Power law and composite power law friction factor correlations for laminar and turbulent gasliquid
Joseph, Daniel D.
are usually expressed as friction factors. The relation between pressure gradient and mass flux is expressedPower law and composite power law friction factor correlations for laminar and turbulent gas oil are compiled and processed for power law and composite power law friction factor correlations
Friction factor for turbulent flow in rough pipes from Heisenberg's closure hypothesis
Esteban Calzetta
2009-04-17
We show that the main results of the analysis of the friction factor for turbulent pipe flow reported in G. Gioia and P. Chakraborty (GC), Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 044502 (1996) can be recovered by assuming the Heisenberg closure hypothesis for the turbulent spectrum. This highlights the structural features of the turbulent spectrum underlying GC's analysis.
Effect of Weissenberg number on turbulent heat transfer and friction factor of viscoelastic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwack, E. Y.
The effect of the elasticity of viscoelastic fluids on heat transfer and drag reduction behavior was investigated with aqueous polyacrylamide solutions flowing turbulently in circular pipes. A new dimensionless number called the Weissenberg number was used to account for the elasticity of the fluid. It was found that the fully established friction factor and dimensionless heat transfer coefficient, decrease with increasing Weissenberg number for a fixed Reynolds number up to certain critical Weissenberg numbers for friction and for heat transfer which are 5 to 10 and 200 to 250 respectively. The Powell-Eyring model was used to calculate the characteristic time of each test fluid for determining the Weissenberg number. The influence of polymer concentration, fluid degradation, pipe diameter and solvent chemistry on the behavior of friction and heat transfer of viscoelastic fluids was found to be adequately accounted for in the Weissenberg and Reynolds numbers.
The friction factor of two-dimensional rough-boundary turbulent soap film flows
Nicholas Guttenberg; Nigel Goldenfeld
2009-03-25
We use momentum transfer arguments to predict the friction factor $f$ in two-dimensional turbulent soap-film flows with rough boundaries (an analogue of three-dimensional pipe flow) as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness $r$, considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of $f\\propto\\textrm{Re}^{-1/2}$ in flows dominated by the enstrophy cascade, distinct from the energy cascade scaling of $\\textrm{Re}^{-1/4}$. For large Re, $f \\sim r$ in the enstrophy-dominated case. We use conformal map techniques to perform direct numerical simulations that are in satisfactory agreement with theory, and exhibit data collapse scaling of roughness-induced criticality, previously shown to arise in the 3D pipe data of Nikuradse.
Friction factor correlations for laminar, transition and turbulent flow in smooth pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joseph, Daniel D.; Yang, Bobby H.
2010-07-01
In this paper we derive an accurate composite friction factor vs. Reynolds number correlation formula for laminar, transition and turbulent flow in smooth pipes. The correlation is given as a rational fraction of rational fractions of power laws which is systematically generated by smoothly connecting linear splines in log-log coordinates with a logistic dose curve algorithm. This kind of correlation seeks the most accurate representation of the data independent of any input from theories arising from the researchers’ ideas about the underlying fluid mechanics. As such, these correlations provide an objective metric against which observations and other theoretical correlations may be applied. Our correlation is as accurate, or more accurate, than other correlations in the range of Reynolds numbers in which the correlations overlap. However, our formula is not restricted to certain ranges of Reynolds numbers but instead applies uniformly to all smooth pipe flow data for which data is available. The properties of the classical logistic dose response curve are reviewed and extended to problems described by multiple branches of power laws. This extended method of fitting which leads to rational fractions of power laws is applied to data of Marusic and Perry (1995) [1] for the velocity profile in a boundary layer on a flat plate with an adverse pressure gradient, to data of Nikuradse (1932) [2] and McKeon et al. (2004) [3] on friction factors for flow in smooth pipes and to the data of Nikuradse [4] for effectively smooth pipes.
Wave friction factor rediscovered
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Roux, J. P.
2012-02-01
The wave friction factor is commonly expressed as a function of the horizontal water particle semi-excursion ( A wb) at the top of the boundary layer. A wb, in turn, is normally derived from linear wave theory by {{U_{{wb}}/T_{{w}}}}{{2? }} , where U wb is the maximum water particle velocity measured at the top of the boundary layer and T w is the wave period. However, it is shown here that A wb determined in this way deviates drastically from its real value under both linear and non-linear waves. Three equations for smooth, transitional and rough boundary conditions, respectively, are proposed to solve this problem, all three being a function of U wb, T w, and ?, the thickness of the boundary layer. Because these variables can be determined theoretically for any bottom slope and water depth using the deepwater wave conditions, there is no need to physically measure them. Although differing substantially from many modern attempts to define the wave friction factor, the results coincide with equations proposed in the 1960s for either smooth or rough boundary conditions. The findings also confirm that the long-held notion of circular water particle motion down to the bottom in deepwater conditions is erroneous, the motion in fact being circular at the surface and elliptical at depth in both deep and shallow water conditions, with only horizontal motion at the top of the boundary layer. The new equations are incorporated in an updated version (WAVECALC II) of the Excel program published earlier in this journal by Le Roux et al. Geo-Mar Lett 30(5): 549-560, (2010).
Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reichardt, H.
1943-01-01
The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material values on the flow near the wall is briefly analyzed. It was found that the velocity at the laminar boundary (in contrast to the thickness of the laminar layer) is approximately independent of the temperature distribution. The temperature gradient at the wall and the distribution of temperature and heat flow in the turbulent friction layers were calculated on the basis of the data under two equations. The derived formulas and the figures reveal the effects of the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the exchange quantities and the temperature relationship of the material values.
Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence
Protas, Bartosz
Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence Thomas R. Bewley and Bartosz Protas Flow measurements are made of the two components of wall skin friction and the wall pressure, all terms the linear setting, this determination may be made based on skin friction measurements alone). Combining
Battisti, L; Baggio, P
2001-05-01
In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics. PMID:11460662
Dimant, Y S
2011-01-01
Global magnetospheric MHD codes using ionospheric conductances based on laminar models systematically overestimate the cross-polar cap potential during storm time by up to a factor of two. At these times, strong DC electric fields penetrate to the E region and drive plasma instabilities that create turbulence. This plasma density turbulence induces non-linear currents, while associated electrostatic field fluctuations result in strong anomalous electron heating. These two effects will increase the global ionospheric conductance. Based on the theory of non-linear currents developed in the companion paper, this paper derives the correction factors describing turbulent conductivities and calculates turbulent frictional heating rates. Estimates show that during strong geomagnetic storms the inclusion of anomalous conductivity can double the total Pedersen conductance. This may help explain the overestimation of the cross-polar cap potentials by existing MHD codes. The turbulent conductivities and frictional heati...
Prediction of friction and heat transfer for viscoelastic fluids in turbulent pipe flow
Hartnett, J.P.; Kwack, E.Y.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Cezairliyan, A.
1986-01-01
Experimental measurements of the friction factor and the dimensionless heattransfer j-factor were carried out for the turbulent pipe flow of viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacrylamide. The studies covered a wide range of variables including polymer concentration, polymer and solvent chemistry, pipe diameter, and flow rate. Degradation effects were also studied. It is concluded that the friction factor and the dimensionless heat transfer are functions only of the Reynolds number, the Weissenberg number, and the dimensionless distance, provided that the rheology of the flowing fluid is used.
Prediction of friction and heat transfer for viscoelastic fluids in turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnett, J. P.; Kwack, E. Y.
1986-01-01
Experimental measurements of the friction factor and the dimensionless heat-transfer j-factor were carried out for the turbulent pipe flow of viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacrylamide. The studies covered a wide range of variables including polymer concentration, polymer and solvent chemistry, pipe diameter, and flow rate. Degradation effects were also studied. It is concluded that the friction factor and the dimensionless heat transfer are functions only of the Reynolds number, the Weissenberg number, and the dimensionless distance, provided that the rheology of the flowing fluid is used.
Predicting friction factor in herbaceous emergent wetlands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wynn-Thompson, T.; Hall, K.
2012-12-01
Over 53% of all wetlands in the US have been lost since the mid-1780s; to counteract wetland losses, wetland land area is being replaced through wetland restoration and mitigation. Development of the target wetland hydroperiod is critical to restoration success. For wetlands in which outflow is a component of the water budget, such as in riparian wetlands, surface water stage is controlled all or in part by the hydraulic resistance within the wetland, requiring accurate simulation of hydraulic resistance due to vegetation. Hydraulic models that consider vegetation rely on an accurate determination of a resistance parameter such as a friction factor or drag coefficient. At low Reynolds numbers typical of flows in wetlands, hydraulic resistance is orders of magnitude higher than fully turbulent flows and resistance parameters are functions of the flow regime as well as the vegetation density and structure. The exact relationship between hydraulic resistance, flow regime, and vegetation properties at the low-Reynolds number flows remains unclear. Prior research has typically involved laboratory studies of flow through idealized, individual stems. However, emergent wetland vegetation frequently grows as clumps. The goals of this research were to investigate the effect of clumping vegetation on flow resistance and to develop a prediction equation for use in wetland design. A 6-m by 1-m by 0.4-m recirculating flume was planted with mature common rush, Juncus effusus, a common emergent wetland plant. Three different flow rates (3, 4, and 5 L/s) and three different tailgate heights (0, 2.5, and 5 cm) were used to simulate a range of flow conditions. Plant spacing and clump diameter were varied (20 and 25 cm, 8 and 12 cm, respectively). Friction factors ranged from 9 to 40 and decreased with increasing plant density. Non-dimensional parameters determined through Buckingham Pi analysis were used in a regression analysis to develop a prediction model. Results of the regression analysis showed that the fraction of vegetated occupied area was most significant factor in determining friction factor.
Tidal friction in rotating turbulent convectivestellar and planetary regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathis, S.; Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Guenel, M.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
2014-12-01
Turbulent friction in stellar and planetary convection zones is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the dissipation of the kinetic energy of tidal flows in stars and planets hosting companions. This friction acting both on the equilibrium tide and on tidal inertial waves thus deeply impacts the dynamics of the spin of the host star/planet and the orbital architecture of the surrounding system. It is thus very important to obtain robust prescription for this friction. In the current state-of-the-art, it is modeled by a turbulent viscosity coefficient using mixing-length theory. However, none of the existing prescriptions take into account the action of the possibly rapid rotation that strongly affects convective flows. In this work, we propose such a new prescription that takes into account rotation and discuss the possible implication for tidal dissipation in rotating stars and planets.
THEORETICAL SKIN-FRICTION LAW IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER A. CHESKIDOV
Cheskidov, Alexey
THEORETICAL SKIN-FRICTION LAW IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER A. CHESKIDOV ABSTRACT. We study of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce-stream turbulence intensity, while one-parameter family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient
Compliant wall-turbulent skin-friction reduction research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fischer, M. C.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.; Ash, R. L.
1975-01-01
Previous compliant-wall experiments successful in reducing skin-friction drag probably have had a (unplanned) membrane resonance at a favorable frequency, amplitude, wave shape, length, and speed. The most probable drag reduction mechanism involves a direct coupling between the fluid and the moving wall when the wall natural resonance frequencies are near the fundamental turbulent burst frequency. Local skin-friction reductions of 61% were measured with mylar/PVC plastisol compliant surfaces. These reductions were observed only at certain flow conditions, indicating that changing tunnel total temperature may have altered the substrate dynamic modulus, damping, and coupled mylar tension. Apparently, the coupled membrane/substrate must be excited in compatible narrow-band natural frequency modes. An accelerated effort is required to develop practical durable compliant surfaces optimized for maximum drag reduction. Application of compliant walls to other transportation modes appears feasible with liquid flows offering the greatest skin-friction drag reduction potential.
1. Turbulence scales in the atmospheric surface layer Friction velocity, u = 2/1
Fedorovich, Evgeni
7 1. Turbulence scales in the atmospheric surface layer Friction velocity, u = 2/1 )''( wu- , where as turbulence velocity scale in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) under the usual ASL assumption that wind 'u and 'w are, respectively, turbulent fluctuations of the horizontal and vertical velocities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
A new technology for reducing turbulent skin friction, called the Microblowing Technique (MBT), is presented. Results from proof-of-concept experiments show that this technology could potentially reduce turbulent skin friction by more than 50% of the skin friction of a solid flat plate for subsonic and supersonic flow conditions. The primary purpose of this review paper is to provide readers with information on the turbulent skin friction reduction obtained from many experiments using the MBT. Although the MBT has a penalty for obtaining the microblowing air associated with it, some combinations of the MBT with suction boundary layer control methods are an attractive alternative for a real application. Several computational simulations to understand the flow physics of the MBT are also included. More experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations are needed for the understanding of the unsteady flow nature of the MBT and the optimization of this new technology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Danny P.
1999-01-01
A new turbulent skin friction reduction technology, called the microblowing technique has been tested in supersonic flow (Mach number of 1.9) on specially designed porous plates with microholes. The skin friction was measured directly by a force balance and the boundary layer development was measured by a total pressure rake at the tailing edge of a test plate. The free stream Reynolds number was 1.0(10 exp 6) per meter. The turbulent skin friction coefficient ratios (C(sub f)/C(sub f0)) of seven porous plates are given in this report. Test results showed that the microblowing technique could reduce the turbulent skin friction in supersonic flow (up to 90 percent below a solid flat plate value, which was even greater than in subsonic flow).
Turbulent Reynolds analogy factors of stacked large-eddy breakup devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindemann, A. M.
1986-01-01
Direct measurements are made of turbulent Reynolds analogy factors, referenced to a flat plate, for turbulent boundary layer flows altered by stacked arrays of large eddy breakup devices (LEBUs). These are of interest as drag reducers when inserted into a boundary layer transverse to the flow. The data thus obtained furnish evidence that heat transfer, skin friction drag, and LEBU performance factors in low Reynolds number flows are sensitive to flow history. Attention is given to the apparatus and measurement procedures used.
Skin-friction drag reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bidkar, Rahul A.; Leblanc, Luc; Kulkarni, Ambarish J.; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc
2014-08-01
Technologies for reducing hydrodynamic skin-friction drag have a huge potential for energy-savings in applications ranging from propulsion of marine vessels to transporting liquids through pipes. The majority of previous experimental studies using hydrophobic surfaces have successfully shown skin-friction drag reduction in the laminar and transitional flow regimes (typically Reynolds numbers less than ?106 for external flows). However, this hydrophobicity induced drag reduction is known to diminish with increasing Reynolds numbers in experiments involving wall bounded turbulent flows. Using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces (fabricated using large-length scalable thermal spray processes) on a flat plate geometry, we present water-tunnel test data with Reynolds numbers ranging from 106 to 9 × 106 that show sustained skin-friction drag reduction of 20%-30% in such turbulent flow regimes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that apart from the formation of a Cassie state and hydrophobicity, we also need a low surface roughness and an enhanced ability of the textured surface to retain trapped air, for sustained drag reduction in turbulent flow regimes. Specifically, for the hydrophobic test surfaces of the present and previous studies, we show that drag reduction seen at lower Reynolds numbers diminishes with increasing Reynolds number when the surface roughness of the underlying texture becomes comparable to the viscous sublayer thickness. Conversely, test data show that textures with surface roughness significantly smaller than the viscous sublayer thickness and textures with high porosity show sustained drag reduction in the turbulent flow regime. The present experiments represent a significant technological advancement and one of the very few demonstrations of skin-friction reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces in an external flow configuration. The scalability of the fabrication method, the passive nature of this surface technology, and the obtained results in the turbulent regime make such hydrophobic surfaces a potentially attractive option for hydrodynamic skin-friction drag reduction.
Analysis of turbulent skin friction generated in flow along a cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monte, Stephane; Sagaut, Pierre; Gomez, Thomas
2011-06-01
This paper presents an extension of FIK identity [K. Fukagata et al., Phys. Fluids 14, L73 (2002)] to turbulent axial flow along a cylinder. This relation gives the contributions of both the mean flow and the turbulent fluctuating flow to the skin friction coefficient. The later contribution is then further decomposed more precisely as proposed by B. Frohnapfel, Y. Hasegawa, and N. Kasagi, "Reactive Flow Control for Skin Friction Drag Reduction based on Sensing of the Streamwise Wall-Shear Stress," Euromech Fluid Mechanics Conference 8 (EFMC8), Bad Reichenhall, Germany, 13-16 Sept. 2010, S4-30. The Reynolds shear stress can be linked to the eigenvalues of the anisotropy tensor, the angle between the principal axis of the Reynolds stress tensor, and the mean flow direction and the turbulent kinetic energy. These eigenvalues and the alignment are important elements of the Reynolds stress profile. The present analysis is based on high-fidelity Reynolds-Stress-Model-based simulations. The results are first validated using available DNS and experimental data. Then, results are used in order to investigate the variations of the skin friction componential contributions with respect to characteristic dimensionless radius a+, Reynolds numbers, Rea (cylinder-radius-based Reynolds number) and Re? (boundary-layer-thickness-based Reynolds number), or curvature ratio ? /a, and anisotropic decomposition of the Reynolds stress. Explicit empirical formula for surface responses of skin friction and its turbulent component is given.
Flow friction of the turbulent coolant flow in cryogenic porous cables
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, R. C.; Yeroshenko, V. M.; Zaichik, L. I.; Yanovsky, L. S.
1979-01-01
Considered are cryogenic power transmission cables with porous cores. Calculations of the turbulent coolant flow with injection or suction through the porous wall are presented within the framework of a two-layer model. Universal velocity profiles were obtained for the viscous sublayer and flow core. Integrating the velocity profile, the law of flow friction in the pipe with injection has been derived for the case when there is a tangential injection velocity component. The effect of tangential velocity on the relative law of flow friction is analyzed. The applicability of the Prandtl model to the problem under study is discussed. It is shown that the error due to the acceptance of the model increases with the injection parameter and at lower Reynolds numbers; under these circumstances, the influence of convective terms in the turbulent energy equation on the mechanism of turbulent transport should be taken into account.
Heat transfer and friction factors in the ribbed square convergent and divergent channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, M. S.; Ahn, S. W.
2015-07-01
Heat transfer and friction factors are reported for the measurements of turbulent flows in the convergent and divergent square channels with one-sided ribbed wall as well as two opposite in-line ribbed walls. The study covers three different hydraulic diameter ratios between inlet and exit at the test section such as Dho/Dhi = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.33 and Reynolds numbers in the range of 25,000-79,000. The channels, composing of ten isolated copper sections in the length of test section of 1 m, have the hydraulic diameter of 87.5 mm for the straight channel (Dho/Dhi = 1.0); the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter is 0.114; the rib pitch-to-height ratio equals 10. On the contrary to public opinion that the friction factor depends on the portion of the ribbed area, the total friction factor in the two opposite ribbed walls are lower than in the one-sided ribbed wall in the divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 because the total pressure, summing positive dynamic and negative static pressures, is acted. The results show that the two opposite ribbed divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 provides the best heat transfer enhancement and the two opposite ribbed convergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 0.75 provides the worst friction factor enhancement, and the ribbed divergent channels are generally recommended.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Westphal, R. V.
1986-01-01
Research has been undertaken to experimentally study the alterations in turbulent boundary-layer properties due to turbulence manipulation using thin flat plates. Plate geometry and placement within the boundary layer were selected to coincide with recent studies. Direct, local measurements of skin friction and Reynolds stresses were made within the boundary layer downstream of the manipulator devices for cases with an approach momentum thickness Reynolds number of 3700. A strong tendency for recovery of the Reynolds stresses was observed, accompanied by local skin-friction reductions of up to 15 percent. The mean velocity profile in the manipulated flow displayed the same similarity shape in the logarithmic region as a natural boundary layer, but had an enhanced wake component. The results indicate that the plate wake plays an important role in the boundary layer response to this sort of manipulation.
A skin friction model for axisymmetric turbulent boundary layers along long thin circular cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Stephen A.
2013-07-01
Only a few engineering design models are presently available that adequately depict the axisymmetric skin friction (Cf) maturity along long thin turbulent cylinders. This deficit rests essentially on the experimental and numerical difficulties of measuring (or computing) the spatial evolution of the thin cylinder turbulence. Consequently, the present axisymmetric Cf models have questionable accuracy. Herein, we attempt to formulate a more robust Cf model that owns acceptable error. The formulation is founded on triple integration of the governing equation system that represents a thin cylinder turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at statistical steady-state in appropriate dimensionless units. The final model requires only the radius-based Reynolds number (Rea) and transverse curvature (?/a) as input parameters. We tuned the accompanying coefficients empirically via an expanded statistical database (over 60 data points) that house new Cf values from large-eddy simulations (LES). The LES computations employed a turbulence inflow generation procedure that permits spatial resolution of the TBL at low-high Reynolds numbers and transverse curvatures. Compared to the new skin friction database, the Cf model revealed averaged predictive errors under 5% with a 3.5% standard deviation. Apart from owning higher values than the flat plate TBL, the most distinguishing characteristic of the axisymmetric skin friction is its rising levels when the boundary layer thickness exceeds the cylinder radius. All Cf levels diminish with increasing Reynolds number. These unique features differentiate the axisymmetric TBL along thin cylinders as a separate canonical flow when compared to the turbulent wall shear-layers of channels, pipes, and planar-type geometries.
Friction factor for isothermal and nonisothermal flow through porous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koh, J. C.; Dutton, J. L.; Benson, B. A.; Fortini, A.
1977-01-01
Measurements were performed to determine the pressure drops for gaseous flow through porous materials of different microstructures, porosities, and thickness under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions at various temperature levels. Results were satisfactorily correlated by a simple equation relating the friction factor to the Reynolds number and porosities.
Friction Factor Characterization for High-Porosity Random Fiber Regenerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thieme, Lanny G.
2001-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center, the Department of Energy (DOE), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, Washington are developing a Stirling convertor for a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Power System to provide electric power for NASA Space Science Missions. STC is developing the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under contract to DOE. Steady-flow tests were completed to determine the friction factor for the high-porosity regenerators that are used in the TDC. STC fabricated a flow test fixture and three random fiber regenerator test samples, one each at approximately 80, 88, and 96 percent porosities. The flow tests were then completed by the NASA Glenn Flow Calibration Laboratory, and the data reduced to Reynolds number and friction factor. The results showed that the 80 and 88 percent porosity samples had similar characteristics while the 96 percent porosity sample had significantly higher friction factors for given Reynolds numbers compared to the samples with lower porosities. Comparisons were also made between the test data and existing correlations. STC used this data to derive a modified regenerator friction factor correlation for use in the Stirling design code GLIMPS for porosities greater than 88 percent. Using this new correlation, the final optimized regenerator design porosity was reduced from 96 to 90 percent.
Effects of friction factor and slip factor on the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump
Sheth, Ketankumar Kantilal
1985-01-01
EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Ma]or Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Approved as to style and content by...
Skin-friction Drag Reduction in Turbulent Channel Flow with Idealized Superhydrophobic Walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ratsegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh
2013-11-01
Skin-friction drag reduction by super-hydrophobic (SH) surfaces was investigated using Lattice Boltzmann DNS in turbulent channel flow with SH longitudinal microgrooves on both walls. The liquid/gas interfaces in the SH microgrooves were modeled as flat, shear-free surfaces. Drag reductions (DR) ranging from 5 % to 47 % were observed for microgrooves of size 4 <=g+0 =w+0 <= 128 in channels of bulk Reynolds number Reb =Ub h / ? = 3600 (Re?0 =u?0 h / ? ~ 230), where g+0 and w+0 denote the widths of the slip and no-slip surfaces in base flow wall units. It is shown that in both laminar and turbulent flow, DR scales as DR =Us /Ub + ? . In laminar flow, where DR is purely due to surface slip, ? = 0 . In turbulent flow, ? remains negligible when the slip length is smaller than the thickness of the viscous sublayer. For DR > 40 % , where the effect of surface slip can be felt in the buffer layer, ? attains a small non-zero value. Analysis of turbulence statistics and turbulence kinetic energy budgets confirms that outside of a layer of size approximately one slip length from the walls, the turbulence dynamics proceeds as in regular channel flow with no-slip walls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hyunwook; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, John
2013-11-01
Superhydrophobic surfaces have attracted much attention lately as they present the possibility of achieving a substantial skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flows. In this paper, the effects of a superhydrophobic surface, consisting of microgrates aligned in the flow direction, on skin-friction drag in turbulent flows were investigated through direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flows. The superhydrophobic surface was modeled through a shear-free boundary condition on the air-water interface. Dependence of the effective slip length and resulting skin-friction drag on Reynolds number and surface geometry was examined. In laminar flows, the effective slip length depended on surface geometry only, independent of Reynolds number, consistent with an existing analysis. In turbulent flows, the effective slip length was a function of Reynolds number, indicating its dependence on flow conditions near the surface. The resulting drag reduction was much larger in turbulent flows than in laminar flows, and near-wall turbulence structures were significantly modified, suggesting that indirect effects resulting from modified turbulence structures played a more significant role in reducing drag in turbulent flows than the direct effect of the slip, which led to a modest drag reduction in laminar flows. It was found that the drag reduction in turbulent flows was well correlated with the effective slip length normalized by viscous wall units.
Velocities, turbulence, and skin friction in a deep-sea logarithmic layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gust, Giselher; Weatherly, Georges L.
1985-05-01
Speed, turbulence, skin friction, and drag measurements made with metal-clad hot wires, epoxy-coated hot films, and Savonius rotors are reported for a deep-sea boundary layer at a water depth of ˜5000 m. They include data from heights z < 30 cm, a region hitherto only investigated in detail by Chriss and Caldwell (1982) for a shelf site. A mean speed logarithmic layer was observed at 3 < z < 200 cm. The difference between the friction velocity u*log determined from the speed profiles and the skin friction u*skin measured by flush-mounted hot films was statistically significant at the 95% level in five out of eight analyzed burst intervals. This result suggests form-drag influence on the vertical mean flow profile. Although identified from the mean speed data as a hydrodynamically rough boundary layer, the turbulence and bottom stress intensities at the deep-sea site were found to be reduced by more than 40% compared to smooth-wall open-channel flow and planetary boundary layers. Applicability of the universal law of the wall has not been confirmed for this deep-sea boundary layer.
Free stream turbulence. A unified investigation of its effects on skin friction and heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradshaw, Peter; Bott, Donald M.
1995-04-01
Existing prediction formulas for the effect of freestream turbulence (PST) on skin friction and heat transfer, based on measurements in low-intensity grid turbulence, fail at high intensities typical of the upstream stages of gas turbines. However, the previous evidence for this came from tests with various unconventional turbulence generators. In the present work measurements were made on the downstream-moving surface of a conveyor belt. This increased the effective value of Tu, the ratio of r.m.s. free-stream intensity to the velocity difference across the boundary layer. Thus conventional grids could be used to generate high Tu. Heat transfer was measured by a quasi-transient technique. A fixed heating lamp shone on the belt near its upstream end, and the streamwise decrease of surface temperature was measured using a chordwise strip of liquid crystals. Conductive heat transfer into the belt was calculable, so convective heat transfer into the airstream could be deduced. Skin-friction results collapse fairly well using Hancock & Bradshaw's combination of intensity and length scale but lie well above their low-Tu correlation.
Simple LMFBR axial-flow friction-factor correlation
Chan, Y.N.; Todreas, N.E.
1982-12-01
Complicated LMFBR axial lead-length averaged friction-factor correlations are reduced to an easy, ready-to-use function of bundle Reynolds number for wire-wrapped bundles. The function together with the power curves to calculate the associated constants are incorporated in a computer preprocessor, EZFRIC. The constants required for the calculation of the subchannels and bundle friction factors are derived and correlated into power curves of geometrical parameters. A computer program, FRIC, which can alternatively be used to accurately calculate these constants is also included. The accurate values of the constants and the corresponding values predicted by the power curves and percentage error of prediction are tabulated for a wide variety of geometries of interest.
Statistically Steady Turbulence in Soap Films: Direct Numerical Simulations with Ekman Friction
Perlekar, Prasad
2008-01-01
We present a detailed direct numerical simulation (DNS) designed to investigate the combined effects of walls and Ekman friction on turbulence in forced soap films. We concentrate on the forward-cascade regime and show how to extract the isotropic parts of velocity and vorticity structure functions and thence the ratios of multiscaling exponents. We find that velocity structure functions display simple scaling whereas their vorticity counterparts show multiscaling; and the probability distribution function of the Weiss parameter $\\Lambda$, which distinguishes between regions with centers and saddles, is in quantitative agreement with experiments.
Statistically Steady Turbulence in Soap Films: Direct Numerical Simulations with Ekman Friction
Prasad Perlekar; Rahul Pandit
2008-11-09
We present a detailed direct numerical simulation (DNS) designed to investigate the combined effects of walls and Ekman friction on turbulence in forced soap films. We concentrate on the forward-cascade regime and show how to extract the isotropic parts of velocity and vorticity structure functions and thence the ratios of multiscaling exponents. We find that velocity structure functions display simple scaling whereas their vorticity counterparts show multiscaling; and the probability distribution function of the Weiss parameter $\\Lambda$, which distinguishes between regions with centers and saddles, is in quantitative agreement with experiments.
Effects of Riblets on Skin Friction in High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2012-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets are conducted to examine the effects of riblets on skin friction at supersonic speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers with an adiabatic wall, a Mach number of M1 = 2.5, and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Re = 1720 are considered. Simulations are conducted for boundary-layer flows over a clean surface and symmetric V- groove riblets with nominal spacings of 20 and 40 wall units. The DNS results confirm the few existing experimental observations and show that a drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved for riblets with proper spacing. The influence of riblets on turbulence statistics is analyzed in detail with an emphasis on identifying the differences, if any, between the drag reduction mechanisms for incompressible and high-speed boundary layers.
Kim, John
A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin- friction drag in turbulent;PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, 110815 (2013) A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin; accepted 21 May 2013; published online 11 September 2013) Superhydrophobic surfaces have attracted much
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The representation demonstrates, through an animated, narrated slide-show, how frictional forces, including air resistance, can affect the motion of an object. This resource also includes an interactive test and review of the material. One is also able to download "myskoool" which allows allows one to download lessons to run offline and use anytime.
Linear modeling of turbulent skin-friction reduction due to spanwise wall motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duque-Daza, Carlos; Baig, Mirza; Lockerby, Duncan; Chernyshenko, Sergei; Davies, Christopher; University of Warwick Team; Imperial College Team; Cardiff University Team
2012-11-01
We present a study on the effect of streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise wall velocity on the growth of near-wall turbulent streaks using a linearized formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The changes in streak amplification due to the travelling waves induced by the wall velocity are compared to published results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) predictions of the turbulent skin-friction reduction over a range of parameters; a clear correlation between these two sets of results is observed. Additional linearized simulations but at a much higher Reynolds numbers, more relevant to aerospace applications, produce results that show no marked differences to those obtained at low Reynolds number. It is also observed that a close correlation exists between DNS data of drag reduction and a very simple characteristic of the ``generalized'' Stokes layer generated by the streamwise-travelling waves. Carlos.Duque-Daza@warwick.ac.uk - School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK caduqued@unal.edu.co - Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Dorothy B; Faget, Maxime A
1956-01-01
A modified method of Van Driest's flat-plate theory for turbulent boundary layer has been found to simplify the calculation of local skin-friction coefficients which, in turn, have made it possible to obtain through Reynolds analogy theoretical turbulent heat-transfer coefficients in the form of Stanton number. A general formula is given and charts are presented from which the modified method can be solved for Mach numbers 1.0 to 12.0, temperature ratios 0.2 to 6.0, and Reynolds numbers 0.2 times 10 to the 6th power to 200 times 10 to the 6th power.
Friction factor data for flat plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ha, Tae Woong
1989-01-01
Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.
Measuring and modelling the frictional velocity u*, turbulence and heat fluxes above the North Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tambke, Jens; Bye, John A. T.; Schmidt, Michael; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf
2014-05-01
In this study, we analyse the frictional velocity u*, drag coefficient, vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles observed at different met-masts in the German North and Baltic Sea. We present an analysis of different models for the frictional velocity u* in convective, neutral and stable thermal stratification of the atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements performed with ultra-sonic anemometers are compared to profile-derived values and a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric thermal stability. Modelling: An improved approach to model the vertical wind speed profile is presented and compared against meso-scale model results (WRF, COSMO): Bye-Ekman-Coupling (BEC) describes the flux of momentum from the Ekman layer of the atmosphere through the Prandtl layer down to the air-sea interface by a modified wave boundary layer with enhanced Charnock dynamics (Bye et al. 2010). The BEC model is based on the coupled pair of similarity relations for "aerodynamically rough flow" in both fluids (air and sea). The derived drag law is of Charnock form, almost independent of the wave age and consistent with the transfer of momentum to the wave spectrum - which takes place in the smaller rather than the dominant wavelengths. Measurements: It was found that the frictional velocity u* is considerably smaller than predicted by conventional approaches using the Charnock relation: For wind speeds between 10 m/s and 15 m/s at 40 m height above the sea surface, u*(observed) is 14% smaller than u*(Charnock). Most important, we found unexpected, strong and obviously artificial distortions concerning the three wind speed components in the 10Hz data of the three ultra-sonic anemometers at the offshore met-mast FINO1 at 40 m, 60 m and 80 m height. The pattern of these distortions is independent from different post-processing procedures (planar-fit etc.). We anticipate that these artefacts imply severe problems for the eddy covariance technique. Moreover, these artefacts may be relevant in other (previous and on-going) ultra-sonic measurement campaigns where turbulent parameters such as u* and heat fluxes are derived. A simple, but innovative analysis is proposed to check ultra-sonic measurements with respect to these artefacts, using the original temporal 10Hz resolution of the data: The instantaneous vertical wind speed component w is analysed versus the instantaneous wind direction (called wind.dir in the following), computed from the instantaneous horizontal components u and v. The observational density is then plotted in the (w; wind.dir)-space. We found a pattern of stripes of very strong densities for specific wind direction bins, which are thinner than 1° and which cannot be attributed directly to the geometry of the anemometer (transducers, physical structure etc.). The source of this artificial pattern is still unclear and open for discussion. References: Bye JAT, Ghantous M, Wolff J-O (2010) On the variability of the Charnock constant and the functional dependence of the drag coefficient on wind speed. Ocean Dynamics 60(4) 851-860
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadian, Arun Kumar; Biswas, Pankaj
2015-08-01
Friction stir welding has been quite successful in joining aluminum alloy which has gained importance in almost all industrial sectors over the past two decades. It is a newer technique and therefore needs more attention in many sectors, flow of material being one among them. The material flow pattern actually helps in deciding the parameters required for particular tool geometry. The knowledge of material flow is very significant in removing defects from the weldment. In the work presented in this paper, the flow behavior of AA6061 under a threaded tool has been studied. The convective heat loss has been considered from all the surfaces, and a comparative study has been made with and without the use of temperature-dependent properties and their significance in the finite volume method model. The two types of models that have been implemented are turbulent and laminar models. Their thermal histories have been studied for all the cases. The material flow velocity has been analyzed to predict the flow of material. A swirl inside the weld material has been observed in all the simulations.
Villasmil Urdaneta, Larry Alfonso
2002-01-01
Bulk flow theory has been widely used to estimate annular seals dynamic coefficients. To predict the flow behavior through the seal, this theory relies on empirical friction factor correlations based on pipe data. Several experiments have gathered...
Friction Factor Evaluation Using Experimental and Finite Element Methods for Al-4%Cu Preforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desalegn, Wogaso; Davidson, M. J.; Khanra, A. K.
2014-08-01
In this study, ring compression tests and finite element (FE) simulations have been utilized to evaluate the friction factor, m, under different lubricating conditions for powder metallurgical (P/M) Al-4%Cu preforms. A series of ring compression tests were carried out to obtain friction factor ( m) for a number of lubricating conditions, including zinc stearate, graphite, molybdenum disulfide powder, and unlubricated condition. FE simulations were used to analyze materials deformation, densification, and geometric changes, and to derive the friction calibration curves. The friction factor has been determined for various initial relative densities and different lubricating conditions, and a proper lubricant for cold forging of P/M Al-4%Cu preforms is found. Studies show that the use of lubricants has reduced the friction. However, increase in the number of pores in the preforms leads to excessive friction. The FE simulation results demonstrate a shift in the neutral plane distance from the axis of ring specimen, which occurred due to variations in the frictional conditions and initial relative densities. The load requirement for deformation, effective stress, and effective strain induced, and bulging phenomena obtained by FE simulations have a good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornilov, V. I.; Litvinenko, Yu. A.; Pavlov, A. A.
2002-07-01
Experimental definition of the local and integral values of friction drag of an aircraft or its elements is one of the basic problems of applied aerodynamics. We also should note the undoubted significance of this value for the development of modern lifting profiles and other aircraft elements, the description of near-wall flows in a form of similarity laws and testing of the numerical techniques of computation of flow around such aircrafts. However, to define this value accurately, one should have a clear conception of the possibilities and efficiency of application of one or another technique for a special case of body flow around. Though any experimental work assumes application of a certain concrete technique, including one for skin friction finding, the available literature information is as a rule uncoordinated, i.e., this information reflects only the level of availability of the technique applied. For this reason the researches like devoted to the development of new techniques and investigation of the efficiency of the known ones under various experimental conditions, become very important. The simplified layout gives a pictorial view of the main techniques of skin friction measurement, existing at the present time. The present paper presents a comparative analysis of a number of direct and indirect measuring techniques when they are applied in a incompressible turbulent boundary layer of a flat plate under the conditions of formation of a unfavorable (positive) and favorable (negative) streamwise pressure gradients on the plate surface, and also in plate gradient-free flow around.
Friction factor and mean velocity profile for pipe flow at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furuichi, N.; Terao, Y.; Wada, Y.; Tsuji, Y.
2015-09-01
The friction factor for a fully developed pipe flow is examined at high Reynolds numbers up to ReD = 1.8 × 107 with high accuracy using the high Reynolds number actual flow facility "Hi-Reff" at AIST, NMIJ. The precise measurement of the friction factor is achieved by the highly accurate measurement of the flow rate, and the measurement uncertainty is estimated to be approximately 0.9% with a coverage factor of k = 2. The result examined here is obviously different from the Prandtl equation and the experimental results from the superpipe at Princeton University. The deviation of the present result from the Prandtl equation in the lower Reynolds number region is approximately 2.5% and -3% at the higher Reynolds number. For ReD < 2.0 × 105, the present friction factor obtained here agrees very well with the results at the superpipe, but a deviation is observed for ReD > 2.0 × 105, and it increases with the Reynolds number and reaches -6% at ReD = 1.0 × 107. The Kármán constant estimated by the measured friction factor is 0.385. Using inner scale variables estimated by the present friction factor, the velocity profile measured by laser Doppler velocimetry in the same measurement configuration for the friction factor is normalized in order to observe the consistency of the Kármán constants between both the measurements. The Kármán constant estimated by the measured velocity profiles for ReD > 3.0 × 105 is 0.382.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrante, Antonino
Experimental evidence during the past three decades indicates that injection of gaseous microbubbles into a liquid turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate or over axisymmetrical bodies can reduce the skin-friction by as much as 80% from its value without bubble injection. However, the basic physical mechanisms responsible for that reduction are not yet fully understood. The present study is concerned with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the effects of dispersed gaseous bubbles on the dynamics of wall turbulence with the objective of explaining the physical mechanisms responsible for the reduction of skin-friction. First, the DNS of a single-phase spatially developing turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate was performed. A robust method for generating turbulent inflow conditions was developed. The method is a modification of that of Lund, Wu and Squires (1998). This modification is essential for sustaining the production rate of turbulence kinetic energy near the wall throughout the domain. The DNS is validated by comparing the results with the experimental data of DeGraaff & Eaton (2000) at Retheta = 1430. Then, the DNS of a bubble-laden wall bounded turbulent flow was performed using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach for the two-way coupling case. In addition to the two-way coupling force, all terms of the Navier-Stokes equations of the carrier fluid include the instantaneous local volume fraction of the bubbles. The carrier fluid is laden with microbubbles for different values of the mean void fraction ranging from ?v = 0.001 to 0.02, while keeping the bubble diameter equal to 2.4 viscous length scales (or wall units). The DNS results show that the presence of bubbles creates a local positive divergence of the fluid velocity, ? · U > 0, generating a positive mean velocity normal to (and away from) the wall which, in turn, reduces the mean streamwise velocity and displaces the quasi-streamwise longitudinal vortical structures away from the wall. This displacement has two main effects: (1) it increases the spanwise gaps between the wall streaks associated with the sweep events and reduces the streamwise velocity in these streaks, thus reducing the skin-friction by up to 20% for ?v = 0.02, and (2) it moves the location of peak Reynolds stress production away from the wall to a zone of a smaller transverse gradient of the mean streamwise velocity (i.e. smaller mean shear), thus reducing the production rate of turbulence kinetic energy and enstrophy. Furthermore, for different orientation of the gravitational acceleration vector, buoyancy can enhance (reduce) the 'velocity divergence effect' by increasing (reducing) the local concentration of bubbles near the plate in the case of plate-on-top (plate-on-bottom), by pushing the bubbles towards (away from) the plate in agreement with the experimental results of Madavan et al. (1984, 1985).
An annular gas seal analysis using empirical entrance and exit region friction factors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elrod, D. A.; Childs, D. W.; Nelson, C. C.
1990-01-01
Wall shear stress results from stationary-rotor flow tests of five annular gas seals are used to develop entrance and exit region friction factor models. The friction factor models are used in a bulk-flow seal analysis which predicts leakage and rotor-dynamic coefficients. The predictions of the analysis are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis (1985). The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb-stators. The present analysis predicts the destabilizing cross-coupled stiffness of a seal better than Nelson's analysis. Both analyses predict direct damping well and direct stiffness poorly.
Okpobiri, G.A.; Ikoku, C.U.
1983-12-01
This work covers both theoretical and experimental analysis of frictional losses due to the presence of solids in vertical flow of solids-foam slurries. RabinowitshMooney generalized flow equations for time-independent fluids from the theoretical basis for the rheological analysis. Experimental work was done with an apparatus designed to simulate actual field conditions as closely as possible. The test section consists of an annulus with 4.0-in. casing and 1.5-in. tubing. The surface active agent used is an aniomic biodegradable foamer (ADOFOAM BF-1) and constitutes 1 percent of the liquid volume. Foam qualities and wall shear rates ranged from 0.64 to 0.99, and 100 to 1000 sec/sup -1/, respectively. Semi-empirical equations for predicting friction factors due to solids are presented. Sandstone and limestone particles were used. Average particle size ranged from 0.025 to 0.11 in. and a total of 337 data points were used in the correlations. Data collection was carried out above solid saltation velocities under fully developed steady-state flow conditions. Results show that the friction factor of suspension can be treated as the sum of the friction factor due to the fluid and that due to the solids. For a constant foam Reynold's number, the frictional losses due to the presence of solids increase as the solids mass flow rate (or solids content) increases. Solids friction factor was found to increase with increasing particles Froude number (gd /SUB s/ /V/sup 2/ /SUB F/ ), density ratio (p /SUB s/ /p /SUB F/ ), solids concentration, but decreases with increasing fluid Reynolds' number.
Wall mass transfer and pressure gradient effects on turbulent skin friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, R. D.; Balasubramanian, R.
1984-01-01
The effects of mass injection and pressure gradients on the drag of surfaces were studied theoretically with the aid of boundary-layer and Navier-Stokes codes. The present investigation is concerned with the effects of spatially varying the injection in the case of flat-plate drag. Effects of suction and injection on wavy wall surfaces are also explored. Calculations were performed for 1.2 m long surfaces, one flat and the other sinusoidal with a wavelength of 30.5 cm. Attention is given to the study of the effect of various spatial blowing variations on flat-plate skin friction reduction, local skin friction coefficient calculated by finite difference boundary-layer code and Navier-Stokes code, and the effect of phase-shifting sinusoidal mass transfer on the drag of a sinusoidal surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, P. K.
1980-01-01
An analysis is presented of the reliability of various generally accepted empirical expressions for the prediction of the skin-friction coefficient C/sub f/ of turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers in zero-pressure-gradient flows on a smooth flat plate. The skin-friction coefficients predicted from these expressions were compared to the skin-friction coefficients of experimental profiles that were determined from a graphical method formulated from the law of the wall. These expressions are found to predict values that are consistently different than those obtained from the graphical method over the range 600 Re/sub theta 2000. A curve-fitted empirical relationship was developed from the present data and yields a better estimated value of C/sub f/ in this range. The data, covering the range 200 Re/sub theta 7000, provide insight into the nature of transitional flows. They show that fully developed turbulent boundary layers occur at Reynolds numbers Re/sub theta/ down to 425. Below this level there appears to be a well-ordered evolutionary process from the laminar to the turbulent profiles. These profiles clearly display the development of the turbulent core region and the shrinking of the laminar sublayer with increasing values of Re/sub theta/.
A theoretical prediction of friction drag reduction in turbulent flow by superhydrophobic surfaces
Koji Fukagata; Nobuhide Kasagi; Petros Koumoutsakos
2006-01-01
We present a theoretical prediction for the drag reduction rate achieved by superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent channel flow. The predicted drag reduction rate is in good agreement with results obtained from direct numerical simulations at Retau~=180 and 400. The present theory suggests that large drag reduction is possible also at Reynolds numbers of practical interest (Retau~105-106) by employing a
Internal friction Q factor measurements in lunar rocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tittmann, B. R.
1977-01-01
Investigations to aid in the interpretation of seismic data obtained below the lunar surface are reported. Fine grained basalt with about 1.0% open core porosity was encapsulated under hard vacuum and measured. A Q value just under 2,000 at 0.5 kbar was achieved for a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt. In contrast to the modulus which increases by as much as 10%, the quality factor Q shows little or no change with pressure (a well outgassed sample maintains a high Q, whereas one exposed to laboratory atmosphere maintains a low Q). This result suggests that the absence of volatiles plays an important role in determining the q factor even at a depth of 10 km below the lunar surface.
A skin friction correlation for rough turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abd Rabbo, M. F.; Zahran, M. S.; Mawlood, M. K.
This paper presents a computational scheme for flow over a rough surface subjected to a pressure gradient, with the wall function of the scheme modified to account for external pressure variation and surface roughness. It is shown that the flow characteristics predicted by this computational scheme agree well with available experimental data. By performing numerical experiments, an empirical relationship was deduced for predicting rough flow skin friction under pressure gradients. The relationship was tested against other experimental data and alternative empirical formulas, showing good agreement.
Yutaka S. Sato; Seung Hwan C. Park; Hiroyuki Kokawa
2001-01-01
Microstructural factors governing hardness in friction-stir welds of the solid-solution-hardened Al alloys 1080 and 5083 were\\u000a examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect\\u000a of grain boundary on the hardness was examined in an Al alloy 1080 which did not contain any second-phase particles. The weld\\u000a of Al alloy 1080 had a slightly
Hongjie Wang; Kenji Ikeuchi; Masatoshi Aritoshi; Makoto Takahashi; Akio Ikeda
2009-01-01
Microstructures forming in the friction welding of Inconel 718 alloy have been investigated in order to understand the phenomena occurring during the welding process and to determine the factor controlling the joint performance from a metallographic point of view. In the interfacial zone, liquation microstructures characterized by a eutectic structure consisting of ? and Laves phases, and Nb-rich microstructures along
A Model for Water Flow Through Rock Fractures Based on Friction Factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhenyu; Nemcik, Jan; Qiao, Qiuqiu; Geng, Xueyu
2015-03-01
Rock fracture roughness and tortuosity caused by contact asperities produce extra resistance for fluid flow in comparison with the channel consisting of two smooth parallel plates. To characterise the role of roughness and tortuosity in water flow through rock fractures, the existing studies of the effect of fracture roughness and contact area (tortuosity) on fluid flow through rock fractures were firstly reviewed. Then, an explicit flow model was derived using the friction factor predictor previously proposed according to the flow data of sandstone fractures. Regarding the introduced relative roughness of rock fracture as the correction variable, the developed flow model can be considered as a corrected form of classic cubic law, where the relative roughness is defined as the ratio of the averaged peak asperity height to equivalent hydraulic aperture. Sensitivity analysis shows that the cubic law can overestimate the flow rate by 10 % when the relative roughness increases to 70.7. With further increase in relative roughness up to 300, which usually represents tight rock fractures, the flow rate is only approximately 64 % of that predicted by cubic law. The verification of this friction factor to granite and limestone fractures shows that the used friction factor predictor is in good accordance with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-López, Eduardo; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Buxton, Oliver R. H.
2015-04-01
The present paper describes a method to extrapolate the mean wall shear stress, , and the accurate relative position of a velocity probe with respect to the wall, , from an experimentally measured mean velocity profile in a turbulent boundary layer. Validation is made between experimental and direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer flows with independent measurement of the shear stress. The set of parameters which minimize the residual error with respect to the canonical description of the boundary layer profile is taken as the solution. Several methods are compared, testing different descriptions of the canonical mean velocity profile (with and without overshoot over the logarithmic law) and different definitions of the residual function of the optimization. The von Kármán constant is used as a parameter of the fitting process in order to avoid any hypothesis regarding its value that may be affected by different initial or boundary conditions of the flow. Results show that the best method provides an accuracy of for the estimation of the friction velocity and for the position of the wall. The robustness of the method is tested including unconverged near-wall measurements, pressure gradient, and reduced number of points; the importance of the location of the first point is also tested, and it is shown that the method presents a high robustness even in highly distorted flows, keeping the aforementioned accuracies if one acquires at least one data point in . The wake component and the thickness of the boundary layer are also simultaneously extrapolated from the mean velocity profile. This results in the first study, to the knowledge of the authors, where a five-parameter fitting is carried out without any assumption on the von Kármán constant and the limits of the logarithmic layer further from its existence.
D'Sousa, Rohan Joseph
2000-01-01
Predictions of rotordynamic-coefficients for annular honeycomb gas seals are compared using different friction-factor models. Analysis shows that the fundamental improvement in predicting the rotordynamic-coefficients accurately is the two...
Sedlmeier, Felix; Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn; Netz, Roland R
2014-02-01
We determine time correlation functions and dynamic structure factors of the number and charge density of liquid water from molecular dynamics simulations. Using these correlation functions we consider dielectric friction and electro-acoustic coupling effects via linear response theory. From charge-charge correlations, the drag force on a moving point charge is derived and found to be maximal at a velocity of around 300 m/s. Strong deviations in the resulting friction coefficients from approximate theory employing a single Debye relaxation mode are found that are due to non-Debye-like resonances at high frequencies. From charge-mass cross-correlations the ultrasonic vibration potential is derived, which characterizes the conversion of acoustic waves into electric time-varying potentials. Along the dispersion relation for normal sound waves in water, the ultrasonic vibration potential is shown to strongly vary and to increase for larger wavelengths. PMID:24511957
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedlmeier, Felix; Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn; Netz, Roland R.
2014-02-01
We determine time correlation functions and dynamic structure factors of the number and charge density of liquid water from molecular dynamics simulations. Using these correlation functions we consider dielectric friction and electro-acoustic coupling effects via linear response theory. From charge-charge correlations, the drag force on a moving point charge is derived and found to be maximal at a velocity of around 300 m/s. Strong deviations in the resulting friction coefficients from approximate theory employing a single Debye relaxation mode are found that are due to non-Debye-like resonances at high frequencies. From charge-mass cross-correlations the ultrasonic vibration potential is derived, which characterizes the conversion of acoustic waves into electric time-varying potentials. Along the dispersion relation for normal sound waves in water, the ultrasonic vibration potential is shown to strongly vary and to increase for larger wavelengths.
The effect of a turbulent wake on the stagnation point. I - Skin friction results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Dennis E.; Hanford, Anthony J.
1990-01-01
The response of a boundary layer in the stagnation region of a two-dimensional body to fluctuations in the freestream is examined. The analysis is restricted to laminar incompressible flow. The assumed form of the velocity distribution at the edge of the boundary layer represents both a pulsation of the incoming flow, and an oscillation of the stagnation point streamline. Both features are essential in accurately representing the effect which freestream spatial and temporal nonuniformities have upon the unsteady boundary layer. Finally, a simple model is proposed which relates the characteristic parameters in a turbulent wake to the unsteady boundary-layer edge velocity. Numerical results are presented for both an arbitrary two-dimensional geometry and a circular cylinder.
What factors does friction depend on? A socio-cognitive teaching intervention with young children
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravanis, Konstantinos; Koliopoulos, Dimitris; Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis
2004-08-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a socio-cognitive teaching strategy on young children. It tests their understanding of the factors that friction depends on when an object is projected across a horizontal surface. The study was conducted in three phases: pre-test, teaching intervention, and post-test. The sample consisted of 68 preschool children who were assigned to two groups according to age and cognitive ability, based on their responses to a pre-test. The children in the experimental group participated in activities that were approached from a socio-cognitive perspective while the children in the control group participated in the same activities but from a Piagetian perspective. A statistically significant difference was found (Mann-Whitney U-test), between the pre-test and the post-test, providing evidence for the effect of the socio-cognitive strategy on children's understanding of a 'precursor model' for the concept of friction.
B. Stefes; H.-H. Fernholz
2004-01-01
This experimental investigation deals with the influence of turbulence intensities Tu??13% and a ratio of integral length scale ?11 to boundary layer thickness ?99.5 smaller than two on an axisymmetric turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient. The free-stream turbulence was generated by jets injected normal to the flow upstream of the test section. The boundary layer had a Reynolds
Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.
Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P
2014-03-01
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238
Correlation of turbulence factor and hot wire turbulence measurements in subsonic flows of air
Wells, Curtis Sinclair
1959-01-01
measure of the aerodynamic effect of turbulence on a particular body and not an actual measurement of turbulence. A direct measurement of the turbulence can be made by means of a hot wire anemometer. A hot wire anemometer is a special-purpose instrument.... hot wire anemometer and probe. 24 IV Hot wire probe installed in test section of 2' x 3' wind tunnel 24 Oscilloscope trace of' various compensation settings of 8/narc wave circuit. VI Representative oscil"oscope trace of turbulence pattern. . LIST...
Designing smart duct geometries for low frictional losses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daschiel, Gertraud; Krieger, Veronika; Jovanovic, Jovan; Frohnapfel, Bettina
2013-11-01
In turbulent flows through triangular ducts the friction factor is significantly reduced compared to the well-proven Blasius correlation. The passages of reduced friction are detected close to the duct corners in which the flow also shows a strong tendency in the turbulent fluctuations towards the statistical axisymmetric state. Within the present investigation direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows through non-circular ducts are carried out. The duct shapes are designed with the goal to reduce frictional losses in the turbulent state by forcing turbulent fluctuations towards statistical axisymmetry in a wide part of the flow domain. In this respect, the influence of the corners' opening angle and the surface curvature are investigated. Interestingly, the state of statistical axisymmetry is also reported to lead to a stabilization of disturbances in laminar flows and consequently delay the breakdown to turbulence. From this finding it might be expected that duct geometries leading to this particular statistical properties of the turbulent fluctuations also can have beneficial effects in the delay of the laminar to turbulent transition process. First numerical experiments that tackle this point will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campo, A.; Chang, J.
Finned tubes are commonly employed in tubular heat exchangers to augment the heat transfer rates between two dissimilar fluid streams. The goal of this study is two-fold: a) to determine the laminar, fully developed velocity and temperature fields for long, internal, longitudinal finned tubes; and b) to construct empirical correlation equations applicable for the asymptotic friction factor and the asymptotic Nusselt numbers as a function of the number of fins and the relative fin height in the bundle. Neither the fluid dynamics nor the heat transfer literature provides information for the second goal, which can be extremely useful to thermal engineers for the implementation of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) of internal, longitudinal finned tubes in heat exchange devices. Moreover, for the validity of the correlation equations, a seldom adopted criterion for the critical Reynolds number has also been introduced as an indispensable guideline to warrant laminar regimes.
Landram, C.S.
1997-10-27
The purpose of this work is to present generalized graphical results to readily permit passage design for monatomic gases, the results including accommodation of any independently specified friction factor, heat transfer coefficient, and wall heat flux. Only constant area passages are considered, and the specified wall heat flux is taken to be uniform.
Turbulent flow in a channel with transverse rib heat transfer augmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, B. H.; Mills, A. F.
1993-04-01
Turbulent flow in a 2D channel with repeated rectangular rib roughness was numerically simulated using a low Reynolds number form of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Friction factors and average Stanton numbers were calculated for various pitch to rib height ratios and bulk Reynolds numbers. Comparisons with experiment were generally adequate, with the predictions of friction superior to those for heat transfer. The effect of variable properties for channel flow was investigated, and the results showed a greater effect for friction than for heat transfer. Comparison with experiment yielded no clear conclusions. The turbulence model was also validated for a related problem, that of flow downstream of an abrupt pipe expansion.
Turbulent flow in a channel with transverse rib heat transfer augmentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, B. H.; Mills, A. F.
1993-01-01
Turbulent flow in a 2D channel with repeated rectangular rib roughness was numerically simulated using a low Reynolds number form of the k-epsilon turbulence model. Friction factors and average Stanton numbers were calculated for various pitch to rib height ratios and bulk Reynolds numbers. Comparisons with experiment were generally adequate, with the predictions of friction superior to those for heat transfer. The effect of variable properties for channel flow was investigated, and the results showed a greater effect for friction than for heat transfer. Comparison with experiment yielded no clear conclusions. The turbulence model was also validated for a related problem, that of flow downstream of an abrupt pipe expansion.
Deva Asirvatham, Thanesh
2011-02-22
Friction factor data are important for better prediction of leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of gas annular seals. A flat-plate test rig is used to determine friction factor of hole-pattern/honeycomb flat-plate surfaces ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuda, K.; Onishi, R.; Takahashi, K.; Kurose, R.; Komori, S.
2014-12-01
Spatial correlations of cloud droplets cause particulate Bragg scattering, which increases the reflected microwave intensity in radar observations. Most studies assume that particulate Bragg scattering is insignificant in clouds. However, cloud turbulence generates microscale clusters of cloud droplets due to centrifugal effects. This indicates that the influence of turbulent clustering can be a cause of observational errors. Thus, this study aims to investigate the influence of turbulent clustering of cloud droplets on the radar reflectivity factor. Droplet clustering data are obtained by performing a three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS), in which an isotropic turbulence is generated by solving the Navier-Stokes equation without any turbulence model and a large number of droplet motions are tracked by the Lagrangian method. The clustering data are used to calculate the power spectrum of number density fluctuation. The results show that the turbulent Reynolds number dependency of the power spectrum is sufficiently small for enough high turbulent Reynolds number. On the other hand, the spectrum is strongly dependent on the Stokes number, which is defined as the ratio of droplet relaxation time to the Kolmogorov time. Thus, the influence of turbulent clustering on the radar reflectivity factor is estimated by using the power spectrum considering the Stokes number dependency. We will show the estimate results under ideal cumulus cloud conditions, where the droplet size distributions and the number densities are set based on the dataset of Hess et al. (1998), and discuss the influence on radar cloud observations.
Diminishing friction of joint surfaces as initiating factor for destabilising permafrost rocks?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Funk, Daniel; Krautblatter, Michael
2010-05-01
Degrading alpine permafrost due to changing climate conditions causes instabilities in steep rock slopes. Due to a lack in process understanding, the hazard is still difficult to asses in terms of its timing, location, magnitude and frequency. Current research is focused on ice within joints which is considered to be the key-factor. Monitoring of permafrost-induced rock failure comprises monitoring of temperature and moisture in rock-joints. The effect of low temperatures on the strength of intact rock and its mechanical relevance for shear strength has not been considered yet. But this effect is signifcant since compressive and tensile strength is reduced by up to 50% and more when rock thaws (Mellor, 1973). We hypotheisze, that the thawing of permafrost in rocks reduces the shear strength of joints by facilitating the shearing/damaging of asperities due to the drop of the compressive/tensile strength of rock. We think, that decreasing surface friction, a neglected factor in stability analysis, is crucial for the onset of destabilisation of permafrost rocks. A potential rock slide within the permafrost zone in the Wetterstein Mountains (Zugspitze, Germany) is the basis for the data we use for the empirical joint model of Barton (1973) to estimate the peak shear strength of the shear plane. Parameters are the JRC (joint roughness coefficient), the JCS (joint compressive strength) and the residual friction angle (?r). The surface roughness is measured in the field with a profile gauge to create 2D-profiles of joint surfaces. Samples of rock were taken to the laboratory to measure compressive strength using a high-impact Schmidt-Hammer under air-dry, saturated and frozen conditions on weathered and unweathered surfaces. Plugs where cut out of the rock and sand blasted for shear tests under frozen and unfrozen conditions. Peak shear strength of frozen and unfrozen rocks will be calculated using Barton's model. First results show a mean decrease of compressive strength of around 40% when frozen water-saturated rock is exposed to thawing. The friction of sand-blasted rock-plugs decreases by a mean value of 32% considering degradation of rocks by freeze-thaw cycles. Surface roughness could be measured succesfully with the profile gauge and the results show a significant difference between untouched and sheared joint surfaces in the field. Here we show, that shear resistance of rock joints will be diminshed just by the thawing of intact rock. This study will help to establish a sound concept for the destabilization of rocks in permafrost and provide the data for first stability modelling. This will be crucial for predict rock instability in permafrost regions. References: Barton, N. (1973): Review of new shear strength criterion for rock jonts. Engineering Geology 7: 287-332 Mellor, M. (1973): Mechanical Properties of Rocks at Low Temperatures. 2nd International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, Siberia, 334-343.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Testik, Firat; Yilmaz, Nazli; Chowdhury, Mijanur
2012-11-01
This study aims to provide a relationship for the friction factor, Cf, in terms of the Reynolds number, Re, for two-dimensional constant-flux release gravity currents during viscous-buoyancy propagation phase. Motivation of this study was related to the pipeline disposal of high-concentration dredged fluid-mud. Such disposal operations form non-Newtonian gravity currents that propagate over the coastal seafloor. Our theoretical and experimental analysis resulted in Cf-Re relationships for both Newtonian (e.g. saline solution) and power-law (e.g. non-Newtonian fluid mud) fluids. A large number of experiments were conducted with different concentrations of both fluid mud mixtures (Kaolinite clay mixed with tap water) and saline solutions in a laboratory tank [dimensions: 4.3 m × 0.25 m × 0.5 m]. In the experiments, different depths of ambient fluid (tap water) were considered. To determine the experimental Cf values for the viscous-buoyancy propagation phase, theoretical analysis was conducted to relate Cf to the experimental measurables. Based upon experimental observations, Cf is shown to relate to Re of the gravity currents inversely for both Newtonian and power-law fluids. While Newtonian gravity currents revealed a single value of the constant of proportionality for the Cf-Re relationship, power-law gravity currents revealed multiple values of the constant of proportionality that depends on the fluid-mud concentration.
Internal friction quality-factor Q under confining pressure. [of lunar rocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tittmann, B. R.; Ahlberg, L.; Nadler, H.; Curnow, J.; Smith, T.; Cohen, E. R.
1977-01-01
It has been found in previous studies that small amounts of adsorbed volatiles can have a profound effect on the internal friction quality-factor Q of rocks and other porous media. Pandit and Tozer (1970) have suggested that the laboratory-measured Q of volatile-free rocks should be similar to the in situ seismic Q values of near-surface lunar rocks which according to Latham et al. (1970) are in the range of 3000-5000. Observations of dramatic increases in Q with outgassing up to values approaching 2000 in the seismic frequency range confirm this supposition. Measurements under confining pressures with the sample encapsulated under hard vacuum are reported to aid in the interpretation of seismic data obtained below the lunar surface. It has been possible to achieve in the experiments Q values just under 2000 at about 1 kbar for a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt. It was found that a well-outgassed sample maintains a high Q whereas one exposed to moisture maintains a low Q as the confining pressure is raised to 2.5 kbar. This result suggests that volatiles can indeed affect Q when cracks are partially closed and the high lunar seismic Q values reported are concomitant with very dry rock down to depths of at least 50 km.
Effects of unsteady free-stream velocity and free-stream turbulence at a stagnation point
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorla, R. S. R.
1982-01-01
The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and turbulence at a stagnation point on a cylinder situated in a crossflow is investigated analytically, and a model is formulated for the eddy diffusivity induced by free-stream turbulence. The steepest descent method is used to integrate the governing momentum expression, and numerical solutions are given for the unsteady wall shear stress function for specific free-stream transients. It is found after correlation of the results by means of a new turbulence parameter that wall friction increases with increasing free-stream turbulence intensity, and that the friction factor increases with increasing reduced frequency of oscillation values.
A new friction factor correlation for laminar, single-phase flows through rock fractures
Nazridoust, K. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.
2006-09-30
Single-phase flow through fractured media occurs in various situations, such as transport of dissolved contaminants through geological strata, sequestration of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs, and in primary oil recovery. In the present study, fluid flows through a rock fracture were simulated. The fracture geometry was obtained from the CT scans of a rock fracture produced by the Brazilian method in a sandstone sample. A post-processing code using a CAD package was developed and used to generate the three-dimensional fracture from the CT scan data. Several sections along the fracture were considered and the GambitTM code was used to generate unstructured grids for flow simulations. FLUENTTM was used to analyze the flow conditions through the fracture section for different flow rates. Because of the small aperture of the fractures, the gravitational effects could be neglected. It was confirmed that the pressure drop was dominated by the smallest aperture passages of the fracture. The accuracy of parallel plate models for estimating the pressure drops through fractures was studied. It was shown that the parallel plate flow model with the use of an appropriate effective fracture aperture and inclusion of the tortuosity factor could provide reasonable estimates for pressure drops in the fracture. On the basis of the CFD simulation data, a new expression for the friction factor for flows through fractures was developed. The new model predictions were compared with the simulation results and favorable agreement was found. It was shown that when the length of the fracture and the mean and standard deviation of the fracture are known, the pressure loss as a function of the flow rate could be estimated. These findings may prove useful for design of lab experiments, computational studied of flows through real rock fractures, or inclusions in simulators for large-scale flows in highly fractured rocks.
A new friction factor correlation for laminar, single-phase flows through rock fractures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazridoust, Kambiz; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.
2006-09-01
SummarySingle-phase flow through fractured media occurs in various situations, such as transport of dissolved contaminants through geological strata, sequestration of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs, and in primary oil recovery. In the present study, fluid flows through a rock fracture were simulated. The fracture geometry was obtained from the CT scans of a rock fracture produced by the Brazilian method in a sandstone sample. A post-processing code using a CAD package was developed and used to generate the three-dimensional fracture from the CT scan data. Several sections along the fracture were considered and the Gambit™ code was used to generate unstructured grids for flow simulations. FLUENT™ was used to analyze the flow conditions through the fracture section for different flow rates. Because of the small aperture of the fractures, the gravitational effects could be neglected. It was confirmed that the pressure drop was dominated by the smallest aperture passages of the fracture. The accuracy of parallel plate models for estimating the pressure drops through fractures was studied. It was shown that the parallel plate flow model with the use of an appropriate effective fracture aperture and inclusion of the tortuosity factor could provide reasonable estimates for pressure drops in the fracture. On the basis of the CFD simulation data, a new expression for the friction factor for flows through fractures was developed. The new model predictions were compared with the simulation results and favorable agreement was found. It was shown that when the length of the fracture and the mean and standard deviation of the fracture are known, the pressure loss as a function of the flow rate could be estimated. These findings may prove useful for design of lab experiments, computational studied of flows through real rock fractures, or inclusions in simulators for large-scale flows in highly fractured rocks.
Propagation factors of cosine-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
Xu, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Zhou; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wei
2014-09-22
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function (WDF), we have studied the relative root-mean-square (rms) angular width and the propagation factor of cosine-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model (CGSM) beams propagating in non-Kolmogorov turbulence. It has been found that the CGSM beam has advantage over the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam for reducing the turbulence-induced degradation, and this advantage will be more obvious for the beams with larger parameter n and spatial coherence ? or under the condition of stronger fluctuation of turbulence. The CGSM beam with larger parameter n or smaller spatial coherence ? will be less affected by the turbulence. In addition, the effects of the slope-parameter ?, inner and outer scale and the refractive-index structure constant of the non-Kolmogorov's power spectrum on the propagation factor are also analyzed in detailed. PMID:25321718
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elrod, D.; Nelson, C.; Childs, D.
1989-01-01
A friction factor model is developed for the entrance-region of a duct. The model is used in an annular gas seal analysis similar to Nelson's (1984). Predictions of the analysis are compared to experimental results for a smooth-stator/smooth-rotor seal and three honeycomb-stator/smooth-rotor seals. The model predicts a leakage and direct damping well. The model overpredicts the dependence of cross-coupled stiffness on fluid prerotation. The model predicts direct stiffness poorly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffmann, Jon A.
1988-01-01
The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent bounday layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free stream to the boundary layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffmann, J. A.; Kassir, S. M.; Larwood, S. M.
1989-01-01
The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free-stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free-stream to the boundary layers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, Robert G
1955-01-01
The expression for eddy diffusivity from a previous analysis was modified in order to account for the effect of kinematic viscosity on the turbulence in the region close to a wall. By using the modified expression, good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental results for heat and mass transfer at Prandtl and Schmidt numbers between 0.5 and 3000. The effects of length-to-diameter ratio and of variable viscosity were also investigated for a wide range of Prandtl numbers.
Is internal friction friction?
Savage, J.C.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.A.
1996-01-01
Mogi [1974] proposed a simple model of the incipient rupture surface to explain the Coulomb failure criterion. We show here that this model can plausibly be extended to explain the Mohr failure criterion. In Mogi's model the incipient rupture surface immediately before fracture consists of areas across which material integrity is maintained (intact areas) and areas across which it is not (cracks). The strength of the incipient rupture surface is made up of the inherent strength of the intact areas plus the frictional resistance to sliding offered by the cracked areas. Although the coefficient of internal friction (slope of the strength versus normal stress curve) depends upon both the frictional and inherent strengths, the phenomenon of internal friction can be identified with the frictional part. The curvature of the Mohr failure envelope is interpreted as a consequence of differences in damage (cracking) accumulated in prefailure loading at different confining pressures.
Chefranov, S G
2013-01-01
It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis) pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardio-vascular system (CVS). We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydro-dynamic instability leading ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Bakar Mohamad, Abu
2013-12-01
Swirl/vortex flow generator is an important form of passive augmentation techniques. Twisted-tape is one of the most important members of this form which is used extensively in different type heat exchangers. This paper reports the effect of twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in circular tube under constant heat flux and laminar flow conditions using CFD simulation. Plain twisted tape inserts with twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91) and baffled twisted tape inserts with twist ratio (y = 2.93) have been used for the simulation using Fluent version 6.3.26. The results obtained by simulation matched with the literature correlations for plain tube with the discrepancy of less than ± 8% for Nusselt number and ± 6.25% for friction factor. The results have also revealed that the heat transfer in term of the Nusselt number enhanced with increases of Reynolds number, decreases of twist ratio and baffle insert. Among the various twist ratios, the twisted tape with twist ratio of y=2.93 and baffle is offered a maximum heat transfer enhancement.
Heat transfer and friction in a high-enthalpy converging gas flow
Strelkov, V.A.
1991-01-01
In this paper turbulent flow in the boundary layer of a convergent nozzle is considered. On the basis of the Prandtl two-layer model expressions are obtained for determining the relative laws of friction, heat transfer, velocity and enthalpy profiles taking into account the mutual effect of such disturbing factors as nonisothermicity, compressibility and a negative pressure gradient.
Giovanni Gallavotti; Valerio Lucarini
2014-06-06
We construct different equivalent non-equilibrium statistical ensembles in a simple yet instructive $N$-degrees of freedom model of atmospheric turbulence, introduced by Lorenz in 1996. The vector field can be decomposed into an energy-conserving, time-reversible part, plus a non-time reversible part, including forcing and dissipation. We construct a modified version of the model where viscosity varies with time, in such a way that energy is conserved, and the resulting dynamics is fully time-reversible. For each value of the forcing, the statistical properties of the irreversible and reversible model are in excellent agreement, if in the latter the energy is kept constant at a value equal to the time-average realized with the irreversible model. In particular, the average contraction rate of the phase space of the time-reversible model agrees with that of the irreversible model, where instead it is constant by construction. We also show that the phase space contraction rate obeys the fluctuation relation, and we relate its finite time corrections to the characteristic time scales of the system. A local version of the fluctuation relation is explored and successfully checked. The equivalence between the two non-equilibrium ensembles extends to dynamical properties such as the Lyapunov exponents, which are shown to obey to a good degree of approximation a pairing rule. These results have relevance in motivating the importance of the chaotic hypothesis. in explaining that we have the freedom to model non-equilibrium systems using different but equivalent approaches, and, in particular, that using a model of a fluid where viscosity is kept constant is just one option, and not necessarily the only option, for describing accurately its statistical and dynamical properties.
Influence of pressure gradient on streamwise skewness factor in turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dró?d?, Artur
2014-08-01
The paper shows an effect of favourable and adverse pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layer. The skewness factor of streamwise velocity component was chosen as a measure of the pressure gradient impact. It appears that skewness factor is an indicator of convection velocity of coherent structures, which is not always equal to the average flow velocity. The analysis has been performed based upon velocity profiles measured with hot-wire technique in turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient corresponding to turbomachinery conditions. The results show that the skewness factor decreases in the flow region subjected to FPG and increases in the APG conditions. The changes of convection velocity and skewness factor are caused by influence of large-scale motion through the mechanism called amplitude modulation. The large-scale motion is less active in FPG and more active in APG, therefore in FPG the production of vortices is random (there are no high and low speed regions), while in the APG the large-scale motion drives the production of vortices. Namely, the vortices appear only in the high-speed regions, therefore have convection velocity higher than local mean velocity. The convection velocity affects directly the turbulent sweep and ejection events. The more flow is dominated by large-scale motion the higher values takes both the convection velocity of small-scale structures and sweep events induced by them.
Title of dissertation: TURBULENT SHEAR FLOW IN A RAPIDLY ROTATING
Lathrop, Daniel P.
be considered a Rossby-dependent friction factor that expresses the effect of the self-organized flow geometry, bistable co-existence of states is possible. In these ranges the flow undergoes intermittent transitions of the turbulent flow are characterized by system-wide spatial and temporal correlations that co-exist with #12
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.
1980-01-01
An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, Scott
1999-01-01
This paper presents results of three minor studies into the behavior of the OVERFLOW with respect to the prediction of skin friction drag on wing bodies at cruise Mach number and wind tunnel Reynolds number. The studies include a preliminary assessment of the behavior of the two new 2-equation turbulence models introduced with the latest version of OVERFLOW (v. 1.8f), an investigation into potential improvements in the matrix dissipation scheme currently implemented in OVERFLOW, and an analysis of the observed sensitivity of the code's skin friction predictions to grid stretching at solid surface boundaries.
Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels
Revellin, Remi; Thome, John R.
2007-07-15
Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime for Re{sub TP} < 2000, a transition regime for 2000 {<=} Re{sub TP} < 8000 and a turbulent regime for Re{sub TP} {>=} 8000. The laminar zone yields a much sharper gradient than in single-phase flow. The transition regime is not predicted well by any of the prediction methods for two-phase frictional pressure drops available in the literature. This is not unexpected since only a few data are available for this region in the literature and most methods ignore this regime, jumping directly from laminar to turbulent flow at Re{sub TP} = 2000. The turbulent zone is best predicted by the Mueller-Steinhagen and Heck correlation. Also, a new homogeneous two-phase frictional pressure drop has been proposed here with a limited range of application. (author)
Prediction of friction coefficients for gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, M. F.
1969-01-01
Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,
Students use wood, wax paper and oil to investigate the importance of lubrication between materials and to understand the concept of friction. Using wax paper and oil placed between pieces of wood, the function of lubricants between materials is illustrated. Students extend their understanding of friction to bones and joints in the skeletal system and become aware of what engineers can do to help reduce friction in the human body as well as in machines.
Xiang-Zhe CUI; Kwang-Yong KIM
2003-01-01
The present work evaluates the effects of mixing vane shape on the flow structure and heat transfer downstream of mixing vane in a subchannel of fuel assembly, by obtaining velocity and pressure fields, turbulent intensity, flow- mixing factors, heat transfer coefficient, and friction factor using three-dimensional RANS analysis. Four different shapes of mixing vane designed by the authors, are tested
Xiang-Zhe CUI; Kwang-Yong KIM
2003-01-01
The present work evaluates the effects of mixing vane shape on the flow structure and heat transfer downstream of mixing vane in a subchannel of fuel assembly, by obtaining velocity and pressure fields, turbulent intensity, flow-mixing factors, heat transfer coefficient, and friction factor using three-dimensional RANS analysis. Four different shapes of mixing vane designed by the authors, are tested to
Superfluid neutron star turbulence
N. Andersson; T. Sidery; G. L. Comer
2007-03-12
We analyse the implications of superfluid turbulence for neutron star physics. We begin by extending our previous results for the mutual friction force for a straight vortex array to account for the self-induced flow which arises when the vortices are curved. We then discuss Vinen's phenomenological model for isotropic turbulence, and derive the associated (Gorter-Mellink) form for the mutual friction. We compare this derivation to a more recent analysis of Schwarz, which sheds light on various involved issues. Having discussed isotropic turbulence, we argue that this case is unlikely to be relevant for neutron stars. Instead we expect a rotating neutron star to exhibit polarised turbulence, where relative flow drives the turbulence and rotation counteracts it. Based on recent results for superfluid Helium, we construct a phenomenological model that should have the key features of such a polarised turbulent system.
Hongjie Wang; Kenji Ikeuchi; Masatoshi Aritoshi; Makoto Takahashi; Akio Ikeda
2009-01-01
The influences of welding parameters on tensile properties of friction-welded joints of Inconel 718 alloy (subjected to a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) consisting of a solution treatment at 1253 K and double ageing treatments at 993 and 893 K) have been investigated to reveal the controlling factor of the joint performance. All joints obtained were fractured near the bond interface at smaller
Buhl, M.L., Jr.
2005-08-01
Wind turbines sometimes experience the turbulent windmill state during startup or shutdown. This rarely happens during normal operation, so it has little effect on power curves or energy production. However, for completeness we need to be able to model situations where the axial induction factor exceeds 0.5. Classical momentum theory, which shows a relationship between the thrust coefficient and the axial induction factor, is not valid in this region. Glauert plotted some experimental data taken by Lock in the 1920s against this parabolic relationship and found very poor agreement for operation in this high-induction state. He proposed a new empirical relationship to fit the experimental data. Unfortunately, the new empirical curve does not account for tip or hub losses. Others have proposed multiplying the axial induction factor by the loss factor to correct the curve, but this still leaves a mathematical no-man's-land between the classical curve and the modified version of Glauert's empirical curve. The purpose of this paper is to document the derivation of a new curve that accounts for tip and hub losses and eliminates the numerical problems of the previous approaches.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, T. J.
1972-01-01
Results of an exploratory study of the structure and properties of friction welds in Udimet 700 (U-700) and TD-nickel (TD-Ni) bar materials, as well as dissimilar U-700/TD-Ni friction welds. Butt welds were prepared by friction welding 12.7-mm-diam U-700 bars and TD-Ni bars. Specimens for elevated temperature tensile and stress rupture testing were machined after a postweld heat treatment. Friction welding of U-700 shows great potential because the welds were found to be as strong as the parent metal in stress rupture and tensile tests at 760 and 980 C. In addition, the weld line was not detectable by metallographic examination after postheating. Friction welds in TD-Ni or between U-700 and TD-Ni were extremely weak at elevated temperatures. The TD-Ni friction welds could support only 9% as much stress as the base metal for 10-hour stress rupture life at 1090 C. The U-700/TD-Ni weld could sustain only 15% as much stress as the TD-Ni parent metal for a 10-hour stress rupture life at 930 C. Thus friction welding is not a suitable joining method for obtaining high-strength TD-Ni or U-700/TD-Ni weldments.
Turbulence models and Reynolds analogy for two-dimensional supersonic compression ramp flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Chi R.; Bidek, Maleina C.
1994-01-01
Results of the application of turbulence models and the Reynolds analogy to the Navier-Stokes computations of Mach 2.9 two-dimensional compression ramp flows are presented. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model and the kappa-epsilon turbulence transport equations for the turbulent momentum flux modeling in the Navier-Stokes equations are studied. The Reynolds analogy for the turbulent heat flux modeling in the energy equation was also studied. The Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation were numerically solved for the flow properties. The Reynolds shear stress, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer rate were calculated and compared with their measurements. It was concluded that with a hybrid kappa-epsilon turbulence model for turbulence modeling, the present computations predicted the skin friction factors of the 8 deg and 16 deg compression ramp flows and with the turbulent Prandtl number Pr(sub t) = 0.93 and the ratio of the turbulent thermal and momentum transport coefficients mu(sub q)/mu(sub t) = 2/Prt, the present computations also predicted the surface heat transfer rates beneath the boundary layer flow of the 16 compression ramp.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Engineering K-Ph.D. Program,
With a simple demonstration activity, students are introduced to the concept of friction as a force that impedes motion when two surfaces are in contact. Then, in the Associated Activity (Sliding and Stuttering), they work in teams to use a spring scale to drag an object such as a ceramic coffee cup along a table top or the floor. The spring scale allows them to measure the frictional force that exists between the moving cup and the surface it slides on. By modifying the bottom surface of the cup, students can find out what kinds of surfaces generate more or less friction. They also discover that both static and kinetic friction are involved when an object initially at rest is caused to slide across a surface.
Kinsey, J.E.; Waltz, R.E.; Candy, J. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)
2006-02-15
This paper reports on over 100 nonlinear simulations used to systematically study the effects of safety factor q and magnetic shear s on turbulent energy and particle transport due to ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEM) for several reference cases using the GYRO gyrokinetic code. All the simulations are collisionless, electrostatic, and utilize shifted circle geometry. The motivation is to create a database for benchmarking and testing of turbulent transport models. In simulations varying q, it is found that the ion and electron energy transport exhibit an offset linear dependence on q for 1{<=}q{<=}4. This result is valid for cases in which the spectrum is dominated by either TEM or ITG modes. The particle transport also follows a linear q dependence if the diffusivity D is positive (outward). If a particle pinch is predicted, however, then D is found to be insensitive to q. In kinetic electron simulations varying the magnetic shear s, the particle transport can exhibit a null flow at a particular value of s. In the vicinity of the null flow point, the transport spectrum shows that some modes drive an inward flow while others drive an outward flow. For negative magnetic shear, the magnetohydrodynamic {alpha} parameter is shown to be stabilizing for both the energy and particle transport but can be destabilizing for large positive shear. Compared to the ITG dominated case, the TEM cases show the same linear q dependence, but a weaker s dependence is exhibited for positive magnetic shear values when TEM modes dominate the spectrum. In general, the q, s, and {alpha} dependence of the transport including kinetic electrons is consistent with ITG adiabatic electron simulation results.
Navier-Stokes Computations With One-Equation Turbulence Model for Flows Along Concave Wall Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Chi R.
2005-01-01
This report presents the use of a time-marching three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation numerical solver with a one-equation turbulence model to simulate the flow fields developed along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension flat wall surface. The 3-D Navier- Stokes numerical solver came from the NASA Glenn-HT code. The one-equation turbulence model was derived from the Spalart and Allmaras model. The computational approach was first calibrated with the computations of the velocity and Reynolds shear stress profiles of a steady flat plate boundary layer flow. The computational approach was then used to simulate developing boundary layer flows along concave wall surfaces without and with a downstream extension wall. The author investigated the computational results of surface friction factors, near surface velocity components, near wall temperatures, and a turbulent shear stress component in terms of turbulence modeling, computational mesh configurations, inlet turbulence level, and time iteration step. The computational results were compared with existing measurements of skin friction factors, velocity components, and shear stresses of the developing boundary layer flows. With a fine computational mesh and a one-equation model, the computational approach could predict accurately the skin friction factors, near surface velocity and temperature, and shear stress within the flows. The computed velocity components and shear stresses also showed the vortices effect on the velocity variations over a concave wall. The computed eddy viscosities at the near wall locations were also compared with the results from a two equation turbulence modeling technique. The inlet turbulence length scale was found to have little effect on the eddy viscosities at locations near the concave wall surface. The eddy viscosities, from the one-equation and two-equation modeling, were comparable at most stream-wise stations. The present one-equation turbulence model is an effective approach for turbulence modeling in the near solid wall surface region of flow over a concave wall.
On the scaling of temperature fluctuations induced by frictional heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bos, Wouter J. T.; Chahine, Robert; Pushkarev, Andrey V.
2015-09-01
The temperature fluctuations generated by viscous dissipation in an isotropic turbulent flow are studied using direct numerical simulation. It is shown that their scaling with Reynolds number is at odds with predictions from recent investigations. The origin of the discrepancy is traced back to the anomalous scaling of the dissipation rate fluctuations. Phenomenological arguments are presented which explain the observed results. The study shows that previously proposed models underpredict the variance of frictional temperature fluctuations by a factor proportional to the square of the Taylor-scale Reynolds number.
Semiempirical methods for computing turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belov, I. A.; Ginzburg, I. P.
1986-01-01
Two semiempirical theories which provide a basis for determining the turbulent friction and heat exchange near a wall are presented: (1) the Prandtl-Karman theory, and (2) the theory utilizing an equation for the energy of turbulent pulsations. A comparison is made between exact numerical methods and approximate integral methods for computing the turbulent boundary layers in the presence of pressure, blowing, or suction gradients. Using the turbulent flow around a plate as an example, it is shown that, when computing turbulent flows with external turbulence, it is preferable to construct a turbulence model based on the equation for energy of turbulent pulsations.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-09-18
Students use LEGO® MINDSTORMS® robotics to help conceptualize and understand the force of friction. Specifically, they observe how different surfaces in contact result in different frictional forces. A LEGO robot is constructed to pull a two-wheeled trailer made of LEGO parts. The robot is programmed to pull the trailer 10 feet and trial runs are conducted on smooth and textured surfaces. The speed and motor power of the robot is kept constant in all trials so students observe the effect of friction between various combinations of surfaces and trailer wheels. To apply what they learn, students act as engineers and create the most effective car by designing the most optimal tires for given surface conditions.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2010-01-01
The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this activity, Students will learn several important characteristics about friction. Students will also learn why athletes who curl in the Winter Olympics try to understand and control friction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagan, Peter
A gas turbine airfoil contains multiple coolant passageways. These passages usually have rib roughened wall surfaces in order to increase the heat transfer from the blade to the cooling air. Auxiliary power and compressed air is very valuable in a gas turbine, therefore low pumping power requirements are crucial. The thermal performance of three different coolant channel geometries with three different rib sizes was investigated. Heat transfer calculations were performed for Reynolds numbers ranging from 6,000 to 40,000. The performance characteristics were calculated through the use of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor. In this study, the most desirable characteristics are a high heat transfer coefficient and minimal pumping power requirements. The thermal performance of each case was determined by comparing the average Nusselt numbers to the friction factor ratio. The resulting value was then plotted against the Reynolds number for each case. The trending data indicated thermal efficiency decreases with an increasing Reynolds number for all cases. The picture data shows increased thermal efficiency at larger distances from the nose portion of the cavity. In addition, thermal efficiency was higher at the half distance of the rib pitch while areas close to the ribs saw a lower thermal efficiency. The following experimental data will show that Rig 2 and 3 are the most thermally efficient geometries, with Rig 2 requiring lower pumping power and Rig 3 having a higher average Nusselt number.
Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar
2013-01-01
Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795
Active nematic materials with substrate friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thampi, Sumesh P.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.
2014-12-01
Active turbulence in dense active systems is characterized by high vorticity on a length scale that is large compared to that of individual entities. We describe the properties of active turbulence as momentum propagation is screened by frictional damping. As friction is increased, the spacing between the walls in the nematic director field decreases as a consequence of the more rapid velocity decays. This leads to, first, a regime with more walls and an increased number of topological defects, and then to a jammed state in which the walls deliminate bands of opposing flow, analogous to the shear bands observed in passive complex fluids.
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING Assignment #3
Groth, Clinton P. T.
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING Assignment #3 1. Beginning with the standard k- model of Jones- model. 2. Simplify the k- and k- models for log-layer turbulent flows. Determine the value of the von K is the friction velocity. 3. Consider the one-equation eddy-viscosity-type turbulence model in which the transport
Velocity profiles for turbulent boundary layers under freestream turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, J. A.; Mohammadi, K.
1991-09-01
Correlations for changes of skin friction coefficients and wake parameters, relative to the low freestream turbulence condition, are presented for the case of turbulent boundary layers under freestream turbulence with zero and adverse pressure gradients. The turbulent boundary layers were evaluated on a plate in a wind tunnel using a monoplane rod set turbulence generator; comparisons were also made using the data of several other investigators. The results, which define the velocity profiles within the boundary layers, were found to collapse for a large range of the pressure gradient parameter.
Skin-Friction Measurements in Incompressible Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Donald W.; Walker, John H.
1959-01-01
Experiments have been conducted to measure the local surface-shear stress and the average skin-friction coefficient in Incompressible flow for a turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate having zero pressure gradient. Data were obtained for a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 million to 45 million. The local surface-shear stress was measured by a floating-element skin-friction balance and also by a calibrated total head tube located on the surface of the test wall. The average skin-friction coefficient was obtained from boundary-layer velocity profiles.
Recent skin friction techniques for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Settles, G. S.
1986-01-01
A brief review is given of developments over the last decade in techniques for the measurement of skin friction in compressible airflows. Emphasis is placed on mean measurements beneath turbulent boundary layers in the supersonic and hypersonic flow regimes. Recent improvements in existing techniques such as the skin friction balance, Preston tube, sublayer fence, and heat transfer analogy are discussed. New or potential techniques including optical and acoustic measurements are also treated. Finally, new results are presented on the adaptation of the recently-developed laser interferometer skin friction meter for use in high-speed wind tunnels.
Free-stream turbulence and concave curvature effects on heated, transitional boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, J.; Simon, T. W.
1991-01-01
An experimental investigation of the transition process on flat-plate and concave curved-wall boundary layers for various free-stream turbulence levels was performed. Results show that for transition of a flat-plate, the two forms of boundary layer behavior, identified as laminar-like and turbulent-like, cannot be thought of as separate Blasius and fully-turbulent profiles, respectively. Thus, simple transition models in which the desired quantity is assumed to be an average, weighted on intermittency, of the theoretical laminar and fully turbulent values is not expected to be successful. Deviation of the flow identified as laminar-like from theoretical laminar behavior is shown to be due to recovery after the passage of a turbulent spot, while deviation of the flow identified as turbulent-like from the full-turbulent values is thought to be due to incomplete establishment of the fully-turbulent power spectral distribution. Turbulent Prandtl numbers for the transitional flow, computed from measured shear stress, turbulent heat flux and mean velocity and temperature profiles, were less than unity. For the curved-wall case with low free-stream turbulence intensity, the existence of Gortler vortices on the concave wall within both laminar and turbulent flows was established using liquid crystal visualization and spanwise velocity and temperature traverses. Transition was found to occur via a vortex breakdown mode. The vortex wavelength was quite irregular in both the laminar and turbulent flows, but the vortices were stable in time and space. The upwash was found to be more unstable, with higher levels of u' and u'v', and lower skin friction coefficients and shape factors. Turbulent Prandtl numbers, measured using a triple-wire probe, were found to be near unity for all post-transitional profiles, indicating no gross violation of Reynolds analogy. No evidence of streamwise vortices was seen in the high turbulence intensity case.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pomey, Jacques
1952-01-01
From the practical point of view, this analysis shows that each problem of friction or wear requires its particular solution. There is no universal solution; one or other of the factors predominates and defines the choice of the solution. In certain cases, copper alloys of great thermal conductivity are preferred; in others, plastics abundantly supplied with water. Sometimes, soft antifriction metals are desirable to distribute the load; at other times, hard metals with high resistance to abrasion or heat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venaille, Antoine; Nadeau, Louis-Philippe; Vallis, Geoffrey
2014-12-01
We investigate the non-linear equilibration of a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow in a channel with an initial eastward baroclinically unstable jet in the upper layer, paying particular attention to the role of bottom friction. In the limit of low bottom friction, classical theory of geostrophic turbulence predicts an inverse cascade of kinetic energy in the horizontal with condensation at the domain scale and barotropization in the vertical. By contrast, in the limit of large bottom friction, the flow is dominated by ribbons of high kinetic energy in the upper layer. These ribbons correspond to meandering jets separating regions of homogenized potential vorticity. We interpret these results by taking advantage of the peculiar conservation laws satisfied by this system: the dynamics can be recast in such a way that the initial eastward jet in the upper layer appears as an initial source of potential vorticity levels in the upper layer. The initial baroclinic instability leads to a turbulent flow that stirs this potential vorticity field while conserving the global distribution of potential vorticity levels. Statistical mechanical theory of the 1 1/2 layer quasi-geostrophic model predicts the formation of two regions of homogenized potential vorticity separated by a minimal interface. We explain that cascade phenomenology leads to the same result. We then show that the dynamics of the ribbons results from a competition between a tendency to reach the equilibrium state and baroclinic instability that induces meanders of the interface. These meanders intermittently break and induce potential vorticity mixing, but the interface remains sharp throughout the flow evolution. We show that for some parameter regimes, the ribbons act as a mixing barrier which prevents relaxation toward equilibrium, favouring the emergence of multiple zonal (eastward) jets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Juan-Cheng; Li, Feng-Chen; Cai, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Na; Yu, Bo
2015-08-01
Our previous experimental studies have confirmed that viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluid (VFBN) prepared by suspending nanoparticles in a viscoelastic base fluid (VBF, behaves drag reduction at turbulent flow state) can reduce turbulent flow resistance as compared with water and enhance heat transfer as compared with VBF. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed in this study to explore the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement (HTE) and flow drag reduction (DR) for the VFBN turbulent flow. The Giesekus model is used as the constitutive equation for VFBN. Our previously proposed thermal dispersion model is adopted to take into account the thermal dispersion effects of nanoparticles in the VFBN turbulent flow. The DNS results show similar behaviors for flow resistance and heat transfer to those obtained in our previous experiments. Detailed analyses are conducted for the turbulent velocity, temperature, and conformation fields obtained by DNSs for different fluid cases, and for the friction factor with viscous, turbulent, and elastic contributions and heat transfer rate with conductive, turbulent and thermal dispersion contributions of nanoparticles, respectively. The mechanisms of HTE and DR of VFBN turbulent flows are then discussed. Based on analogy theory, the ratios of Chilton–Colburn factor to friction factor for different fluid flow cases are investigated, which from another aspect show the significant enhancement in heat transfer performance for some cases of water-based nanofluid and VFBN turbulent flows. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51276046), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561037), and the President Fund of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. Y3510213N00).
Behavior of particles in turbulence over a wavy wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hea Eun; Lee, Changhoon
2012-11-01
Particle motion in near-wall turbulence plays an important role in many physical processes such as sediment transport and pollution control. There have been many studies which focused on particles in turbulence over a flat wall. Behavior of particles over a rough wall, however, was not investigated much. In this study, particle motion in turbulent flow over a wavy wall is investigated using direct numerical simulation. The wave-induced variation of flow is simulated by spectral method and compared with the flow over a flat wall. The virtual boundary method proposed by Goldstein et al. (1995) is applied to impose no-slip condition at wavy boundary. To begin with, we focused on the differences between turbulence generated at a wavy boundary and one at a flat wall such as friction factors, velocity fluctuations, and vortical structures associated with shear layers that form behind the wave. Also, focusing on the mechanism controlling the inertial particles in turbulence, particle motion in turbulence over wavy wall is investigated. Due to the turbulent structure modified by wavy geometry, inertial particles are clustering in upslope part of the wall which is the region with high shear stress. Detailed particle statistics over a wavy wall will be discussed in the meeting.
Samanta, Devranjan; Dubief, Yves; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; Morozov, Alexander N.; Wagner, Christian; Hof, Björn
2013-01-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet even for the case of ordinary Newtonian fluids like water, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited. Many liquids of practical importance are more complicated (e.g., blood, polymer melts, paints), however; they exhibit elastic as well as viscous characteristics, and the relation between stress and strain is nonlinear. We demonstrate here for a model system of such complex fluids that at high shear rates, turbulence is not simply modified as previously believed but is suppressed and replaced by a different type of disordered motion, elasto-inertial turbulence. Elasto-inertial turbulence is found to occur at much lower Reynolds numbers than Newtonian turbulence, and the dynamical properties differ significantly. The friction scaling observed coincides with the so-called “maximum drag reduction” asymptote, which is exhibited by a wide range of viscoelastic fluids. PMID:23757498
MEASUREMENT OF WALL SHEAR STRESS IN TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS USING AN OPTICAL INTERFEROMETRY METHOD
Marusic, Ivan
MEASUREMENT OF WALL SHEAR STRESS IN TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS USING AN OPTICAL INTERFEROMETRY meter was built and was used to measure skin friction in a series of turbulent boundary layer ows scaling velocity for turbulent boundary layers. Unfortunately, direct measurement of skin friction
Hidano, A; Mizuguchi, M; Higaki, Y
1984-01-01
We describe 23 cases of unusual brownish pigmentation occurring over the bony tissues such as clavicle, scapula or vertebrae. There were 19 females and 4 males. The age ranged from 18 to 59, mostly between 20 and 35 years. Since the first observation in 1977, cases gradually increased. The pigmentation usually showed ripple pattern on the upper back and clavicular region, zebra-like pattern over the ribs and postage-stamp-like macule over the vertebral column. Although there was no inflammatory sign such as itching or scaling, histology revealed postinflammatory melanin deposit in the upper dermis. Exceptional detection of amyloid deposit in the papillary layer in one case could be secondary to the slight epidermal damage actually disappeared. The general condition was not affected, and laboratory data remained within normal limits. This unique melanosis should be separated from other pigmentary disorders and macular amyloidosis. We would like to propose the name of friction melanosis, because this condition should be intimately related with the repeated friction by nylon towel or brush, widely used by young peoples in the bathroom. PMID:6529077
Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Three-Dimensional Duct Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rokni, M.; Gatski, T. B.
1999-01-01
The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in straight ducts, with square, rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions over a range of Reynolds numbers. Iso-thermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled by gradient-diffusion type models. At high Reynolds numbers (>/= 10(exp 5)), wall functions are used for the velocity and temperature fields; while at low Reynolds numbers damping functions are introduced into the models. Hydraulic parameters such as friction factor and Nusselt number are well predicted even when damping functions are used, and the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Comparison between the models is presented in terms of the hydraulic parameters, friction factor and Nusselt number, as well as in terms of the secondary flow patterns occurring within the ducts.
Hydrodynamic skin-friction reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Jason C. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
A process for reducing skin friction, inhibiting the effects of liquid turbulence, and decreasing heat transfer in a system involving flow of a liquid along a surface of a body includes applying a substantially integral sheet of a gas, e.g., air, immediately adjacent to the surface of the body, e.g., a marine vehicle, which has a longitudinally grooved surface in proximity with the liquid and with a surface material having high contact angle between the liquid and said wall to reduce interaction of the liquid, e.g., water, with the surface of the body, e.g., the hull of the marine vehicle.
A Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Flow in Noncircular Ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kao, Hsiao C.
1994-01-01
Since turbulent duct flows play an important role in engineering, continuous efforts to investigate this problem have been made. Until recently, these investigations were limited mostly to experiments and various semi-analytic methods. Owing to the improvement of turbulence modeling, the prevailing method of prediction is now mainly numerical. The majority of these studies deals, however, with turbulent flows in circular or square ducts and only limited information is available for straight noncircular ducts. In view of this situation, we propose to conduct a numerical investigation of turbulent flow in a class of ducts, whose cross sections vary from a circle to a near square. Turbulent flow in a noncircular duct is characterized by the presence of secondary flow for which a more refined turbulence model than the k-epsilon equations is required. In order to show that the calculated results are credible, various modes of verification were used to examine the results for a selected configuration, including an accuracy check by a scaling law and observing the decay of secondary flow as the cross section changes from a noncircular shape to a circle. After this was done, computations were performed for other configurations and with different Reynolds numbers from which wall shear stresses and friction factors are plotted.
Lycksam, Henrik; Sjödahl, Mikael; Gren, Per; Leblanc, James
2008-06-01
The problem of imaging through turbulent media has been studied frequently in connection with astronomical imaging and airborne radars. Therefore most image restoration methods encountered in the literature assume a stationary object, e.g., a star or a piece of land. In this paper the problem of interferometric measurements of slowly moving or deforming objects in the presence of air disturbances and vibrations is discussed. Measurement noise is reduced by postprocessing the data with a digital noise suppression filter that uses a reference noise signal measured on a small stationary plate inserted in the field of view. The method has proven successful in reducing noise in the vicinity of the reference point where the size of the usable area depends on the degree of spatial correlation in the noise, which in turn depends on the spatial scales present in the air turbulence. Vibrations among the optical components in the setup tend to produce noise that is highly correlated across the field of view and is thus efficiently reduced by the filter. PMID:18516114
Prediction of Very High Reynolds Number Compressible Skin Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, John R.
1998-01-01
Flat plate skin friction calculations over a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 3.5 at Reynolds numbers from 16 million to 492 million using a Navier Stokes method with advanced turbulence modeling are compared with incompressible skin friction coefficient correlations. The semi-empirical correlation theories of van Driest; Cope; Winkler and Cha; and Sommer and Short T' are used to transform the predicted skin friction coefficients of solutions using two algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence models in the Navier-Stokes method PAB3D. In general, the predicted skin friction coefficients scaled well with each reference temperature theory though, overall the theory by Sommer and Short appeared to best collapse the predicted coefficients. At the lower Reynolds number 3 to 30 million, both the Girimaji and Shih, Zhu and Lumley turbulence models predicted skin-friction coefficients within 2% of the semi-empirical correlation skin friction coefficients. At the higher Reynolds numbers of 100 to 500 million, the turbulence models by Shih, Zhu and Lumley and Girimaji predicted coefficients that were 6% less and 10% greater, respectively, than the semi-empirical coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohn, Ki-Hyeon; Reshotko, Eli
1991-01-01
A detailed investigation to document momentum and thermal development of boundary layers undergoing natural transition on a heated flat plate was performed. Experimental results of both overall and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional, and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are presented. Measurements were acquired in a low-speed, closed-loop wind tunnel with a freestream velocity of 100 ft/s and zero pressure gradient over a range of freestream turbulence intensities (TI) from 0.4 to 6 percent. The distributions of skin friction, heat transfer rate and Reynolds shear stress were all consistent with previously published data. Reynolds analogy factors for R(sub theta) is less than 2300 were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for an unheated starting length. The measured laminar value of Reynolds analogy factor was as much as 53 percent higher than the Pr(sup -2/3). A small dependence of turbulent results on TI was observed. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layer indicated the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, pronounced at certain low intermittencies, which is consistent with the cross-sectional shape of turbulent spots observed by others. Non-turbulent intervals were observed to possess large magnitudes of near-wall unsteadiness and turbulent intervals had peak values as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Non-turbulent and turbulent profiles in transitional boundary layers cannot be simply treated as Blasius and fully turbulent profiles, respectively. The boundary layer spectra indicate predicted selective amplification of T-S waves for TI is approximately 0.4 percent. However, for TI is approximately 0.8 and 1.1 percent, T-S waves are localized very near the wall and do not play a dominant role in transition process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, Ki-Hyeon; Reshotko, Eli
1991-02-01
A detailed investigation to document momentum and thermal development of boundary layers undergoing natural transition on a heated flat plate was performed. Experimental results of both overall and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional, and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are presented. Measurements were acquired in a low-speed, closed-loop wind tunnel with a freestream velocity of 100 ft/s and zero pressure gradient over a range of freestream turbulence intensities (TI) from 0.4 to 6 percent. The distributions of skin friction, heat transfer rate and Reynolds shear stress were all consistent with previously published data. Reynolds analogy factors for R(sub theta) is less than 2300 were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for an unheated starting length. The measured laminar value of Reynolds analogy factor was as much as 53 percent higher than the Pr(sup -2/3). A small dependence of turbulent results on TI was observed. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layer indicated the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, pronounced at certain low intermittencies, which is consistent with the cross-sectional shape of turbulent spots observed by others. Non-turbulent intervals were observed to possess large magnitudes of near-wall unsteadiness and turbulent intervals had peak values as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Non-turbulent and turbulent profiles in transitional boundary layers cannot be simply treated as Blasius and fully turbulent profiles, respectively. The boundary layer spectra indicate predicted selective amplification of T-S waves for TI is approximately 0.4 percent. However, for TI is approximately 0.8 and 1.1 percent, T-S waves are localized very near the wall and do not play a dominant role in transition process.
Effects of the surface deformation on the free surface turbulent behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Serizawa, Akimi
2001-11-01
In this study, Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of wind-driven turbulent flow at the Reynolds number is about 3300 based on the gas layer height and the free stream velocity, was conducted by the direct numerical solution procedure (MARS method) for a coupled gas-liquid flow. As the results, completely mass conservation was kept during the all calculation time and the capacity of MARS method as the method for DNS of multiphase turbulent flow was indicated. In wind-driven turbulent flow, local friction coefficient in gas side was 15 wall turbulent flow. Near free surface, large horizontal scale shaped the free surface wave motion supplied the velocity fluctuations to the fluid motion. But, vertical component of turbulent intensity was constrained by the free surface existence as well as turbulent open-channel flow at low Froude number. In both gas- and water-side, high and low speed streaky structures were observed and these structures and surface wave motion was interacted each other. It seems that relationships between wave height and turbulent boundary layer thickness was one of the important factors in wind-driven turbulent structure.
Continuum modeling of crowd turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golas, Abhinav; Narain, Rahul; Lin, Ming C.
2014-10-01
With the growth in world population, the density of crowds in public places has been increasing steadily, leading to a higher incidence of crowd disasters at high densities. Recent research suggests that emergent chaotic behavior at high densities—known collectively as crowd turbulence—is to blame. Thus, a deeper understanding of crowd turbulence is needed to facilitate efforts to prevent and plan for chaotic conditions in high-density crowds. However, it has been noted that existing algorithms modeling collision avoidance cannot faithfully simulate crowd turbulence. We hypothesize that simulation of crowd turbulence requires modeling of both collision avoidance and frictional forces arising from pedestrian interactions. Accordingly, we propose a model for turbulent crowd simulation, which incorporates a model for interpersonal stress and acceleration constraints similar to real-world pedestrians. Our simulated results demonstrate a close correspondence with observed metrics for crowd turbulence as measured in known crowd disasters.
The effect of wall friction on magnetohydrodynamic generator performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, A. R.
1972-01-01
The effect of wall friction on magnetohydrodynamic generator performance is determined by introduction of a wall friction factor into the one-dimensional generator equations. This addition should be useful in improving generator analysis and determining optimum generator geometry. The curves presented can be used to determine the effects of changes in wall friction and generator performance. Wall friction has an increasing effect on the Mach number increases and a decreasing effect as the pressure drop across the generator increase.
Drag reduction: enticing turbulence, and then an industry.
Spalart, Philippe R; McLean, J Douglas
2011-04-13
We examine drag-reduction proposals, as presented in this volume and in general, first with concrete examples of how to bridge the distance from pure science through engineering to what makes inventions go into service; namely, the value to the public. We point out that the true drag reduction can be markedly different from an estimate based simply on the difference between turbulent and laminar skin friction over the laminarized region, or between the respective skin frictions of the baseline and the riblet-treated flow. In some situations, this difference is favourable, and is due to secondary differences in pressure drag. We reiterate that the benefit of riblets, if it is expressed as a percentage in skin-friction reduction, is unfortunately lower at full-size Reynolds numbers than in a small-scale experiment or simulation. The Reynolds number-independent measure of such benefits is a shift of the logarithmic law, or '?U(+)'. Anticipating the design of a flight test and then a product, we note the relative ease in representing riblets or laminarization in computational fluid dynamics, in contrast with the huge numerical and turbulence-modelling challenge of resolving active flow control systems in a calculation of the full flow field. We discuss in general terms the practical factors that have limited applications of concepts that would appear more than ready after all these years, particularly riblets and laminar-flow control. PMID:21382831
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhuiya, Muhammad Mostafa Kamal; Chowdhury, M. S. U.; Ahamed, J. U.; Azad, A. K.
2015-07-01
An experimental investigation was accomplished to evaluate the performance of heat transfer for turbulent flow through a tube with helical tape inserts. The mild steel helical tape inserts with different twist ratios of 1.88, 3.13, 4.69, 6.41 and 7.81 were used in the flow field. Heat transfer and pressure drop data were prompted for a wide range of Reynolds number from 7200 to 50,000. The experimental results indicated that the Nusselt number, friction factor and thermal performance factor were increased with decreasing twist ratio. The results also showed that helical tape inserts of different geometries in a circular tube enhanced the heat transfer rate significantly with corresponding increase in friction factor. Nusselt number and friction factor for the tube with inserts were found to be increased up to 260 and 285 %, respectively, than those over the plain tube values at the comparable Reynolds number. The heat transfer performance was evaluated and found to be 44 % higher compared to the plain tube based on the constant blower power. Finally, new correlations were proposed for the twist ratios ranging from 1.88 to 7.81 for predicting the heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance factor for turbulent flow through a circular tube fitted with helical tape inserts.
Chou, Danielle, 1981-
2004-01-01
The drive behind improved friction models has been better prediction and control of dynamic systems. The earliest model was of classical Coulomb friction; however, the discontinuity during force reversal of the Coulomb ...
Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow
Kostic, Milivoje M.
@niu.edu * www.kostic.niu.edu Abstract: - An apparatus for exploring friction and heat transfer characteristics distilled water for which the results are well established and correlated for both laminar and turbulent
Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction
Guo, Yi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey; Qu, Zhihua [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Braiman, Yehuda [ORNL; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL; Barhen, Jacob [ORNL
2008-01-01
Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.
2014-11-01
The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.
Microblowing Technique Demonstrated to Reduce Skin Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, Danny P.; Biesiadny, Tom J.
1998-01-01
One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. Reduced skin friction means less drag. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none of them has significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. An innovative skin-friction reduction technique, the Microblowing Technique (MBT), was invented in 1993. This is a unique concept in which an extremely small amount of air is blown vertically at a surface through very small holes. It can be used for aircraft or marine vehicles, such as submarines (where water is blown through the holes instead of air). As shown in the figure, the outer layer, which controls vertical flow, is a plate with high-vertical holes. The inner layer, which produces evenly distributed flow, is a low-permeability porous plate. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction.
Hongjie Wang; Kenji Ikeuchi; Makoto Takahashi; Akio Ikeda
2009-01-01
The microstructures of an Inconel 718 alloy subjected to rapid thermal and stress cycles have been investigated to explain those observed in the friction welded joint of the alloy. The thermal and stress cycles were simulated with a Gleeble thermal and mechanical simulator. It turned out that the microstructural changes caused by the rapid heating cycle at peak temperatures of
Effects of hydrophobic surface on skin-friction drag Taegee Min and John Kim
Kim, John
Effects of hydrophobic surface on skin-friction drag Taegee Min and John Kim Department March 2004; accepted 5 April 2004; published online 25 May 2004 Effects of hydrophobic surface on skin-friction drag are investigated through direct numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow. Hydrophobic
The curvature of the wind profile as a factor in the formation of clear-air turbulence
Possiel, Norman Charles
1974-01-01
is negative. These relationships were tested by using two independent XB-70 flights. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was sponsored by NASA Grant NGR-44-001-081 under the direction of Dr. James R. Scoggins. The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude..., 1965. at 12 UT 14 The XB-70 flight track and turbulence data of December 2, 1965 Rawinsonde stations across the western United States 17 General areal extent of XB-70 flights 18 Turbulent and non-turbulent regions for January 15, 1966 22...
Distinguishing ichthyogenic turbulence from geophysical turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pujiana, Kandaga; Moum, James N.; Smyth, William D.; Warner, Sally J.
2015-05-01
Measurements of currents and turbulence beneath a geostationary ship in the equatorial Indian Ocean during a period of weak surface forcing revealed unexpectedly strong turbulence beneath the surface mixed layer. Coincident with the turbulence was a marked reduction of the current speeds registered by shipboard Doppler current profilers, and an increase in their variability. At a mooring 1 km away, measurements of turbulence and currents showed no such anomalies. Correlation with the shipboard echo sounder measurements indicate that these nighttime anomalies were associated with fish aggregations beneath the ship. The fish created turbulence by swimming against the strong zonal current in order to remain beneath the ship, and their presence affected the Doppler speed measurements. The principal characteristics of the resultant ichthyogenic turbulence are (i) low wave number roll-off of shear spectra in the inertial subrange relative to geophysical turbulence, (ii) Thorpe overturning scales that are small compared with the Ozmidov scale, and (iii) low mixing efficiency. These factors extend previous findings by Gregg and Horne (2009) to a very different biophysical regime and support the general conclusion that the biological contribution to mixing the ocean via turbulence is negligible.
Byerlee, J.
1978-01-01
Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.
Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Fully Developed Duct Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rokni, Masoud; Gatski, Thomas B.
2001-01-01
The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in both straight and wavy ducts, with rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions. A comparison of secondary flow patterns. including velocity vectors and velocity and temperature contours, are shown in order to study the effect of waviness on flow dynamics, and comparisons between the hydraulic parameters. Fanning friction factor and Nusselt number, are also presented. In all cases. isothermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls, and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled using gradient-diffusion type models. The formulation is valid for Reynolds numbers up to 10(exp 5) and this minimizes the need for wall functions that have been used with mixed success in previous studies of complex duct flows. In addition, the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Criteria in terms of heat transfer and friction factor needed to choose the optimal wavy duct cross-section for industrial applications among the ones considered are discussed.
Transition to Superfluid Turbulence
V. B. Eltsov; M. Krusius; G. E. Volovik
2006-08-24
Turbulence in superfluids depends crucially on the dissipative damping in vortex motion. This is observed in the B phase of superfluid 3He where the dynamics of quantized vortices changes radically in character as a function of temperature. An abrupt transition to turbulence is the most peculiar consequence. As distinct from viscous hydrodynamics, this transition to turbulence is not governed by the velocity-dependent Reynolds number, but by a velocity-independent dimensionless parameter 1/q which depends only on the temperature-dependent mutual friction -- the dissipation which sets in when vortices move with respect to the normal excitations of the liquid. At large friction and small values of 1/q 1 vortices are easily destabilized and proliferate in number. A new measuring technique was employed to identify this hydrodynamic transition: the injection of a tight bundle of many small vortex loops in applied vortex-free flow at relatively high velocities. These vortices are ejected from a vortex sheet covering the AB interface when a two-phase sample of 3He-A and 3He-B is set in rotation and the interface becomes unstable at a critical rotation velocity, triggered by the superfluid Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
Friction Mediated by Redox-Active Supramolecular Connector Molecules.
Bozna, B L; Blass, J; Albrecht, M; Hausen, F; Wenz, G; Bennewitz, R
2015-10-01
We report on a friction study at the nanometer scale using atomic force microscopy under electrochemical control. Friction arises from the interaction between two surfaces functionalized with cyclodextrin molecules. The interaction is mediated by connector molecules with (ferrocenylmethyl)ammonium end groups forming supramolecular complexes with the cyclodextrin molecules. With ferrocene connector molecules in solution, the friction increases by a factor of up to 12 compared to control experiments without connector molecules. The electrochemical oxidation of ferrocene to ferrocenium causes a decrease in friction owing to the lower stability of ferrocenium-cyclodextrin complex. Upon switching between oxidative and reduction potentials, a change in friction by a factor of 1.2-1.8 is observed. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals fast dissociation and rebinding kinetics and thus an equilibrium regime for the friction experiments. PMID:26367352
Extended ion pumped vacuum friction test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hammel, R. L.
1971-01-01
Boundary layer friction data under ion pumped vacuum was taken for sixteen material couples. The test series was an extension of a previous study of the effects of modified ion pumped environments. Sliding distances imposed in the present effort greatly exceeded any studied in the previous contiguous, flight or ground tests. Wear out of specific couples, in particular, thin film lubricants was noted. The behavior of the test hardware including wear out of the mechanisms was noted. As a result, the impact of test interruption was observed for several test couples. Recovery of the friction upon re-establishing sliding in vacuum was generally rapid. The results of the extended sliding study reinforce the previous conclusion that sliding distance (mechanical history) is the primary factor in establishing the force limiting boundary layer friction. General friction value under the extended sliding confirm those observed in previous orbital and the related ground test studies.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Engineering K-PhD Program,
In the first of two lessons of this curricular unit, students are introduced to the concept of friction as a force that impedes motion when two surfaces are in contact. Student teams use spring scales to drag objects, such as a ceramic coffee cup, along a table top or the floor, measuring the frictional force that exists between the moving object and the surface it slides on. By modifying the bottom surface of the object, students find out what kinds of surfaces generate more or less friction. They also discover that both static and kinetic friction are involved when an object initially at rest is caused to slide across a surface. In the second lesson of the unit, students design and conduct experiments to determine the effects of weight and surface area on friction. They discover that weight affects normal friction (the friction that results from surface roughness), but for very smooth surfaces, the friction due to molecular attraction is affected by contact area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Jose; Carraminana, Alberto
1999-06-01
1. Turbulence in the interstellar medium: a retrospective review; 2. Mechanism of formation of atmospheric turbulence relevant for optical astronomy; 3. Properties of atomic gas in spiral galaxies; 4. Turbulence in the ionized gas in spiral galaxies; 5. Probing interstellar turbulence in the warm ionized medium using emission lines; 6. The spectrum and galactic distribution of microturbulence in diffuse ionized gas; 7. Small scale structure and turbulence in the interstellar medium; 8. What is the Reynolds number of the Reynolds' layer?; 9. Photoionized gas in the galactic halo; 10. Turbulent heating of the diffuse ionized gas; 11. Cosmic rays in interstellar turbulence; 12. Turbulence in line-driven stellar winds; 13. An introduction to compressible MHD turbulence; 14. Turbulence in atomic hydrogen; 15. Supershells in spiral galaxies; 16. The size distribution of superbubbles in the interstellar medium; 17. Large-scale motions in the ISM of elliptical and spiral galaxies; 18. Vortical motions driven by supernova explosions; 19. The intermittent dissipation of turbulence: is it observed in the interstellar medium?; 20. Chemistry in turbulent flows; 21. Supersonic turbulence in giant extragalactic HII regions; 22. Turbulence in HII regions: new results; 23. Hypersonic turbulence of H2O masers; 24. Water masers tracing alfvenic turbulence and magnetic fields in W51 M and W49 N; 25. Turbulence in the Ursa Major cirrus cloud; 26. The collisions of HVCs with a magnetized gaseous disk; 27. The initial stellar mass function as a statistical sample of turbulent cloud structure; 28. The structure of molecular clouds: are they fractal?; 29. Diagnosing properties of turbulent flows from spectral line observations of the molecular interstellar medium; 30. Centroid velocity increments as a probe of the turbulent velocity field in interstellar molecular clouds; 31. High-resolution C18O mapping observations of Heiles' cloud 2 - statistical properties of the line width; 32. Observations of magnetic fields in dense interstellar clouds: implications for MHD turbulence and cloud evolution; 33. The density PDFs of supersonic random flows; 34. Turbulence as an organizing agent in the ISM; 35. Turbulence and magnetic reconnection in the interstellar medium; 36. The evolution of self-gravitating, magnetized, turbulent clouds: numerical experiments; 37. Super-Alfvénic turbulent fragmentation in molecular clouds; 38. Decay timescales of MHD turbulence in molecular clouds; 39. Numerical magnetohydrodynamic studies of turbulence and star formation; 40. Direct numerical simulations of compressible magnetohydrodynamical turbulence; 41. Fragmentation in molecular clouds: the formation of a stellar cluster; 42. Accretion disk turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takeshita, Riki (Inventor); Hibbard, Terry L. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
Friction plug welding (FPW) usage is advantageous for friction stir welding (FSW) hole close-outs and weld repairs in 2195 Al--Cu--Li fusion or friction stir welds. Current fusion welding methods of Al--Cu--Li have produced welds containing varied defects. These areas are found by non-destructive examination both after welding and after proof testing. Current techniques for repairing typically small (<0.25) defects weaken the weldment, rely heavily on welders' skill, and are costly. Friction plug welding repairs increase strength, ductility and resistance to cracking over initial weld quality, without requiring much time or operator skill. Friction plug welding while pulling the plug is advantageous because all hardware for performing the weld can be placed on one side of the workpiece.
The laser interferometer skin-friction meter - A numerical and experimental study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murphy, J. D.; Westphal, R. V.
1986-01-01
Limits to the applicability of thin-film lubrication theory are established. The following two problems are considered: (1) the response of the oil film to a time-varying skin friction such as is encountered in turbulent boundary layers, and (2) a 'surface-wave instability' encountered at high skin-friction levels. Results corresponding to the first problem reveal that the laser interferometer skin-friction meter may, in principle, be applied to the measurement of instantaneous skin friction. In addressing the second problem, it is shown that the observed surface waves are not the result of a hydrodynamic instability.
Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeman, Otto
1993-01-01
A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.
Simulation of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow with Large Roughness
Erika Johnson; Chelakara Subramanian
2006-01-01
Several studies indicate that in situations where surface roughness is very strong, the friction velocity scaling for the mean and turbulent velocities are not satisfactory. Subramanian et al showed a dramatic effect of a strong irregular roughened surface on the turbulent properties. The log-law relation in the overlap region was distorted. A significant pressure gradient normal to the surface was
Stabilization of the turbulent flows in anisotropic viscoelastic tubes
N. Kizilova; M. Hamadiche
2009-01-01
Flow around the aircrafts and marine vehicles is turbulized that increases the skin-friction drag and fuel consumption. Here stability of the fully developed turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid in the viscoelastic tube is considered. The eddy viscosity concept is considered to be adequate and the flow velocity, wall displacement and pressures in the fluid and solid wall are timeaveraged
A Numerical Study of a Scaling Parameter for Turbulent Boundary Layer with Large Roughness
Erika Johnson; Chelakara Subramanian
2007-01-01
Several investigations have shown that when a turbulent boundary layer is subjected to large surface roughness (on the order of the inner layer thickness), the friction velocity, utau, is not a suitable scaling parameter for the mean and turbulent velocities. Experimental studies concerning large surface roughness have consistently shown a dramatic effect on the mean and turbulent velocities, with the
Frictional melt and seismic slip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, S.; di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.; Shimamoto, T.
2008-01-01
Frictional melt is implied in a variety of processes such as seismic slip, ice skating, and meteorite combustion. A steady state can be reached when melt is continuously produced and extruded from the sliding interface, as shown recently in a number of laboratory rock friction experiments. A thin, low-viscosity, high-temperature melt layer is formed resulting in low shear resistance. A theoretical solution describing the coupling of shear heating, thermal diffusion, and extrusion is obtained, without imposing a priori the melt thickness. The steady state shear traction can be approximated at high slip rates by the theoretical form ?ss = ?n1/4 (A/?) ? under a normal stress ?n, slip rate V, radius of contact area R (A is a dimensional normalizing factor and W is a characteristic rate). Although the model offers a rather simplified view of a complex process, the predictions are compatible with experimental observations. In particular, we consider laboratory simulations of seismic slip on earthquake faults. A series of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on rocks, performed for ?n in the range 1-20 MPa and slip rates in the range 0.5-2 m s-1, is confronted to the theoretical model. The behavior is reasonably well reproduced, though the effect of radiation loss taking place in the experiment somewhat alters the data. The scaling of friction with ?n, R, and V in the presence of melt suggests that extrapolation of laboratory measures to real Earth is a highly nonlinear, nontrivial exercise.
Drag reduction potentials of turbulence manipulation in adverse pressure gradient flows
B. van den Berg
1988-01-01
It is noted that there is no neccessary correlation between skin friction minimization and drag minimization; the latter requires that account should be taken of both friction and pressure drag, so that in adverse pressure gradient regions, both low skin friction and small shape factor should be pursued. This restricts drag-reduction potentials, since skin friction redictions often entail shape-factor increments.
Interfacial friction damping properties in magnetorheological elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yanceng; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Jian; Jiang, Wanquan
2011-03-01
In this study, the interfacial friction damping properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) were investigated experimentally. Two kinds of carbonyl iron particles, with sizes of 1.1 µm and 9.0 µm, were used to fabricate four MRE samples, whose particle weight fractions were 10%, 30%, 60% and 80%, respectively. Their microstructures were observed using an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dynamic performances of these samples, including shear storage modulus and loss factor were measured with a modified dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The experimental results indicate that MRE samples fabricated with 1.1 µm carbonyl iron particles have obvious particle agglomeration, which results in the fluctuation of loss factor compared with other MRE samples fabricated with large particle sizes. The analysis implies that the interfacial friction damping mainly comes from the frictional sliding at the interfaces between the free rubber and the particles.
Wu, Binxin
2010-12-01
In this paper, 12 turbulence models for single-phase non-newtonian fluid flow in a pipe are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from three friction factor correlations. The turbulence models studied are (1) three high-Reynolds-number k-? models, (2) six low-Reynolds-number k-? models, (3) two k-? models, and (4) the Reynolds stress model. The simulation results indicate that the Chang-Hsieh-Chen version of the low-Reynolds-number k-? model performs better than the other models in predicting the frictional pressure drops while the standard k-? model has an acceptable accuracy and a low computing cost. In the model applications, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester with pumped circulation is performed to propose an improvement in the effective mixing standards recommended by the U.S. EPA based on the effect of rheology on the flow fields. Characterization of the velocity gradient is conducted to quantify the growth or breakage of an assumed floc size. Placement of two discharge nozzles in the digester is analyzed to show that spacing two nozzles 180° apart with each one discharging at an angle of 45° off the wall is the most efficient. Moreover, the similarity rules of geometry and mixing energy are checked for scaling up the digester. PMID:21047058
Introduction Rolling and Friction
Kuhn, Matthew R.
Introduction Kinematics Solutions Rolling and Friction in Discrete Element Simulations Matthew R:// faculty.up.edu / kuhn / papers / EMI2011.pdf #12;Introduction Kinematics Solutions Classification contact torque) (with contact creep) Minput > Moutput Minput = Moutput input = output input > output
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walowit, Jed A.
1994-01-01
A viewgraph presentation is made showing the capabilities of the computer code SPIRALI. Overall capabilities of SPIRALI include: computes rotor dynamic coefficients, flow, and power loss for cylindrical and face seals; treats turbulent, laminar, Couette, and Poiseuille dominated flows; fluid inertia effects are included; rotor dynamic coefficients in three (face) or four (cylindrical) degrees of freedom; includes effects of spiral grooves; user definable transverse film geometry including circular steps and grooves; independent user definable friction factor models for rotor and stator; and user definable loss coefficients for sudden expansions and contractions.
Turbulent heat transfer enhancement in a heat exchanger using helically corrugated tube
S. Pethkool; S. Eiamsa-ard; S. Kwankaomeng; P. Promvonge
2011-01-01
The augmentation of convective heat transfer in a single-phase turbulent flow by using helically corrugated tubes has been experimentally investigated. Effects of pitch-to-diameter ratio (P\\/DH=0.18, 0.22 and 0.27) and rib-height to diameter ratio (e\\/DH=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) of helically corrugated tubes on the heat transfer enhancement, isothermal friction and thermal performance factor in a concentric tube heat exchanger are examined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.
Estimation of the friction coefficient between wheel and rail surface using traction motor behaviour
Y Zhao; B Liang; S Iwnicki
2012-01-01
The friction coefficient between a railway wheel and rail surface is a crucial factor in maintaining high acceleration and braking performance of railway vehicles thus monitoring this friction coefficient is important. Restricted by the difficulty in directly measuring the friction coefficient, the creep force or creepage, indirect methods using state observers are used more frequently. This paper presents an approach
Acting on Frictions: Learning Blocks and Flows in Knowledge Intensive Organizations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bijlsma-Frankema, Katinka; Rosendaal, Bastiaan; Taminiau, Yvette
2006-01-01
Purpose: It is argued in this paper that opportunities for learning manifest themselves in the form of frictions between the structure-as-experienced by actors and the structure-as-preferred. These frictions are considered as potential triggers of learning processes. The concept of friction promises to contribute to our understanding of factors…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howes, Gregory G.
The weak collisionality typical of turbulence in many diffuse astrophysical plasmas invalidates an MHD description of the turbulent dynamics, motivating the development of a more comprehensive theory of kinetic turbulence. In particular, a kinetic approach is essential for the investigation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the dissipation of astrophysical turbulence and the resulting heating of the plasma. This chapter reviews the limitations of MHD turbulence theory and explains how kinetic considerations may be incorporated to obtain a kinetic theory for astrophysical plasma turbulence. Key questions about the nature of kinetic turbulence that drive current research efforts are identified. A comprehensive model of the kinetic turbulent cascade is presented, with a detailed discussion of each component of the model and a review of supporting and conflicting theoretical, numerical, and observational evidence.
Howes, Gregory G
2015-01-01
The weak collisionality typical of turbulence in many diffuse astrophysical plasmas invalidates an MHD description of the turbulent dynamics, motivating the development of a more comprehensive theory of kinetic turbulence. In particular, a kinetic approach is essential for the investigation of the physical mechanisms responsible for the dissipation of astrophysical turbulence and the resulting heating of the plasma. This chapter reviews the limitations of MHD turbulence theory and explains how kinetic considerations may be incorporated to obtain a kinetic theory for astrophysical plasma turbulence. Key questions about the nature of kinetic turbulence that drive current research efforts are identified. A comprehensive model of the kinetic turbulent cascade is presented, with a detailed discussion of each component of the model and a review of supporting and conflicting theoretical, numerical, and observational evidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Namiko
Studies in turbulence often focus on two flow conditions, both of which occur frequently in real-world flows and are sought-after for their value in advancing turbulence theory. These are the high Reynolds number regime and the effect of wall surface roughness. In this dissertation, a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) recreates both conditions over a wide range of Reynolds numbers Retau = O(102) - O(108) and accounts for roughness by locally modeling the statistical effects of near-wall anisotropic fine scales in a thin layer immediately above the rough surface. A subgrid, roughness-corrected wall model is introduced to dynamically transmit this modeled information from the wall to the outer LES, which uses a stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model operating in the bulk of the flow. Of primary interest is the Reynolds number and roughness dependence of these flows in terms of first and second order statistics. The LES is first applied to a fully turbulent uniformly-smooth/rough channel flow to capture the flow dynamics over smooth, transitionally rough and fully rough regimes. Results include a Moody-like diagram for the wall averaged friction factor, believed to be the first of its kind obtained from LES. Confirmation is found for experimentally observed logarithmic behavior in the normalized stream-wise turbulent intensities. Tight logarithmic collapse, scaled on the wall friction velocity, is found for smooth-wall flows when Re tau ? O(106) and in fully rough cases. Since the wall model operates locally and dynamically, the framework is used to investigate non-uniform roughness distribution cases in a channel, where the flow adjustments to sudden surface changes are investigated. Recovery of mean quantities and turbulent statistics after transitions are discussed qualitatively and quantitatively at various roughness and Reynolds number levels. The internal boundary layer, which is defined as the border between the flow affected by the new surface condition and the unaffected part, is computed, and a collapse of the profiles on a length scale containing the logarithm of friction Reynolds number is presented. Finally, we turn to the possibility of expanding the present framework to accommodate more general geometries. As a first step, the whole LES framework is modified for use in the curvilinear geometry of a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, with implementation carried out in a spectral element solver capable of handling complex wall profiles. The friction factors have shown favorable agreement with the superpipe data, and the LES estimates of the Karman constant and additive constant of the log-law closely match values obtained from experiment.
TURBULENCE-INDUCED RELATIVE VELOCITY OF DUST PARTICLES. IV. THE COLLISION KERNEL
Pan, Liubin; Padoan, Paolo E-mail: ppadoan@icc.ub.edu
2014-12-20
Motivated by its importance for modeling dust particle growth in protoplanetary disks, we study turbulence-induced collision statistics of inertial particles as a function of the particle friction time, ?{sub p}. We show that turbulent clustering significantly enhances the collision rate for particles of similar sizes with ?{sub p} corresponding to the inertial range of the flow. If the friction time, ?{sub p,} {sub h}, of the larger particle is in the inertial range, the collision kernel per unit cross section increases with increasing friction time, ?{sub p,} {sub l}, of the smaller particle and reaches the maximum at ?{sub p,} {sub l} = ?{sub p,} {sub h}, where the clustering effect peaks. This feature is not captured by the commonly used kernel formula, which neglects the effect of clustering. We argue that turbulent clustering helps alleviate the bouncing barrier problem for planetesimal formation. We also investigate the collision velocity statistics using a collision-rate weighting factor to account for higher collision frequency for particle pairs with larger relative velocity. For ?{sub p,} {sub h} in the inertial range, the rms relative velocity with collision-rate weighting is found to be invariant with ?{sub p,} {sub l} and scales with ?{sub p,} {sub h} roughly as ? ?{sub p,h}{sup 1/2}. The weighting factor favors collisions with larger relative velocity, and including it leads to more destructive and less sticking collisions. We compare two collision kernel formulations based on spherical and cylindrical geometries. The two formulations give consistent results for the collision rate and the collision-rate weighted statistics, except that the spherical formulation predicts more head-on collisions than the cylindrical formulation.
Relationship of Viscosity, Surface Tensions, and Coefficient of Friction of Lubricating Oils
Carson, Earl
1914-01-01
. is shown to exist betveen the friction coefficient and the viscosity constant, also a relationship is set up between the viscosity constant and the surface tension factor, but no relation has been es- tablished between the friction coefficient... exper- imental research on the coefficient of friction, but has quoted freely from Archbutt and Deeley, Eeauchamp Tower, and others who have spent several years in the study of the coefficient of friction. The research work which the author has...
Research on Frictional Wear Properties of C\\/C Composite with Electric Current
L. X. Jia; Y. Z. Zhang; J. Li; L. M. Sun; Y. W. Zhao
\\u000a Using C\\/C composite and chrome bronze as a friction couple, the frictional wear properties of C\\/C composite with electric\\u000a current is studied in this paper. The results have shown that current, velocity and load are important factors to affect the\\u000a frictional wear properties of C\\/C composite with electric current. The coefficient of friction and the wear rate increase\\u000a with the
Chemical Origins of Frictional Aging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yun; Szlufarska, Izabela
2012-11-01
Although the basic laws of friction are simple enough to be taught in elementary physics classes and although friction has been widely studied for centuries, in the current state of knowledge it is still not possible to predict a friction force from fundamental principles. One of the highly debated topics in this field is the origin of static friction. For most macroscopic contacts between two solids, static friction will increase logarithmically with time, a phenomenon that is referred to as aging of the interface. One known reason for the logarithmic growth of static friction is the deformation creep in plastic contacts. However, this mechanism cannot explain frictional aging observed in the absence of roughness and plasticity. Here, we discover molecular mechanisms that can lead to a logarithmic increase of friction based purely on interfacial chemistry. Predictions of our model are consistent with published experimental data on the friction of silica.
Effects of Different Ligature Materials on Friction in Sliding Mechanics
Khamatkar, Aparna; Sonawane, Sushma; Narkhade, Sameer; Gadhiya, Nitin; Bagade, Abhijit; Soni, Vivek; Betigiri, Asha
2015-01-01
Background: During orthodontic tooth movement friction occurs at the bracket wire interface. Out of the total force applied to the tooth movement, some of it is dissipated as friction, and the remainder is transferred to the supporting structures of the tooth to mediate tooth movement. However many factors affect friction, and method of arch wire ligation being an important contributing factor. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different ligature materials on friction in sliding mechanics and to compare the effect of environment (dry and wet) on friction produced in sliding mechanics. Materials and Methods: The evaluation of friction between the bracket and the archwire consisted of a simulated half arch fixed appliance with archwire ligated in a vertical position. Four 0.022” maxillary stainless steel premolar brackets having a - 0° torque and 0° angulation were aligned with a 0.019” × 0.025” stainless steel arch wire onto a rigid Plexiglass sheet. The movable test bracket was fitted with a 10 mm long, 0.045” thick stainless steel power arm on the bonding surface. Testing was performed on a Hounsfield material testing machine. A total of 100 g weight was suspended from the power arm and the load needed to move the bracket over the distance of not <4 mm across the central span was recorded separately. Fifteen representative readings were taken with one reading per test sample. Results: The results showed that the mean frictional force of different groups in dry and wet state was statistically significantly different. The mean frictional force in a dry state was statistically significantly higher than wet state in elastomeric group. Conclusion: The type of ligation material and environment significantly affected the degree of friction generated during sliding mechanics. Teflon coated stainless steel ligatures produced the least friction among the materials tested in both dry and wet conditions and there was no significant effect on friction in this group caused due to lubrication. PMID:26028900
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparrow, S W; Thorne, M A
1928-01-01
The first portion of this report discusses measurements of friction made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards between 1920 and 1926 under research authorization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. These are discussed with reference to the influence of speed, barometric pressure, jacket-water temperature, and throttle opening upon the friction of aviation engines. The second section of the report deals with measurements of the friction of a group of pistons differing from each other in a single respect, such as length, clearance, area of thrust face, location of thrust face, etc. Results obtained with each type of piston are discussed and attention is directed particularly to the fact that the friction chargeable to piston rings depends upon piston design as well as upon ring design. This is attributed to the effect of the rings upon the thickness and distribution of the oil film which in turn affects the friction of the piston to an extent which depends upon its design.
Micromechanics of pseudo-single-asperity friction: Effects of nanometer-scale roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qunyang
Nanometer-scale roughness on a solid surface has significant effects on friction, since inter-surface forces operate predominantly within a nanometer-scale gap distance in frictional contact. This thesis presents two novel atomic force microscope friction experiments, each using a gold surface sliding against a flat mica surface as the representative friction system. A diamagnetic lateral force calibrator (D-LFC) was invented to enable the accurate quantitative force measurements. In one of the experiment, a disk-shaped single nano-asperity of gold was used to measure the molecular level frictional behavior. The adhesive friction stress was measured to be 264 MPa and the molecular friction factor 0.0108 for a direct gold-mica contact in 30% humid air. The capillary force from the condensed water meniscuses was found to play an important role in magnifying the contact pressure to plastically deform the nano-asperities leading to the dramatic evolution of frictional responses. In the second experiment, the frictional response of a micrometer-scale asperity with nanometer-scale roughness exhibited a pseudo-single-asperity frictional behavior. However, the apparent friction stress, 40.5 MPa, fell well below the Hurtado-Kim model prediction for a smooth-single-asperity friction, exhibiting an apparent size-scale dependence of the friction stress. An interfacial roughness (IR) layer model was then developed to investigate the effects of roughness on pseudo-single-asperity friction. The model calculation shows that the nanometer-scale surface roughness is the major mechanism that explains the apparent size-scale dependence of the friction observed in the experiments. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the apparent friction stress as well as the apparent pressure-dependent fiction factor relies on the surface roughness. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that the evolution status of surface roughness is one of the important internal variables for the macroscopic friction laws.
Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes
Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L.
2012-01-01
Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386
Friction enhancement in concertina locomotion of snakes.
Marvi, Hamidreza; Hu, David L
2012-11-01
Narrow crevices are challenging terrain for most organisms and biomimetic robots. Snakes move through crevices using sequential folding and unfolding of their bodies in the manner of an accordion or concertina. In this combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we elucidate this effective means of moving through channels. We measure the frictional properties of corn snakes, their body kinematics and the transverse forces they apply to channels of varying width and inclination. To climb channels inclined at 60°, we find snakes use a combination of ingenious friction-enhancing techniques, including digging their ventral scales to double their frictional coefficient and pushing channel walls transversely with up to nine times body weight. Theoretical modelling of a one-dimensional n-linked crawler is used to calculate the transverse force factor of safety: we find snakes push up to four times more than required to prevent sliding backwards, presumably trading metabolic energy for an assurance of wall stability. PMID:22728386
Isolating Curvature Effects in Computing Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.
2001-01-01
The flow over the zero-pressure-gradient So-Mellor convex curved wall is simulated using the Navier-Stokes equations. An inviscid effective outer wall shape, undocumented in the experiment, is obtained by using an adjoint optimization method with the desired pressure distribution on the inner wall as the cost function. Using this wall shape with a Navier-Stokes method, the abilities of various turbulence models to simulate the effects of curvature without the complicating factor of streamwise pressure gradient can be evaluated. The one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model overpredicts eddy viscosity, and its boundary layer profiles are too full. A curvature-corrected version of this model improves results, which are sensitive to the choice of a particular constant. An explicit algebraic stress model does a reasonable job predicting this flow field. However, results can be slightly improved by modifying the assumption on anisotropy equilibrium in the model's derivation. The resulting curvature-corrected explicit algebraic stress model possesses no heuristic functions or additional constants. It lowers slightly the computed skin friction coefficient and the turbulent stress levels for this case (in better agreement with experiment), but the effect on computed velocity profiles is very small.
Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, T.; Chakraborty, P.; Guttenberg, N.; Prescott, A.; Kellay, H.; Goldburg, W.; Goldenfeld, N.; Gioia, G.
2010-11-01
There is a missing link between macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. To seek the missing link we carry out unprecedented experimental measurements of the frictional drag in turbulent soap-film flows over smooth walls. These flows are effectively two-dimensional, and we are able to create soap-film flows with the two types of turbulent spectrum that are theoretically possible in two dimensions: the "enstrophy cascade," for which the spectral exponent ?= 3, and the "inverse energy cascade," for which the spectral exponent ?= 5/3. We find that the functional relation between the frictional drag f and the Reynolds number Re depends on the spectral exponent: where ?= 3, f ˜Re-1/2; where ?= 5/3, f ˜Re-1/4. Each of these scalings may be predicted from the attendant value of ? by using a recently proposed spectral theory of the frictional drag. In this theory the frictional drag of turbulent flows on smooth walls is predicted to be f ˜Re^(1-?)/(1+?).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seto, Jeffrey A.; Hornung, Hans G.
1993-01-01
A new, compact oil film skin friction meter capable of measuring skin friction in two directions has been designed and constructed. The instrument allows the thin liquid film technique to now be applied in flight and in a wider variety of laboratory conditions. The instrument was tested by comparing measurements with those given by a floating element gage in laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers with zero pressure gradient. Both instruments agreed satisfactorily with each other and with the expected curves for the laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Significant differences were at first seen between the oil film meter and two floating element gages in the case of a favorable pressure gradient, but when a correction is applied to account for the normal force acting on the pendulum-type gage, the three instruents are much closer. The directional sensitivity of the oil film gage is also demonstrated.
Hai Jiang; Lin Lu; Ke Sun
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the deposition of micro-particles in two-dimensional turbulent channel flows by using a developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The Reynolds stress model (RSM) and the Lagrangian particle tracking method were employed to predict the turbulent air flow and reveal the particle physical behaviours, respectively. The near wall fluctuating velocity was corrected with a damping function. Turbulent dispersion
A turbulent combustion noise model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahan, J. Robert
The paper presents a new turbulent combustion noise theory which predicts the spectral shape and peak frequency from only four turbulent flame characteristics. These are the mean initial turbulent eddy diameter, the standard deviation of its normal distribution, the flame speed, and a new time scale parameter needed to add realism to an otherwise well-established burning bubble noise model. The theory suggests that factors such as the statistical distribution of the turbulent eddy size and the value of the new coefficient epsilon are of equal importance to the flame speed and mean eddy size in determining the peak frequency of combustion roar.
Modification of turbulent structure in channel flows by microbubble injection close to the wall
Gutierrez Torres, Claudia del Carmen
2005-11-01
of the void fraction increases. Furthermore, increases in both the non-dimensional values of streamwise and normal turbulent intensities, normalized by the friction velocity were observed with the void fraction growth. A gradual decrease in the Reynolds shear...
Favorable pressure gradient turbulent flow over straight and inclined ribs on both channel walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tachie, Mark F.; Shah, Mohammad K.
2008-09-01
This paper reports on experimental study of turbulent flows over straight and inclined transverse ribs of square and triangular cross sections attached to the bottom and top walls of an asymmetric converging channel. The pitch-to-height ratio of the ribs was 10. A particle image velocimetry technique was used to conduct extensive velocity measurements at channel midspan and in planes close to the leading and trailing edges of the inclined ribs. From these measurements, spatial averaged profiles of the mean velocity and higher order statistics were obtained to study the effects of rib geometry, pressure gradient, spanwise plane, and rib inclination on the flow characteristics. The results show that rib geometry has no significant effects on the mean flow and turbulent quantities. The roughness effects produced by the straight ribs outweighed pressure gradient effects in the inner region of the flow. As a result, the skin friction coefficient is nearly independent of pressure gradient. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent transport of the shear stress are also independent of pressure gradient. On the contrary, favorable pressure gradient decreased the Reynolds normal stresses in the outer region and increased the magnitudes of the triple velocity correlations and transport of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The three-dimensional secondary motion produced by the inclined ribs distorted the mean flow pattern and substantially diminished the ribs' effectiveness to augment skin friction and turbulence. For example, the skin friction over the inclined ribs is only 50%-70% of the value measured over the straight ribs. Furthermore, the size of equivalent sand grain required to produce the same amount of drag is one-tenth to one-third of the rib height for the inclined ribs compared to two- to fourfold for the straight ribs. The inclined ribs also reduced the level of the Reynolds stresses, triple velocity correlations, and transport of both the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress compared to the straight ribs. The skewness factors showed that important structural differences exist between flows over straight and inclined ribs.
Rubber friction for tire tread compound on road surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.; Fortunato, G.; Giustiniano, M.; Baldoni, F.
2013-03-01
We have measured the surface topography and calculated the surface roughness power spectrum for an asphalt road surface. For the same surface we have measured the friction for a tire tread compound for velocities 10-6 m s-1 < v < 10-3 m s-1 at three different temperatures (at -8?°C, 20?°C and 48?°C). The friction data was shifted using the bulk viscoelasticity shift factor aT to form a master curve. We have measured the effective rubber viscoelastic modulus at large strain and calculated the rubber friction coefficient (and contact area) during stationary sliding and compared it to the measured friction coefficient. We find that for the low velocities and for the relatively smooth road surface we consider, the contribution to friction from the area of real contact is very important, and we interpret this contribution as being due to shearing of a very thin confined rubber smear film.
Turbulence effects on supernova neutrinos
James P. Kneller; Cristina Volpe
2010-10-12
Multi-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulations exhibit turbulence of large amplitude and over large scales. As neutrinos pass through the supernova mantle the turbulence is expected to modify their evolution compared to the case where the explosion is free of turbulence. In this paper we study this turbulence effect upon the neutrinos modelling the turbulence expected from multi-dimensional simulations by adding matter density fluctuations to density profiles taken from one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We investigate the impact upon the supernova neutrino transition probabilities as a function of the neutrino mixing angle theta_13 and turbulence amplitude. In the high (H) resonant channel and with large theta_13 values we find that turbulence is effectively two flavor for fluctuation amplitudes turbulence and multiple H resonances that leads to a sensitivity to fluctuations amplitudes as small as ~ 0.001%. At small values of theta_13, beyond the range achievable in Earth based experiments, we find that turbulence leads to new flavor transient effects in the channel where the MSW H resonance occurs. Finally, we investigate large amplitude fluctuations which lead to three flavor effects due to broken HL factorization and significant non-resonant transitions and identify two non-resonant turbulence effects, one depending on the theta_13, and the other independent of this angle and due to the low (L) MSW resonance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benz, F. J.; Dixon, D. S.; Shaw, R. C.
1986-01-01
Testing machine evaluates wear and ignition characteristics of materials in rubbing contact. Offers advantages over other laboratory methods of measuring wear because it simulates operating conditions under which material will actually be used. Machine used to determine wear characteristics, rank and select materials for service with such active oxidizers as oxygen, halogens, and oxides of nitrogen, measure wear characteristics, and determine coefficients of friction.
Friction powder materials (review)
G. M. Derkacheva; I. I. Panaioti
1989-01-01
base ones and Japan has the largest number of inventions in this area. Table 2 shows the compositions of iron- and copper-base materials developed in the USSR. Copper, tin, zinc, chromium, and carbon are used as alloy elements in the iron-base materials, graphite, lead, and boron nitride serve as lubricants, and devitrified glass, silicon carbide, asbestos, and possolan as friction
Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia
2008-01-01
Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719
Dewees
1959-01-01
Test rigs for measuring the wear and friction of materials in sliding ; contact in various water environments are described. The test rigs were made for ; attachment to the inside of the head of an autoclave. Drawings, specifications, ; and operation of a test rig are contained. (C.J.G.);
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1991-01-01
The performance of existing two-equation eddy viscosity models was examined. An effort was made to develop better models for near-wall turbulence using direct numerical simulations of plane channel and boundary layer flows. The asymptotic near-wall behavior of turbulence was used to examine the problems of current second order closure models and develop new models with the correct near-wall behavior. Rapid Distortion Theory was used to analytically study the effects of mean deformation on turbulence, obtain analytical solutions for the spectrum tensor, Reynolds stress tensor, anisotropy tensor and its invariants, which can be used in the turbulence model development. The potential of the renormalization group theory in turbulence modeling was studied, as well as compressible turbulent flows, and modeling of bypass transition.
Turbulent acceleration and heating in toroidal magnetized plasmas
Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.
2013-07-15
It is shown that turbulence is responsible for a source of momentum, which cannot be recast as a divergence of a momentum flux. This process is similar to turbulent heating, with similar properties. The sum over all species vanishes up to polarization contributions. Hence, toroidal momentum is transferred from species to species, mediated by turbulence. As for momentum flux, symmetry breaking is needed. Flow shear is investigated as a source of symmetry breaking, leading to a source of momentum proportional to the shear rate. Turbulent acceleration is significant for ion species. It is found that it is proportional to the charge number Z, while turbulent heating scales as Z{sup 2}/A, where A is the mass number. It is maximum in the edge, where the E × B flow shear rate and turbulence intensity are maximum. When both are large enough, the turbulent torque may overcome the collisional friction between impurities and main ions, thus leading to different toroidal velocities.
Turbulent acceleration and heating in toroidal magnetized plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.
2013-07-01
It is shown that turbulence is responsible for a source of momentum, which cannot be recast as a divergence of a momentum flux. This process is similar to turbulent heating, with similar properties. The sum over all species vanishes up to polarization contributions. Hence, toroidal momentum is transferred from species to species, mediated by turbulence. As for momentum flux, symmetry breaking is needed. Flow shear is investigated as a source of symmetry breaking, leading to a source of momentum proportional to the shear rate. Turbulent acceleration is significant for ion species. It is found that it is proportional to the charge number Z, while turbulent heating scales as Z2/A, where A is the mass number. It is maximum in the edge, where the E × B flow shear rate and turbulence intensity are maximum. When both are large enough, the turbulent torque may overcome the collisional friction between impurities and main ions, thus leading to different toroidal velocities.
PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark
Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag
2010-05-01
Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.
Internal rotor friction instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.
1990-01-01
The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.
Memory function of turbulent fluctuations in soft-mode turbulence
Takayuki Narumi; Junichi Yoshitani; Masaru Suzuki; Yoshiki Hidaka; Fahrudin Nugroho; Tomoyuki Nagaya; Shoichi Kai
2013-01-21
Modal relaxation dynamics has been observed experimentally to clarify statistical-physical properties of soft-mode turbulence, the spatiotemporal chaos observed in homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystals. We found a dual structure, dynamical crossover associated with violation of time-reversal invariance, the corresponding time scales satisfying a dynamical scaling law. To specify the origin of the dual structure, the memory function due to non-thermal fluctuations has been defined by a projection-operator method and obtained numerically using experimental results. The results of the memory function suggest that the non-thermal fluctuations can be divided into Markov and non-Markov contributions, the latter is called the turbulent fluctuation (TF). Consequently, the relaxation dynamics is separated into three characteristic stages: bare-friction, early, and late stages. If the dissipation due to TFs dominates over that of the Markov contribution, the bare-friction stage contracts; the early and late stages then configure the dual structure. The memory effect due to TFs results in the time-reversible relaxation at the early stage, and the disappearance of the memory by turbulent mixing leads to a simple exponential relaxation at the late stage. Furthermore, the memory effect due to TFs is shown to originate from characteristic spatial coherency called the patch structure.
Memory function of turbulent fluctuations in soft-mode turbulence.
Narumi, Takayuki; Yoshitani, Junichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Hidaka, Yoshiki; Nugroho, Fahrudin; Nagaya, Tomoyuki; Kai, Shoichi
2013-01-01
Modal relaxation dynamics has been observed experimentally to clarify statistical-physical properties of soft-mode turbulence, the spatiotemporal chaos observed in homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystals. We found a dual structure, dynamical crossover associated with violation of time-reversal invariance, the corresponding time scales satisfying a dynamical scaling law. To specify the origin of the dual structure, the memory function due to nonthermal fluctuations has been defined by a projection-operator method and obtained numerically using experimental results. The results of the memory function suggest that the nonthermal fluctuations can be divided into Markov and non-Markov contributions; the latter is called the turbulent fluctuation (TF). Consequently, the relaxation dynamics is separated into three characteristic stages: bare-friction, early, and late stages. If the dissipation due to TFs dominates over that of the Markov contribution, the bare-friction stage contracts; the early and late stages then configure the dual structure. The memory effect due to TFs results in a time-reversible relaxation at the early stage, and the disappearance of the memory by turbulent mixing leads to a simple exponential relaxation at the late stage. Furthermore, the memory effect due to TFs is shown to originate from characteristic spatial coherency called the patch structure. PMID:23410347
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostriker, Eve C.; Zweibel, Ellen G.
2000-04-01
It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of turbulence in astrophysics, or the challenges which it poses. Turbulence is responsible for dynamical pressure support, energy transport, angular momentum transport, chemical mixing, and magnetic field generation and evolution in a host of astrophysical settings. Turbulent astrophysical flows differ from terrestrial forms of turbulence which have been studied traditionally by virtue of their inherent compressibility, strong radiative cooling, self-gravity, and the importance in many environments of magnetic fields. Recent years have seen important advances in several distinct areas of astrophysical turbulence theory -- including modeling of turbulence in stars, accretion disks, and the interstellar medium, as well basic studies of MHD turbulence which provide the framework for all these applications. In one star, the Sun, helioseismologic data are allowing increasingly sophisticated comparison of observations with the theory of turbulent stellar interiors. Attempts to model the solar differential rotation has shown clearly that turbulent angular momentum transport is an essential ingredient, and attempts to model it are improving. Solar dynamo calculations are only slightly behind. Models of turbulent accretion disks are becoming increasingly realistic, with the dynamical role of magnetic fields a crucial element, and global, time-dependent modeling now feasible. It seems likely that the alpha viscosity parameter will be soon be supplanted by ab initio calculations of the accretion rate. Although the presence of interstellar turbulence has long been recognized, recent theoretical studies have significantly increased our understanding of its effects, particularly in the cold ISM where it plays a dominant role. Self-consistent dynamical studies will soon be able to identify how strong turbulence evolves and shapes the internal structure of magnetized interstellar clouds. Basic studies in MHD turbulence have made substantial recent progress in such longstanding problems as the nature of the turbulent cascade, dynamo generation of fields, and the process of magnetic reconnection. In all of these studies, a crucial new ingredient has been computational advances that now make possible direct hydrodynamic/MHD simulations of three-dimensional, time-dependent turbulence with inertial dynamic ranges of more than two orders of magnitude. These advances in numerical experimentation are inspiring new analytical work, new comparisons between models and observations, and advances in observations and data analysis themselves. The ITP program on Astrophysical Turbulence will provide a forum for intensive interaction among analytical theorists, computational physicists, and observers from all of the subspecialties, with prospects for major research progress through interdisciplinary discussions and collaborations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostriker, Eve C.; Zweibel, Ellen G.
2000-05-01
It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of turbulence in astrophysics, or the challenges which it poses. Turbulence is responsible for dynamical pressure support, energy transport, angular momentum transport, chemical mixing, and magnetic field generation and evolution in a host of astrophysical settings. Turbulent astrophysical flows differ from terrestrial forms of turbulence which have been studied traditionally by virtue of their inherent compressibility, strong radiative cooling, self-gravity, and the importance in many environments of magnetic fields. Recent years have seen important advances in several distinct areas of astrophysical turbulence theory -- including modeling of turbulence in stars, accretion disks, and the interstellar medium, as well basic studies of MHD turbulence which provide the framework for all these applications. In one star, the Sun, helioseismologic data are allowing increasingly sophisticated comparison of observations with the theory of turbulent stellar interiors. Attempts to model the solar differential rotation has shown clearly that turbulent angular momentum transport is an essential ingredient, and attempts to model it are improving. Solar dynamo calculations are only slightly behind. Models of turbulent accretion disks are becoming increasingly realistic, with the dynamical role of magnetic fields a crucial element, and global, time-dependent modeling now feasible. It seems likely that the alpha viscosity parameter will be soon be supplanted by ab initio calculations of the accretion rate. Although the presence of interstellar turbulence has long been recognized, recent theoretical studies have significantly increased our understanding of its effects, particularly in the cold ISM where it plays a dominant role. Self-consistent dynamical studies will soon be able to identify how strong turbulence evolves and shapes the internal structure of magnetized interstellar clouds. Basic studies in MHD turbulence have made substantial recent progress in such longstanding problems as the nature of the turbulent cascade, dynamo generation of fields, and the process of magnetic reconnection. In all of these studies, a crucial new ingredient has been computational advances that now make possible direct hydrodynamic/MHD simulations of three-dimensional, time-dependent turbulence with inertial dynamic ranges of more than two orders of magnitude. These advances in numerical experimentation are inspiring new analytical work, new comparisons between models and observations, and advances in observations and data analysis themselves. The ITP program on Astrophysical Turbulence will provide a forum for intensive interaction among analytical theorists, computational physicists, and observers from all of the subspecialties, with prospects for major research progress through interdisciplinary discussions and collaborations.
In-Flight Capability for Evaluating Skin-Friction Gages and Other Near-Wall Flow Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bui, Trong T.; Pipitone, Brett J.; Krake, Keith L.; Richwine, Dave (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
An 8-in.-square boundary-layer sensor panel has been developed for in-flight evaluation of skin-friction gages and other near-wall flow sensors on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B/Flight Test Fixture (FTF). Instrumentation on the sensor panel includes a boundary-layer rake, temperature sensors, static pressure taps, and a Preston tube. Space is also available for skin-friction gages or other near-wall flow sensors. Pretest analysis of previous F-15B/FTF flight data has identified flight conditions suitable for evaluating skin-friction gages. At subsonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel closely approximates the two-dimensional (2D), law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layer, and skin-friction estimates from the Preston tube and the rake (using the Clauser plot method) can be used to evaluate skin-friction gages. At supersonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel becomes complex, and other means of measuring skin friction are needed to evaluate the accuracy of new skin-friction gages. Results from the flight test of a new rubber-damped skin-friction gage confirm that at subsonic Mach numbers, nearly 2D, law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers exist over the sensor panel. Sensor panel data also show that this new skin-friction gage prototype does not work in flight.
Suwa, N; Watari, F; Yamagata, S; Iida, J; Kobayashi, M
2003-11-15
A new testing apparatus for the measurement of frictional properties was designed and the frictional coefficients were obtained and compared with each other in various combinations of brackets and orthodontic wires, including esthetic fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) wire that was especially designed and manufactured. Three kinds of wires (stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and FRP) and four brackets (single-crystal alumina, polycrystalline alumina, polycarbonate, and stainless steel) were used. The testing was done under dry and wet conditions. The friction testing equipment was designed to attach the bracket to a C-shaped bar suspended with a variable mass, and sliding along a fixed wire. The transition between static and dynamic friction was measured as a breakaway force, with the use of a universal test machine. In addition to material properties, this testing fixture eliminates geometrical factors, such as the rotational moment at the edge of the bracket slot, deflection of the orthodontic wire, and tension of the ligature wire. Nearly ideal frictional properties between materials are obtained. The frictional properties of FRP wire were similar to those of metal wires on all brackets, except the polycrystalline alumina bracket. The frictional coefficient between the polycrystalline ceramic bracket and FRP wire was larger than that of other combinations. There was little difference in frictional coefficients between dry and wet conditions. PMID:14598404
A comparison of opposition control in turbulent boundary layer and turbulent channel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stroh, A.; Frohnapfel, B.; Schlatter, P.; Hasegawa, Y.
2015-07-01
A comparison between classical opposition control applied in the configuration of a fully developed turbulent channel flow and applied locally in a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer is presented. It is found that the control scheme yields similar drag reduction rates if compared at the same friction Reynolds numbers. However, a detailed analysis of the dynamical contributions to the skin friction coefficient reveals significant differences in the mechanism behind the drag reduction. While drag reduction in turbulent channel flow is entirely based on the attenuation of the Reynolds shear stress, the modification of the spatial flow development is essential for the turbulent boundary layer in terms of achievable drag reduction. It is shown that drag reduction due to this spatial development contribution becomes more pronounced with increasing Reynolds number (up to Re? = 660, based on friction velocity and boundary layer thickness) and even exceeds drag reduction due to attenuation of the Reynolds shear stress. In terms of an overall energy balance, it is found that opposition control is less efficient in the turbulent boundary layer due to the inherently larger fluctuation intensities in the near wall region.
Downstream influence of swept slot injection in hypersonic turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hefner, J. N.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Bushnell, D. B.
1977-01-01
Results of an experimental and numerical investigation of tangential swept slot injection into a thick turbulent boundary layer at Mach 6 are presented. Film cooling effectiveness, skin friction, and flow structure downstream of the swept slot injection were investigated. The data were compared with that for unswept slots, and it was found that cooling effectiveness and skin friction reductions are not significantly affected by sweeping the slot.
Friction and wear of plasma-deposited diamond films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan; Barnes, Paul N.; Jackson, Howard E.
1993-01-01
Reciprocating sliding friction experiments in humid air and in dry nitrogen and unidirectional sliding friction experiments in ultrahigh vacuum were conducted with a natural diamond pin in contact with microwave-plasma-deposited diamond films. Diamond films with a surface roughness (R rms) ranging from 15 to 160 nm were produced by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In humid air and in dry nitrogen, abrasion occurred when the diamond pin made grooves in the surfaces of diamond films, and thus the initial coefficients of friction increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. In vacuum the friction for diamond films contacting a diamond pin arose primarily from adhesion between the sliding surfaces. In these cases, the initial and equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were 0.02 to 0.04 in humid air and in dry nitrogen, but 1.5 to 1.8 in vacuum. The wear factor of the diamond films depended on the initial surface roughness, regardless of environment; it increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The wear factors were considerably higher in vacuum than in humid air and in dry nitrogen.
Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.
V. E. Zakharov; A. N. Pushkarev; V. F. Shvets; V. V. Ian'kov
1988-01-01
A qualitative picture of strong wave turbulence in the absence of wave collapses is proposed. The central role in the turbulence mechanism is played by processes that lead to an increase in the amplitude of solitons as their number decreases. In conservative nonintegrable systems the soliton is a statistical attractor. The proposed pattern is confirmed by direct numerical simulation.
Evaluation of an incompressible energy-vorticity turbulence model for fully rough pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunsaker, Douglas F.
Traditional methods of closing the Boussinesq-based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are considered, and suggestions for improving two-equation turbulence models are made. The traditional smooth-wall boundary conditions are shown to be incorrect, and the correct boundary conditions are provided along with sample solutions to traditional models. The correct boundary condition at a smooth wall for dissipation-based turbulence models is that which forces both the turbulent kinetic energy and its first derivative to zero. Foundations for an energy-vorticity model suggested by Phillips are presented along with the near-smooth-wall behavior of the model. These results show that at a perfectly smooth wall, the turbulent kinetic energy may approach the wall at a higher order than is generally accepted. The foundations of this model are used in the development of a k-lambda model for fully rough pipe flow. Closure coefficients for the model are developed through gradient-based optimization techniques. Results of the model are compared to results from the Wilcox 1998 and 2006 k-o models as well as four eddy-viscosity models. The results show that the Phillips k-lambda model is much more accurate than other models for predicting the relationship between Reynolds number and friction factor for fully rough pipe flow. However, the velocity profiles resulting from the model deviate noticeably from the law of the wall.
Friction at small displacement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, W. E.; Aronstein, J.
1972-01-01
Low contact resistance between metal surfaces is often observed in spite of interposed lubricant and/or oxide films. To study this effect an apparatus is used with which normal force and tangential microdisplacement are applied between a small lead rider and a gold flat with various surface film conditions. Under nonoxidized and nonlubricated conditions, and with either oxide or stearic acid lubricant film alone, friction is high and contact resistance is low. With oxide and lubricant together, friction is much lower and slide is smooth, but contact resistance remains low and Ohm's law is obeyed. The results are consistent with Greenwood's theory of contact resistance for a cluster of minute metallic contact spots within the load-supporting area. The contact resistance of such a cluster is indistinguishable, for practical purposes, from that given by complete metallic contact.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kay, P. K.
1984-01-01
The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben
2014-05-01
Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.
Two-phase frictional pressure drop in small rectangular channels
Ing Youn Chen; Yi-Min Chen; Jane-Sunn Liaw; Chi-Chuan Wang
2007-01-01
This study presents single-phase and two-phase frictional pressure drop data in three rectangular channels with channel width of 3, 6 and 9mm, and a fixed gap of 3mm. Adiabatic flows of air–water mixtures are tested at mass flux of 100–700kg\\/m2s and gas quality ranging from 0.001 to 0.8. The single-phase friction factors agree satisfactorily with the predictions of laminar and
Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions
Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin
2014-01-01
In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (? = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584
Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings
Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Rafi, H. Khalid, E-mail: khalidrafi@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ram, G.D. Janaki [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500 058 (India); Nagalakshmi, R. [Welding Research Institute, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli 620 014 (India)
2012-08-15
Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.
Solid friction between soft filaments.
Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir
2015-06-01
Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes's drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials. PMID:25730393
Solid friction between soft filaments
Andrew Ward; Feodor Hilitski; Walter Schwenger; David Welch; A. W. C. Lau; Vincenzo Vitelli; L. Mahadevan; Zvonimir Dogic
2015-03-04
Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.
Solid friction between soft filaments
Ward, Andrew; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir
2015-01-01
Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the prop...
Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh
2011-02-22
pressure gradient (N/m3) dx du f Liquid phase velocity gradient (m/s.m) if Interfacial friction factor (dimensionless) gf Smooth tube vapor friction factor (dimensionless) gx x-axis acceleration (m/s 2) gy y-axis acceleration (m/s 2) gz z...
Turbulence models for compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that to satisfy the general accepted compressible law of the wall derived from the Van Driest transformation, turbulence modeling coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. The transformed velocity profiles obtained by using standard turbulence model constants have too small a value of the effective von Karman constant kappa in the log-law region (inner layer). Thus, if the model is otherwise accurate, the wake component is overpredicted and the predicted skin friction is lower than the expected value.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tischbein, Hans W
1945-01-01
The coefficient of friction between piston ring and cylinder liner was measured in relation to gliding acceleration, pressure, temperature, quantity of oil and quality of oil. Comparing former lubrication-technical tests, conclusions were drawn as to the state of friction. The coefficients of friction as figured out according to the hydrodynamic theory were compared with those measured by tests. Special tests were made on "oiliness." The highest permissible pressure was measured and the ratio of pressure discussed.
Frictional action at lower limb/prosthetic socket interface.
Zhang, M; Turner-Smith, A R; Roberts, V C; Tanner, A
1996-04-01
The frictional action at stump/socket interface is discussed by a simplified model and finite element model analyses and clinical pressure measurements. The friction applied to the stump skin produces stresses within tissue and these stresses may damage the tissues and affect their normal functions. The combination of normal and shear stresses is considered to be a critical factor leading to amputee's discomfort and tissue damage. However, friction at the stump/socket interface has a beneficial action. A simplified residual limb model and a finite element model using real geometry have been developed to analyse the support action of friction. Both results show that the friction plays a critical role both in supporting the load of the amputee's body during the support phase of the gait cycle and in preventing the prosthesis from slipping off the limb during swing phase. Pressure at the below-knee socket during walking were measured with conditions of different friction. The results reveal that a larger pressures was produced at the lubricated interface than at the normal interface. A proper choice of coefficient of friction will balance the requirements of relief of load stress and reduction of slip with the general ability to support loads. PMID:8718946
Pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, liquid-vapor annular flows in zero gravity
K. R. Sridhar; B. T. Chao; S. L. Soo
1992-01-01
The prediction of frictional pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, annular liquid-vapor flows in zero gravity using simulation experiments conducted on earth is described. The scheme extends the authors' earlier work on dispersed flows. The simulation experiments used two immiscible liquids of identical density, namely, water and n-butyl benzoate. Because of the lack of rigorous analytical models for turbulent, annular
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, Thomas B. (editor); Sarkar, Sutanu (editor); Speziale, Charles G. (editor)
1992-01-01
Various papers on turbulence are presented. Individual topics addressed include: modeling the dissipation rate in rotating turbulent flows, mapping closures for turbulent mixing and reaction, understanding turbulence in vortex dynamics, models for the structure and dynamics of near-wall turbulence, complexity of turbulence near a wall, proper orthogonal decomposition, propagating structures in wall-bounded turbulence flows. Also discussed are: constitutive relation in compressible turbulence, compressible turbulence and shock waves, direct simulation of compressible turbulence in a shear flow, structural genesis in wall-bounded turbulence flows, vortex lattice structure of turbulent shear slows, etiology of shear layer vortices, trilinear coordinates in fluid mechanics.
Green's function of the linearized Saint-Venant equations in laminar and turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Cristo, Cristiana; Iervolino, Michele; Vacca, Andrea
2012-02-01
In the present paper, an analytical expression of the Green's function of linearized Saint-Venant equations (LSVEs) for shallow water waves is provided and applied to analyse the propagation of a perturbation superposed to a uniform flow. Independently of the kinematic character of the base flow, i.e., subcritical or supercritical uniform flow, the effects of a non-uniform vertical velocity profile and a non-constant resistance coefficient are accounted for. The use of the Darcy-Weisbach friction law allows a unified treatment of both laminar and turbulent conditions. The influence on the wave evolution of the wall roughness and the fluid viscosity are finally discussed, showing that in turbulent regime the assumption of constant friction coefficient may lead to an underestimation of both amplification and damping factors on the wave fronts, especially at low Reynolds numbers. This conclusion has to be accounted for, particularly in describing hyper-concentrated suspensions or other kinds of Newtonian mixtures, for which the high values of the kinematic viscosity may lead to relatively low Reynolds numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Binbin
Air-sea interaction and the interfacial exchange of gas across the air-water interface are of great importance in coupled atmospheric-oceanic environmental systems. Aqueous turbulence structure immediately adjacent to the air-water interface is the combined result of wind, surface waves, currents and other environmental forces and plays a key role in energy budgets, gas fluxes and hence the global climate system. However, the quantification of turbulence structure sufficiently close to the air-water interface is extremely difficult. The physical relationship between interfacial gas exchange and near surface turbulence remains insufficiently investigated. This dissertation aims to measure turbulence in situ in a complex environmental forcing system on Lake Michigan and to reveal the relationship between turbulent statistics and the CO2 flux across the air-water interface. The major objective of this dissertation is to investigate the physical control of the interfacial gas exchange and to provide a universal parameterization of gas transfer velocity from environmental factors, as well as to propose a mechanistic model for the global CO2 flux that can be applied in three dimensional climate-ocean models. Firstly, this dissertation presents an advanced measurement instrument, an in situ free floating Particle Image Velocimetry (FPIV) system, designed and developed to investigate the small scale turbulence structure immediately below the air-water interface. Description of hardware components, design of the system, measurement theory, data analysis procedure and estimation of measurement error were provided. Secondly, with the FPIV system, statistics of small scale turbulence immediately below the air-water interface were investigated under a variety of environmental conditions. One dimensional wave-number spectrum and structure function sufficiently close to the water surface were examined. The vertical profiles of turbulent dissipation rate were intensively studied. Comparison between the turbulence structures measured during the wind wave initiation period and those obtained during the growing period was presented. Significant wave effects on near surface turbulence were found. A universal scaling law was proposed to parameterize turbulent dissipation rate immediately below the air-water interface with friction velocity, significant wave height and wave age. Finally, the gas transfer velocity was measured with a floating chamber (FC) system, along with simultaneously FPIV measurements. Turbulent dissipation rate both at the interface and at a short distance away from the interface (~ 10 cm) were analyzed and used to examine the small scale eddy model. The model coefficient was found to be dependent on the level of turbulence, instead of being a constant. An empirical relationship between the model coefficient and turbulent dissipation rate was provided, which improved the accuracy of the gas transfer velocity estimation by more than 100% for data acquired. Other data from the literature also supported this empirical relation. Furthermore, the relationship between model coefficient and turbulent Reynolds number was also investigated. In addition to physical control of gas exchange, the disturbance on near surface hydrodynamics by the FC was also discussed. Turbulent dissipation rates are enhanced at the short distance away from the interface, while the surface dissipation rates do not change significantly.
Turbulent boundary layers developing over compliant surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lekoudis, S. G.; Sengupta, T.
1983-05-01
The problem of reducing drag due to skin friction remains of interest. This is the case because of the significant benefits that would result from an application of a drag reducing scheme on airplanes, ships or underwater vehicles. One of the techniques that have been proposed for such a scheme is wall compliance. Wall compliance could, in principle, work in two ways: either it could delay transition, or it could modify the inner part of a turbulent boundary layer so that reduced skin friction would result. The objective of this research program was to develop prediction techniques for high Reynolds number turbulent flows over compliant surfaces. This objective was pursued by evaluating the wall induced Reynolds stresses using solutions of the liner momentum equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanratty, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids
Carl H. Gibson
2010-01-01
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begin with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretions on a spinning pair release 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscous stresses and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, extracting mass-energy and space-time from
Allan Adams; Paul M. Chesler; Hong Liu
2013-07-27
We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS_4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein equations. Both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid/gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons which are approximately fractal with fractal dimension D=d+4/3.
Patel, V.K.
1984-01-01
This program for the HP-41C with one memory module computes pipe friction loss, velocity, and optimum diameter given pipe ID, flow rate, viscosity and density. Flow can be entered as 1.lb/h, 2.BPH-/sup 0/API, 3. gas mol. wt.-scfh, or 4. gpm-sp.gr. Density can be entered as 1.lb/ft, 2. mol. wt.-psig-/sup 0/F, or 3. /sup 0/API-/sup 0/F. For some standard strength pipes, nominal to actual diameter conversion is provided. A change in gas density with pressure can be taken into account if desired.
Improved Skin Friction Interferometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.
1986-01-01
An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.
General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.
2015-05-01
The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s?1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.
General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction.
Fortunato, G; Ciaravola, V; Furno, A; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J
2015-05-01
The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s(-1). We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci 'laws' of friction. PMID:25873527
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Masaaki; Inoue, Haruo; Kusaka, Masahiro; Kaizu, Koichi; Fuji, Akiyoshi
This paper describes an analysis method of the friction torque and weld interface temperature during the friction process for steel friction welding. The joining mechanism model of the friction welding for the wear and seizure stages was constructed from the actual joining phenomena that were obtained by the experiment. The non-steady two-dimensional heat transfer analysis for the friction process was carried out by calculation with FEM code ANSYS. The contact pressure, heat generation quantity, and friction torque during the wear stage were calculated using the coefficient of friction, which was considered as the constant value. The thermal stress was included in the contact pressure. On the other hand, those values during the seizure stage were calculated by introducing the coefficient of seizure, which depended on the seizure temperature. The relationship between the seizure temperature and the relative speed at the weld interface in the seizure stage was determined using the experimental results. In addition, the contact pressure and heat generation quantity, which depended on the relative speed of the weld interface, were solved by taking the friction pressure, the relative speed and the yield strength of the base material into the computational conditions. The calculated friction torque and weld interface temperatures of a low carbon steel joint were equal to the experimental results when friction pressures were 30 and 90 MPa, friction speed was 27.5 s-1, and weld interface diameter was 12 mm. The calculation results of the initial peak torque and the elapsed time for initial peak torque were also equal to the experimental results under the same conditions. Furthermore, the calculation results of the initial peak torque and the elapsed time for initial peak torque at various friction pressures were equal to the experimental results.
Studies in Quantum Plasma Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oduola, Cassandra
2014-03-01
Turbulence is a phenomenon associated with chaotic and stochastic change in properties. At the quantum level, turbulence can be found in quantum fluids also known as super fluids; a friction free state of matter containing charged particles. Super fluidity has recently been observed at the core of neutron stars. These fluids containing also act as superconductors. Studies have found that the remaining protons in the star's core are also in a superfluid state and because they carry a charge also form a superconductor. This study employs the non-linear Schrodinger coupled with Poisson's equation for three dimensional quantum turbulence simulations. These simulations follow Fermi-Dirac statistics. Research has found evidence of soliton solutions to the non-linear Schrodinger. Solitons are self-reinforcing waves in nature that are also symmetric. Evidence of these solitons has been found in quantum turbulence. In order to verify the existence of solitons in this model, we aim to model solutions to the Non Linear Schrodinger in 1D and to obtain data to verify the these solitons. Would like to thank NSF.
Turbulence-induced Relative Velocity of Dust Particles V. Testing Previous Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Liubin; Padoan, Paolo
2015-10-01
Coagulation models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks usually adopt the prediction of Völk et al. or its later developments (hereafter Völk-type models) for the collision velocity of dust particles induced by turbulent motions. We review the formulation and the underlying physical picture of these models, test their predictions against a numerical simulation, and examine the accuracy of the commonly used prescription for dust particle collisions. We show that Völk-type models typically overestimate the rms of the particle relative velocity by a factor of two, if the particle friction times lie in the inertial range of the flow. The commonly used prescription for the collision kernel has several inaccuracies, and, in particular, it neglects the effect of turbulent clustering. Interestingly, for particles of equal sizes, the inaccuracies happen to cancel out, and by coincidence, the commonly used kernel prescription based on Völk-type models is in good agreement with our simulation result. For particles of different sizes, the prescription shows a larger discrepancy from the measured kernel, and may overestimate the collision rate by up to a factor of 2.5. We find that the predicted rms relative velocity by Völk-type models provides reasonable estimates for the average collision velocity per collision. We also make an effort to improve the accuracy of Völk-type models for the rms relative velocity by tuning the correlation time of turbulent eddies and modifying the criterion for eddy classification.
Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.
Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis
2013-03-01
Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185
Numerical Estimation of Frictional Torques with Rate and State Friction
Arun K. Singh; T. N. Singh
2015-01-20
In this paper, numerical estimation of frictional torques is carried out of a rotary elastic disc on a hard and rough surface under different rotating conditions. A one dimensional spring- mass rotary system is numerically solved under the quasistatic condition with the rate and state dependent friction model. It is established that torque of frictional strength as well as torque of steady dynamic stress increases with radius and found to be maximum at the periphery of the disc. Torque corresponding to frictional strength estimated using the analytical solution matches closely with the simulation only in the case of high stiffness of the connecting spring. In steady relaxation simulation, a steadily rotating disc is suddenly stopped and relaxational angular velocity and corresponding frictional torque decreases with both steady angular velocity and stiffness of the connecting spring in the velocity strengthening regime. In velocity weakening regime, in contrast, torque of relaxation stress deceases but relaxation velocity increases. The reason for the contradiction is explained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorla, R. S. R.
1984-01-01
The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on heat transfer at a stagnation point over a cylinder situated in a crossflow are studied. An eddy diffusivity model was formulated and the governing momentum and energy equations are integrated by means of the steepest descent method. The numerical results for the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate are correlated by a turbulence parameter. The wall friction and heat transfer rate increase with increasing free stream turbulence intensity.
A regime diagram for classifying turbulent large eddies in the upper ocean
Ming Li; Chris Garrett; Eric Skyllingstad
2005-01-01
A large eddy simulation (LES) model is used to examine how buoyancy-driven thermal convection, wind-driven shear turbulence and wind\\/wave-driven Langmuir circulation compete to generate turbulence in the ocean surface mixed layer. The turbulent Langmuir number Lat, a ratio of friction velocity to surface Stokes drift velocity, and the Hoenikker number Ho, a ratio of buoyancy forcing to wave forcing, are
Friction boosted by spontaneous epitaxial rotations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio
2015-03-01
It is well known in surface science that incommensurate adsorbed monolayers undergo a spontaneous, energy-lowering epitaxial rotation from aligned to misaligned relative to a periodic substrate. We show first of all that a model 2D colloidal monolayer in an optical lattice, of recent importance as a frictional model, also develops in full equilibrium a small rotation angle, easy to detect in the Moiré pattern. The colloidal monolayer misalignment is then shown by extensive sliding simulations to increase the dynamic friction by a considerable factor over the aligned case. More generally, this example suggests that spontaneous rotations are rather ubiquitous and should not be ignored in all tribological phenomena between mismatched lattices. This work was mainly supported by the ERC Advanced Grant No. 320796-MODPHYSFRICT, and partly by SINERGIA contract CRSII2 136287, by PRIN/COFIN Contract 2010LLKJBX 004, by COST Action MP1303.
Subcritical versus supercritical transition to turbulence in curved pipes
Kühnen, J; Schwegel, M; Kuhlmann, H; Hof, B
2015-01-01
Transition to turbulence in straight pipes occurs in spite of the linear stability of the laminar Hagen--Poiseuille flow if the amplitude of flow perturbations as well as the Reynolds number exceed a minimum threshold (subcritical transition). As the pipe curvature increases centrifugal effects become important, modifying the basic flow as well as the most unstable linear modes. If the curvature (tube-to-coiling diameter $d/D$) is sufficiently large a Hopf bifurcation (supercritical instability) is encountered before turbulence can be excited (subcritical instability). We trace the instability thresholds in the $Re-d/D$ parameter space in the range $0.01\\leq\\ d/D \\leq0.1$ by means of laser-Doppler velocimetry and determine the point where the subcritical and supercritical instabilities meet. Two different experimental setups were used: a closed system where the pipe forms an axisymmetric torus and an open system employing a helical pipe. Implications for the measurement of friction factors in curved pipes are...
Kolmogorov Behavior of Near-Wall Turbulence and Its Application in Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.
1992-01-01
The near-wall behavior of turbulence is re-examined in a way different from that proposed by Hanjalic and Launder and followers. It is shown that at a certain distance from the wall, all energetic large eddies will reduce to Kolmogorov eddies (the smallest eddies in turbulence). All the important wall parameters, such as friction velocity, viscous length scale, and mean strain rate at the wall, are characterized by Kolmogorov microscales. According to this Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence, the turbulence quantities, such as turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, etc. at the location where the large eddies become Kolmogorov eddies, can be estimated by using both direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and asymptotic analysis of near-wall turbulence. This information will provide useful boundary conditions for the turbulent transport equations. As an example, the concept is incorporated in the standard k-epsilon model which is then applied to channel and boundary flows. Using appropriate boundary conditions (based on Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence), there is no need for any wall-modification to the k-epsilon equations (including model constants). Results compare very well with the DNS and experimental data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Fred M.
1975-01-01
Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)
Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E.
2013-09-15
Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.
Orbital friction stir weld system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Carter, Robert W. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
This invention is an apparatus for joining the ends of two cylindrical (i.e., pipe-shaped) sections together with a friction stir weld. The apparatus holds the two cylindrical sections together and provides back-side weld support as it makes a friction stir weld around the circumference of the joined ends.
Orbital Friction Stir Weld System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Carter, Robert W. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
This invention is an apparatus for joining the ends of two cylindrical (i.e., pipe-shaped) sections together with a friction stir weld. The apparatus holds the two cylindrical sections together and provides back-side weld support as it makes a friction stir weld around the circumference of the joined ends.
Rokni, M. Sunden, B.
1996-09-01
The present work concerns development and application of turbulence models for forced convective heat transfer in ducts. Fully developed flow and temperature fields in straight ducts are considered. The numerical approach is based on the finite volume technique, and a nonstaggered arrangement is employed. The SIMPLEC algorithm is used for handling the pressure-velocity coupling. To achieve fully developed conditions, cyclic boundary conditions are imposed in the main flow direction. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} model with wall function is used as a reference. The nonlinear {kappa}-{epsilon} model of Spexiale is applied to calculate the turbulent shear stresses. The turbulent heat fluxes are calculated by three different methods, namely, the simple eddy diffusivity concept, the generalized gradient diffusion hypothesis method and the wealth = earnings {times} time method. The overall comparison between the methods is presented in terms of the friction factor and average Nusselt number. In particular, the secondary flow field is investigated. The more advanced models show improvement in most cases.
Constraint counting for frictional jamming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quint, D. A.; Henkes, S.; Schwarz, J. M.
2012-02-01
While the frictionless jamming transition has been intensely studied in recent years, more realistic frictional packings are less well understood. In frictionless sphere packings, the transition is predicted by a simple mean-field constraint counting argument, the isostaticity argument. For frictional packings, a modified constraint counting argument, which includes slipping contacts at the Coulomb threshold, has had limited success in accounting for the transition. We propose that the frictional jamming transition is not mean field and is triggered by the nucleation of unstable regions, which are themselves dynamical objects due to the Coulomb criterion. We create frictional packings using MD simulations and test for the presence and shape of rigid clusters with the pebble game to identify the partition of the packing into stable and unstable regions. To understand the dynamics of these unstable regions we follow perturbations at contacts crucial to the stability of the ``frictional house of cards.''
Turbulence in Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.
Bi-directional, buried-wire skin-friction gage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Higuchi, H.; Peake, D. J.
1978-01-01
A compact, nonobtrusive, bi-directional, skin-friction gage was developed to measure the mean shear stress beneath a three-dimensional boundary layer. The gage works by measuring the heat flux from two orthogonal wires embedded in the surface. Such a gage was constructed and its characteristics were determined for different angles of yaw in a calibration experiment in subsonic flow with a Preston tube used as a standard. Sample gages were then used in a fully three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer on a circular cone at high relative incidence, where there were regimes of favorable and adverse pressure gradients and three-dimensional separation. Both the direction and magnitude of skin friction were then obtained on the cone surface.
Skin Friction and Transition Location Measurement on Supersonic Transport Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Goodsell, Aga M.; Olsen, Lawrence E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Flow visualization techniques were used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative skin friction and transition location data in wind tunnel tests performed on two supersonic transport models at Mach 2.40. Oil-film interferometry was useful for verifying boundary layer transition, but careful monitoring of model surface temperatures and systematic examination of the effects of tunnel start-up and shutdown transients will be required to achieve high levels of accuracy for skin friction measurements. A more common technique, use of a subliming solid to reveal transition location, was employed to correct drag measurements to a standard condition of all-turbulent flow on the wing. These corrected data were then analyzed to determine the additional correction required to account for the effect of the boundary layer trip devices.
Practical calculator programs. Part 9. Calculator program determines turbulence criteria
Chenevert, M.E.; Hollo, R.
1981-11-16
A program developed for the TI-59 hand-held calculator determines whether the flow pattern for a given mud system is laminar or turbulent, calculating the Reynolds number for each pattern. Applicable to Newtonian, Bingham plastic, and power-law fluids, the program contributes to determining the frictional pressure loss in the pipe and annulus.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Multiscaling in superfluid turbulence: A shell-model study
Shukla, Vishwanath
2015-01-01
We examine the multiscaling behavior of the normal- and superfluid-velocity structure functions in three-dimensional superfluid turbulence by using a shell model for the three-dimensional (3D) Hall-Vinen-Bekharevich-Khalatnikov (HVBK) equations. Our 3D-HVBK shell model is based on the Gledzer-Okhitani-Yamada (GOY) shell model. We examine the dependence of the multiscaling exponents on the normal-fluid fraction and the mutual-friction coefficients. Our extensive study of the 3D-HVBK shell model shows that the multiscaling behavior of the velocity structure functions in superfluid turbulence is more complicated than it is in fluid turbulence.
Friction drive position transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waclawik, Ronald E.; Cayer, James L.; Lapointe, Kenneth M.
1991-10-01
A spring force loaded contact wheel mounted in a stationary position relative to a reciprocating shaft is disclosed. The apparatus of the present invention includes a tensioning assembly for maintaining absolute contact between the contact wheel and the reciprocating shaft wherein the tensioning assembly urges the contact wheel against the shaft to maintain contact therebetween so that the wheel turns as the shaft is linearly displaced. A rotary encoding device is coupled to the wheel for translating the angular and rotational movement thereof into an electronic signal for providing linear displacement information and derivative data with respect to displacement of the shaft. Absolute friction contact and cooperative interaction between the shaft and the contact wheel is further enhanced in the preferred embodiment by advantageously selecting the types of surface finish and the amount of surface area of the contact wheel relative to the surface condition of the shaft as well as by reducing the moment of inertia of the contact wheel.
Rolling friction robot fingers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vranish, John M. (inventor)
1992-01-01
A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Scudder, J. D.; Daughton, W. S.
2014-12-01
Recent studies have revealed deep relationships between the three fundamental processes of turbulence, magnetic reconnection, and shocks in collisionless plasmas. The quantitative characterization of the structure of the turbulence and the underlying dissipation mechanism(s) in these processes remains a challenge. For example, the role of magnetic reconnection has been emphasized as a possibly generic feature of turbulence. How does one identify reconnecting current sheets in 3D? How does one show whether the electrons and ions are nonadiabatic? How does one distinguish and assess the relative role of competing dissipative processes? In this talk, we report on our latest results on addressing these issues. We compare and contrast the utility of new physically motivated diagnostics versus statistical techniques.
Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong
2014-04-18
We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028
Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions
Blanpied, M.L.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.
1995-01-01
To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors
A simplified oil-film skin-friction meter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.
1988-01-01
The oil-film method of skin friction measurement, which does not require calibration, nevertheless entails that interferometric measurements of the oil film be obtained. The oil-film method is presently simplified by eliminating interferometry and its requisite polished surface, by taking direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope with a small position-sensing photodiode. This technique has undergone verification in incompressible turbulent and laminar flows in flat-plate boundary layers and pipe flows; the meter is judged to be inexpensive, simple, and robust.
[Friction: self-ligating brackets].
Thermac, Guilhem; Morgon, Laurent; Godeneche, Julien
2008-12-01
The manufacturers of self-ligating brackets advertise a reduction of the friction engendered between the wire and the bracket, which is an essential parameter for treatment's speed and comfort. We have compared the friction obtained with four types of self-ligating brackets - In-Ovation R, Damon 3, Smart Clip and Quick - with that of a standard bracket Omniarch associated with an elastomeric ligature. All bracket were tested on a bench of traction with three types of wires: steel .019"x.025", TMA .019"x.025" and NEO sentalloy F300 .020"x.020". The results confirm a clear friction reduction for all tested wire. PMID:19061628
REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR
Ron Matthews
2005-05-01
This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston assembly in an engine. The model appears to produce the correct behavior, but we cannot quantify its strengths or weaknesses until our crank-angle-resolved measurements have been completed. Finally, we proposed and implemented a model for the effects of liner rotation on piston assembly friction. Here, we propose that the rotating liner design is analogous to the shaft-bushing mechanism. Therefore, we used the side-slip rolling friction model to simulate the effects of liner rotation. This model appears to be promising, but final analysis of its strengths and/or weaknesses must await our crank-angle-resolved measurements.
Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clingman, W. Dean
1991-01-01
Design concept for ball bearing incorporates small pieces of shim stock, wire spokes like those in bicycle wheels, or other flexing elements to reduce both stiction and friction slope. In flexure bearing, flexing elements placed between outer race of ball bearing and outer ring. Elements flex when ball bearings encounter small frictional-torque "bumps" or even larger ones when bearing balls encounter buildups of grease on inner or outer race. Flexure of elements reduce high friction slopes of "bumps", helping to keep torque between outer ring and inner race low and more nearly constant. Concept intended for bearings in gimbals on laser and/or antenna mirrors.
Frictional disturbances in superconducting magnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kensley, R. S.; Iwasa, Y.; Maeda, H.
1981-01-01
An experiment is reported that uses a liner-friction apparatus to study the frictional and sliding behavior of metal/insulator pairs commonly used in superconducting magnet windings. Both copper G-10 and CDIF-G-10 pairs show similar friction behavior: first-run slips (and sometimes second runs) are very fast, while subsequent runs are slow. The fast slip is attributed to the plowing effect of the glass fibers. Coating with a thin layer of soft material or sanding the surface have been found effective in eliminating slip.
Rubber friction: comparison of theory with experiment.
Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Dieluweit, S; Tada, T
2011-12-01
We have measured the friction force acting on a rubber block slid on a concrete surface. We used both unfilled and filled (with carbon black) styrene butadiene (SB) rubber and have varied the temperature from -10 °C to 100 °C and the sliding velocity from 1 ?m/s to 1000 ?m/s. We find that the experimental data at different temperatures can be shifted into a smooth master-curve, using the temperature-frequency shifting factors obtained from measurements of the bulk viscoelastic modulus. The experimental data has been analyzed using a theory which takes into account the contributions to the friction from both the substrate asperity-induced viscoelastic deformations of the rubber, and from shearing the area of real contact. For filled SB rubber the frictional shear stress ?(f) in the area of real contact results mainly from the energy dissipation at the opening crack on the exit side of the rubber-asperity contact regions. For unfilled rubber we instead attribute ?(f) to shearing of a thin rubber smear film, which is deposited on the concrete surface during run in. We observe very different rubber wear processes for filled and unfilled SB rubber, which is consistent with the different frictional processes. Thus, the wear of filled SB rubber results in micrometer-sized rubber particles which accumulate as dry dust, which is easily removed by blowing air on the concrete surface. This wear process seams to occur at a steady rate. For unfilled rubber a smear film forms on the concrete surface, which cannot be removed even using a high-pressure air stream. In this case the wear rate appears to slow down after some run in time period. PMID:22139094
Friction-induced skin injuries-are they pressure ulcers? An updated NPUAP white paper.
Brienza, David; Antokal, Steven; Herbe, Laura; Logan, Susan; Maguire, Jeanine; Van Ranst, Jennifer; Siddiqui, Aamir
2015-01-01
Friction injuries are often misdiagnosed as pressure ulcers. The reason for the misdiagnosis may be a misinterpretation of classic pressure ulcer literature that reported friction increased the susceptibility of the skin to pressure damage. This analysis assesses the classic literature that led to the inclusion of friction as a causative factor in the development of pressure ulcers in light of more recent research on the effects of shear. The analysis in this article suggests that friction can contribute to pressure ulcers by creating shear strain in deeper tissues, but friction does not appear to contribute to pressure ulcers in the superficial layers of the skin. Injuries to the superficial layers of the skin caused by friction are not pressure ulcers and should not be classified or treated as such. PMID:25549310
A Pedagogical Model of Static Friction
Pickett, Galen T
2015-01-01
While dry Coulombic friction is an elementary topic in any standard introductory course in mechanics, the critical distinction between the kinetic and static friction forces is something that is both hard to teach and to learn. In this paper, I describe a geometric model of static friction that may help introductory students to both understand and apply the Coulomb static friction approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakuma, Hiroshi
2013-12-01
frictional strength of faults is a critical factor that contributes to continuous fault slip and earthquake occurrence. Frictional strength can be reduced by the presence of sheet-structured clay minerals. In this study, two important factors influencing the frictional coefficient of minerals were quantitatively analyzed by a newly developed computational method based on a combination of first-principles study and thermodynamics. One factor that helps reduce the frictional coefficient is the low adhesion energy between the layers under dry conditions. Potassium ions on mica surfaces are easily exchanged with sodium ions when brought into contact with highly concentrated sodium-halide solutions. We found that the surface ion exchange with sodium ions reduces the adhesion energy, indicating that the frictional coefficient can be reduced under dry conditions. Another factor is the lubrication caused by adsorbed water films on mineral surfaces under wet conditions. Potassium and sodium ions on mica surfaces have a strong affinity for water molecules. In order to remove the adsorbed water molecules confined between mica surfaces, a differential compressive stress of the order of tens of gigapascals was necessary at room temperature. These water molecules inhibit direct contact between mineral surfaces and reduce the frictional coefficient. Our results imply that the frictional coefficient can be modified through contact with fluids depending on their salt composition. The low adhesion energy between fault-forming minerals and the presence of an adsorbed water film is a possible reason for the low frictional coefficient observed at continuous fault slip zones.
Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blau, P. J.
Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine-scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.
Heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kays, W. M.
1972-01-01
This paper contains a summarization of five years work on an investigation on heat transfer to the transpired turbulent boundary layer. Experimental results are presented for friction coefficient and Stanton number over a wide range of blowing and suction for the case of constant free-stream velocity, holding certain blowing parameters constant. The problem of the accelerated turbulent boundary layer with transpiration is considered, experimental data are presented and discussed, and theoretical models for solution of the momentum equation under these conditions are presented. Data on turbulent Prandtl number are presented so that solutions to the energy equation may be obtained. Some examples of boundary layer heat transfer and friction coefficient predictions are presented using one of the models discussed, employing a finite difference solution method.
Advances in Wave Turbulence Optical Wave Turbulence
Turitsyn, Sergei K.
with the statistical behaviour of a large number of interacting waves. Turbulence theory is one of the most challenging-called "fully developed wave turbulence" when scales, where waves are excited (energy is pumped into the system) Advances in Wave Turbulence 3 Chapter N Optical Wave Turbulence S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, E. G
Jeremie Bec; Konstantin Khanin
2007-04-12
The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions or random forcing. Such work was frequently motivated by new emerging applications of Burgers model to statistical physics, cosmology, and fluid dynamics. Also Burgers turbulence appeared as one of the simplest instances of a nonlinear system out of equilibrium. The study of random Lagrangian systems, of stochastic partial differential equations and their invariant measures, the theory of dynamical systems, the applications of field theory to the understanding of dissipative anomalies and of multiscaling in hydrodynamic turbulence have benefited significantly from progress in Burgers turbulence. The aim of this review is to give a unified view of selected work stemming from these rather diverse disciplines.
Carl H. Gibson
1999-01-01
A theory of fossil turbulence presented in the 11th Liege Colloquium on Marine Turbulence is ‘revisited’ in the 29th Liege Colloquium ‘Marine Turbulence Revisited’. The Gibson [Gibson, C.H., 1980. Fossil temperature, salinity, and vorticity turbulence in the ocean. : Nihoul, J. (Ed.), Marine Turbulence. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 221–257] theory applied universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Hsin; Wang, Bo; Lu, Pingping; Xu, Liang
2014-09-01
The identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle dynamics and control. However, it is always not easy to identify the maximum road friction coefficient with high robustness and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions. The existing investigations on robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient are unsatisfactory. In this paper, an identification approach based on road type recognition is proposed for the robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio. The instantaneous road friction coefficient is estimated through the recursive least square with a forgetting factor method based on the single wheel model, and the estimated road friction coefficient and slip ratio are grouped in a set of samples in a small time interval before the current time, which are updated with time progressing. The current road type is recognized by comparing the samples of the estimated road friction coefficient with the standard road friction coefficient of each typical road, and the minimum statistical error is used as the recognition principle to improve identification robustness. Once the road type is recognized, the maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio are determined. The numerical simulation tests are conducted on two typical road friction conditions(single-friction and joint-friction) by using CarSim software. The test results show that there is little identification error between the identified maximum road friction coefficient and the pre-set value in CarSim. The proposed identification method has good robustness performance to external disturbances and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions and road variations, and the identification results can be used for the adjustment of vehicle active safety control strategies.
Nanoscopic friction behavior of pharmaceutical materials.
Lee, Jonghwi
2007-08-01
The characteristics of various pharmaceutical dosage forms are influenced by surface properties such as the friction behavior. For example, die wall friction is a key issue in developing a solid dosage form. However, the friction properties are not completely understood mainly because of the lack of fundamental measurements. Herein, the friction behavior of pharmaceutical materials was investigated and compared with their adhesion behavior using atomic force microscopy. The sliding speed causes significant variations in the frictional force. Compared with other materials, lubricant materials showed less distinct differences in friction tests than in adhesion tests, indicating the dependence of the lubricant efficiency on the stress state. The three parameters obtained from the modified Amonton's law, i.e., absolute frictional force, friction coefficient and residual force, showed consistent trends. Overall, the friction behavior was not a direct reflection of the adhesion forces. The intrinsic friction behavior of a single pharmaceutical particle can be quantified using atomic force microscopy. PMID:17442509
Rubber friction and tire dynamics
B. N. J. Persson
2010-07-16
We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, e.g., in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (B.N.J. Persson, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 18, 7789 (2006)). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to calculate accurate mu-slip (and the self-aligning torque) curves for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g., braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of Anti-Blocking System (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.
Size scaling of static friction.
Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio
2013-02-22
Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+?f/A(?) for increasing contact area A, with ?>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory. PMID:23473164
Size Scaling of Static Friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, O. M.; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio
2013-02-01
Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as fm+?f/A? for increasing contact area A, with ?>0. Our main finding is that the value of fm, controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.
DNS of turbulent heat transfer in channel flow with low to medium-high Prandtl number fluid
Hiroshi Kawamura; Kouichi Ohsaka; Hiroyuki Abe; Kiyoshi Yamamoto
1998-01-01
The direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the turbulent heat transfer for various Prandtl numbers ranging from 0.025 to 5 are performed to obtain statistical quantities such as turbulent heat flux, temperature variance and their budget terms. The configuration is the fully developed channel flow with uniform heating from both walls. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and the
E. V. Shishov
1991-01-01
The results of experimental investigation of the structure, including correlations containing pressure fluctuations, and the processes of turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in strongly accelerated and retarded turbulent boundary layers are presented. Based on the analysis of the data obtained, a modified algebraic 'K-epsilon' model, capable of predicting local friction and heat transfer in boundary layers developing under strong
Tire/runway friction interface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yager, Thomas J.
1990-01-01
An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.
Radiation friction versus ponderomotive effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedotov, A. M.; Elkina, N. V.; Gelfer, E. G.; Narozhny, N. B.; Ruhl, H.
2014-11-01
The concept of ponderomotive potential is upgraded to a regime in which radiation friction becomes dominant. The radiation friction manifests itself in long-term capturing of the particles released at the focus and impenetrability of the focus from the exterior. We apply time scale separation to the Landau-Lifshitz equation splitting the particle motion into quivering and slow drift of a guiding center. The drift equation is deduced by averaging over fast motion.
Relativistic Dynamical Friction in the Weak Scattering Limit
D. Syer
1994-04-25
A test mass, $M$, moving through an ambient medium of light particles with lower average kinetic energy than itself suffers a deceleration caused by its scattering of the light particles. The phenomenon is usually referred to as dynamical friction. The velocity, $\\v$, of the test mass decays on a timescale independent of $\\v$ in the non-relativistic case. We derive expressions for dynamical friction in the case that the test mass and the light particles are relativistic, and that the scattering is weak (with impact parameter, $b\\gg M$). In the case that the light particles are ultra-relativistic, and isotropic in the frame in which $M$ moves with velocity $v$, we find an explicit expression for the dynamical friction. The well known factor of 2 correcting the Newtonian scattering of photons to give the Einstein angle, $4M/b$, has the largest effect on the resulting friction, which is modified by a factor of roughly $16 / 3\\gamma_v$ over the simple non-relativistic case. In the non-relativistic case, the largest contribution to the friction comes from light particles moving slower than $v$. We find that this is not the case for ultra-relativistic scattering, essentially because the scattering angle is independent of $\\v$. Some astrophysical implications are discussed. (Accepted for publication in Monthly Notices.)
Solid friction between soft filaments
Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A.W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir
2015-01-01
Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments1,2. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials. PMID:25730393
Modeling of Instabilities and Self-organization at the Frictional Interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortazavi, Vahid
The field of friction-induced self-organization and its practical importance remains unknown territory to many tribologists. Friction is usually thought of as irreversible dissipation of energy and deterioration; however, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in-situ tribofilms and various patterns at the interface. This thesis studies self-organization and instabilities at the frictional interface, including the instability due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction, the transient process of frictional running-in, frictional Turing systems, the stick-and-slip phenomenon, and, finally, contact angle (CA) hysteresis as an example of solid-liquid friction and dissipation. All these problems are chosen to bridge the gap between fundamental interest in understanding the conditions leading to self-organization and practical motivation. We study the relationship between friction-induced instabilities and friction-induced self-organization. Friction is usually thought of as a stabilizing factor; however, sometimes it leads to the instability of sliding, in particular when friction is coupled with another process. Instabilities constitute the main mechanism for pattern formation. At first, a stationary structure loses its stability; after that, vibrations with increasing amplitude occur, leading to a limit cycle corresponding to a periodic pattern. The self-organization is usually beneficial for friction and wear reduction because the tribological systems tend to enter a state with the lowest energy dissipation. The introductory chapter starts with basic definitions related to self-organization, instabilities and friction, literature review, and objectives. We discuss fundamental concepts that provide a methodological tool to investigate, understand and enhance beneficial processes in tribosystems which might lead to self-organization. These processes could result in the ability of a frictional surface to exhibit "self-protection" and "self-healing" properties. Hence, this research is dealing with the fundamental concepts that allow the possibility of the development of a new generation of tribosystem and materials that reinforce such properties. In chapter 2, we investigate instabilities due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction. The temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction can have a significant effect on the frictional sliding stability, by leading to the formation of "hot" and "cold" spots on the contacting surfaces. We formulate a stability criterion and perform a case study of a brake disk. In chapter 3, we study frictional running-in. Running-in is a transient period on the onset of the frictional sliding, in which friction and wear decrease to their stationary values. In this research, running-in is interpreted as friction-induced self-organization process. We introduce a theoretical model of running-in and investigate rough profile evolution assuming that its kinetics is driven by two opposite processes or events, i.e., smoothening which is typical for the deformation-driven friction and wear, and roughening which is typical for the adhesion-driven friction and wear. In chapter 4, we investigate the possibility of the so-called Turing-type pattern formation during friction. Turing or reaction-diffusion systems describe variations of spatial concentrations of chemical components with time due to local chemical reactions coupled with diffusion. During friction, the patterns can form at the sliding interface due to the mass transfer (diffusion), heat transfer, various tribochemical reactions, and wear. In chapter 5, we investigate how interfacial patterns including propagating trains of stick and slip zones form due to dynamic sliding instabilities. These can be categorized as self-organized patterns. We treat stick and slip as two phases at the interface, and study the effects related to phase transitions. Our results show how interfacial patterns form, how
Analytical skin friction and heat transfer formula for compressible internal flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dechant, Lawrence J.; Tattar, Marc J.
1994-01-01
An analytic, closed-form friction formula for turbulent, internal, compressible, fully developed flow was derived by extending the incompressible law-of-the-wall relation to compressible cases. The model is capable of analyzing heat transfer as a function of constant surface temperatures and surface roughness as well as analyzing adiabatic conditions. The formula reduces to Prandtl's law of friction for adiabatic, smooth, axisymmetric flow. In addition, the formula reduces to the Colebrook equation for incompressible, adiabatic, axisymmetric flow with various roughnesses. Comparisons with available experiments show that the model averages roughly 12.5 percent error for adiabatic flow and 18.5 percent error for flow involving heat transfer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pailhas, Guy; Barricau, P.; Touvet, Y.; Perret, L.
2009-08-01
The oil droplet interferometric technique has been used to investigate the skin friction distribution along a zero and adverse pressure gradient boundary layer developing in the Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille wind tunnel. This experimental task was a part of the WALLTURB project, funded by the European Community, in order to bring significant progress in the understanding of near wall turbulence in boundary layers. Skin friction values close to 0.01 Pa have been measured with this optical method. A comparison with the results obtained with hot-wire anemometry and macro-PIV demonstrates the great potential of the oil droplet technique.
Characteristics of turbulence in boundary layer with zero pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klebanoff, P S
1955-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation (fluctuation in x-direction), spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent dust emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klose, Martina; Shao, Yaping
2013-04-01
Turbulent dust emission is an important mechanism to be considered in dust models. For example, over a heated desert surface under weak wind conditions, convective turbulence can be highly developed, which generates patches of enhanced shear stresses and entrains dust into the atmosphere. This mechanism of dust emission differs from those considered in existing dust emission schemes, because it does not have to involve the saltation of sand-sized particles. In this study, a large-eddy dust model, WRF_LES/D, is developed by coupling the WRF large-eddy flow model with a new dust mobilization scheme. It is then applied to the simulation of turbulent dust emission under various stability and wind conditions. Our aim is to understand how turbulent dust emission occurs and how turbulent dust fluxes depend on atmospheric control parameters. We show that, due to the complexity of turbulent motion and the dust cohesive forces, turbulent dust emission is a stochastic process which needs to be statistically quantified. With the numerical results, we quantify the large-eddy induced shear stresses on the surface and turbulent dust emissions in terms of probabilistic distributions. For a given soil type, it is shown that these distributions can be described in terms of a few control variables, including the friction velocity, u*, and the convective scaling velocity, w*. The results of WRF_LES/D are implemented in an updated version of the dust emission parameterization of Klose and Shao (2012) for estimating turbulent dust emission in regional dust modeling.
Supersonic Turbulence, Intermittency, and AMR 1 Alexei Kritsuk
Kritsuk, Alexei
Supersonic Turbulence, Intermittency, and AMR 1 Alexei Kritsuk University of California, San Diego (vortex filaments) D = 2 for supersonic compressible turbulence (shocks) Volume filling factor of boxes-resolution simulations of supersonic turbulence (Kritsuk, Norman & Padoan 2004, astro-ph/0411626, revised v2
Where is the surface-layer turbulence? Andrei Tokovinin
Tokovinin, Andrei A.
. INTRODUCTION Optical turbulence is a major factor for ground-based telescopes and interferometers. Background-made turbulence inside domes and (iii) active correction of aberrations. Measurements of the OTP play a key roleWhere is the surface-layer turbulence? Andrei Tokovinin Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory
Occurrence of turbulent flow conditions in supercritical fluid chromatography.
De Pauw, Ruben; Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken
2014-09-26
Having similar densities as liquids but with viscosities up to 20 times lower (higher diffusion coefficients), supercritical CO2 is the ideal (co-)solvent for fast and/or highly efficient separations without mass-transfer limitations or excessive column pressure drops. Whereas in liquid chromatography the flow remains laminar in both the packed bed and tubing, except in extreme cases (e.g. in a 75 ?m tubing, pure acetonitrile at 5 ml/min), a supercritical fluid can experience a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in more typical operation modes. Due to the significant lower viscosity, this transition for example already occurs at 1.3 ml/min for neat CO2 when using connection tubing with an ID of 127 ?m. By calculating the Darcy friction factor, which can be plotted versus the Reynolds number in a so-called Moody chart, typically used in fluid dynamics, higher values are found for stainless steel than PEEK tubing, in agreement with their expected higher surface roughness. As a result turbulent effects are more pronounced when using stainless steel tubing. The higher than expected extra-column pressure drop limits the kinetic performance of supercritical fluid chromatography and complicates the optimization of tubing ID, which is based on a trade-off between extra-column band broadening and pressure drop. One of the most important practical consequences is the non-linear increase in extra-column pressure drop over the tubing downstream of the column which leads to an unexpected increase in average column pressure and mobile phase density, and thus decrease in retention. For close eluting components with a significantly different dependence of retention on density, the selectivity can significantly be affected by this increase in average pressure. In addition, the occurrence of turbulent flow is also observed in the detector cell and connection tubing. This results in a noise-increase by a factor of four when going from laminar to turbulent flow (e.g. going from 0.5 to 2.5 ml/min for neat CO2). PMID:25145564
Finite Element Analysis of the Amontons-Coulomb's Model using Local and Global Friction Tests
Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.; Ramalho, A.; Alves, J. L.
2011-05-04
In spite of the abundant number of experimental friction tests that have been reported, the contact with friction modeling persists to be one of the factors that determine the effectiveness of sheet metal forming simulation. This difficulty can be understood due to the nature of the friction phenomena, which comprises the interaction of different factors connected to both sheet and tools' surfaces. Although in finite element numerical simulations friction models are commonly applied at the local level, they normally rely on parameters identified based on global experimental tests results. The aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of the Amontons-Coulomb's friction coefficient identified using complementary tests: (i) load-scanning, at the local level and (ii) draw-bead, at the global level; to the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes.
Improved detection of atmospheric turbulence with SLODAR
Michael Goodwin; Charles Jenkins; Andrew Lambert
2007-06-19
We discuss several improvements in the detection of atmospheric turbulence using SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR). Frequently, SLODAR observations have shown strong ground-layer turbulence, which is beneficial to adaptive optics. We show that current methods which neglect atmospheric propagation effects can underestimate the strength of high altitude turbulence by up to ~ 30%. We show that mirror and dome seeing turbulence can be a significant fraction of measured ground-layer turbulence, some cases up to ~ 50%. We also demonstrate a novel technique to improve the nominal height resolution, by a factor of 3, called Generalized SLODAR. This can be applied when sampling high-altitude turbulence, where the nominal height resolution is the poorest, or for resolving details in the important ground-layer.
Asymptotic study of the interfacial crack with friction
Audoly, Basile
-statically at the interface between dissimilar materials. Because of the elastic mismatch of the materials joining. Fracture; B. Friction; B. Layered material; A. Stress intensity factor 1. Introduction The understanding of the mechanical properties of layered materials is a challenge with many potential applications. These materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.
1987-01-01
Recent developments at several levels of statistical turbulence modeling applicable to aerodynamics are briefly surveyed. Emphasis is on examples of model improvements for transonic, two-dimensional flows. Experience with the development of these improved models is cited to suggest methods of accelerating the modeling process necessary to keep abreast of the rapid movement of computational fluid dynamics into the computation of complex three-dimensional flows.
Turbulence model investigations on the boundary layer flow with adverse pressure gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Zhao; Zhi, Zong; Li, Zou; Tianlin, Wang
2015-06-01
In this paper, a numerical study of flow in the turbulence boundary layer with adverse and pressure gradients (APGs) is conducted by using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. This research chooses six typical turbulence models, which are critical to the computing precision, and to evaluating the issue of APGs. Local frictional resistance coefficient is compared between numerical and experimental results. The same comparisons of dimensionless averaged velocity profiles are also performed. It is found that results generated by Wilcox (2006) k- w are most close to the experimental data. Meanwhile, turbulent quantities such as turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds-stress are also studied.
Dynamical Friction on Satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deienno, Rogerio; Yokoyama, T.; Prado, A. F. B. A.
2012-10-01
Deienno et al 2011 (A&A, v.536, A57) investigated the effects of the planetary migration on the satellites of Uranus. We concluded that Uranus might have had more satellites than those observed today. However, due to the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) phenomenon, those satellites beyond Oberon were destabilized mostly by collisions involving themselves or with some regular ones. In this work we apply the same methodology for the Saturnian system. We found that the satellites with orbits inside Titan's orbit are immune to the LHB phenomenon. On the other hand, Hyperion, Iapetus, and even Titan, in some cases are strongly affected by the LHB, and depending on the value of Saturn's obliquity, Iapetus might not have resisted to the LHB event. We also found that, the final orbital elements of the surviving satellites differ from what we see today, mainly in inclination. While eccentricity and orbital semi-major axis can be easily damped by tides, for orbital inclinations, tidal effects are not so efficient. Thus, considering that eccentricity and orbital semi-major axis will still evolve by tides, to study the problem of the orbital inclination we consider that: according to our simulations, during the LHB event, collisions between planetesimals and satellites are a common event, causing in some cases destruction of satellites. So, we hypothesized that the material delivered by these catastrophic events could form a disc of particles around the remaining of satellites' orbits. This disc interacts with the remaining satellites and by dynamical friction phenomenon the orbital inclination can be damped. Some preliminary results have shown that, indeed, this tentative can be a viable way to damp conveniently the inclination of some satellites. Acknowledgement: FAPESP-CNPq
Unsteady turbulent buoyant plumes
Woodhouse, Mark J; Hogg, Andrew J
2015-01-01
We model the unsteady evolution of turbulent buoyant plumes following temporal changes to the source conditions. The integral model is derived from radial integration of the governing equations expressing the conservation of mass, axial momentum and buoyancy. The non-uniform radial profiles of the axial velocity and density deficit in the plume are explicitly described by shape factors in the integral equations; the commonly-assumed top-hat profiles lead to shape factors equal to unity. The resultant model is hyperbolic when the momentum shape factor, determined from the radial profile of the mean axial velocity, differs from unity. The solutions of the model when source conditions are maintained at constant values retain the form of the well-established steady plume solutions. We demonstrate that the inclusion of a momentum shape factor that differs from unity leads to a well-posed integral model. Therefore, our model does not exhibit the mathematical pathologies that appear in previously proposed unsteady i...
Studies on the frictional behavior of magnetic recording tapes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalfayan, S. H.; Silver, R. H.; Hoffman, J. K.
1972-01-01
Methods were developed for measuring frictional forces acting on a magnetic tape in motion or at rest, as well as the extent of stick slip. The effects of factors such as temperature, humidity, kind of gaseous atmosphere, and tape speed on the frictional interaction between various tapes and heads were investigated. Results were instrumental in the selection of a tape for the Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft. Studies are reported on the stick slip behavior of tapes and the performance of a metallic tape, compared with the usual plastic tapes.
Instantaneous engine frictional torque: Its components and piston assembly friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichols, Fred A.; Henein, N. A.
1992-05-01
The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of an internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as the P-(omega) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, omega, have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself, and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-(omega)) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.
Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction
Nichols, F.A. (ed.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Henein, N.A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Center for Automotive Research)
1992-05-01
The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-[omega]) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, [omega], have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-[omega]) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.
Friction between Ring Polymer Brushes
A. Erbas; J. Paturej
2015-01-07
Friction between ring-polymer brushes at melt densities sliding past each other are studied using extensive course-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling arguments, and the results are compared to the friction between linear-polymer brushes. We show that for a velocity range spanning over three decades, the frictional forces measured for ring-polymer brushes are half the corresponding friction in case of linear brushes. In the linear-force regime, the weak inter-digitation of two ring brushes compared to linear brushes also leads to a lower number of binary collisions between the monomers of opposing brushes. At high velocities, where the thickness of the inter-digitation layer between two opposing brushes is on the order monomer size regardless of brush topology, stretched segments of ring polymers take a double-stranded conformation. As a result, monomers of the double-stranded segments collide less with the monomers of the opposing ring brush even though a similar number of monomers occupies the inter-digitation layer for ring and linear-brush bilayers. The numerical data obtained from our simulations is consistent with the proposed scaling analysis. Conformation-dependent frictional reduction observed in ring brushes can have important consequences in non-equilibrium bulk systems.
Slow rupture of frictional interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran
2012-02-01
The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.
Superradiance-tidal friction correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glampedakis, Kostas; Kapadia, Shasvath J.; Kennefick, Daniel
2014-01-01
Since the work of Hartle in the 1970s, and the subsequent development of the membrane paradigm approach to black hole physics it has been widely accepted that superradiant scattering of gravitational waves bears strong similarities with the phenomenon of "tidal friction" (well known from Newtonian gravity) operating in binary systems of viscous material bodies. In this paper we revisit the superradiance-tidal friction analogy within the context of ultracompact relativistic bodies. We advocate that as long as these bodies have nonzero viscosity they should undergo tidal friction that can be construed as a kind of superradiant scattering from the point of view of the dynamics of an orbiting test body. In addition we consider the presence of anisotropic matter, which is required for at least some ultracompact bodies, if they are to sustain a radius very close to the gravitational radius. We find that the tidal friction/superradiance output is enhanced with increasing anisotropy and that strongly anisotropic systems exhibit an unconventional response to tidal and centrifugal forces. Finally, we make contact with the artificial system comprising a black hole with its horizon replaced by a mirror (sometimes used as a proxy for ultracompact material bodies) and discuss superradiance and tidal friction in relation to it.
Slow rupture of frictional interfaces
Yohai Bar Sinai; Efim A. Brener; Eran Bouchbinder
2013-07-04
The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale $c_{min}$, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from $c_{min}$ to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.
Biofilms inducing ultra-low friction on titanium.
Souza, J C M; Henriques, M; Oliveira, R; Teughels, W; Celis, J-P; Rocha, L A
2010-12-01
Biofilm formation is widely reported in the literature as a problem in the healthcare, environmental, and industrial sectors. However, the role of biofilms in sliding contacts remains unclear. Friction during sliding was analyzed for titanium covered with mixed biofilms consisting of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. The morphology of biofilms on titanium surfaces was evaluated before, during, and after sliding tests. Very low friction was recorded on titanium immersed in artificial saliva and sliding against alumina in the presence of biofilms. The complex structure of biofilms, which consist of microbial cells and their hydrated exopolymeric matrix, acts like a lubricant. A low friction in sliding contacts may have major significance in the medical field. The composition and structure of biofilms are shown to be key factors for an understanding of friction behavior of dental implant connections and prosthetic joints. For instance, a loss of mechanical integrity of dental implant internal connections may occur as a consequence of the decrease in friction caused by biofilm formation. Consequently, the study of the exopolymeric matrix can be important for the development of high-performance novel joint-based systems for medical and other engineering applications. PMID:20924068
Vibration damping in bolted friction beam-columns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bournine, Hadjila; Wagg, David J.; Neild, Simon A.
2011-04-01
In this paper we examine the use of dynamic friction within a bolted structure to improve damping properties of the structure. The structure considered for this paper consists of two steel beam-columns bolted together allowing dynamic friction to occur at the interface. This paper presents an analysis of the behaviour of the structure and the effect of friction on its dynamics. It also presents an analysis of the energy dissipation in the structure by means of friction and the optimization of the bolt tension in order to dissipate the maximum vibration energy. We define analytical expressions for the vibration behaviour before and after slip occurs as well as the condition at which the slip-stick transition occurs. An experiment, in which the measurements of the bolt tension, the slip within the structure and the bending velocity are made, is used to validate the model. The theoretical analysis gave very close agreement with the experimental results and the effective damping of the structure was increased by a factor of approximately 10 through the use of dynamic friction.
Collisionless inter-species energy transfer and turbulent heating in drift wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, L.; Diamond, P. H.
2012-08-01
We reconsider the classic problems of calculating "turbulent heating" and collisionless inter-species transfer of energy in drift wave turbulence. These issues are of interest for low collisionality, electron heated plasmas, such as ITER, where collisionless energy transfer from electrons to ions is likely to be significant. From the wave Poynting theorem at steady state, a volume integral over an annulus r1
Dynamical Friction in Cuspidal Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.
2015-01-01
Dynamical friction is the process responsible for matter transport toward the inner region of galaxies in form of massive objects, like intermediate mass black holes, globular clusters and small satellite galaxies. While very bright galaxies show an almost flat luminosity profile in the inner region, fainter ones have, usually, a peaked, cuspidal, profile toward the center. This makes unreliable, in these cases, the use of the classic Chandrasekhar's formula for dynamical friction in its local approximation. Using both N-body simulations and a semi analytical approach, we have obtained reliable results for the orbital decay of massive objects in cuspidal galaxies. A relevant result is that of a shallower dependence of dynamical friction braking on the satellite mass than in the usual Chandrasekhar's local expression, at least in a range of large satellite masses.
Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component
Eltsov, Vladimir; Krusius, Matti
2013-01-01
In Fermi superfluids, like superfluid 3He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared to the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. This causes profound changes in superfluid dynamics: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures.
Energy Balance in Driven Soap-Film Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rivera, M.; Wu, X. L.
1999-11-01
Turbulence in freely suspended soap film is excited by electromagnetic forcing and measured by particle imaging velocimetry. It is shown that velocity fluctuations in the film can be adequately described by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation with a linear drag term that mimics air friction. Based on this equation, all of the energy-rate constants, including the energy injection and the energy dissipations by air and by fluid's viscosity, can be determined. It is established that air friction is a more effective energy sink, whereas viscosity is a more effective enstrophy sink in the flowing soap film.
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids
Carl H. Gibson
2010-01-01
Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begins with big bang\\u000aturbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and\\u000aPlanck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretions on a spinning pair releases\\u000a42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent\\u000acombustion. Negative viscous stresses and negative turbulence stresses work\\u000aagainst gravity, extracting mass-energy and space-time from
Frictional drag reduction by wavy advection of deformable bubbles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oishi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Yuichi; Tasaka, Yuji; Yasushi, Takeda
2009-02-01
Bubbles can reduce frictional drag in wall turbulence, and its effect is expected to use for ships and pipelines to save their power consumptions. A number of basic experiments have been carried out to date for finding out the best condition for enhancing the drag reduction. One issue that remains at present is the difference of the performance between steady and unsteady status in terms of bubble concentration. All the experiments in the past deal with the steady effect, i.e., the drag reduction is evaluated as a function of mean void fraction or given gas flow rate of continuous injection. Despite to this, the actual phenomena highly depend on local interaction between two phases upon unsteady manner. We focus on this point and elucidate the influence of time-fluctuating void fraction on the total response to the drag reduction. This view is in fact important to estimate the persistency of the bubble-based drag reduction in the flow direction since bubbles formulate wavy advection during their migration. Our experiments are designed to measure the above-mentioned effect from laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows in a horizontal channel. For avoiding the contamination effect that worsens the reproducibility of the experiment, Silicone oil is used as carrier fluid. The oil also simulates the high Weber number bubble condition because of low surface tension. The unsteady interaction between the wavy advection of bubbles and the local skin friction, a synchronized system is constructed to connect the high-speed camera with the shear transducer, which can evaluate the interaction at 1000 fps. From the results, we confirm that the drag reduction is provided at Re>3000 in the turbulent flow regime, and also the total drag reduction is enhanced by the presence of the waves.
Large-eddy simulation of turbulent dust emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klose, Martina; Shao, Yaping
2013-03-01
Turbulent dust emission is an important mechanism to be considered in dust models. For example, over a heated desert surface under weak wind conditions, convective turbulence can be highly developed, which generates patches of enhanced shear stresses and entrains dust into the atmosphere. This mechanism of dust emission differs from those considered in existing dust emission schemes because it does not have to involve the saltation of sand-sized particles. In this study, we develop a large-eddy dust model, WRF-LES/D, by coupling the WRF large-eddy flow model with a new dust mobilization scheme. It is then applied to the simulation of turbulent dust emission under various stability and wind conditions. Our aim is to understand how turbulent dust emission occurs and how turbulent dust fluxes depend on atmospheric control parameters. We show that, due to the complexity of turbulent motion and the dust cohesive forces, turbulent dust emission is a stochastic process which needs to be statistically quantified. With the numerical results, we quantify the large-eddy induced shear stresses on the surface and turbulent dust emissions in terms of probabilistic distributions. For a given soil type, it is shown that these distributions can be described in terms of a few control variables, including the friction velocity, u?, and the convective scaling velocity, w?.
Turbulence structure of open channel flows over permeable and impermeable beds: A comparative study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manes, Costantino; Pokrajac, Dubravka; McEwan, Ian; Nikora, Vladimir
2009-12-01
The behavior of turbulent open channel flows over permeable surfaces is not well understood. In particular, it is not clear how the surface and the subsurface flow within the permeable bed interact and influence each other. In order to clarify this issue we carried out two sets of experiments, one involving velocity measurements in open channel flows over an impermeable bed composed of a single layer of spheres, and another one where velocities were measured over and within a permeable bed made of five such layers. Comparison of surface flow velocity statistics between the two sets of experiments confirmed that bed permeability can significantly affect flow resistance. It was also confirmed that even in the hydraulically rough regime, the friction factors for the permeable bed increase with increasing Reynolds number. Such an increase in flow resistance implies a different distribution of normal form-induced stress between the permeable and impermeable bed cases. Subsurface flow measurements performed within the permeable bed revealed that there is an intense transport of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) occurring from the surface to the subsurface flow. We provide evidence that the transport of TKE toward the lower bed levels is driven mainly by pressure fluctuations, whereas TKE transport due to turbulent velocity fluctuations is limited to a thinner layer placed in the upper part of the bed. It was also confirmed that the turbulence imposed by the surface flow gradually dissipates while penetrating within the porous medium. Dissipation occurs faster for the small scales than for the large ones, which instead are persistent, although weak, even at the lowest bed levels.
Friction layers and friction films on PMC brake pads
W. Österle; I. Urban
2004-01-01
A rather new tool, the focused ion beam (FIB) technique, was used to characterise superficial layers at micro-contact areas of a commercial brake pad. The friction material was a polymer matrix composite (PMC) with approximately 50% metal content (semi-metallic) and the counter part was a cast iron rotor. Though the contact areas were not visible as topographic features, they could
Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction
Levesque, Vincent
that reduces its surface friction using imperceptible high-frequency vibrations produced with bonded Haptics, tactile feedback, touch screen. ACM Classification Keywords H5.2. [User Interfaces]: Interaction is currently available in touch interfaces primarily through actuators that apply vibrations to the entire
Rubber friction on ice and snow surfaces
Skouvaklis, Gerasimos
2011-06-28
The friction of rubber on ice and snow surfaces is complex. Deeper scientific understanding is important for optimising performance of tyres in winter. Rubber, ice and snow systems exhibit frictional behaviour which ...
Dynamics of sliding mechanisms in nanoscale friction
Yim, Shon W., 1973-
2002-01-01
Nanotribology is the study of friction and wear at the nanoscale, with relevance to such applications as micromechanical systems (MEMS) and thin, hard coatings. For these systems, classical laws of friction are inappropriate ...
A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kibbey, Timothy P.
2014-01-01
A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.
The Science of Speed: Friction & Heat
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Santa Fe Productions
The Science of Speed explains the scientific principles that are so essential to the NASCAR experience. Viewers learn how science makes cars powerful, agile, fast and safe--and how these same principles affect their own cars. Friction always creates heat. Brakes and tires depend on friction to work, but more friction isn’t always better. In the engine, friction is never good and engine builders use everything from oil to high-tech coatings to get a little extra horsepower.
Low-Friction Joint for Robot Fingers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruoff, C. F.
1985-01-01
Mechanical linkage allows adjacent parts to move relative to each other with low friction and with no chatter, slipping, or backlash. Low-friction joint of two surfaces in rolling contact, held in alinement by taut flexible bands. No sliding friction or "stick-slip" motion: Only rolling-contact and bending friction within bands. Proposed linkage intended for finger joints in mechanical hands for robots and manipulators.
Showing Area Matters: A Work of Friction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Domelen, David
2010-01-01
Typically, we teach the simplified friction equation of the form F[subscript s] = [mu][subscript s]N for static friction, where F[subscript s] is the maximum static friction, [mu][subscript s] is the coefficient of static friction, and "N" is the normal force pressing the surfaces together. However, this is a bit too simplified, and doesn't work…
Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.
1990-01-01
An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.
Joint Winter Runway Friction Program Accomplishments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yager, Thomas J.; Wambold, James C.; Henry, John J.; Andresen, Arild; Bastian, Matthew
2002-01-01
The major program objectives are: (1) harmonize ground vehicle friction measurements to report consistent friction value or index for similar contaminated runway conditions, for example, compacted snow, and (2) establish reliable correlation between ground vehicle friction measurements and aircraft braking performance. Accomplishing these objectives would give airport operators better procedures for evaluating runway friction and maintaining acceptable operating conditions, providing pilots information to base go/no go decisions, and would contribute to reducing traction-related aircraft accidents.
Frictional bronzes for operation in oil
I. I. Panaioti; E. L. Shvedkov; I. M. Fedorchenko; I. A. Babutin
1973-01-01
1.The surface profile of sintered bronze frictional disks intended for operation in lubricated frictional units should be produced by stamping during the hot pressing operation. Machining has a marked deleterious effect on the service characteristics of frictional bronzes of all compositions.2.From the point of view of both frictional and wear characteristics, single-phase sintered bronze has advantages over two-phase bronze as
Skin friction measurements by a new nonintrusive double-laser-beam oil viscosity balance technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.
1980-01-01
A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low-speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a 'law-of-the-wall' coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.
Skin Friction Measurements by a Dual-Laser-Beam Interferometer Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.
1981-01-01
A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a "law-of-the-well" coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. (This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.)
Friction Plug Weld Repair Geometric Innovations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coletta, Edmond R.; Cantrell, Mark A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A viewgraph presentation outlines the fundamentals of friction plug welding. A process overview is given for friction push plug welding, including different uses and strengths of push plug welding. Details are given for friction pull plug welding, including welding parameters, details on observed defects, expected benefits, and test results.
Frictional characteristics of an aerostatic linear bearing
Yusaku Fujii
2006-01-01
Frictional characteristics of an aerostatic linear bearing are evaluated in detail by means of a developing method. In the method, the resultant force acting on the moving part of the bearing is measured highly accurately as the inertial force using an optical interferometer. The velocity dependence of dynamic friction is focused on in this paper. The component of dynamic frictional
BOOK REVIEW: Turbulent Combustion
Norbert Peters
2001-01-01
The book Turbulent Combustion by Norbert Peters is a concise monograph on single-phase gaseous low Mach number turbulent combustion. It is compiled from the author's review papers on this topic plus some additional material. Norbert Peters characterizes turbulent combustion both by the way fuel and air are mixed and by the ratio of turbulent and chemical time scales. This approach
Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herring, J. R.
1973-01-01
The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.
Critical Length Limiting Superlow Friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael
2015-02-01
Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes.
Critical length limiting superlow friction.
Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael
2015-02-01
Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:25699452
Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, N.; Radhika, R.; Kozakov, A. T.; Pandian, R.; Chakravarty, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.
2015-01-01
Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1-0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2-0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.
Dynamical friction in cuspy galaxies
Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.
2014-04-10
In this paper, we treat the problem of the dynamical friction decay of a massive object moving in an elliptical galaxy with a cuspidal inner distribution of the mass density. We present results obtained by both self-consistent, direct summation, N-body simulations, as well as by a new semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction valid in such cuspy central regions of galaxies. A comparison of these results indicates that the proposed semi-analytical approximation is the only reliable one in cuspy galactic central regions, where the standard Chandrasekhar's local approximation fails and also gives estimates of decay times that are correct at 1% with respect to those given by N-body simulations. The efficiency of dynamical friction in cuspy galaxies is found definitively higher than in core galaxies, especially on more radially elongated satellite orbits. As another relevant result, we find a proportionality of the dynamical friction decay time to the –0.67 power of the satellite mass, M, shallower than the standardly adopted M {sup –1} dependence.
Friction stir welding and processing
R. S. Mishra; Z. Y. Ma
2005-01-01
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and versatile. In particular, it can be used to join high-strength aerospace aluminum alloys and other metallic alloys that are hard to weld by conventional fusion welding. FSW is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining in a
Borghi, R.; Murthy, S.N.B.
1989-01-01
Various papers on turbulent reactive flows are presented. Some of the individual topics discussed include: measurement of the topology of large-scale structures in turbulent reacting flows; structure of jet diffusion flames; comparison between two highly turbulent flames having very different laminar burning velocities; structure of turbulent premixed flames as revealed by spectral analysis; turbulent flow field and front position statistics in V-shaped premixed flame with and without confinement; structure of flamelets in turbulent reacting flows and influences of combustion on turbulence fields; flamelet library for turbulent wrinkled flames; length and time scales in turbulent combustion; model for reactions in turbulent jets, including the effects of Reynolds, Schmidt, and Damkoehler numbers; fractal description of flamelets; and interaction of a flame front with vortices.
Preface: Friction at the nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fusc, Claudio; Smith, Roger; Urbakh, Michael; Vanossi, Andrea
2008-09-01
Interfacial friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and chemistry, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Everyday operations on a broad range of scales, from nanometer and up, depend upon the smooth and satisfactory functioning of countless tribological systems. Friction imposes serious constraints and limitations on the performance and lifetime of micro-machines and, undoubtedly, will impose even more severe constraints on the emerging technology of nano-machines. Standard lubrication techniques used for large objects are expected to be less effective in the nano-world. Novel methods for control and manipulation are therefore needed. What has been missing is a molecular level understanding of processes occurring between and close to interacting surfaces to help understand, and later manipulate friction. Friction is intimately related to both adhesion and wear, and all three require an understanding of highly non-equilibrium processes occurring at the molecular level to determine what happens at the macroscopic level. Due to its practical importance and the relevance to basic scientific questions there has been major increase in activity in the study of interfacial friction on the microscopic level during the last decade. Intriguing structural and dynamical features have been observed experimentally. These observations have motivated theoretical efforts, both numerical and analytical. This special issue focusses primarily on discussion of microscopic mechanisms of friction and adhesion at the nanoscale level. The contributions cover many important aspects of frictional behaviour, including the origin of stick-slip motion, the dependence of measured forces on the material properties, effects of thermal fluctuations, surface roughness and instabilities in boundary lubricants on both static and kinetic friction. An important problem that has been raised in this issue, and which has still to be resolved, concerns the possibility of controlling frictional response. The ability to control and manipulate frictional forces is extremely important for a variety of applications. These include magnetic storage and recording systems, miniature motors, and more. This special issue aims to provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental works on nanotribology and possible applications. In selecting the papers we have tried to maintain a balance between new results and review-like aspects, so that the present issue is self-contained and, we hope, readily accessible to non-specialists in the field. We believe that the particular appeal of this collection of papers also lies in the fusion of both experiment and theory, thus providing the connection to reality of the sometimes demanding, mathematically inclined contributions. Profound thanks go to all our colleagues and friends who have contributed to this special issue. Each has made an effort not only to present recent results in a clear and lucid way, but also to provide an introductory review that helps the reader to understand the different topics.
INVITED PAPER: Refined cf relation for turbulent channels and consequences for high-Re experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanoun, E.-S.; Nagib, H.; Durst, F.
2009-04-01
There have been rising concerns regarding the accuracy of measurements in turbulent channel flows, in particular, measurements of the skin-friction results. In the present study, two different methods, namely, mean streamwise pressure gradient (PG) and oil film interferometry (OFI), are used to estimate the wall skin-friction relation, cf = f(Rem), for fully developed turbulent plane-channel flow over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The channel skin-friction data are then fitted to the well-known logarithmic friction law, providing outstanding agreement with values for the constants of the logarithmic law of the mean velocity profile. A revised logarithmic skin-friction relation is developed, providing good agreement with our skin-friction results and data from the literature, when constants of the logarithmic friction relation adopted from the recent work of Zanoun et al (2003 Phys. Fluids 15 3079-89, 2005 4th Int. Conf. on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, HEAT2005, 19-22 September, Cairo, Egypt) are utilized. A new experimental channel facility is proposed, allowing measurements at high Reynolds numbers well beyond those achieved previously in laboratories, i.e. over five times the highest Rem reached in the present study, while maintaining sufficiently high spatial resolution.
Accurate and Independent Measurements of Wall-Shear Stress in Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
R"Uedi, J.-D.; Duncan, R.; Imayama, S.; Chauhan, K.
2009-11-01
Oil Film Interferometry (OFI) is used to directly measure the wall-shear stress in the high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers from three facilities used for ICET. Various optical arrangements were utilized to collect the digital images generated on transparent plugs integrated into the boundary layer surface. Test-section free stream velocities ranging from 10 to 60 m/s and development lengths from 5.5m to 21 m, resulted in friction velocities varying from 0.35 to 1.65 m/s, corresponding to boundary layer thicknesses varying by factors of nearly four. Silicon oils with viscosities from 20 to 1000 cSt were employed in the measurements, with multiple oils used for several of the test conditions. A reference temperature measurement was used in all three facilities and for the calibration of the oils as a function of temperature in four different laboratories using two types of viscometers. The processing of the images was carried out using several approaches and compared for consistency of the results. Results of the skin friction coefficient from the three wind tunnels are examined and compared as a function of the displacement thickness Reynolds number, as determined from hot-wire and Pitot probe profiles at comparable conditions, and are found to be accurately represented by the logarithmic Rotta relation. The various uncertainties and the final accuracy of this type of measurement are discussed.
The effect of surface friction on the development of tropical cyclones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Juan; Tang, Jianping; Wu, Rongsheng
2009-11-01
When tropical cyclones (hereafter referred as TCs) are over the ocean, surface friction plays a dual role in the development of TCs. From the viewpoint of water vapor supply, frictional convergence and Ekman pumping provide a source of moisture for organized cumulus convection and is propitious to the spin-up of TCs. On the other hand, surface friction leads to a dissipation of kinetic energy that impedes the intensification of TCs. Which role is dominant in the developing stage of TCs is a controversial issue. In the present work, the influence of surface friction on the growth of TCs is re-examined in detail by conducting two sets of numerical experiments initialized with different cyclonic disturbances. Results indicate that, because of the inherent complexities of TCs, the impact of surface friction on the evolution of TCs can not be simply boiled down to being positive or negative. In the case that a TC starts from a low-level vortex with a warm core, surface friction and the resultant vertical motion makes an important contribution to the convection in the early developing stage of the TC by accelerating the build-up of convective available potential energy (CAPE) and ensuring moisture supply and the lifting of air parcels. This effect is so prominent that it dominates the friction-induced dissipation and makes surface friction a facilitative factor in the spin-up of the TC. However, for a TC formed from a mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) spawned in a long-lasting mesoscale convective system (MCS), the initial fields, and especially the low-level humidity and cold core, enable the prerequisites of convection (i.e., conditional instability, moisture, and lifting), to be easily achieved even without the help of boundary-layer pumping induced by surface friction. Accordingly, the reliance of the development of TCs on surface friction is not as heavy as that derived from a lowlevel vortex. The positive effect of surface friction on the development of TCs realized through facilitating favorable conditions for convection is nearly cancelled out by the friction-induced dissipation. However, as SST is enhanced in the latter case, the situation may be changed, and different development speeds may emerge between model TCs with and without surface friction considered. In short, owing to the fact that TC development is a complicated process affected by many factors such as initial perturbations, SST, etc., the importance of surface friction to the intensification of TCs may vary enormously from case to case.
Stick-slip friction and wear of articular joints.
Lee, Dong Woog; Banquy, Xavier; Israelachvili, Jacob N
2013-02-12
Stick-slip friction was observed in articular cartilage under certain loading and sliding conditions and systematically studied. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus, we show that stick-slip friction can induce permanent morphological changes (a change in the roughness indicative of wear/damage) in cartilage surfaces, even under mild loading and sliding conditions. The different load and speed regimes can be represented by friction maps--separating regimes of smooth and stick-slip sliding; damage generally occurs within the stick-slip regimes. Prolonged exposure of cartilage surfaces to stick-slip sliding resulted in a significant increase of surface roughness, indicative of severe morphological changes of the cartilage superficial zone. To further investigate the factors that are conducive to stick-slip and wear, we selectively digested essential components of cartilage: type II collagen, hyaluronic acid (HA), and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Compared with the normal cartilage, HA and GAG digestions modified the stick-slip behavior and increased surface roughness (wear) during sliding, whereas collagen digestion decreased the surface roughness. Importantly, friction forces increased up to 2, 10, and 5 times after HA, GAGs, and collagen digestion, respectively. Also, each digestion altered the friction map in different ways. Our results show that (i) wear is not directly related to the friction coefficient but (ii) more directly related to stick-slip sliding, even when present at small amplitudes, and that (iii) the different molecular components of joints work synergistically to prevent wear. Our results also suggest potential noninvasive diagnostic tools for sensing stick-slip in joints. PMID:23359687
Roughness Effects on Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flack, Karen
2013-11-01
The importance of surface roughness is well known for wall-bounded flows. Roughness typically increases drag in turbulent boundary layers due to pressure forces on the roughness elements. While rough-wall flows are ubiquitous in engineering practice, the issues of modeling the roughness in computations and accurately predicting the increase in frictional drag remain elusive goals. In this talk, the effect of roughness on the mean flow, turbulence statistics, and turbulence structure will be discussed. In particular, rough-wall flows will be examined in light of Townsend's Reynolds number similarity hypothesis, which states that the turbulent motions in the outer layer are independent of surface roughness when the Reynolds number is sufficiently high. Additionally, the presentation will include recent work on the estimation of frictional drag due to surface roughness. Detailed experiments have been performed in the transitionally rough and fully rough regimes. This research is part of an effort to determine the relevant predictive scales based solely on the roughness topography. The importance of surface roughness is well known for wall-bounded flows. Roughness typically increases drag in turbulent boundary layers due to pressure forces on the roughness elements. While rough-wall flows are ubiquitous in engineering practice, the issues of modeling the roughness in computations and accurately predicting the increase in frictional drag remain elusive goals. In this talk, the effect of roughness on the mean flow, turbulence statistics, and turbulence structure will be discussed. In particular, rough-wall flows will be examined in light of Townsend's Reynolds number similarity hypothesis, which states that the turbulent motions in the outer layer are independent of surface roughness when the Reynolds number is sufficiently high. Additionally, the presentation will include recent work on the estimation of frictional drag due to surface roughness. Detailed experiments have been performed in the transitionally rough and fully rough regimes. This research is part of an effort to determine the relevant predictive scales based solely on the roughness topography. Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.
Turbulent boundary-layer control with plasma spanwise travelling waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So
2014-08-01
Arrays of dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma actuators have been designed to generate spanwise travelling waves in the turbulent boundary layer for possible skin-friction drag reductions. Particle image velocimetry was used to elucidate the modifications to turbulence structures created by the plasma spanwise travelling waves. It has been observed that the plasma spanwise travelling waves amalgamated streamwise vortices, lifting low-speed fluid from the near-wall region up and around the peripheries of their cores to form wide ribbons of low-speed streamwise velocity within the viscous sublayer.
Effects of transverse oscillatory waves on turbulent boundary waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matulevich, Jonathan; Jacobs, Harold R.
1994-01-01
Studies of the interaction of unsteady (oscillatory) flows with the growth of a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate have primarily dealt with an oscillatory component in the primary flow direction. Past studies of the 2-D flow have shown little or no increase in the time averaged heat transfer. The present paper deals with a steady axial and an oscillatory transverse flow. It is shown that for such flows the temporal variation for both the turbulent skin friction and heat transfer are such as to yield increased time averaged values.
Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean.
Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander
2015-07-01
We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing. PMID:26274279
Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander
2015-07-01
We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing.
Light propagation through anisotropic turbulence.
Toselli, Italo; Agrawal, Brij; Restaino, Sergio
2011-03-01
A wealth of experimental data has shown that atmospheric turbulence can be anisotropic; in this case, a Kolmogorov spectrum does not describe well the atmospheric turbulence statistics. In this paper, we show a quantitative analysis of anisotropic turbulence by using a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum with an anisotropic coefficient. The spectrum we use does not include the inner and outer scales, it is valid only inside the inertial subrange, and it has a power-law slope that can be different from a Kolmogorov one. Using this power spectrum, in the weak turbulence condition, we analyze the impact of the power-law variations ? on the long-term beam spread and scintillation index for several anisotropic coefficient values ?. We consider only horizontal propagation across the turbulence cells, assuming circular symmetry is maintained on the orthogonal plane to the propagation direction. We conclude that the anisotropic coefficient influences both the long-term beam spread and the scintillation index by the factor ?(2-?). PMID:21383832
Gravito-turbulent disks in three dimensions: Turbulent velocities versus depth
Shi, Ji-Ming; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: jmshi@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, UC Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
2014-07-01
Characterizing turbulence in protoplanetary disks is crucial for understanding how they accrete and spawn planets. Recent measurements of spectral line broadening promise to diagnose turbulence, with different lines probing different depths. We use three-dimensional local hydrodynamic simulations of cooling, self-gravitating disks to resolve how motions driven by 'gravito-turbulence' vary with height. We find that gravito-turbulence is practically as vigorous at altitude as at depth. Even though gas at altitude is much too rarefied to be itself self-gravitating, it is strongly forced by self-gravitating overdensities at the midplane. The long-range nature of gravity means that turbulent velocities are nearly uniform vertically, increasing by just a factor of two from midplane to surface, even as the density ranges over nearly three orders of magnitude. The insensitivity of gravito-turbulence to height contrasts with the behavior of disks afflicted by the magnetorotational instability (MRI); in the latter case, non-circular velocities increase by at least a factor of 15 from midplane to surface, with various non-ideal effects only magnifying this factor. The distinct vertical profiles of gravito-turbulence versus MRI turbulence may be used in conjunction with measurements of non-thermal linewidths at various depths to identify the source of transport in protoplanetary disks.
Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team
2013-11-01
In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).
Microbubble drag reduction in liquid turbulent boundary layers
Merkle, C.L.; Deutsch, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
1992-12-01
The interactions between a dense cloud of small bubbles and a liquid turbulent boundary layer are reviewed on the basis of available experimental observations to understand and quantify their capability for reducing skin friction. Gas bubbles are generally introduced into the boundary layer by injection through a porous surface or by electrolysis. After injection, the bubbles stay near the wall in boundary-layer-like fashion giving rise to strong gradients in both velocity and gas concentration. In general, the magnitude of the skin friction reduction increases as the volume of bubbles in the boundary layer is increased until a maximum skin friction reduction of typically 80-90% of the undisturbed skin friction level is reached. The volumetric gas flow required for this maximum is nominally equal to the volume flow of the liquid in the boundary layer. Bubble size estimates indicate that in most microbubble experiments the bubbles have been intermediate in size between the inner and outer scales of the undisturbed boundary layer. Additional studies with other nondimensional bubble sizes would be useful. However, the bubble size is most likely controlled by the injection process, and considerably different conditions would be required to change this ratio appreciably. The trajectories of the bubble clouds are primarily determined by the random effects of turbulence and bubble-bubble interactions. The effects of buoyancy represent a weaker effect. The trajectories are unlike the deterministic trajectory of an individual bubble in a time-averaged boundary layer. Bubbles are most effective in high speed boundary layers and, for the bubble sizes tested to date, produce an effect that persists for some on hundred boundary layer thicknesses. Modeling suggests that microbubbles reduce skin friction by increasing the turbulence Reynolds number in the buffer layer in a manner similar to polymers.
Turbulent Mixing and Flow Resistance over Dunes and Scours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorrell, R. M.; Arfaie, A.; Burns, A. D.; Eggenhuisen, J. T.; Ingham, D. B.; McCaffrey, W. D.
2014-12-01
Flows in both submarine and fluvial channels are subject to lower boundary roughness. Lower boundary roughness occurs as frictional roughness suffered by the flow as it moves over the bed (skin friction) or drag suffered by the flow as it moves past a large obstacle (form drag). Critically, to overcome such roughness the flow must expend (lose) energy and momentum. However, whilst overcoming bed roughness the degree of turbulent mixing in the flow may be enhanced increasing the potential energy of the flow. This is of key importance to density driven flows as the balance between kinetic energy lost and potential energy gained (through turbulent diffusion of suspended particulate material) may critically affect the criterion for autosuspension. Moreover, this effect of lower boundary roughness may go as far as helping to explain why, even on shallow slopes, channelized submarine density currents can run out over ultra long distances. Such effects are also important in fluvial systems, where they will be responsible for maximizing or minimizing sediment capacity and competence in different flow environments. Numerical simulations are performed at a high Reynolds number (O (106)) for a series of crestal length to height ratio (c/h) at a fixed width to height ratio (w/h). Here, we present key findings of shear flow over a range of idealized bedform shapes. We show how the total basal shear stress is split into skin friction and form drag and identify how the respective magnitudes vary as a function of bedform shape and scale. Moreover we demonstrate how said bedforms affect the balance of energy lost (frictional) and energy gained (turbulent mixing). Overall, results demonstrate a slow reduction in turbulent mixing and flow resistance with decreasing bedform side slope angle. This suggests that both capacity and competence of the flow may be reduced through decrease in of the potential energy of the flow as a result of change in slope angles.
Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russian Education and Society, 2012
2012-01-01
The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of problems in…
Heat transfer enhancement in channels with turbulence promoters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, J. C.; Park, J. S.; Lei, C. K.
1984-01-01
Repeated rib-roughness elements have been used in advanced turbine cooling designs to enhance the internal heat transfer. Often the ribs are perpendicular to the main flow direction so that they have an angle-of-attack of 90 degrees. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of rib angle-of-attack on the pressure drop and the average heat-transfer coefficients in the fully developed turbulent air flow in a square duct with two opposite rib-roughened walls for Reynolds numbers varied from 7,000 to 90,000. The rib height-to-equivalent diameter ratio was kept at a constant value of 0.063, the rib pitch-to-height ratio was varied from 10 to 20, and the rib angle-of-attack (alpha) was varied from 90 to 60 deg to 45 to 30 deg, respectively. The thermal-performance comparison indicated that the increased heat conductance for the rib with an oblique angle to the flow (alpha = 45 deg - 30 deg) was about 10-20 percent higher than the rib with a 90 deg angle to the flow, and the pumping power requirement for the angled rib was about 20-50 percent lower than the transverse rib. Semi-empirical correlations for friction factor and heat-transfer coefficients were developed to account for rib spacing and rib angle. The correlations can be used in the design of turbine-blade cooling passages.
Heat transfer enhancement in channels with turbulence promoters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, J. C.; Park, J. S.; Lei, C. K.
1984-12-01
Repeated rib-roughness elements have been used in advanced turbine cooling designs to enhance the internal heat transfer. Often the ribs are perpendicular to the main flow direction so that they have an angle-of-attack of 90 degrees. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of rib angle-of-attack on the pressure drop and the average heat-transfer coefficients in the fully developed turbulent air flow in a square duct with two opposite rib-roughened walls for Reynolds numbers varied from 7,000 to 90,000. The rib height-to-equivalent diameter ratio was kept at a constant value of 0.063, the rib pitch-to-height ratio was varied from 10 to 20, and the rib angle-of-attack (alpha) was varied from 90 to 60 deg to 45 to 30 deg, respectively. The thermal-performance comparison indicated that the increased heat conductance for the rib with an oblique angle to the flow (alpha = 45 deg - 30 deg) was about 10-20 percent higher than the rib with a 90 deg angle to the flow, and the pumping power requirement for the angled rib was about 20-50 percent lower than the transverse rib. Semi-empirical correlations for friction factor and heat-transfer coefficients were developed to account for rib spacing and rib angle. The correlations can be used in the design of turbine-blade cooling passages.
Friction, Wear, and Surface Damage of Metals as Affected by Solid Surface Films
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bisson, Edmond E; Johnson, Robert L; Swikert, Max A; Godfrey, Douglas
1956-01-01
As predicted by friction theory, experiments showed that friction and surface damage of metals can be reduced by solid surface films. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding was a very important factor in wear of dry and boundary lubricated surfaces. Films of graphitic carbon on cast irons, nio on nickel alloys, and feo and fe sub 3 o sub 4 on ferrous materials were found to be beneficial. Abrasive films such as fe sub 2 o sub 3 or moo sub 3 were definitely detrimental. It appears that the importance of oxide films to friction and wear processes has not been fully appreciated.
Suresh, S; Venkitaraj, K P; Hameed, M Shahul; Sarangan, J
2014-03-01
A study on fully developed turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated circular tube is presented in this paper. For this, Al2O3-Cu nanocomposite powder was synthesized in a thermo chemical route using hydrogen reduction technique and dispersed the hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The prepared powder was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to confirm the chemical composition, determine the particle size and study the surface morphology. Stability of the nanofluid was ensured by pH and zeta potential measurements. The average heat transfer enhancement for Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 8.02% when compared to pure water. The experimental results also showed that 0.1% Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor compared to 0.1% Al2O3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor were well agreed with the experimental data. PMID:24745264
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takabi, Behrouz; Shokouhmand, Hossein
2015-09-01
In this paper, forced convection of a turbulent flow of pure water, Al2O3/water nanofluid and Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid (a new advanced nanofluid composited of Cu and Al2O3 nanoparticles) through a uniform heated circular tube is numerically analyzed. This paper examines the effects of these three fluids as the working fluids, a wide range of Reynolds number (10 000 ? Re ? 10 0000) and also the volume concentration (0% ? ? ? 2%) on heat transfer and hydrodynamic performance. The finite volume discretization method is employed to solve the set of the governing equations. The results indicate that employing hybrid nanofluid improves the heat transfer rate with respect to pure water and nanofluid, yet it reveals an adverse effect on friction factor and appears severely outweighed by pressure drop penalty. However, the average increase of the average Nusselt number (when compared to pure water) in Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 32.07% and the amount for the average increase of friction factor would be 13.76%.
High temperature skin friction measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.
1989-01-01
Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Lakshmanan, B.; Carlson, John R.
1995-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to determine how accurately computations can predict local and average skin friction coefficients for attached and separated flows for simple experimental geometries. Algebraic and transport equation closures were used to model turbulence. To simulate anisotropic turbulence, the standard two-equation turbulence model was modified by adding nonlinear terms. The effects of both grid density and the turbulence model on the computed flow fields were also investigated and compared with available experimental data for subsonic and supersonic free-stream conditions.
Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.
Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B
2015-07-28
During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123
Fault rheology beyond frictional melting
Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.
2015-01-01
During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or “pseudotachylytes.” It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123
Friction Stir Process Mapping Methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kooney, Alex; Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In FSW (friction stir welding), the weld process performance for a given weld joint configuration and tool setup is summarized on a 2-D plot of RPM vs. IPM. A process envelope is drawn within the map to identify the range of acceptable welds. The sweet spot is selected as the nominal weld schedule. The nominal weld schedule is characterized in the expected manufacturing environment. The nominal weld schedule in conjunction with process control ensures a consistent and predictable weld performance.
Ohira, Yutaka
2013-01-01
We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a lengthscale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation which contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important in small scale. Moreover, by Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.
Ohira, Yutaka, E-mail: ohira@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)
2013-04-10
We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.
Rubber friction on smooth surfaces
B. N. J. Persson; A. I. Volokitin
2006-07-04
We study the sliding friction for viscoelastic solids, e.g., rubber, on hard flat substrate surfaces. We consider first the fluctuating shear stress inside a viscoelastic solid which results from the thermal motion of the atoms or molecules in the solid. At the nanoscale the thermal fluctuations are very strong and give rise to stress fluctuations in the MPa-range, which is similar to the depinning stresses which typically occur at solid-rubber interfaces, indicating the crucial importance of thermal fluctuations for rubber friction on smooth surfaces. We develop a detailed model which takes into account the influence of thermal fluctuations on the depinning of small contact patches (stress domains) at the rubber-substrate interface. The theory predicts that the velocity dependence of the macroscopic shear stress has a bell-shaped f orm, and that the low-velocity side exhibits the same temperature dependence as the bulk viscoelastic modulus, in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Finally, we discuss the influence of small-amplitude substrate roughness on rubber sliding friction.
An Assessment of Oil Film Interferometry to Measure Skin Friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monkewitz, Peter A.; Segalini, Antonio; Rüedi, Jean-Daniel
2010-11-01
In recent years, the independent measurement of wall shear stress with oil film interferometry has led to a step increase in the understanding of turbulent boundary layers. However, while many arguments depend critically on a precise knowledge of the skin friction, the systematic errors of the oil film technique are not well known. In particular the basic theory underlying the technique has essentially not evolved since it was first proposed by Tanner & Blows (J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., vol. 9, 1976, p. 194). The purpose of this study is to elucidate the dominant systematic error of the classical oil film method. We derive the corrections to the basic Tanner & Blows similarity solution for the film development in zero pressure gradient boundary layers and validate the analysis experimentally. This allows to formulate "best practice guidelines" for the oil film technique that help push uncertainties below 1%.
Friction enhancement via micro-patterned wet elastomer adhesives on small intestinal surfaces
Jiwoon Kwon; Eugene Cheung; Metin Sitti
2006-01-01
A micro-pillar-based silicone rubber adhesive coated with a thin silicone oil layer is investigated in this paper for developing friction-based clamping mechanisms for robotic endoscopic microcapsules. These adhesives are shown to enhance the frictional force between the capsule and the intestinal wall by a factor of about seven over a non-patterned flat elastomer material. In this study, tests performed on
Shape-dependent adhesion and friction of Au nanoparticles probed with atomic force microscopy.
Yuk, Youngji; Hong, Jong Wook; Lee, Hyunsoo; Han, Sang Woo; Young Park, Jeong
2015-03-27
The relation between surface structure and friction and adhesion is a long-standing question in tribology. Tuning the surface structure of the exposed facets of metal nanoparticles is enabled by shape control. We investigated the effect of the shape of Au nanoparticles on friction and adhesion. Two nanoparticle systems, cubic nanoparticles with a low-index (100) surface and hexoctahedral nanoparticles with a high-index (321) surface, were used as model nanoparticle surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was used to probe the nanoscale friction and adhesion on the nanoparticle surface. Before removing the capping layers, the friction results include contributions from both the geometric factor and the presence of capping layers. After removing the capping layers, we can see the exclusive effect of the surface atomic structure while the geometric effect is maintained. We found that after removing the capping layer, the cubic Au nanoparticles exhibited higher adhesion and friction, compared with cubes capped with layers covering 25% and 70%, respectively. On the other hand, the adhesion and friction of hexoctahedral Au nanoparticles decreased after removing the capping layers, compared with nanoparticles with capping layers. The difference in adhesion and friction forces between the bare Au surfaces and Au nanoparticles with capping layers cannot be explained by geometric factors, such as the slope of the nanoparticle surfaces. The higher adhesion and friction forces on cubic nanoparticles after removing the capping layers is associated with the atomic structure of (100) and (321) (i.e., the flat (100) surfaces of the cubic nanoparticles have a larger contact area, compared with the rough (321) surfaces of the hexoctahedral nanoparticles). This study implies an intrinsic relation between atomic structure and nanomechanical properties, with potential applications for controlling nanoscale friction and adhesion via colloid chemistry. PMID:25765817
Characteristics of Turbulent flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franck, Jennifer; Peguero, Charles; Henoch, Charles; Breuer, Kenneth
2010-11-01
Recent research has suggested significant modification in the structure of turbulent flow of water over a superhydrophobic surface. The changes, which may include large reductions in skin friction, are due to the modification of the no-slip boundary condition at the liquid-solid interface. We present experimental and computational results from an ongoing exploration of this system. Experimental results include new measurements of laminar flow friction coefficients, as well as high-resolution PIV over a number of superhydrophobic geometries. To complement the experimental investigations, direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow are performed. The no-slip boundary layer is modified with Navier slip boundary conditions in the streamwise and spanwise flow directions. The effect of compliance at the air-water interface between microstructures is investigated numerically using a simple model to calculate out-of-plane wall deflections and allow for non-zero wall-normal velocities. Mean and fluctuating velocity statistics as well as flow structures are examined, and compared with the experimental measurements.
Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels
Remi Revellin; John R. Thome
2007-01-01
Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar
Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels
Rémi Revellin; John R. Thome
2007-01-01
Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime
A Model for Evaporation as a Molecular Diffusion Process into a Turbulent Atmosphere
Wilfried Brutsaert
1965-01-01
Evaporation is analyzed as a phenomenon of molecular diffusion from a large rough surface into random-lived internal scale turbulent eddies. The model is based on the principles of similarity and stochastic renewal. It is shown that evaporation is proportional to the 0.75 power of the friction velocity and to the square root of the molecular diffusivity. This is in agreement
Marusic, Ivan
flow and in zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate turbulent boundary layers. The unique facilities available at the University of Melbourne enable us to obtain these two flows at matched friction Reynolds correlation coefficients and energy spectra of streamwise velocity fluctuations in the streamwise and spanwise
Hypersonic laminar–turbulent transition on circular cones and scramjet forebodies
Steven P. Schneider
2004-01-01
Laminar–turbulent transition in hypersonic boundary layers has a dramatic effect on heat transfer, skin friction, and separation. This effect is critical to reentry vehicles and airbreathing cruise vehicles, yet the physics of the transition process is not yet well enough understood to be used for predictive purposes. The literature for transition on circular cones and scramjet forebodies is reviewed, from
Environmental effects on friction and wear of diamond and diamondlike carbon coatings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan
1992-01-01
Reciprocating sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural diamond flat, diamond film, and low and high density diamondlike carbon (DLC) films in contact with pin specimens of natural diamond and silicon nitride (Si3N4) both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. The results indicated that for natural diamond pin contacts the diamond films and the natural diamond flat were not susceptible to moisture but that moisture could increase both the coefficient of friction and the wear factors of the DLC films. The coefficients of friction and wear factors of the diamond films were generally similar to those of the natural diamond flat both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. In dry nitrogen the coefficients of friction of the high density DLC films in contact with pin specimens of both diamond and Si3N4 were generally low (about 0.02) and similar to those of the natural diamond flat and the diamond films. The wear factors of the materials in contact with both natural diamond and Si3N4 were generally in the ascending order of natural diamond flat, diamond film, high density DLC film, and low density DLC film. The moisture in the environment increased the coefficients of friction for Si3N4 pins in contact with all the materials. This increase in friction is due to the silicon oxide film produced on the surface of Si3N4 pins in humid air.
Granular Brownian motion with dry friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnoli, A.; Puglisi, A.; Touchette, H.
2013-04-01
The interplay between Coulomb friction and random excitations is studied experimentally by means of a rotating probe in contact with a stationary granular gas. The granular material is independently fluidized by a vertical shaker, acting as a “heat bath” for the Brownian-like motion of the probe. Two ball bearings supporting the probe exert nonlinear Coulomb friction upon it. The experimental velocity distribution of the probe, autocorrelation function, and power spectra are compared with the predictions of a linear Boltzmann equation with friction, which is known to simplify in two opposite limits: at high collision frequency, it is mapped to a Fokker-Planck equation with nonlinear friction, whereas at low collision frequency, it is described by a sequence of independent random kicks followed by friction-induced relaxations. Comparison between theory and experiment in these two limits shows good agreement. Deviations are observed at very small velocities, where the real bearings are not well modeled by Coulomb friction.
SRM propellant, friction/ESD testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, L. A.
1989-01-01
Following the Pershing 2 incident in 1985 and the Peacekeeper ignition during core removal in 1987, it was found that propellant can be much more sensitive to Electrostatic Discharges (ESD) than ever before realized. As a result of the Peacekeeper motor near miss incident, a friction machine was designed and fabricated, and used to determine friction hazards during core removal. Friction testing with and electrical charge being applied across the friction plates resulted in propellant ignitions at low friction pressures and extremely low ESD levels. The objective of this test series was to determine the sensitivity of solid rocket propellant to combined friction pressure and electrostatic stimuli and to compare the sensitivity of the SRM propellant to Peacekeeper propellant. The tests are fully discussed, summarized and conclusions drawn.
Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation
Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane
2012-01-01
Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751
Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen
2010-06-05
We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.
Friction (Chapter 5, section 8) & Circular Motion (Chapter 6,
the force of kinetic friction The direction of the frictional force is opposite the direction of motion F s s #12;2 Kinetic Friction The force of kinetic friction acts when the object is in motion1 Week 5 Friction (Chapter 5, section 8) & Circular Motion (Chapter 6, sections 1-2) Lecture Quiz 1
Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces
M. Mofidi; B. Prakash; B. N. J. Persson; O. Albohl
2007-10-18
We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short wavelength roughness, which may give the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the substrate surface asperities. The presented results are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.
Friction-stir welding: microstructural characterization
L. E. Murr; R. D. Flores; O. V. Flores; J. C. McClure; G. Liu; D. Brown
1998-01-01
The microstructures of friction-stir welded aluminum alloys (1100 and 6061) are dominated by dynamic recrystallization. Friction-stir\\u000a welding of 6061 aluminum to copper produced a complex, intercalated microstructure which was also dominated by dynamic recrystallization.\\u000a The friction-stir welding process is characterized by extreme plastic deformation in the solid state; there is no associated\\u000a melting.
Friction stir welding for the transportation industries
W. M Thomas; E. D Nicholas
1997-01-01
This paper will focus on the relatively new joining technology—friction stir welding (FSW). Like all friction welding variants, the FSW process is carried out in the solid-phase. Generically solid-phase welding is one of the oldest forms of metallurgical joining processes known to man. Friction stir welding is a continuous hot shear autogenous process involving a non-consumable rotating probe of harder
Stability of superconducting composites during external friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dotsenko, V. I.; Kislyak, I. F.; Chaykovskaya, N. M.
This paper reports on the simulation of winding friction likely to arise in large superconducting magnetic systems. Sample materials were the superconducting composites Cu-Nb (prepared in situ), Cu?NbTi and bronze-Nb 3Sn. Instabilities of the superconducting state during essentially unstable low temperature external friction were indicated by development of normal zones in the composites. Their dependence on the frictional force jump magnitude and character is studied, and a concept of their development is proposed.
Sintered friction materials based on aluminum bronze
V. M. Kryachek; E. L. Shvedkov
1969-01-01
1.We studied the properties of sintered friction materials with different aluminum contents in the base. It was found that the optimum strength and friction characteristics are noted in materials containing 10–11% by weight of aluminum in the metallic matrix.2.During the study of the effect of the structure of metallic matrices of friction materials on wear resistance it was found that
Skin friction fields on delta wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodiga, S. A.; Liu, Tianshu
2009-12-01
The normalized skin friction fields on a 65° delta wing and a 76°/40° double-delta wing are measured by using a global luminescent oil-film skin friction meter. The detailed topological structures of skin friction fields on the wings are revealed for different angles of attack and the important features are detected such as reattachment lines, secondary separation lines, vortex bursting and vortex interaction. The comparisons with the existing flow visualization results are discussed.
Intraoral corrosion of self-ligating metallic brackets and archwires and the effect on friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tima, Lori Lynn
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the frictional coefficient was affected due to intraoral use. A secondary aim of this study was to determine whether or not there was a relationship between corrosion of orthodontic alloys and friction via scanning electron microscopic qualitative analysis. Orthodontic brackets and 0.019 x 0.025 inch stainless steel archwires were collected and divided into three groups of n=10: used bracket and used wires (UBUW), used brackets and new wires (UBNW), and new brackets and new wires (NBNW). New materials were as-received from the manufacturer, and used materials were clinically used bracket and wires collected from patients following orthodontic treatment. Archwires were pulled through bracket slots at a rate of 0.5mm/min while friction forces were measured. Following a cleaning process, the surface topography of the bracket slots was examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on a 1-factor MANOVA, there was no significant group effect (all p>0.05) on frictional forces. Partial eta squared values indicated that intraoral exposure had only a small effect on frictional forces (? 3%). Qualitative analysis of SEM images did not show an association between surface characteristics of the bracket slots and magnitude of frictional force. Results suggest that surface corrosion from intraoral use does not significantly affect friction at the bracket wire interface.
Estimation of the friction coefficient between wheel and rail surface using traction motor behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y.; Liang, B.; Iwnicki, S.
2012-05-01
The friction coefficient between a railway wheel and rail surface is a crucial factor in maintaining high acceleration and braking performance of railway vehicles thus monitoring this friction coefficient is important. Restricted by the difficulty in directly measuring the friction coefficient, the creep force or creepage, indirect methods using state observers are used more frequently. This paper presents an approach using a Kalman filter to estimate the creep force and creepage between the wheel and rail and then to identify the friction coefficient using the estimated creep force-creepage relationship. A mathematic model including an AC motor, wheel and roller is built to simulate the driving system. The parameters are based on a test rig at Manchester Metropolitan University. The Kalman filter is designed to estimate the friction coefficient based on the measurements of the simulation model. Series of residuals are calculated through the comparison between the estimated creep force and theoretical values of different friction coefficient. Root mean square values of the residuals are used in the friction coefficient identification.
Atmospheric Turbulence (METR 6103)
Fedorovich, Evgeni
Atmospheric Turbulence (METR 6103) Spring 2008 Syllabus General information: Turbulence is a common state of atmospheric flow motion. Class will cover both fundamental and meteorological aspects of turbulence as a physical phenomenon. Students will be introduced to the basic properties of atmospheric
Turbulized Rotating Chemical Waves
Yoshiki Kuramoto; Shinji Koga
1981-01-01
From the numerical study of a simple nonlinear kinetics with scalar diffusion, it is shown that rotating waves easily transform to turbulence. The turbulence here is triggered by a single phaseless point, and spreads over the entire system through the endless production of phaseless points in pairs. A possible turbulence-inducing mechanism is interpreted.
Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.
1996-01-01
Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.
Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.
Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)
2006-12-01
Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the mechanical response of wear surfaces. Coatings are often required to mitigate friction and wear. Amongst other factors, plastic deformation of the substrate determines the coating-substrate interface reliability. Finite element modeling has been applied to predict the plastic deformation for the specific case of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated Ni alloy substrates.
P. Gopal; L. R. Dharani; Frank D. Blum
1996-01-01
The friction and wear characteristics of control (without Kevlar® pulp) and hybrid (with Kevlar® pulp) phenolic composites containing milled E-glass or steel were determined at various counterface speeds and temperatures using a Chase friction tester. In general, Kevlar® pulp significantly improved the wear resistance and decreased the coefficient of friction for both types of hybrid composites. Kevlar® pulp also imparted
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M.; Rosenbaum, B.
1973-01-01
A model based on Lighthill's theory for predicting aerodynamic noise from a turbulent shear flow is developed. This model is a generalization of the one developed by Ribner. It does not require that the turbulent correlations factor into space and time-dependent parts. It replaces his assumption of isotropic turbulence by the more realistic one of axisymmetric turbulence. In the course of the analysis, a hierarchy of equations is developed wherein each succeeding equation involves more assumptions than the preceding equation but requires less experimental information for its use. The implications of the model for jet noise are discussed. It is shown that for the particular turbulence data considered anisotropy causes the high-frequency self-noise to be beamed downstream.
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J; Baltzer, Jon R
2015-06-30
The precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody's correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition. PMID:26080447
Turbulent boundary-layer control with spanwise travelling waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So
2011-12-01
It has been demonstrated through numerical simulations using Lorentz forcing that spanwise travelling waves on turbulent wall flows can lead to a skin-friction drag reduction on the order of 30%. As an aeronautical application of this innovative flow control technique, we have investigated into the use of Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to generate spanwise travelling waves in air. The near-wall structures modified by the spanwise travelling waves were studied using the PIV technique in a wind tunnel, while the associated turbulence statistics were carefully documented using hot-wire anemometry. We observed the spreading of low-speed fluid by the spanwise travelling streamwise vortices, which seems to have greatly attenuated the turbulence production process. This is very much in line with the finding of DNS studies, where wide low-speed ribbons replaced the low-speed streaks.
Prediction of High-Lift Flows using Turbulent Closure Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.; Ying, Susan X.; Bertelrud, Arild
1997-01-01
The flow over two different multi-element airfoil configurations is computed using linear eddy viscosity turbulence models and a nonlinear explicit algebraic stress model. A subset of recently-measured transition locations using hot film on a McDonnell Douglas configuration is presented, and the effect of transition location on the computed solutions is explored. Deficiencies in wake profile computations are found to be attributable in large part to poor boundary layer prediction on the generating element, and not necessarily inadequate turbulence modeling in the wake. Using measured transition locations for the main element improves the prediction of its boundary layer thickness, skin friction, and wake profile shape. However, using measured transition locations on the slat still yields poor slat wake predictions. The computation of the slat flow field represents a key roadblock to successful predictions of multi-element flows. In general, the nonlinear explicit algebraic stress turbulence model gives very similar results to the linear eddy viscosity models.
Skin friction measurement in complex flows using thin oil film techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
The NASA Grant NAG2-261 was initiated to support a program of research to study complex flows that occur in flight and laboratory experiments by building, testing and optimizing an on-board technique for direct measurement of surface shear stress using thin oil film techniques. The program of research has proceeded under the supervision of the NASA Ames Research Center and with further cooperation from the NASA Ames-Dryden and NASA Langley Research Centers. In accordance with the original statement of work, the following research milestones were accomplished: (1) design and testing of an internally mounted one-directional skin friction meter to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept; (2) design and construction of a compact instrument capable of measuring skin friction in two directions; (3) study of transitional and fully turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with and without longitudinal pressure gradients utilizing the compact two-directional skin friction meter; (4) study of the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a compression corner using the two-directional meter; and (5) flight qualification of the compact meter and accompanying electronic and pneumatic systems, preliminary installation into flight test fixture.
Scaling properties of turbulence driven shear flow
Yan, Z. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Tynan, G. R.; Holland, C.; Xu, M.; Muller, S. H.; Yu, J. H. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)
2010-01-15
The characteristics and scaling properties of the turbulence driven shear flow are investigated in a cylindrical laboratory plasma device. For a given plasma pressure, the density fluctuation amplitude and radial particle flux increase with the applied magnetic field. Strong flow shear is found to coexist at high magnetic fields (>700 G) with approx10 kHz drift wave turbulence, but not at low magnetic fields (<700 G). The absolute value of the divergence of the turbulent Reynolds stress at the shear layer is shown to increase with the magnetic field as well. For a fixed magnetic field, the shear flow is found to decrease as the discharge gas pressure is increased. The density fluctuation amplitude and divergence of the turbulent Reynolds stress also decrease with the plasma pressure. For both situations the cross phase between the radial and azimuthal components of the velocity is found to be a key factor to determine variations in the turbulent Reynolds stress at different magnetic fields and discharge pressures. The results show that the generation of the shear flow is related to the development of specific frequency components of the drift wave turbulence for a variety of plasma conditions. The linear stability analysis shows that the observed variation in the turbulence and shear flow with magnetic field is also consistent with a critical gradient behavior.
Fractional trajectories: Decorrelation versus friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svenkeson, A.; Beig, M. T.; Turalska, M.; West, B. J.; Grigolini, P.
2013-11-01
The fundamental connection between fractional calculus and subordination processes is explored and affords a physical interpretation of a fractional trajectory, that being an average over an ensemble of stochastic trajectories. Heretofore what has been interpreted as intrinsic friction, a form of non-Markovian dissipation that automatically arises from adopting the fractional calculus, is shown to be a manifestation of decorrelations between trajectories. We apply the general theory developed herein to the Lotka-Volterra ecological model, providing new insight into the final equilibrium state. The relaxation time to achieve this state is also considered.
Friction Forces in General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bini, D.; Gregoris, D.; Rosquist, K.
2015-01-01
Friction forces play an important role in a wide class of phenomena both in the contexts of classical mechanics and general relativity. This paper discusses the Poynting-Robertson approach to the description of the motion of a massive test particle inside a perfect fluid undergoing dissipative effects in curved space. Specific cases of motions 1) inside a photon gas near a Schwarzschild black hole; 2) inside a photon gas in the Tolman metric are then discussed with applications to models of accretion disks of a black hole and to motion inside a static radiation dominated Universe.
Early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of polymer solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor
2015-01-01
We present quantitative experimental results on the transition to early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of water- and water-sugar-based polymer solutions compared to the transition to turbulence in their Newtonian solvents by measurements of solely global quantities as torque ?(t) and pressure p(t) with large statistics as a function of Re. For the first time the transition values of Re_c\\textit{turb} to fully developed turbulence and turbulent drag reduction regime Re_c\\textit{TDR} are obtained as functions of elasticity El by using the solvents with different viscosities and polymer concentrations ?. Two scaling regions for fundamental turbulent characteristics are identified and they correspond to the turbulent and TDR regimes. Both Re_c\\textit{turb} and Re_c\\textit{TDR} are found via the dependence of the friction coefficient Cf and Cp, defined through scaled average torque \\bar? and rms pressure fluctuations p\\textit{rms} , respectively, on Re for different El and ? and via the limits of the two scaling regions.
Introduction to quantum turbulence
Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2014-01-01
The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870
Modeling Compressed Turbulence
Israel, Daniel M.
2012-07-13
From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corke, T. C.; Guezennec, Y.; Nagib, H. M.
1981-01-01
The effects of placing a parallel-plate turbulence manipulator in a boundary layer are documented through flow visualization and hot wire measurements. The boundary layer manipulator was designed to manage the large scale structures of turbulence leading to a reduction in surface drag. The differences in the turbulent structure of the boundary layer are summarized to demonstrate differences in various flow properties. The manipulator inhibited the intermittent large scale structure of the turbulent boundary layer for at least 70 boundary layer thicknesses downstream. With the removal of the large scale, the streamwise turbulence intensity levels near the wall were reduced. The downstream distribution of the skin friction was also altered by the introduction of the manipulator.
Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults
Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.
1996-01-01
The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate of simulated gouge fails to quantitatively account for the experimental observations.
30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...
30 CFR 56.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 56.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...
30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...
30 CFR 57.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 57.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...
30 CFR 57.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 57.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...
30 CFR 56.19014 - Friction hoist overtravel protection.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist overtravel protection. 56.19014...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19014 Friction hoist overtravel protection. In a friction hoist installation, tapered guides or...
30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...
30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. ...effective position of safety devices, friction hoists shall be equipped with...
Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?
Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew
2015-08-24
Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional...
Turbulent diffusion of large-scale magnetic fields in the presence of ambipolar drift
Kim, E. [Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); [Department of Applied Mathematical Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
1997-03-01
The decay of a large-scale magnetic field embedded in a weakly ionized fluid is studied in two-dimensional geometry. We consider cases where the magnetic energy density is less than the total kinetic energy density. Using both quasi-linear analysis and numerical simulations, we show that when the motions of the neutrals are turbulent, the effective diffusivity of a large-scale magnetic field depends on both the magnetic field strength and the frictional coupling constant between ions and neutrals. The effective diffusivity is comparable to the turbulent rate if the magnetic field is weak enough and if the frictional coupling is strong enough. However, for values of the parameters typical of the interstellar medium, we show that turbulent diffusion is bound to be reduced. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}
Ito, A; Tateishi, T; Niwa, S; Tange, S
1993-01-01
Cytotoxicity of wear products generated by UHMWPE/yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) friction and UHMWPE/surface-nitrided Ti-6Al-4V friction in pseudo-extracellular fluid (PECF) at 37 degrees C was evaluated. Though the amount of abraded UHMWPE against YPSZ was almost the same as that against nitrided Ti-6Al-4V, the wear products generated by UHMWPE/YPZ friction significantly inhibited cell growth while those by UHMWPE/nitrided Ti-6Al-4V friction showed no growth inhibition. Dissolved Zr and Y ions were at least 70 times less than the amount causing growth inhibition. The cytotoxicity was caused mainly by the particles less than 0.22 mum in size. Amorphous zirconium-containing particles (5-20 nm) found in the PECF, formed presumably by stress corrosion, would be a responsible factor for the cytotoxicity. PMID:10171688
Effect of friction stir processing on the tribological performance of high carbon steel.
Aldajah, S. H.; Ajayi, O. O.; Fenske, G. R.; David, S.
2009-06-15
Friction stir processing (FSP) was applied to 1080 carbon steel as a means to enhance the near-surface material properties. The process transformed the original pearlite microstructure to martensite, resulting in significant increase in surface hardness. This surface hardening produced a significant benefit for friction and wear behavior of the steel as measured by unidirectional sliding ball-on-flat testing. Under dry sliding, FSP reduced friction coefficient by approximately 25% and wear rate by an order of magnitude. Under oil lubrication, FSP had only a marginal effect on friction, but it reduced wear rates by a factor of 4. The improvement in tribological performance of 1080 steel by FSP technique is attributed to reduced plasticity of the near-surface material during sliding contact
Wear and friction of oxidation-resistant mechanical carbon graphites at 650 C in air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, G. P.; Wisnader, D. W.
1975-01-01
Studies were conducted to determine the friction and wear properties of experimental carbon-graphites. Hemispherically tipped carbon-graphite rider specimens were tested in sliding contact with rotating Inconel X-750 disks in air. A surface speed of 1.33 m/sec, a load of 500 g, and a specimen temperature of 650 C were used. Results indicate: (1) hardness is not a major factor in determining friction and wear under the conditions of these studies. (2) Friction and wear as low as or lower than those observed for a good commercial seal material were attained with some of the experimental materials studied. (3) The inclusion of boron carbide (as an oxidation inhibitor) has a strong influence on wear rate. (4) Phosphate treatment reduces the friction coefficient when boron carbide is not present in the base material.
Friction Boosted by Equilibrium Misalignment of Incommensurate Two-Dimensional Colloid Monolayers
Davide Mandelli; Andrea Vanossi; Nicola Manini; Erio Tosatti
2015-03-18
Colloidal 2D monolayers sliding in an optical lattice are of recent importance as a frictional system. In the general case when the monolayer and optical lattices are incommensurate, we predict two important novelties, one in the static equilibrium structure, the other in the frictional behavior under sliding. Structurally, realistic simulations show that the colloid layer should possess in full equilibrium a small misalignment rotation angle relative to the optical lattice, an effect so far unnoticed but visible in some published experimental moir\\'e patterns. Under sliding, this misalignment has the effect of boosting the colloid monolayer friction by a considerable factor over the hypothetical aligned case discussed so far. A frictional increase of similar origin must generally affect other incommensurate adsorbed monolayers and contacts, to be sought out case by case.
Euler's friction of fluids theory and the estimation of fountain jet heights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bistafa, Sylvio R.
2015-09-01
In 1761, Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) published a treatise with the title "Attempt at a Theory of the Friction of Fluids", in which he assumed that, as is the case for solid friction, fluid friction is proportional to pressure. Several experiments were proposed by Euler to derive a friction factor, which were intended to experimentally confirm his equations. Detailed developments of five different problems of discharge were presented in his treatise, taking into account the loss of head in the conduits. In the Appendix, an example is given of the calculation of the jet heights of a particular fountain, fed with conduits of different cross-sectional areas. Application of the current method for the calculation of head losses in pipes reveals that Euler grossly overestimated the fountain jet heights.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeman, Otto
1994-01-01
This work investigates the turbulent constitutive relation when turbulence is subjected to solid body rotation. Laws regarding spectra and asymptotic decay of rotating homogeneous turbulence were confirmed through large-eddy simulation (LES) computations. Rotating turbulent flows exist in many industrial, geophysical, and astrophysical applications. From Lagrangian analysis a relation between turbulent stress and strain in rotating homogeneous turbulence was inferred. This relation was used to derive the spectral energy flux and, ultimately, the energy spectrum form. If the rotation wavenumber k(sub Omega) lies in the inertial subrange, then for wavenumbers less than k(sub Omega) the turbulence motions are affected by rotation and the energy spectrum slope is modified. Energy decay laws inferred in other reports and the present results suggest a modification of the epsilon model equation and eddy viscosity in k-epsilon models.
Maeyama, S., E-mail: maeyama.shinya@jaea.go.jp; Nakata, M.; Miyato, N.; Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Idomura, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan)
2014-05-15
Electromagnetic turbulence driven by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) in high-? plasma is investigated based on the local gyrokinetic model. Analysis of turbulent fluxes, norms, and phases of fluctuations shows that KBM turbulence gives narrower spectra and smaller phase factors than those in ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-driven turbulence. This leads to the smaller transport fluxes in KBM turbulence than those in ITG turbulence even when they have similar linear growth rates. From the analysis of the entropy balance relation, it is found that the entropy transfer from ions to electrons through the field-particle interactions mainly drives electron perturbations, which creates radial twisted modes by rapid parallel motions of electrons in a sheared magnetic geometry. The nonlinear coupling between the dominant unstable mode and its twisted modes is important for the saturation of KBM turbulence, in contrast to the importance of zonal flow shearing in ITG turbulence. The coupling depends on the flux-tube domain with the one-poloidal-turn parallel length and on the torus periodicity constraint.
Anomalous electron-ion energy coupling in electron drift wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Lei
Turbulence is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, and it is well known that turbulence couples energy input to dissipation by cascade processes. Plasma turbulence play a critical role in tokamak confinement. Magnetized plasma turbulence is quasi 2D, anisotropic, wave like and two fluid (i.e. electrons and ions) in structure. Thus, weakly collisional plasma turbulence can mediate electron and ion energy transfer. The issue of anomalous electron and ion energy coupling is particularly important for low collisionality, electron heated plasmas, such as ITER. In this work, we reconsider the classic problem of turbulent heating and energy transfer pathways in drift wave turbulence. The total turbulent heating, composed of quasilinear electron cooling, quasilinear ion heating, nonlinear ion heating and zonal flow frictional heating, is analyzed. In Chapter 2, the electron and ion energy exchange via linear wave and particle resonance will be computed. To address net heating, we show the turbulent heating in an annulus arises due to a wave energy flux differential across this region. We show this net heating is proportional to the Reynolds work on the zonal flow. Zonal flow friction heats ions, thus the turbulence and zonal flow interaction enters as an important energy transfer channel. Since zonal flows are nonlinearly generated, it follows that we should apply weak turbulence theory to calculate the nonlinear ion turbulent heating via the virtual mode resonance in the electron drift wave turbulence, which will be discussed in Chapter 3. We defines a new collisionless turbulent energy transfer channel through nonlinear Landau damping in the electron and ion energy coupling process. The result shows that nonlinear ion heating can exceed quasilinear ion heating, so that nonlinear heating becomes the principal collisionless wave energy dissipation channel in electron drift wave turbulence. This follows since the beat mode resonates with the bulk of the ion distribution, in contrast to the linear resonance which is located on the tail. This result also suggests that zonal flow shearing is not necessarily the only saturation mechanism of importance, especially for very low collisionality. This observation brings a new perspective on electron heat transport where ions, play a role as an energy "sink" in a collisionless plasma, such as ITER. In addition, it is shown that the electron turbulent energy transfer to ions in a collisionless plasma can be the same order as electron heat transport losses. Thus, it is necessary to consider the influence of collisionless energy transfer to determine the total energy budget in ITER.
Frictional wave dissipation on a remarkably rough reef
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monismith, Stephen G.; Rogers, Justin S.; Koweek, David; Dunbar, Robert B.
2015-05-01
We present a week of observations of wave dissipation on the south forereef of Palmyra Atoll. Using wave measurements made in 6.2 m and 11.2 m of water offshore of the surf zone, we computed energy fluxes and near-bottom velocity. Equating the divergence of the shoreward energy flux to its dissipation by bottom friction and parameterizating dissipation in terms of the root-mean-square velocity cubed, we find that the wave friction factor, fw, for this reef is 1.80 ± 0.07, nearly an order of magnitude larger than values previously found for reefs. We attribute this remarkably high value of fw to the complex canopy structure of the reef, which we believe may be characteristic of healthy reefs. This suggests that healthy reefs with high coral cover may provide greater coastal protection than do degraded reefs with low coral cover.
Rolling friction and energy dissipation in a spinning disc.
Ma, Daolin; Liu, Caishan; Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Hongjian
2014-09-01
This paper presents the results of both experimental and theoretical investigations for the dynamics of a steel disc spinning on a horizontal rough surface. With a pair of high-speed cameras, a stereoscopic vision method is adopted to perform omnidirectional measurements for the temporal evolution of the disc's motion. The experiment data allow us to detail the dynamics of the disc, and consequently to quantify its energy. From our experimental observations, it is confirmed that rolling friction is a primary factor responsible for the dissipation of the energy. Furthermore, a mathematical model, in which the rolling friction is characterized by a resistance torque proportional to the square of precession rate, is also proposed. By employing the model, we perform qualitative analysis and numerical simulations. Both of them provide results that precisely agree with our experimental findings. PMID:25197246
A model for fully developed turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Chasnov, J.
1987-01-01
A model for stationary, fully developed turbulence is presented in which the turbulent spectral energy function is completely determined once the time scale for the energy fed into the eddy interaction is known. The form of the eddy correlation time scale determining the turbulent viscosity is suggested by the basic equation of the model itself, up to a dimensionless constant that is fixed by demanding that the coefficient of the spectrum in the Heisenberg-Kolmogoroff inertial range of wavenunmbers be the experimental value. The model makes quantitative predictions that are compared with data on turbulent convection; the k-epsilon and Smagorinsky relations; the spectral function, transfer term, and dissipation term; the skewness factor; the Kolmogoroff and Batchelor constants; and the inertial-conductive and inertial-convective ranges.
Quantum Friction in Different Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klatt, Juliane; Buhmann, Stefan
2015-03-01
Quantum friction is the velocity-dependent force between two polarizable objects in relative motion, resulting from field-fluctuation mediated transfer of energy and momentum between them. Due to its short-ranged nature it has proven difficult to observe experimentally. Theoretical attempts to determine the precise velocity-dependence of the quantum drag experienced by a polarizable atom moving parallel to a surface arrive at contradicting results. Scheel and Barton predict a force linear in relative velocity v - the former using the quantum regression theorem and the latter employing time-dependent perturbation theory. Intravaia, however, predicts a v3 power-law starting from a non-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In order to learn where exactly the above approaches part, we set out to perform all three calculations within one and the same framework: macroscopic QED. In addition, we include contributions to quantum friction from Doppler shift and Röntgen interaction, which play a role for perpendicular motion and retarded distances, respectively, and consider non-stationary states of atom and field. DFG Emmy-Noether Program.
Comparison of Frictional Heating Models
Davies, Nicholas R; Blau, Peter Julian
2013-10-01
The purpose of this work was to compare the predicted temperature rises using four well-known models for frictional heating under a few selected conditions in which similar variable inputs are provided to each model. Classic papers by Archard, Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Lim and Ashby, and Rabinowicz have been examined, and a spreadsheet (Excel ) was developed to facilitate the calculations. This report may be used in conjunction with that spreadsheet. It explains the background, assumptions, and rationale used for the calculations. Calculated flash temperatures for selected material combinations, under a range of applied loads and sliding speeds, are tabulated. The materials include AISI 52100 bearing steel, CDA 932 bronze, NBD 200 silicon nitride, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and carbon-graphite material. Due to the assumptions made by the different models, and the direct way in which certain assumed quantities, like heat sink distances or asperity dimensions, enter into the calculations, frictional hearing results may differ significantly; however, they can be similar in certain cases in light of certain assumptions that are shared between the models.
Kozai Cycles and Tidal Friction
L, K; P.P., E
2009-07-17
Several studies in the last three years indicate that close binaries, i.e. those with periods of {approx}< 3 d, are very commonly found to have a third body in attendance. We argue that this proves that the third body is necessary in order to make the inner period so short, and further argue that the only reasonable explanation is that the third body causes shrinkage of the inner period, from perhaps a week or more to the current short period, by means of the combination of Kozai cycles and tidal friction (KCTF). In addition, once KCTF has produced a rather close binary, magnetic braking also combined with tidal friction (MBTF) can decrease the inner orbit further, to the formation of a contact binary or even a merged single star. Some of the products of KCTF that have been suggested, either by others or by us, are W UMa binaries, Blue Stragglers, X-ray active BY Dra stars, and short-period Algols. We also argue that some components of wide binaries are actually merged remnants of former close inner pairs. This may include such objects as rapidly rotating dwarfs (AB Dor, BO Mic) and some (but not all) Be stars.
Evaluation of analytical procedures for prediction of turbulent boundary layers on a porous wall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Towne, C. E.
1974-01-01
An analytical study has been made to determine how well current boundary layer prediction techniques work when there is mass transfer normal to the wall. The data that were considered in this investigation were for two-dimensional, incompressible, turbulent boundary layers with suction and blowing. Some of the bleed data were taken in an adverse pressure gradient. An integral prediction method was used three different porous wall skin friction relations, in addition to a solid-surface relation for the suction cases. A numerical prediction method was also used. Comparisons were made between theoretical and experimental skin friction coefficients, displacement and momentum thicknesses, and velocity profiles. The integral method with one of the porous wall skin friction laws gave very good agreement with data for most of the cases considered. The use of the solid-surface skin friction law caused the integral to overpredict the effectiveness of the bleed. The numerical techniques also worked well for most of the cases.
Sensible heat and friction characteristics of plate fin-and-tube heat exchangers having plane fins
Yi-Chung Hsieh; Yur-Tsai Lin
1996-01-01
In the present study, 15 samples of plate fin heat exchangers with different geometrical parameters, including the number of tube rows, fin spacing and fin thickness are tested and compared in an induced flow open wind tunnel. Results are presented in the form of friction factor and Colburn j-factor against Reynolds number based on the tube collar diameter in the
Friction Coefficient for Quarks in Supergravity Duals
E. Antonyan
2006-11-22
We study quarks moving in strongly-coupled plasmas that have supergravity duals. We compute the friction coefficient of strings dual to such quarks for general static supergravity backgrounds near the horizon. Our results also show that a previous conjecture on the bound has to be modified and higher friction coefficients can be achieved.
Shaft Coupler With Friction and Spline Clutches
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thebert, Glenn W.
1987-01-01
Coupling, developed for rotor of lift/cruise aircraft, employs two clutches for smooth transmission of power from gas-turbine engine to rotor. Prior to ascent, coupling applies friction-type transition clutch that accelerates rotor shaft to speeds matching those of engine shaft. Once shafts synchronized, spline coupling engaged and friction clutch released to provide positive mechanical drive.
Implications of Strong-Rate-Weakening Friction
Heaton, Thomas H.
events evolve very heterogeneous prestress (self-organization is the key to the problem) #12;Road Map 2 was a pile of rubble with 0.54 coefficient of friction everywhere ... high static friction tanfµ #12 length scales and becomes ill posed (Lapusta and Rice) · Must evolve a prestress that is compatib
Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mungan, Carl E.
2012-01-01
A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…
Studying the Frictional Force Directions via Bristles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prasitpong, S.; Chitaree, R.; Rakkapao, S.
2010-01-01
We present simple apparatus designed to help Thai high school students visualize the directions of frictional forces. Bristles of toothbrushes, paintbrushes and scrubbing brushes are used to demonstrate the frictional forces acting in a variety of situations. These demonstrations, when followed by discussion of free-body diagrams, were found to be…
Theory and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication
Mueser, Martin
Theory and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication M.H. MÂ¨user Department of Applied Mathematics and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication, Lect. Notes Phys. 704, 65Â104 (2006) DOI 10.1007/3-540-35284-8 4 c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.2 Physics and Chemistry of Lubricant Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 References
Effect of Friction on Shear Jamming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert
2015-03-01
Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient ? ~ 0 . 6 (Bi et al. Nature (2011)). Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ? between ?J (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ?S for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how reducing friction affects shear jamming. We put the Teflon-wrapped photoelastic disks, lowering the friction substantially from previous experiments, in a well-studied 2D shear apparatus (Ren et al. PRL (2013)), which provides a uniform simple shear. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ?J -?S is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger anisotropies in fragile states compared to experiments with higher friction particles at the same density. In ongoing work we are studying systems using photoelastic disks with fine gears on the edge to generate very large effective friction. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant DMR1206351, NSF Grant DMS-1248071, NASA Grant NNX10AU01G and William M. Keck Foundation.
Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction
Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri
2015-01-01
Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel ‘ribs’ inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ?-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ? of the order of 10. Further increase in ? is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ? in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634
ANALYSIS OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.
FEDOTOV, A.V.; BRUHWILER, D.L.; SIDORIN, A.O.
2006-05-29
A comprehensive examination of theoretical models for the friction force, in use by the electron cooling community, was performed. Here, they present their insights about the models gained as a result of comparison between the friction force formulas and direct numerical simulations, as well as studies of the cooling process as a whole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shishov, E. V.
1991-07-01
The results of experimental investigation of the structure, including correlations containing pressure fluctuations, and the processes of turbulent transfer of heat and momentum in strongly accelerated and retarded turbulent boundary layers are presented. Based on the analysis of the data obtained, a modified algebraic 'K-epsilon' model, capable of predicting local friction and heat transfer in boundary layers developing under strong positive and negative pressure gradients, is proposed.
Frictional ageing from interfacial bonding and the origins of rate and state friction.
Li, Qunyang; Tullis, Terry E; Goldsby, David; Carpick, Robert W
2011-12-01
Earthquakes have long been recognized as being the result of stick-slip frictional instabilities. Over the past few decades, laboratory studies of rock friction have elucidated many aspects of tectonic fault zone processes and earthquake phenomena. Typically, the static friction of rocks grows logarithmically with time when they are held in stationary contact, but the mechanism responsible for this strengthening is not understood. This time-dependent increase of frictional strength, or frictional ageing, is one manifestation of the 'evolution effect' in rate and state friction theory. A prevailing view is that the time dependence of rock friction results from increases in contact area caused by creep of contacting asperities. Here we present the results of atomic force microscopy experiments that instead show that frictional ageing arises from the formation of interfacial chemical bonds, and the large magnitude of ageing at the nanometre scale is quantitatively consistent with what is required to explain observations in macroscopic rock friction experiments. The relative magnitude of the evolution effect compared with that of the 'direct effect'--the dependence of friction on instantaneous changes in slip velocity--determine whether unstable slip, leading to earthquakes, is possible. Understanding the mechanism underlying the evolution effect would enable us to formulate physically based frictional constitutive laws, rather than the current empirically based 'laws', allowing more confident extrapolation to natural faults. PMID:22139421
Novel Friction Law for the Static Friction Force based on Local Precursor Slipping
Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi
2014-01-01
The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µM, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of µM decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control. PMID:25205283
Large Friction Anisotropy of a Polydiacetylene Monolayer
Burns, A.R.; Carpick, R.W.; Sasaki, D.Y.
1999-05-11
Friction force microscopy measurements of a polydiacetylene monolayer film reveal a 300% friction anisotropy that is correlated with the film structure. The film consists of a monolayer of the red form of N-(2-ethanol)- 10,12 pentacosadiynamide, prepared on a Langmuir trough and deposited on a mica substrate. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the monolayer consists of domains of linearly oriented conjugated backbones with pendant hydrocarbon side chains above and below the backbones. Maximum friction occurs when the sliding direction is perpendicular to the backbone. We propose that the backbones impose anisotropic packing of the hydrocarbon side chains which leads to the observed friction anisotropy. Friction anisotropy is therefore a sensitive, optically-independent indicator of polymer backbone direction and monolayer structural properties.
Friction forces on phase transition fronts
Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICET–UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Deán Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2013-07-01
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.
Three measuring techniques for assessing the mean wall skin friction in wall-bounded flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanoun, E.-S.; Jehring, L.; Egbers, C.
2014-04-01
The present paper aims at evaluating the mean wall skin friction data in laminar and turbulent boundary layer flows obtained from two optical and one thermal measuring techniques, namely, laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA), oil-film interferometry (OFI), and surface hot-film anemometry (SHFA), respectively. A comparison among the three techniques is presented, indicating close agreement in the mean wall skin friction data obtained, directly, from both the OFI and the LDA near-wall mean velocity profiles. On the other hand, the SHFA, markedly, over estimates the mean wall skin friction by 3.5-11.7% when compared with both the LDA and the OFI data, depending on the thermal conductivity of the substrate and glue material, probe calibration, probe contamination, temperature drift and Reynolds number. Satisfactory agreement, however, is observed among all three measuring techniques at higher Reynolds numbers, Re x >106, and within ±5% with empirical relations extracted from the literature. In addition, accurate velocity data within the inertial sublayer obtained using the LDA supports the applicability of the Clauser method to evaluate the wall skin friction when appropriate values for the constants of the logarithmic line are utilized.
Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers
I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson
2009-11-18
We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant increases (abruptly) with increasing sliding velocity (from 6 to 7 layers), leading to a decrease of the friction. Before and after the layering transition, the frictional shear stresses are nearly proportional to the logarithm of sliding velocity. For the longest hydrocarbon (1400 C-atoms) the friction shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity.
Characteristics of turbulence in a boundary layer with zero pressure gradient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klebanoff, P S
1954-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer with zero pressure gradient are presented. Measurements with the hot-wire anemometer were made of turbulent energy and turbulent shear stress, probability density and flattening factor of u-fluctuation, spectra of turbulent energy and shear stress, and turbulent dissipation. The importance of the region near the wall and the inadequacy of the concept of local isotropy are demonstrated. Attention is given to the energy balance and the intermittent character of the outer region of the boundary layer. Also several interesting features of the spectral distribution of the turbulent motions are discussed.
Aberrated beam propagation through turbulence and comparison of Monte
Maryland, Baltimore County, University of
Aberrated beam propagation through turbulence and comparison of Monte Carlo simulations to field://spiedl.org/terms #12;Aberrated beam propagation through turbulence and comparison of Monte Carlo simulations to field, United States Abstract. Optical beam spread and beam quality factor in the presence of both an initial
Tidal Friction in the Earth and Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, R. D.
2006-12-01
"Tidal Friction" is a classic subject in geophysics, with ties to some of the great scientists of the Victorian era. The subject has been reinvigorated over the past decade by space geodesy, and particularly by the Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter mission. In fact, the topic has now taken on some significance in oceanography, with potential implications for problems of mixing, thermocline maintenance, and the thermohaline circulation. Likewise, tidal measurements have become sufficiently precise to reveal new information about the solid earth. In this respect, the tidal force is an invaluable "probe" of the earth, at frequencies well outside the seismic band. This talk will "follow the energy" of tides while noting some important geophysical implications at each stage. In the present earth-moon-sun configuration, energy for tides is extracted from the earth's rotation. Ancient eclipses bear witness to this, and the discrepancy between Babylonian (and other) observations and tidal predictions yields unique information about the mantle and the overlying fluid envelope. Complementary information comes from tidal anelasticity estimates, which are now available at frequencies ranging from semidiurnal to fortnightly, monthly, and 18.6 years. These data, when combined with various kinds of gravity measurements, are relevant to the present-day sea-level problem. Solid-earth tidal dissipation represents less than 5% of the system total. As has long been realized, the largest energy sink is the ocean. About 70% of the oceanic dissipation occurs in shallow seas (the traditional sink) and 30% in the deep ocean, generally near rugged bottom topography. The latter represents a substantial amount of power, roughly 1 gigawatt, available for generation of internal tides and other baroclinic motions. Experiments like HOME are helping unravel the links between barotropic tides, internal tides, turbulence, and mixing. The latter opens possible linkages to climate, and recent work involving 18.6-year oscillations adds intriguing (although not completely convincing) evidence of climate connections from the nodal modulations of diurnal-band tides. Connections at longer periods are quite conceivable, since tides are critically sensitive to sea level, but most ideas along these lines are still speculative and in need of further development.
Market Assessment of Forward-Looking Turbulence Sensing Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kauffmann, Paul; Sousa-Poza, Andres
2001-01-01
In recognition of the importance of turbulence mitigation as a tool to improve aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program developed a Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Sub-element. The objective of this effort is to develop highly reliable turbulence detection technologies for commercial transport aircraft to sense dangerous turbulence with sufficient time warning so that defensive measures can be implemented and prevent passenger and crew injuries. Current research involves three forward sensing products to improve the cockpit awareness of possible turbulence hazards. X-band radar enhancements will improve the capabilities of current weather radar to detect turbulence associated with convective activity. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a laser-based technology that is capable of detecting turbulence in clear air. Finally, a possible Radar-LIDAR hybrid sensor is envisioned to detect the full range of convective and clear air turbulence. To support decisions relating to the development of these three forward-looking turbulence sensor technologies, the objective of this study was defined as examination of cost and implementation metrics. Tasks performed included the identification of cost factors and certification issues, the development and application of an implementation model, and the development of cost budget/targets for installing the turbulence sensor and associated software devices into the commercial transport fleet.
Frictional strength evolution during earthquake-like shear experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Zonghu; Reches, Zeev; Chang, Jefferson
2014-05-01
We experimentally investigated two central factors of fault frictional strength: 1) the effect of loading style on the friction constitutive relations; and (2) the suitable parameters to represent the constitutive relations. We present a series of 42 experiments conducted on granite samples sheared in a high-velocity rotary apparatus. Three modes of velocity history were applied: (a) constant velocity mode; (b) ramp-mode in which the sample is subjected to continuous, gentle acceleration followed by a similar rate of deceleration; and (c) quake-mode in which the sample is initially subjected to intense acceleration that is followed by a gentle deceleration. In the 34 runs of constant velocity, the velocity was 0.0006-0.23 m/s, and the normal stresses 1.5-11 MPa. In the four runs of ramp-mode, the maximum velocity range was 0.7- 1.0 m/s, and normal stress 2.2 - 2.6 MPa. The third set of four quake-mode experiments, the maximum velocity was = 0.79-0.94 m/s, and normal stress 2.2 MPa. The steady-state friction coefficients of the constant velocity runs are related to both slip-velocity and normal stress, and thus the constitutive relations are presented with respect to mechanical power-density: PD= [shear stress x slip velocity], with units of power per area (MW/m2). The experimental constitutive relations strongly depend on the loading mode. Constant velocity mode displays initial weakening with increasing PD that is followed by strengthening for PD = 0.02-0.5 MW/m2, and abrupt weakening at PD > 0.5 MW/m2. Both ramp and quake modes display gentle strengthening for PD < 0.2 MW/m2 that is followed by abrupt weakening as PD reaches 0.7-0.8 MW/m2. Beyond this level of power-density, the two loading modes diverge: in quake-mode the experimental fault continues to weaken with friction coefficient approaching 0.2, whereas in ramp-mode the fault strengthens with friction coefficient approaching 1.0. This strong dependency of the friction constitutive relations on the loading mode is not unique to the present experiments (e.g., Sone and Shimamoto, 2009; Chang et al., 2012). The evolution of slip-velocity and fault weakening during runs of quake-mode is similar to the expected evolution of a slip-pulse during natural earthquakes (Heaton, 1990). We thus propose that quake-mode loading is a promising experimental approach to capture the dynamic response of a fault patch during earthquakes.
Mapping Instabilities in Polymer Friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rand, Charles; Crosby, Alfred
2005-03-01
Schallamach waves are instabilities that occur as interfaces between a soft elastomer and rigid surface slide past each other.(1) The presence of Schallamach waves can lead to drastic changes in frictional properties. Although the occurrence of Schallamach waves has been studied for the past several decades, a general map relating fundamental material properties, geometry, and operating conditions (i.e. speed and temperature) has not been established. Using a combinatorial approach, we illustrate the role of modulus, testing velocity and surface energetics of crosslinked poly(dimethyl siloxane) on the generation Schallamach waves. This knowledge will be used with polymer patterning processes to fabricate responsive coatings for applications such as anti-fouling coatings. (1)Schallamach, A.;Wear 1971,17, 301-312.
Reflection type skin friction meter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (inventor)
1993-01-01
A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca
2014-12-01
The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow.
Blumenthal, Benjamin
2014-12-02
Diamter 16 inches Inside Diameter 15.01 inches Wt per ft with cplg 84 lbs Collapse Resistance 1,410 psi Body Strength 1,326,000 lbs Friction Coefficient 0.4 Buoyancy Factor 0.85 Radius of Curvature 1,600 feet Entry Min 0 Entry Max 90 Lateral...,326,000 lbs Friction Coefficient 0.2 Buoyancy Factor 0.85 Radius of Curvature 1,600 feet Entry Min 0 Entry Max 90 Lateral Angle 0 Young’s Modulus 29e6 psi 28 29 30 Variable Value Casing Type K-55 Outside Diameter 11...
V. E. Zakharov; A. O. Korotkevich; A. N. Pushkarev; A. I. Dyachenko
2005-11-16
We report results of sumulation of wave turbulence. Both inverse and direct cascades are observed. The definition of "mesoscopic turbulence" is given. This is a regime when the number of modes in a system involved in turbulence is high enough to qualitatively simulate most of the processes but significantly smaller then the threshold which gives us quantitative agreement with the statistical description, such as kinetic equation. Such a regime takes place in numerical simulation, in essentially finite systems, etc.
Viscous friction of hydrogen-bonded matter.
Erba?, Aykut; Horinek, Dominik; Netz, Roland R
2012-01-11
Amontons' law successfully describes friction between macroscopic solid bodies for a wide range of velocities and normal forces. For the diffusion and forced sliding of adhering or entangled macromolecules, proteins, and biological complexes, temperature effects are invariably important, and a similarly successful friction law at biological length and velocity scales is missing. Hydrogen bonds (HBs) are key to the specific binding of biomatter. Here we show that friction between hydrogen-bonded matter obeys in the biologically relevant low-velocity viscous regime a simple law: the friction force is proportional to the number of HBs, the sliding velocity, and a friction coefficient ?(HB). This law is deduced from atomistic molecular dynamics simulations for short peptide chains that are laterally pulled over planar hydroxylated substrates in the presence of water and holds for widely different peptides, surface polarities, and applied normal forces. The value of ?(HB) is extrapolated from simulations at sliding velocities in the range from V = 10(-2) to 100 m/s by mapping on a simple stochastic model and turns out to be of the order of ?(HB) ? 10(-8) kg/s. The friction of a single HB thus amounts to the Stokes friction of a sphere with an equivalent radius of roughly 1 ?m moving in water. Cooperativity is pronounced: roughly three HBs act collectively. PMID:22098642
Friction of Compression-ignition Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H , Jr
1936-01-01
The cost in mean effective pressure of generating air flow in the combustion chambers of single-cylinder compression-ignition engines was determined for the prechamber and the displaced-piston types of combustion chamber. For each type a wide range of air-flow quantities, speeds, and boost pressures was investigated. Supplementary tests were made to determine the effect of lubricating-oil temperature, cooling-water temperature, and compression ratio on the friction mean effective pressure of the single-cylinder test engine. Friction curves are included for two 9-cylinder, radial, compression-ignition aircraft engines. The results indicate that generating the optimum forced air flow increased the motoring losses approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure regardless of chamber type or engine speed. With a given type of chamber, the rate of increase in friction mean effective pressure with engine speed is independent of the air-flow speed. The effect of boost pressure on the friction cannot be predicted because the friction was decreased, unchanged, or increased depending on the combustion-chamber type and design details. High compression ratio accounts for approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure of the friction of these single-cylinder compression-ignition engines. The single-cylinder test engines used in this investigation had a much higher friction mean effective pressure than conventional aircraft engines or than the 9-cylinder, radial, compression-ignition engines tested so that performance should be compared on an indicated basis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, John R.
1996-01-01
The ability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes method, PAB3D, to simulate the effect of Reynolds number variation using non-linear explicit algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence modeling was assessed. Subsonic flat plate boundary-layer flow parameters such as normalized velocity distributions, local and average skin friction, and shape factor were compared with DNS calculations and classical theory at various local Reynolds numbers up to 180 million. Additionally, surface pressure coefficient distributions and integrated drag predictions on an axisymmetric nozzle afterbody were compared with experimental data from 10 to 130 million Reynolds number. The high Reynolds data was obtained from the NASA Langley 0.3m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. There was generally good agreement of surface static pressure coefficients between the CFD and measurement. The change in pressure coefficient distributions with varying Reynolds number was similar to the experimental data trends, though slightly over-predicting the effect. The computational sensitivity of viscous modeling and turbulence modeling are shown. Integrated afterbody pressure drag was typically slightly lower than the experimental data. The change in afterbody pressure drag with Reynolds number was small both experimentally and computationally, even though the shape of the distribution was somewhat modified with Reynolds number.
Comparison of friction produced by two types of orthodontic bracket protectors
Mendonça, Steyner de Lima; Praxedes Neto, Otávio José; de Oliveira, Patricia Teixeira; dos Santos, Patricia Bittencourt Dutra; Pinheiro, Fábio Henrique de Sá Leitão
2014-01-01
Introduction Fixed orthodontic appliances have been regarded as a common causative factor of oral lesions. To manage soft tissue discomfort, most orthodontists recommend using a small amount of utility wax over the brackets in order to alleviate trauma. This in vitro study aimed at evaluating friction generated by two types of bracket protectors (customized acetate protector [CAP] and temporary resin protector [TRP]) during the initial stages of orthodontic treatment. Methods An experimental model (test unit) was used to assess friction. In order to measure the friction produced in each test, the model was attached to a mechanical testing machine which simulated maxillary canines alignment. Intergroup comparison was carried out by one-way ANOVA with level of significance set at 5%. Results The friction presented by the TRP group was statistically higher than that of the control group at 6 mm. It was also higher than in the control and CAP groups in terms of maximum friction. Conclusion The customized acetate protector (CAP) demonstrated not to interfere in friction between the wire and the orthodontic bracket slot. PMID:24713564
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, M. E.; Rosenbaum, B. M.
1972-01-01
A model, based on Lighthill's theory, for predicting aerodynamic noise from a turbulent shear flow is developed. This model is a generalization of the one developed by Ribner. Unlike Ribner's model, it does not require that the turbulent correlations factor into space and time-dependent parts. It replaces his assumption of isotropic. turbulence by the more realistic one of axisymmetric turbulence. The implications of the model for jet noise are discussed.
Vishnu Jejjala; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng; Chia-Hsiung Tze
2010-05-17
We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.
Tactical missile turbulence problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickson, Richard E.
1987-01-01
Of particular interest is atmospheric turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, since this affects both the launch and terminal phase of flight, and the total flight for direct fire systems. Brief discussions are presented on rocket artillery boost wind problems, mean wind correction, turbulent boost wind correction, the Dynamically Aimed Free Flight Rocket (DAFFR) wind filter, the DAFFR test, and rocket wake turbulence problems. It is concluded that many of the turbulence problems of rockets and missiles are common to those of aircraft, such as structural loading and control system design. However, these problems have not been solved at this time.
Formulation of turbulence mechanics.
Heinloo, J
2004-05-01
This paper presents a setup of turbulence mechanics for averaged description of turbulence, founded on laws of momentum, moment of momentum, and energy, complemented by common rheological principles for formulating constitutive relations between generalized forces and generalized velocities of the description. A kinematical-geometrical principle is adopted to determine internal rotating degrees of freedom of turbulent media generated by the eddy structure of turbulent flow fields. The connection between the formulated mechanics and some models (as K-epsilon model), widely used in practical engineering flow calculations, is established. As an example, the formulated mechanics is applied to describe some classical flow patterns. PMID:15244942
Single and reciprocal friction testing of micropatterned surfaces for orthopedic device design.
Mitchell, N; Eljach, C; Lodge, B; Sharp, J L; Desjardins, J D; Kennedy, M S
2012-03-01
The use of micropatterning to create uniform surface morphologies has been cited as yielding improvements in the coefficient of friction during high velocity sliding contact. Studies have not been preformed to determine if these micropatterns could also be useful in biomedical applications, such as total joint replacement surfaces, where the lower sliding velocities are used. In addition, other factors such as lubricant viscosities and materials used are more tightly constrained. In this study, the effect of pattern geometry, feature size and lubricant on contact friction and surface damage was investigated using 316L steel in sliding contact with a stainless steel and polyethylene pins. Using a novel proprietary forming process that creates millions of microstructures in parallel, a variety of micropatterned surfaces were fabricated to study the influence of shape (oval, circular, square), geometry (depressions, pillars) and feature size (10, 50 and 100 mm) on both contact friction and surface damage. All samples were 316L stainless steel and the static and dynamic coefficients of friction when in contact with either a stainless steel or polyethylene counterface were measured in dry and lubricated conditions. All samples were characterized for surface uniformity and pattern aspect ratio using white light interferometry and optical microscope image analysis, and the coefficients of friction were measured for each surface/lubricant/pin system using a CETR scratch testing system. Results showed that round depressions with diameters of 10 ?m had a significantly lower steady state coefficient of friction than the non-patterned substrates or substrates with greater diameter depression patterns. In addition, our results showed that the single-pass coefficient of friction measurements were not good predictors of the steady state coefficient of friction values measured. PMID:22340690
Numerical analysis of friction stir welding process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uyyuru, R. K.; Kailas, Satish V.
2006-10-01
Friction stir welding (FSW), which has several advantages over the conventional welding processes, is a solid-state welding process where no gross melting of the material being welded takes place. Despite significant advances over the last decade, the fundamental knowledge of thermomechanical processes during FSW is still not completely understood. To gain physical insight into the FSW process and the evaluation of the critical parameters, the development of models and simulation techniques is a necessity. In this article, the available literature on modeling of FSW has been reviewed followed by details of an attempt to understand the interaction between process parameters from a simulation study, performed using commercially available nonlinear finite element (FE) code DEFORM. The distributions of temperature, residual stress, strain, and strain rates were analyzed across various regions of the weld apart from material flow as a means of evaluating process efficiency and the quality of the weld. The distribution of process parameters is of importance in the prediction of the occurrence of welding defects, and to locate areas of concern for the metallurgist. The suitability of this modeling tool to simulate the FSW process has been discussed. The lack of the detailed material constitutive information and other thermal and physical properties at conditions such as very high strain rates and elevated temperatures seems to be the limiting factor while modeling the FSW process.
Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films.
Smith, Alexander M; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan
2013-10-01
Ionic liquids - salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions - are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition. PMID:23942943
NASA tire/runway friction projects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yager, Thomas J.
1995-01-01
The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.
Frictional effects near a metal surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dou, Wenjie; Nitzan, Abraham; Subotnik, Joseph E.
2015-08-01
When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer's theory) as a function of frictional damping.
Frictional effects near a metal surface.
Dou, Wenjie; Nitzan, Abraham; Subotnik, Joseph E
2015-08-01
When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer's theory) as a function of frictional damping. PMID:26254638
Interfacial friction measurement in surface force apparatus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumacheva, E.
1998-06-01
An overview of the advances in shear and friction studies using Surface Forces Apparatus with shear capability is presented. Relative to traditional methods of measuring friction this approach provides a good control of the surface area, intersurface separation, and normal loads. The design of various shearing devices is discussed. The current status of experimental studies of friction between dry surfaces and those separated by liquid films of simple liquids, electrolyte solutions, polymer solutions and melts, and liquid crystals is reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the role of progressive confinement and interfacial surface energy. Perspectives for future research are discussed.
Skin friction for steel piles in sand
Sulaiman, Ibrahim Hikmat
1967-01-01
SkiN FRICTION FOR STEZL PIIZS IN SAND A Theeia by I. H. Sulaiman Submittei io the graduate College of t, he Texan AAB Univen-ity in Ixantial fulfil. ment of bhe zequiremenbu for the degree of NASTZR 0F SCISNCZ May 196'7 bsrjor Subject...: Civil Engineering SKIN FRICTION FOR STEEL PILES IN SAND A Thesis by I. H. Sulaiman Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of C mmittee Head of Department Memb Member 111 Skin Friction For Steel Piles in Sand (May 1967) Ibr shim Hikmat...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sams, E. W.
1952-01-01
An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through electrically heated Inconel tubes having various degrees of square-thread-type roughness, an inside diameter of 1/2 inch, and a length of 24 inches. were obtained for tubes having conventional roughness ratios (height of thread/radius of tube) of 0 (smooth tube), 0.016, 0.025, and 0.037 over ranges of bulk Reynolds numbers up to 350,000, average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 1950deg R, and heat-flux densities up to 115,000 Btu per hour per square foot. Data The experimental data showed that both heat transfer and friction increased with increase in surface roughness, becoming more pronounced with increase in Reynolds number; for a given roughness, both heat transfer and friction were also influenced by the tube wall-to-bulk temperature ratio. Good correlation of the heat-transfer data for all the tubes investigated was obtained by use of a modification of the conventional Nusselt correlation parameters wherein the mass velocity in the Reynolds number was replaced by the product of air density evaluated at the average film temperature and the so-called friction velocity; in addition, the physical properties of air were evaluated at the average film temperature. The isothermal friction data for the rough tubes, when plotted in the conventional manner, resulted in curves similar to those obtained by other investigators; that is, the curve for a given roughness breaks away from the Blasius line (representing turbulent flow in smooth tubes) at some value of Reynolds number, which decreases with increase in surface roughness, and then becomes a horizontal line (friction coefficient independent of Reynolds number). A comparison of the friction data for the rough tubes used herein indicated that the conventional roughness ratio is not an adequate measure of relative roughness for tubes having a square-thread-type element. The present data, as well as those of other investigators, were used to isolate the influence of ratios of thread height to width, thread spacing to width, and the conventional roughness ratio on the friction coefficient. A fair correlation of the friction data was obtained for each tube with heat addition when the friction coefficient and Reynolds number were defined on the basis of film properties; however, the data for each tube retained the curve characteristic of that particular roughness. The friction data for all the rough tubes could be represented by a single line for the complete turbulence region by incorporating a roughness parameter in the film correlation. No correlation was obtained for the region of incomplete turbulence.
Semi-local scaling and turbulence modulation in variable property turbulent channel flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, Ashish; Peeters, Jurriaan W. R.; Boersma, Bendiks J.; Pecnik, Rene
2015-09-01
We theoretically and numerically investigate the effect of temperature dependent density and viscosity on turbulence in channel flows. First, a mathematical framework is developed to support the validity of the semi-local scaling as proposed based on heuristic arguments by Huang, Coleman, and Bradshaw ["Compressible turbulent channel flows: DNS results and modelling," J. Fluid Mech. 305, 185-218 (1995)]. Second, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent channel flows with different constitutive relations for density and viscosity are performed to assess and validate the semi-local scaling for turbulent statistics. The DNS database is obtained by solving the low-Mach number approximation of the Navier-Stokes equation. Finally, we quantify the modulation of turbulence due to changes in fluid properties. In the simulations, the fluid is internally heated and the temperature at both channel walls is fixed, such that the friction Reynolds number based on wall quantities is Re? = 395 for all cases investigated. We show that for a case with variable density ? and viscosity ?, but constant semi-local Reynolds number R e? ? ? ?{ ( ? ¯ / ? w ) } / ( ? ¯ / ? w ) R e ? (where bar and subscript w, denote Reynolds averaging and averaged wall quantity, respectively), across the whole channel height, the turbulent statistics exhibit quasi-similarity with constant property turbulent flows. For cases where R e? ? ? R e ? across the channel, we found that quasi-similarity is maintained for cases with similar R e? ? distributions, even if their individual mean density and viscosity profiles substantially differ. With a decrease of R e? ? towards the channel center ( R e? ? < R e ? ), we show that the anisotropy increases and the pre-multiplied stream-wise spectra reveal that this increase is associated with strengthening of the large scale streaks in the buffer layer. The opposite effect is observed when R e? ? increases towards the channel center. The present results provide an effective framework for categorizing turbulence modulation in wall-bounded flows with variable property effects, and can be applied to any Newtonian fluid that is heated or cooled.
Simulation of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow with Large Roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Erika; Subramanian, Chelakara
2006-11-01
Several studies indicate that in situations where surface roughness is very strong, the friction velocity scaling for the mean and turbulent velocities are not satisfactory. Subramanian et al showed a dramatic effect of a strong irregular roughened surface on the turbulent properties. The log-law relation in the overlap region was distorted. A significant pressure gradient normal to the surface was observed with a concomitant increase in normal turbulent stress, v^'2 . The pressure gradient velocity scale, uP, was suggested as a better alternative for capturing the effects of this roughness induced pressure gradient. Here, we performed a numerical simulation of a roughened boundary layer to gain more insight on the correlation between the wall normal pressure gradient and normal turbulent stress, v^'2 and further validate this new pressure gradient velocity scale, uP for different types of roughness. A two-dimensional flat plate computational model with strong regular (k-type) roughness, was constructed in GAMBIT and a CFD analysis performed using FLUENT, version 6.2. The roughness elements cause the pressure near the wall to increase suddenly at the first element and then decrease gradually similar to experiments. The variation of this normal pressure gradient is well correlated with the normal turbulent stress v^'2 variation. Application of the uP as scaling parameter for other non-equilibrium flows such as with suction and blowing is also investigated.
An Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Boundary Layer Relaminarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.
1999-11-01
It has been speculated that turbulent boundary layer relaminarization may play a role in ``inverse Reynolds number effects" in high-lift systems for commercial aviation. Research currently being conducted at the Hessert Center for Aerospace Research at the University of Notre Dame is focused on experimentally assessing the influence of relaminarization in high-lift systems, as well as investigating their fundamental flow physics. To facilitate this research, a wind tunnel experiment was designed in which a turbulent boundary layer was developed in a nominally-zero pressure gradient environment and then subjected to large favorable pressure gradients. The favorable pressure gradient region was designed to achieve constant values of the relaminarization parameter K (Launder, B.E., ``Laminarization of the Turbulent Boundary Layer By Acceleration,'' MIT Gas Turbine Lab, Report # 77 1964) in the range of 1 × 10-6 < K < 5 × 10-6 , which can be controlled by adjusting the free stream velocity of the wind tunnel. Results to be reported include a complete survey of mean and turbulent flow quantities, skin friction measurements obtained via oil film interferometry, and turbulent bursting rates in the relaminarization region.
Remarks on the Definition and Estimation of Friction Velocity
Rudolf O. Weber
1999-01-01
One of the mainscaling parameters in similarity theory of the atmospheric boundary layer is friction velocity. Unfortunately, several definitions of friction velocity exist in the literature. Some authors use the component of the horizontal Reynolds stress vector in the direction of the mean wind vector to define friction velocity. Others define the friction velocity by means of the absolute value
Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous
Carl H Gibson
2012-11-25
Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbulence patterns and fossil turbulence waves preserve and propagate energy and information about previous turbulence. Ignorance of fossil turbulence properties can be dangerous. Examples include the Osama bin Laden helicopter crash and the Air France 447 Airbus crash, both unfairly blamed on the pilots. Observations support the proposed definitions, and suggest even direct numerical simulations of turbulence require caution.
Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous
Gibson, Carl H
2012-01-01
Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbulence patterns and fossil turbulence waves preserve and propagate energy and information about previous turbulence. Ignorance of fossil turbulence properties can be dangerous. Examples include the Osama bin Laden helicopter crash and the Air France 447 Airbus crash, both unfairly blamed on the pilots. Observations support the proposed definitions, and suggest even direct numerical simulations of turbulence require caution.
Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in the throttle of the MBIR reactor's low-pressure chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarunichev, V. A.; Orlova, E. E.; Lemekhov, Yu. V.; Shpanskii, V. A.
2015-08-01
This work in devoted to numerical calculation of turbulent flow in a labyrinth-type throttle. A system of such throttles is installed at the inlet to the MBIR reactor's low-pressure chamber and serves for setting up the required pressure difference and coolant flow rate. MBIR is a multipurpose fourthgeneration fast-neutron research reactor intended for investigating new kinds of nuclear fuel, structural materials, and coolants. The aim of this work is to develop a verified procedure for carrying out 3D calculation of the throttle using CFD modeling techniques. The investigations on determining the throttle hydraulic friction coefficient were carried out in the range of Reynolds numbers Re = 52000-136000. The reactor coolant (liquid sodium) was modeled by tap water. The calculations were carried out using high-Reynolds-number turbulence models with the near-wall functions k-? and RNG k-?, where k is the turbulent pulsation kinetic energy and ? is the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate. The obtained results have shown that the calculated value of hydraulic friction coefficient differs from its experimental value by no more than 10%. The developed procedure can be applied in determining the hydraulic friction coefficient of a modified labyrinth throttle design. The use of such calculation will make it possible to predict an experiment with the preset accuracy.
Smith Eiamsa-ard; Somsak Pethkool; Chinaruk Thianpong; Pongjet Promvonge
2007-01-01
Abstract In the present work, heat transfer and friction characteristics were experimentally investigated, employing louvered strips inserted in a concentric tube heat exchanger. The louvered strip was inserted into the tube to generate turbulent flow which helped to increase the heat transfer rate of the tube. The flow rate of the tube was in a range of Reynolds number,between,6000 and
Smith Eiamsa-ard; Somsak Pethkool; Chinaruk Thianpong; Pongjet Promvonge
2008-01-01
In the present work, heat transfer and friction characteristics were experimentally investigated, employing louvered strips inserted in a concentric tube heat exchanger. The louvered strip was inserted into the tube to generate turbulent flow which helped to increase the heat transfer rate of the tube. The flow rate of the tube was in a range of Reynolds number between 6000
Marusic, Ivan
Large-scale eddies and their role in entrainment in turbulent jets and wakes Jimmy Philip and Ivan of Physics. Related Articles Heat transfer and friction characteristics of impinging jet solar air heater J. Fluids 24, 086101 (2012) The influence of large-scale structures on entrainment in a decelerating
Sliding without slipping under Coulomb friction: opening waves and inversion of frictional force
Yastrebov, Vladislav A
2015-01-01
An elastic layer slides on a rigid flat governed by Coulomb's friction law. We demonstrate that if the coefficient of friction is high enough, the sliding localizes within stick-slip pulses, which transform into opening waves propagating at intersonic speed in the direction of sliding or, for high Poisson's ratios, at supersonic speed in the opposite one. This sliding mode, characterized by small frictional dissipation, rapidly relaxes the shear elastic energy via stress waves and enables the contact surface slide ahead of the top one, resulting in inversion of the frictional force direction.
The coefficient of friction, particularly of ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mills, Allan
2008-07-01
The static and dynamic coefficients of friction are defined, and values from 0.3 to 0.6 are quoted for common materials. These drop to about 0.15 when oil is added as a lubricant. Water ice at temperatures not far below 0 °C is remarkable for low coefficients of around 0.05 for static friction and 0.04-0.02 for dynamic friction, but these figures increase as the temperature diminishes. Reasons for the slipperiness of ice are summarized, but they are still not entirely clear. One hypothesis suggests that it is related to the transient formation of a lubricating film of liquid water produced by frictional heating. If this is the case, some composition melting a little above ambient temperatures might provide a skating rink that did not require expensive refrigeration. Various compositions have been tested, but an entirely satisfactory material has yet to be found.
Sites of friction : borders of the banal
Donohue, Lilly (Lilly L.)
2006-01-01
This project considers the duality of friction as a force which is simultaneously threatening and essential; responsible for destruction and violence, yet vital in precipitating progress and new relationships within the ...
Friction through reversible jumps of surface atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fajardo, O. Y.; Barel, Itay; Urbakh, Michael
2014-08-01
We propose a microscopic model that incorporates the effect of thermally activated motion of surface atoms on nanoscopic friction. Our calculations demonstrate that the stick-slip motion of the tip is governed by two competing processes: (i) jumps of the surface atoms to the tip which tend to inhibit sliding, and (ii) jumps back to the sample which give rise to sliding. The energy dissipated during the reversible jumps of the surface atoms between the sample and tip contributes significantly to the friction force, and leads to a nonmonotonic dependence of friction on temperature, which has been observed in recent friction force microscopy experiments for different material classes. The proposed model elucidates the physical origin of microscopic instabilities introduced in phenomenological models for the interpretation of the experimental results.
Surface defects and temperature on atomic friction.
Fajardo, O Y; Mazo, J J
2011-09-01
We present a theoretical study of the effect of surface defects on atomic friction in the stick-slip dynamical regime of a minimalistic model. We focus on how the presence of defects and temperature change the average properties of the system. We have identified two main mechanisms which modify the mean friction force of the system when defects are considered. As expected, defects change the potential profile locally and thus affect the friction force. But the presence of defects also changes the probability distribution function of the tip slip length and thus the mean friction force. We corroborated both effects for different values of temperature, external load, dragging velocity and damping. We also show a comparison of the effects of surface defects and surface disorder on the dynamics of the system. PMID:21846940