cover may provide greater coastal protection than do degraded reefs with low coral cover.
Implementation of tactile feedback by modifying the perceived friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biet, M.; Giraud, F.; Lemaire-Semail, B.
2008-07-01
This paper describes implementation and initial evaluation of variable friction displays. We first analyse a device that comprises a stator of an ultrasonic motor supplied by only one channel. In this way, the stator does not induce any rotative movement but creates a slippery feeling on the stator's surface. Considering the range of frequency and amplitude needed to obtain this phenomenon, we interpret it as the squeeze film effect, which may be the dominant factor causing an impression of lubrication. This effect is thus able to decrease the friction coefficient between the fingertip and the stator as a function of the vibration amplitude. Moreover, if we add a position sensor, we can create a textured surface by generating alternatively sliding and braking sensations by tuning the vibration amplitude of the wave. Then, based on the principle of the first device, another device is proposed in order to enable a free exploration of the surface, according to ergonomic requirements.
Rolling friction and energy dissipation in a spinning disc.
Ma, Daolin; Liu, Caishan; Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Hongjian
2014-09-01
This paper presents the results of both experimental and theoretical investigations for the dynamics of a steel disc spinning on a horizontal rough surface. With a pair of high-speed cameras, a stereoscopic vision method is adopted to perform omnidirectional measurements for the temporal evolution of the disc's motion. The experiment data allow us to detail the dynamics of the disc, and consequently to quantify its energy. From our experimental observations, it is confirmed that rolling friction is a primary factor responsible for the dissipation of the energy. Furthermore, a mathematical model, in which the rolling friction is characterized by a resistance torque proportional to the square of precession rate, is also proposed. By employing the model, we perform qualitative analysis and numerical simulations. Both of them provide results that precisely agree with our experimental findings. PMID:25197246
Three measuring techniques for assessing the mean wall skin friction in wall-bounded flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanoun, E.-S.; Jehring, L.; Egbers, C.
2014-04-01
The present paper aims at evaluating the mean wall skin friction data in laminar and turbulent boundary layer flows obtained from two optical and one thermal measuring techniques, namely, laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA), oil-film interferometry (OFI), and surface hot-film anemometry (SHFA), respectively. A comparison among the three techniques is presented, indicating close agreement in the mean wall skin friction data obtained, directly, from both the OFI and the LDA near-wall mean velocity profiles. On the other hand, the SHFA, markedly, over estimates the mean wall skin friction by 3.5-11.7% when compared with both the LDA and the OFI data, depending on the thermal conductivity of the substrate and glue material, probe calibration, probe contamination, temperature drift and Reynolds number. Satisfactory agreement, however, is observed among all three measuring techniques at higher Reynolds numbers, Re x >106, and within ±5% with empirical relations extracted from the literature. In addition, accurate velocity data within the inertial sublayer obtained using the LDA supports the applicability of the Clauser method to evaluate the wall skin friction when appropriate values for the constants of the logarithmic line are utilized.
Numerical simulation of turbulent flow of hydraulic oil through 90 circular-sectional bend
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liwei; Gao, Dianrong; Zhang, Yigong
2012-09-01
Oil flow through pipe bends is found in many engineering applications. However, up to now, the studies of oil flow field in the pipe bend appear to be relatively sparse, although the oil flow field and the associated losses of pipe bend are very important in practice. In this paper, the relationships between the turbulent flow of hydraulic oil in a bend and the Reynolds number Re and the curvature ratio ? are studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A particular emphasis is put on hydraulic oil, which differs from air or water, flowing through 90 circular-sectional bend, with the purpose of determining the turbulent flow characteristics as well as losses. Three turbulence models, namely, RNG k- ? model, realizable k- ? model, and Reynolds stress model (RSM), are used respectively. The simulation results in the form of contour and vector plots for all the three turbulence models for pipe bends having curvature ratio of ? = 0.5, and the detailed pressure fields and total pressure losses for different Re and ? for RSM are presented. The RSM can predict the stronger secondary flow in the bend better than other models. As Re increases, the pressure gradient changes rapidly, and the pressure magnitude increases at inner and outer wall of the bend. When ? decreases, two transition points or transition zones of pressure gradient arise at inner wall, meanwhile, the transition point moves towards the inlet at outer wall of the bend. Owing to secondary flow, the total pressure loss factor k increases as the bend tightens, on the contrary, as Re increases, factor k decreases due to higher velocity heads, and the rapid change of pressure gradient on the surface of the bend leads to increasing of friction and separation effects, and magnified swirl intensity of secondary flow. A new mathematical model is proposed for predicting pressure loss in terms of Re and ? in order to provide support to the one-dimensional simulation software. The proposed research provides reference for the analysis of oil flow with higher Re in the large bends.
Effect of friction stir processing on the tribological performance of high carbon steel.
Aldajah, S. H.; Ajayi, O. O.; Fenske, G. R.; David, S.
2009-06-15
Friction stir processing (FSP) was applied to 1080 carbon steel as a means to enhance the near-surface material properties. The process transformed the original pearlite microstructure to martensite, resulting in significant increase in surface hardness. This surface hardening produced a significant benefit for friction and wear behavior of the steel as measured by unidirectional sliding ball-on-flat testing. Under dry sliding, FSP reduced friction coefficient by approximately 25% and wear rate by an order of magnitude. Under oil lubrication, FSP had only a marginal effect on friction, but it reduced wear rates by a factor of 4. The improvement in tribological performance of 1080 steel by FSP technique is attributed to reduced plasticity of the near-surface material during sliding contact
A review of the physics of ice surface friction and the development of ice skating.
Formenti, Federico
2014-01-01
Our walking and running movement patterns require friction between shoes and ground. The surface of ice is characterised by low friction in several naturally occurring conditions, and compromises our typical locomotion pattern. Ice skates take advantage of this slippery nature of ice; the first ice skates were made more than 4000 years ago, and afforded the development of a very efficient form of human locomotion. This review presents an overview of the physics of ice surface friction, and discusses the most relevant factors that can influence ice skates' dynamic friction coefficient. It also presents the main stages in the development of ice skating, describes the associated implications for exercise physiology, and shows the extent to which ice skating performance improved through history. This article illustrates how technical and materials' development, together with empirical understanding of muscle biomechanics and energetics, led to one of the fastest forms of human powered locomotion. PMID:24950115
Wear and friction of oxidation-resistant mechanical carbon graphites at 650 C in air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, G. P.; Wisnader, D. W.
1975-01-01
Studies were conducted to determine the friction and wear properties of experimental carbon-graphites. Hemispherically tipped carbon-graphite rider specimens were tested in sliding contact with rotating Inconel X-750 disks in air. A surface speed of 1.33 m/sec, a load of 500 g, and a specimen temperature of 650 C were used. Results indicate: (1) hardness is not a major factor in determining friction and wear under the conditions of these studies. (2) Friction and wear as low as or lower than those observed for a good commercial seal material were attained with some of the experimental materials studied. (3) The inclusion of boron carbide (as an oxidation inhibitor) has a strong influence on wear rate. (4) Phosphate treatment reduces the friction coefficient when boron carbide is not present in the base material.
Euler's friction of fluids theory and the estimation of fountain jet heights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bistafa, Sylvio R.
2015-09-01
In 1761, Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) published a treatise with the title "Attempt at a Theory of the Friction of Fluids", in which he assumed that, as is the case for solid friction, fluid friction is proportional to pressure. Several experiments were proposed by Euler to derive a friction factor, which were intended to experimentally confirm his equations. Detailed developments of five different problems of discharge were presented in his treatise, taking into account the loss of head in the conduits. In the Appendix, an example is given of the calculation of the jet heights of a particular fountain, fed with conduits of different cross-sectional areas. Application of the current method for the calculation of head losses in pipes reveals that Euler grossly overestimated the fountain jet heights.
Modeling of turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.
1992-01-01
The current progress is documented in the research and development of modeling techniques for turbulent shear flows. These include a two-scale model for compressible turbulent flows and a new energy transfer model. The former represents the status of the efforts to identify compressibility effects in turbulence. The energy transfer model refines a weakly nonlinear wave model developed earlier, which models directly the turbulent large structures. The objective of these activities is to develop second-order closures for compressible turbulent flows.
Frictional Behavior of Micro/nanotextured Surfaces Investigated by Atomic Force Microscope: a Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaoliang; Jia, Junhong
2015-08-01
Tribological issues between friction pair are fundamental problems for minimized devices because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio. Micro/nanotexturing is an effective technique to reduce actual contact area between contact pair at the nanoscale. Micro/nanotexture made a great impact on the frictional behavior of textured surfaces. This paper summarizes the recent advancements in the field of frictional behavior of micro/nanotextured surfaces, which are based on solid surface contact in atmosphere environment, especially focusing on the factors influencing the frictional behavior: Surface property, texturing density, texturing height, texturing structure and size of contact pair (atomic force microscope (AFM) tip) and texturing structures. Summarizing the effects of these factors on the frictional behavior is helpful for the understanding and designing of the surfaces in sliding micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). Controlling and reducing the friction force in moving mechanical systems is very important for the performance and reliability of nanosystems, which contribute to a sustainable future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Shuguang; Zhou, Y. C.; Wei, G. W.; Lai, C.-H.
2003-03-01
This paper investigates the viability and effectiveness of using a technique developed for low-dimensional chaotic systems to control flow turbulence governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. By using a global pinning coupling strategy, we show that turbulence can be controlled to desirable time-varying target states, including a spatially extended periodic state and a turbulent one. Exponential convergence to the target state is found and the exponential rate scales linearly to the coupling strength. The linear scaling law breaks down when localized pinning control is applied. A wavelet multiscale technique is utilized for the characterization of both the effectiveness of the present control strategy and the inverse energy transfer in two-dimensional turbulence.
Stochastic geometry of turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falkovich, Gregory
2012-02-01
Geometric statistics open the window into the most fundamental aspect of turbulence flows, their symmetries, both broken and emerging. On one hand, the study of the stochastic geometry of multi-point configurations reveals the statistical conservation laws which are responsible for the breakdown of scale invariance in direct turbulence cascades. On the other hand, the numerical and experimental studies of inverse cascade reveal that some families of isolines can be mapped to a Brownian walk (i.e. belong to the so-called SLE class) and are thus not only scale invariant but conformally invariant. That means that some aspects of turbulence statistics can be probably described by a conformal field theory. The talk is a review of broken and emerging symmetries in turbulence statistics.
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-01-01
One of the longest standing unsolved problems in physics relates to the behavior of fluids that are driven far from equilibrium such as occurs when they become turbulent due to fast flow through a grid or tidal motions. In turbulent flows the distribution of vortex energy as a function of the inverse length scale [or wavenumber 'k'] of motion is proportional to 1/k(sup 5/3) which is the celebrated law of Kolmogorov. Although this law gives a good description of the average motion, fluctuations around the average are huge. This stands in contrast with thermally activated motion where large fluctuations around thermal equilibrium are highly unfavorable. The problem of turbulence is the problem of understanding why large fluctuations are so prevalent which is also called the problem of 'intermittency'. Turbulence is a remarkable problem in that its solution sits simultaneously at the forefront of physics, mathematics, engineering and computer science. A recent conference [March 2002] on 'Statistical Hydrodynamics' organized by the Los Alamos Laboratory Center for Nonlinear Studies brought together researchers in all of these fields. Although turbulence is generally thought to be described by the Navier-Stokes Equations of fluid mechanics the solution as well as its existence has eluded researchers for over 100 years. In fact proof of the existence of such a solution qualifies for a 1 M$ millennium prize. As part of our NASA funded research we have proposed building a bridge between vortex turbulence and wave turbulence. The latter occurs when high amplitude waves of various wavelengths are allowed to mutually interact in a fluid. In particular we have proposed measuring the interaction of ripples [capillary waves] that run around on the surface of a fluid sphere suspended in a microgravity environment. The problem of ripple turbulence poses similar mathematical challenges to the problem of vortex turbulence. The waves can have a high amplitude and a strong nonlinear interaction. Furthermore, the steady state distribution of energy again follows a Kolmogorov scaling law; in this case the ripple energy is distributed according to 1/k (sup 7/4). Again, in parallel with vortex turbulence ripple turbulence exhibits intermittency. The problem of ripple turbulence presents an experimental opportunity to generate data in a controlled, benchmarked system. In particular the surface of a sphere is an ideal environment to study ripple turbulence. Waves run around the sphere and interact with each other, and the effect of walls is eliminated. In microgravity this state can be realized for over 2 decades of frequency. Wave turbulence is a physically relevant problem in its own right. It has been studied on the surface of liquid hydrogen and its application to Alfven waves in space is a source of debate. Of course, application of wave turbulence perspectives to ocean waves has been a major success. The experiment which we plan to run in microgravity is conceptually straightforward. Ripples are excited on the surface of a spherical drop of fluid and then their amplitude is recorded with appropriate photography. A key challenge is posed by the need to stably position a 10cm diameter sphere of water in microgravity. Two methods are being developed. Orbitec is using controlled puffs of air from at least 6 independent directions to provided the positioning force. This approach has actually succeeded to position and stabilize a 4cm sphere during a KC 135 segment. Guigne International is using the radiation pressure of high frequency sound. These transducers have been organized into a device in the shape of a dodecahedron. This apparatus 'SPACE DRUMS' has already been approved for use for combustion synthesis experiments on the International Space Station. A key opportunity presented by the ripple turbulence data is its use in driving the development of codes to simulate its properties.
Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa L; Plourabou, Franck
2015-09-01
Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small-scale turbulence arising where viscous effects are dominant. We report the first observation of universal enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k^{-3} power-law decay of a velocity field power spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in 2D turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures of a size that provides an integral scale of turbulence. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-2D turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interactions and alignment, a state of active matter that we call "swarming liquid crystal." We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation. PMID:26465513
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa L.; Plouraboué, Franck
2015-09-01
Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small-scale turbulence arising where viscous effects are dominant. We report the first observation of universal enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of a velocity field power spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in 2D turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures of a size that provides an integral scale of turbulence. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-2D turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interactions and alignment, a state of active matter that we call "swarming liquid crystal." We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation.
Horton, W.; Kim, J.-H.; Asp, E.; Hoang, T.
2008-05-14
Drift waves occur universally in magnetized plasmas producing the dominant mechanism for transport of particles, energy and momentum across magnetic field lines. A wealth of information obtained from laboratory experiments for plasma confinement is reviewed for drift waves driven unstable by density gradients, temperature gradients and trapped particle effects. The modern understanding of origin of the scaling laws for Bohm and gyro-Bohm transport fluxes is discussed. The role of sheared flows and magnetic shear in reducing the transport fluxes is discussed and illustrated with large scale computer simulations. Plasmas turbulence models are derived with reduced magnetized fluid descriptions. The types of theoretical descriptions reviewed include weak turbulence theory and anisotropic Kolmogorov-like spectral indices, and the mixing length. A number of standard turbulent diffusivity formulas are given for the various space-time scales of the drift-wave turbulent mixing.
Friction of Compression-ignition Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H , Jr
1936-01-01
The cost in mean effective pressure of generating air flow in the combustion chambers of single-cylinder compression-ignition engines was determined for the prechamber and the displaced-piston types of combustion chamber. For each type a wide range of air-flow quantities, speeds, and boost pressures was investigated. Supplementary tests were made to determine the effect of lubricating-oil temperature, cooling-water temperature, and compression ratio on the friction mean effective pressure of the single-cylinder test engine. Friction curves are included for two 9-cylinder, radial, compression-ignition aircraft engines. The results indicate that generating the optimum forced air flow increased the motoring losses approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure regardless of chamber type or engine speed. With a given type of chamber, the rate of increase in friction mean effective pressure with engine speed is independent of the air-flow speed. The effect of boost pressure on the friction cannot be predicted because the friction was decreased, unchanged, or increased depending on the combustion-chamber type and design details. High compression ratio accounts for approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure of the friction of these single-cylinder compression-ignition engines. The single-cylinder test engines used in this investigation had a much higher friction mean effective pressure than conventional aircraft engines or than the 9-cylinder, radial, compression-ignition engines tested so that performance should be compared on an indicated basis.
PV dynamics: The role of small-scale turbulence, submesoscales and mesoscales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canuto, V. M.
2015-10-01
The diabatic and frictional components of the PV fluxes J in the Haynes-McIntyre conservation law have been studied with physical arguments, scaling laws and numerical simulations. We suggest a procedure that expresses J in terms of buoyancy and momentum fluxes by small-scale turbulence SS, submesoscales SM and mesoscales M. We employ the latest parameterizations of these processes and derive analytic expressions of the diabatic and frictional J fluxes for arbitrary wind stresses; we then consider the case of an Ekman flow. Small-scale turbulence: at z=0, down and up-front winds contribute equally to the frictional component of J while the diabatic component is much larger than that of mesoscales. Submesoscales: the geostrophic contributions to both diabatic and frictional J have the same sign while the wind contributions have opposite signs. Their magnitude depends on the SM kinetic energy which is derived in terms of large-scale parameters. Comparison with numerical simulations is limited since the ones available resolve M but not SM. They concluded that the field patterns of the J fluxes are very similar to those obtained without resolving M, in agreement with the present analysis; a second conclusion that the diabatic component of J is an order of magnitude larger than the frictional one, is also in accordance with present results. When wind stresses are accounted for, down-front winds lower PV and up-front winds increase it. The changes in Hoskins' criterion for the onset of symmetric instabilities are discussed.
Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in the throttle of the MBIR reactor's low-pressure chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarunichev, V. A.; Orlova, E. E.; Lemekhov, Yu. V.; Shpanskii, V. A.
2015-08-01
This work in devoted to numerical calculation of turbulent flow in a labyrinth-type throttle. A system of such throttles is installed at the inlet to the MBIR reactor's low-pressure chamber and serves for setting up the required pressure difference and coolant flow rate. MBIR is a multipurpose fourthgeneration fast-neutron research reactor intended for investigating new kinds of nuclear fuel, structural materials, and coolants. The aim of this work is to develop a verified procedure for carrying out 3D calculation of the throttle using CFD modeling techniques. The investigations on determining the throttle hydraulic friction coefficient were carried out in the range of Reynolds numbers Re = 52000-136000. The reactor coolant (liquid sodium) was modeled by tap water. The calculations were carried out using high-Reynolds-number turbulence models with the near-wall functions k-ɛ and RNG k-ɛ, where k is the turbulent pulsation kinetic energy and ɛ is the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate. The obtained results have shown that the calculated value of hydraulic friction coefficient differs from its experimental value by no more than 10%. The developed procedure can be applied in determining the hydraulic friction coefficient of a modified labyrinth throttle design. The use of such calculation will make it possible to predict an experiment with the preset accuracy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahm, W. K.; Delgrego, D. J.; Goldstein, I.; Huffaker, R. M.; Jelalian, A. V.; Keene, W. H.; Miles, P. A.; Sonnenschein, C. M. (inventors)
1974-01-01
A system to be employed by an aircraft for the detection of clear air turbulence is described. The system employs a laser light beam which is directed ahead of the aircraft along the flight path. The portion of the light reflected back to the aircraft by atmospheric aerosol is detected and analyzed for Doppler shift. The velocity and intensity of the turbulence is determined by the type and amount of the light reflected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsubota, Makoto
2014-02-01
This paper reviews briefly the recent important developments in the physics of quantum turbulence (QT) in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). After giving the basics of quantum hydrodynamics, we discuss energy spectrum, QT created by vibrating structures, and visualization among the topics on superfluid helium. For atomic BECs we review three-dimensional QT, two-component BECs, and spin turbulence in spinor BECs. The last part is devoted to some perspectives of this issue.
Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component
Eltsov, Vladimir; Hnninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti
2014-01-01
In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid 3He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures. PMID:24704879
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ben-Tsur, Dalia
2007-01-01
This study examines the impact of a country's security unrest on student retention. It draws on the key factors that influence retention worldwide, adopts Bourdieu's notion of cultural capital and also brings in concepts related to terrorism and security unrest traditionally absent from theories on student retention. Based on a case study carried
Visualization of plasma turbulence with laser-induced fluorescence (invited)
Levinton, Fred M.; Trintchouk, Fedor
2001-01-01
Turbulence is a key factor limiting the performance of fusion devices. Plasma edge turbulence determines the boundary values of the plasma density and temperature, which in turn determine the internal gradients and controls global plasma transport. In recent years, significant progress has been made in modeling turbulence behavior in plasmas and its effect on transport. Progress has also been made in diagnostics for turbulence measurement; however, there is still a large gap in our understanding of it. An approach to improve this situation is to experimentally visualize the turbulence, that is, a high resolution 2-D image of the plasma density. Visualization of turbulence can improve the connection to theory and help validate theoretical models. One method that has been successfully developed to visualize turbulence in gases and fluids is planar laser-induced fluorescence. We have recently applied this technique to visualize turbulence and structures in a plasma. This was accomplished using an Alexandrite laser that is tunable between 700 and 800 nm, and from 350 to 400 nm with second harmonic generation. The fluorescence light from an argon ion transition has been imaged onto an intensified charged coupled device camera that is gated in synchronization with the laser. Images from the plasma show a rotating structure at 30 kHz in addition to small scale turbulence.
TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS
Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao
2015-02-01
The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation.
Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1992-01-01
Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.
Comments on Static vs Kinetic Friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kessler, Gabriel
2009-09-01
I'm writing to comment on the article published in the March edition of The Physics Teacher titled "Choose Wisely: Static or Kinetic FrictionThe Power of Dimensionless Plots." As I was reading the article, something caught my eye that I couldn't reconcile with. It was the phrase on page 160 in the first column near the bottom. The statement was that the experimental value for the coefficient of kinetic friction was "unexpectedly greater than the coefficient of static friction!"
Frictional effects near a metal surface.
Dou, Wenjie; Nitzan, Abraham; Subotnik, Joseph E
2015-08-01
When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer's theory) as a function of frictional damping. PMID:26254638
NASA tire/runway friction projects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yager, Thomas J.
1995-01-01
The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.
Simple model of microscopic rolling friction.
Braun, O M
2005-09-16
Rolling friction at a microscopic scale is studied with the help of a simple two-dimensional model. Molecular dynamics simulations show that rolling of spherical lubricant molecules exists only for concentrations lower than the concentration of a close-packed layer. At concentrations higher than a critical one due to jamming of lubricant molecules the rolling of nearest neighboring molecules is hindered. An optimal concentration exists which provides the minimum of kinetic friction. Methods for avoiding jamming and increasing the range of operation of rolling mechanism of friction are discussed. PMID:16197089
Chemical reaction rates and solvent friction
Hynes, J.T.
1986-01-01
The role of the dynamic solvent friction in influencing the rates of chemical reactions in solution is described. Features considered include (a) the bias of the reaction coordinate toward a direction of lesser friction in the diffusive limit, (b) the importance of frequency-dependent friction in atom transfers, tunneling reactions and isomerizations, (c) the dynamic nonequilibrium solvation in charge transfers which leads to a polar solvent molecule reorientation time dependence for the rate, and (d) the importance of internal degrees of freedom in the location of the Kramers turnover for isomerizations.
Entropy production in irreversible processes with friction.
Bizarro, Joo P S
2008-08-01
Established expressions for entropy production in irreversible processes are generalized to include friction explicitly, as a source of irreversibility in the interaction between a system and its surroundings. The net amount of heat delivered to the system does not come now only from the reservoir, but may have an additional component coming from the work done against friction forces and dissipated as heat. To avoid ambiguities in interpreting the different contributions to entropy increase, the latter is also written in terms of the heat directly exchanged between the system and surroundings and of the fraction of frictional work that is lost in the system. PMID:18850816
Skin friction measuring device for aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montoya, L. C.; Bellman, D. R. (inventors)
1980-01-01
A skin friction measuring device for measuring the resistance of an aerodynamic surface to an airstream is described. It was adapted to be mounted on an aircraft and is characterized by a friction plate adapted to be disposed in a flush relationship with the external surface of the aircraft and be displaced in response to skin friction drag. As an airstream is caused to flow over the surface, a potentiometer connected to the plate for providing an electrical output indicates the magnitude of the drag.
Frictional effects near a metal surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dou, Wenjie; Nitzan, Abraham; Subotnik, Joseph E.
2015-08-01
When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer's theory) as a function of frictional damping.
Lateral-deflection-controlled friction force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuzawa, Kenji; Hamaoka, Satoshi; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Shintaro; Zhang, Hedong
2014-08-01
Lateral-deflection-controlled dual-axis friction force microscopy (FFM) is presented. In this method, an electrostatic force generated with a probe-incorporated micro-actuator compensates for friction force in real time during probe scanning using feedback control. This equivalently large rigidity can eliminate apparent boundary width and lateral snap-in, which are caused by lateral probe deflection. The method can evolve FFM as a method for quantifying local frictional properties on the micro/nanometer-scale by overcoming essential problems to dual-axis FFM.
Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.
2009-06-01
The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient ? when ?<1.
Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the ability of a generalized EDQNM (Eddy Damped Quasi-Normal Markovian) model to predict the underlying spectral transfer structure and all the subsequent developments of classic anisotropy indicators in physical space, when compared to recent LES results. Even if the applications mainly concern developed strong turbulence, a particular emphasis is given to the strong formal analogy of this EDQNM2 model with recent weakly nonlinear approaches to wave-turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, John R.
1996-01-01
The ability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes method, PAB3D, to simulate the effect of Reynolds number variation using non-linear explicit algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence modeling was assessed. Subsonic flat plate boundary-layer flow parameters such as normalized velocity distributions, local and average skin friction, and shape factor were compared with DNS calculations and classical theory at various local Reynolds numbers up to 180 million. Additionally, surface pressure coefficient distributions and integrated drag predictions on an axisymmetric nozzle afterbody were compared with experimental data from 10 to 130 million Reynolds number. The high Reynolds data was obtained from the NASA Langley 0.3m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. There was generally good agreement of surface static pressure coefficients between the CFD and measurement. The change in pressure coefficient distributions with varying Reynolds number was similar to the experimental data trends, though slightly over-predicting the effect. The computational sensitivity of viscous modeling and turbulence modeling are shown. Integrated afterbody pressure drag was typically slightly lower than the experimental data. The change in afterbody pressure drag with Reynolds number was small both experimentally and computationally, even though the shape of the distribution was somewhat modified with Reynolds number.
Frictional strength evolution during earthquake-like shear experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Zonghu; Reches, Zeev; Chang, Jefferson
2014-05-01
We experimentally investigated two central factors of fault frictional strength: 1) the effect of loading style on the friction constitutive relations; and (2) the suitable parameters to represent the constitutive relations. We present a series of 42 experiments conducted on granite samples sheared in a high-velocity rotary apparatus. Three modes of velocity history were applied: (a) constant velocity mode; (b) ramp-mode in which the sample is subjected to continuous, gentle acceleration followed by a similar rate of deceleration; and (c) quake-mode in which the sample is initially subjected to intense acceleration that is followed by a gentle deceleration. In the 34 runs of constant velocity, the velocity was 0.0006-0.23 m/s, and the normal stresses 1.5-11 MPa. In the four runs of ramp-mode, the maximum velocity range was 0.7- 1.0 m/s, and normal stress 2.2 - 2.6 MPa. The third set of four quake-mode experiments, the maximum velocity was = 0.79-0.94 m/s, and normal stress 2.2 MPa. The steady-state friction coefficients of the constant velocity runs are related to both slip-velocity and normal stress, and thus the constitutive relations are presented with respect to mechanical power-density: PD= [shear stress x slip velocity], with units of power per area (MW/m2). The experimental constitutive relations strongly depend on the loading mode. Constant velocity mode displays initial weakening with increasing PD that is followed by strengthening for PD = 0.02-0.5 MW/m2, and abrupt weakening at PD > 0.5 MW/m2. Both ramp and quake modes display gentle strengthening for PD < 0.2 MW/m2 that is followed by abrupt weakening as PD reaches 0.7-0.8 MW/m2. Beyond this level of power-density, the two loading modes diverge: in quake-mode the experimental fault continues to weaken with friction coefficient approaching 0.2, whereas in ramp-mode the fault strengthens with friction coefficient approaching 1.0. This strong dependency of the friction constitutive relations on the loading mode is not unique to the present experiments (e.g., Sone and Shimamoto, 2009; Chang et al., 2012). The evolution of slip-velocity and fault weakening during runs of quake-mode is similar to the expected evolution of a slip-pulse during natural earthquakes (Heaton, 1990). We thus propose that quake-mode loading is a promising experimental approach to capture the dynamic response of a fault patch during earthquakes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yazhou; Jiang, Man; Xu, Jie; Ma, Yunhai; Tong, Jin
2012-04-01
In this work, the uniform design method was applied to arrange the experimental scheme for optimizing formulation of friction materials. The friction and wear of the friction materials based on the optimized formulation was carried out on a constant speed friction tester (JF150D-II), using pad-on-disc contact mode against gray cast iron disc. The worn surfaces of the friction materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (JSM5310) and the friction mechanism was discussed. The results showed that the uniform design method was appropriate for finding the optimum formulation of the friction materials with better properties. Compared with two conventional friction materials, the friction materials based on the optimized formulation possessed higher and stable friction coefficient and higher wear resistance, even at the disc temperature of 350C. The adhesion, strain fatigue and abrasive wear were the main wear mechanisms of the friction materials. Tribo-chemical phenomenon and plastic deformation existed on the worn surface layer.
Manipulation of the structure of a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lynn, Theodore Brooks
The manipulation of a turbulent boundary layer for the purpose of net drag reduction is an attractive topic for research, because even modest success will result in large energy savings. The focus is on passive manipulation, one of the simplest manipulation techniques. The most promising manipulator is the so-called BLADE device, consisting of two thin ribbons or foils suspended in the outer portion of the boundary layer. When the research was begun, there was significant controversy over the magnitude of the net drag reduction possible (20 percent) and the maximum skin friction reduction obtainable (50 percent). Accurate local skin-friction measurements were made using sublayer fences in a perturbed boundary layer. By comparing the direct measurements with those obtained by indirect methods, it was determined that the degree of drag reduction obtained depends on the method used to calculate the combined device drag and skin friction drag. Using auto and two-point correlation measurements as well as space-time correlations, the effects of BLADE were investigated on the turbulent structures in the boundary layer, comparing them with wire devices, which are not known to produce a net reduction in drag. The space-time correlation revealed that the most significant effect of the BLADE device was on the large structures (the dominant structures in the outer region of the boundary layer). The inner layer devices consisting of sublayer wires were also investigated. The results from both the inner and outer layer manipulations suggest that the effective alteration of a turbulent boundary layer depends on the scaling of the device.