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Sample records for turbulent friction factors

  1. Friction factor for turbulent flow in rough pipes from Heisenberg's closure hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Esteban Calzetta

    2009-04-17

    We show that the main results of the analysis of the friction factor for turbulent pipe flow reported in G. Gioia and P. Chakraborty (GC), Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 044502 (1996) can be recovered by assuming the Heisenberg closure hypothesis for the turbulent spectrum. This highlights the structural features of the turbulent spectrum underlying GC's analysis.

  2. Heat Transfer and Friction-Factor Methods Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes 3d Rough

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-21

    Three-dimensional roughened internally enhanced tubes have been shown to be one of the most energy efficient for turbulent, forced convection applications. However, there is only one prediction method presented in the open literature and that is restricted to three-dimensional sand-grain roughness. Other roughness types are being proposed: hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. There are no validated heat-transfer and friction-factor prediction methods for these different roughness shapes that can be used inmore »the transition and fully rough region. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor values, for a broad range of three-dimensional roughness types such as hemispherical sectors, truncated cones, and full and truncated pyramids. Users of this program are heat-exchangers designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  3. The friction factor of two-dimensional rough-boundary turbulent soap film flows

    E-print Network

    Nicholas Guttenberg; Nigel Goldenfeld

    2009-03-25

    We use momentum transfer arguments to predict the friction factor $f$ in two-dimensional turbulent soap-film flows with rough boundaries (an analogue of three-dimensional pipe flow) as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness $r$, considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of $f\\propto\\textrm{Re}^{-1/2}$ in flows dominated by the enstrophy cascade, distinct from the energy cascade scaling of $\\textrm{Re}^{-1/4}$. For large Re, $f \\sim r$ in the enstrophy-dominated case. We use conformal map techniques to perform direct numerical simulations that are in satisfactory agreement with theory, and exhibit data collapse scaling of roughness-induced criticality, previously shown to arise in the 3D pipe data of Nikuradse.

  4. Single-Phase, Turbulent Heat-Transfer Friction-Factor Data Base Flow Enhanced Tb

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-21

    Heat-exchanger designers need to know what type of performance improvement can be obtained before they will consider enhanced tubes. In particular, they need access to the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factor values of enhanced tube types that are commercially available. To compile these data from the numerous publications and reports in the open literature is a formidable task that can discourage the designer from using them. A computer program that contains a comprehensive data base withmore »a search feature would be a handy tool for the designer to obtain an estimate of the performance improvement that can be obtained with a particular enhanced tube geometry. In addition, it would be a valuable tool for researchers who are developing and/or validating new prediction methods. This computer program can be used to obtain friction-factor and/or heat-transfer data for a broad range of internally enhanced tube geometries with forced-convective turbulent flow. The program has search features; that is the user can select data for tubes with a particular enhancement geometry range or data obtained from a particular source or publication. The friction factor data base contains nearly 5,000 points and the heat-transfer data base contains more than 4,700 points. About 360 different tube geometries are included from the 36 different sources. Data for tubes with similar geometries and the same and/or different types can be easily extracted with the sort feature of this data base and compared. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods.« less

  5. An experimental investigation into the effects turbulator profile and spacing have on heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in small cooled turbine airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslim, M. E.; Spring, S. D.

    1991-06-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted using liquid crystals to study the effects of turbulator profile and spacing on heat transfer coefficient. Friction factors are also measured and both friction factor and heat transfer results for fifteen turbulator geometries are compared. All test configurations position the turbulators on two opposite walls of a rectangular test section in a staggered arrangement with an angle of attack to the mainstream flow of 90 degrees. It is concluded that while turbulators with aspect ratios greater than unity produce higher heat transfer coefficients at the expense of higher pressure losses, 'jersey-barrier' shaped turbulators, properly spaced, are very effective in heat removal with moderate pressure losses.

  6. On laminar and turbulent friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Karman, TH

    1946-01-01

    Report deals, first with the theory of the laminar friction flow, where the basic concepts of Prandtl's boundary layer theory are represented from mathematical and physical points of view, and a method is indicated by means of which even more complicated cases can be treated with simple mathematical means, at least approximately. An attempt is also made to secure a basis for the computation of the turbulent friction by means of formulas through which the empirical laws of the turbulent pipe resistance can be applied to other problems on friction drag. (author)

  7. Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, H.

    1943-01-01

    The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material values on the flow near the wall is briefly analyzed. It was found that the velocity at the laminar boundary (in contrast to the thickness of the laminar layer) is approximately independent of the temperature distribution. The temperature gradient at the wall and the distribution of temperature and heat flow in the turbulent friction layers were calculated on the basis of the data under two equations. The derived formulas and the figures reveal the effects of the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the exchange quantities and the temperature relationship of the material values.

  8. Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence

    E-print Network

    Protas, Bartosz

    Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence Thomas R. Bewley and Bartosz Protas Flow measurements are made of the two components of wall skin friction and the wall pressure, all terms the linear setting, this determination may be made based on skin friction measurements alone). Combining

  9. Experimental determination of average turbulent heat transfer and friction factor in stator internal rib-roughened cooling channels.

    PubMed

    Battisti, L; Baggio, P

    2001-05-01

    In gas turbine cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to the hot stream are based on the increase of the inner heat transfer areas and on the promotion of the turbulence of the cooling flow. This is currently obtained by casting periodic ribs on one or more sides of the serpentine passages into the core of the blade. Fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of the cooling flow have been extensively investigated by means of experimental facilities and many papers dealing with this subject have appeared in the latest years. The evaluation of the average value of the heat transfer coefficient most of the time is inferred from local measurements obtained by various experimental techniques. Moreover the great majority of these studies are not concerned with the overall average heat transfer coefficient for the combined ribs and region between them, but do focus just on one of them. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the average Nusselt number inside a straight ribbed duct. Series of measurements have been performed in steady state eliminating the error sources inherently connected with transient methods. A low speed wind tunnel, operating in steady state flow, has been built to simulate the actual flow condition occurring in a rectilinear blade cooling channel. A straight square channel with 20 transverse ribs on two sides has been tested for Re of about 3 x 10(4), 4.5 x 10(4) and 6 x 10(4). The ribbed wall test section is electrically heated and the heat removed by a stationary flow of known thermal and fluid dynamic characteristics. PMID:11460662

  10. Factors affecting piston ring friction

    E-print Network

    Liao, Kai, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    The piston ring pack friction is a major contributor to the internal combustion engine mechanical friction loss. The oil control ring decides the oil supply to the top two rings in addition to being the major friction ...

  11. Reconnection Dynamics and Mutual Friction in Quantum Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Jason; Baggaley, Andrew W.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the behaviour of the mutual friction force in finite temperature quantum turbulence in He, paying particular attention to the role of quantized vortex reconnections. Through the use of the vortex filament model, we produce three experimentally relevant types of vortex tangles in steady-state conditions, and examine through statistical analysis, how local properties of the tangle influence the mutual friction force. Finally, by monitoring reconnection events, we present evidence to indicate that vortex reconnections are the dominant mechanism for producing areas of high curvature and velocity leading to regions of high mutual friction, particularly for homogeneous and isotropic vortex tangles.

  12. Tidal friction in rotating turbulent convectivestellar and planetary regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, S.; Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Guenel, M.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2014-12-01

    Turbulent friction in stellar and planetary convection zones is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the dissipation of the kinetic energy of tidal flows in stars and planets hosting companions. This friction acting both on the equilibrium tide and on tidal inertial waves thus deeply impacts the dynamics of the spin of the host star/planet and the orbital architecture of the surrounding system. It is thus very important to obtain robust prescription for this friction. In the current state-of-the-art, it is modeled by a turbulent viscosity coefficient using mixing-length theory. However, none of the existing prescriptions take into account the action of the possibly rapid rotation that strongly affects convective flows. In this work, we propose such a new prescription that takes into account rotation and discuss the possible implication for tidal dissipation in rotating stars and planets.

  13. Predicting friction factor in herbaceous emergent wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn-Thompson, T.; Hall, K.

    2012-12-01

    Over 53% of all wetlands in the US have been lost since the mid-1780s; to counteract wetland losses, wetland land area is being replaced through wetland restoration and mitigation. Development of the target wetland hydroperiod is critical to restoration success. For wetlands in which outflow is a component of the water budget, such as in riparian wetlands, surface water stage is controlled all or in part by the hydraulic resistance within the wetland, requiring accurate simulation of hydraulic resistance due to vegetation. Hydraulic models that consider vegetation rely on an accurate determination of a resistance parameter such as a friction factor or drag coefficient. At low Reynolds numbers typical of flows in wetlands, hydraulic resistance is orders of magnitude higher than fully turbulent flows and resistance parameters are functions of the flow regime as well as the vegetation density and structure. The exact relationship between hydraulic resistance, flow regime, and vegetation properties at the low-Reynolds number flows remains unclear. Prior research has typically involved laboratory studies of flow through idealized, individual stems. However, emergent wetland vegetation frequently grows as clumps. The goals of this research were to investigate the effect of clumping vegetation on flow resistance and to develop a prediction equation for use in wetland design. A 6-m by 1-m by 0.4-m recirculating flume was planted with mature common rush, Juncus effusus, a common emergent wetland plant. Three different flow rates (3, 4, and 5 L/s) and three different tailgate heights (0, 2.5, and 5 cm) were used to simulate a range of flow conditions. Plant spacing and clump diameter were varied (20 and 25 cm, 8 and 12 cm, respectively). Friction factors ranged from 9 to 40 and decreased with increasing plant density. Non-dimensional parameters determined through Buckingham Pi analysis were used in a regression analysis to develop a prediction model. Results of the regression analysis showed that the fraction of vegetated occupied area was most significant factor in determining friction factor.

  14. THEORETICAL SKIN-FRICTION LAW IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER A. CHESKIDOV

    E-print Network

    Cheskidov, Alexey

    THEORETICAL SKIN-FRICTION LAW IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER A. CHESKIDOV ABSTRACT. We study of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce-stream turbulence intensity, while one-parameter family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient

  15. A Fresh Approach to Flow Turbulence Towards Reduction of Skin-friction Drag

    E-print Network

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A Fresh Approach to Flow Turbulence Towards Reduction of Skin-friction Drag Turbulence Towards Reduction of Skin-friction Drag Subrahmanyam Duvvuri Research advised by Prof. Beverley Mc energy expenditure sector, accounting for 30% of global consumption. A mere 1% reduction in drag

  16. Evolutionary optimization of an anisotropic compliant surface for turbulent friction drag

    E-print Network

    Tokyo, University of

    Evolutionary optimization of an anisotropic compliant surface for turbulent friction drag reduction surface is performed in order to investigate its drag reduction effect in a fully developed turbulent flow in a reduction of the friction drag with a maximum reduction rate of 8%. The primary mechanism for drag reduction

  17. Variable enstrophy flux and energy spectrum in two-dimensional turbulence with Ekman friction

    E-print Network

    Mahendra K. Verma

    2012-03-23

    Experiments and numerical simulations reveal that in the forward cascade regime, the energy spectrum of two-dimensional turbulence with Ekman friction deviates from Kraichnan's prediction of $k^{-3}$ power spectrum. In this letter we explain this observation using an analytic model based on variable enstrophy flux arising due to Ekman friction. We derive an expression for the enstrophy flux which exhibits a logarithmic dependence in the inertial range for the Ekman-friction dominated flows. The energy spectrum obtained using this enstrophy flux shows a power law scaling for large Reynolds number and small Ekman friction, but has an exponential behaviour for large Ekman friction and relatively small Reynolds number.

  18. The impact of friction factor on the pressure loss prediction in gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bilgesu, H. I.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Gas pipeline design is greatly affected by the amount of a pressure drop anticipated during different phases of natural gas transportation. The outlet pressure can be computed by a common gas pipeline equation such as Weymouth or Panhandle formulas at the desired flow rate and pipe size. In addition to selecting the proper size of a pipeline, the compressor capacity and the related cost are determined based on the discharge pressure. The flow rate, in these equations, is defined in terms of a turbulent friction factor. The friction factor relationship approximates the turbulent behavior as a function of surface roughness in the pipe. An efficiency factor is employed in the equations for adjusting deviations in the pressure drop calculations. Existence of a sublayer, due to the pipe surface condition and accumulations of condensate, can generate cases that cannot be defined properly by the use a single friction factor. The proper sizing of a pipeline can be improved by defining the ranges of errors introduced with the use of different friction factors. Different correlations exist for the calculation of the fiction factor, f, as a function of Reynold`s number and the relative roughness of the pipe. The formulas for f either require an iterative procedure or may be solved explicitly. Also, each friction factor correlation exists with its own valid limits regarding Reynold`s number and relative roughness. Thus, some equations are simple to use but not accurate and some are accurate but not easy to incorporate into the final equation. In this study, the effect of the friction factor on the pressure drop calculations for gas flow is presented. Various correlations for friction factors are utilized to demonstrate their impact on the design of natural gas pipelines. Also, a summary and a comparison of results are presented for different flow rates, pipe sizes, and for field data.

  19. Review of Research into the Concept of the Microblowing Technique for Turbulent Skin Friction Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A new technology for reducing turbulent skin friction, called the Microblowing Technique (MBT), is presented. Results from proof-of-concept experiments show that this technology could potentially reduce turbulent skin friction by more than 50% of the skin friction of a solid flat plate for subsonic and supersonic flow conditions. The primary purpose of this review paper is to provide readers with information on the turbulent skin friction reduction obtained from many experiments using the MBT. Although the MBT has a penalty for obtaining the microblowing air associated with it, some combinations of the MBT with suction boundary layer control methods are an attractive alternative for a real application. Several computational simulations to understand the flow physics of the MBT are also included. More experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations are needed for the understanding of the unsteady flow nature of the MBT and the optimization of this new technology.

  20. An Experimental Study of Turbulent Skin Friction Reduction in Supersonic Flow Using a Microblowing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.

    1999-01-01

    A new turbulent skin friction reduction technology, called the microblowing technique has been tested in supersonic flow (Mach number of 1.9) on specially designed porous plates with microholes. The skin friction was measured directly by a force balance and the boundary layer development was measured by a total pressure rake at the tailing edge of a test plate. The free stream Reynolds number was 1.0(10 exp 6) per meter. The turbulent skin friction coefficient ratios (C(sub f)/C(sub f0)) of seven porous plates are given in this report. Test results showed that the microblowing technique could reduce the turbulent skin friction in supersonic flow (up to 90 percent below a solid flat plate value, which was even greater than in subsonic flow).

  1. Friction condition is an important factor in the control of compressing process. Friction calibration map (FCM), which is also called friction calibration curves (FCCs), is widely used in detecting friction factors

    E-print Network

    Friction condition is an important factor in the control of compressing process. Friction calibration map (FCM), which is also called friction calibration curves (FCCs), is widely used in detecting friction factors between workpiece and die in compression process. The FCM is generated by compressing

  2. Turbulent Friction in the Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate in a Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.

    1943-01-01

    In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.

  3. Analysis of turbulent skin friction generated in flow along a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Stephane; Sagaut, Pierre; Gomez, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an extension of FIK identity [K. Fukagata et al., Phys. Fluids 14, L73 (2002)] to turbulent axial flow along a cylinder. This relation gives the contributions of both the mean flow and the turbulent fluctuating flow to the skin friction coefficient. The later contribution is then further decomposed more precisely as proposed by B. Frohnapfel, Y. Hasegawa, and N. Kasagi, "Reactive Flow Control for Skin Friction Drag Reduction based on Sensing of the Streamwise Wall-Shear Stress," Euromech Fluid Mechanics Conference 8 (EFMC8), Bad Reichenhall, Germany, 13-16 Sept. 2010, S4-30. The Reynolds shear stress can be linked to the eigenvalues of the anisotropy tensor, the angle between the principal axis of the Reynolds stress tensor, and the mean flow direction and the turbulent kinetic energy. These eigenvalues and the alignment are important elements of the Reynolds stress profile. The present analysis is based on high-fidelity Reynolds-Stress-Model-based simulations. The results are first validated using available DNS and experimental data. Then, results are used in order to investigate the variations of the skin friction componential contributions with respect to characteristic dimensionless radius a+, Reynolds numbers, Rea (cylinder-radius-based Reynolds number) and Re? (boundary-layer-thickness-based Reynolds number), or curvature ratio ? /a, and anisotropic decomposition of the Reynolds stress. Explicit empirical formula for surface responses of skin friction and its turbulent component is given.

  4. Flow friction of the turbulent coolant flow in cryogenic porous cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Yeroshenko, V. M.; Zaichik, L. I.; Yanovsky, L. S.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are cryogenic power transmission cables with porous cores. Calculations of the turbulent coolant flow with injection or suction through the porous wall are presented within the framework of a two-layer model. Universal velocity profiles were obtained for the viscous sublayer and flow core. Integrating the velocity profile, the law of flow friction in the pipe with injection has been derived for the case when there is a tangential injection velocity component. The effect of tangential velocity on the relative law of flow friction is analyzed. The applicability of the Prandtl model to the problem under study is discussed. It is shown that the error due to the acceptance of the model increases with the injection parameter and at lower Reynolds numbers; under these circumstances, the influence of convective terms in the turbulent energy equation on the mechanism of turbulent transport should be taken into account.

  5. Heat transfer and friction factors in the ribbed square convergent and divergent channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. S.; Ahn, S. W.

    2015-07-01

    Heat transfer and friction factors are reported for the measurements of turbulent flows in the convergent and divergent square channels with one-sided ribbed wall as well as two opposite in-line ribbed walls. The study covers three different hydraulic diameter ratios between inlet and exit at the test section such as Dho/Dhi = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.33 and Reynolds numbers in the range of 25,000-79,000. The channels, composing of ten isolated copper sections in the length of test section of 1 m, have the hydraulic diameter of 87.5 mm for the straight channel (Dho/Dhi = 1.0); the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter is 0.114; the rib pitch-to-height ratio equals 10. On the contrary to public opinion that the friction factor depends on the portion of the ribbed area, the total friction factor in the two opposite ribbed walls are lower than in the one-sided ribbed wall in the divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 because the total pressure, summing positive dynamic and negative static pressures, is acted. The results show that the two opposite ribbed divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 provides the best heat transfer enhancement and the two opposite ribbed convergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 0.75 provides the worst friction factor enhancement, and the ribbed divergent channels are generally recommended.

  6. Turbulent heat transfer and friction in a segmental channel that simulates leading-edge cooling channels of modern turbine blades 

    E-print Network

    Spence, Rodney Brian

    1995-01-01

    Experiments are conducted to study the effects of channel geometry and asymmetric heating on the heat transfer and friction characteristics of turbulent flows in leading edge cooling channels in stator blades of gas turbines. The leading edge...

  7. Friction factor for isothermal and nonisothermal flow through porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. C.; Dutton, J. L.; Benson, B. A.; Fortini, A.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements were performed to determine the pressure drops for gaseous flow through porous materials of different microstructures, porosities, and thickness under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions at various temperature levels. Results were satisfactorily correlated by a simple equation relating the friction factor to the Reynolds number and porosities.

  8. Friction Factor Characterization for High-Porosity Random Fiber Regenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, the Department of Energy (DOE), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, Washington are developing a Stirling convertor for a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Power System to provide electric power for NASA Space Science Missions. STC is developing the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under contract to DOE. Steady-flow tests were completed to determine the friction factor for the high-porosity regenerators that are used in the TDC. STC fabricated a flow test fixture and three random fiber regenerator test samples, one each at approximately 80, 88, and 96 percent porosities. The flow tests were then completed by the NASA Glenn Flow Calibration Laboratory, and the data reduced to Reynolds number and friction factor. The results showed that the 80 and 88 percent porosity samples had similar characteristics while the 96 percent porosity sample had significantly higher friction factors for given Reynolds numbers compared to the samples with lower porosities. Comparisons were also made between the test data and existing correlations. STC used this data to derive a modified regenerator friction factor correlation for use in the Stirling design code GLIMPS for porosities greater than 88 percent. Using this new correlation, the final optimized regenerator design porosity was reduced from 96 to 90 percent.

  9. Laser interferometer skin-friction measurements of crossing-shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.; Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossing-shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 deg at Mach 3 and 15 deg at Mach 3.85. The measurements were made using a laser interferometer skin-friction meter, a device that determines the wall shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin-friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction center line. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k-epsilon model, are compared with the experimental results for the Mach 3.85, 15-deg interaction case. Although the k-epsilon model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin-friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near-surface flow in this complex interaction.

  10. Velocities, turbulence, and skin friction in a deep-sea logarithmic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gust, Giselher; Weatherly, Georges L.

    1985-05-01

    Speed, turbulence, skin friction, and drag measurements made with metal-clad hot wires, epoxy-coated hot films, and Savonius rotors are reported for a deep-sea boundary layer at a water depth of ˜5000 m. They include data from heights z < 30 cm, a region hitherto only investigated in detail by Chriss and Caldwell (1982) for a shelf site. A mean speed logarithmic layer was observed at 3 < z < 200 cm. The difference between the friction velocity u*log determined from the speed profiles and the skin friction u*skin measured by flush-mounted hot films was statistically significant at the 95% level in five out of eight analyzed burst intervals. This result suggests form-drag influence on the vertical mean flow profile. Although identified from the mean speed data as a hydrodynamically rough boundary layer, the turbulence and bottom stress intensities at the deep-sea site were found to be reduced by more than 40% compared to smooth-wall open-channel flow and planetary boundary layers. Applicability of the universal law of the wall has not been confirmed for this deep-sea boundary layer.

  11. Statistically Steady Turbulence in Soap Films: Direct Numerical Simulations with Ekman Friction

    E-print Network

    Prasad Perlekar; Rahul Pandit

    2008-11-09

    We present a detailed direct numerical simulation (DNS) designed to investigate the combined effects of walls and Ekman friction on turbulence in forced soap films. We concentrate on the forward-cascade regime and show how to extract the isotropic parts of velocity and vorticity structure functions and thence the ratios of multiscaling exponents. We find that velocity structure functions display simple scaling whereas their vorticity counterparts show multiscaling; and the probability distribution function of the Weiss parameter $\\Lambda$, which distinguishes between regions with centers and saddles, is in quantitative agreement with experiments.

  12. Simple LMFBR axial-flow friction-factor correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Y.N.; Todreas, N.E.

    1982-12-01

    Complicated LMFBR axial lead-length averaged friction-factor correlations are reduced to an easy, ready-to-use function of bundle Reynolds number for wire-wrapped bundles. The function together with the power curves to calculate the associated constants are incorporated in a computer preprocessor, EZFRIC. The constants required for the calculation of the subchannels and bundle friction factors are derived and correlated into power curves of geometrical parameters. A computer program, FRIC, which can alternatively be used to accurately calculate these constants is also included. The accurate values of the constants and the corresponding values predicted by the power curves and percentage error of prediction are tabulated for a wide variety of geometries of interest.

  13. Friction Factor Measurements in an Equally Spaced Triangular Tube Array

    SciTech Connect

    Vassallo P, Symolon P

    2007-03-19

    Friction factor data for adiabatic cross-flow of water in a staggered tube array was obtained over a Reynolds number range (based on hydraulic diameter and gap velocity) of about 10,000 to 250,000. The tubes were 12.7mm (0.5 inch) outer diameter, in a uniformly spaced triangular arrangement with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. The friction factor was compared to several literature correlations, and was found to be best matched by the Idelchik correlation. Other correlations were found to vary significantly from the test data. Based on the test data, a new correlation is proposed for this tube bundle geometry which covers the entire Reynolds number range tested.

  14. Effects of Riblets on Skin Friction in High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2012-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets are conducted to examine the effects of riblets on skin friction at supersonic speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers with an adiabatic wall, a Mach number of M1 = 2.5, and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Re = 1720 are considered. Simulations are conducted for boundary-layer flows over a clean surface and symmetric V- groove riblets with nominal spacings of 20 and 40 wall units. The DNS results confirm the few existing experimental observations and show that a drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved for riblets with proper spacing. The influence of riblets on turbulence statistics is analyzed in detail with an emphasis on identifying the differences, if any, between the drag reduction mechanisms for incompressible and high-speed boundary layers.

  15. FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS

    E-print Network

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU COEFFICIENT DE FRICTION DANS DES CONDUITES A HAUTE PRESSION A PARTIR DE LA RUGOSITE E. SletfjerdingI J. S to that of Nikuradse, the measured friction factor was correlated with the measured roughness values. Taking the value

  16. Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Clarke, Daryl D.; Ozeki, Shinichi

    Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various resins such as asphalt or resin combined with pitch. These efforts were further developed by the use of woven asbestos material saturated by either rubber solution or liquid resin binder and functioned as an internal expanding brake, similar to brake lining system. The role of asbestos continued through the use of chopped asbestos saturated by rubber, but none was entirely successful due to the poor rubber heat resistance required for increased speeds and heavy gearing demands of the automobile industry. The use of phenolic resins as binder for asbestos friction materials provided the necessary thermal resistance and performance characteristics. Thus, the utility of asbestos as the main friction component, for over 100 years, has been significantly reduced in friction materials due to asbestos identity as a carcinogen. Steel and other fibrous components have displaced asbestos in disk pads. Currently, non-asbestos organics are the predominate friction material. Phenolic resins continue to be the preferred binder, and increased amounts are necessary to meet the requirements of highly functional asbestos-free disk pads for the automotive industry. With annual automobile production exceeding 70 million vehicles and additional automobile production occurring in developing countries worldwide and increasing yearly, the amount of phenolic resin for friction material is also increasing (Fig. 14.1). Fig. 14.1 Worldwide commercial vehicle production In recent years, increased fuel efficiency of passenger car is required due to the CO2 emission issue. One of the solutions to improve fuel efficiency is to lower the car body weight. It means that the weight of car components must be decreased. In the case of reduced weight for friction parts, the load applied to the friction parts would be higher (more heat also) and trend would lead to phenolic resins with improved heat resistance.

  17. A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin-friction drag in turbulent channel flow

    E-print Network

    Kim, John

    A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin- friction drag in turbulent;PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, 110815 (2013) A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin; accepted 21 May 2013; published online 11 September 2013) Superhydrophobic surfaces have attracted much

  18. Friction Factor for Flow in Rectangular Ducts with One Side Rib-Roughened

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youn, B.; Yuen, C.; Mills, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical simulations of incompressible turbulent flow through rectangular ducts with one side rib-roughened were performed to determine pressure drop. The "PHOENICS " software package was used for the computations, which required provision of a wall function for transverse rib-roughened surfaces. The present study was conducted in the range of 10(exp 5) less than or equal to Reynolds number less than or equal to 10(exp 7), 0.01 less than or equal to rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio less than or equal to 0.04, 10 less than or equal to pitch to rib height ratio less than or equal to 40. Using the numerical results, friction factor charts for various aspect ratios were generated. The numerical results agreed well with experimental data that was obtained for 10(exp 5) less than Reynolds less than 2 x 10(exp 5). In addition, a scheme for predicting friction factor using existing correlations for smooth and rough walls was developed.

  19. Charts Adapted from Van Driest's Turbulent Flat-plate Theory for Determining Values of Turbulent Aerodynamic Friction and Heat-transfer Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dorothy B; Faget, Maxime A

    1956-01-01

    A modified method of Van Driest's flat-plate theory for turbulent boundary layer has been found to simplify the calculation of local skin-friction coefficients which, in turn, have made it possible to obtain through Reynolds analogy theoretical turbulent heat-transfer coefficients in the form of Stanton number. A general formula is given and charts are presented from which the modified method can be solved for Mach numbers 1.0 to 12.0, temperature ratios 0.2 to 6.0, and Reynolds numbers 0.2 times 10 to the 6th power to 200 times 10 to the 6th power.

  20. Measuring and modelling the frictional velocity u*, turbulence and heat fluxes above the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambke, Jens; Bye, John A. T.; Schmidt, Michael; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we analyse the frictional velocity u*, drag coefficient, vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles observed at different met-masts in the German North and Baltic Sea. We present an analysis of different models for the frictional velocity u* in convective, neutral and stable thermal stratification of the atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements performed with ultra-sonic anemometers are compared to profile-derived values and a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric thermal stability. Modelling: An improved approach to model the vertical wind speed profile is presented and compared against meso-scale model results (WRF, COSMO): Bye-Ekman-Coupling (BEC) describes the flux of momentum from the Ekman layer of the atmosphere through the Prandtl layer down to the air-sea interface by a modified wave boundary layer with enhanced Charnock dynamics (Bye et al. 2010). The BEC model is based on the coupled pair of similarity relations for "aerodynamically rough flow" in both fluids (air and sea). The derived drag law is of Charnock form, almost independent of the wave age and consistent with the transfer of momentum to the wave spectrum - which takes place in the smaller rather than the dominant wavelengths. Measurements: It was found that the frictional velocity u* is considerably smaller than predicted by conventional approaches using the Charnock relation: For wind speeds between 10 m/s and 15 m/s at 40 m height above the sea surface, u*(observed) is 14% smaller than u*(Charnock). Most important, we found unexpected, strong and obviously artificial distortions concerning the three wind speed components in the 10Hz data of the three ultra-sonic anemometers at the offshore met-mast FINO1 at 40 m, 60 m and 80 m height. The pattern of these distortions is independent from different post-processing procedures (planar-fit etc.). We anticipate that these artefacts imply severe problems for the eddy covariance technique. Moreover, these artefacts may be relevant in other (previous and on-going) ultra-sonic measurement campaigns where turbulent parameters such as u* and heat fluxes are derived. A simple, but innovative analysis is proposed to check ultra-sonic measurements with respect to these artefacts, using the original temporal 10Hz resolution of the data: The instantaneous vertical wind speed component w is analysed versus the instantaneous wind direction (called wind.dir in the following), computed from the instantaneous horizontal components u and v. The observational density is then plotted in the (w; wind.dir)-space. We found a pattern of stripes of very strong densities for specific wind direction bins, which are thinner than 1° and which cannot be attributed directly to the geometry of the anemometer (transducers, physical structure etc.). The source of this artificial pattern is still unclear and open for discussion. References: Bye JAT, Ghantous M, Wolff J-O (2010) On the variability of the Charnock constant and the functional dependence of the drag coefficient on wind speed. Ocean Dynamics 60(4) 851-860

  1. Friction-factor data for flat-plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Childs, Dara W.

    1992-01-01

    Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.

  2. Friction factor data for flat plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Tae Woong

    1989-01-01

    Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.

  3. A Comparative Study of Material Flow Behavior in Friction Stir Welding Using Laminar and Turbulent Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadian, Arun Kumar; Biswas, Pankaj

    2015-10-01

    Friction stir welding has been quite successful in joining aluminum alloy which has gained importance in almost all industrial sectors over the past two decades. It is a newer technique and therefore needs more attention in many sectors, flow of material being one among them. The material flow pattern actually helps in deciding the parameters required for particular tool geometry. The knowledge of material flow is very significant in removing defects from the weldment. In the work presented in this paper, the flow behavior of AA6061 under a threaded tool has been studied. The convective heat loss has been considered from all the surfaces, and a comparative study has been made with and without the use of temperature-dependent properties and their significance in the finite volume method model. The two types of models that have been implemented are turbulent and laminar models. Their thermal histories have been studied for all the cases. The material flow velocity has been analyzed to predict the flow of material. A swirl inside the weld material has been observed in all the simulations.

  4. Laser Interferometer Skin-Friction measurements of crossing-shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossingshock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symmetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 degrees at Mach 3 and 15 degrees at Mach 4. The measurements were made using a Laser Interferometer Skin Friction (LISF) meter; a device which determines the wail shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction centerline. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k- model, are compared to the experimental results for the Mach 4, 15 degree interaction case. While the k- model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near surface flow in this complex interaction.

  5. Development of colburn ` j' factor and fanning friction factor ` f' correlations for compact heat exchanger plain fins by using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala Sundar Rao, R.; Ranganath, G.; Ranganayakulu, C.

    2013-07-01

    A numerical model has been developed for plain fin of plate fin heat exchanger. Plain fin performance has been analyzed with the help of CFD by changing the various parameters of the fin, Colburn ` j' and fanning friction ` f' factors are calculated. These values compared with the standard values. The correlations have been developed between Reynolds number Re, fin height h, fin thickness t, fin spacing s, Colburn factor ` j' and friction factor ` f'.

  6. Understanding the friction factor behavior in liquid annular seals with deliberately roughened surfaces, a CFD approach 

    E-print Network

    Villasmil Urdaneta, Larry Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    Bulk flow theory has been widely used to estimate annular seals dynamic coefficients. To predict the flow behavior through the seal, this theory relies on empirical friction factor correlations based on pipe data. Several experiments have gathered...

  7. Analysis of Instabilities and Their Impact on Friction Factor in Hole-Pattern Seals 

    E-print Network

    Sekaran, Aarthi 1985-

    2012-11-21

    The determination of the leakage and consequently the friction factor is an important part of analyzing the flow through a seal. This is done experimentally by means of a flat plate tester, which allows for the simplified ...

  8. Mach and Reynolds number effects on turbulent skin friction reduction by injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Watson, R. D.; Holley, B. B.

    1975-01-01

    The investigation reported is concerned with questions regarding a possible Mach number influence on skin friction reduction caused by injection. The investigation shows that data considered by Danberg (1967) for the no-blowing skin friction coefficient are in error. Accurate profiles and local skin friction coefficient values are obtained when the influence of low Reynolds number amplification in the outer region of the boundary layer is included in a calculation method.

  9. a New Correlation of Friction Factor for Oscillating Flow Regenerator Operating at High Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Q. Q.; Ju, Y. L.

    2008-03-01

    Regenerator plays an important role on the performance of low-power cryocoolers, in particular at high operating frequencies. Many works have revealed that the friction factors under unidirectional steady flow conditions are unsuccessful in predicting flow characteristics of regenerators typically operating at oscillating flow conditions. Recent research has been conducted, using both theoretical analyses and experimental measurements, either to correlate the conventional friction factor by introducing additional parameters or to develop new flow models to overcome the shortcoming of the steady-flow friction factor. However, validation and application of these results for cryocooler regenerators are still questionable because of the complex and randomly oriented matrix geometry of regenerators. In this paper, we will first summarize typical experimental results and correlations on the friction factor of regenerators, at different operating frequencies, at room and cryogenic temperatures. The comparison of those friction factor data will then be presented to clarify the reason for their difference. Finally, a new correlation of friction factor for oscillating flow regenerator, in terms of two non-dimensional parameters, will be presented.

  10. Friction Factor Evaluation Using Experimental and Finite Element Methods for Al-4%Cu Preforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desalegn, Wogaso; Davidson, M. J.; Khanra, A. K.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, ring compression tests and finite element (FE) simulations have been utilized to evaluate the friction factor, m, under different lubricating conditions for powder metallurgical (P/M) Al-4%Cu preforms. A series of ring compression tests were carried out to obtain friction factor ( m) for a number of lubricating conditions, including zinc stearate, graphite, molybdenum disulfide powder, and unlubricated condition. FE simulations were used to analyze materials deformation, densification, and geometric changes, and to derive the friction calibration curves. The friction factor has been determined for various initial relative densities and different lubricating conditions, and a proper lubricant for cold forging of P/M Al-4%Cu preforms is found. Studies show that the use of lubricants has reduced the friction. However, increase in the number of pores in the preforms leads to excessive friction. The FE simulation results demonstrate a shift in the neutral plane distance from the axis of ring specimen, which occurred due to variations in the frictional conditions and initial relative densities. The load requirement for deformation, effective stress, and effective strain induced, and bulging phenomena obtained by FE simulations have a good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David Alan

    1988-01-01

    The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.

  12. Direct measurements and analysis of skin friction and cooling downstream of multiple flush-slot injection into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. G.; Strokowski, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the reduction in surface skin friction and the effectiveness of surface cooling downstream of one to four successive flush slots injecting cold air at an angle of 10 deg into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer. Data were obtained by direct measurement of surface shear and equilibrium temperatures, respectively. Increasing the number of slots decreased the skin friction, but the incremental improvement in skin-friction reduction decreased as the number of slots was increased. Cooling effectiveness was found to improve, for a given total mass injection, as the number of slots was increased from one to four. Comparison with previously reported step-slot data, however, indicated that step slots with tangential injection are more effective for both reducing skin friction and cooling than the present flush-slot configuration. Finite-difference predictions are in reasonable agreement with skin-friction data and with boundary-layer profile data.

  13. Friction factor and mean velocity profile for pipe flow at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuichi, N.; Terao, Y.; Wada, Y.; Tsuji, Y.

    2015-09-01

    The friction factor for a fully developed pipe flow is examined at high Reynolds numbers up to ReD = 1.8 × 107 with high accuracy using the high Reynolds number actual flow facility "Hi-Reff" at AIST, NMIJ. The precise measurement of the friction factor is achieved by the highly accurate measurement of the flow rate, and the measurement uncertainty is estimated to be approximately 0.9% with a coverage factor of k = 2. The result examined here is obviously different from the Prandtl equation and the experimental results from the superpipe at Princeton University. The deviation of the present result from the Prandtl equation in the lower Reynolds number region is approximately 2.5% and -3% at the higher Reynolds number. For ReD < 2.0 × 105, the present friction factor obtained here agrees very well with the results at the superpipe, but a deviation is observed for ReD > 2.0 × 105, and it increases with the Reynolds number and reaches -6% at ReD = 1.0 × 107. The Kármán constant estimated by the measured friction factor is 0.385. Using inner scale variables estimated by the present friction factor, the velocity profile measured by laser Doppler velocimetry in the same measurement configuration for the friction factor is normalized in order to observe the consistency of the Kármán constants between both the measurements. The Kármán constant estimated by the measured velocity profiles for ReD > 3.0 × 105 is 0.382.

  14. Turbulent Reynolds analogy factors for nonplanar surface microgeometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindemann, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Direct measurements of turbulent Reynolds analogy factors are presented for 15 nonplanar surface microgeometries (including riblets, oscillating transverse curvature, wavy walls, and micro air bearings) for momentum thickness Reynolds numbers of 1638-2631. It is shown that certain types of nonplanar surface microgeometries will increase turbulent Reynolds analogy factors significantly above flat-plate levels. In several cases, the observed elevated heat-transfer efficiencies represent the combined effects of both heat-transfer increases and drag decreases. Generally, the results suggest that decreases of the order of 20 percent are possible in heat exchanger volume, cost, and weight for designs with extensive planar surfaces.

  15. The behavior of the skin-friction coefficient of a turbulent boundary layer flow over a flat plate with differently configured transverse square grooves

    SciTech Connect

    Wahidi, R.; Chakroun, W.; Al-Fahed, S.

    2005-11-01

    Skin-friction coefficient of turbulent boundary layer flow over a smooth-wall with transverse square grooves was investigated. Four grooved-wall cases were investigated. The four grooved-wall configurations are single 5mm square grooved-wall, and 5mm square grooves spaced 10, 20 and 40 element widths apart in the streamwise direction. Laser-Doppler Anemometer (LDA) was used for the mean velocity and turbulence intensity measurements. The skin-friction coefficient determined from the velocity profile increases sharply just downstream of the groove. This overshoot is followed by an undershoot and then relaxation back to the smooth-wall value. This behavior is observed in most grooved-wall cases. Integrating the skin-friction coefficient in the streamwise direction indicates that there is an increase in the overall drag in all the grooved-wall cases.

  16. An annular gas seal analysis using empirical entrance and exit region friction factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, D. A.; Childs, D. W.; Nelson, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    Wall shear stress results from stationary-rotor flow tests of five annular gas seals are used to develop entrance and exit region friction factor models. The friction factor models are used in a bulk-flow seal analysis which predicts leakage and rotor-dynamic coefficients. The predictions of the analysis are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis (1985). The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb-stators. The present analysis predicts the destabilizing cross-coupled stiffness of a seal better than Nelson's analysis. Both analyses predict direct damping well and direct stiffness poorly.

  17. Structure of atmospheric turbulence in the friction layer below 500 meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, S. J.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of wind direction and speed, vertical velocity, and temperature were made from several levels of the 444 m tower near Oklahoma City. Turbulence quantities were calculated from the covariances between observed variables over periods ranging from 5 min to 1 hr. It was found that in some cases parameters such as mean wind speed, shearing stress, and vertical heat flux could be expressed by simple equations for periods of 15 min to 1 hr. Changes in these quantities with time are related to changes in vertical motion and stability. Power spectra were calculated for sequential 15 min, 30 min, and 1 hr periods. The effects of stability, wind speed, and surface roughness on the spectra of longitudinal and lateral velocity were examined, along with the effect of height on the spectrum of vertical velocity. This region was shown to be composed of a lower region in which mechanical turbulence dominates and an upper region dominated by convective turbulence.

  18. Friction factor and heat transfer of nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in laminar pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianzhong; Xia, Yi; Ku, Xiaoke

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations of polyalphaolefins-Al2O3 nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in a laminar pipe flow are performed by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with term of cylindrical nanoparticles, the general dynamic equation for cylindrical nanoparticles, and equation for nanoparticle orientation. The distributions of particle number and volume concentration, the friction factor, and heat transfer are obtained and analyzed. The results show that distributions of nanoparticle number and volume concentration are non-uniform across the section, with larger and smaller values in the region near the pipe center and near the wall, respectively. The non-uniformity becomes significant with the increase in the axial distance from the inlet. The friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds number. The relationships between the friction factor and the nanoparticle volume concentration as well as particle aspect ratio are dependent on the Reynolds number. The Nusselt number of nanofluids, directly proportional to the Reynolds number, particle volume concentration, and particle aspect ratio, is higher near the pipe entrance than at the downstream locations. The rate of increase in Nusselt number at lower particle volume concentration is more than that at higher concentration. Finally, the expressions of friction factor and Nusselt number as a function of particle volume concentration, particle aspect ratio, and Reynolds number are derived based on the numerical data.

  19. Wall mass transfer and pressure gradient effects on turbulent skin friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. D.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of mass injection and pressure gradients on the drag of surfaces were studied theoretically with the aid of boundary-layer and Navier-Stokes codes. The present investigation is concerned with the effects of spatially varying the injection in the case of flat-plate drag. Effects of suction and injection on wavy wall surfaces are also explored. Calculations were performed for 1.2 m long surfaces, one flat and the other sinusoidal with a wavelength of 30.5 cm. Attention is given to the study of the effect of various spatial blowing variations on flat-plate skin friction reduction, local skin friction coefficient calculated by finite difference boundary-layer code and Navier-Stokes code, and the effect of phase-shifting sinusoidal mass transfer on the drag of a sinusoidal surface.

  20. Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chivers, T.C.

    1997-04-01

    Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.

  1. Calculation of skin-friction coefficients for low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer flows. M.S. Thesis - California Univ. at Davis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, P. K.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the reliability of various generally accepted empirical expressions for the prediction of the skin-friction coefficient C/sub f/ of turbulent boundary layers at low Reynolds numbers in zero-pressure-gradient flows on a smooth flat plate. The skin-friction coefficients predicted from these expressions were compared to the skin-friction coefficients of experimental profiles that were determined from a graphical method formulated from the law of the wall. These expressions are found to predict values that are consistently different than those obtained from the graphical method over the range 600 Re/sub theta 2000. A curve-fitted empirical relationship was developed from the present data and yields a better estimated value of C/sub f/ in this range. The data, covering the range 200 Re/sub theta 7000, provide insight into the nature of transitional flows. They show that fully developed turbulent boundary layers occur at Reynolds numbers Re/sub theta/ down to 425. Below this level there appears to be a well-ordered evolutionary process from the laminar to the turbulent profiles. These profiles clearly display the development of the turbulent core region and the shrinking of the laminar sublayer with increasing values of Re/sub theta/.

  2. Dynamics of Hairpin Vortices and Friction Drag Reduction in Turbulent Flow of Dilute Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungyoun; Adrian, Ronald; Balachandar, S.; Sureshkumar, R.

    2007-11-01

    We portray, for the first time, the nonlinear auto-generation of new vortices and formation of hairpin packets in the presence of polymer stress by performing a series of dynamic simulations and explain the effect of such dynamics on the reduction in turbulent stresses and hence, drag reduction. In the dynamical simulations, an initially isolated vortical structure is evolved in the viscoelastic flow where the polymer stress is modeled by the FENE-P model (finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Peterlin). The initial conditions are given by the conditionally averaged flow fields for Reynolds-stress-maximizing Q2 event obtained from fully turbulent channel flow at Re?=395 with drag reduction of 0%, 18% and 61%. We found that the threshold of initial vortex strength for the auto-generation of new hairpins increases as the viscoelasticity increases, especially in the buffer layer. The result suggests that the auto-generation of new vortices is suppressed by the polymer stresses, thereby the coherent as well as incoherent Reynolds stress decrease and ultimately turbulent drag is reduced.

  3. Vortex avalanches and the onset of superfluid turbulence

    E-print Network

    N. B. Kopnin

    2003-09-30

    Quantized circulation, absence of Galilean invariance due to a clamped normal component, and the vortex mutual friction are the major factors that make superfluid turbulence behave in a way different from that in classical fluids. The model is developed for the onset of superfluid turbulence that describes the initial avalanche-like multiplication of vortices into a turbulent vortex tangle.

  4. Biomechanical risk factors and flexor tendon frictional work in the cadaveric carpal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kociolek, Aaron M; Tat, Jimmy; Keir, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Pathological changes in carpal tunnel syndrome patients include fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) adjacent to the flexor tendons in the carpal tunnel. These clinical findings suggest an etiology of excessive shear-strain force between the tendon and SSCT, underscoring the need to assess tendon gliding characteristics representative of repetitive and forceful work. A mechanical actuator moved the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon proximally and distally in eight fresh frozen cadaver arms. Eighteen experimental conditions tested the effects of three well-established biomechanical predictors of injury, including a combination of two wrist postures (0° and 30° flexion), three tendon velocities (50, 100, 150mm/sec), and three forces (10, 20, 40N). Tendon gliding resistance was determined with two light-weight load cells, and integrated over tendon displacement to represent tendon frictional work. During proximal tendon displacement, frictional work increased with tendon velocity (58.0% from 50-150mm/sec). There was a significant interaction between wrist posture and tendon force. In wrist flexion, frictional work increased 93.0% between tendon forces of 10 and 40N. In the neutral wrist posture, frictional work only increased 33.5% (from 10-40N). During distal tendon displacement, there was a similar multiplicative interaction on tendon frictional work. Concurrent exposure to multiple biomechanical work factors markedly increased tendon frictional work, thus providing a plausible link to the pathogenesis of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome. Additionally, our study provides the conceptual basis to evaluate injury risk, including the multiplicative repercussions of combined physical exposures. PMID:25553671

  5. Optimization of conical hydrostatic bearing for minimum friction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nypan, L. J.; Hamrock, B. J.; Scibbe, H. W.; Anderson, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Equations for the flow rate, load capacity, and friction torque for a conical hydrostatic bearing were developed. These equations were solved by a digital computer program to determine bearing configurations for minimum friction torque. Design curves are presented that show optimal bearing dimensions for minimum friction torque as a function of dimensionless flow rate for a range of dimensionless load capacity. Results are shown for both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. The results indicate that hydrostatic pocket friction is a significant portion of the total friction torque. However, the bearing dimensions for a minimum friction design are affected very little by inclusion of pocket friction in the analysis. For laminar flow the values of the outer-land radius ratio X3 and outer bearing radius ratio X4 did not change significantly with increasing friction factor. For turbulent flow, the outer bearing radius ratio X4 did not change with increasing friction factor; therefore the value determined for X4 in the laminar flow case is valid for all turbulent flows.

  6. The effect of a turbulent wake on the stagnation point. I - Skin friction results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Dennis E.; Hanford, Anthony J.

    1990-01-01

    The response of a boundary layer in the stagnation region of a two-dimensional body to fluctuations in the freestream is examined. The analysis is restricted to laminar incompressible flow. The assumed form of the velocity distribution at the edge of the boundary layer represents both a pulsation of the incoming flow, and an oscillation of the stagnation point streamline. Both features are essential in accurately representing the effect which freestream spatial and temporal nonuniformities have upon the unsteady boundary layer. Finally, a simple model is proposed which relates the characteristic parameters in a turbulent wake to the unsteady boundary-layer edge velocity. Numerical results are presented for both an arbitrary two-dimensional geometry and a circular cylinder.

  7. A comparison of rotordynamic-coefficient predictions for annular honeycomb gas seals using different friction-factor models 

    E-print Network

    D'Sousa, Rohan Joseph

    2000-01-01

    -control-volume model of governing equations, Ha and Childs (1994) and frequency dependent transfer function, Kleynhans and Childs (1997). The friction-factor model is important in predicting the rotordynamic-coefficients, specifically at a lower frequency range (3...

  8. The influence of void fraction on the submerged perforated sheet hydraulic friction factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinkov, V. N.; Elkin, I. V.; Emelianov, D. A.; Melikhov, V. I.; Melikhov, O. I.; Nerovnov, A. A.; Nikonov, S. M.; Parfenov, Yu. V.

    2015-07-01

    The results from an experimental investigation of two-phase flow motion through a submerged perforated sheet (SPS) obtained at the Elektrogorsk Research Center test facility are presented. The test facility, the test section of which is a transverse "cutout" from the full-scale PGV-1000 steam generator with the models of vessel internals, is described in detail. The procedure for carrying out trial startups is outlined, and the system of instrument and control devices is described. The SPS used in all experimental modes of operation had the perforation ratio (the hole area to the sheet area ratio) equal to 5.7%. The pressure in the system was around 7 MPa, and the flow rate of supplied steam was varied from 4.23 to 7.94 t/h, which corresponded to the steam velocity at the evaporation surface equal to 0.15-0.29 m/s. Distributions of pressure difference across the SPS and void fractions under the SPS and above it are obtained. The SPS hydraulic friction factor for a two-phase flow is determined as a result of processing the experimental data. A correction for two-phase nature of the flow for the SPS operating conditions is determined by comparing the obtained SPS hydraulic friction factor for a two-phase flow with the SPS hydraulic friction factor to single-phase flow of steam. It is shown that this correction can be either greater than unity (at low void fractions) or less than unity (at high void fractions).

  9. Losses in Channels with Increased External Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaryankin, A. Y.; Soloveva, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    An approximate method for determining the effect of the level of turbulence on the aerodynamic characteristics of convergent and diffuser channels is examined. A momentum equation for the boundary layer is in the method, introducing external flow turbulence on the basis of experimental values of the coefficient of friction and the form factor. It is found that at significant levels of external turbulence, losses must be considered not only in the boundary layer but also in the central region of the channel.

  10. Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238

  11. Numerical study on influence of turbulent droplet clustering on radar reflectivity factor under cumulus cloud conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, K.; Onishi, R.; Takahashi, K.; Kurose, R.; Komori, S.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial correlations of cloud droplets cause particulate Bragg scattering, which increases the reflected microwave intensity in radar observations. Most studies assume that particulate Bragg scattering is insignificant in clouds. However, cloud turbulence generates microscale clusters of cloud droplets due to centrifugal effects. This indicates that the influence of turbulent clustering can be a cause of observational errors. Thus, this study aims to investigate the influence of turbulent clustering of cloud droplets on the radar reflectivity factor. Droplet clustering data are obtained by performing a three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS), in which an isotropic turbulence is generated by solving the Navier-Stokes equation without any turbulence model and a large number of droplet motions are tracked by the Lagrangian method. The clustering data are used to calculate the power spectrum of number density fluctuation. The results show that the turbulent Reynolds number dependency of the power spectrum is sufficiently small for enough high turbulent Reynolds number. On the other hand, the spectrum is strongly dependent on the Stokes number, which is defined as the ratio of droplet relaxation time to the Kolmogorov time. Thus, the influence of turbulent clustering on the radar reflectivity factor is estimated by using the power spectrum considering the Stokes number dependency. We will show the estimate results under ideal cumulus cloud conditions, where the droplet size distributions and the number densities are set based on the dataset of Hess et al. (1998), and discuss the influence on radar cloud observations.

  12. Premixed flamelet modelling: Factors influencing the turbulent heat release rate source term and the turbulent burning velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.; Gaskell, P.H.; Sedaghat, A.; Gu, X.J.

    2005-11-01

    A flamelet approach is adopted in a study of the factors affecting the volumetric heat release source term in turbulent combustion. This term is expressed as the product of an instability enhanced burning rate factor, P{sub bi}, and the mean volumetric heat release rate in an unstretched laminar flamelet of the mixture. Included in the expression for P{sub bi} are a pdf of the flame stretch rate and a flame stretch factor. Fractal considerations link the turbulent burning velocity normalised by the effective rms turbulent velocity to P{sub bi}. Evaluation of this last parameter focuses on problems of (i) the pdfs of the flame stretch rate, (ii) the effects of flame stretch rate on the burning rate, (iii) the effects of any flamelet instability on the burning rate, (iv) flamelet extinctions under positive and negative flame stretch rates, and (v) the effects of the unsteadiness of flame stretch rates. The Markstein number influences both the rate of burning and the possibility of flamelet instabilities developing which, through their ensuing wrinkling, increase the burning rate. The flame stretch factor is extended to embrace potential Darrieus-Landau thermo-diffusive flamelet instabilities. A major limitation is the insufficient understanding of the effects of negative stretch rates that might cause flame extinction. The influences of positive and negative Markstein numbers are considered separately. For the former, a computed theoretical relationship for turbulent burning velocity, normalised by the effective rms velocity, is developed which, although close to that measured experimentally, tends to be somewhat lower at the higher values of the Karlovitz stretch factor. This might be attributed to reduced flame extinction and reduced effective Markstein numbers when the increasingly nonsteady conditions reduce the ability of the flame to respond to changes in flame stretch rates. As the pressure increases, Markstein numbers decrease. For negative Markstein numbers the predicted values of P{sub bi} and turbulent burning velocity are significantly increased above the values for positive Markstein numbers. This is confirmed experimentally, and these values are close to those predicted theoretically. The increased values are due to the greater stretch rate required for flame extinction, the increased burning rate at positive values of flame stretch rate, and, in some instances, the development of flame instabilities. At lower values of turbulence than those covered by these computations, burning velocities can be enhanced by flame instabilities, as they are with laminar flames, particularly at negative Markstein numbers.

  13. Internal friction quality-factor Q under confining pressure. [of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Ahlberg, L.; Nadler, H.; Curnow, J.; Smith, T.; Cohen, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    It has been found in previous studies that small amounts of adsorbed volatiles can have a profound effect on the internal friction quality-factor Q of rocks and other porous media. Pandit and Tozer (1970) have suggested that the laboratory-measured Q of volatile-free rocks should be similar to the in situ seismic Q values of near-surface lunar rocks which according to Latham et al. (1970) are in the range of 3000-5000. Observations of dramatic increases in Q with outgassing up to values approaching 2000 in the seismic frequency range confirm this supposition. Measurements under confining pressures with the sample encapsulated under hard vacuum are reported to aid in the interpretation of seismic data obtained below the lunar surface. It has been possible to achieve in the experiments Q values just under 2000 at about 1 kbar for a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt. It was found that a well-outgassed sample maintains a high Q whereas one exposed to moisture maintains a low Q as the confining pressure is raised to 2.5 kbar. This result suggests that volatiles can indeed affect Q when cracks are partially closed and the high lunar seismic Q values reported are concomitant with very dry rock down to depths of at least 50 km.

  14. Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Uriel

    1996-01-01

    Written five centuries after the first studies of Leonardo da Vinci and half a century after A.N. Kolmogorov's first attempt to predict the properties of flow, this textbook presents a modern account of turbulence, one of the greatest challenges in physics. "Fully developed turbulence" is ubiquitous in both cosmic and natural environments, in engineering applications and in everyday life. Elementary presentations of dynamical systems ideas, probabilistic methods (including the theory of large deviations) and fractal geometry make this a self-contained textbook. This is the first book on turbulence to use modern ideas from chaos and symmetry breaking. The book will appeal to first-year graduate students in mathematics, physics, astrophysics, geosciences and engineering, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

  15. An entrance region friction factor model applied to annular seal analysis - Theory versus experiment for smooth and honeycomb seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, D.; Nelson, C.; Childs, D.

    1989-01-01

    A friction factor model is developed for the entrance-region of a duct. The model is used in an annular gas seal analysis similar to Nelson's (1984). Predictions of the analysis are compared to experimental results for a smooth-stator/smooth-rotor seal and three honeycomb-stator/smooth-rotor seals. The model predicts a leakage and direct damping well. The model overpredicts the dependence of cross-coupled stiffness on fluid prerotation. The model predicts direct stiffness poorly.

  16. Analysis of turbulent heat transfer, mass transfer, and friction in smooth tubes at high Prandtl and Schmidt numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert G

    1955-01-01

    The expression for eddy diffusivity from a previous analysis was modified in order to account for the effect of kinematic viscosity on the turbulence in the region close to a wall. By using the modified expression, good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental results for heat and mass transfer at Prandtl and Schmidt numbers between 0.5 and 3000. The effects of length-to-diameter ratio and of variable viscosity were also investigated for a wide range of Prandtl numbers.

  17. Is internal friction friction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Byerlee, J.D.; Lockner, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mogi [1974] proposed a simple model of the incipient rupture surface to explain the Coulomb failure criterion. We show here that this model can plausibly be extended to explain the Mohr failure criterion. In Mogi's model the incipient rupture surface immediately before fracture consists of areas across which material integrity is maintained (intact areas) and areas across which it is not (cracks). The strength of the incipient rupture surface is made up of the inherent strength of the intact areas plus the frictional resistance to sliding offered by the cracked areas. Although the coefficient of internal friction (slope of the strength versus normal stress curve) depends upon both the frictional and inherent strengths, the phenomenon of internal friction can be identified with the frictional part. The curvature of the Mohr failure envelope is interpreted as a consequence of differences in damage (cracking) accumulated in prefailure loading at different confining pressures.

  18. A new method for predicting friction pressures and rheology of proppant-laden fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.G.; Nehmer, W.L.; Strumolo, G.S. )

    1992-02-01

    The prediction of fiction pressures for proppant-laden fracturing fluids requires estimations of both the base-gel friction factor and the effect of proppant on fluid rheology. This paper introduces two new expressions, each theoretically based with constants determined from data, that address these two issues for hydroxpropyl guar (HPG)-based fracturing fluids in laminar and turbulent flow. The paper first introduces a new expression for the turbulent friction factor of HPG base gels. This implicit expression for the friction factor is more theoretically correct and requires one less empirical constant than explicit forms currently used. The effect of proppant on the effective viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids is then discussed and a new expression, which includes shear rate, temperature, gel concentration, and proppant volume fraction as parameters, is derived. Developed from laboratory data and existing slurry rheology theories, this expression is shown to provide excellent predictions of laboratory and field data for both tubing and annulus injection.

  19. Heat transfer and friction factor correlations for a solar air heater duct roughened artificially with multiple v-ribs

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, V.S.; Saini, R.P.; Saini, J.S.

    2010-06-15

    The use of artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate is an effective and economic way to improve the thermal performance of a solar air heater. Several experimental investigations, involving different types of roughness elements, have been carried out to improve the heat transfer from the absorber plate to air flowing in solar air heaters. This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of multiple v-rib roughness on heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in an artificially roughened solar air heater duct. The experiment encompassed Reynolds number (Re) from 2000 to 20000, relative roughness height (e/D) values of 0.019-0.043, relative roughness pitch (P/e) range of 6-12, angle of attack ({alpha}) range of 30-75 and relative roughness width (W/w) range of 1-10. Extensive experimentation has been conducted to collect data on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a rectangular duct roughened with multiple v-ribs. Using these experimental data, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of roughness geometry and flow parameters have been developed. (author)

  20. CFD analysis of heat transfer and friction factor charaterstics in a circular tube fitted with horizontal baffles twisted tape inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Bakar Mohamad, Abu

    2013-12-01

    Swirl/vortex flow generator is an important form of passive augmentation techniques. Twisted-tape is one of the most important members of this form which is used extensively in different type heat exchangers. This paper reports the effect of twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in circular tube under constant heat flux and laminar flow conditions using CFD simulation. Plain twisted tape inserts with twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91) and baffled twisted tape inserts with twist ratio (y = 2.93) have been used for the simulation using Fluent version 6.3.26. The results obtained by simulation matched with the literature correlations for plain tube with the discrepancy of less than ± 8% for Nusselt number and ± 6.25% for friction factor. The results have also revealed that the heat transfer in term of the Nusselt number enhanced with increases of Reynolds number, decreases of twist ratio and baffle insert. Among the various twist ratios, the twisted tape with twist ratio of y=2.93 and baffle is offered a maximum heat transfer enhancement.

  1. Friction in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Prashant, P. S.; Nandan, Hemant; Gopalakrishnan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that resistance to sliding (RS) generated at the wire-bracket interface has a bearing on the force transmitted to the teeth. The relative importance of static and kinetic friction and also the effect of friction on anchorage has been a topic of debate. Lot of research work has been done to evaluate the various factors that affect friction and thus purportedly retards the rate of tooth movement. However, relevancy of these studies is questionable as the methodology used hardly simulates the oral conditions. Lately studies have concluded that more emphasis should be laid on binding and notching of archwires as these are considered to be the primary factors involved in retarding the tooth movement. This article reviews the various components involved in RS and the factors affecting friction. Further, research work should be carried out to provide cost effective alternatives aimed at reducing friction. PMID:26538873

  2. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  3. Influence of pressure gradient on streamwise skewness factor in turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dró?d?, Artur

    2014-08-01

    The paper shows an effect of favourable and adverse pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layer. The skewness factor of streamwise velocity component was chosen as a measure of the pressure gradient impact. It appears that skewness factor is an indicator of convection velocity of coherent structures, which is not always equal to the average flow velocity. The analysis has been performed based upon velocity profiles measured with hot-wire technique in turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient corresponding to turbomachinery conditions. The results show that the skewness factor decreases in the flow region subjected to FPG and increases in the APG conditions. The changes of convection velocity and skewness factor are caused by influence of large-scale motion through the mechanism called amplitude modulation. The large-scale motion is less active in FPG and more active in APG, therefore in FPG the production of vortices is random (there are no high and low speed regions), while in the APG the large-scale motion drives the production of vortices. Namely, the vortices appear only in the high-speed regions, therefore have convection velocity higher than local mean velocity. The convection velocity affects directly the turbulent sweep and ejection events. The more flow is dominated by large-scale motion the higher values takes both the convection velocity of small-scale structures and sweep events induced by them.

  4. Overflow: Facts on Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Scott

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of three minor studies into the behavior of the OVERFLOW with respect to the prediction of skin friction drag on wing bodies at cruise Mach number and wind tunnel Reynolds number. The studies include a preliminary assessment of the behavior of the two new 2-equation turbulence models introduced with the latest version of OVERFLOW (v. 1.8f), an investigation into potential improvements in the matrix dissipation scheme currently implemented in OVERFLOW, and an analysis of the observed sensitivity of the code's skin friction predictions to grid stretching at solid surface boundaries.

  5. Factors controlling threshold friction velocity in semiarid and arid areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marticorena, Beatrice; Bergametti, G.; Belnap, Jayne

    1997-01-01

    A physical model was developed to explain threshold friction velocities u*t for particles of the size 60a??120 I?m lying on a rough surface in loose soils for semiarid and arid parts of the United States. The model corrected for the effect of momentum absorption by the nonerodible roughness. For loose or disturbed soils the most important parameter that controls u*t is the aerodynamic roughness height z 0. For physical crusts damaged by wind the size of erodible crust pieces is important along with the roughness. The presence of cyanobacteriallichen soil crusts roughens the surface, and the biological fibrous growth aggregates soil particles. Only undisturbed sandy soils and disturbed soils of all types would be expected to be erodible in normal wind storms. Therefore disturbance of soils by both cattle and humans is very important in predicting wind erosion as confirmed by our measurements.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of turbulent flow and heat transfer inside hexagonal duct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turgut, O?uz; Sar?, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Flow and heat transfer characteristics in transition and turbulent regions are studied experimentally and numerically in a horizontal smooth regular hexagonal duct under constant wall temperature boundary condition covering a range of Reynolds number from 2.3 × 103 to 52 × 103. Two types of k-omega (standard and shear stress transport (SST)) and three types of k- ? (standard, renormalization (RNG), and realizable) turbulence model are employed for transition and turbulent regions, respectively. Both average and fully developed Darcy friction factor and Nusselt number are presented as a function of Reynolds number. It is seen that k-omega SST and k- ? realizable turbulence models gave the best agreement with the experimental data in transition and turbulent regions, respectively. All the experimental results are correlated within an accuracy of ±13 % and ±7 % for Nusselt number and Darcy friction factor, respectively. Results obtained in this study are compared with circular duct results using hydraulic diameter.

  7. Spectrally condensed turbulence in thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, H.; Shats, M.; Falkovich, G.

    2009-12-01

    We present experimental results on the properties of bounded turbulence in thin fluid layers. In contrast with the theory of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, the effects of the bottom friction and of the spectral condensation of the turbulence energy are important in our experiment. Here we investigate how these two factors affect statistical moments of turbulent fluctuations. The inverse energy cascade in a bounded turbulent quasi-2D flow leads to the formation of a large coherent vortex (condensate) fed by turbulence. This vortex, depending on its strength, can substantially affect the turbulence statistics, even at small scales. Up to the intermediate strength of the condensate, the velocity moments similar to those in isotropic 2D turbulence are recovered by subtracting the coherent component from the velocity fields. A strong condensate leaves a footprint on the underlying turbulence; it generates stronger non-Gaussianity and reduces the efficiency of the inverse energy cascade. Remarkably, the energy flux in the cascade derived from the third-order structure function using the Kolmogorov flux relation gives physically meaningful values in a broad range of experimental parameters regardless of the condensate strength. This result has important implications for the analysis of the atmospheric wind data in upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  8. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  9. Factors Influencing Pitot Probe Centerline Displacement in a Turbulent Supersonic Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosser, Wendy I.

    1997-01-01

    When a total pressure probe is used for measuring flows with transverse total pressure gradients, a displacement of the effective center of the probe is observed (designated Delta). While this phenomenon is well documented in incompressible flow and supersonic laminar flow, there is insufficient information concerning supersonic turbulent flow. In this study, three NASA Lewis Research Center Supersonic Wind Tunnels (SWT's) were used to investigate pitot probe centerline displacement in supersonic turbulent boundary layers. The relationship between test conditions and pitot probe centerline displacement error was to be determined. For this investigation, ten circular probes with diameter-to-boundary layer ratios (D/delta) ranging from 0.015 to 0.256 were tested in the 10 ft x 10 ft SWT, the 15 cm x 15 cm SWT, and the 1 ft x 1 ft SWT. Reynolds numbers of 4.27 x 10(exp 6)/m, 6.00 x 10(exp 6)/in, 10.33 x 10(exp 6)/in, and 16.9 x 10(exp 6)/m were tested at nominal Mach numbers of 2.0 and 2.5. Boundary layer thicknesses for the three tunnels were approximately 200 mm, 13 mm, and 30 mm, respectively. Initial results indicate that boundary layer thickness, delta, and probe diameter, D/delta play a minimal role in pitot probe centerline offset error, Delta/D. It appears that the Mach gradient, dM/dy, is an important factor, though the exact relationship has not yet been determined. More data is needed to fill the map before a conclusion can be drawn with any certainty. This research provides valuable supersonic, turbulent boundary layer data from three supersonic wind tunnels with three very different boundary layers. It will prove a valuable stepping stone for future research into the factors influencing pitot probe centerline offset error.

  10. Direct Measurements of Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Satish

    1953-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

  11. New Empirical Relationship between Thrust Coefficient and Induction Factor for the Turbulent Windmill State

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, M.L., Jr.

    2005-08-01

    Wind turbines sometimes experience the turbulent windmill state during startup or shutdown. This rarely happens during normal operation, so it has little effect on power curves or energy production. However, for completeness we need to be able to model situations where the axial induction factor exceeds 0.5. Classical momentum theory, which shows a relationship between the thrust coefficient and the axial induction factor, is not valid in this region. Glauert plotted some experimental data taken by Lock in the 1920s against this parabolic relationship and found very poor agreement for operation in this high-induction state. He proposed a new empirical relationship to fit the experimental data. Unfortunately, the new empirical curve does not account for tip or hub losses. Others have proposed multiplying the axial induction factor by the loss factor to correct the curve, but this still leaves a mathematical no-man's-land between the classical curve and the modified version of Glauert's empirical curve. The purpose of this paper is to document the derivation of a new curve that accounts for tip and hub losses and eliminates the numerical problems of the previous approaches.

  12. Renormalized HVBK dynamics for Superfluid Helium Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Darryl D. Holm

    2001-03-23

    We review the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov (HVBK) equations for superfluid Helium turbulence and discuss their implications for recent measurements of superfluid turbulence decay. A new Hamiltonian formulation of these equations renormalizes the vortex line velocity to incorporate finite temperature effects. These effects also renormalize the coupling constant in the mutual friction force between the superfluid and normal fluid components by a factor of rho_s / \\rho (the superfluid mass fraction) but they leave the vortex line tension unaffected. Thus, the original HVBK form is recovered at zero temperature and its mutual friction coefficients are renormalized at nonzero temperature. The HVBK equations keep their form and no new parameters are added. However, a temperature dependent trade-off does arise between the mutual friction coupling and the vortex line tension. The renormalized HVBK equations obtained via this new Hamiltonian approach imply a dynamical equation for the space-integrated vortex tangle length, which is the quantity measured by second sound attenuation experiments in superfluid turbulence. A Taylor-Proudman theorem also emerges for the superfluid vortices that shows the steady vortex line velocity becomes columnar under rapid rotation.

  13. Heat and momentum transfer in a plane turbulent wall jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizou, P. Y.

    1981-02-01

    Relationships between heat transfer and the friction factor in turbulent convection in a jet flowing tangentially to a heated flat surface are investigated. Flow velocities, wall shearing stresses and temperature profiles were measured at nozzle slot thicknesses leading to slot Reynolds numbers ranging from 9000 to 60,000. Jet nozzle size is found to influence the correlation of the friction factor determined from the stress measurements with the thickness Reynolds number, although a single relation may be obtained by the modification of the characteristic length in the Reynolds number. The dimensionless temperature profiles in the fully developed region are observed to agree with conventional boundary layer theory, however the ratio of the Stanton number is found to depend on positional coordinate, in conflict with classical analogies between heat and momentum transfers. Results thus demonstrate the differences in heat transfer between a classical boundary layer with low turbulence stream and a wall jet.

  14. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics in a Circular Tube Fitted with V-Cut Twisted Tape Inserts

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

  15. Rotational Quantum Friction Quantum Friction [1

    E-print Network

    Rotational Quantum Friction Quantum Friction [1]: Conclusion & Future Work Introduction Theory Enhanced Quantum Friction and LDOS near a Surface High Rotation Speed and High Temperature Enhanced Quantum Friction and SPP Excitations References & Acknowledgements [1] J. B. Pendry, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 10

  16. Free-stream turbulence and concave curvature effects on heated, transitional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J.; Simon, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the transition process on flat-plate and concave curved-wall boundary layers for various free-stream turbulence levels was performed. Results show that for transition of a flat-plate, the two forms of boundary layer behavior, identified as laminar-like and turbulent-like, cannot be thought of as separate Blasius and fully-turbulent profiles, respectively. Thus, simple transition models in which the desired quantity is assumed to be an average, weighted on intermittency, of the theoretical laminar and fully turbulent values is not expected to be successful. Deviation of the flow identified as laminar-like from theoretical laminar behavior is shown to be due to recovery after the passage of a turbulent spot, while deviation of the flow identified as turbulent-like from the full-turbulent values is thought to be due to incomplete establishment of the fully-turbulent power spectral distribution. Turbulent Prandtl numbers for the transitional flow, computed from measured shear stress, turbulent heat flux and mean velocity and temperature profiles, were less than unity. For the curved-wall case with low free-stream turbulence intensity, the existence of Gortler vortices on the concave wall within both laminar and turbulent flows was established using liquid crystal visualization and spanwise velocity and temperature traverses. Transition was found to occur via a vortex breakdown mode. The vortex wavelength was quite irregular in both the laminar and turbulent flows, but the vortices were stable in time and space. The upwash was found to be more unstable, with higher levels of u' and u'v', and lower skin friction coefficients and shape factors. Turbulent Prandtl numbers, measured using a triple-wire probe, were found to be near unity for all post-transitional profiles, indicating no gross violation of Reynolds analogy. No evidence of streamwise vortices was seen in the high turbulence intensity case.

  17. Friction and Wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomey, Jacques

    1952-01-01

    From the practical point of view, this analysis shows that each problem of friction or wear requires its particular solution. There is no universal solution; one or other of the factors predominates and defines the choice of the solution. In certain cases, copper alloys of great thermal conductivity are preferred; in others, plastics abundantly supplied with water. Sometimes, soft antifriction metals are desirable to distribute the load; at other times, hard metals with high resistance to abrasion or heat.

  18. Introduction Rolling and Friction

    E-print Network

    Kuhn, Matthew R.

    Introduction Kinematics Solutions Rolling and Friction in Discrete Element Simulations Matthew R of rolling resistance Creep-friction definition Creep-friction vs. Cattaneo-Mindlin friction Classification / papers / EMI2011.pdf #12;Introduction Kinematics Solutions Classification of rolling resistance Creep-friction

  19. Quantum friction

    E-print Network

    R. Tsekov

    2015-06-06

    The Brownian motion of a light quantum particle in a heavy classical gas is theoretically described and a new expression for the friction coefficient is obtained for arbitrary temperature. At zero temperature it equals to the de Broglie momentum of the mean free path divided by the mean free path. Alternatively, the corresponding mobility of the quantum particle in the classical gas is equal to the square of the mean free path divided by the Planck constant. The Brownian motion of a quantum particle in a quantum environment is also discussed.

  20. Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow MILIVOJE M@niu.edu * www.kostic.niu.edu Abstract: - An apparatus for exploring friction and heat transfer characteristics flow. Initial turbulent friction and heat transfer measurements for silica and carbon nanotube (CNT

  1. Direct numerical simulation of viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluid turbulent channel flow with heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan-Cheng; Li, Feng-Chen; Cai, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Na; Yu, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Our previous experimental studies have confirmed that viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluid (VFBN) prepared by suspending nanoparticles in a viscoelastic base fluid (VBF, behaves drag reduction at turbulent flow state) can reduce turbulent flow resistance as compared with water and enhance heat transfer as compared with VBF. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed in this study to explore the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement (HTE) and flow drag reduction (DR) for the VFBN turbulent flow. The Giesekus model is used as the constitutive equation for VFBN. Our previously proposed thermal dispersion model is adopted to take into account the thermal dispersion effects of nanoparticles in the VFBN turbulent flow. The DNS results show similar behaviors for flow resistance and heat transfer to those obtained in our previous experiments. Detailed analyses are conducted for the turbulent velocity, temperature, and conformation fields obtained by DNSs for different fluid cases, and for the friction factor with viscous, turbulent, and elastic contributions and heat transfer rate with conductive, turbulent and thermal dispersion contributions of nanoparticles, respectively. The mechanisms of HTE and DR of VFBN turbulent flows are then discussed. Based on analogy theory, the ratios of Chilton-Colburn factor to friction factor for different fluid flow cases are investigated, which from another aspect show the significant enhancement in heat transfer performance for some cases of water-based nanofluid and VFBN turbulent flows. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51276046), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561037), and the President Fund of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. Y3510213N00).

  2. Elasto-inertial turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Devranjan; Dubief, Yves; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; Morozov, Alexander N.; Wagner, Christian; Hof, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet even for the case of ordinary Newtonian fluids like water, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited. Many liquids of practical importance are more complicated (e.g., blood, polymer melts, paints), however; they exhibit elastic as well as viscous characteristics, and the relation between stress and strain is nonlinear. We demonstrate here for a model system of such complex fluids that at high shear rates, turbulence is not simply modified as previously believed but is suppressed and replaced by a different type of disordered motion, elasto-inertial turbulence. Elasto-inertial turbulence is found to occur at much lower Reynolds numbers than Newtonian turbulence, and the dynamical properties differ significantly. The friction scaling observed coincides with the so-called “maximum drag reduction” asymptote, which is exhibited by a wide range of viscoelastic fluids. PMID:23757498

  3. Elasto-inertial turbulence.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Devranjan; Dubief, Yves; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; Morozov, Alexander N; Wagner, Christian; Hof, Björn

    2013-06-25

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in nature, yet even for the case of ordinary Newtonian fluids like water, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited. Many liquids of practical importance are more complicated (e.g., blood, polymer melts, paints), however; they exhibit elastic as well as viscous characteristics, and the relation between stress and strain is nonlinear. We demonstrate here for a model system of such complex fluids that at high shear rates, turbulence is not simply modified as previously believed but is suppressed and replaced by a different type of disordered motion, elasto-inertial turbulence. Elasto-inertial turbulence is found to occur at much lower Reynolds numbers than Newtonian turbulence, and the dynamical properties differ significantly. The friction scaling observed coincides with the so-called "maximum drag reduction" asymptote, which is exhibited by a wide range of viscoelastic fluids. PMID:23757498

  4. Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics of the Microfluidic Heat Sink with Variously-Shaped Ribs for Chip Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Da-Wei; Wang, Yan; Niu, Di; Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Ding, Gui-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process and used as turbulators to improve the heat transfer rate of the microfluidic heat sink. The results indicate that the utilizing of micro-ribs provides a better heat transfer rate, but also increases the pressure drop penalty for microchannels. Furthermore, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microchannels are strongly affected by the rib shape. In comparison, the triangular ribbed microchannel possesses the highest Nusselt number and friction factor among the three rib types. PMID:25912351

  5. Predicting Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer in Three-Dimensional Duct Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokni, M.; Gatski, T. B.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed in predicting the turbulent flow and forced heat transfer in straight ducts, with square, rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular cross-sections, under fully developed conditions over a range of Reynolds numbers. Iso-thermal conditions are imposed on the duct walls and the turbulent heat fluxes are modeled by gradient-diffusion type models. At high Reynolds numbers (>/= 10(exp 5)), wall functions are used for the velocity and temperature fields; while at low Reynolds numbers damping functions are introduced into the models. Hydraulic parameters such as friction factor and Nusselt number are well predicted even when damping functions are used, and the present formulation imposes minimal demand on the number of grid points without any convergence or stability problems. Comparison between the models is presented in terms of the hydraulic parameters, friction factor and Nusselt number, as well as in terms of the secondary flow patterns occurring within the ducts.

  6. Tracer Diffusion and Local Friction in Block Copolymer Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milhaupt, J. M.; Chapman, B. R.; Lodge, T. P.

    1998-03-01

    Dynamics of block copolymer melts are influenced by many variables including molecular weight, microphase separation, and friction. Although the temperature dependence of the friction factor, ? (T), in polymer melts has been studied, in diblock copolymers and polymer blends there is an added dependence of the friction factor on composition which is not well understood. The relationship between homopolymer friction factors, ? ^o(T), and blend friction factors, ? (T, ?), does not appear to be simple. As a small step to understanding the above relationship, we explore how the friction factor of a diblock copolymer depends on the friction factor of the homopolymers in a homogeneous blend. The tracer diffusion of a styrene-isoprene (SI) diblock copolymer, its corresponding homopolymers, and a free dye in a set of SISI tetrablock copolymers with similar molecular weights and varying composition has been studied with forced Rayleigh scattering.

  7. Friction, wear, and lubrication in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    A review of studies and observations on the friction, wear, and lubrication behavior of materials in a vacuum environment is presented. The factors that determine and influence friction and wear are discussed. They include topographical, physical, mechanical, and the chemical nature of the surface. The effects of bulk properties such as deformation characteristics, fracture behavior, and structure are included.

  8. Prediction of Very High Reynolds Number Compressible Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, John R.

    1998-01-01

    Flat plate skin friction calculations over a range of Mach numbers from 0.4 to 3.5 at Reynolds numbers from 16 million to 492 million using a Navier Stokes method with advanced turbulence modeling are compared with incompressible skin friction coefficient correlations. The semi-empirical correlation theories of van Driest; Cope; Winkler and Cha; and Sommer and Short T' are used to transform the predicted skin friction coefficients of solutions using two algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence models in the Navier-Stokes method PAB3D. In general, the predicted skin friction coefficients scaled well with each reference temperature theory though, overall the theory by Sommer and Short appeared to best collapse the predicted coefficients. At the lower Reynolds number 3 to 30 million, both the Girimaji and Shih, Zhu and Lumley turbulence models predicted skin-friction coefficients within 2% of the semi-empirical correlation skin friction coefficients. At the higher Reynolds numbers of 100 to 500 million, the turbulence models by Shih, Zhu and Lumley and Girimaji predicted coefficients that were 6% less and 10% greater, respectively, than the semi-empirical coefficients.

  9. Experimental study of boundary layer transition with elevated freestream turbulence on a heated flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Ki-Hyeon; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    A detailed investigation to document momentum and thermal development of boundary layers undergoing natural transition on a heated flat plate was performed. Experimental results of both overall and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional, and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are presented. Measurements were acquired in a low-speed, closed-loop wind tunnel with a freestream velocity of 100 ft/s and zero pressure gradient over a range of freestream turbulence intensities (TI) from 0.4 to 6 percent. The distributions of skin friction, heat transfer rate and Reynolds shear stress were all consistent with previously published data. Reynolds analogy factors for R(sub theta) is less than 2300 were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for an unheated starting length. The measured laminar value of Reynolds analogy factor was as much as 53 percent higher than the Pr(sup -2/3). A small dependence of turbulent results on TI was observed. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layer indicated the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, pronounced at certain low intermittencies, which is consistent with the cross-sectional shape of turbulent spots observed by others. Non-turbulent intervals were observed to possess large magnitudes of near-wall unsteadiness and turbulent intervals had peak values as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Non-turbulent and turbulent profiles in transitional boundary layers cannot be simply treated as Blasius and fully turbulent profiles, respectively. The boundary layer spectra indicate predicted selective amplification of T-S waves for TI is approximately 0.4 percent. However, for TI is approximately 0.8 and 1.1 percent, T-S waves are localized very near the wall and do not play a dominant role in transition process.

  10. Friction surfacing and linear friction welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, E. D.

    The paper describes the development of the friction-surfacing and linear-friction welding technologies, with particular attention given to the equipment evolution and the application of the processes and advanced materials (such as intermetallics, metal-matrix composites (MMCs), ODS alloys, and powder metallurgy alloys) for the aerospace industry. The use of friction surfacing to modify the surface material with MMCs, to repair defects by plugging, and manufacture/reprocess materials is described.

  11. CFD Modeling of ITER Cable-in-Conduit Superconductors. Part I: Friction in the Central Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanino, R.; Giors, S.; Mondino, R.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, the first of a series, we propose a novel approach, based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), to understand the complex transverse thermal-hydraulic processes in the dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC), which are used for the superconducting magnets of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Advanced 2D and 3D CFD, including sophisticated turbulence models, is used to compute the mass flow rate corresponding to an imposed pressure drop in rib-roughened pipes, including spirals mimicking the central channel of an ITER CICC and used in several experiments. The results of the calculation are validated against measured data and can be used to deduce the friction factor fH in the central channel, throwing at the same time some light on the role played by the different parameters (Reynolds number, spiral geometry, etc.) in the central channel friction process for an ITER CICC.

  12. The effect of wall friction on magnetohydrodynamic generator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of wall friction on magnetohydrodynamic generator performance is determined by introduction of a wall friction factor into the one-dimensional generator equations. This addition should be useful in improving generator analysis and determining optimum generator geometry. The curves presented can be used to determine the effects of changes in wall friction and generator performance. Wall friction has an increasing effect on the Mach number increases and a decreasing effect as the pressure drop across the generator increase.

  13. Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction

    E-print Network

    Levesque, Vincent

    Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar of touch interactions can be enhanced when using a touchscreen with dynamically varied surface friction. We

  14. Riblets for aircraft skin-friction reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    Energy conservation and aerodynamic efficiency are the driving forces behind research into methods to reduce turbulent skin friction drag on aircraft fuselages. Fuselage skin friction reductions as small as 10 percent provide the potential for a 250 million dollar per year fuel savings for the commercial airline fleet. One passive drag reduction concept which is relatively simple to implement and retrofit is that of longitudinally grooved surfaces aligned with the stream velocity. These grooves (riblets) have heights and spacings on the order of the turbulent wall streak and burst dimensions. The riblet performance (8 percent net drag reduction thus far), sensitivity to operational/application considerations such as yaw and Reynolds number variation, an alternative fabrication technique, results of extensive parametric experiments for geometrical optimization, and flight test applications are summarized.

  15. Dahl friction modeling

    E-print Network

    Chou, Danielle, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    The drive behind improved friction models has been better prediction and control of dynamic systems. The earliest model was of classical Coulomb friction; however, the discontinuity during force reversal of the Coulomb ...

  16. Active Dynamic Frictional Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua; Aragones, Juan; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2015-03-01

    In biological systems there are a myriad of interactions occurring instantaneously and these interactions can vary drastically in the strength of the interaction, the speed at which this interaction occurs, and the duration of the interaction. When multiple interactions occur any of these factors can determine which particular interaction is dominant. However, currently it is extremely difficult to measure binding affinity, Kon, and Koff rates in a relatively high throughput manner. Here we propose a novel and versatile system that will be able to detect differences in binding affinity of wide range of transient interactions and will be able to extract the relevant time scales of these interactions. Our system will utilize ferromagnetic particles that can be easily functionalized with a receptor of interest and the substrate will be coated in the corresponding ligand. A rotating magnetic field will cause particles, henceforth referred to as rollers, to rotate and this rotational motion will be converted into translational motion via the effective frictional force induced by interaction that is being probed. By measuring the translation of the rollers to a baseline, where only hydrodynamic friction occurs, we can measure the relative strength of the interactions. We can also potentially measure kinetic information by changing the frequency at which the magnetic field rotates, since changing the frequency at which the bead rotates is akin to changing the time allowed for bond formation. We will measure a wide range of interaction including ionic, metal-ion coordination, IgG-Protein A complex, and biotin-streptavidin complex.

  17. Nanotribology and Nanoscale Friction

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Qu, Zhihua; Braiman, Yehuda; Zhang, Zhenyu; Barhen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the science and technology of contacting solid surfaces in relative motion, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction and wear cost the U.S. economy 6% of the gross national product (Persson, 2000). For example, 5% of the total energy generated in an automobile engine is lost to frictional resistance. The study of nanoscale friction has a technological impact in reducing energy loss in machines, in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films.

  18. Rotational Quantum Friction

    E-print Network

    Rongkuo Zhao; Alejandro Manjavacas; F. Javier García de Abajo; J. B. Pendry

    2012-09-25

    We investigate the frictional forces due to quantum fluctuations acting on a small sphere rotating near a surface. At zero temperature, we find the frictional force near a surface to be several orders of magnitude larger than that for the sphere rotating in vacuum. For metallic materials with typical conductivity, quantum friction is maximized by matching the frequency of rotation with the conductivity. Materials with poor conductivity are favored to obtain large quantum frictions. For semiconductor materials that are able to support surface plasmon polaritons, quantum friction can be further enhanced by several orders of magnitude due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons.

  19. Influence of tube-entrance configuration on average heat-transfer coefficients and friction factors for air flowing in an Inconel tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowdermilk, Warren H; Grele, Milton D

    1950-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air flowing through an electrically heated Inconel tube having either a long-approach or a right-angle-edge entrance, an inside diameter of 0.402 inch, and a length of 24 inches over a range of Reynolds numbers up to 375,000 and average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 2000 degrees R. Good correlation of heat-transfer data was obtained for both entrances, which substantiates work previously reported. A fair correlation of friction data was obtained for both entrances. The entrance configuration had little effect on the average heat-transfer and friction coefficients.

  20. Turbulent current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.

  1. Microblowing Technique Demonstrated to Reduce Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Biesiadny, Tom J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. Reduced skin friction means less drag. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none of them has significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. An innovative skin-friction reduction technique, the Microblowing Technique (MBT), was invented in 1993. This is a unique concept in which an extremely small amount of air is blown vertically at a surface through very small holes. It can be used for aircraft or marine vehicles, such as submarines (where water is blown through the holes instead of air). As shown in the figure, the outer layer, which controls vertical flow, is a plate with high-vertical holes. The inner layer, which produces evenly distributed flow, is a low-permeability porous plate. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction.

  2. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  3. Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes with Two-Dimensional Rib Roughness

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-24

    A commonly used internal enhancement for single-phase forced-convective turbulent flow applications is tranverse and/or near tranverse ribs. These enhanced surfaces consist of a uniform inside diameter with periodic and discrete disruption of ribs. Enhanced tubes of this type are made by an extrusion process and are used in some condensers and evaporators in refrigeration systems. Tubes of this type fall into an enhancement category called separation and reattachment that has been identified as one ofmore »the most energy efficient. Lacking are prediction methods that are mechanistic based that can be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficients and friction-factors for tubes with this enhancement type. This program calculates the Nusselt number and friction factor for enhanced tubes with tranverse, rectangular ribs with a spacing exceeding the reattachment length. The input quantities are the enhancement height, spacing, and the width. The Nusselt number and friction factor are calculated for a specific Reynolds number or for a range of Reynolds numbers. Users of the program are heat-exchanger designers, enhanced tubing suppliers, and research organizations or academia who are developing or validating prediction methods. The manufacturers of refrigeration heat exchangers and enhanced tube suppliers are potential users of this software.« less

  4. Distinguishing ichthyogenic turbulence from geophysical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiana, Kandaga; Moum, James N.; Smyth, William D.; Warner, Sally J.

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of currents and turbulence beneath a geostationary ship in the equatorial Indian Ocean during a period of weak surface forcing revealed unexpectedly strong turbulence beneath the surface mixed layer. Coincident with the turbulence was a marked reduction of the current speeds registered by shipboard Doppler current profilers, and an increase in their variability. At a mooring 1 km away, measurements of turbulence and currents showed no such anomalies. Correlation with the shipboard echo sounder measurements indicate that these nighttime anomalies were associated with fish aggregations beneath the ship. The fish created turbulence by swimming against the strong zonal current in order to remain beneath the ship, and their presence affected the Doppler speed measurements. The principal characteristics of the resultant ichthyogenic turbulence are (i) low wave number roll-off of shear spectra in the inertial subrange relative to geophysical turbulence, (ii) Thorpe overturning scales that are small compared with the Ozmidov scale, and (iii) low mixing efficiency. These factors extend previous findings by Gregg and Horne (2009) to a very different biophysical regime and support the general conclusion that the biological contribution to mixing the ocean via turbulence is negligible.

  5. The physics of stripe patterns in turbulent channel flow determined by DNS results

    E-print Network

    Kiš, P; Herwig, H

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent flow in an infinitely extended plane channel is analysed by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with a DNS approach. Solutions are obtained in a numerical solution domain of finite size in the streamwise as well as in the lateral direction setting periodic boundary conditions in both directions. Their impact on large scale structures in the turbulent flow field is analysed carefully in order to avoid their suppression. When this is done appropriately well known stripe patterns in these flows can be observed and analysed especially with respect to their relative motion compared to the mean flow velocity. Various details of this stripe pattern dominated velocity field are shown. Also global parameters like the friction factor in the flow field and the Nusselt number in the temperature field are determined based on the statistics of the flow and temperature data in a very large time period that guarantees fully developed turbulent flow and heat transfer.

  6. Friction of rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

  7. Scale-invariant cascades in turbulence and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas Ryan

    In this dissertation, I present work addressing three systems which are traditionally considered to be unrelated: turbulence, evolution, and social organization. The commonality between these systems is that in each case, microscopic interaction rules give rise to an emergent behavior that in some way makes contact with the macroscopic scale of the problem. The open-ended evolution of complexity in evolving systems is analogous to the scale-free structure established in turbulent flows through local transportation of energy. In both cases, an invariance is required for the cascading behavior to occur, and in both cases the scale-free structure is built up from some initial scale from which the behavior is fed. In turbulence, I examine the case of two-dimensional turbulence in order to support the hypothesis that the friction factor and velocity profile of turbulent pipe flows depend on the turbulent energy spectrum in a way unpredicted by the classic Prandtl theory. By simulating two-dimensional flows in controlled geometries, either an inverse energy cascade or forward enstrophy cascade can be produced. The friction factor scaling of the flow changes depending on which cascade is present, in a way consistent with momentum transfer theory and roughness-induced criticality. In the problem of evolution, I show that open-ended growth of complexity can be obtained by ensuring that the evolutionary dynamics are invariant with respect to changes in complexity. Finite system size, finite point mutation rate, and fixed points in the fitness landscape can all interrupt this cascade behavior, producing an analogue to the integral scale of turbulence. This complexity cascade can exist both for competing and for symbiotic sets of organisms. Extending this picture to the qualitatively-different levels of organization of real lifeforms (viruses, unicellular, biofilms, multicellular) requires an understanding of how the processes of evolution themselves evolve. I show that a separation of spatial or temporal scales can enhance selection pressure on parameters that only matter several generations down the line. Because of this, I conclude that the prime candidates for the emergence of novel evolutionary mechanisms are biofilms and things living in oscillating environments. Finally, in the problem of social organization, I show that different types of control hierarchies - leaders or communal decision making - can emerge depending on the relationship between the environment in which members of the social group act and the development and exchange of information.

  8. Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flat-plate Turbulent Boundary Layer at High Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Michio

    The near-wall, subgrid-scale (SGS) model [Chung and Pullin, "Large-eddy simulation and wall-modeling of turbulent channel flow'', J. Fluid Mech. 631, 281--309 (2009)] is used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of the incompressible developing, smooth-wall, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. In this model, the stretched-vortex, SGS closure is utilized in conjunction with a tailored, near-wall model designed to incorporate anisotropic vorticity scales in the presence of the wall. The composite SGS-wall model is presently incorporated into a computer code suitable for the LES of developing flat-plate boundary layers. This is then used to study several aspects of zero- and adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. First, LES of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are performed at Reynolds numbers Retheta based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness in the range Retheta = 103-1012. Results include the inverse skin friction coefficient, 2/Cf , velocity profiles, the shape factor H, the Karman "constant", and the Coles wake factor as functions of Re theta. Comparisons with some direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiment are made, including turbulent intensity data from atmospheric-layer measurements at Retheta = O (106). At extremely large Retheta , the empirical Coles-Fernholz relation for skin-friction coefficient provides a reasonable representation of the LES predictions. While the present LES methodology cannot of itself probe the structure of the near-wall region, the present results show turbulence intensities that scale on the wall-friction velocity and on the Clauser length scale over almost all of the outer boundary layer. It is argued that the LES is suggestive of the asymptotic, infinite Reynolds-number limit for the smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer and different ways in which this limit can be approached are discussed. The maximum Retheta of the present simulations appears to be limited by machine precision and it is speculated, but not demonstrated, that even larger Retheta could be achieved with quad- or higher-precision arithmetic. Second, the time series velocity signals obtained from LES within the logarithmic region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are used in combination with an empirical, predictive inner--outer wall model [Marusic et al., "Predictive model for wall-bounded turbulent flow'', Science 329, 193 (2010)] to calculate the statistics of the fluctuating streamwise velocity in the inner region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. Results, including spectra and moments up to fourth order, are compared with equivalent predictions using experimental time series, as well as with direct experimental measurements at Reynolds numbers Retau based on the friction velocity and the boundary layer thickness, Retau = 7,300, 13,600 and 19,000. LES combined with the wall model are then used to extend the inner-layer predictions to Reynolds numbers Retau = 62,000, 100,000 and 200,000 that lie within a gap in log(Retau) space between laboratory measurements and surface-layer, atmospheric experiments. The present results support a log-like increase in the near-wall peak of the streamwise turbulence intensities with Retau and also provide a means of extending LES results at large Reynolds numbers to the near-wall region of wall-bounded turbulent flows. Finally, we apply the wall model to LES of a turbulent boundary layer subject to an adverse pressure gradient. Computed statistics are found to be consistent with recent experiments and some Reynolds number similarity is observed over a range of two orders of magnitude.

  9. FRICTIONAL EQUILIBRIUM POSTURES FOR ROBOTIC

    E-print Network

    Rimon, Elon

    FRICTIONAL EQUILIBRIUM POSTURES FOR ROBOTIC LOCOMOTION - COMPUTATION, GEOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION, AND STABILITY ANALYSIS YIZHAR OR #12;FRICTIONAL EQUILIBRIUM POSTURES FOR ROBOTIC LOCOMOTION - COMPUTATION grasping and manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.1.3 Dynamic stability of frictional equilibrium

  10. Friction at the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Family, F.; Hentschel, H.G.E.; Braiman, Y.

    2000-04-27

    Dissipation mechanisms at the nanoscale are influenced by finite size effects that may significantly affect the frictional response of sliding objects. In particular, locking of temporal and spatial dynamics may introduce several distinct modes of motion leading to friction selection. Here, the authors discuss such nonlinear mechanisms leading to stick-slip dynamics at the atomic scale.

  11. Frictional drag reduction by bubble injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    The injection of gas bubbles into a turbulent boundary layer of a liquid phase has multiple different impacts on the original flow structure. Frictional drag reduction is a phenomenon resulting from their combined effects. This explains why a number of different void-drag reduction relationships have been reported to date, while early works pursued a simple universal mechanism. In the last 15 years, a series of precisely designed experimentations has led to the conclusion that the frictional drag reduction by bubble injection has multiple manifestations dependent on bubble size and flow speed. The phenomena are classified into several regimes of two-phase interaction mechanisms. Each regime has inherent physics of bubbly liquid, highlighted by keywords such as bubbly mixture rheology, the spectral response of bubbles in turbulence, buoyancy-dominated bubble behavior, and gas cavity breakup. Among the regimes, bubbles in some selected situations lose the drag reduction effect owing to extra momentum transfer promoted by their active motions. This separates engineers into two communities: those studying small bubbles for high-speed flow applications and those studying large bubbles for low-speed flow applications. This article reviews the roles of bubbles in drag reduction, which have been revealed from fundamental studies of simplified flow geometries and from development of measurement techniques that resolve the inner layer structure of bubble-mixed turbulent boundary layers.

  12. Friction plug welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeshita, Riki (Inventor); Hibbard, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Friction plug welding (FPW) usage is advantageous for friction stir welding (FSW) hole close-outs and weld repairs in 2195 Al--Cu--Li fusion or friction stir welds. Current fusion welding methods of Al--Cu--Li have produced welds containing varied defects. These areas are found by non-destructive examination both after welding and after proof testing. Current techniques for repairing typically small (<0.25) defects weaken the weldment, rely heavily on welders' skill, and are costly. Friction plug welding repairs increase strength, ductility and resistance to cracking over initial weld quality, without requiring much time or operator skill. Friction plug welding while pulling the plug is advantageous because all hardware for performing the weld can be placed on one side of the workpiece.

  13. Smart friction driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Rainer; Gaul, Lothar

    2005-02-01

    Vibration properties of most assembled mechanical systems depend on frictional damping in joints. The nonlinear transfer behavior of the frictional interfaces often provides the dominant damping mechanism in a built-up structure and plays an important role in the vibratory response of the structure (Gaul and Nitsche 2001 Appl. Mech. Rev. 54 93-105). For improving the performance of systems, many studies have been carried out to predict, measure and/or enhance the energy dissipation of friction. To enhance the friction damping in joint connections a semi-active joint is investigated. A rotational joint connection is designed and manufactured such that the normal force in the friction interface can be influenced with a piezoelectric stack disc. With the piezoelectric device the normal force and thus the friction damping in the joint connection can be controlled. A control design method, namely semi-active control, is investigated. The recently developed LuGre friction model is used to describe the nonlinear transfer behavior of joints. This model is based on a bristle model and turns out to be highly suitable for systems assembled by such smart joints. Those systems can also be regarded as friction driven systems, since the energy flow is controlled by smart joints. The semi-active method is well suited for large space structures since the friction damping in joints turned out to be a major source of damping. To show the applicability of the proposed concept to large space structures a two-beam system representing a part of a large space structure is considered. Two flexible beams are connected with a semi-active joint connection. It can be shown that the damping of the system can be improved significantly by controlling the normal force in the semi-active joint connection. Experimental results validate the damping improvement due to the semi-active friction damping.

  14. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a circular pipe under laminar flow with wire coil inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S.; Chandra Bose, A.

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)

  15. Action of friction Frictional processes are not often considered in

    E-print Network

    Plant, Robert

    Action of friction Frictional processes are not often considered in any detail in studies are switched off, the pressure falls to just 921mb. Frictional processes can be thought of in terms of changes. The first term on the right­hand­side represents barotropic damping by friction, and the second

  16. Friction Causing Unpredictability

    E-print Network

    Joshua Oldham; Stefan Weigert

    2015-06-23

    The periodic motion of a classical point particle in a one-dimensional double-well potential acquires a surprising degree of complexity if friction is added. Finite uncertainty in the initial state can make it impossible to predict in which of the two wells the particle will finally settle. For two models of friction, we exhibit the structure of the basins of attraction in phase space which causes the final-state sensitivity. Adding friction to an integrable system with more than one stable equilibrium emerges as a possible "route to chaos" whenever initial conditions can be specified with finite accuracy only.

  17. Static Friction Phenomena The following static friction phenomena have a direct dependency on velocity.

    E-print Network

    Simpkins, Alex

    Coulomb Friction Viscous Friction Stribeck Friction Static Friction Phenomena The following static friction phenomena have a direct dependency on velocity. Static Friction Model: Friction force opposes the direction of motion when the sliding velocity is zero. Coulomb Friction Model: Friction force

  18. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  19. Friction stir welding tool

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barnes, Timothy A. (Ammon, ID)

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  20. Friction on the microscale.

    PubMed

    Paul, K B; Malkinski, L

    2009-08-01

    A new method is presented for measurements of friction of microsized particles on surfaces. Specifically in this work, the particles are alumina with diameters between approximately 1 and 50 microm and the surfaces are InP, Si, and Cr. Friction is analyzed, its components are determined, and the friction coefficients are estimated from the experimental results. The technique and the specific instrument allow measurements of coefficients of friction for spherical particles with radii as small as 1 microm. For smaller sizes, the instrument needs to be modified by using a more powerful power supply, actuator with extended frequency and amplitude ranges, cooling of the actuator and the power supply, and the related mechanical modifications of the sample holder. PMID:19725684

  1. Turbulent heat transfer as a control of platelet ice growth in supercool under-ice ocean boundary-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, M. G.; Stevens, C. L.; Smith, I. J.; Robinson, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    Late winter measurements of turbulent quantities in tidally modulated flow under land-fast sea ice near the Erebus Glacier Tongue, McMurdo Sound, identified processes that influence growth at the interface of an ice surface in contact with supercool seawater. The data suggest that turbulent heat exchange at the ocean-ice boundary is characterized by the product of friction velocity and (negative) water temperature departure from freezing, analogous to similar results for moderate melting rates in seawater above freezing. Platelet ice growth appears to increase the hydraulic roughness (drag) of fast ice compared with undeformed fast ice without platelets. We hypothesize that platelet growth in supercool water under thick ice is rate-limited by turbulent heat transfer and that this is a significant factor to be considered in mass transfer at the under-side of ice shelves and sea ice in the vicinity of ice shelves.

  2. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhigang

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  3. Friction Stir Weld Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  4. Friction stir weld tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  5. Measuring anisotropic friction on WTe2 using atomic force microscopy in the force-distance and friction modes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gregory S; Myhra, Sverre; Watson, Jolanta A

    2010-04-01

    Layered materials which can be easily cleaved have proved to be excellent samples for the study of atomic scale friction. The layered transition metal dichalcogenides have been particularly popular. These materials exhibit a number of interesting properties ranging from superconductivity to low frictional coefficients. In this paper we have investigated the tribology of the dichalcogenide-WTe2. The coefficient of friction is less than 0.040 along the Te rows and increases to over 0.045 across the rows. The frictional forces almost doubled at normal loads of 5000 nN when scanning in the [010] direction in comparison to the [100] direction. The frictional responses of the AFM probe have been monitored in the frictional force and force-versus-distance (f-d) mode. A comparison between the outcomes using the two different modes demonstrates the factors which need to be considered for accurate measurements. PMID:20355449

  6. Turbulence forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    In order to forecast turbulence, one needs to have an understanding of the cause of turbulence. Therefore, an attempt is made to show the atmospheric structure that often results when aircraft encounter moderate or greater turbulence. The analysis is based on thousands of hours of observations of flights over the past 39 years of aviation meteorology.

  7. Acting on Frictions: Learning Blocks and Flows in Knowledge Intensive Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijlsma-Frankema, Katinka; Rosendaal, Bastiaan; Taminiau, Yvette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: It is argued in this paper that opportunities for learning manifest themselves in the form of frictions between the structure-as-experienced by actors and the structure-as-preferred. These frictions are considered as potential triggers of learning processes. The concept of friction promises to contribute to our understanding of factors

  8. Impact of Friction and Scale-Dependent Initial Stress on Radiated Energy-Moment Scaling

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Bruce E.

    271 Impact of Friction and Scale-Dependent Initial Stress on Radiated Energy-Moment Scaling Bruce E from an event depends on a number of factors, including the friction and, crucially, the initial stress distribution of initial stresses consistent with the dynamics and a given friction. We examine a variety

  9. Friction of Aviation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W; Thorne, M A

    1928-01-01

    The first portion of this report discusses measurements of friction made in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards between 1920 and 1926 under research authorization of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. These are discussed with reference to the influence of speed, barometric pressure, jacket-water temperature, and throttle opening upon the friction of aviation engines. The second section of the report deals with measurements of the friction of a group of pistons differing from each other in a single respect, such as length, clearance, area of thrust face, location of thrust face, etc. Results obtained with each type of piston are discussed and attention is directed particularly to the fact that the friction chargeable to piston rings depends upon piston design as well as upon ring design. This is attributed to the effect of the rings upon the thickness and distribution of the oil film which in turn affects the friction of the piston to an extent which depends upon its design.

  10. Estimation of SO{sub 2} dry deposition using turbulence parameters observed by sonic anemometer-thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chong Bum; Kim, Jeong, Sik; Kim, Yong Goog; Cho, Chang Rae; Byun, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    The dry deposition of pollutants can be calculated from the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere and deposition velocity. To calculate deposition velocity, turbulence parameters such as friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length are used. However, due to the difficulties in observation of turbulence parameters, usually mean values of wind speed and temperature observed using conventional meteorological instruments are used to estimate the dry deposition. The dry deposition velocity is the function of aerodynamic resistance (R{sub a}), sublayer resistance (R{sub b}), surface resistance (R{sub c}). R{sub a} and R{sub b} are calculated from turbulence parameters and R{sub c} is related to surface characteristics. The purpose of the present study is to compare the dry deposition obtained using the data sets of mean values and turbulence parameters measured by sonic anemometer-thermometer. The field observation was performed for 30 days from October 27 to November 25, 1995. The turbulence parameters were measured by 3 dimensional sonic anemometer-thermometer and mean meteorological variables are obtained at two heights, 2.5 m and 10 m. The results show that the dry deposition velocity is large, in daytime and small in nighttime. The major factor of diurnal variation is Ra. In the daytime the dry deposition velocity calculated using mean meteorological data show relatively similar to the dry deposition velocity calculated using the turbulence data, however there are big differences at night.

  11. Wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

  12. Effects of surface roughness on rolling friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Rolling friction is commonly associated with deformation of the rolling object or surface, particularly if the object or surface is soft. When a hard object rolls on a hard surface, surface roughness is also a significant factor. Several experiments are described where the effects of surface roughness on rolling resistance were investigated using very rough rolling objects (gear wheels), and smooth balls on very rough surfaces. In all cases it was found that the coefficient of rolling friction increased with rolling speed and surface roughness, and decreased as the ball diameter increased.

  13. Fingerprints are unlikely to increase the friction of primate fingerpads.

    PubMed

    Warman, Peter H; Ennos, A Roland

    2009-07-01

    It is generally assumed that fingerprints improve the grip of primates, but the efficiency of their ridging will depend on the type of frictional behaviour the skin exhibits. Ridges would be effective at increasing friction for hard materials, but in a rubbery material they would reduce friction because they would reduce contact area. In this study we investigated the frictional performance of human fingertips on dry acrylic glass using a modified universal mechanical testing machine, measuring friction at a range of normal loads while also measuring the contact area. Tests were carried out on different fingers, fingers at different angles and against different widths of acrylic sheet to separate the effects of normal force and contact area. The results showed that fingertips behaved more like rubbers than hard solids; their coefficients of friction fell at higher normal forces and friction was higher when fingers were held flatter against wider sheets and hence when contact area was greater. The shear stress was greater at higher pressures, suggesting the presence of a biofilm between the skin and the surface. Fingerprints reduced contact area by a factor of one-third compared with flat skin, however, which would have reduced the friction; this casts severe doubt on their supposed frictional function. PMID:19525427

  14. Turbulence-induced Relative Velocity of Dust Particles. IV. The Collision Kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Liubin; Padoan, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by its importance for modeling dust particle growth in protoplanetary disks, we study turbulence-induced collision statistics of inertial particles as a function of the particle friction time, ?p. We show that turbulent clustering significantly enhances the collision rate for particles of similar sizes with ?p corresponding to the inertial range of the flow. If the friction time, ?p, h, of the larger particle is in the inertial range, the collision kernel per unit cross section increases with increasing friction time, ?p, l, of the smaller particle and reaches the maximum at ?p, l = ?p, h, where the clustering effect peaks. This feature is not captured by the commonly used kernel formula, which neglects the effect of clustering. We argue that turbulent clustering helps alleviate the bouncing barrier problem for planetesimal formation. We also investigate the collision velocity statistics using a collision-rate weighting factor to account for higher collision frequency for particle pairs with larger relative velocity. For ?p, h in the inertial range, the rms relative velocity with collision-rate weighting is found to be invariant with ?p, l and scales with ?p, h roughly as {\\propto?} _p,h1/2. The weighting factor favors collisions with larger relative velocity, and including it leads to more destructive and less sticking collisions. We compare two collision kernel formulations based on spherical and cylindrical geometries. The two formulations give consistent results for the collision rate and the collision-rate weighted statistics, except that the spherical formulation predicts more head-on collisions than the cylindrical formulation.

  15. TURBULENCE-INDUCED RELATIVE VELOCITY OF DUST PARTICLES. IV. THE COLLISION KERNEL

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Liubin; Padoan, Paolo E-mail: ppadoan@icc.ub.edu

    2014-12-20

    Motivated by its importance for modeling dust particle growth in protoplanetary disks, we study turbulence-induced collision statistics of inertial particles as a function of the particle friction time, ?{sub p}. We show that turbulent clustering significantly enhances the collision rate for particles of similar sizes with ?{sub p} corresponding to the inertial range of the flow. If the friction time, ?{sub p,} {sub h}, of the larger particle is in the inertial range, the collision kernel per unit cross section increases with increasing friction time, ?{sub p,} {sub l}, of the smaller particle and reaches the maximum at ?{sub p,} {sub l} = ?{sub p,} {sub h}, where the clustering effect peaks. This feature is not captured by the commonly used kernel formula, which neglects the effect of clustering. We argue that turbulent clustering helps alleviate the bouncing barrier problem for planetesimal formation. We also investigate the collision velocity statistics using a collision-rate weighting factor to account for higher collision frequency for particle pairs with larger relative velocity. For ?{sub p,} {sub h} in the inertial range, the rms relative velocity with collision-rate weighting is found to be invariant with ?{sub p,} {sub l} and scales with ?{sub p,} {sub h} roughly as ? ?{sub p,h}{sup 1/2}. The weighting factor favors collisions with larger relative velocity, and including it leads to more destructive and less sticking collisions. We compare two collision kernel formulations based on spherical and cylindrical geometries. The two formulations give consistent results for the collision rate and the collision-rate weighted statistics, except that the spherical formulation predicts more head-on collisions than the cylindrical formulation.

  16. Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction

    E-print Network

    Amaral, Luis A.N.

    Haptics, tactile feedback, touch screen. ACM Classification Keywords H5.2. [User Interfaces]: InteractionFrictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch that improve touch interactions by enhancing physicality, performance, and subjective satisfaction. Keywords

  17. Effects of Different Ligature Materials on Friction in Sliding Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Khamatkar, Aparna; Sonawane, Sushma; Narkhade, Sameer; Gadhiya, Nitin; Bagade, Abhijit; Soni, Vivek; Betigiri, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background: During orthodontic tooth movement friction occurs at the bracket wire interface. Out of the total force applied to the tooth movement, some of it is dissipated as friction, and the remainder is transferred to the supporting structures of the tooth to mediate tooth movement. However many factors affect friction, and method of arch wire ligation being an important contributing factor. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different ligature materials on friction in sliding mechanics and to compare the effect of environment (dry and wet) on friction produced in sliding mechanics. Materials and Methods: The evaluation of friction between the bracket and the archwire consisted of a simulated half arch fixed appliance with archwire ligated in a vertical position. Four 0.022” maxillary stainless steel premolar brackets having a - 0° torque and 0° angulation were aligned with a 0.019” × 0.025” stainless steel arch wire onto a rigid Plexiglass sheet. The movable test bracket was fitted with a 10 mm long, 0.045” thick stainless steel power arm on the bonding surface. Testing was performed on a Hounsfield material testing machine. A total of 100 g weight was suspended from the power arm and the load needed to move the bracket over the distance of not <4 mm across the central span was recorded separately. Fifteen representative readings were taken with one reading per test sample. Results: The results showed that the mean frictional force of different groups in dry and wet state was statistically significantly different. The mean frictional force in a dry state was statistically significantly higher than wet state in elastomeric group. Conclusion: The type of ligation material and environment significantly affected the degree of friction generated during sliding mechanics. Teflon coated stainless steel ligatures produced the least friction among the materials tested in both dry and wet conditions and there was no significant effect on friction in this group caused due to lubrication. PMID:26028900

  18. Isolating Curvature Effects in Computing Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    The flow over the zero-pressure-gradient So-Mellor convex curved wall is simulated using the Navier-Stokes equations. An inviscid effective outer wall shape, undocumented in the experiment, is obtained by using an adjoint optimization method with the desired pressure distribution on the inner wall as the cost function. Using this wall shape with a Navier-Stokes method, the abilities of various turbulence models to simulate the effects of curvature without the complicating factor of streamwise pressure gradient can be evaluated. The one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model overpredicts eddy viscosity, and its boundary layer profiles are too full. A curvature-corrected version of this model improves results, which are sensitive to the choice of a particular constant. An explicit algebraic stress model does a reasonable job predicting this flow field. However, results can be slightly improved by modifying the assumption on anisotropy equilibrium in the model's derivation. The resulting curvature-corrected explicit algebraic stress model possesses no heuristic functions or additional constants. It lowers slightly the computed skin friction coefficient and the turbulent stress levels for this case (in better agreement with experiment), but the effect on computed velocity profiles is very small.

  19. Experimental measurements of unsteady turbulent boundary layers near separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations conducted to document the behavior of turbulent boundary layers on flat surfaces that separate due to adverse pressure gradients are reported. Laser and hot wire anemometers measured turbulence and flow structure of a steady free stream separating turbulent boundary layer produced on the flow of a wind tunnel section. The effects of sinusoidal and unsteadiness of the free stream velocity on this separating turbulent boundary layer at a reduced frequency were determined. A friction gage and a thermal tuft were developed and used to measure the surface skin friction and the near wall fraction of time the flow moves downstream for several cases. Abstracts are provided of several articles which discuss the effects of the periodic free stream unsteadiness on the structure or separating turbulent boundary layers.

  20. Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures.

    PubMed

    Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Liberman, M; Rogachevskii, I

    2014-11-01

    We study turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures in a developed turbulence. In our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 69 (1998)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.80.69] using a path-integral approach for a delta-correlated in a time random velocity field, we demonstrated a strong modification of turbulent transport in fluid flows with chemical reactions or phase transitions. In the present study we use the spectral ? approximation that is valid for large Reynolds and Peclet numbers and show that turbulent diffusion of the reacting species can be strongly depleted by a large factor that is the ratio of turbulent and chemical times (turbulent Damköhler number). We have demonstrated that the derived theoretical dependence of a turbulent diffusion coefficient versus the turbulent Damköhler number is in good agreement with that obtained previously in the numerical modeling of a reactive front propagating in a turbulent flow and described by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. We have found that turbulent cross-effects, e.g., turbulent mutual diffusion of gaseous admixtures and turbulent Dufour effect of the chemically reacting gaseous admixtures, are less sensitive to the values of stoichiometric coefficients. The mechanisms of the turbulent cross-effects differ from the molecular cross-effects known in irreversible thermodynamics. In a fully developed turbulence and at large Peclet numbers the turbulent cross-effects are much larger than the molecular ones. The obtained results are applicable also to heterogeneous phase transitions. PMID:25493875

  1. Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Liberman, M.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2014-11-01

    We study turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures in a developed turbulence. In our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 69 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.69] using a path-integral approach for a delta-correlated in a time random velocity field, we demonstrated a strong modification of turbulent transport in fluid flows with chemical reactions or phase transitions. In the present study we use the spectral ? approximation that is valid for large Reynolds and Peclet numbers and show that turbulent diffusion of the reacting species can be strongly depleted by a large factor that is the ratio of turbulent and chemical times (turbulent Damköhler number). We have demonstrated that the derived theoretical dependence of a turbulent diffusion coefficient versus the turbulent Damköhler number is in good agreement with that obtained previously in the numerical modeling of a reactive front propagating in a turbulent flow and described by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. We have found that turbulent cross-effects, e.g., turbulent mutual diffusion of gaseous admixtures and turbulent Dufour effect of the chemically reacting gaseous admixtures, are less sensitive to the values of stoichiometric coefficients. The mechanisms of the turbulent cross-effects differ from the molecular cross-effects known in irreversible thermodynamics. In a fully developed turbulence and at large Peclet numbers the turbulent cross-effects are much larger than the molecular ones. The obtained results are applicable also to heterogeneous phase transitions.

  2. Nonlinear friction in quantum mechanics

    E-print Network

    Roumen Tsekov

    2013-03-10

    The effect of nonlinear friction forces in quantum mechanics is studied via dissipative Madelung hydrodynamics. A new thermo-quantum diffusion equation is derived, which is solved for the particular case of quantum Brownian motion with a cubic friction. It is extended also by a chemical reaction term to describe quantum reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear friction as well.

  3. Friction-Testing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, F. J.; Dixon, D. S.; Shaw, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Testing machine evaluates wear and ignition characteristics of materials in rubbing contact. Offers advantages over other laboratory methods of measuring wear because it simulates operating conditions under which material will actually be used. Machine used to determine wear characteristics, rank and select materials for service with such active oxidizers as oxygen, halogens, and oxides of nitrogen, measure wear characteristics, and determine coefficients of friction.

  4. The low friction contradiction (low friction or fiction).

    PubMed

    Champagne, Michel; Lavallée, Jean-Noel; Huynh, Phuc; Martel, Daniel; Pellan, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Low friction is on everyone' lips, from companies to lecturers, some are just whispering and others are shouting the advantages of low friction self-ligating brackets. The low friction appliances get tremendous attention and publicity. Most major companies have a bracket that they describe as low fiction. Many clinicians have switched or are considering the switch to these brackets. Most companies present their low friction line describing and promoting their bracket design. In our opinion low friction is not only a question of bracket design. Low friction must be looked at, promoted and used as a complete philosophy. To insure maximum results the low friction clinicians will have to choose and respect the philosophy of the system. Using only a so-called low friction bracket will not assure the clinician the performance of low friction mechanics. This article will try to expose a low friction philosophy which goes beyond the bracket design. We will describe a global approach to low friction philosophy using the Damon System as an example. We do not imply that the Damon System is the only system that can get excellent results but it is a system that has a good track record and that has been on the market for many years. PMID:17784573

  5. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  6. Rubber friction for tire tread compound on road surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.; Fortunato, G.; Giustiniano, M.; Baldoni, F.

    2013-03-01

    We have measured the surface topography and calculated the surface roughness power spectrum for an asphalt road surface. For the same surface we have measured the friction for a tire tread compound for velocities 10-6 m s-1 < v < 10-3 m s-1 at three different temperatures (at -8?°C, 20?°C and 48?°C). The friction data was shifted using the bulk viscoelasticity shift factor aT to form a master curve. We have measured the effective rubber viscoelastic modulus at large strain and calculated the rubber friction coefficient (and contact area) during stationary sliding and compared it to the measured friction coefficient. We find that for the low velocities and for the relatively smooth road surface we consider, the contribution to friction from the area of real contact is very important, and we interpret this contribution as being due to shearing of a very thin confined rubber smear film.

  7. Rubber friction for tire tread compound on road surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Fortunato, G; Giustiniano, M; Baldoni, F

    2013-03-01

    We have measured the surface topography and calculated the surface roughness power spectrum for an asphalt road surface. For the same surface we have measured the friction for a tire tread compound for velocities 10(-6) m s(-1) < v < 10(-3) m s(-1) at three different temperatures (at -8 °C, 20 °C and 48 °C). The friction data was shifted using the bulk viscoelasticity shift factor a(T) to form a master curve. We have measured the effective rubber viscoelastic modulus at large strain and calculated the rubber friction coefficient (and contact area) during stationary sliding and compared it to the measured friction coefficient. We find that for the low velocities and for the relatively smooth road surface we consider, the contribution to friction from the area of real contact is very important, and we interpret this contribution as being due to shearing of a very thin confined rubber smear film. PMID:23334507

  8. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  9. Laser interferometer/Preston tube skin-friction comparison in shock/boundary-layer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Lee, Y.; Settles, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of the accuracy of the 'Preston tube' surface pitot-pressure skin friction measurement method relative to the already proven laser interferometer skin-friction meter in a swept shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction. The Preston tube was used to estimate the total shear-stress distribution in a fin-generated swept shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction. The Keener-Hopkins calibration method using the isentropic relation to calculate the Preston-tube Mach number produces the best results.

  10. Memory function of turbulent fluctuations in soft-mode turbulence

    E-print Network

    Takayuki Narumi; Junichi Yoshitani; Masaru Suzuki; Yoshiki Hidaka; Fahrudin Nugroho; Tomoyuki Nagaya; Shoichi Kai

    2013-01-21

    Modal relaxation dynamics has been observed experimentally to clarify statistical-physical properties of soft-mode turbulence, the spatiotemporal chaos observed in homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystals. We found a dual structure, dynamical crossover associated with violation of time-reversal invariance, the corresponding time scales satisfying a dynamical scaling law. To specify the origin of the dual structure, the memory function due to non-thermal fluctuations has been defined by a projection-operator method and obtained numerically using experimental results. The results of the memory function suggest that the non-thermal fluctuations can be divided into Markov and non-Markov contributions, the latter is called the turbulent fluctuation (TF). Consequently, the relaxation dynamics is separated into three characteristic stages: bare-friction, early, and late stages. If the dissipation due to TFs dominates over that of the Markov contribution, the bare-friction stage contracts; the early and late stages then configure the dual structure. The memory effect due to TFs results in the time-reversible relaxation at the early stage, and the disappearance of the memory by turbulent mixing leads to a simple exponential relaxation at the late stage. Furthermore, the memory effect due to TFs is shown to originate from characteristic spatial coherency called the patch structure.

  11. Turbulent acceleration and heating in toroidal magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

    2013-07-15

    It is shown that turbulence is responsible for a source of momentum, which cannot be recast as a divergence of a momentum flux. This process is similar to turbulent heating, with similar properties. The sum over all species vanishes up to polarization contributions. Hence, toroidal momentum is transferred from species to species, mediated by turbulence. As for momentum flux, symmetry breaking is needed. Flow shear is investigated as a source of symmetry breaking, leading to a source of momentum proportional to the shear rate. Turbulent acceleration is significant for ion species. It is found that it is proportional to the charge number Z, while turbulent heating scales as Z{sup 2}/A, where A is the mass number. It is maximum in the edge, where the E × B flow shear rate and turbulence intensity are maximum. When both are large enough, the turbulent torque may overcome the collisional friction between impurities and main ions, thus leading to different toroidal velocities.

  12. A laboratory study of friction-velocity estimates from scatterometry - Low and high regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliven, L. F.; Giovanangeli, J.-P.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Chapron, B.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements from scatterometers pointing at wind-waves in three large wave tanks are examined to study fetch effects and the correlation with wind friction velocity. Time-series measurements were made at 13, 35, and 95 m with a Ka-band scatterometer aimed upwind at 30 deg incidence angle and vertical polarization. Average normalized radar cross-section (sigma-0) values from all fetches follow a common trend for sigma-0 as a function of wind friction velocity, so the fetch dependence is negligible. An empirical power-law model yields a high correlation between sigma-0 and wind friction velocity, but, because systematic anomalies arise, we reexamine a turbulence approach that delineates low and high regimes with a transition at a wind friction velocity of approximately 25 cm/s. Using this criteria, the data are well represented by a two-section power-law relationship between sigma-0 and wind friction velocity.

  13. A comparison of opposition control in turbulent boundary layer and turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroh, A.; Frohnapfel, B.; Schlatter, P.; Hasegawa, Y.

    2015-07-01

    A comparison between classical opposition control applied in the configuration of a fully developed turbulent channel flow and applied locally in a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer is presented. It is found that the control scheme yields similar drag reduction rates if compared at the same friction Reynolds numbers. However, a detailed analysis of the dynamical contributions to the skin friction coefficient reveals significant differences in the mechanism behind the drag reduction. While drag reduction in turbulent channel flow is entirely based on the attenuation of the Reynolds shear stress, the modification of the spatial flow development is essential for the turbulent boundary layer in terms of achievable drag reduction. It is shown that drag reduction due to this spatial development contribution becomes more pronounced with increasing Reynolds number (up to Re? = 660, based on friction velocity and boundary layer thickness) and even exceeds drag reduction due to attenuation of the Reynolds shear stress. In terms of an overall energy balance, it is found that opposition control is less efficient in the turbulent boundary layer due to the inherently larger fluctuation intensities in the near wall region.

  14. In-Flight Capability for Evaluating Skin-Friction Gages and Other Near-Wall Flow Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.; Pipitone, Brett J.; Krake, Keith L.; Richwine, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    An 8-in.-square boundary-layer sensor panel has been developed for in-flight evaluation of skin-friction gages and other near-wall flow sensors on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B/Flight Test Fixture (FTF). Instrumentation on the sensor panel includes a boundary-layer rake, temperature sensors, static pressure taps, and a Preston tube. Space is also available for skin-friction gages or other near-wall flow sensors. Pretest analysis of previous F-15B/FTF flight data has identified flight conditions suitable for evaluating skin-friction gages. At subsonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel closely approximates the two-dimensional (2D), law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layer, and skin-friction estimates from the Preston tube and the rake (using the Clauser plot method) can be used to evaluate skin-friction gages. At supersonic Mach numbers, the boundary layer over the sensor panel becomes complex, and other means of measuring skin friction are needed to evaluate the accuracy of new skin-friction gages. Results from the flight test of a new rubber-damped skin-friction gage confirm that at subsonic Mach numbers, nearly 2D, law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers exist over the sensor panel. Sensor panel data also show that this new skin-friction gage prototype does not work in flight.

  15. Friction and wear of plasma-deposited diamond films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan; Barnes, Paul N.; Jackson, Howard E.

    1993-01-01

    Reciprocating sliding friction experiments in humid air and in dry nitrogen and unidirectional sliding friction experiments in ultrahigh vacuum were conducted with a natural diamond pin in contact with microwave-plasma-deposited diamond films. Diamond films with a surface roughness (R rms) ranging from 15 to 160 nm were produced by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In humid air and in dry nitrogen, abrasion occurred when the diamond pin made grooves in the surfaces of diamond films, and thus the initial coefficients of friction increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. In vacuum the friction for diamond films contacting a diamond pin arose primarily from adhesion between the sliding surfaces. In these cases, the initial and equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were 0.02 to 0.04 in humid air and in dry nitrogen, but 1.5 to 1.8 in vacuum. The wear factor of the diamond films depended on the initial surface roughness, regardless of environment; it increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The wear factors were considerably higher in vacuum than in humid air and in dry nitrogen.

  16. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  17. On the friction coefficient of straight-chain aggregates

    E-print Network

    Lorenzo Isella; Yannis Drossinos

    2011-01-31

    A methodology to calculate the friction coefficient of an aggregate in the continuum regime is proposed. The friction coefficient and the monomer shielding factors, aggregate-average or individual, are related to the molecule-aggregate collision rate that is obtained from the molecular diffusion equation with an absorbing boundary condition on the aggregate surface. Calculated friction coefficients of straight chains are in very good agreement with previous results, suggesting that the friction coefficients may be accurately calculated from the product of the collision rate and an average momentum transfer,the latter being independent of aggregate morphology. Langevin-dynamics simulations show that the diffusive motion of straight-chain aggregates may be described either by a monomer-dependent or an aggregate-average random force, if the shielding factors are appropriately chosen.

  18. Solid friction between soft filaments.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-06-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes's drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials. PMID:25730393

  19. Solid friction between soft filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A. W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-06-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  20. Solid friction between soft filaments

    E-print Network

    Andrew Ward; Feodor Hilitski; Walter Schwenger; David Welch; A. W. C. Lau; Vincenzo Vitelli; L. Mahadevan; Zvonimir Dogic

    2015-03-04

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  1. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  2. The Friction of Piston Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischbein, Hans W

    1945-01-01

    The coefficient of friction between piston ring and cylinder liner was measured in relation to gliding acceleration, pressure, temperature, quantity of oil and quality of oil. Comparing former lubrication-technical tests, conclusions were drawn as to the state of friction. The coefficients of friction as figured out according to the hydrodynamic theory were compared with those measured by tests. Special tests were made on "oiliness." The highest permissible pressure was measured and the ratio of pressure discussed.

  3. Influences of peripherally-cut twisted tape insert on heat transfer and thermal performance characteristics in laminar and turbulent tube flows

    SciTech Connect

    Eiamsa-ard, Smith; Seemawute, Panida; Wongcharee, Khwanchit

    2010-09-15

    Effects of peripherally-cut twisted tape insert on heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance factor characteristics in a round tube were investigated. Nine different peripherally-cut twisted tapes with constant twist ratio (y/W = 3.0) and different three tape depth ratios (DR = d/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33), each with three different tape width ratios (WR = w/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33) were tested. Besides, one typical twisted tape was also tested for comparison. The measurement of heat transfer rate was conducted under uniform heat flux condition while that of friction factor was performed under isothermal condition. Tests were performed with Reynolds number in a range from 1000 to 20,000, using water as a working fluid. The experimental results revealed that both heat transfer rate and friction factor in the tube equipped with the peripherally-cut twisted tapes were significantly higher than those in the tube fitted with the typical twisted tape and plain tube, especially in the laminar flow regime. The higher turbulence intensity of fluid in the vicinity of the tube wall generated by the peripherally-cut twisted tape compared to that induced by the typical twisted tape is referred as the main reason for achieved results. The obtained results also demonstrated that as the depth ratio increased and width ratio decreased, the heat transfer enhancement increased. Over the range investigated, the peripherally-cut twisted tape enhanced heat transfer rates in term of Nusselt numbers up to 2.6 times (turbulent regime) and 12.8 times (laminar regime) of that in the plain tube. These corresponded to the maximum performance factors of 1.29 (turbulent regime) and 4.88 (laminar regime). (author)

  4. Mean velocity equation for turbulent flow

    E-print Network

    Juergen Piest

    2013-11-21

    The hydrodynamic equation derived by N-particle statistical mechanics is investigated. This is an attempt to provide additional information concerning the closure problem of turbulence theory. The equation is interpreted as mean velocity equation for turbulent fluid flow. The third-order term of the friction force is calculated. Multilinear mode coupling theory is applied in order to obtain formulas for the third- und fourth-order equilibrium time correlation functions appearing in the expression. The force term is obtained as a convolution integral containing higher order gradients of the velocity field.

  5. Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (? = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584

  6. Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (? = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584

  7. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  8. Compaction of frictional octahedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagu, N. Nirmal; Neudecker, Max; Herminghaus, Stephan; Schroeter, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    We perform experiments with frictional polypropylene octahedra to study the packing properties. Starting with the loose packing, compaction of octahedra is done by two types of forcing - a) tapping and b) shearing. The compaction gives rise to crystallization of octahedra due to heterogenous nucleation from the walls. We obtain the X-ray tomograms of the packing configurations as a function of packing fraction. From the contact geometries we obtain results for the packings such as - pair correlation function, distance to isostaticity, and spatial & angular correlation functions. We contrast these results with a similar study on the simplest platonic solid, the tetrahedron[1] and the sphere.

  9. Turbulent drag reduction by transverse wall oscillations Rashad Moarref and Mihailo R. Jovanovic

    E-print Network

    Jovanovic, Mihailo

    Turbulent drag reduction by transverse wall oscillations Rashad Moarref and Mihailo R. Jovanovi´c Abstract-- Skin-friction drag reduction by transverse wall os- cillations has received significant with properly selected amplitude and frequency can reduce turbulent drag by as much as 40 percent

  10. Overview of a Methodology for Scaling the Indeterminate Equations of Wall Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Fife, Paul

    the method has been successfully applied includes turbulent boundary layer, pipe and channel flows, turbulent shear stress, T = -u0v0 u Velocity component in the x direction u Friction velocity, u = p w/ v Velocity shear stress Kinematic viscosity Mass density Superscript m Denotes maximum value Superscript

  11. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, G; Ciaravola, V; Furno, A; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J

    2015-05-01

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s(-1). We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci 'laws' of friction. PMID:25873527

  12. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.

  13. Numerical Estimation of Frictional Torques with Rate and State Friction

    E-print Network

    Arun K. Singh; T. N. Singh

    2015-01-20

    In this paper, numerical estimation of frictional torques is carried out of a rotary elastic disc on a hard and rough surface under different rotating conditions. A one dimensional spring- mass rotary system is numerically solved under the quasistatic condition with the rate and state dependent friction model. It is established that torque of frictional strength as well as torque of steady dynamic stress increases with radius and found to be maximum at the periphery of the disc. Torque corresponding to frictional strength estimated using the analytical solution matches closely with the simulation only in the case of high stiffness of the connecting spring. In steady relaxation simulation, a steadily rotating disc is suddenly stopped and relaxational angular velocity and corresponding frictional torque decreases with both steady angular velocity and stiffness of the connecting spring in the velocity strengthening regime. In velocity weakening regime, in contrast, torque of relaxation stress deceases but relaxation velocity increases. The reason for the contradiction is explained.

  14. arXiv:physics/0611001v2[physics.flu-dyn]3Jul2007 Leray-model and transition to turbulence in rough-wall boundary layers

    E-print Network

    Cheskidov, Alexey

    , 47.27.E-, 47.27.em, 47.27.nb Keywords: turbulent boundary layer, rough wall, Leray-alpha model to many researchers. For smooth-wall turbulent boundary layers, both direct and indirect techniques have theoretical method to derive a skin-friction correlation for smooth-wall turbulent boundary layers

  15. Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  16. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  17. Turbulent heat transfer in a trapezoidal channel with transverse and v-shaped ribs on two opposite walls 

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Karthik

    2006-04-12

    This study investigates the turbulent heat transfer and friction in a trapezoidal channel with opposite walls roughened with transverse and v-shaped ribs. The roughened channel depicts the internal cooling passage of an aerofoil near the trailing...

  18. Friction in a Moving Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)

  19. Elastic model of dry friction

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E.

    2013-09-15

    Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.

  20. Friction boosted by spontaneous epitaxial rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-03-01

    It is well known in surface science that incommensurate adsorbed monolayers undergo a spontaneous, energy-lowering epitaxial rotation from aligned to misaligned relative to a periodic substrate. We show first of all that a model 2D colloidal monolayer in an optical lattice, of recent importance as a frictional model, also develops in full equilibrium a small rotation angle, easy to detect in the Moiré pattern. The colloidal monolayer misalignment is then shown by extensive sliding simulations to increase the dynamic friction by a considerable factor over the aligned case. More generally, this example suggests that spontaneous rotations are rather ubiquitous and should not be ignored in all tribological phenomena between mismatched lattices. This work was mainly supported by the ERC Advanced Grant No. 320796-MODPHYSFRICT, and partly by SINERGIA contract CRSII2 136287, by PRIN/COFIN Contract 2010LLKJBX 004, by COST Action MP1303.

  1. Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids

    E-print Network

    Gibson, Carl H

    2010-01-01

    Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begins with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretion on a spinning pair releases 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscosity and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, creating mass-energy and space-time from the vacuum. Turbulence mixes cooling temperatures until a quark-gluon strong-force SF freeze-out. Gluon-viscosity anti-gravity ({\\Lambda}SF) exponentially inflates the fireball to preserve big bang turbulence information at scales larger than ct as the first fossil turbulence. Cosmic microwave background CMB temperature anisotropies show big bang turbulence fossils along with fossils of weak plasma turbulence triggered (10^12 s) as plasma viscous forces permit gravitational fragmentation on supercluster to galaxy mass scales (10^13 s). Turbulent morphologies and viscous-turbulent lengths a...

  2. Subcritical versus supercritical transition to turbulence in curved pipes

    E-print Network

    Kühnen, J; Schwegel, M; Kuhlmann, H; Hof, B

    2015-01-01

    Transition to turbulence in straight pipes occurs in spite of the linear stability of the laminar Hagen--Poiseuille flow if the amplitude of flow perturbations as well as the Reynolds number exceed a minimum threshold (subcritical transition). As the pipe curvature increases centrifugal effects become important, modifying the basic flow as well as the most unstable linear modes. If the curvature (tube-to-coiling diameter $d/D$) is sufficiently large a Hopf bifurcation (supercritical instability) is encountered before turbulence can be excited (subcritical instability). We trace the instability thresholds in the $Re-d/D$ parameter space in the range $0.01\\leq\\ d/D \\leq0.1$ by means of laser-Doppler velocimetry and determine the point where the subcritical and supercritical instabilities meet. Two different experimental setups were used: a closed system where the pipe forms an axisymmetric torus and an open system employing a helical pipe. Implications for the measurement of friction factors in curved pipes are...

  3. Soliton turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.

  4. Turbulence in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.

  5. Eliminating Friction with Friction: 2D Janssen Effect in a Friction-Driven System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. Yasinul; Corwin, Eric I.

    2014-05-01

    The Janssen effect is a unique property of confined granular materials experiencing gravitational compaction in which the pressure at the bottom saturates with an increasing filling height due to frictional interactions with side walls. In this Letter, we replace gravitational compaction with frictional compaction. We study friction-compacted 2D granular materials confined within fixed boundaries on a horizontal conveyor belt. We find that even with high-friction side walls the Janssen effect completely vanishes. Our results demonstrate that gravity-compacted granular systems are inherently different from friction-compacted systems in at least one important way: vibrations induced by sliding friction with the driving surface relax away tangential forces on the walls. Remarkably, we find that the Janssen effect can be recovered by replacing the straight side walls with a sawtooth pattern. The mechanical force introduced by varying the sawtooth angle ? can be viewed as equivalent to a tunable friction force. By construction, this mechanical friction force cannot be relaxed away by vibrations in the system.

  6. The frictional response of patterned soft polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Charles J.

    2008-10-01

    Friction plays an intricate role in our everyday lives, it is therefore critical to understand the underlying features of friction to better help control and manipulate the response anywhere two surfaces in contact move past each other by a sliding motion. Here we present results targeting a thorough understanding of soft material friction and how it can be manipulated with patterns. We found that the naturally occurring length scale or periodicity (lambda) of frictionally induced patterns, Schallamach waves, could be described using two materials properties (critical energy release rate Gc and complex modulus (E*), i.e. lambdainfinity Gc /E*). Following this, we evaluated the effect of a single defect at a sliding interface. Sliding over a defect can be used to model the sliding from one feature to another in a patterned surface. Defects decreased the sliding frictional force by as much as 80% sliding and this decrease was attributed to changes in tangential stiffness of the sliding interface. The frictional response of surface wrinkles, where multiple edges or defects are acting in concert, was also evaluated. Wrinkles were shown to decrease friction (F) and changes in contact area (A) could not describe this decrease. A tangential stiffness correction factor (fx) and changes in the critical energy release rate were used to describe this deviation (F infinity Gc *A*fx/?, where ? is a materials defined length scale of dissipation). This scaling can be used to describe the friction of any topographically patterned surface including the Gecko's foot, where the feature size is smaller than ? and thus replaces ?, increasing the friction compared to a flat surface. Also, mechanically-induced surface defects were used to align osmotically driven surface wrinkles by creating stress discontinuities that convert the global biaxial stress state to local uniaxial stresses. Defect spacing was used to control the alignment process at the surface of the wrinkled rigid film/soft elastomer interface. These aligned wrinkled surfaces can be used to tune the adhesion and friction of an interface. The work presented here gives insight into tuning the friction of a soft polymeric surface as well as understanding the friction of complex hierarchical structures.

  7. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  8. Skin-Friction Measurements in a 3-D, Supersonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wideman, J. K.; Brown, J. L.; Miles, J. B.; Ozcan, O.

    1994-01-01

    The experimental documentation of a three-dimensional shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a nominal Mach 3 cylinder, aligned with the free-stream flow, and 20 deg. half-angle conical flare offset 1.27 cm from the cylinder centerline. Surface oil flow, laser light sheet illumination, and schlieren were used to document the flow topology. The data includes surface-pressure and skin-friction measurements. A laser interferometric skin friction data. Included in the skin-friction data are measurements within separated regions and three-dimensional measurements in highly-swept regions. The skin-friction data will be particularly valuable in turbulence modeling and computational fluid dynamics validation.

  9. Skin Friction and Transition Location Measurement on Supersonic Transport Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Goodsell, Aga M.; Olsen, Lawrence E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques were used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative skin friction and transition location data in wind tunnel tests performed on two supersonic transport models at Mach 2.40. Oil-film interferometry was useful for verifying boundary layer transition, but careful monitoring of model surface temperatures and systematic examination of the effects of tunnel start-up and shutdown transients will be required to achieve high levels of accuracy for skin friction measurements. A more common technique, use of a subliming solid to reveal transition location, was employed to correct drag measurements to a standard condition of all-turbulent flow on the wing. These corrected data were then analyzed to determine the additional correction required to account for the effect of the boundary layer trip devices.

  10. Bi-directional, buried-wire skin-friction gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higuchi, H.; Peake, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A compact, nonobtrusive, bi-directional, skin-friction gage was developed to measure the mean shear stress beneath a three-dimensional boundary layer. The gage works by measuring the heat flux from two orthogonal wires embedded in the surface. Such a gage was constructed and its characteristics were determined for different angles of yaw in a calibration experiment in subsonic flow with a Preston tube used as a standard. Sample gages were then used in a fully three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer on a circular cone at high relative incidence, where there were regimes of favorable and adverse pressure gradients and three-dimensional separation. Both the direction and magnitude of skin friction were then obtained on the cone surface.

  11. Multiscaling in superfluid turbulence: A shell-model study

    E-print Network

    Shukla, Vishwanath

    2015-01-01

    We examine the multiscaling behavior of the normal- and superfluid-velocity structure functions in three-dimensional superfluid turbulence by using a shell model for the three-dimensional (3D) Hall-Vinen-Bekharevich-Khalatnikov (HVBK) equations. Our 3D-HVBK shell model is based on the Gledzer-Okhitani-Yamada (GOY) shell model. We examine the dependence of the multiscaling exponents on the normal-fluid fraction and the mutual-friction coefficients. Our extensive study of the 3D-HVBK shell model shows that the multiscaling behavior of the velocity structure functions in superfluid turbulence is more complicated than it is in fluid turbulence.

  12. Multiscaling in superfluid turbulence: A shell-model study

    E-print Network

    Vishwanath Shukla; Rahul Pandit

    2015-08-05

    We examine the multiscaling behavior of the normal- and superfluid-velocity structure functions in three-dimensional superfluid turbulence by using a shell model for the three-dimensional (3D) Hall-Vinen-Bekharevich-Khalatnikov (HVBK) equations. Our 3D-HVBK shell model is based on the Gledzer-Okhitani-Yamada (GOY) shell model. We examine the dependence of the multiscaling exponents on the normal-fluid fraction and the mutual-friction coefficients. Our extensive study of the 3D-HVBK shell model shows that the multiscaling behavior of the velocity structure functions in superfluid turbulence is more complicated than it is in fluid turbulence.

  13. Holographic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong

    2014-04-18

    We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028

  14. Fault Wear and Friction Evolution: Experimental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boneh, Y.; Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Wear is an inevitable product of frictional sliding of brittle rocks as evidenced by the ubiquitous occurrence of fault gouge and slickenside striations. We present here experimental observations designed to demonstrate the relationship between wear and friction and their governing mechanisms. The experiments were conducted with a rotary shear apparatus on solid, ring-shaped rock samples that slipped for displacements up to tens of meters. Stresses, wear and temperature were continuously monitored. We analyzed 86 experiments of Kasota dolomite, Sierra White granite, Pennsylvania quartzite, Karoo gabbro, and Tennessee sandstone at slip velocities ranging from 0.002 to 0.97 m/s, and normal stress from 0.25 to 6.9 MPa. We conducted two types of runs: short slip experiments (slip distance < 25 mm) primarily on fresh, surface-ground samples, designed to analyze initial wear mechanisms; and long slip experiments (slip distance > 3 m) designed to achieve mature wear conditions and to observe the evolution of wear and friction as the fault surfaces evolved. The experiments reveal three wear stages: initial, running-in, and steady-state. The initial stage is characterized by (1) discrete damage striations, the length of which is comparable to total slip , and local pits or plow features; (2) timing and magnitude of fault-normal dilation corresponds to transient changes of normal and shear stresses; and (3) surface roughness increasing with the applied normal stress. We interpret these observations as wear mechanisms of (a) plowing into the fresh rock surfaces; (b) asperity breakage; and (c) asperity climb. The running-in stage is characterized by (1) intense wear-rate over a critical wear distance of Rd = 0.3-2 m; (2) drop of friction coefficient over a weakening distance of Dc = 0.2-4 m; (3) Rd and Dc display positive, quasi-linear relation with each other. We interpret these observations as indicating the organizing of newly-created wear particles into a 'three-body' structure that acts to lubricate the fault (Reches & Lockner, 2010). The steady-state stage is characterized by (1) relatively low wear-rate (approximately 10% of running-in wear-rate) and (2) quasi-constant friction coefficient. These observations suggest only small changes in the gouge layer in term of thickness (100 to 200 microns) and strength in this final stage. The present study indicates that (1) wear by plowing and asperity failure initiate early, during the first few millimeters of slip; and (2) wear and associated gouge formation appear as the controlling factors of friction evolution and fault weakening.

  15. Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanpied, M.L.; Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge) were slid. The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845?? and wet granite below 250??C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (?? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ~350??C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. The results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing. -from Authors

  16. REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Matthews

    2005-05-01

    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston assembly in an engine. The model appears to produce the correct behavior, but we cannot quantify its strengths or weaknesses until our crank-angle-resolved measurements have been completed. Finally, we proposed and implemented a model for the effects of liner rotation on piston assembly friction. Here, we propose that the rotating liner design is analogous to the shaft-bushing mechanism. Therefore, we used the side-slip rolling friction model to simulate the effects of liner rotation. This model appears to be promising, but final analysis of its strengths and/or weaknesses must await our crank-angle-resolved measurements.

  17. Frictional disturbances in superconducting magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kensley, R. S.; Iwasa, Y.; Maeda, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is reported that uses a liner-friction apparatus to study the frictional and sliding behavior of metal/insulator pairs commonly used in superconducting magnet windings. Both copper G-10 and CDIF-G-10 pairs show similar friction behavior: first-run slips (and sometimes second runs) are very fast, while subsequent runs are slow. The fast slip is attributed to the plowing effect of the glass fibers. Coating with a thin layer of soft material or sanding the surface have been found effective in eliminating slip.

  18. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  19. Local nanoscale heating modulates single-asperity friction.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Christian; Felts, Jonathan R; Dai, Zhenting; King, William P; Carpick, Robert W

    2010-11-10

    We demonstrate measurement and control of single-asperity friction by using cantilever probes featuring an in situ solid-state heater. The heater temperature was varied between 25 and 650 °C (tip temperatures from 25 ± 2 to 120 ± 20 °C). Heating caused friction to increase by a factor of 4 in air at ? 30% relative humidity, but in dry nitrogen friction decreased by ? 40%. Higher velocity reduced friction in ambient with no effect in dry nitrogen. These trends are attributed to thermally assisted formation of capillary bridges between the tip and substrate in air, and thermally assisted sliding in dry nitrogen. Real-time friction measurements while modulating the tip temperature revealed an energy barrier for capillary condensation of 0.40 ± 0.04 eV but with slower kinetics compared to isothermal measurements that we attribute to the distinct thermal environment that occurs when heating in real time. Controlling the presence of this nanoscale capillary and the associated control of friction and adhesion offers new opportunities for tip-based nanomanufacturing. PMID:20929204

  20. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  1. Burgers Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Jeremie Bec; Konstantin Khanin

    2007-04-12

    The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions or random forcing. Such work was frequently motivated by new emerging applications of Burgers model to statistical physics, cosmology, and fluid dynamics. Also Burgers turbulence appeared as one of the simplest instances of a nonlinear system out of equilibrium. The study of random Lagrangian systems, of stochastic partial differential equations and their invariant measures, the theory of dynamical systems, the applications of field theory to the understanding of dissipative anomalies and of multiscaling in hydrodynamic turbulence have benefited significantly from progress in Burgers turbulence. The aim of this review is to give a unified view of selected work stemming from these rather diverse disciplines.

  2. Turbulence modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.

  3. Multimodal Friction Ignition Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Eddie; Howard, Bill; Herald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The multimodal friction ignition tester (MFIT) is a testbed for experiments on the thermal and mechanical effects of friction on material specimens in pressurized, oxygen-rich atmospheres. In simplest terms, a test involves recording sensory data while rubbing two specimens against each other at a controlled normal force, with either a random stroke or a sinusoidal stroke having controlled amplitude and frequency. The term multimodal in the full name of the apparatus refers to a capability for imposing any combination of widely ranging values of the atmospheric pressure, atmospheric oxygen content, stroke length, stroke frequency, and normal force. The MFIT was designed especially for studying the tendency toward heating and combustion of nonmetallic composite materials and the fretting of metals subjected to dynamic (vibrational) friction forces in the presence of liquid oxygen or pressurized gaseous oxygen test conditions approximating conditions expected to be encountered in proposed composite material oxygen tanks aboard aircraft and spacecraft in flight. The MFIT includes a stainless-steel pressure vessel capable of retaining the required test atmosphere. Mounted atop the vessel is a pneumatic cylinder containing a piston for exerting the specified normal force between the two specimens. Through a shaft seal, the piston shaft extends downward into the vessel. One of the specimens is mounted on a block, denoted the pressure block, at the lower end of the piston shaft. This specimen is pressed down against the other specimen, which is mounted in a recess in another block, denoted the slip block, that can be moved horizontally but not vertically. The slip block is driven in reciprocating horizontal motion by an electrodynamic vibration exciter outside the pressure vessel. The armature of the electrodynamic exciter is connected to the slip block via a horizontal shaft that extends into the pressure vessel via a second shaft seal. The reciprocating horizontal motion can be chosen to be random with a flat spectrum over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 kHz, or to be sinusoidal at any peak-to-peak amplitude up to 0.8 in. (.2 cm) and fixed or varying frequency up to 1 kHz. The temperatures of the specimen and of the vessel are measured by thermocouples. A digital video camera mounted outside the pressure vessel is aimed into the vessel through a sapphire window, with its focus fixed on the interface between the two specimens. A position transducer monitors the displacement of the pneumatic-cylinder shaft. The pressure in the vessel is also monitored. During a test, the output of the video camera, the temperatures, and the pneumatic-shaft displacement are monitored and recorded. The test is continued for a predetermined amount of time (typically, 10 minutes) or until either (1) the output of the position transducer shows a sudden change indicative of degradation of either or both specimens, (2) ignition or another significant reaction is observed, or (3) pressure in the vessel increases beyond a pre-set level that triggers an automatic shutdown.

  4. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    E-print Network

    B. N. J. Persson

    2010-07-16

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, e.g., in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (B.N.J. Persson, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 18, 7789 (2006)). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to calculate accurate mu-slip (and the self-aligning torque) curves for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g., braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of Anti-Blocking System (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  5. Nanotribology fundamentals: Predicting the viscous coefficient of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Tonya S.

    In this work, I have used the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) to study nanoscale friction of monolayer adsorbates on (111) metals. The friction of these systems is viscous friction, defined as Ff = etanu = ( mt )nu. Here, eta is the viscous coefficient of friction, nu is the velocity of the adsorbate, m is adsorbate mass, and tau is the slip time, which is the time required for the film's speed to fall to 1/e of its original value. The main focus of this dissertation is to determine the factors that control eta, the viscous coefficient of friction. I have examined three different parameters in order to determine their effect on eta. An equation for predicting the viscous coefficient of friction has been proposed: eta = etasubs + aU2o . Here, etasubs is the damping of adsorbate sliding energy within the substrate, a is a constant depending on mainly temperature and adsorbate film coverage, and Uo is the atomic-scale surface corrugation. I have examined the sliding friction of n-octane on Cu(111) vs. Pb(11I) surfaces, which have gamma = 0.45 meV and gamma = 0.26 meV, respectively. I have observed that the slip time for a monolayer of n-octane/Cu(111) is 0.94 ns +/- 0.36 ns, and the slip time of noctane/Pb(111) is 0.59 ns +/- 0.13 ns. I therefore observe no direct evidence of a link between the damping of perpendicular FT modes and sliding friction. It is still possible, however, that the damping of the parallel FT phonon mode affects sliding friction. Finally, I studied the slippage of monolayer methanol films at room temperature on rotating, rigid, and slowly ratcheting C60 substrates, to examine the effect that the molecular rotation of the substrate surface has on the sliding friction of an adsorbate. I found that at all coverages, the slip time for methanol on rigid and slowly ratcheting C60 was longer (hence lower friction) than the slip time for methanol on rotating C 60, defying the ball bearing analogy. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Optimizing Stellarators for Turbulent Transport

    SciTech Connect

    H.E. Mynick, N.Pomphrey, and P. Xanthopoulos

    2010-05-27

    Up to now, the term "transport-optimized" stellarators has meant optimized to minimize neoclassical transport, while the task of also mitigating turbulent transport, usually the dominant transport channel in such designs, has not been addressed, due to the complexity of plasma turbulence in stellarators. Here, we demonstrate that stellarators can also be designed to mitigate their turbulent transport, by making use of two powerful numerical tools not available until recently, namely gyrokinetic codes valid for 3D nonlinear simulations, and stellarator optimization codes. A first proof-of-principle configuration is obtained, reducing the level of ion temperature gradient turbulent transport from the NCSX baseline design by a factor of about 2.5.

  7. Peak mass and dynamical friction

    E-print Network

    A. Del Popolo; M. Gambera

    1995-06-09

    We show how the results given by several authors relatively to the mass of a density peak are changed when small scale substructure induced by dynamical friction are taken into account. The peak mass obtained is compared to the result of Peacock \\& Heavens (1990) and to the peak mass when dynamical friction is absent to show how these effects conspire to reduce the mass accreted by the peak.

  8. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  9. Adhesion energy between mica surfaces: Implications for the frictional coefficient under dry and wet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    frictional strength of faults is a critical factor that contributes to continuous fault slip and earthquake occurrence. Frictional strength can be reduced by the presence of sheet-structured clay minerals. In this study, two important factors influencing the frictional coefficient of minerals were quantitatively analyzed by a newly developed computational method based on a combination of first-principles study and thermodynamics. One factor that helps reduce the frictional coefficient is the low adhesion energy between the layers under dry conditions. Potassium ions on mica surfaces are easily exchanged with sodium ions when brought into contact with highly concentrated sodium-halide solutions. We found that the surface ion exchange with sodium ions reduces the adhesion energy, indicating that the frictional coefficient can be reduced under dry conditions. Another factor is the lubrication caused by adsorbed water films on mineral surfaces under wet conditions. Potassium and sodium ions on mica surfaces have a strong affinity for water molecules. In order to remove the adsorbed water molecules confined between mica surfaces, a differential compressive stress of the order of tens of gigapascals was necessary at room temperature. These water molecules inhibit direct contact between mineral surfaces and reduce the frictional coefficient. Our results imply that the frictional coefficient can be modified through contact with fluids depending on their salt composition. The low adhesion energy between fault-forming minerals and the presence of an adsorbed water film is a possible reason for the low frictional coefficient observed at continuous fault slip zones.

  10. Solid friction between soft filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A.W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments1,2. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials. PMID:25730393

  11. Experiment study on friction drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guomin; Ma, Lisheng; Yao, Zhengqiu; Li, Guoping

    2004-09-01

    In the past years, friction drive was developed to overcome the inherent deficiencies in both worm drive and gear drive. No periodical error and free of backlash are the main advantages of friction drive. With the trend towards bigger and bigger aperture of the optical telescopes, there are some reports about friction drive employed to drive the telescopes. However friction drive has its own deficiencies, such as slippage and creepage. This report here describes the study on the friction drive finished in an experiment arranged by LAMOST project. It comprises three main parts. First, it introduces the experiment apparatus and proposes a new kind of measurement and adjustment mechanisms. Secondly, the report gives the analysis of friction drive characteristics theoretically, such as slippage, creepage and gives the results of corresponding experiments. The experiment shows that the lowest stable speed reaches 0.05?/s with precision of 0.009?(RMS), the preload has little influence on the drive precision in the case of constant velocity and the variable velocity when the angle acceleration is less than 5?/s2 with close loop control and the creepage velocity of this experiment system is 1.47?/s. Lastly, the analysis in the second section lists some measures to improve the precision and stability further. These measures have been actually conducted in the testing system and proved to be reliable.

  12. Jamming, Friction and Unsteady Rheology

    E-print Network

    Mark O. Robbins

    1999-12-17

    The connection between friction and jamming in granular media, molecular glasses, and complex fluids is explored. The paper first reviews the way friction is measured, the types of results that are observed, and what is known about the geometry of contacts between macroscopic surfaces. Then simple models for the origin of static friction are described. These are unable to explain the universal observation of static friction between macroscopic objects. The effects of surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity are discussed, and shown to yield exponentially weak static friction in our three dimensional world. In contrast, jamming of the "third bodies" that are present between most surfaces is shown to produce static friction that is consistent with macroscopic measurements. Experimental and simulation studies of jamming of molecularly thin fluid films are described and compared to studies of bulk glass transitions. The paper concludes by considering the unsteady stick-slip motion that often arises when systems become unjammed by sufficiently large stress. Different types of stick-slip motion are identified, and some of its origins are explored.

  13. Role of critical points of the skin friction field in formation of plumes in thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, Vinodh; Kolchinskaya, Anastasiya; Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Schumacher, Jörg

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics in the thin boundary layers of temperature and velocity is the key to a deeper understanding of turbulent transport of heat and momentum in thermal convection. The velocity gradient at the hot and cold plates of a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell forms the two-dimensional skin friction field and is related to the formation of thermal plumes in the respective boundary layers. Our analysis is based on a direct numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio ? =1 and focused on the critical points of the skin friction field. We identify triplets of critical points, which are composed of two unstable nodes and a saddle between them, as the characteristic building block of the skin friction field. Isolated triplets as well as networks of triplets are detected. The majority of the ridges of linelike thermal plumes coincide with the unstable manifolds of the saddles. From a dynamical Lagrangian perspective, thermal plumes are formed together with an attractive hyperbolic Lagrangian coherent structure of the skin friction field. We also discuss the differences from the skin friction field in turbulent channel flows from the perspective of the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem for two-dimensional vector fields.

  14. Role of critical points of the skin friction field in formation of plumes in thermal convection.

    PubMed

    Bandaru, Vinodh; Kolchinskaya, Anastasiya; Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Schumacher, Jörg

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics in the thin boundary layers of temperature and velocity is the key to a deeper understanding of turbulent transport of heat and momentum in thermal convection. The velocity gradient at the hot and cold plates of a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell forms the two-dimensional skin friction field and is related to the formation of thermal plumes in the respective boundary layers. Our analysis is based on a direct numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio ?=1 and focused on the critical points of the skin friction field. We identify triplets of critical points, which are composed of two unstable nodes and a saddle between them, as the characteristic building block of the skin friction field. Isolated triplets as well as networks of triplets are detected. The majority of the ridges of linelike thermal plumes coincide with the unstable manifolds of the saddles. From a dynamical Lagrangian perspective, thermal plumes are formed together with an attractive hyperbolic Lagrangian coherent structure of the skin friction field. We also discuss the differences from the skin friction field in turbulent channel flows from the perspective of the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem for two-dimensional vector fields. PMID:26565331

  15. Identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio based on road type recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Hsin; Wang, Bo; Lu, Pingping; Xu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle dynamics and control. However, it is always not easy to identify the maximum road friction coefficient with high robustness and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions. The existing investigations on robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient are unsatisfactory. In this paper, an identification approach based on road type recognition is proposed for the robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio. The instantaneous road friction coefficient is estimated through the recursive least square with a forgetting factor method based on the single wheel model, and the estimated road friction coefficient and slip ratio are grouped in a set of samples in a small time interval before the current time, which are updated with time progressing. The current road type is recognized by comparing the samples of the estimated road friction coefficient with the standard road friction coefficient of each typical road, and the minimum statistical error is used as the recognition principle to improve identification robustness. Once the road type is recognized, the maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio are determined. The numerical simulation tests are conducted on two typical road friction conditions(single-friction and joint-friction) by using CarSim software. The test results show that there is little identification error between the identified maximum road friction coefficient and the pre-set value in CarSim. The proposed identification method has good robustness performance to external disturbances and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions and road variations, and the identification results can be used for the adjustment of vehicle active safety control strategies.

  16. Dynamical friction in pairs of elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prugniel, Philippe; Combes, Francoise

    1990-01-01

    The authors present numerical experiments on dynamical friction in pairs of elliptical galaxies of unequal mass. They confirm that the self-gravity of the response is not important and show the drastic effect of the deformability of the companion which reduces the decay time by more than a factor of 2. Almost the same amount of orbital energy is dissipated within the satellite as within the large galaxy. Finally, the authors discuss the importance of distant encounters for the dynamical evolution of systems of galaxies.

  17. Wave Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Alan C.; Rumpf, Benno

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we state and review the premises on which a successful asymptotic closure of the moment equations of wave turbulence is based, describe how and why this closure obtains, and examine the nature of solutions of the kinetic equation. We discuss obstacles that limit the theory's validity and suggest how the theory might then be modified. We also compare the experimental evidence with the theory's predictions in a range of applications. Finally, and most importantly, we suggest open challenges and encourage the reader to apply and explore wave turbulence with confidence. The narrative is terse but, we hope, delivered at a speed more akin to the crisp pace of a Hemingway story than the wordjumblingtumbling rate of a Joycean novel.

  18. Effects of Turbulence on the Critical Conditions of Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabanta, Quintin; Murphy, Jeremiah Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence is an important factor to consider in the supernova problem; computer simulations show that turbulence reduces the critical conditions necessary for a successful explosion. We propose a global turbulence model that captures the effects of previous simulations, and we use this turbulence model to derive the reduced critical conditions. Enthalpy flux, turbulent dissipation, and Reynolds stress are all potentially impactful components in reducing the threshold for explosion. To examine the weight of these effects, we isolate each element's contribution and compare their respective magnitudes to the neutrino heating. By exploring these reduced critical curves, we hope to further understand how turbulence aids explosion.

  19. Modeling of Instabilities and Self-organization at the Frictional Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Vahid

    The field of friction-induced self-organization and its practical importance remains unknown territory to many tribologists. Friction is usually thought of as irreversible dissipation of energy and deterioration; however, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in-situ tribofilms and various patterns at the interface. This thesis studies self-organization and instabilities at the frictional interface, including the instability due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction, the transient process of frictional running-in, frictional Turing systems, the stick-and-slip phenomenon, and, finally, contact angle (CA) hysteresis as an example of solid-liquid friction and dissipation. All these problems are chosen to bridge the gap between fundamental interest in understanding the conditions leading to self-organization and practical motivation. We study the relationship between friction-induced instabilities and friction-induced self-organization. Friction is usually thought of as a stabilizing factor; however, sometimes it leads to the instability of sliding, in particular when friction is coupled with another process. Instabilities constitute the main mechanism for pattern formation. At first, a stationary structure loses its stability; after that, vibrations with increasing amplitude occur, leading to a limit cycle corresponding to a periodic pattern. The self-organization is usually beneficial for friction and wear reduction because the tribological systems tend to enter a state with the lowest energy dissipation. The introductory chapter starts with basic definitions related to self-organization, instabilities and friction, literature review, and objectives. We discuss fundamental concepts that provide a methodological tool to investigate, understand and enhance beneficial processes in tribosystems which might lead to self-organization. These processes could result in the ability of a frictional surface to exhibit "self-protection" and "self-healing" properties. Hence, this research is dealing with the fundamental concepts that allow the possibility of the development of a new generation of tribosystem and materials that reinforce such properties. In chapter 2, we investigate instabilities due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction. The temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction can have a significant effect on the frictional sliding stability, by leading to the formation of "hot" and "cold" spots on the contacting surfaces. We formulate a stability criterion and perform a case study of a brake disk. In chapter 3, we study frictional running-in. Running-in is a transient period on the onset of the frictional sliding, in which friction and wear decrease to their stationary values. In this research, running-in is interpreted as friction-induced self-organization process. We introduce a theoretical model of running-in and investigate rough profile evolution assuming that its kinetics is driven by two opposite processes or events, i.e., smoothening which is typical for the deformation-driven friction and wear, and roughening which is typical for the adhesion-driven friction and wear. In chapter 4, we investigate the possibility of the so-called Turing-type pattern formation during friction. Turing or reaction-diffusion systems describe variations of spatial concentrations of chemical components with time due to local chemical reactions coupled with diffusion. During friction, the patterns can form at the sliding interface due to the mass transfer (diffusion), heat transfer, various tribochemical reactions, and wear. In chapter 5, we investigate how interfacial patterns including propagating trains of stick and slip zones form due to dynamic sliding instabilities. These can be categorized as self-organized patterns. We treat stick and slip as two phases at the interface, and study the effects related to phase transitions. Our results show how interfacial patterns form, how

  20. Integral form of the skin friction coefficient suitable for experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Faraz; White, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    An integral method to evaluate skin friction coefficient for turbulent boundary layer flow is presented. The method replaces streamwise gradients with total stress gradients in the wall-normal direction and is therefore useful in cases when measurements at multiple streamwise locations are not available or feasible. It is also shown to be especially useful for experimental data with typical noisy shear stress profiles such as rough-wall boundary layer flows for which there are limited ways by which skin friction can be determined.

  1. Jet impingement onto kerf: Effect of kerf wedge angle on heat transfer rates and skin friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melhem, Omar A.; Yilbas, Bekir S.; Shuja, S. Z.

    2014-03-01

    Jet impingement onto a kerf is considered in relation to laser cutting process. Flow and temperature fields are predicted using the three-dimensional modeling. In the simulations influence of kerf wall wedge angle on the Nusselt number and the skin friction at the surface of the kerf wall is examined. The RNG k-? model is incorporated to account for the turbulence. A control volume approach is introduced to discretize the governing flow equations. It is found that the kerf wall wedge angle has considerable influence on the Nusselt number and the skin friction.

  2. Analytical skin friction and heat transfer formula for compressible internal flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechant, Lawrence J.; Tattar, Marc J.

    1994-01-01

    An analytic, closed-form friction formula for turbulent, internal, compressible, fully developed flow was derived by extending the incompressible law-of-the-wall relation to compressible cases. The model is capable of analyzing heat transfer as a function of constant surface temperatures and surface roughness as well as analyzing adiabatic conditions. The formula reduces to Prandtl's law of friction for adiabatic, smooth, axisymmetric flow. In addition, the formula reduces to the Colebrook equation for incompressible, adiabatic, axisymmetric flow with various roughnesses. Comparisons with available experiments show that the model averages roughly 12.5 percent error for adiabatic flow and 18.5 percent error for flow involving heat transfer.

  3. Turbulence modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubesin, Morris W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments at several levels of statistical turbulence modeling applicable to aerodynamics are briefly surveyed. Emphasis is on examples of model improvements for transonic, two-dimensional flows. Experience with the development of these improved models is cited to suggest methods of accelerating the modeling process necessary to keep abreast of the rapid movement of computational fluid dynamics into the computation of complex three-dimensional flows.

  4. Dynamical Friction on Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Yokoyama, T.; Prado, A. F. B. A.

    2012-10-01

    Deienno et al 2011 (A&A, v.536, A57) investigated the effects of the planetary migration on the satellites of Uranus. We concluded that Uranus might have had more satellites than those observed today. However, due to the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) phenomenon, those satellites beyond Oberon were destabilized mostly by collisions involving themselves or with some regular ones. In this work we apply the same methodology for the Saturnian system. We found that the satellites with orbits inside Titan's orbit are immune to the LHB phenomenon. On the other hand, Hyperion, Iapetus, and even Titan, in some cases are strongly affected by the LHB, and depending on the value of Saturn's obliquity, Iapetus might not have resisted to the LHB event. We also found that, the final orbital elements of the surviving satellites differ from what we see today, mainly in inclination. While eccentricity and orbital semi-major axis can be easily damped by tides, for orbital inclinations, tidal effects are not so efficient. Thus, considering that eccentricity and orbital semi-major axis will still evolve by tides, to study the problem of the orbital inclination we consider that: according to our simulations, during the LHB event, collisions between planetesimals and satellites are a common event, causing in some cases destruction of satellites. So, we hypothesized that the material delivered by these catastrophic events could form a disc of particles around the remaining of satellites' orbits. This disc interacts with the remaining satellites and by dynamical friction phenomenon the orbital inclination can be damped. Some preliminary results have shown that, indeed, this tentative can be a viable way to damp conveniently the inclination of some satellites. Acknowledgement: FAPESP-CNPq

  5. Measurements of skin friction in water using surface stress sensitive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crafton, J. W.; Fonov, S. D.; Jones, E. G.; Goss, L. P.; Forlines, R. A.; Fontaine, A.

    2008-07-01

    The measurement of skin friction on hydrodynamic surfaces is of significant value for the design of advanced naval technology, particularly at high Reynolds numbers. Here we report on the development of a new sensor for measurement of skin friction and pressure that operates in both air and water. This sensor is based on an elastic polymer film that deforms under the action of applied normal and tangential loads. Skin friction and pressure gradients are determined by monitoring these deformations and then solving an inverse problem using a finite element model of the elastic film. This technique is known as surface stress sensitive films. In this paper, we describe the development of a sensor package specifically designed for two-dimensional skin friction measurements at a single point. The package has been developed with the goal of making two-dimensional measurements of skin friction in water. Quantitative measurements of skin friction are performed on a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer in the 12 inch water tunnel at Penn State University. These skin friction measurements are verified by comparing them to measurements obtained with a drag plate as well as by performing two-dimensional velocity measurements above the sensor using a laser Doppler velocimetry system. The results indicate that the sensor skin friction measurements are accurate to better than 5% and repeatable to better than 2%. The directional sensitivity of the sensor is demonstrated by positioning the sensor at several orientations to the flow. A final interesting feature of this sensor is that it is sensitive to pressure gradients, not to static pressure changes. This feature should prove useful for monitoring the skin friction on a seafaring vessel as the operating depth is changed.

  6. A Study on the Friction Characteristics of Automotive Composite Brake Pads Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun Hae; Lee, Jung Ju; Nisitani, H.

    It has many variables and factors to design the friction materials for automotive brake pads. The purpose of this study is to develop the proper method to design at low-cost and to find friction characteristics of each raw materials. For the purpose of examining the effect of each major raw materials, we used the Taguchi L9(34) orthogonal matrix and 1/5 scale dynamo machine for evaluation of the friction characteristics of composite brake pads. Using Taguchi method, it is easy to investigate the influence of each component in complicated composites friction materials. After analyzing the testing results by the Taguchi method, the effect of factors and levels influenced friction behavior was studied.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of the Amontons-Coulomb's Model using Local and Global Friction Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.; Ramalho, A.; Alves, J. L.

    2011-05-04

    In spite of the abundant number of experimental friction tests that have been reported, the contact with friction modeling persists to be one of the factors that determine the effectiveness of sheet metal forming simulation. This difficulty can be understood due to the nature of the friction phenomena, which comprises the interaction of different factors connected to both sheet and tools' surfaces. Although in finite element numerical simulations friction models are commonly applied at the local level, they normally rely on parameters identified based on global experimental tests results. The aim of this study is to analyze the applicability of the Amontons-Coulomb's friction coefficient identified using complementary tests: (i) load-scanning, at the local level and (ii) draw-bead, at the global level; to the numerical simulation of sheet metal forming processes.

  8. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  9. Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A. ); Henein, N.A. . Center for Automotive Research)

    1992-05-01

    The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-[omega]) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, [omega], have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-[omega]) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

  10. Friction between Ring Polymer Brushes

    E-print Network

    A. Erbas; J. Paturej

    2015-01-07

    Friction between ring-polymer brushes at melt densities sliding past each other are studied using extensive course-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling arguments, and the results are compared to the friction between linear-polymer brushes. We show that for a velocity range spanning over three decades, the frictional forces measured for ring-polymer brushes are half the corresponding friction in case of linear brushes. In the linear-force regime, the weak inter-digitation of two ring brushes compared to linear brushes also leads to a lower number of binary collisions between the monomers of opposing brushes. At high velocities, where the thickness of the inter-digitation layer between two opposing brushes is on the order monomer size regardless of brush topology, stretched segments of ring polymers take a double-stranded conformation. As a result, monomers of the double-stranded segments collide less with the monomers of the opposing ring brush even though a similar number of monomers occupies the inter-digitation layer for ring and linear-brush bilayers. The numerical data obtained from our simulations is consistent with the proposed scaling analysis. Conformation-dependent frictional reduction observed in ring brushes can have important consequences in non-equilibrium bulk systems.

  11. Turbulent eddy viscosity modeling in transonic shock/boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inger, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The treatment of turbulence effects on transonic shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction is addressed within the context of a triple deck approach valid for arbitrary practical Reynolds numbers between 1000 and 10 billion. The modeling of the eddy viscosity and basic turbulent boundary profile effects in each deck is examined in detail using Law-of-the-Wall/Law-of-the-Wake concepts as the foundation. Results of parametric studies showing how each of these turbulence model aspects influences typical interaction zone property distributions (wall pressure, displacement thickness and local skin friction) are presented and discussed.

  12. Frictional characteristics and heat transfer of antimisting fuels in tubes. Final report Aug 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Wat, J.; Sarohia, V.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the skin friction and heat transfer behavior of antimisting kerosene (AMK) in pipe flows. The additive used in the AMK was FM-9 developed by Imperial Chemical Industries. AMK has been developed as an aviation safety fuel to reduce post-crash fires. The principle aim of the present investigation was to determine the modification in flow and heat transfer behavior caused by the presence of the antimisting polymer additive in jet fuel. The present study indicates that the AMK skin friction versus Reynolds number, or Nusselt number versus Reynolds number behavior, can be divided into three regions: (1) Newtonian laminar region, (2) shear-thickening transition region, and (3) drag-reducing turbulent region. At low flow rates, AMK has Newtonian behavior, i.e., constant viscosity. At a certain critical wallshear rate which depends on the fuel temperature and additive concentration, shear thickening occurs and causes a large increase in skin friction and heat transfer rates. In the third region, the skin friction and heat transfer rates drop rapidly and fall below the predicted Newtonian flow skin friction and heat transfer values; e.g., for 0.3 percent FM-9 AMK at a temperature of 20 C, 22,000 and 10,000. Beyond these points, there is a reduction in skin friction and heat transfer rates.

  13. Dynamical friction in spherical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremaine, S.; Weinberg, M. D.

    1984-08-01

    The authors investigate dynamical friction on a test object (such as a bar or satellite) which rotates or revolves through a spherical stellar system. They find that frictional effects arise entirely from near-resonant stars and they derive an analog to Chandrasekhar's dynamical friction formula which applies to spherical systems. The authors show that a formula of this type is valid so long as the angular speed of the test object changes sufficiently rapidly. If the angular speed is slowly changing two new effects appear: a reversible dynamical feedback which can stabilize or destabilize the rotation speed, and permanent capture of near-resonant stars into librating orbits. The authors discuss orbital decay of satellites in the light of these results.

  14. Numerical approach to frictional fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Jon Alm; Toussaint, Renaud; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen; Flekkøy, Eirik; Sandnes, Bjørnar

    2015-09-01

    Experiments on confined two-phase flow systems, involving air and a dense suspension, have revealed a diverse set of flow morphologies. As the air displaces the suspension, the beads that make up the suspension can accumulate along the interface. The dynamics can generate "frictional fingers" of air coated by densely packed grains. We present here a simplified model for the dynamics together with a new numerical strategy for simulating the frictional finger behavior. The model is based on the yield stress criterion of the interface. The discretization scheme allows for simulating a larger range of structures than previous approaches. We further make theoretical predictions for the characteristic width associated with the frictional fingers, based on the yield stress criterion, and compare these to experimental results. The agreement between theory and experiments validates our model and allows us to estimate the unknown parameter in the yield stress criterion, which we use in the simulations.

  15. The Reality of Casimir Friction

    E-print Network

    K. A. Milton; J. S. Høye; I. Brevik

    2015-08-04

    For more than 35 years theorists have studied quantum or Casimir friction, which occurs when two smooth bodies move transversely to each other, experiencing a frictional dissipative force due to quantum fluctuations. These forces are typically very small, unless the bodies are nearly touching, and consequently such effects have never been observed, although lateral Casimir forces have been seen for corrugated surfaces. Because of the lack of contact with phenomena, theoretical predictions for the frictional force between parallel plates, or between a polarizable atom and a metallic plate, have varied widely. Here we review the history of these calculations, show that theoretical consensus is emerging, and offer some hope that it might be possible to experimentally confirm this phenomenon of dissipative quantum electrodynamics.

  16. Low temperature friction force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunckle, Christopher Gregory

    The application of friction force techniques within atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for direct measurements of friction forces at a sliding, single-asperity interface. The temperature dependence of such single-asperity contacts provides key insight into the comparative importance of dissipative mechanisms that result in dry sliding friction. A variable temperature (VT), ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) AFM was used with an interface consisting of a diamond coated AFM tip and diamond-like carbon sample in a nominal sample temperature range of 90 to 275K. The results show that the coefficient of kinetic friction, mu k, has a linear dependence that is monotonically increasing with temperature varying from 0.28 to 0.38. To analyze this data it is necessary to correlate the sample temperature to the interface temperature. A detailed thermal model shows that the sample temperature measured by a macroscopic device can be very different from the temperature at the contact point. Temperature gradients intrinsic to the design of VT, UHV AFMs result in extreme, non-equilibrium conditions with heat fluxes on the order of gigawatts per squared meter through the interface, which produce a discontinuous step in the temperature profile due to thermal boundary impedance. The conclusion from this model is that measurements acquired by VT, UHV AFM, including those presented in this thesis, do not provide meaningful data on the temperature dependence of friction for single-asperities. Plans for future work developing an isothermal AFM capable of the same measurements without the introduction of temperature gradients are described. The experimental results and thermal analysis described in this thesis have been published in the Journal of Applied Physics, "Temperature dependence of single-asperity friction for a diamond on diamondlike carbon interface", J. App. Phys., 107(11):114903, 2010.

  17. Turbulent Jets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, B. H.; Rosen, P. A.; Foster, J. M.; Perry, T. S.; Steinkamp, M. J.; Robey, H. F.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Gittings, M. L.; Coker, R. F.; Keiter, P. A.; Knauer, J. P.; Drake, R. P.; Remington, B. A.; Bennett, G. R.; Sinars, D. B.; Campbell, R. B.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2003-10-01

    Over the last few years we have fielded numerous supersonic jet experiments on the NOVA and OMEGA lasers and Sandia's pulsed-power Z-machine in a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Atomic Weapons Establishment, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory. These experiments are being conducted to help validate our radiation-hydrodynamic codes, especially the newly developing ASC codes. One of the outstanding questions is whether these types of jets should turn turbulent given their high Reynolds number. Recently we have modified our experiments to have more Kelvin-Helmholtz shear, run much later in time and therefore have a better chance of going turbulent. In order to diagnose these large (several mm) jets at very late times ( 1000 ns) we are developing point-projection imaging on both the OMEGA laser, the Sandia Z-Machine, and ultimately at NIF. Since these jets have similar Euler numbers to jets theorized to be produced in supernovae explosions, we are also collaborating with the astrophysics community to help in the validation of their new codes. This poster will present a review of the laser and pulsed-power experiments and a comparison of the data to simulations by the codes from the various laboratories. We will show results of simulations wherein these jets turn highly 3-dimensional and show characteristics of turbulence. With the new data, we hope to be able to validate the sub-grid-scale turbulent mix models (e. g. BHR) that are being incorporated into our codes.*This work is performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48, the Laboratory for Laser Energetics under Contract No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, Sandia National Laboratories under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000, the Office of Naval Research, and the NASA Astrophysical Theory Grant.

  18. Vacuum Friction in Rotating Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Manjavacas, A.; Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

    2010-09-10

    We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

  19. Vacuum friction in rotating particles

    E-print Network

    A. Manjavacas; F. J. García de Abajo

    2010-09-21

    We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

  20. Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2010-12-01

    Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begin with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretions on a spinning pair release 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscous stresses and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, extracting mass-energy and space-time from the vacuum. Turbulence mixes cooling temperatures until strong-force viscous stresses freeze out turbulent mixing patterns as the first fossil turbulence. Cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies show big bang turbulence fossils along with fossils of weak plasma turbulence triggered as plasma photon-viscous forces permitting gravitational fragmentation on supercluster to galaxy mass scales. Turbulent morphologies and viscous-turbulent lengths appear as linear gas-protogalaxy-clusters in the Hubble ultra-deep field at z~7. Protogalaxies fragment into Jeans mass clumps of primordial-gas planets at decoupling: the dark matter of galaxies. Shortly after the plasma-to-gas transition, planet mergers produce stars that explode on overfeeding to fertilize and distribute the first life.

  1. Friction properties of novel PVP/PVA blend hydrogels as artificial cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ruyin; Xiong, Dangsheng; Miao, Feng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Peng, Yan

    2010-06-01

    In this work, novel polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/polyvinylalcohol (PVA) blend hydrogels were prepared by repeated freezing-thawing cycles. The factors that influenced friction properties of blend hydrogels, such as PVP content, contact load, sliding speed, and lubrication condition, were mainly studied by sliding with stainless steel ball. The results showed that friction coefficients of the PVP/PVA blend hydrogels were definitely dependent on such influence factors. The friction system consisting of blend hydrogel and stainless steel ball nearly exhibited a mixed lubrication regime especially under bovine serum lubrication, and it can be proposed as a promising method to reduce wear of the prosthesis. PMID:19743512

  2. Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component

    E-print Network

    Eltsov, Vladimir; Krusius, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In Fermi superfluids, like superfluid 3He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared to the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. This causes profound changes in superfluid dynamics: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures.

  3. Rubber friction on ice and snow surfaces 

    E-print Network

    Skouvaklis, Gerasimos

    2011-06-28

    The friction of rubber on ice and snow surfaces is complex. Deeper scientific understanding is important for optimising performance of tyres in winter. Rubber, ice and snow systems exhibit frictional behaviour which ...

  4. Optimal Monetary Policy with Informational Frictions

    E-print Network

    Angeletos, George-Marios

    2011-11-05

    We study optimal monetary policy in an environment in which firms’ pricing and production decisions are subject to informational frictions. Our framework accommodates multiple formalizations of these frictions, including ...

  5. Dynamics of sliding mechanisms in nanoscale friction

    E-print Network

    Yim, Shon W., 1973-

    2002-01-01

    Nanotribology is the study of friction and wear at the nanoscale, with relevance to such applications as micromechanical systems (MEMS) and thin, hard coatings. For these systems, classical laws of friction are inappropriate ...

  6. Low-Friction Joint for Robot Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical linkage allows adjacent parts to move relative to each other with low friction and with no chatter, slipping, or backlash. Low-friction joint of two surfaces in rolling contact, held in alinement by taut flexible bands. No sliding friction or "stick-slip" motion: Only rolling-contact and bending friction within bands. Proposed linkage intended for finger joints in mechanical hands for robots and manipulators.

  7. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  8. Joint Winter Runway Friction Program Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Wambold, James C.; Henry, John J.; Andresen, Arild; Bastian, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The major program objectives are: (1) harmonize ground vehicle friction measurements to report consistent friction value or index for similar contaminated runway conditions, for example, compacted snow, and (2) establish reliable correlation between ground vehicle friction measurements and aircraft braking performance. Accomplishing these objectives would give airport operators better procedures for evaluating runway friction and maintaining acceptable operating conditions, providing pilots information to base go/no go decisions, and would contribute to reducing traction-related aircraft accidents.

  9. Showing Area Matters: A Work of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Domelen, David

    2010-01-01

    Typically, we teach the simplified friction equation of the form F[subscript s] = [mu][subscript s]N for static friction, where F[subscript s] is the maximum static friction, [mu][subscript s] is the coefficient of static friction, and "N" is the normal force pressing the surfaces together. However, this is a bit too simplified, and doesn't work…

  10. Frictional response of a thick gouge sample: 2. Friction law and implications for faults

    E-print Network

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    not involve any characteristic length scale. The decrease of the gouge friction coefficient m with imposed of the friction law is to prescribe the evolution of the fault effective coefficient of friction as a function-weakening laws prescribe that the coefficient of friction essentially depends on slip displacement [e.g., Palmer

  11. The Power of Friction: Quantifying the ``Goodness'' of Frictional Grasps \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Bud

    The Power of Friction: Quantifying the ``Goodness'' of Frictional Grasps \\Lambda Marek Teichmann of fingers, coefficient of friction and the the goodness of a grasp. In particular, we give a general framework for defining a grasp metric that takes friction into account. Our approach rectifies a flaw

  12. Mixing and bottom friction: parametrization and application to the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.; Lepesqueur, J.

    2012-04-01

    Wave breaking has been observed to impact the bottom boundary layer in surf zones, with potential impacts on bottom friction. Observations in the inner surf zone have also shown a tendency to an underestimation of the wave-induced set-up when using usual model parameterizations. The present study investigates the possible impact of wave breaking on bottom friction and set-up using a recently proposed parameterization of the wave-induced turbulent kinetic energy in the vertical mixing parameterization of the wave-averaged flow. This parametrization proposed by Mellor (2002) allows us to take account the oscillations of the bottom boundary layer with the wave phases thanks to some additional turbulent source terms. First, the behavior of this parameterization, is investigated by comparing phase-resolving and phase-averaged solutions. The hydrodynamical model MARS (Lazure et Dumas, 2008) is used for this, using a modified k-epsilon model to take account the Mellor (2002) parametrization. It is shown that the phase averaged solution strongly overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy, which is similar to the situation of the air flow over waves (Miles 1996). The waves inhibits the turbulence and the wave-averaged parametrization is not able to reproduce correctly this phenomenom. Cases with wave breaking at the surface are simulated in order to study the influence of surface wave breaking on the bottom boundary layer. This parametrization is applied in the surf zone for two differents cases, one for a planar beach and one other for a barred beach with rip currents. The coupled model MARS-WAVEWATCH III is used for this (Bennis et al, 2011) and for a realistic planar beach, the mixing parameterization has only a limited impact on the bottom friction and the wave set-up, unless the bottom roughness is greatly enhanced in very shallow water, or for a spatially varying roughness. The use of the mixing parametrization requires an adjustement of the bottom roughness to fit the observations probably due to the expression of the additional source of turbulent kinetic energy. For an idealized barred beach, the results given by the mixing parametrization are compared with others from parametrizations that take account the wave effects on the bottom friction via the wave orbital velocity, and no via the turbulent kinetic energy as in Mellor (2002). The vertical profile of the rip current is significantly modified by the bottom friction parametrization, while the feedback of the waves on the flow (ie. two-way mode) changes the pattern of the rip currents in comparison with the one-way mode.

  13. Financing Frictions and Firm Dynamics Ozge Gokbayrak

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Financing Frictions and Firm Dynamics by ¨Ozge G¨okbayrak A dissertation submitted in partial) August 2007 #12;Financing Frictions and Firm Dynamics Copyright 2007 by ¨Ozge G¨okbayrak #12;Abstract My dissertation examines how financing frictions affect firms' dynamics. In particular, I incorporate financing

  14. Statistics of Frictional Families Tianqi Shen,1

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    a packing with saddle order m at a given static friction coefficient , PmðÞ, can be expressed as a power number on the friction coefficient for static disk packings obtained from direct simulations)anddisthespatialdimension.However,ata nonzero static friction coefficient , fewer contacts are required for mechanical stability with Nc Nðd þ

  15. Constitutive relations for cohesionless frictional granular materials

    E-print Network

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Constitutive relations for cohesionless frictional granular materials Sia Nemat-Nasser* and Juhua: Coustitutive models; Granular materials; Cyclic streaming; Coulomt friction; Anisotropy; Fabric 1. Introduction. The backstress #12;, is proportional to the pressure p, and an effective friction coefficient. Its magnitude

  16. Friction in full view A. P. Merklea

    E-print Network

    Marks, Laurence D.

    Friction in full view A. P. Merklea and L. D. Marksb Materials Science and Engineering proposed friction mechanisms explaining the unique tribological properties of graphite. Wear of graphite chemical or struc- tural information from the interface during a friction experi- ment. Examples

  17. The friction of wrinkles Hamid Mohammadi1

    E-print Network

    Mueser, Martin

    The friction of wrinkles Hamid Mohammadi1 and Martin H. M¨user2 1 Dept. of Applied Mathematics pattern has asymmetries not present in the counterbody. The instabilities then cause Coulomb's friction Likewise, the presence of friction - as observed for the much investigated keratocytes on silicon rubber15

  18. Dynamical friction in cuspy galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Arca-Sedda, M.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we treat the problem of the dynamical friction decay of a massive object moving in an elliptical galaxy with a cuspidal inner distribution of the mass density. We present results obtained by both self-consistent, direct summation, N-body simulations, as well as by a new semi-analytical treatment of dynamical friction valid in such cuspy central regions of galaxies. A comparison of these results indicates that the proposed semi-analytical approximation is the only reliable one in cuspy galactic central regions, where the standard Chandrasekhar's local approximation fails and also gives estimates of decay times that are correct at 1% with respect to those given by N-body simulations. The efficiency of dynamical friction in cuspy galaxies is found definitively higher than in core galaxies, especially on more radially elongated satellite orbits. As another relevant result, we find a proportionality of the dynamical friction decay time to the –0.67 power of the satellite mass, M, shallower than the standardly adopted M {sup –1} dependence.

  19. Tool Wear in Friction Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Scott F; Blau, Peter Julian; Shih, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the wear of carbide tools used in friction drilling, a nontraditional hole-making process. In friction drilling, a rotating conical tool uses the heat generated by friction to soften and penetrate a thin workpiece and create a bushing without generating chips. The wear of a hard tungsten carbide tool used for friction drilling a low carbon steel workpiece has been investigated. Tool wear characteristics were studied by measuring its weight change, detecting changes in its shape with a coordinate measuring machine, and making observations of wear damage using scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was applied to analyze the change in chemical composition of the tool surface due to drilling. In addition, the thrust force and torque during drilling and the hole size were measured periodically to monitor the effects of tool wear. Results indicate that the carbide tool is durable, showing minimal tool wear after drilling 11000 holes, but observations also indicate progressively severe abrasive grooving on the tool tip.

  20. Dynamical friction on satellite galaxies

    E-print Network

    Michiko Fujii; Yoko Funato; Junichiro Makino

    2006-06-23

    For a rigid model satellite, Chandrasekhar's dynamical friction formula describes the orbital evolution quite accurately, when the Coulomb logarithm is chosen appropriately. However, it is not known if the orbital evolution of a real satellite with the internal degree of freedom can be described by the dynamical friction formula. We performed N-body simulation of the orbital evolution of a self-consistent satellite galaxy within a self-consistent parent galaxy. We found that the orbital decay of the simulated satellite is significantly faster than the estimate from the dynamical friction formula. The main cause of this discrepancy is that the stars stripped out of the satellite are still close to the satellite, and increase the drag force on the satellite through two mechanisms. One is the direct drag force from particles in the trailing tidal arm, a non-axisymmetric force that slows the satellite down. The other is the indirect effect that is caused by the particles remaining close to the satellite after escape. The force from them enhances the wake caused in the parent galaxy by dynamical friction, and this larger wake in turn slows the satellite down more than expected from the contribution of its bound mass. We found these two have comparable effects, and the combined effect can be as large as 20% of the total drag force on the satellite.

  1. A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.

  2. Preface: Friction at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusc, Claudio; Smith, Roger; Urbakh, Michael; Vanossi, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Interfacial friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and chemistry, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Everyday operations on a broad range of scales, from nanometer and up, depend upon the smooth and satisfactory functioning of countless tribological systems. Friction imposes serious constraints and limitations on the performance and lifetime of micro-machines and, undoubtedly, will impose even more severe constraints on the emerging technology of nano-machines. Standard lubrication techniques used for large objects are expected to be less effective in the nano-world. Novel methods for control and manipulation are therefore needed. What has been missing is a molecular level understanding of processes occurring between and close to interacting surfaces to help understand, and later manipulate friction. Friction is intimately related to both adhesion and wear, and all three require an understanding of highly non-equilibrium processes occurring at the molecular level to determine what happens at the macroscopic level. Due to its practical importance and the relevance to basic scientific questions there has been major increase in activity in the study of interfacial friction on the microscopic level during the last decade. Intriguing structural and dynamical features have been observed experimentally. These observations have motivated theoretical efforts, both numerical and analytical. This special issue focusses primarily on discussion of microscopic mechanisms of friction and adhesion at the nanoscale level. The contributions cover many important aspects of frictional behaviour, including the origin of stick-slip motion, the dependence of measured forces on the material properties, effects of thermal fluctuations, surface roughness and instabilities in boundary lubricants on both static and kinetic friction. An important problem that has been raised in this issue, and which has still to be resolved, concerns the possibility of controlling frictional response. The ability to control and manipulate frictional forces is extremely important for a variety of applications. These include magnetic storage and recording systems, miniature motors, and more. This special issue aims to provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental works on nanotribology and possible applications. In selecting the papers we have tried to maintain a balance between new results and review-like aspects, so that the present issue is self-contained and, we hope, readily accessible to non-specialists in the field. We believe that the particular appeal of this collection of papers also lies in the fusion of both experiment and theory, thus providing the connection to reality of the sometimes demanding, mathematically inclined contributions. Profound thanks go to all our colleagues and friends who have contributed to this special issue. Each has made an effort not only to present recent results in a clear and lucid way, but also to provide an introductory review that helps the reader to understand the different topics.

  3. Skin Friction Measurements by a Dual-Laser-Beam Interferometer Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

    1981-01-01

    A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a "law-of-the-well" coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. (This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.)

  4. End to end loop formation in a single polymer chain with internal friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Nairhita; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2013-09-01

    We use Rouse and Zimm models with solvent viscosity independent internal friction to study the end to end loop formation of a single polymer chain within the Wilemski-Fixmann theoretical framework. Our calculation shows internal friction makes loop formation between two ends of a polymer chain slower but has a weaker dependence on the chain length as compared to no internal friction. The average looping time shows not linear but fractional dependence on the solvent viscosity. Also the effect of the internal friction to the looping time is neither additive nor multiplicative but always additive to the reconfiguration time. Our numerical results show internal friction can reduce the looping rate by a factor of two to an order of magnitude depending on the time scale associated with it.

  5. Pressure and Friction Injuries in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shawn; Seiverling, Elizabeth; Silvis, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Pressure and friction injuries are common throughout the lifespan. A detailed history of the onset and progression of friction and pressure injuries is key to aiding clinicians in determining the underlying mechanism behind the development of the injury. Modifying or removing the forces that are creating pressure or friction is the key to both prevention and healing of these injuries. Proper care of pressure and friction injuries to the skin is important to prevent the development of infection. Patient education on positioning and ergonomics can help to prevent recurrence of pressure and friction injuries. PMID:26612376

  6. A field theoretic model for static friction

    E-print Network

    I. Mahyaeh; S. Rouhani

    2013-08-14

    We present a field theoretic model for friction, where the friction coefficient between two surfaces may be calculated based on elastic properties of the surfaces. We assume that the geometry of contact surface is not unusual. We verify Amonton's laws to hold that friction force is proportional to the normal load.This model gives the opportunity to calculate the static coefficient of friction for a few cases, and show that it is in agreement with observed values. Furthermore we show that the coefficient of static friction is independent of apparent surface area in first approximation.

  7. Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean.

    PubMed

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing. PMID:26274279

  8. Phytoplankton's motion in turbulent ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouxon, Itzhak; Leshansky, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We study the influence of turbulence on upward motion of phytoplankton. Interaction with the flow is described by the Pedley-Kessler model considering spherical microorganisms. We find a range of parameters when the upward drift is only weakly perturbed or when turbulence completely randomizes the drift direction. When the perturbation is small, the drift is either determined by the local vorticity or is Gaussian. We find a range of parameters where the phytoplankton interaction with the flow can be described consistently as diffusion of orientation in effective potential. By solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation we find exponential steady-state distribution of phytoplankton's propulsion orientation. We further identify the range of parameters where phytoplankton's drift velocity with respect to the flow is determined uniquely by its position. In this case, one can describe phytoplankton's motion by a smooth flow and phytoplankton concentrates on fractal. We find fractal dimensions and demonstrate that phytoplankton forms vertical stripes in space with a nonisotropic pair-correlation function of concentration increased in the vertical direction. The probability density function of the distance between two particles obeys power law with the negative exponent given by the ratio of integrals of the turbulent energy spectrum. We find the regime of strong clustering where the exponent is of order one so that turbulence increases the rate of collisions by a large factor. The predictions hold for Navier-Stokes turbulence and stand for testing.

  9. MHD Turbulence, Turbulent Dynamo and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Lazarian, Alex

    MHD Turbulence is common in many space physics and astrophysics environments. We first discuss the properties of incompressible MHD turbulence. A well-conductive fluid amplifies initial magnetic fields in a process called small-scale dynamo. Below equipartition scale for kinetic and magnetic energies the spectrum is steep (Kolmogorov -5/3) and is represented by critically balanced strong MHD turbulence. In this Chapter we report the basic reasoning behind universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo and the inertial range of MHD turbulence. We measured the efficiency of the small-scale dynamo C E = 0. 05, Kolmogorov constant C K = 4. 2 and anisotropy constant C A = 0. 63 for MHD turbulence in high-resolution direct numerical simulations. We also discuss so-called imbalanced or cross-helical MHD turbulence which is relevant for in many objects, most prominently in the solar wind. We show that properties of incompressible MHD turbulence are similar to the properties of Alfvénic part of MHD cascade in compressible turbulence. The other parts of the cascade evolve according to their own dynamics. The slow modes are being cascaded by Alfvénic modes, while fast modes create an independent cascade. We show that different ways of decomposing compressible MHD turbulence into Alfvén, slow and fast modes provide consistent results and are useful in understanding not only turbulent cascade, but its interaction with fast particles.

  10. Frictional constraints on crustal faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, J.; Cocco, M.

    1996-01-01

    We consider how variations in fault frictional properties affect the phenomenology of earthquake faulting. In particular, we propose that lateral variations in fault friction produce the marked heterogeneity of slip observed in large earthquakes. We model these variations using a rate- and state-dependent friction law, where we differentiate velocity-weakening behavior into two fields: the strong seismic field is very velocity weakening and the weak seismic field is slightly velocity weakening. Similarly, we differentiate velocity-strengthening behavior into two fields: the compliant field is slightly velocity strengthening and the viscous field is very velocity strengthening. The strong seismic field comprises the seismic slip concentrations, or asperities. The two "intermediate" fields, weak seismic and compliant, have frictional velocity dependences that are close to velocity neutral: these fields modulate both the tectonic loading and the dynamic rupture process. During the interseismic period, the weak seismic and compliant regions slip aseismically, while the strong seismic regions remain locked, evolving into stress concentrations that fail only in main shocks. The weak seismic areas exhibit most of the interseismic activity and aftershocks but can also creep seismically. This "mixed" frictional behavior can be obtained from a sufficiently heterogenous distribution of the critical slip distance. The model also provides a mechanism for rupture arrest: dynamic rupture fronts decelerate as they penetrate into unloaded complaint or weak seismic areas, producing broad areas of accelerated afterslip. Aftershocks occur on both the weak seismic and compliant areas around a fault, but most of the stress is diffused through aseismic slip. Rapid afterslip on these peripheral areas can also produce aftershocks within the main shock rupture area by reloading weak fault areas that slipped in the main shock and then healed. We test this frictional model by comparing the seismicity and the coseismic slip for the 1966 Parkfield, 1979 Coyote Lake, and 1984 Morgan Hill earthquakes. The interevent seismicity and aftershocks appear to occur on fault areas outside the regions of significant slip: these regions are interpreted as either weak seismic or compliant, depending on whether or not they manifest interevent seismicity.

  11. Turbulent drag reduction through oscillating discs

    E-print Network

    Wise, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The changes of a turbulent channel flow subjected to oscillations of wall flush-mounted rigid discs are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number is $R_\\tau$=$180$, based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. The primary effect of the wall forcing is the sustained reduction of wall-shear stress, which reaches a maximum of 20%. A parametric study on the disc diameter, maximum tip velocity, and oscillation period is presented, with the aim to identify the optimal parameters which guarantee maximum drag reduction and maximum net energy saving, computed by taking into account the power spent to actuate the discs. This may be positive and reaches 6%. The Rosenblat viscous pump flow is used to predict the power spent for disc motion in the turbulent channel flow and to estimate localized and transient regions over the disc surface subjected to the turbulent regenerative braking effect, for which the wall turbulence exerts work on the discs. The...

  12. Dynamical friction on extended objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A massive object passing through a background of non-colliding particles induces a wake of accreted matter. The gravitational effect of the wake on the object is investigated in this paper. The phase density of the background in the spherical potential of the object is derived analytically. The corresponding background response density and the force of dynamical friction over the entire extent of the object are found by numerical integration. The force field is separated into effective decelerating and deforming components. The first component is shown to be in agreement with previous results; the latter is of the same order of magnitude and might cause stripping of the object's outer parts. Tidal stripping caused by the variation of the potential of a non-homogeneous gravitationally bound background system is shown to be dominant over dynamical friction stripping.

  13. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-07-28

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123

  14. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting

    PubMed Central

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or “pseudotachylytes.” It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics. PMID:26124123

  15. Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of problems in…

  16. Kinetic wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Shi, Yi-Kang

    2012-09-01

    We consider a general model of Hamiltonian wave systems with triple resonances, in the standard kinetic limit of a continuum of weakly interacting dispersive waves with random phases. We show in this limit that the leading-order, asymptotically valid dynamical equation for multimode amplitude distributions is not the well-known equation of Peierls (also, Brout & Prigogine and Zaslavskii & Sagdeev), but is instead a reduced equation containing only a subset of the terms in that equation. Our equations are consistent with the Peierls equation in that the additional terms in the latter vanish as inverse powers of volume in the large-box limit. The equations that we derive are the direct analogue of the Boltzmann hierarchy obtained from the BBGKY hierarchy in the low-density limit for gases. We show that the asymptotic multimode equations possess factorized solutions for factorized initial data, which correspond to preservation in time of the property of “random phases & amplitudes”. The factors satisfy the equations for the 1-mode probability density functions (PDFs) previously derived by Choi et al. and Jakobsen & Newell. Analogous to the Klimontovich density in the kinetic theory of gases, we introduce the concepts of the “empirical spectrum” and the “empirical 1-mode PDF”. We show that the factorization of the hierarchy equations implies that these quantities are self-averaging: they satisfy the wave-kinetic closure equations of the spectrum and 1-mode PDF for almost any selection of phases and amplitudes from the initial ensemble. We show that both of these closure equations satisfy an H-theorem for an entropy defined by Boltzmann’s prescription S=kBlogW. We also characterize the general solutions of our multimode distribution equations, for initial conditions with random phases but with no statistical assumptions on the amplitudes. Analogous to a result of Spohn for the Boltzmann hierarchy, these are “super-statistical solutions” that correspond to ensembles of solutions of the wave-kinetic closure equations with random initial conditions or random forces. On the basis of our results, we discuss possible kinetic explanations of intermittency and non-Gaussian statistics in wave turbulence. In particular, we advance the explanation of a “super-turbulence” produced by stochastic or turbulent solutions of the wave kinetic equations themselves.

  17. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  18. Rubber friction on smooth surfaces

    E-print Network

    B. N. J. Persson; A. I. Volokitin

    2006-07-04

    We study the sliding friction for viscoelastic solids, e.g., rubber, on hard flat substrate surfaces. We consider first the fluctuating shear stress inside a viscoelastic solid which results from the thermal motion of the atoms or molecules in the solid. At the nanoscale the thermal fluctuations are very strong and give rise to stress fluctuations in the MPa-range, which is similar to the depinning stresses which typically occur at solid-rubber interfaces, indicating the crucial importance of thermal fluctuations for rubber friction on smooth surfaces. We develop a detailed model which takes into account the influence of thermal fluctuations on the depinning of small contact patches (stress domains) at the rubber-substrate interface. The theory predicts that the velocity dependence of the macroscopic shear stress has a bell-shaped f orm, and that the low-velocity side exhibits the same temperature dependence as the bulk viscoelastic modulus, in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Finally, we discuss the influence of small-amplitude substrate roughness on rubber sliding friction.

  19. Heat transfer in turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, R.S. ); Crawford, M.E.; Anand, N.K. )

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on heat transfer and turbulent flow. The topics covered include fundamental research on turbulence in heat transfer processes, boundary layer flows, temperature turbulence spectrum, turbulence modeling, and applications to heat exchangers, gas turbines, and other engineering problems.

  20. Frictional slip of granite at hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpied, Michael L.; Lockner, David A.; Byerlee, James D.

    1995-07-01

    Sliding on faults in much of the continental crust likely occurs at hydrothermal conditions, i.e., at elevated temperature and elevated pressure of aqueous pore fluids, yet there have been few relevant laboratory studies. To measure the strength, sliding behavior, and friction constitutive properties of faults at hydrothermal conditions, we slid laboratory granite faults containing a layer of granite powder (simulated gouge). Velocity stepping experiments were performed at temperatures of 23° to 600°C, pore fluid pressures PH2O of 0 ("dry") and 100 MPa ("wet"), effective normal stress of 400 MPa, and sliding velocities V of 0.01 to 1 ?m/s (0.32 to 32 m/yr). Conditions were similar to those in earlier tests on dry granite to 845°C by Lockner et al. (1986). The mechanical results define two regimes. The first regime includes dry granite up to at least 845° and wet granite below 250°C. In this regime the coefficient of friction is high (? = 0.7 to 0.8) and depends only modestly on temperature, slip rate, and PH2O. The second regime includes wet granite above ˜350°C. In this regime friction decreases considerably with increasing temperature (temperature weakening) and with decreasing slip rate (velocity strengthening). These regimes correspond well to those identified in sliding tests on ultrafine quartz. We infer that one or more fluid-assisted deformation mechanisms are activated in the second, hydrothermal, regime and operate concurrently with cataclastic flow. Slip in the first (cool and/or dry) regime is characterized by pervasive shearing and particle size reduction. Slip in the second (hot and wet) regime is localized primarily onto narrow shear bands adjacent to the gouge-rock interfaces. Weakness of these boundary shears may result either from an abundance of phyllosilicates preferentially aligned for easy dislocation glide, or from a dependence of strength on gouge particle size. Major features of the granite data set can be fit reasonably well by a rate- and temperature-dependent, three-regime friction constitutive model (Chester, this issue). We extrapolate the experimental data and model fit in order to estimate steady state shear strength versus depth along natural, slipping faults for sliding rates as low as 31 mm/yr. We do this for two end-member cases. In the first case, pore pressure is assumed hydrostatic at all depths. Shallow crustal strength in this case is similar to that calculated in previous work from room temperature friction data, while at depths below about 9-13 km (depending on slip rate), strength becomes less sensitive to depth but sensitive to slip rate. In the second case, pore pressure is assumed to be near-lithostatic at depths below ˜5 km. Strength is low at all depths in this case (<20 MPa, in agreement with observations of "weak" faults such as the San Andreas). The predicted depth of transition from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening lies at about 13 km depth for a slip rate of 31 mm/yr, in rough agreement with the seismic-aseismic transition depth observed on mature continental faults. These results highlight the importance of fluid-assisted deformation processes active in faults at depth and the need for laboratory studies on the roles of additional factors such as fluid chemistry, large displacements, higher concentrations of phyllosilicates, and time-dependent fault healing.

  1. Friction, Wear, and Surface Damage of Metals as Affected by Solid Surface Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Edmond E; Johnson, Robert L; Swikert, Max A; Godfrey, Douglas

    1956-01-01

    As predicted by friction theory, experiments showed that friction and surface damage of metals can be reduced by solid surface films. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding was a very important factor in wear of dry and boundary lubricated surfaces. Films of graphitic carbon on cast irons, nio on nickel alloys, and feo and fe sub 3 o sub 4 on ferrous materials were found to be beneficial. Abrasive films such as fe sub 2 o sub 3 or moo sub 3 were definitely detrimental. It appears that the importance of oxide films to friction and wear processes has not been fully appreciated.

  2. Effects of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid on heat transfer and flow characteristics in turbulent regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabi, Behrouz; Shokouhmand, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, forced convection of a turbulent flow of pure water, Al2O3/water nanofluid and Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid (a new advanced nanofluid composited of Cu and Al2O3 nanoparticles) through a uniform heated circular tube is numerically analyzed. This paper examines the effects of these three fluids as the working fluids, a wide range of Reynolds number (10 000 ? Re ? 10 0000) and also the volume concentration (0% ? ? ? 2%) on heat transfer and hydrodynamic performance. The finite volume discretization method is employed to solve the set of the governing equations. The results indicate that employing hybrid nanofluid improves the heat transfer rate with respect to pure water and nanofluid, yet it reveals an adverse effect on friction factor and appears severely outweighed by pressure drop penalty. However, the average increase of the average Nusselt number (when compared to pure water) in Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 32.07% and the amount for the average increase of friction factor would be 13.76%.

  3. Turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of dilute water based Al2O3-Cu hybrid nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S; Venkitaraj, K P; Hameed, M Shahul; Sarangan, J

    2014-03-01

    A study on fully developed turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated circular tube is presented in this paper. For this, Al2O3-Cu nanocomposite powder was synthesized in a thermo chemical route using hydrogen reduction technique and dispersed the hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The prepared powder was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to confirm the chemical composition, determine the particle size and study the surface morphology. Stability of the nanofluid was ensured by pH and zeta potential measurements. The average heat transfer enhancement for Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 8.02% when compared to pure water. The experimental results also showed that 0.1% Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor compared to 0.1% Al2O3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor were well agreed with the experimental data. PMID:24745264

  4. Physiological and psychophysical responses in handling maximum acceptable weights under different footwear--floor friction conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Way; Yu, Rui-feng; Han, Xiao L

    2007-05-01

    A study on combined manual materials-handling tasks performed on floors under three friction levels was conducted. Eight male subjects participated in the study. The maximum acceptable weight of handling, including lifting, carrying for 3m, lowering, and walking 3m back at twice per minute was determined. The subject then performed the same tasks for 10 min. Heart rate, Vo2, energy efficiency, perceived sense of slip, and rating of perceived exertion for whole body strain were measured. The results showed that the effects of friction level on the maximum acceptable weights of handling, perceived sense of slip, Vo2, and energy efficiency were statistically significant (pfriction level increased from low to high, the maximum acceptable weights of handling increased from 8.15 to 9.34 kg. The energy efficiency on the low friction condition (12.58 kg/L/min) was significantly lower than those of the medium (15.73 kg/L/min) and high (15.38 kg/L/min) friction conditions. The perceived sense of slip was the highest (5.44) on the low-friction condition, followed by the medium-friction condition (3.58), and last the high-friction condition (1.84). The implication of this study was that friction level should be regarded as one of the major environmental factors in designing MMH tasks as it affected both physiological and psychophysical responses of the subjects. Low-friction footwear-floor interface should be avoided as it resulted in not only high scores of perceived sense of slip but also in low-energy efficiency utilized in the body. PMID:17010302

  5. Application of Navier-Stokes code PAB3D with kappa-epsilon turbulence model to attached and separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Lakshmanan, B.; Carlson, John R.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to determine how accurately computations can predict local and average skin friction coefficients for attached and separated flows for simple experimental geometries. Algebraic and transport equation closures were used to model turbulence. To simulate anisotropic turbulence, the standard two-equation turbulence model was modified by adding nonlinear terms. The effects of both grid density and the turbulence model on the computed flow fields were also investigated and compared with available experimental data for subsonic and supersonic free-stream conditions.

  6. Shape-dependent adhesion and friction of Au nanoparticles probed with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, Youngji; Hong, Jong Wook; Lee, Hyunsoo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, Jeong Young

    2015-03-01

    The relation between surface structure and friction and adhesion is a long-standing question in tribology. Tuning the surface structure of the exposed facets of metal nanoparticles is enabled by shape control. We investigated the effect of the shape of Au nanoparticles on friction and adhesion. Two nanoparticle systems, cubic nanoparticles with a low-index (100) surface and hexoctahedral nanoparticles with a high-index (321) surface, were used as model nanoparticle surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was used to probe the nanoscale friction and adhesion on the nanoparticle surface. Before removing the capping layers, the friction results include contributions from both the geometric factor and the presence of capping layers. After removing the capping layers, we can see the exclusive effect of the surface atomic structure while the geometric effect is maintained. We found that after removing the capping layer, the cubic Au nanoparticles exhibited higher adhesion and friction, compared with cubes capped with layers covering 25% and 70%, respectively. On the other hand, the adhesion and friction of hexoctahedral Au nanoparticles decreased after removing the capping layers, compared with nanoparticles with capping layers. The difference in adhesion and friction forces between the bare Au surfaces and Au nanoparticles with capping layers cannot be explained by geometric factors, such as the slope of the nanoparticle surfaces. The higher adhesion and friction forces on cubic nanoparticles after removing the capping layers is associated with the atomic structure of (100) and (321) (i.e., the flat (100) surfaces of the cubic nanoparticles have a larger contact area, compared with the rough (321) surfaces of the hexoctahedral nanoparticles). This study implies an intrinsic relation between atomic structure and nanomechanical properties, with potential applications for controlling nanoscale friction and adhesion via colloid chemistry.

  7. Friction anisotropy with respect to topographic orientation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  8. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    PubMed

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  9. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    PubMed Central

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  10. SRM propellant, friction/ESD testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Pershing 2 incident in 1985 and the Peacekeeper ignition during core removal in 1987, it was found that propellant can be much more sensitive to Electrostatic Discharges (ESD) than ever before realized. As a result of the Peacekeeper motor near miss incident, a friction machine was designed and fabricated, and used to determine friction hazards during core removal. Friction testing with and electrical charge being applied across the friction plates resulted in propellant ignitions at low friction pressures and extremely low ESD levels. The objective of this test series was to determine the sensitivity of solid rocket propellant to combined friction pressure and electrostatic stimuli and to compare the sensitivity of the SRM propellant to Peacekeeper propellant. The tests are fully discussed, summarized and conclusions drawn.

  11. Turbulent flow in graphene

    E-print Network

    Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2010-06-05

    We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.

  12. Turbulent Combustor Flowfield Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The 2-D axisymmetric geometries under low speed, nonreacting, turbulent, swirling flow conditions were investigated. The effect of the parameters on isothermal flowfield patterns, time mean velocities and turbulence quantities is determined and an improved simulation in the form of a computer prediction code equipped with a suitable turbulence model is established. This is a prerequisite to the prediction of more complex turbulent reacting flows.

  13. Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces

    E-print Network

    M. Mofidi; B. Prakash; B. N. J. Persson; O. Albohl

    2007-10-18

    We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short wavelength roughness, which may give the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the substrate surface asperities. The presented results are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

  14. Atmospheric Turbulence (METR 6103)

    E-print Network

    Fedorovich, Evgeni

    Atmospheric Turbulence (METR 6103) Spring 2008 Syllabus General information: Turbulence is a common state of atmospheric flow motion. Class will cover both fundamental and meteorological aspects of turbulence as a physical phenomenon. Students will be introduced to the basic properties of atmospheric

  15. Quantum Gravity and Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Vishnu Jejjala; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng; Chia-Hsiung Tze

    2010-05-18

    We apply recent advances in quantum gravity to the problem of turbulence. Adopting the AdS/CFT approach we propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. In the gravitational context, turbulence is intimately related to the properties of spacetime, or quantum, foam.

  16. Turbulent drag reduction by streamwise traveling waves Armin Zare, Binh K. Lieu, and Mihailo R. Jovanovic

    E-print Network

    Jovanovic, Mihailo

    Turbulent drag reduction by streamwise traveling waves Armin Zare, Binh K. Lieu, and Mihailo R skin-friction drag. In contrast to the traditional approach that relies on numerical simulations to determine the effect of small amplitude traveling waves on the drag. Our simulation- free approach

  17. Numerical investigation of turbulence models for shock separated boundary-layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viegas, J. R.; Coakley, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for shock separated turbulent boundary-layer flows are presented. Several turbulence models are investigated and assessed by their ability to predict the physical phenomena associated with two extensively documented experiments. The experimental flows consist of shock-wave boundary-layer interactions in axisymmetric internal and external geometries at Mach numbers of 1.5 and 7, respectively. Algebraic and one-equation eddy viscosity models are used to describe the Reynolds shear stress. Calculated values of skin friction, wall pressure distribution, kinetic energy of turbulence, and heat transfer are compared with measurements.

  18. Environmental effects on friction and wear of diamond and diamondlike carbon coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Reciprocating sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural diamond flat, diamond film, and low and high density diamondlike carbon (DLC) films in contact with pin specimens of natural diamond and silicon nitride (Si3N4) both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. The results indicated that for natural diamond pin contacts the diamond films and the natural diamond flat were not susceptible to moisture but that moisture could increase both the coefficient of friction and the wear factors of the DLC films. The coefficients of friction and wear factors of the diamond films were generally similar to those of the natural diamond flat both in humid air and dry air nitrogen. In dry nitrogen the coefficients of friction of the high density DLC films in contact with pin specimens of both diamond and Si3N4 were generally low (about 0.02) and similar to those of the natural diamond flat and the diamond films. The wear factors of the materials in contact with both natural diamond and Si3N4 were generally in the ascending order of natural diamond flat, diamond film, high density DLC film, and low density DLC film. The moisture in the environment increased the coefficients of friction for Si3N4 pins in contact with all the materials. This increase in friction is due to the silicon oxide film produced on the surface of Si3N4 pins in humid air.

  19. Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.

  20. Influence of epidermal hydration on the friction of human skin against textiles.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, L-C; Strässle, V; Lenz, A; Spencer, N D; Derler, S

    2008-11-01

    Friction and shear forces, as well as moisture between the human skin and textiles are critical factors in the formation of skin injuries such as blisters, abrasions and decubitus. This study investigated how epidermal hydration affects the friction between skin and textiles.The friction between the inner forearm and a hospital fabric was measured in the natural skin condition and in different hydration states using a force plate. Eleven males and eleven females rubbed their forearm against the textile on the force plate using defined normal loads and friction movements. Skin hydration and viscoelasticity were assessed by corneometry and the suction chamber method, respectively.In each individual, a highly positive linear correlation was found between skin moisture and friction coefficient (COF). No correlation was observed between moisture and elasticity, as well as between elasticity and friction. Skin viscoelasticity was comparable for women and men. The friction of female skin showed significantly higher moisture sensitivity. COFs increased typically by 43% (women) and 26% (men) when skin hydration varied between very dry and normally moist skin. The COFs between skin and completely wet fabric were more than twofold higher than the values for natural skin rubbed on a dry textile surface.Increasing skin hydration seems to cause gender-specific changes in the mechanical properties and/or surface topography of human skin, leading to skin softening and increased real contact area and adhesion. PMID:18331977

  1. Intraoral corrosion of self-ligating metallic brackets and archwires and the effect on friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tima, Lori Lynn

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the frictional coefficient was affected due to intraoral use. A secondary aim of this study was to determine whether or not there was a relationship between corrosion of orthodontic alloys and friction via scanning electron microscopic qualitative analysis. Orthodontic brackets and 0.019 x 0.025 inch stainless steel archwires were collected and divided into three groups of n=10: used bracket and used wires (UBUW), used brackets and new wires (UBNW), and new brackets and new wires (NBNW). New materials were as-received from the manufacturer, and used materials were clinically used bracket and wires collected from patients following orthodontic treatment. Archwires were pulled through bracket slots at a rate of 0.5mm/min while friction forces were measured. Following a cleaning process, the surface topography of the bracket slots was examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on a 1-factor MANOVA, there was no significant group effect (all p>0.05) on frictional forces. Partial eta squared values indicated that intraoral exposure had only a small effect on frictional forces (? 3%). Qualitative analysis of SEM images did not show an association between surface characteristics of the bracket slots and magnitude of frictional force. Results suggest that surface corrosion from intraoral use does not significantly affect friction at the bracket wire interface.

  2. Some Hamiltonian Models of Friction

    E-print Network

    Juerg Froehlich; Zhou Gang; Avy Soffer

    2010-11-15

    Mathematical results on some models describing the motion of a tracer particle through a Bose-Einstein condensate are described. In the limit of a very dense, very weakly interacting Bose gas and for a very large particle mass, the dynamics of the coupled system is determined by classical non-linear Hamiltonian equations of motion. The particle's motion exhibits deceleration corresponding to friction (with memory) caused by the emission of Cerenkov radiation of gapless modes into the gas. Precise results are stated and outlines of proofs are presented. Some technical details are deferred to forthcoming papers.

  3. Turbulence structures associated with fire-atmosphere interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, C. B.; Seto, D.; Heilman, W. E.

    2013-12-01

    Wildland fires radically modify the atmospheric boundary layer by emitting large sensible and latent heat fluxes. These fluxes drive fire-atmosphere interactions at multiple scales resulting in fire-induced circulations in and around the fire front. During the fire front passage, FFP, turbulence kinetic energy increases due to increased heating and wind shear that develops in response to both free convection and fire-induced winds. New field observations from multiple fire experiments have shown that turbulence spectral energy increases during the FFP as a result of small eddies being shed from the fire front and that that normalized velocity spectra using the friction velocity collapse into a narrow band in the inertial subrange, suggesting that Monin-Obukhov scaling is a valid scaling parameter that can be used for wildfire prediction systems. Additionally, during FFP the mean profiles of winds and sensible heat flux change compared to ambient conditions due to the fire-atmosphere interactions. These profiles are also different during different environmental conditions such as grass fires in open field and fires within a forest canopy. This presentation will discuss new turbulence observations from the FireFlux II field experiment conducted in 2013 which indicate that during FFP there are also an increases in horizontal mean winds, friction velocity, horizontal and vertical velocity variances and a decrease in anisotropy in turbulence kinetic energy and are similar to lower intensity fires.

  4. Modeling of friction-induced deformation and microstructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Joseph Richard; Prasad, Somuri V.; Jungk, John Michael; Cordill, Megan J.; Bammann, Douglas J.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moody, Neville Reid; Majumdar, Bhaskar Sinha (New Mexico Institure of Mining and Technology)

    2006-12-01

    Frictional contact results in surface and subsurface damage that could influence the performance, aging, and reliability of moving mechanical assemblies. Changes in surface roughness, hardness, grain size and texture often occur during the initial run-in period, resulting in the evolution of subsurface layers with characteristic microstructural features that are different from those of the bulk. The objective of this LDRD funded research was to model friction-induced microstructures. In order to accomplish this objective, novel experimental techniques were developed to make friction measurements on single crystal surfaces along specific crystallographic surfaces. Focused ion beam techniques were used to prepare cross-sections of wear scars, and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and TEM to understand the deformation, orientation changes, and recrystallization that are associated with sliding wear. The extent of subsurface deformation and the coefficient of friction were strongly dependent on the crystal orientation. These experimental observations and insights were used to develop and validate phenomenological models. A phenomenological model was developed to elucidate the relationships between deformation, microstructure formation, and friction during wear. The contact mechanics problem was described by well-known mathematical solutions for the stresses during sliding friction. Crystal plasticity theory was used to describe the evolution of dislocation content in the worn material, which in turn provided an estimate of the characteristic microstructural feature size as a function of the imposed strain. An analysis of grain boundary sliding in ultra-fine-grained material provided a mechanism for lubrication, and model predictions of the contribution of grain boundary sliding (relative to plastic deformation) to lubrication were in good qualitative agreement with experimental evidence. A nanomechanics-based approach has been developed for characterizing the mechanical response of wear surfaces. Coatings are often required to mitigate friction and wear. Amongst other factors, plastic deformation of the substrate determines the coating-substrate interface reliability. Finite element modeling has been applied to predict the plastic deformation for the specific case of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated Ni alloy substrates.

  5. High drag reduction in viscoelastic turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housiadas, Kostas; Beris, Antony

    2003-03-01

    We investigate the high drag reduction region in viscoelastic turbulent channel flow with polymers through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). This work improves and enhances our previous investigations which resulted in predictions of polymer-induced drag reduction up to 38the FENE-P model at a friction Weissenberg number of 50 and maximum extensibility parameter 50. A new numerical algorithm has been developed in order to effectively perform the simulations under high drag reduction conditions. The main new features of the fully spectral algorithm are: (a) full implicit scheme for both the momentum and the constitutive equation and (b) dealiasing for all the non-linear terms. The simulations are performed for a constant friction Reynolds number of 395 for which our previous simulations have shown that the viscous layer is fully developed. We study high drag reductions by using parameters in the viscoelastic constitutive equations that maximize the extensional viscosity. That includes (a) the FENE-P model with maximum extensibility parameter greater than or equal to 50 and friction Weissenberg numbers greater than or equal to 50 (b) the OLDROYD-B model with friction Weissenberg number above 25 and (c) the GIESEKUS model with friction Weissenberg number above 50. In addition to the drag reduction, mean statistics quantities, Reynolds stresses and energy spectra results will also be presented.

  6. Introduction to quantum turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Barenghi, Carlo F.; Skrbek, Ladislav; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2014-01-01

    The term quantum turbulence denotes the turbulent motion of quantum fluids, systems such as superfluid helium and atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, which are characterized by quantized vorticity, superfluidity, and, at finite temperatures, two-fluid behavior. This article introduces their basic properties, describes types and regimes of turbulence that have been observed, and highlights similarities and differences between quantum turbulence and classical turbulence in ordinary fluids. Our aim is also to link together the articles of this special issue and to provide a perspective of the future development of a subject that contains aspects of fluid mechanics, atomic physics, condensed matter, and low-temperature physics. PMID:24704870

  7. Modeling Compressed Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, Daniel M.

    2012-07-13

    From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.

  8. Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate of simulated gouge fails to quantitatively account for the experimental observations.

  9. Skin friction measurement in complex flows using thin oil film techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Grant NAG2-261 was initiated to support a program of research to study complex flows that occur in flight and laboratory experiments by building, testing and optimizing an on-board technique for direct measurement of surface shear stress using thin oil film techniques. The program of research has proceeded under the supervision of the NASA Ames Research Center and with further cooperation from the NASA Ames-Dryden and NASA Langley Research Centers. In accordance with the original statement of work, the following research milestones were accomplished: (1) design and testing of an internally mounted one-directional skin friction meter to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept; (2) design and construction of a compact instrument capable of measuring skin friction in two directions; (3) study of transitional and fully turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with and without longitudinal pressure gradients utilizing the compact two-directional skin friction meter; (4) study of the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a compression corner using the two-directional meter; and (5) flight qualification of the compact meter and accompanying electronic and pneumatic systems, preliminary installation into flight test fixture.

  10. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: Direct simulation from laminar through gradual transition to fully developed turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.; Baltzer, Jon R.

    2015-01-01

    The precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody’s correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition. PMID:26080447

  11. Early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnishev, Yuri; Steinberg, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We present quantitative experimental results on the transition to early turbulence in von Karman swirling flow of water- and water-sugar-based polymer solutions compared to the transition to turbulence in their Newtonian solvents by measurements of solely global quantities as torque ?(t) and pressure p(t) with large statistics as a function of Re. For the first time the transition values of Re_c\\textit{turb} to fully developed turbulence and turbulent drag reduction regime Re_c\\textit{TDR} are obtained as functions of elasticity El by using the solvents with different viscosities and polymer concentrations ?. Two scaling regions for fundamental turbulent characteristics are identified and they correspond to the turbulent and TDR regimes. Both Re_c\\textit{turb} and Re_c\\textit{TDR} are found via the dependence of the friction coefficient Cf and Cp, defined through scaled average torque \\bar? and rms pressure fluctuations p\\textit{rms} , respectively, on Re for different El and ? and via the limits of the two scaling regions.

  12. Quantum Friction in Different Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, Juliane; Buhmann, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Quantum friction is the velocity-dependent force between two polarizable objects in relative motion, resulting from field-fluctuation mediated transfer of energy and momentum between them. Due to its short-ranged nature it has proven difficult to observe experimentally. Theoretical attempts to determine the precise velocity-dependence of the quantum drag experienced by a polarizable atom moving parallel to a surface arrive at contradicting results. Scheel and Barton predict a force linear in relative velocity v - the former using the quantum regression theorem and the latter employing time-dependent perturbation theory. Intravaia, however, predicts a v3 power-law starting from a non-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In order to learn where exactly the above approaches part, we set out to perform all three calculations within one and the same framework: macroscopic QED. In addition, we include contributions to quantum friction from Doppler shift and Röntgen interaction, which play a role for perpendicular motion and retarded distances, respectively, and consider non-stationary states of atom and field. DFG Emmy-Noether Program.

  13. Comparison of Frictional Heating Models

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Nicholas R; Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the predicted temperature rises using four well-known models for frictional heating under a few selected conditions in which similar variable inputs are provided to each model. Classic papers by Archard, Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Lim and Ashby, and Rabinowicz have been examined, and a spreadsheet (Excel ) was developed to facilitate the calculations. This report may be used in conjunction with that spreadsheet. It explains the background, assumptions, and rationale used for the calculations. Calculated flash temperatures for selected material combinations, under a range of applied loads and sliding speeds, are tabulated. The materials include AISI 52100 bearing steel, CDA 932 bronze, NBD 200 silicon nitride, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and carbon-graphite material. Due to the assumptions made by the different models, and the direct way in which certain assumed quantities, like heat sink distances or asperity dimensions, enter into the calculations, frictional hearing results may differ significantly; however, they can be similar in certain cases in light of certain assumptions that are shared between the models.

  14. Kozai Cycles and Tidal Friction

    SciTech Connect

    L, K; P.P., E

    2009-07-17

    Several studies in the last three years indicate that close binaries, i.e. those with periods of {approx}< 3 d, are very commonly found to have a third body in attendance. We argue that this proves that the third body is necessary in order to make the inner period so short, and further argue that the only reasonable explanation is that the third body causes shrinkage of the inner period, from perhaps a week or more to the current short period, by means of the combination of Kozai cycles and tidal friction (KCTF). In addition, once KCTF has produced a rather close binary, magnetic braking also combined with tidal friction (MBTF) can decrease the inner orbit further, to the formation of a contact binary or even a merged single star. Some of the products of KCTF that have been suggested, either by others or by us, are W UMa binaries, Blue Stragglers, X-ray active BY Dra stars, and short-period Algols. We also argue that some components of wide binaries are actually merged remnants of former close inner pairs. This may include such objects as rapidly rotating dwarfs (AB Dor, BO Mic) and some (but not all) Be stars.

  15. 40 CFR 1066.260 - Parasitic friction compensation evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...accuracy of the dynamometer's friction compensation. (b) Scope...accuracy of the dynamometer's friction compensation: (1) Warm...inertia with the road-load coefficients A, B, and C set to...start and stop times. If friction compensation is...

  16. 40 CFR 1066.260 - Parasitic friction compensation evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...accuracy of the dynamometer's friction compensation. (b) Scope...accuracy of the dynamometer's friction compensation: (1) Warm...inertia with the road-load coefficients A, B, and C set to...start and stop times. If friction compensation is...

  17. 40 CFR 1066.260 - Parasitic friction compensation evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...accuracy of the dynamometer's friction compensation. (b) Scope...accuracy of the dynamometer's friction compensation: (1) Warm...inertia with the road-load coefficients A, B, and C set to...start and stop times. If friction compensation is...

  18. Comparison between kinetic-ballooning-mode-driven turbulence and ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Maeyama, S. Nakata, M.; Miyato, N.; Yagi, M.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Idomura, Y.

    2014-05-15

    Electromagnetic turbulence driven by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) in high-? plasma is investigated based on the local gyrokinetic model. Analysis of turbulent fluxes, norms, and phases of fluctuations shows that KBM turbulence gives narrower spectra and smaller phase factors than those in ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-driven turbulence. This leads to the smaller transport fluxes in KBM turbulence than those in ITG turbulence even when they have similar linear growth rates. From the analysis of the entropy balance relation, it is found that the entropy transfer from ions to electrons through the field-particle interactions mainly drives electron perturbations, which creates radial twisted modes by rapid parallel motions of electrons in a sheared magnetic geometry. The nonlinear coupling between the dominant unstable mode and its twisted modes is important for the saturation of KBM turbulence, in contrast to the importance of zonal flow shearing in ITG turbulence. The coupling depends on the flux-tube domain with the one-poloidal-turn parallel length and on the torus periodicity constraint.

  19. Superfluid turbulence in two-fluid flow of helium II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    1988-04-01

    The completion of measurements of the dissipation for independently varied normal-fluid and superfluid velocities is presented. These measurements show the propagation of the first and second critical velocities into the (V sub n, V sub s) plane above the thermal counterflow line and provide a data base with which to compare theoretical predictions. The steady state dissipation delta T was measured across the ends of a flow tube (d = 134 micrometers) during laminar and turbulent flow. These flow states were produced using a combination of thermal counterflow procedures and using a very fine fiberglass bundle to produce a pure superflow via film flow of the superfluid component. These data show that the first critical velocity is actually a closed boundary separating laminar flow at small normal-fluid and superfluid velocities from turbulent flow at higher combinations. It was also found that the second critical velocity propagates into the (V sub n, V sub s) plane above thermal counterflow. The transition becomes increasingly abrupt as V sub n is increased. These two boundaries define three regions of turbulence in the (V sub n, V sub s) plane. The turbulence in regions for high V sub n appears to be homogeneous fitting a simple mutual friction model. The TI/TII Boundary separates this region from one of low-level dissipation. These flow states are very complicated and the dissipation here can oscillate between two values. The first critical velocity separates laminar flow states from a turbulent state obeying a modified mutual friction model suggested by Baehr and Tough. This type of turbulence exists both above and below the thermal counterflow line.

  20. Superfluid Turbulence in Two-Fluid Flow of Helium II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    The completion of measurements of the dissipation for independently varied normal-fluid and superfluid velocities is presented. These measurements show the propagation of the first and second critical velocities into the ( V_{n}{,}V_{s }) plane above the thermal counterflow line and provide a data base with which to compare theoretical predictions. The steady state dissipation Delta T was measured across the ends of a flow tube (d = 134mum) during laminar and turbulent flow. These flow states were produced using a combination of thermal counterflow procedures and using a very fine fiberglass bundle to produce a pure superflow via film flow of the superfluid component. These data show that the first critical velocity is actually a closed boundary separating laminar flow at small normal-fluid and superfluid velocities from turbulent flow at higher combinations. It was also found that the second critical velocity propagates into the (V _{n}{,}V_{s} ) plane above thermal counterflow. The transition becomes increasingly abrupt as V_{n } is increased. These two boundaries define three regions of turbulence in the (V_{n }{,}V_{s}) plane. The turbulence in regions for high V_{n } appears to be homogeneous fitting a simple mutual friction model The TI/TII Boundary separates this region from one of low-level dissipation. These flow states are very complicated and the dissipation here can oscillate between two values. The first critical velocity separates laminar flow states from a turbulent state obeying a modified mutual friction model suggested by Baehr and Tough. This type of turbulence exists both above and below the thermal counterflow line.

  1. Studying the Frictional Force Directions via Bristles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasitpong, S.; Chitaree, R.; Rakkapao, S.

    2010-01-01

    We present simple apparatus designed to help Thai high school students visualize the directions of frictional forces. Bristles of toothbrushes, paintbrushes and scrubbing brushes are used to demonstrate the frictional forces acting in a variety of situations. These demonstrations, when followed by discussion of free-body diagrams, were found to be…

  2. Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction

    PubMed Central

    Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel ‘ribs’ inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ?-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ? of the order of 10. Further increase in ? is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ? in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634

  3. Effect of Friction on Shear Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ren, Jie; Dijksman, Joshua; Bares, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Shear jamming of granular materials was first found for systems of frictional disks, with a static friction coefficient ? ~ 0 . 6 (Bi et al. Nature (2011)). Jamming by shear is obtained by starting from a zero-stress state with a packing fraction ? between ?J (isotropic jamming) and a lowest ?S for shear jamming. This phenomenon is associated with strong anisotropy in stress and the contact network in the form of force chains, which are stabilized and/or enhanced by the presence of friction. Whether shear jamming occurs for frictionless particles is under debate. The issue we address experimentally is how reducing friction affects shear jamming. We put the Teflon-wrapped photoelastic disks, lowering the friction substantially from previous experiments, in a well-studied 2D shear apparatus (Ren et al. PRL (2013)), which provides a uniform simple shear. Shear jamming is still observed; however, the difference ?J -?S is smaller with lower friction. We also observe larger anisotropies in fragile states compared to experiments with higher friction particles at the same density. In ongoing work we are studying systems using photoelastic disks with fine gears on the edge to generate very large effective friction. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant DMR1206351, NSF Grant DMS-1248071, NASA Grant NNX10AU01G and William M. Keck Foundation.

  4. Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction.

    PubMed

    Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel 'ribs' inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ?-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ? of the order of 10. Further increase in ? is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ? in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634

  5. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  6. Friction Coefficient for Quarks in Supergravity Duals

    E-print Network

    E. Antonyan

    2006-11-22

    We study quarks moving in strongly-coupled plasmas that have supergravity duals. We compute the friction coefficient of strings dual to such quarks for general static supergravity backgrounds near the horizon. Our results also show that a previous conjecture on the bound has to be modified and higher friction coefficients can be achieved.

  7. Rolling Friction on a Wheeled Laboratory Cart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    A simple model is developed that predicts the coefficient of rolling friction for an undriven laboratory cart on a track that is approximately independent of the mass loaded onto the cart and of the angle of inclination of the track. The model includes both deformation of the wheels/track and frictional torque at the axles/bearings. The concept of…

  8. Effective medium theory for drag-reducing micro-patterned surfaces in turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Battiato, Ilenia

    2014-03-01

    Many studies in the last decade have revealed that patterns at the microscale can reduce skin drag. Yet, the mechanisms and parameters that control drag reduction, e.g. Reynolds number and pattern geometry, are still unclear. We propose an effective medium representation of the micro-features, that treats the latter as a porous medium, and provides a framework to model turbulent flow over patterned surfaces. Our key result is a closed-form expression for the skin friction coefficient in terms of frictional Reynolds (or Kármán) number in turbulent regime, the viscosity ratio between the fluid in and above the features, and their geometrical properties. We apply the proposed model to turbulent flows over superhydrophobic ridged surfaces. The model predictions agree with laboratory experiments for Reynolds numbers ranging from 3000 to 10000. PMID:24671449

  9. Inhomogeneous distribution of droplets in cloud turbulence

    E-print Network

    Itzhak Fouxon; Yongnam Park; Roei Harduf; Changhoon Lee

    2014-10-30

    We solve the problem of spatial distribution of inertial particles that sediment in turbulent flow with small ratio of acceleration of fluid particles to acceleration of gravity $g$. The particles are driven by linear drag and have arbitrary inertia. The pair-correlation function of concentration obeys a power-law in distance with negative exponent. Divergence at zero signifies singular distribution of particles in space. Independently of particle size the exponent is ratio of integral of energy spectrum of turbulence times the wavenumber to $g$ times numerical factor. We find Lyapunov exponents and confirm predictions by direct numerical simulations of Navier-Stokes turbulence. The predictions include typical case of water droplets in clouds. This significant progress in the study of turbulent transport is possible because strong gravity makes the particle's velocity at a given point unique.

  10. Wear and friction of oxidation-resistant mechanical carbon graphites at 650 C in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. P.; Wisnader, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the friction and wear properties of experimental carbon-graphites. Hemispherically tipped carbon-graphite rider specimens were tested in sliding contact with rotating Inconel X-750 disks in air. A surface speed of 1.33 m/sec, a load of 500 g, and a specimen temperature of 650 C were used. Results indicate: (1) hardness is not a major factor in determining friction and wear under the conditions of these studies. (2) Friction and wear as low as or lower than those observed for a good commercial seal material were attained with some of the experimental materials studied. (3) The inclusion of boron carbide (as an oxidation inhibitor) has a strong influence on wear rate. (4) Phosphate treatment reduces the friction coefficient when boron carbide is not present in the base material.

  11. Effect of friction stir processing on the tribological performance of high carbon steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Aldajah, S. H.; Ajayi, O. O.; Fenske, G. R.; David, S.

    2009-06-15

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was applied to 1080 carbon steel as a means to enhance the near-surface material properties. The process transformed the original pearlite microstructure to martensite, resulting in significant increase in surface hardness. This surface hardening produced a significant benefit for friction and wear behavior of the steel as measured by unidirectional sliding ball-on-flat testing. Under dry sliding, FSP reduced friction coefficient by approximately 25% and wear rate by an order of magnitude. Under oil lubrication, FSP had only a marginal effect on friction, but it reduced wear rates by a factor of 4. The improvement in tribological performance of 1080 steel by FSP technique is attributed to reduced plasticity of the near-surface material during sliding contact

  12. Euler's friction of fluids theory and the estimation of fountain jet heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2015-09-01

    In 1761, Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) published a treatise with the title "Attempt at a Theory of the Friction of Fluids", in which he assumed that, as is the case for solid friction, fluid friction is proportional to pressure. Several experiments were proposed by Euler to derive a friction factor, which were intended to experimentally confirm his equations. Detailed developments of five different problems of discharge were presented in his treatise, taking into account the loss of head in the conduits. In the Appendix, an example is given of the calculation of the jet heights of a particular fountain, fed with conduits of different cross-sectional areas. Application of the current method for the calculation of head losses in pipes reveals that Euler grossly overestimated the fountain jet heights.

  13. Frictional wave dissipation on a remarkably rough reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Rogers, Justin S.; Koweek, David; Dunbar, Robert B.

    2015-05-01

    We present a week of observations of wave dissipation on the south forereef of Palmyra Atoll. Using wave measurements made in 6.2 m and 11.2 m of water offshore of the surf zone, we computed energy fluxes and near-bottom velocity. Equating the divergence of the shoreward energy flux to its dissipation by bottom friction and parameterizating dissipation in terms of the root-mean-square velocity cubed, we find that the wave friction factor, fw, for this reef is 1.80 ± 0.07, nearly an order of magnitude larger than values previously found for reefs. We attribute this remarkably high value of fw to the complex canopy structure of the reef, which we believe may be characteristic of healthy reefs. This suggests that healthy reefs with high coral cover may provide greater coastal protection than do degraded reefs with low coral cover.

  14. Frictional Behavior of Micro/nanotextured Surfaces Investigated by Atomic Force Microscope: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Jia, Junhong

    2015-08-01

    Tribological issues between friction pair are fundamental problems for minimized devices because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio. Micro/nanotexturing is an effective technique to reduce actual contact area between contact pair at the nanoscale. Micro/nanotexture made a great impact on the frictional behavior of textured surfaces. This paper summarizes the recent advancements in the field of frictional behavior of micro/nanotextured surfaces, which are based on solid surface contact in atmosphere environment, especially focusing on the factors influencing the frictional behavior: Surface property, texturing density, texturing height, texturing structure and size of contact pair (atomic force microscope (AFM) tip) and texturing structures. Summarizing the effects of these factors on the frictional behavior is helpful for the understanding and designing of the surfaces in sliding micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). Controlling and reducing the friction force in moving mechanical systems is very important for the performance and reliability of nanosystems, which contribute to a sustainable future.

  15. Observation of Joining Phenomena in Friction Stage and Improving Friction Welding Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masaaki; Seo, Kenji; Kusaka, Masahiro; Fuji, Akiyoshi

    This report describes the observation result of joining phenomena in the friction stage, and an improvement of the conventional friction welding method with similar materials. The materials used were carbon steels and a brake type (direct drive) friction welding machine was used for joining. As the improving friction welding method, relative speed was instantaneously rendered to zero at the end of each friction time. The wear of both surfaces started at periphery portion (outer surface) of the joint and moved to center portion (center axis). Seizure and joining began at center portion and then extended toward periphery portion. The friction torque reached to initial peak torque when the welded interface was joined completely and upsetting of both base metals started. It was determined that friction welded joints with 100% joint efficiency and good bend ductility could be obtained by using only the friction stage up to initial peak torque and without the need for the forging (upsetting) stage. As a conclusion, friction welded joints made without using the forging stage has the same mechanical properties as those welded by the conventional friction welding process including that stage. The friction welding method without forging stage has the advantages of less burn-off (axial shortening) and less burr.

  16. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Mégevand, Ariel

    2013-07-01

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  17. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    E-print Network

    Ariel Megevand

    2013-03-31

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  18. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    E-print Network

    I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson

    2009-11-18

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant increases (abruptly) with increasing sliding velocity (from 6 to 7 layers), leading to a decrease of the friction. Before and after the layering transition, the frictional shear stresses are nearly proportional to the logarithm of sliding velocity. For the longest hydrocarbon (1400 C-atoms) the friction shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity.

  19. Turbulent Inflow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.

    1996-01-01

    In the present research, tilt rotor aeroacoustics have been studied experimentally and computationally. Experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. To date, these flow measurements are the only ones in existence for a hovering tilt rotor. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3) basic configuration changes (increasing the rotor/rotor spacing, reducing the rotor plane/wing clearance, operating the rotors out of phase). Also, an approximation to Sikorsky's Variable Diameter Tilt Rotor (VDTR) configuration was tested, and some flow measurements were made on a semi-span configuration of the model. Acoustic predictions were made using LOWSON.M, a Mathematica code. This hover prediction code, from HOVER.FOR, used blade element theory for the aerodynamics, and Prandtl's Vortex theory to model the wake, along with empirical formulas for the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, and stall. Aerodynamic models were developed from 7-hole pressure probe measurements of the mean velocity into the model rotors. LOWSON.M modeled a rotor blade as a single force and source/sink combination separated in the chordwise direction, at an effective blade radius. Spanwise, Mach-weighted integrals were used to find the equivalent forces and equivalent source strengths.

  20. Friction Stir Welding and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Clarke, Kester D.; Krajewski, Paul E.

    2015-05-01

    With nearly twenty years of international research and collaboration in friction stir welding (FSW) and processing industrial applications have spread into nearly every feasible market. Currently applications exist in aerospace, railway, automotive, personal computers, technology, marine, cutlery, construction, as well as several other markets. Implementation of FSW has demonstrated diverse opportunities ranging from enabling new materials to reducing the production costs of current welding technologies by enabling condensed packaging solutions for traditional fabrication and assembly. TMS has sponsored focused instruction and communication in this technology area for more than fifteen years, with leadership from the Shaping and Forming Committee, which organizes a biannual symposium each odd year at the annual meeting. A focused publication produced from each of these symposia now comprises eight volumes detailing the primary research and development activities in this area over the last two decades. The articles assembled herein focus on both recent developments and technology reviews of several key markets from international experts in this area.

  1. Macrostructure of Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Vargas, R.; McClure, J. C.; Murr, L. E.; Nunes, A. C.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will discuss two of the well know large scale features of friction stir welds: the "onion rings" seen in transverse sections, and the striations on the surface of the work piece. It will be shown that the surface features (sometimes called "tool marks") are the result of irregularities on the rotating shoulder of the pin tool and disappear when the shoulder is polished. The "onion ring" structure seen in transverse cross sections is formed by parts of the "carousel", the zone of material adjacent to and rotating with the pin tool, that are shed off in each rotation. The relation between the carousel and the "ring vortex", a rotational flow extending both in and out of the carousel and resembling a smoke-ring with the hole centered on the pin tool, will be discussed.

  2. Dynamical Friction on extended perturbers

    E-print Network

    O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

    2008-04-01

    Following a wave-mechanical treatment we calculate the drag force exerted by an infinite homogeneous background of stars on a perturber as this makes its way through the system. We recover Chandrasekhar's classical dynamical friction (DF) law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. We take into account a range of models that encompasses all plausible density distributions for satellite galaxies by considering the DF exerted on a Plummer sphere and a perturber having a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  3. Stabilizing Stick-Slip Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineberg, J.; Urbakh, M.; Rubinstein, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Even the most regular stick-slip frictional sliding is always stochastic, with irregularity in both the intervals between slip events and the sizes of the associated stress drops. Applying small-amplitude oscillations to the shear force, we show, experimentally and theoretically, that the stick-slip periods synchronize. We further show that this phase locking is related to the inhibition of slow rupture modes which forces a transition to fast rupture, providing a possible mechanism for observed remote triggering of earthquakes. Such manipulation of collective modes may be generally relevant to extended nonlinear systems driven near to criticality. Reference: Rosario Capozza, Shmuel M. Rubinstein, Itay Barel, Michael Urbakh, and Jay Fineberg, Physical Review Letters 107, 024301 (2011).

  4. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  5. Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S C; Nicol, R M

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum--with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approximately 2 in power--provides a test of this invariance. PMID:20366193

  6. Generalized Similarity in Finite Range Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S. C.; Nicol, R. M.

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum - with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approx2 in power - provides a test of this invariance.

  7. Market Assessment of Forward-Looking Turbulence Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffmann, Paul; Sousa-Poza, Andres

    2001-01-01

    In recognition of the importance of turbulence mitigation as a tool to improve aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program developed a Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Sub-element. The objective of this effort is to develop highly reliable turbulence detection technologies for commercial transport aircraft to sense dangerous turbulence with sufficient time warning so that defensive measures can be implemented and prevent passenger and crew injuries. Current research involves three forward sensing products to improve the cockpit awareness of possible turbulence hazards. X-band radar enhancements will improve the capabilities of current weather radar to detect turbulence associated with convective activity. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a laser-based technology that is capable of detecting turbulence in clear air. Finally, a possible Radar-LIDAR hybrid sensor is envisioned to detect the full range of convective and clear air turbulence. To support decisions relating to the development of these three forward-looking turbulence sensor technologies, the objective of this study was defined as examination of cost and implementation metrics. Tasks performed included the identification of cost factors and certification issues, the development and application of an implementation model, and the development of cost budget/targets for installing the turbulence sensor and associated software devices into the commercial transport fleet.

  8. String Theory and Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Vishnu Jejjala; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng; Chia-Hsiung Tze

    2010-05-17

    We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.

  9. Tactical missile turbulence problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Of particular interest is atmospheric turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, since this affects both the launch and terminal phase of flight, and the total flight for direct fire systems. Brief discussions are presented on rocket artillery boost wind problems, mean wind correction, turbulent boost wind correction, the Dynamically Aimed Free Flight Rocket (DAFFR) wind filter, the DAFFR test, and rocket wake turbulence problems. It is concluded that many of the turbulence problems of rockets and missiles are common to those of aircraft, such as structural loading and control system design. However, these problems have not been solved at this time.

  10. Turbulences in boundary plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. Q., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    We simulate boundary plasma turbulence using a 3D turbulence code BOUT and a linearized electromagnetic instability shooting code BAL. The code BOUT solves fluid equations for plasma vorticity,density, ion temperature and parallel momentum (along the magnetic field), electron temperature, and parallel momentum. A realistic DIII-D X point magnetic geometry is used. The focus is on the possible local linear instability drivers and turbulence suppression mechanisms from L to H mode. Comparison is made with data from the DIII-D toltamak where probe measurements provide turbulence statistics in the boundary plasma and transport modeling.

  11. Affairs of State and Student Retention: An Exploratory Study of the Factors that Impact Student Retention in a Politically Turbulent Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Tsur, Dalia

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a country's security unrest on student retention. It draws on the key factors that influence retention worldwide, adopts Bourdieu's notion of cultural capital and also brings in concepts related to terrorism and security unrest traditionally absent from theories on student retention. Based on a case study carried…

  12. Numerical analysis of friction stir welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyyuru, R. K.; Kailas, Satish V.

    2006-10-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW), which has several advantages over the conventional welding processes, is a solid-state welding process where no gross melting of the material being welded takes place. Despite significant advances over the last decade, the fundamental knowledge of thermomechanical processes during FSW is still not completely understood. To gain physical insight into the FSW process and the evaluation of the critical parameters, the development of models and simulation techniques is a necessity. In this article, the available literature on modeling of FSW has been reviewed followed by details of an attempt to understand the interaction between process parameters from a simulation study, performed using commercially available nonlinear finite element (FE) code DEFORM. The distributions of temperature, residual stress, strain, and strain rates were analyzed across various regions of the weld apart from material flow as a means of evaluating process efficiency and the quality of the weld. The distribution of process parameters is of importance in the prediction of the occurrence of welding defects, and to locate areas of concern for the metallurgist. The suitability of this modeling tool to simulate the FSW process has been discussed. The lack of the detailed material constitutive information and other thermal and physical properties at conditions such as very high strain rates and elevated temperatures seems to be the limiting factor while modeling the FSW process.

  13. Internal Friction And Instabilities Of Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes study of effects of internal friction on dynamics of rotors prompted by concern over instabilities in rotors of turbomachines. Theoretical and experimental studies described. Theoretical involved development of nonlinear mathematical models of internal friction in three joints found in turbomachinery - axial splines, Curvic(TM) splines, and interference fits between smooth cylindrical surfaces. Experimental included traction tests to determine the coefficients of friction of rotor alloys at various temperatures, bending-mode-vibration tests of shafts equipped with various joints and rotordynamic tests of shafts with axial-spline and interference-fit joints.

  14. NASA tire/runway friction projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews several aspects of NASA Langley Research Center's tire/runway friction evaluations directed towards improving the safety and economy of aircraft ground operations. The facilities and test equipment used in implementing different aircraft tire friction studies and other related aircraft ground performance investigations are described together with recent workshop activities at NASA Wallops Flight Facility. An overview of the pending Joint NASA/Transport Canada/FM Winter Runway Friction Program is given. Other NASA ongoing studies and on-site field tests are discussed including tire wear performance and new surface treatments. The paper concludes with a description of future research plans.

  15. Frictional effects near a metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Wenjie; Nitzan, Abraham; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2015-08-01

    When a classical master equation (CME) is used to describe the nonadiabatic dynamics of a molecule at metal surfaces, we show that in the regime of reasonably strong molecule-metal couplings, the CME can be reduced to a Fokker-Planck equation with an explicit form of electronic friction. For a single metal substrate at thermal equilibrium, the electronic friction and random force satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. When we investigate the time scale for an electron transfer (ET) event between the molecule and metal surface, we find that the ET rates show a turnover effect (just as in Kramer's theory) as a function of frictional damping.

  16. Laminar, Turbulent, and Inertial Shear-Thickening Regimes in Channel Flow of Neutrally Buoyant Particle Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow.

  17. Laminar, turbulent, and inertial shear-thickening regimes in channel flow of neutrally buoyant particle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow. PMID:25554885

  18. Relationship of Viscosity, Surface Tensions, and Coefficient of Friction of Lubricating Oils

    E-print Network

    Carson, Earl

    1914-01-01

    to exist betveen the friction coefficient and the viscosity constant, also a relationship is set up between the viscosity constant and the surface tension factor, but no relation has been es- tablished between the friction coefficient and the surface... tension factor. This is what is needed most at the pre- sent time, but beforo such a relation can be established, there are some other problems to be solved, which have been pointed out in this treatise. The author has not attempted to make any exper...

  19. Mechanical spectroscopy of nanocrystalline aluminum films: effects of frequency and grain size on internal friction.

    PubMed

    Sosale, Guruprasad; Almecija, Dorothée; Das, Kaushik; Vengallatore, Srikar

    2012-04-20

    Energy dissipation by internal friction is a property of fundamental interest for probing the effects of scale on mechanical behavior in nanocrystalline metallic films and for guiding the use of these materials in the design of high-Q micro/nanomechanical resonators. This paper describes an experimental study to measure the effects of frequency, annealing and grain size on internal friction at room temperature in sputter-deposited nanocrystalline aluminum films with thicknesses ranging from 60 to 120 nm. Internal friction was measured using a single-crystal silicon microcantilever platform that calibrates dissipation against the fundamental limits of thermoelastic damping. Internal friction was a weak function of frequency, reducing only by a factor of two over three decades of frequency (70 Hz to 44 kHz). Annealing led to significant grain growth and the average grain size of 100 nm thick films increased from 90 to 390 nm after annealing for 1 h at 450?(?)C. This increase in grain size was accompanied by a decrease in internal friction from 0.05 to 0.02. Taken together, these results suggest that grain-boundary sliding, characterized by a spectrum of relaxation times, contributes to internal friction in these films. PMID:22436133

  20. Comprehensive tire-road friction coefficient estimation based on signal fusion method under complex maneuvering operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Yang, K.; Jia, G.; Ran, X.; Song, J.; Han, Z.-Q.

    2015-05-01

    The accurate estimation of the tire-road friction coefficient plays a significant role in the vehicle dynamics control. The estimation method should be timely and reliable for the controlling requirements, which means the contact friction characteristics between the tire and the road should be recognized before the interference to ensure the safety of the driver and passengers from drifting and losing control. In addition, the estimation method should be stable and feasible for complex maneuvering operations to guarantee the control performance as well. A signal fusion method combining the available signals to estimate the road friction is suggested in this paper on the basis of the estimated ones of braking, driving and steering conditions individually. Through the input characteristics and the states of the vehicle and tires from sensors the maneuvering condition may be recognized, by which the certainty factors of the friction of the three conditions mentioned above may be obtained correspondingly, and then the comprehensive road friction may be calculated. Experimental vehicle tests validate the effectiveness of the proposed method through complex maneuvering operations; the estimated road friction coefficient based on the signal fusion method is relatively timely and accurate to satisfy the control demands.

  1. Semi-local scaling and turbulence modulation in variable property turbulent channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ashish; Peeters, Jurriaan W. R.; Boersma, Bendiks J.; Pecnik, Rene

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the effect of temperature dependent density and viscosity on turbulence in channel flows. First, a mathematical framework is developed to support the validity of the semi-local scaling as proposed based on heuristic arguments by Huang, Coleman, and Bradshaw ["Compressible turbulent channel flows: DNS results and modelling," J. Fluid Mech. 305, 185-218 (1995)]. Second, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent channel flows with different constitutive relations for density and viscosity are performed to assess and validate the semi-local scaling for turbulent statistics. The DNS database is obtained by solving the low-Mach number approximation of the Navier-Stokes equation. Finally, we quantify the modulation of turbulence due to changes in fluid properties. In the simulations, the fluid is internally heated and the temperature at both channel walls is fixed, such that the friction Reynolds number based on wall quantities is Re? = 395 for all cases investigated. We show that for a case with variable density ? and viscosity ?, but constant semi-local Reynolds number R e? ? ? ?{ ( ? ¯ / ? w ) } / ( ? ¯ / ? w ) R e ? (where bar and subscript w, denote Reynolds averaging and averaged wall quantity, respectively), across the whole channel height, the turbulent statistics exhibit quasi-similarity with constant property turbulent flows. For cases where R e? ? ? R e ? across the channel, we found that quasi-similarity is maintained for cases with similar R e? ? distributions, even if their individual mean density and viscosity profiles substantially differ. With a decrease of R e? ? towards the channel center ( R e? ? < R e ? ), we show that the anisotropy increases and the pre-multiplied stream-wise spectra reveal that this increase is associated with strengthening of the large scale streaks in the buffer layer. The opposite effect is observed when R e? ? increases towards the channel center. The present results provide an effective framework for categorizing turbulence modulation in wall-bounded flows with variable property effects, and can be applied to any Newtonian fluid that is heated or cooled.

  2. Using frictional power to model LSST removal with conventional abrasives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Richard G.; Hubler, William H.

    2015-08-01

    The stressed lap on the Large Polishing Machine (LPM) at the University of Arizona Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab has recently been used to polish the M1 and M3 surfaces of the 8.4-m mirror for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Loadcells in the three 4-bar links that connect this lap to the spindle of the machine allow the translational forces and torque on the lap to be measured once a second. These force readings and all other available machine parameters are recorded in history files that can be used to create a 2D removal map from one or more polishing runs. While the Preston equation has been used for many years to predict removal in a conventional polishing process, we have adopted a new equation that assumes that removal is proportional to the energy that is transferred from the lap to the substrate via friction. Specifically, the instantaneous removal rate at any point is defined to be the product of four parameters - an energy conversion factor which we call the Allen coefficient, the coefficient of friction, the lap pressure, and the speed of the lap. The Allen coefficient is the ratio of volumetric removal to frictional energy for a particular combination of pad material, abrasive, and substrate. Because our calculations take into account changes in the coefficient of friction between the lap and mirror, our 2D removal maps usually correlate well with optical data. Removal maps for future polishing strokes are created in simulations that track the position and speed of individual lap pads.

  3. High Reynolds number analysis of flat plate and separated afterbody flow using non-linear turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, John R.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes method, PAB3D, to simulate the effect of Reynolds number variation using non-linear explicit algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence modeling was assessed. Subsonic flat plate boundary-layer flow parameters such as normalized velocity distributions, local and average skin friction, and shape factor were compared with DNS calculations and classical theory at various local Reynolds numbers up to 180 million. Additionally, surface pressure coefficient distributions and integrated drag predictions on an axisymmetric nozzle afterbody were compared with experimental data from 10 to 130 million Reynolds number. The high Reynolds data was obtained from the NASA Langley 0.3m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. There was generally good agreement of surface static pressure coefficients between the CFD and measurement. The change in pressure coefficient distributions with varying Reynolds number was similar to the experimental data trends, though slightly over-predicting the effect. The computational sensitivity of viscous modeling and turbulence modeling are shown. Integrated afterbody pressure drag was typically slightly lower than the experimental data. The change in afterbody pressure drag with Reynolds number was small both experimentally and computationally, even though the shape of the distribution was somewhat modified with Reynolds number.

  4. Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous

    E-print Network

    Carl H Gibson

    2012-11-25

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbulence patterns and fossil turbulence waves preserve and propagate energy and information about previous turbulence. Ignorance of fossil turbulence properties can be dangerous. Examples include the Osama bin Laden helicopter crash and the Air France 447 Airbus crash, both unfairly blamed on the pilots. Observations support the proposed definitions, and suggest even direct numerical simulations of turbulence require caution.

  5. Particle Dynamics in Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haitao

    2008-03-01

    The interaction between particles and turbulence features in many environmental and engineering problems, e.g., the formation of rain, the dispersion of particulate pollutants, and sedimentation in rivers and oceans. In addition, tracer particles are routinely used in scientific research to study the flow itself. Understanding the behavior of particles in turbulent flows is not only an important practical problem, but also an intriguing scientific challenge. Our group has developed a three-dimensional Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT) system. Using high speed CMOS cameras, the system is capable of following simultaneously hundreds of particles in a turbulent flow with Taylor microscale Reynolds number R? up to 10^3. The LPT measurements provide both single- and multi-particle statistics following Lagrangian trajectories, at temporal resolutions better than the Kolmogorov time scales of the turbulence. Using the LPT system, we investigated the Lagrangian properties of turbulence by tracking tracer particles seeded in the flow. In the study of turbulent relative dispersion, our measurement of the separation of pairs of fluid elements in turbulence demonstrated that only when the separation between a time scale related to the initial separation between the pair and the turbulence integral time scale is large enough, or equivalently, at very large Reynolds numbers, the long-believed Richardson's t^3 law may be observed. Furthermore, measurements of multiple particles in the flow showed the evolution of geometric structures in turbulence. Due to its ability to follow individual particles, the LPT system is an ideal tool to study the behavior of non-tracer particles in turbulence. The inertial particles have density different from the fluid, but size smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale of turbulence. On the other hand, neutrally buoyant particles with size larger than the Kolmogorov scale behave very differently from inertial particles. We will present results from both cases.

  6. Single and reciprocal friction testing of micropatterned surfaces for orthopedic device design.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, N; Eljach, C; Lodge, B; Sharp, J L; Desjardins, J D; Kennedy, M S

    2012-03-01

    The use of micropatterning to create uniform surface morphologies has been cited as yielding improvements in the coefficient of friction during high velocity sliding contact. Studies have not been preformed to determine if these micropatterns could also be useful in biomedical applications, such as total joint replacement surfaces, where the lower sliding velocities are used. In addition, other factors such as lubricant viscosities and materials used are more tightly constrained. In this study, the effect of pattern geometry, feature size and lubricant on contact friction and surface damage was investigated using 316L steel in sliding contact with a stainless steel and polyethylene pins. Using a novel proprietary forming process that creates millions of microstructures in parallel, a variety of micropatterned surfaces were fabricated to study the influence of shape (oval, circular, square), geometry (depressions, pillars) and feature size (10, 50 and 100 mm) on both contact friction and surface damage. All samples were 316L stainless steel and the static and dynamic coefficients of friction when in contact with either a stainless steel or polyethylene counterface were measured in dry and lubricated conditions. All samples were characterized for surface uniformity and pattern aspect ratio using white light interferometry and optical microscope image analysis, and the coefficients of friction were measured for each surface/lubricant/pin system using a CETR scratch testing system. Results showed that round depressions with diameters of 10 ?m had a significantly lower steady state coefficient of friction than the non-patterned substrates or substrates with greater diameter depression patterns. In addition, our results showed that the single-pass coefficient of friction measurements were not good predictors of the steady state coefficient of friction values measured. PMID:22340690

  7. Isostaticity at Frictional Jamming Stefanos Papanikolaou,1,2

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    friction coefficient coincides with a change in the type ofinterparticle contacts and the disappearance to frictional random loose packing ' RLP and z ' d þ 1 occurs as the static friction coefficient increases employed? What determines the static friction coefficient à that marks the crossover from frictionless

  8. Friction Coefficient Analysis of Multicomponent Solute Transport Through Polymer Membranes

    E-print Network

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    Friction Coefficient Analysis of Multicomponent Solute Transport Through Polymer Membranes their parameters are derived. The impor- tance of the friction coefficients in determining the response of the membrane suggests that a deeper look at the causes of the friction is necessary. New friction coefficient

  9. Estimating the Friction Parameters of Pushed Objects Kevin M. Lynch

    E-print Network

    Mason, Matthew T.

    of support friction, the centroid of the distribution, and the coefficient of friction between the pusher of the contact with a magnitude given by the coefficient of friction multiplied by the normal contact force less than or equal to the product of the friction coefficient and the normal force. 2. Motions are slow

  10. 11. Theory of Atomic-Scale Friction Wllh 17 Figures

    E-print Network

    Tománek, David

    .10]. This force is related to the applied load F,,, between the two bodies as (11.1) The coefficient of friction11. Theory of Atomic-Scale Friction D. Tomimek Wllh 17 Figures Friction between two solids. There, friction without wear corresponds to energy transfer from macroscopic degrees of freedom

  11. Friction (Chapter 5, section 8) & Circular Motion (Chapter 6,

    E-print Network

    as with any Newton's Law problem This example gives information about the motion which can be used to find when the can starts to move Some Coefficients of Friction Friction in Newton's Laws Problems Friction is a force, so it simply is included in the in Newton's Laws The rules of friction allow you to determine

  12. Stability of the three-dimensional Coulomb friction law

    E-print Network

    Barber, James R.

    Stability of the three-dimensional Coulomb friction law By Hanbum C h o and J. R. Barber Department of solution in quasi- static contact problems involving large coefficients of Coulomb friction. This paper that can make contact with a rigid Coulomb friction support. A critical coefficient of friction

  13. Friction Problems in Servomechanisms: Modeling and Compensation Techniques

    E-print Network

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    Friction Problems in Servomechanisms: Modeling and Compensation Techniques Jan Tommy Gravdahl of this presentation Introduction Friction models 1. Static models 2. Models with time delay 3. Dynamic models Friction compensation 1. Non-model based compensation 2. Compensation based on static friction models 3

  14. Experimental Investigation of Average Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Air Flowing in Circular Tubes Having Square-Thread-Type Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, E. W.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through electrically heated Inconel tubes having various degrees of square-thread-type roughness, an inside diameter of 1/2 inch, and a length of 24 inches. were obtained for tubes having conventional roughness ratios (height of thread/radius of tube) of 0 (smooth tube), 0.016, 0.025, and 0.037 over ranges of bulk Reynolds numbers up to 350,000, average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 1950deg R, and heat-flux densities up to 115,000 Btu per hour per square foot. Data The experimental data showed that both heat transfer and friction increased with increase in surface roughness, becoming more pronounced with increase in Reynolds number; for a given roughness, both heat transfer and friction were also influenced by the tube wall-to-bulk temperature ratio. Good correlation of the heat-transfer data for all the tubes investigated was obtained by use of a modification of the conventional Nusselt correlation parameters wherein the mass velocity in the Reynolds number was replaced by the product of air density evaluated at the average film temperature and the so-called friction velocity; in addition, the physical properties of air were evaluated at the average film temperature. The isothermal friction data for the rough tubes, when plotted in the conventional manner, resulted in curves similar to those obtained by other investigators; that is, the curve for a given roughness breaks away from the Blasius line (representing turbulent flow in smooth tubes) at some value of Reynolds number, which decreases with increase in surface roughness, and then becomes a horizontal line (friction coefficient independent of Reynolds number). A comparison of the friction data for the rough tubes used herein indicated that the conventional roughness ratio is not an adequate measure of relative roughness for tubes having a square-thread-type element. The present data, as well as those of other investigators, were used to isolate the influence of ratios of thread height to width, thread spacing to width, and the conventional roughness ratio on the friction coefficient. A fair correlation of the friction data was obtained for each tube with heat addition when the friction coefficient and Reynolds number were defined on the basis of film properties; however, the data for each tube retained the curve characteristic of that particular roughness. The friction data for all the rough tubes could be represented by a single line for the complete turbulence region by incorporating a roughness parameter in the film correlation. No correlation was obtained for the region of incomplete turbulence.

  15. Investigation of large-scale features in turbulent duct flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Henry; Monty, Jason; Hutchins, Nicholas; Chong, Min; Marusic, Ivan; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies reveal that long low-speed meandering structures (referred to as ``superstructures'' or Very Large Scale Motions) exist in the log region of fully developed turbulent pipe and channel flows as well as the turbulent boundary layer. These studies have been carried out using hot-wire arrays which are physically limited in terms of wall proximity. Here we use an array of multiple wall skin friction sensors to study the ``footprint,'' that is, the influence of these large scale features at the wall. Hot-wire velocity profiles measured in conjunction with the multiple skin-friction sensor array are used to study the three dimensional coherence of the large scale structure and the ensemble averaged statistics. Experiments are carried out in fully developed turbulent pipe and channel flow facilities with a similar outer length scale (pipe radius, R = 49.4mm and channel half height, h = 50mm) enabling direct comparison of the flows at a matched Reynolds number.

  16. Turbulence in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Evoli, Carmelo

    2011-01-01

    We study supernova-driven galactic outflows as a mechanism for injecting turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) far from galaxies. To this aim we follow the evolution of a 10^13 Msun galaxy along its merger tree, with carefully calibrated prescriptions for star formation and wind efficiencies. At z~3 the majority of the bubbles around galaxies are old (ages >1Gyr), i.e. they contain metals expelled by their progenitors at earlier times; their filling factor increases with time reaching about 10% at zexpanding shocks in the IGM is predominantly in kinetic form (mean energy density of 1 \\mu eV cm^-3, about 2-3 x the thermal one), which is rapidly converted in disordered motions by instabilities, finally resulting in a fully developed turbulent spectrum whose evolution is followed through a spectral transfer function approach. The derived mean IGM turbulent Doppler parameter, b_t, peaks at z~1 at about 1.5 km/s with maximum b_t = 25 km/s. The shape of the b_t distributi...

  17. Essays on economic growth and informational frictions

    E-print Network

    Pienknagura, Samuel (Samuel Jaime)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters on Economic Growth and Informational Frictions. Chapter 1 investigates the relation between financial development, R&D expenditure and aggregate growth. It provides empirical evidence ...

  18. Comment on "Quantum Friction - Fact or Fiction?"

    E-print Network

    Ulf Leonhardt

    2010-03-16

    If quantum friction existed [J.B. Pendry, New J. Phys. 12, 033028 (2010)] an unlimited amount of useful energy could be extracted from the quantum vacuum and Lifshitz theory would fail. Both are unlikely to be true.

  19. Sliding friction on wet and dry sand.

    PubMed

    Fall, A; Weber, B; Pakpour, M; Lenoir, N; Shahidzadeh, N; Fiscina, J; Wagner, C; Bonn, D

    2014-05-01

    We show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some-but not too much-water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding. Too much water, on the other hand, makes the capillary bridges coalesce, resulting in a decrease of the modulus; in this case, we observe that the friction coefficient increases again. Our results, therefore, show that the friction coefficient is directly related to the shear modulus; this has important repercussions for the transport of granular materials. In addition, the polydispersity of the sand is shown to also have a large effect on the friction coefficient. PMID:24836256

  20. Sites of friction : borders of the banal

    E-print Network

    Donohue, Lilly (Lilly L.)

    2006-01-01

    This project considers the duality of friction as a force which is simultaneously threatening and essential; responsible for destruction and violence, yet vital in precipitating progress and new relationships within the ...

  1. There's More to It than Friction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber-Schaim, Uri; Dodge, John H.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of sliding friction in the problem of what happens when a tablecloth is pulled from under dishes is considered. Theoretical considerations and possible dish displacements are discussed. (CW)

  2. Rheological effects on friction in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachman, E. G.; Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation is presented of the friction in a rolling and sliding elastohydrodynamic lubricated contact. The rheological behavior of the lubricant is described in terms of two viscoelastic models. These models represent the separate effects of non-Newtonian behavior and the transient response of the fluid. A unified description of the non-Newtonian shear rate dependence of the viscosity is presented as a new hyperbolic liquid model. The transient response of viscosity, following the rapid pressure rise encountered in the contact, is described by a compressional viscoelastic model of the volume response of a liquid to an applied pressure step. The resulting momentum and energy equations are solved by an iterative numerical technique, and a friction coefficient is calculated. The experimental study was performed, with two synthetic paraffinic lubricants, to verify the friction predictions of the analysis. The values of friction coefficient from theory and experiment are in close agreement.

  3. Sliding Friction on Wet and Dry Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, A.; Weber, B.; Pakpour, M.; Lenoir, N.; Shahidzadeh, N.; Fiscina, J.; Wagner, C.; Bonn, D.

    2014-05-01

    We show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some—but not too much—water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding. Too much water, on the other hand, makes the capillary bridges coalesce, resulting in a decrease of the modulus; in this case, we observe that the friction coefficient increases again. Our results, therefore, show that the friction coefficient is directly related to the shear modulus; this has important repercussions for the transport of granular materials. In addition, the polydispersity of the sand is shown to also have a large effect on the friction coefficient.

  4. Sliding without slipping under Coulomb friction: opening waves and inversion of frictional force

    E-print Network

    Yastrebov, Vladislav A

    2015-01-01

    An elastic layer slides on a rigid flat governed by Coulomb's friction law. We demonstrate that if the coefficient of friction is high enough, the sliding localizes within stick-slip pulses, which transform into opening waves propagating at intersonic speed in the direction of sliding or, for high Poisson's ratios, at supersonic speed in the opposite one. This sliding mode, characterized by small frictional dissipation, rapidly relaxes the shear elastic energy via stress waves and enables the contact surface slide ahead of the top one, resulting in inversion of the frictional force direction.

  5. Friction and friction-generated temperature at a polymer-metal interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Results of friction and thermal tests of molded polyimide and pyrrone polymers are presented. The coefficient of sliding friction up to surface velocities of 2 m/sec and the coefficient of thermal expansion from 300 to 500 K were measured. An apparatus was constructed to measure simultaneously the coefficient of sliding friction and the friction-generated temperature. Measurements were made at a nominal pressure-velocity product of 0.25 MN/msec and at temperatures between 300 and 500 K.

  6. MHD turbulent processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, David

    1988-01-01

    Three areas of study in MHD turbulence are considered. These are the turbulent relaxation of the toroidal Z pinch, density fluctuations in MHD fluids, and MHD cellular automata. A Boolean computer game that updates a cellular representation in parallel and that has macroscopic averages converging to solutions of the two-dimensional MHD equations is discussed.

  7. Effects of shear load on frictional healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, K. L.; Marone, C.

    2014-12-01

    During the seismic cycle of repeated earthquake failure, faults regain strength in a process known as frictional healing. Laboratory studies have played a central role in illuminating the processes of frictional healing and fault re-strengthening. These studies have also provided the foundation for laboratory-derived friction constitutive laws, which have been used extensively to model earthquake dynamics. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the affect of shear load on frictional healing. Frictional healing is quantified during slide-hold-slide (SHS) tests, which serve as a simple laboratory analog for the seismic cycle in which earthquakes (slide) are followed by interseismic quiescence (hold). We studied bare surfaces of Westerly granite and layers of Westerly granite gouge (thickness of 3 mm) at normal stresses from 4-25 MPa, relative humidity of 40-60%, and loading and unloading velocities of 10-300 ?m/s. During the hold period of SHS tests, shear stress on the sample was partially removed to investigate the effects of shear load on frictional healing and to isolate time- and slip-dependent effects on fault healing. Preliminary results are consistent with existing works and indicate that frictional healing increases with the logarithm of hold time and decreases with normalized shear stress ?/?f during the hold. During SHS tests with hold periods of 100 seconds, healing values ranged from (0.013-0.014) for ?/?f = 1 to (0.059-0.063) for ?/?f = 0, where ? is the shear stress during the hold period and ?f is the shear stress during steady frictional sliding. Experiments on bare rock surfaces and with natural and synthetic fault gouge materials are in progress. Conventional SHS tests (i.e. ?/?f = 1) are adequately described by the rate and state friction laws. However, previous experiments in granular quartz suggest that zero-stress SHS tests are not well characterized by either the Dieterich or Ruina state evolution laws. We are investigating the processes that produce shear stress dependent frictional healing, alternate forms of the state evolution law, and comparing results for friction of bare rock surfaces and granular fault gouge.

  8. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in the throttle of the MBIR reactor's low-pressure chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarunichev, V. A.; Orlova, E. E.; Lemekhov, Yu. V.; Shpanskii, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    This work in devoted to numerical calculation of turbulent flow in a labyrinth-type throttle. A system of such throttles is installed at the inlet to the MBIR reactor's low-pressure chamber and serves for setting up the required pressure difference and coolant flow rate. MBIR is a multipurpose fourthgeneration fast-neutron research reactor intended for investigating new kinds of nuclear fuel, structural materials, and coolants. The aim of this work is to develop a verified procedure for carrying out 3D calculation of the throttle using CFD modeling techniques. The investigations on determining the throttle hydraulic friction coefficient were carried out in the range of Reynolds numbers Re = 52000-136000. The reactor coolant (liquid sodium) was modeled by tap water. The calculations were carried out using high-Reynolds-number turbulence models with the near-wall functions k-? and RNG k-?, where k is the turbulent pulsation kinetic energy and ? is the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate. The obtained results have shown that the calculated value of hydraulic friction coefficient differs from its experimental value by no more than 10%. The developed procedure can be applied in determining the hydraulic friction coefficient of a modified labyrinth throttle design. The use of such calculation will make it possible to predict an experiment with the preset accuracy.

  9. Frictional behavior of talc-calcite mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetti, C.; Carpenter, B. M.; Collettini, C.

    2015-09-01

    Faults involving phyllosilicates appear weak when compared to the laboratory-derived strength of most crustal rocks. Among phyllosilicates, talc, with very low friction, is one of the weakest minerals involved in various tectonic settings. As the presence of talc has been recently documented in carbonate faults, we performed laboratory friction experiments to better constrain how various amounts of talc could alter these fault's frictional properties. We used a biaxial apparatus to systematically shear different mixtures of talc and calcite as powdered gouge at room temperature, normal stresses up to 50 MPa and under different pore fluid saturated conditions, i.e., CaCO3-equilibrated water and silicone oil. We performed slide-hold-slide tests, 1-3000 s, to measure the amount of frictional healing and velocity-stepping tests, 0.1-1000 µm/s, to evaluate frictional stability. We then analyzed microstructures developed during our experiments. Our results show that with the addition of 20% talc the calcite gouge undergoes a 70% reduction in steady state frictional strength, a complete reduction of frictional healing and a transition from velocity-weakening to velocity-strengthening behavior. Microstructural analysis shows that with increasing talc content, deformation mechanisms evolve from distributed cataclastic flow of the granular calcite to localized sliding along talc-rich shear planes, resulting in a fully interconnected network of talc lamellae from 20% talc onward. Our observations indicate that in faults where talc and calcite are present, a low concentration of talc is enough to strongly modify the gouge's frictional properties and specifically to weaken the fault, reduce its ability to sustain future stress drops, and stabilize slip.

  10. Object Moving Along a Circle with Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurcher, Ulrich; Kaufman, Miron

    2003-10-01

    We study the problem of an object gliding down an inverted hemisphere. For zero friction, we recover the case discussed in introductory physics. We extend these familiar results to the case when friction is present. We find the numerical solution for the equation of motion using the MathCAD software package as well as the analytical solution for the speed of the object along the trajectory. This material is suitable for an upper division Mechanics or Computational Physics course.

  11. Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; GALNANDER, B.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; LOFNES, T.; SIDORIN, A.O.; SMIRNOV, A.V.; ZIEMANN, V.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  13. Flexible Friction Stir Joining Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Lim, Yong Chae; Mahoney, Murray; Sanderson, Samuel; Larsen, Steve; Steel, Russel; Fleck, Dale; Fairchild, Doug P; Wasson, Andrew J; Babb, Jon; Higgins, Paul

    2015-07-23

    Reported herein is the final report on a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) project with industry cost-share that was jointly carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company (ExxonMobil), and MegaStir Technologies (MegaStir). The project was aimed to advance the state of the art of friction stir welding (FSW) technology, a highly energy-efficient solid-state joining process, for field deployable, on-site fabrications of large, complex and thick-sectioned structures of high-performance and high-temperature materials. The technology innovations developed herein attempted to address two fundamental shortcomings of FSW: 1) the inability for on-site welding and 2) the inability to weld thick section steels, both of which have impeded widespread use of FSW in manufacturing. Through this work, major advance has been made toward transforming FSW technology from a “specialty” process to a mainstream materials joining technology to realize its pervasive energy, environmental, and economic benefits across industry.

  14. Turbulent Spot Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegseth, John

    1998-03-01

    One of the most interesting pattern forming processes occurs when separated spatial regions of turbulent and laminar flows (turbulent spots) form in shear flows. Examples include the spots in boundary layer flows, pipe flow slugs, and Spiral Turbulence in circular Couette flow. This process was studied in detail in a plane Couette flow apparatus where spots can easily be created through a subcritical (or metastable) transition and can easily be observed in the laboratory frame. The results from this study showed pervasive vortex structures with their rotation axes aligned in the direction of the wall velocity. An interpretation of the visualization evidence from this experiment is presented. This interpretation suggests that the stress on the laminar flow from the turbulence induces vortex stretching and vortex tilting in the laminar flow that result in the before mentioned pervasive vortex structures. These vortex structures and their complex interactions constitute the smaller scale turbulence.

  15. A frictional law for volcanic ash gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallée, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kendrick, J. E.; De Angelis, S.; Petrakova, L.; Hornby, A. J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic provinces are structurally active regions - undergoing continual deformation along faults. Within such fault structures, volcanic ash gouge, containing both crystalline and glassy material, may act as a potential fault plane lubricant. Here, we investigate the frictional properties of volcanic ash gouges with varying glass fractions using a rotary shear apparatus at a range of slip rates (1.3-1300 mm/s) and axial stresses (0.5-2.5 MPa). We show that the frictional behaviour of volcanic ash is in agreement with Byerlee's friction law at low slip velocities, irrespective of glass content. The results reveal a common non-linear reduction of the friction coefficient with slip velocity and yield a frictional law for fault zones containing volcanic ash gouge. Textural analysis reveals that strain localisation and the development of shear bands are more prominent at higher slip velocities (>10 mm/s). The textures observed here are similar to those recorded in ash gouge at the surface of extrusive spines at Mount St. Helens (USA). We use the rate-weakening component of the frictional law to estimate shear-stress-resistance reductions associated with episodic seismogenic slip events that accompany magma ascent pulses. We conclude that the internal structure of volcanic ash gouge may act as a kinematic marker of exogenic dome growth.

  16. Friction in Forming of UD Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, U.; Akkerman, R.; Haanappel, S. P.; ten Thije, R. H. W.; de Rooij, M. B.

    2011-05-01

    Inter-ply and tool/ply friction play a dominant role in hot stamp forming of UD fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates. This research treats friction measurements of a PEEK-AS4 composite system. To this end, an in-house developed friction tester is utilized to pull a laminate through two heat controlled clamping platens. The friction coefficient is determined by relating the clamp force to the pull force. The geometry of the gap between the clamping platens is monitored with micrometer accuracy. A first approach to describe the relation between the geometry and frictional behavior is undertaken by applying a standard thin-film theory for hydrodynamic lubrication. Experimental measurements showed that the thin-film theory does not entirely cover the underlying physics. Thus a second model is utilized, which employs a Leonov-model to describe the shear deformation of the matrix material, while its viscosity is described with a multi-mode Maxwell model. The combination of both models shows the potential to capture the complete frictional behavior.

  17. Friction in Forming of UD Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, U.; Haanappel, S. P.; Akkerman, R.; Thije, R. H. W. ten; Rooij, M. B. de

    2011-05-04

    Inter-ply and tool/ply friction play a dominant role in hot stamp forming of UD fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates. This research treats friction measurements of a PEEK-AS4 composite system. To this end, an in-house developed friction tester is utilized to pull a laminate through two heat controlled clamping platens. The friction coefficient is determined by relating the clamp force to the pull force. The geometry of the gap between the clamping platens is monitored with micrometer accuracy. A first approach to describe the relation between the geometry and frictional behavior is undertaken by applying a standard thin-film theory for hydrodynamic lubrication. Experimental measurements showed that the thin-film theory does not entirely cover the underlying physics. Thus a second model is utilized, which employs a Leonov-model to describe the shear deformation of the matrix material, while its viscosity is described with a multi-mode Maxwell model. The combination of both models shows the potential to capture the complete frictional behavior.

  18. Measurements of Turbulence Attenuation by a Dilute Dispersion of Solid Particles in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses turbulent gas flows laden with fine solid particles at sufficiently large mass loading that strong two-way coupling occurs. By two-way coupling we mean that the particle motion is governed largely by the flow, while the particles affect the gas-phase mean flow and the turbulence properties. Our main interest is in understanding how the particles affect the turbulence. Computational techniques have been developed which can accurately predict flows carrying particles that are much smaller than the smallest scales of turbulence. Also, advanced computational techniques and burgeoning computer resources make it feasible to fully resolve very large particles moving through turbulent flows. However, flows with particle diameters of the same order as the Kolmogorov scale of the turbulence are notoriously difficult to predict. Some simple flows show strong turbulence attenuation with reductions in the turbulent kinetic energy by up to a factor of five. On the other hand, some seemingly similar flows show almost no modification. No model has been proposed that allows prediction of when the strong attenuation will occur. Unfortunately, many technological and natural two-phase flows fall into this regime, so there is a strong need for new physical understanding and modeling capability. Our objective is to study the simplest possible turbulent particle-laden flow, namely homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with a uniform dispersion of monodisperse particles. We chose such a simple flow for two reasons. First, the simplicity allows us to probe the interaction in more detail and offers analytical simplicity in interpreting the results. Secondly, this flow can be addressed by numerical simulation, and many research groups are already working on calculating the flow. Our detailed data can help guide some of these efforts. By using microgravity, we can further simplify the flow to the case of no mean velocity for either the turbulence or the particles. In fact the addition of gravity as a variable parameter may help us to better understand the physics of turbulence attenuation. The experiments are conducted in a turbulence chamber capable of producing stationary or decaying isotropic turbulence with nearly zero mean flow and Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers up to nearly 500. The chamber is a 410 mm cubic box with the corners cut off to make it approximately spherical. Synthetic jet turbulence generators are mounted in each of the eight corners of the box. Each generator consists of a loudspeaker forcing a plenum and producing a pulsed jet through a 20 mm diameter orifice. These synthetic jets are directed into ejector tubes pointing towards the chamber center. The ejector tubes increase the jet mass flow and decrease the velocity. The jets then pass through a turbulence grid. Each of the eight loudspeakers is forced with a random phase and frequency. The resulting turbulence is highly Isotropic and matches typical behavior of grid turbulence. Measurements of both phases are acquired using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The gas is seeded with approximately 1 micron diameter seeding particles while the solid phase is typically 150 micron diameter spherical glass particles. A double-pulsed YAG laser and a Kodak ES-1.0 10-bit PIV camera provide the PIV images. Custom software is used to separate the images into individual images containing either gas-phase tracers or large particles. Modern high-resolution PIV algorithms are then used to calculate the velocity field. A large set of image pairs are acquired for each case, then the results are averaged both spatially and over the ensemble of acquired images. The entire apparatus is mounted in two racks which are carried aboard NASA's KC-135 Flying Microgravity Laboratory. The rack containing the turbulence chamber, the laser head, and the camera floats freely in the airplane cabin (constrained by competent NASA personnel) to minimize g-jitter.

  19. Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component

    PubMed Central

    Eltsov, Vladimir; Hänninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti

    2014-01-01

    In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid 3He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures. PMID:24704879

  20. Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component.

    PubMed

    Eltsov, Vladimir; Hänninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti

    2014-03-25

    In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid (3)He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures. PMID:24704879

  1. Ice friction: Role of non-uniform frictional heating and ice premelting.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2015-12-14

    The low friction of ice is usually attributed to the formation of a thin water film due to melting of ice by frictional heating. Melting of ice is a first order phase transition where physical quantities like mass density, the elastic modulus or the shear strength changes abruptly at the transition temperature. Thus, one may expect the friction coefficient to change abruptly at some characteristic sliding speed, when the melt water film is produced. We show that taking into account that, due to non-uniform frictional heating, melting does not occur simultaneously in all the ice contact regions, the transition is not abrupt but still more rapid (as a function of sliding speed) than observed experimentally. The slower than expected drop in the friction with increasing sliding speed may be a consequence of the following paradoxical phenomena: before the melt-water film is formed, the friction of ice is high and a large frictional heating occur which may result in the melting of the ice. If a thin (nanometer) water film would form, the friction becomes low which results in small frictional heating and the freezing of the water film. This suggests a region in sliding speed where a thin (nanometer) surface layer of the ice may be in a mixed state with small ice-like and water-like domains, which fluctuate rapidly in space and time. Alternatively, and more likely, heat-softening of the ice may occur resulting in a thin, statistically homogeneous (in the lateral direction) layer of disordered ice, with a shear strength which decreases continuously as the ice surface temperature approaches the bulk melting temperature. This layer could be related to surface premelting of ice. Using a phenomenological expression for the frictional shear stress, I show that the calculated ice friction is in good agreement with experimental observations. PMID:26671390

  2. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-02-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation.

  3. Friction Stir Processing for Efficient Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. Christopher B. Smith; Dr. Oyelayo Ajayi

    2012-01-31

    Friction at contacting surfaces in relative motion is a major source of parasitic energy loss in machine systems and manufacturing processes. Consequently, friction reduction usually translates to efficiency gain and reduction in energy consumption. Furthermore, friction at surfaces eventually leads to wear and failure of the components thereby compromising reliability and durability. In order to reduce friction and wear in tribological components, material surfaces are often hardened by a variety of methods, including conventional heat treatment, laser surface hardening, and thin-film coatings. While these surface treatments are effective when used in conjunction with lubrication to prevent failure, they are all energy intensive and could potentially add significant cost. A new concept for surface hardening of metallic materials and components is Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Compared to the current surface hardening technologies, FSP is more energy efficient has no emission or waste by products and may result in better tribological performance. FSP involves plunging a rotating tool to a predetermined depth (case layer thickness) and translating the FSP tool along the area to be processed. This action of the tool produces heating and severe plastic deformation of the processed area. For steel the temperature is high enough to cause phase transformation, ultimately forming hard martensitic phase. Indeed, FSP has been used for surface modification of several metals and alloys so as to homogenize the microstructure and refine the grain size, both of which led to improved fatigue and corrosion resistance. Based on the effect of FSP on near-surface layer material, it was expected to have beneficial effects on friction and wear performance of metallic materials. However, little or no knowledge existed on the impact of FSP concerning friction and wear performance the subject of the this project and final report. Specifically for steel, which is the most dominant tribological material, FSP can replace the current conventional surface hardening techniques used for friction and wear performance. Friction Stir Link Inc. (FSL) is teamed with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop and optimize FSP for friction and wear performance enhancement. The ultimate goal is to offer FSP and an effective alternative to some of the current energy intensive and high-cost surface hardening processes.

  4. Friction testing of a new ligature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantel, Alison R.

    Objective. To determine if American Orthodontics' (AO) new, experimental ligature demonstrates less friction in vitro when compared to four other ligatures on the market. Methods. Four brackets were mounted on a custom metal fixture allowing an 0.018-in stainless steel wire attached to an opposite fixture with one bracket to be passively centered in the bracket slot. The wire was ligated to the bracket using one of five types of ligatures including the low friction test ligatures (AO), conventional ligatures (AO), Sili-Ties(TM) Silicone Infused Ties (GAC), SynergyRTM Low-Friction Ligatures (RMO), and SuperSlick ligatures (TP Orthodontics). Resistance to sliding was measured over a 7 mm sliding distance using a universal testing machine (Instron) with a 50 Newton load cell and a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The initial resistance to sliding (static) was determined by the peak force needed to initiate movement and the kinetic resistance to sliding was taken as the force at 5 mm of wire/bracket sliding. Fifteen unique tests were run for each ligature group in both dry and wet (saliva soaked for 24 hours with one drop prior to testing) conditions. Results. In the dry state, the SuperSlick ligature demonstrated more static friction than all of the other ligatures, while SuperSlick and Sili-Ties demonstrated more kinetic friction than the AO conventional, AO experimental and Synergy ligatures. In the wet condition, SuperSlick and the AO experimental ligature demonstrated the least static friction, followed by the AO conventional and Sili-Ties. The most static friction was observed with the Synergy ligatures. In the wet condition, the SuperSlick, AO experimental and AO conventional exhibited less kinetic friction than the Sili-Ties and Synergy ligatures. Conclusions. AO's experimental ligature exhibits less friction in the wet state than conventional ligatures, Sili-Ties and Synergy and is comparable to the SuperSlick ligature. These preliminary results suggest that the AO experimental ligature and the SuperSlick ligature create less friction, but direct conclusions regarding in vivo performance cannot be made and randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to determine if these ligatures have clinical significance in treatment efficiency.

  5. Polymer stress statistics in the near-wall turbulent flow of a drag-reducing solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibilla, Stefano; Baron, Arturo

    2002-03-01

    The direct numerical simulation of the turbulent flow of a dilute polymer solution in a plane channel at low-Reynolds number has been performed in order to investigate the reduction in friction drag. The polymer solution has been represented as a continuum fluid whose constitutive equations have been derived on the basis of a modified FENE-P dumbbell model. The mean polymer dynamics in the turbulent flow have been studied through statistical moments of the configuration tensor. The analysis of the results obtained suggests that polymers can be effective in terms of drag reduction only if their relaxation time is comparable to the characteristic time of their convection in the normal-to-the-wall direction within near-wall turbulent structures. The energy budget of the normal components of the Reynolds stress tensor suggests that elongated polymers inhibit turbulence regeneration by opposing pressure redistribution from streamwise to cross-flow velocity fluctuations.

  6. Possible flow regimes of adiabatic one-dimensional compressible fluid flow with friction in convergent and divergent ducts.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shouman, A. R.; Garcia, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical solution for the compressible one-dimensional flow in convergent and divergent ducts with friction is obtained. It is found that a nondimensional parameter, N, can be formed using the friction factor, duct half-angle and the ratio of specific heats of the gas. Seven flow regimes are describable with the solution, based on certain bounds on the magnitude of N. The regimes are discussed and corollary data are presented graphically.

  7. Turbomachinery Design Quality Checks to Avoid Friction Induced Structural Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jerry H.

    1999-01-01

    A unique configuration of the P&W SSME Alternate Fuel Turbopump turbine disk/blade assembly, combined with a severe thermal environment, resulted in several structural anomalies that were driven by frictional contact forces. Understanding the mechanics of these problems provides new quality checks for future turbo machinery designs. During development testing in 1997 of the SSME alternate fuel turbopump at Stennis Space Center, several potentially serious problems surfaced with the turbine disk/blade assembly that had not been experienced in extensive earlier testing. Changes to the operational thermal environment were noted based on analytical prediction of modifications that affected performance and on stationary thermal measurements adjacent to the rotor assembly. A detailed structural investigation was required to reveal the mechanism of distress induced by the change. The turbine disk experienced cracking in several locations due to increased thermal gradient induced stress during start and shutdown transients. This was easily predictable using standard analysis procedures and expected once the thermal environment was characterized. What was not expected was the curling of a piston ring used for blade axial retention in the disk, indentation of the axial face of the blade attachment by a spacer separating the first and second stage blades, and most significantly, galling and cracking of the blade root attachment that could have resulted in blade release. Past experience, in gas turbine environments, set a precedent of never relying on friction for help and to evaluate it only in specific instances where it was obvious that it would degrade capability. In each of the three cases above, friction proved to be a determining factor that pushed the components into an unsatisfactory mode of operation. The higher than expected temperatures and rapid thermal transients combined with friction to move beyond past experience. The turbine disk/blade assembly configuration contributed to the potential for these problems to occur by limiting the radial deflection from thermals and centrifugal loading. The cooled solid bore configuration was chosen to improve rotordynamic stability by limiting the length of rotor overhang while still protecting the roller bearing by maintaining zero slope under the inner race. During a start transient, the rim area of the disk heats rapidly and expands axially and circumferentially and requires corresponding radial and axial growth of the disk to maintain relative positioning of the disk, blades, spacers and retainer rings. The stiffness, large thermal mass, and bore cooling flow combine to severely limit the disk rim radial growth which results in the potential for relative movement between these parts. Friction then becomes a player in the determination of component stress.

  8. Rock Friction at the Micro-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Madden, A. S.; Bickmore, B.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Typically, rock friction is measured on experimental samples that are a few cm to one m in size, while molecular-dynamic simulate friction at the nano-scale. We present here preliminary results of rock friction on tens-of-micron scale in the gap between the above scales. The analysis was conducted with the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) instrument. The main component of the AFM is a cantilever with a probe that interrogates the specimen surface through contact interaction forces. In our experiments the probe is a silica micro-sphere (25 microns) glued to the cantilever. We used the method developed by Kosoglu et al. (2011) and Attard et al. (2005) in which friction coefficients are extracted from hysteresis in measurements of cantilever defection versus probe-surface separation distance. We measured the friction coefficient of several types of surfaces, and the measurement at each micron-scale position was repeated tens of times. The surfaces include freshly cleaved biotite (3 positions with 368 repetitions), and fault surfaces of granite (8 positions), gabbro (8 positions), and dolomite (19 positions), which were sheared in a rotary apparatus at velocities up to 1 m/s and normal stress up to 7 MPa. Fault surfaces were measured parallel and perpendicular to the slickenside striations. Gouge was removed from the fault surfaces, and 33 positions were measured 'dry' (room air dry) and 10 positions were measured 'wet' (sample covered with water). We obtained consistent values of the friction coefficients. (1) Biotite: dry surfaces displayed mu=0.15, and wet surfaces displayed mu=0.26-0.29; (2) Granite: dry, pre-slip, polished surfaces displayed mu=0.64, dry fault surfaces measured parallel to slickensides had mu=0.52, and dry fault surfaces measured perpendicular to slickensides had mu=0.71; (3) Gabbro: dry fault surfaces measured parallel to slickensides had mu=0.48, and dry fault surfaces measured perpendicular to slickensides had mu=0.57; (4) Dolomite displayed more complex behavior. For dry fault surfaces measured parallel to slickensides, the friction dropped systematically from 0.64 to 0.26 with decreasing initial probe-surface separation distance, and wet fault surfaces displayed low friction of mu=0.16. Our preliminary conclusions are: (1) The friction mechanisms in our micro-scale (~ 50 microns) experiments may be similar to macro-scale friction mechanisms since our measured dry friction were similar to known rock friction of mu=0.6-0.8 at macro-scale; (2) The lower friction parallel to slickensides indicates slip-weakening due to fault-surface smoothening; (3) The strong effect (yet complicated) of water may be attributed to difference between smooth (biotite) and rough (dolomite & granite) surfaces. These results suggest that this AFM method can provide direct correlations between micro-scale surface textures and friction coefficient at the macro-scale.

  9. Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.

  10. Casimir Friction I: Friction of a vacuum on a spinning dielectric

    E-print Network

    Yves Pomeau; David C. Roberts

    2008-04-09

    We introduce the concept of Casimir friction, i.e. friction due to quantum fluctuations. In this first article we describe the calculation of a constant torque, arising from the scattering of quantum fluctuations, on a dielectric rotating in an electromagnetic vacuum.

  11. Interfacial cracks in isotropic and anisotropic media with friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Wenqi

    The thrust of the thesis work is to investigate and determine the fracture parameters of interface cracks. Both the oscillatory model and the contact model are used to study the fracture behavior of interface cracks for small scale contact condition and large contact condition with friction, respectively. For interface cracks with their surfaces in small scale contact, the existing solutions for interfacial cracks in bimaterial media obtained from the contact model and oscillatory model were compared. The oscillatory neartip stress field was found to agree very well with that of the contact model except for the extremely small contact zone. Using the oscillatory solution, Mode I and Mode II "strain energy release rates" for finite crack extensions were obtained in terms of the stress intensity factors and the assumed crack extension Delta a for interface cracks lying between three different kinds of media, i.e.. two dissimilar isotropic materials; two dissimilar general orthotropic media with one plane of material symmetry in xsb1 - xsb2 plane; and two dissimilar monoclinic media. Finite elements in conjunction with the crack closure method were used to calculate these "strain energy release rates" from which accurate stress intensity factors were obtained. An alternative method based on crack surface displacement ratio was also introduced to obtain stress intensity factors. Numerical examples were studied to show their accuracy and implementation. For interface cracks with friction, the concept of strain energy release rate for interfacial cracks in the presence of friction is reexamined. A finite element based numerical procedure is introduced to calculate the strain energy release rate and energy dissipation due to friction for a finite crack extension. Thus, the finite extension strain energy release rate with a fixed crack extension can be used to represent the magnitude of the singular stress field and, therefore, to quantitatively characterize the intrinsic fracture toughness. For numerical examples, a center crack in an infinite bimaterial media under pure shear and combined compression and shear were studied to understand the neartip singularity nature and concept of strain energy release rates. Both fiber pull-out and push-out tests were simulated for illustration of this application.

  12. Status of Stellite 6 friction testing

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1998-06-01

    For the past several years, researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, have been investigating the performance of motor-operated valves subjected to design basis flow and pressure loads. Part of this research addresses the friction that occurs at the interface between the valve disc and the valve body seats during operation of a gate valve. In most gate valves, these surfaces are hardfaced with Stellite 6, a cobalt-based alloy. Analytical methods exist for predicting the thrust needed to operate these valves at specific pressure conditions. To produce accurate valve thrust predictions, the analyst must have a reasonably accurate, though conservative, estimate of the coefficient of friction at the disc-to-seat interface. One of the questions that remains to be answered is whether, and to what extent, aging of the disc and seat surfaces effects the disc-to-seat coefficient of friction. Specifically, does the environment in a nuclear plants piping system cause the accumulation of an oxide film on these surfaces that increases the coefficient of friction; and if so, how great is the increase? This paper presents results of specimen tests addressing this issue, with emphasis on the following: (1) the characteristics and thickness of the oxide film that develops on Stellite 6 as it ages; (2) the change in the friction coefficient of Stellite 6 as it ages, including the question of whether the friction coefficient eventually reaches a plateau; and (3) the effect in-service cycling has on the characteristics and thickness of the oxide film and on the friction coefficient.

  13. Mechanisms of friction in diamondlike nanocomposite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, T. W.; Ohlhausen, J. A.; Tallant, D. R.; Prasad, S. V.

    2007-03-15

    Diamondlike nanocomposite (DLN) coatings (C:H:Si:O) processed from siloxane precursors by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are well known for their low friction and wear behaviors. In the current study, we have investigated the fundamental mechanisms of friction and interfacial shear strength in DLN coatings and the roles of contact stress and environment on their tribological behavior. Friction and wear measurements were performed from 0.25 to 0.6 GPa contact pressures in three environments: dry (<1% RH) nitrogen, dry (<1% RH) air, and humid (50% RH) air, with precise control of dew point and oxygen content. At 0.3 GPa contact stress, the coefficient of friction (COF) in dry nitrogen was extremely low, {approx}0.02, whereas in humid air it increased to {approx}0.2, with minimal amount of wear in both environments. The coatings also exhibited non-Amontonian friction behavior, with COF decreasing with an increase in Hertzian contact stress. The main mechanism responsible for low friction and wear under varying contact stresses and environments is governed by the interfacial sliding between the DLN coating and the friction-induced transfer film adhered to the ball counterface. This interfacial shear strength, computed from COF-inverse Hertzian contact stress plots, was found to be 9 MPa in dry nitrogen and 78 MPa in humid air. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis of the interfaces (wear tracks and transfer films) was used to explain the tribochemical effects in both environments. The transfer films generated in humid air were found to be enriched with SiO{sub 2} containing fragments, whereas those formed in dry nitrogen had hydrogenated and long range ordered carbons with practically no SiO{sub 2} fragments, ultimately resulting in much lower interfacial shear strength and COF.

  14. Gimballed Shoulders for Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Lawless, Kirby

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement of tooling for friction stir welding, gimballed shoulders would supplant shoulders that, heretofore, have been fixedly aligned with pins. The proposal is especially relevant to self-reacting friction stir welding. Some definitions of terms, recapitulated from related prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed improvement. In friction stir welding, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a pin that rotates with the shoulder and protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. In conventional friction stir welding, the main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional friction stir welding is augmented with an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or forcecontrol system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding as practiced heretofore, there are two shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. Both shoulders rotate with the pin and remain aligned coaxially with the pin. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft into the friction-stir-welding machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. This concludes the prerequisite definitions of terms.

  15. Ultralow Friction in a Superconducting Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornemann, Hans J.; Siegel, Michael; Zaitsev, Oleg; Bareiss, Martin; Laschuetza, Helmut

    1996-01-01

    Passive levitation by superconducting magnetic bearings can be utilized in flywheels for energy storage. Basic design criteria of such a bearing are high levitation force, sufficient vertical and horizontal stability and low friction. A test facility was built for the measurement and evaluation of friction in a superconducting magnetic bearing as a function of operating temperature and pressure in the vacuum vessel. The bearing consists of a commercial disk shaped magnet levitated above single grain, melt-textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material. The superconductor was conduction cooled by an integrated AEG tactical cryocooler. The temperature could be varied from 50 K to 80 K. The pressure in the vacuum chamber was varied from 1 bar to 10(exp -5) mbar. At the lowest pressure setting, the drag torque shows a linear frequency dependence over the entire range investigated (0 less than f less than 40 Hz). Magnetic friction, the frequency independent contribution, is very low. The frequency dependent drag torque is generated by molecular friction from molecule-surface collisions and by eddy currents. Given the specific geometry of the set-up and gas pressure, the molecular drag torque can be estimated. At a speed of 40 Hz, the coefficient of friction (drag-to-lift ratio) was measured to be mu = 1.6 x 10(exp -7) at 10(exp -5) mbar and T = 60 K. This is equivalent to a drag torque of 7.6 x 10(exp -10) Nm. Magnetic friction causes approx. 1% of the total losses. Molecular friction accounts for about 13% of the frequency dependent drag torque, the remaining 87% being due to eddy currents and losses from rotor unbalance. The specific energy loss is only 0.3% per hour.

  16. Energy Transfer in Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambon, Claude; Mansour, Nagi N.; Godeferd, Fabien S.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The influence or rotation on the spectral energy transfer of homogeneous turbulence is investigated in this paper. Given the fact that linear dynamics, e.g. the inertial waves regime tackled in an RDT (Rapid Distortion Theory) fashion, cannot Affect st homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, the study of nonlinear dynamics is of prime importance in the case of rotating flows. Previous theoretical (including both weakly nonlinear and EDQNM theories), experimental and DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) results are gathered here and compared in order to give a self-consistent picture of the nonlinear effects of rotation on tile turbulence. The inhibition of the energy cascade, which is linked to a reduction of the dissipation rate, is shown to be related to a damping due to rotation of the energy transfer. A model for this effect is quantified by a model equation for the derivative-skewness factor, which only involves a micro-Rossby number Ro(sup omega) = omega'/(2(OMEGA))-ratio of rms vorticity and background vorticity as the relevant rotation parameter, in accordance with DNS and EDQNM results fit addition, anisotropy is shown also to develop through nonlinear interactions modified by rotation, in an intermediate range of Rossby numbers (Ro(omega) = (omega)' and Ro(omega)w greater than 1), which is characterized by a marco-Rossby number Ro(sup L) less than 1 and Ro(omega) greater than 1 which is characterized by a macro-Rossby number based on an integral lengthscale L and the micro-Rossby number previously defined. This anisotropy is mainly an angular drain of spectral energy which tends to concentrate energy in tile wave-plane normal to the rotation axis, which is exactly both the slow and the two-dimensional manifold. In Addition, a polarization of the energy distribution in this slow 2D manifold enhances horizontal (normal to the rotation axis) velocity components, and underlies the anisotropic structure of the integral lengthscales. Finally is demonstrated the ability of a generalized EDQNM (Eddy Damped Quasi-Normal Markovian) model to predict the underlying spectral transfer structure and all the subsequent developments of classic anisotropy indicators in physical space, when compared to recent LES results. Even if the applications mainly concern developed strong turbulence, a particular emphasis is given to the strong formal analogy of this EDQNM2 model with recent weakly nonlinear approaches to wave-turbulence.

  17. Characteristics and analysis of a type of simulator of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinpeng; Dan, Youquan; Xu, Luopeng

    2014-12-01

    Comparison and analysis for several usual types of atmospheric turbulence simulator are first given in this paper. Considering the Tatarskii spectrum and the conditions of laboratory, secondly, the numerical calculations of the M2 factor and the spatial and angular widths of coherent Gaussian beams in turbulence are performed. Finally, a kind of a hot-wind atmospheric turbulence generator is designed and its characteristics are analyzed. The results show that the turbulence generator is very suitable to use in studying the effects of turbulence on the M2 factor of cw laser beams. Also, the values of both the structure constant of refractive index fluctuations Cn2 and the inner scale of turbulence required by the generator are still in accordance with those of actual atmospheric turbulence.

  18. Friction Constitutive Properties of Fault Zone Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, C.; Saffer, D.; McKieran, A.; Rowe, C.; Samuelson, J.

    2005-12-01

    A central problem in evaluating the relationship between fault zone properties and earthquake physics is a lack of detailed laboratory data for fault zone materials recovered from hypocentral depths. We report on a suite of experiments conducted on fault zone materials recovered from SAFOD phase 1 drilling, the Ghost Rocks Formation Kodiak Islands Alaska, and ODP drilling. The Ghost Rocks Formation underwent deformation at 12-14 km in a subduction thrust and samples consist of cataclasite and marine sediments similar to that which forms fault gouge in subduction zones. Samples from San Andreas Drilling range in depth from 1.4 km to 3.1 km and include wall rock and material from sub-faults of the San Andreas system. Layers of intact and powdered fault rock were sheared in the double-direct shear geometry, under shear velocity boundary conditions at constant normal stress, and within rough rigid forcing blocks using a servo-controlled testing machine. Normal stress and shear velocity ranged from 5 to 100 MPa and 1-300 micron/s. Intact slabs of fault rock were cut to 5 cm x 5 cm x 4-mm thick wafers for insertion in the double-direct shear geometry. Post-experiment examination of the sheared intact slabs shows that the sample remains intact and that shear is accommodated by a combination of pervasive strain and localized shear. Experiments were conducted at room temperature (22-24 C) under controlled relative humidity and saturated conditions. Changes in porosity are monitored continuously as a function of slip and time. We employed a normal stress stepping procedure to efficiently evaluate the Coulomb failure envelope and friction constitutive properties at a range of fault depths with limited sample material. SAFOD data show consistent values of the coefficient of sliding friction (we assume zero cohesion for the granulated layers) ranging from 0.57 to 0.63. At each normal stress, samples recovered from greater depth exhibit slightly lower friction values compared to the granite from 1.4 km. The frictional strength of the SAFOD samples are comparable to pure quartz powder and stronger than an illite shale. SAFOD core from 3062+ m contain shear textures and small amounts of phyllosilicates, which is consistent with their slightly lower strengths. The data for shear of the intact Ghost Rocks Formation show friction values in the range 0.34 to 0.44, which is consistent with the high clay contents in those samples. Velocity stepping tests indicate that steady-state friction values are reached and that the fault rocks exhibit slip-rate and history-dependent friction behavior similar to that documented for simulated fault gouge. A sudden increase in load point velocity results in an immediate increase in friction followed by a displacement-dependent decay to a new steady-state level. Measurements of steady-state friction as a function of slip velocity show velocity weakening frictional behavior for some SAFOD and ODP materials at low normal stress. In these cases, friction velocity dependence increases with increasing normal stress and becomes positive for normal stresses above 40 MPa. Samples from the Ghost Rocks Formation exhibit velocity strengthening for the full range of conditions studied. We report friction constitutive parameters determined by modeling data using the full rate and state friction law and elastic coupling between the testing apparatus and shearing layers.

  19. Consecutive turbulence transition delay with reinforced passive control.

    PubMed

    Sattarzadeh, Sohrab S; Fransson, Jens H M; Talamelli, Alessandro; Fallenius, Bengt E G

    2014-06-01

    Miniature vortex generators (MVGs) are able to delay the transition to turbulence in a flat plate boundary layer if properly designed. Unfortunately, the natural recovery of the modulated laminar base flow in the streamwise direction is of exponential space scale and hence the passive laminar control fades away fairly rapidly. Here we show that by placing a second array of MVGs downstream of the first one it is possible to nourish the counter-rotating streamwise vortices responsible for the modulation, which results in a prolonged streamwise extent of the control. With this control strategy it is possible to delay the transition to turbulence, consecutively, by reinforcing the control effect and with the ultimate implication of obtaining a net skin-friction drag reduction of at least 65%. PMID:25019713

  20. Turbulent Drag Reduction by Traveling Wave of Flexible Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Wu, Jie-Zhi; Luo, Ji-Sheng

    2003-11-01

    A direct numerical simulation of channel turbulent flow and its open-loop control by spanwise traveling waves, produced by tangent motion of flexible wall, shows a drag reduction by about 30%. The main physical mechanism responsible for the control effect is the change of boundary vorticity flux due to wall acceleration, which forces the streamwise vorticity generated at the wall to be confined in a thin Stokes layer and hence alleviates the low-speed streaks, suppresses the streamwise vortices and harpin vortices in viscous sublayer, associated with a regularized wall skin-friction pattern. Because no favorable resonance occurs, the power input is still 5-7 times larger than the power saving by drag reduction. Nevertheless, the physical feasibility of drag reduction for electrically non-conducting fluid turbulence by open-loop control is confirmed.

  1. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature

    E-print Network

    B. N. J. Persson

    2006-05-10

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 0.01 m/s the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v > 0.01 m/s. This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g., for the tire-road friction, and in particular for ABS-breaking systems.

  2. Casimir Friction Force Between Polarizable Media

    E-print Network

    Johan S. Høye; Iver Brevik

    2012-01-18

    This work is a continuation of our recent series of papers on Casimir friction, for a pair of particles of low relative particle velocity. Each particle is modeled as a simple harmonic oscillator. Our basic method, as before, is the use of quantum mechanical statistical mechanics, involving the Kubo formula, at finite temperature. In this work we begin by analyzing the Casimir friction between two particles polarizable in all spatial directions, this being a generalization of our study in EPL 91, 60003 (2010), which was restricted to a pair of particles with longitudinal polarization only. For simplicity the particles are taken to interact via the electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction. Thereafter, we consider the Casimir friction between one particle and a dielectric half-space, and also the friction between two dielectric half-spaces. Finally, we consider general polarizabilities (beyond the simple one-oscillator form), and show how friction occurs at finite temperature when finite frequency regions of the imaginary parts of polarizabilities overlap.

  3. Time dependent friction in a free gas

    E-print Network

    Cristiano Fanelli; Francesco Sisti; Gabriele V. Stagno

    2015-09-08

    We consider a body immersed in a perfect gas, moving under the action of a constant force E along the x axis . We assume the gas to be described by the mean-field approximation and interacting elastically with the body, we study the friction exerted by the gas on the body fixed at constant velocities. The dynamic in this setting was studied in previous papers for object with simple shape, showing new features in the dynamic but not in the friction term. The case of more general shape of the body was left out for further difficulties, we believe indeed that there are actually non trivial issues to be faced for these more general cases. To show this and in the in the spirit of getting a more realistic perspective in the study of friction problems, in this paper we focused our attention on the friction term itself, studying its behavior on a body with a more general kind of concavity and fixed at constant velocities. We derive the expression of the friction term for constant velocities, we show how it is time dependent and we give its exact estimate in time. Finally we use this result to show the absence of a stationary velocity in the actual dynamic of such a body.

  4. Mixing efficiency of turbulent stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, B. L.; Scotti, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Small-scale mixing in the stratified interior of the ocean is a fundamental, but poorly characterized, controlling factor of the global Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC). The mixing efficiency in the ocean has typically been assumed to be 20%, which is used as a basis to estimate the required turbulent dissipation to support the ocean diapycnal buoyancy flux. In this talk, we use DNS datasets to calculate the mixing efficiency in different classes of stratified turbulent flows. In particular, we compare flows forced thermodynamically by production of Available Potential Energy (APE) at a boundary, such as horizontal convection (a simple model for an ocean forced by differential surface heating) and flows that are forced mechanically by surface stresses. The mixing efficiency is calculated based on the irreversible diapycnal flux of buoyancy (Winters and D'Asaro, 1996; Scotti et al., 2006) instead of the more customary turbulent buoyancy flux, thereby isolating mixing from reversible processes (e.g., internal waves). For mechanically-driven flows, profiles of mixing efficiency vs. buoyancy Reynolds number are in agreement with accepted values for stratified turbulent shear flows. However, for flows in which mixing is driven in part or fully by thermodynamic forcing and an excess of APE, DNS results show much higher values of the mixing efficiency, approaching unity for horizontal convection. Implications of these results for the energy budget of the MOC are discussed. Note: The DNS data sets of turbulent stratified channel flow are provided courtesy of M. Garcia-Villalba and J. C. del Alamo.

  5. The instantaneous rate dependence in low temperature laboratory rock friction and rock deformation experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Kronenberg, A.K.; Reinen, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake occurrence probabilities that account for stress transfer and time-dependent failure depend on the product of the effective normal stress and a lab-derived dimensionless coefficient a. This coefficient describes the instantaneous dependence of fault strength on deformation rate, and determines the duration of precursory slip. Although an instantaneous rate dependence is observed for fracture, friction, crack growth, and low temperature plasticity in laboratory experiments, the physical origin of this effect during earthquake faulting is obscure. We examine this rate dependence in laboratory experiments on different rock types using a normalization scheme modified from one proposed by Tullis and Weeks [1987]. We compare the instantaneous rate dependence in rock friction with rate dependence measurements from higher temperature dislocation glide experiments. The same normalization scheme is used to compare rate dependence in friction to rock fracture and to low-temperature crack growth tests. For particular weak phyllosilicate minerals, the instantaneous friction rate dependence is consistent with dislocation glide. In intact rock failure tests, for each rock type considered, the instantaneous rate dependence is the same size as for friction, suggesting a common physical origin. During subcritical crack growth in strong quartzofeldspathic and carbonate rock where glide is not possible, the instantaneous rate dependence measured during failure or creep tests at high stress has long been thought to be due to crack growth; however, direct comparison between crack growth and friction tests shows poor agreement. The crack growth rate dependence appears to be higher than the rate dependence of friction and fracture by a factor of two to three for all rock types considered. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Turbulence of swarming sperm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa L.; Plouraboué, Franck

    2015-09-01

    Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small-scale turbulence arising where viscous effects are dominant. We report the first observation of universal enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of a velocity field power spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in 2D turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures of a size that provides an integral scale of turbulence. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-2D turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interactions and alignment, a state of active matter that we call "swarming liquid crystal." We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation.

  7. Turbulence of swarming sperm.

    PubMed

    Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa L; Plouraboué, Franck

    2015-09-01

    Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small-scale turbulence arising where viscous effects are dominant. We report the first observation of universal enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k^{-3} power-law decay of a velocity field power spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in 2D turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures of a size that provides an integral scale of turbulence. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-2D turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interactions and alignment, a state of active matter that we call "swarming liquid crystal." We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation. PMID:26465513

  8. Drift Wave Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.; Kim, J.-H.; Asp, E.; Hoang, T.

    2008-05-14

    Drift waves occur universally in magnetized plasmas producing the dominant mechanism for transport of particles, energy and momentum across magnetic field lines. A wealth of information obtained from laboratory experiments for plasma confinement is reviewed for drift waves driven unstable by density gradients, temperature gradients and trapped particle effects. The modern understanding of origin of the scaling laws for Bohm and gyro-Bohm transport fluxes is discussed. The role of sheared flows and magnetic shear in reducing the transport fluxes is discussed and illustrated with large scale computer simulations. Plasmas turbulence models are derived with reduced magnetized fluid descriptions. The types of theoretical descriptions reviewed include weak turbulence theory and anisotropic Kolmogorov-like spectral indices, and the mixing length. A number of standard turbulent diffusivity formulas are given for the various space-time scales of the drift-wave turbulent mixing.

  9. Are there reliable constitutive laws for dynamic friction?

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Jim; Putelat, Thibaut; McKay, Andrew

    2015-09-28

    Structural vibration controlled by interfacial friction is widespread, ranging from friction dampers in gas turbines to the motion of violin strings. To predict, control or prevent such vibration, a constitutive description of frictional interactions is inevitably required. A variety of friction models are discussed to assess their scope and validity, in the light of constraints provided by different experimental observations. Three contrasting case studies are used to illustrate how predicted behaviour can be extremely sensitive to the choice of frictional constitutive model, and to explore possible experimental paths to discriminate between and calibrate dynamic friction models over the full parameter range needed for real applications. PMID:26303920

  10. Role of critical points of the skin friction field in formation of plumes in thermal convection

    E-print Network

    Bandaru, Vinodh; Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Schumacher, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics in the thin boundary layers of temperature and velocity is the key to a deeper understanding of turbulent transport of heat and momentum in thermal convection. The velocity gradient at the hot and cold plates of a Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection cell forms the two-dimensional skin friction field and is related to the formation of thermal plumes in the respective boundary layers. Our analysis is based on a direct numerical simulation of Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio $\\Gamma=1$ and focused on the critical points of the skin friction field. We identify triplets of critical points, which are composed of two unstable nodes and a saddle between them, as the characteristic building block of the skin friction field. Isolated triplets as well as networks of triplets are detected. The majority of the ridges of line-like thermal plumes coincide with the unstable manifolds of the saddles. From a dynamical Lagrangian perspective, thermal plumes are formed together ...

  11. Turbulence-induced thermal signatures over evaporating bare soil surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

    2015-07-01

    Soil wetness and airflow turbulence are key factors affecting surface energy balance components thereby influencing surface skin temperature. Turbulent eddies interacting with evaporating surfaces often induce localized and intermittent evaporative and sensible heat fluxes that leave distinct thermal signatures. These surface thermal fluctuations observable by infrared thermography (IRT) offer a means for characterization of overlaying turbulent airflows and remote quantification of surface wetness. We developed a theoretical and experimental methodology for using rapid IR surface temperature measurements to deduce surface wetness and evaporative fluxes from smooth bare soils. The mechanistic model provides theoretical links between surface thermal fluctuations, soil, and aerodynamic properties enabling thermal inferences of soil wetness with explicit consideration of soil thermal capacity and airflow turbulence effects. The method potentially improves accuracy of soil wetness assessment by IRT-based techniques whose performance is strongly influenced by surface-turbulence interactions and offers new ways for quantifying fluxes directly at their origin.

  12. The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate: An experimental study of the fluid mechanics for adverse free stream pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. S.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation of transpired turbulent boundary layers in zero and adverse pressure gradients has been carried out. Profiles of: (1) the mean velocity, (2) the three intensities of the turbulent fluctuations, and (3) the Reynolds stress were obtained by hot-wire anemometry. The friction coefficients were measured by using an integrated form of the boundary layer equation to extrapolate the measured shear stress profiles to the wall.

  13. Turbulence near thunderstorm tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Peter F.

    1993-01-01

    For several years, scientists at San Jose State University, NASA-Ames, and the University of Arizona have carried out cooperative research programs to understand the causes and effects of severe turbulence. The primary sources of data for this work are Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) tapes from airliners that have been involved in turbulence incidents. A significant result of the analysis of these data has been the identification and quantification of the turbulence causes. Turbulence signatures include breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, large amplitude mountain lee waves, turbulence in and around thunderstorms, and maneuvering. The requirements that must be met for a turbulence incident to be included in the NASA study are rather straightforward: (1) severe or greater turbulence must have been reported (usually with passenger injuries) and (2) the flight data tapes must be available. Despite these rather general criteria, and the fact that our cases are drawn from a wide geographical area over the U.S. and the Atlantic Ocean, we have found an interesting bias in our sample. Of 12 cases at cruise altitude, four were definitely associated with thunderstorms and two are suspected thunderstorm cases. The others were due to mountain waves, CAT, high level windshear/maneuvering, or to causes not yet determined. Although our sample is small, these numbers have raised several questions, not the least of which are: How pervasive is the problem of aircraft encounters with severe turbulence in or near thunderstorm tops (TNTT)? Given the available visible and radar evidence of thunderstorms, Why do such incidents occur? Can anything be done to allevaite the problem? This paper outlines some very preliminary efforts to answer these questions. In the following sections, physical and statistical characteristics of TNTT are discussed (Section 2), TNTT causes are summarized (Section 3), current recommendations for TNTT avoidance are reviewed (Section 4), and some suggestions to ameliorate the problem are given (Section 5).

  14. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  15. Tunable Friction Behavior of Photochromic Fibrillar Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Gabriele; Ceseracciu, Luca; Oropesa-Nuñez, Reinier; Canale, Claudio; Salvatore, Princia; Fragouli, Despina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-06-01

    Grasslike compliant micro/nano crystals made of diarylethene (DAE) photochromic molecules are spontaneously formed on elastomer films after dipping them in a solution containing the photochromic molecules. The frictional forces of such micro- and nanofibrillar surfaces are reversibly tuned upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and dark storage cycles. This behavior is attributed to the Young's modulus variation of the single fibrils due to the photoisomerization process of the DAE molecules, as measured by advanced atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. In fact, a significant yet reversible decrease of the stiffness of the outer part of the fibrils in response to the UV light irradiation is demonstrated. The modification of the molecular structure of the fibrils influences their mechanical properties and affects the frictional behavior of the overall fibrillar surfaces. These findings provide the possibility to develop a system that controllably and accurately generates both low and high friction forces. PMID:26017025

  16. Frictional Ignition Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Steve; Rosales, Keisa; Robinson, Michael J.; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The space flight community has been investigating lightweight composite materials for use in propellant tanks for both liquid and gaseous oxygen for space flight vehicles. The use of these materials presents some risks pertaining to ignition and burning hazards in the presence of oxygen. Through hazard analysis process, some ignition mechanisms have been identified as being potentially credible. One of the ignition mechanisms was reciprocal friction; however, test data do not exist that could be used to clear or fail these types of materials as "oxygen compatible" for the reciprocal friction ignition mechanism. Therefore, testing was performed at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to provide data to evaluate this ignition mechanism. This paper presents the test system, approach, data results, and findings of the reciprocal friction testing performed on composite sample materials being considered for propellant tanks.

  17. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, H.B.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical canister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained. 5 figs.

  18. Laser Peening Effects on Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatamleh, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a welding technique that uses frictional heating combined with forging pressure to produce high strength bonds. It is attractive for aerospace applications. Although residual stresses in FSW are generally lower when compared to conventional fusion welds, recent work has shown that significant tensile residual stresses can be present in the weld after fabrication. Therefore, laser shock peening was investigated as a means of moderating the tensile residual stresses produced during welding. This slide presentation reviews the effect of Laser Peening on the weld, in tensile strength, strain, surface roughness, microhardness, surface wear/friction, and fatigue crack growth rates. The study concluded that the laser peening process can result in considerable improvement to crack initiaion, propagation and mechanical properties in FSW.

  19. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, Harold B. (867 N. Belair Rd., Evans, GA 30809)

    1992-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel's recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  20. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration.

    PubMed

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A R; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v(4). These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v(3). PMID:25965848

  1. CAM/LIFTER forces and friction

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbey, D.J.; Lee, J.; Patterson, D.J.

    1992-02-01

    This report details the procedures used to measure the cam/lifter forces and friction. The present effort employed a Cummins LTA-10, and focuses on measurements and dynamic modeling of the injector train. The program was sponsored by the US Department of Energy in support of advanced diesel engine technology. The injector train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod force, injector link force and cam speed. These measurements, together with lift profiles for pushrod and injector link displacement, enabled the friction work loss in the injector train to be determined. Other significant design criteria such as camshaft roller follower slippage and maximum loads on components were also determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the dynamic model, with tests run as required for correlation.

  2. [Brackets and friction in orthodontics: experimental study].

    PubMed

    Ben Rejeb Jdir, Saloua; Tobji, Samir; Turki, Wiem; Dallel, Ines; Khedher, Nedra; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-09-01

    Many authors have been involved in developing brackets in order to improve the quality, stability, speed and efficiency of orthodontic treatment. In order to reduce friction between bracket and archwire, new therapeutic approaches have been devised based on novel technologies. Among these innovative techniques, self-ligating brackets are increasingly popular. SLBs can be classified into several categories according to their mode of action and their materials. We performed an experimental study to compare the friction forces generated during the sliding of orthodontic archwires made from various alloys through conventional and self-ligating brackets. Results show the favorable influence of SLBs, compared to conventional systems using elastomeric or metal ligatures, on the level of friction, particularly when shape-memory Ni-Ti archwires are used. PMID:26370596

  3. Dynamical friction in modified Newtonian dynamics

    E-print Network

    C. Nipoti; L. Ciotti; J. Binney; P. Londrillo

    2008-03-31

    We have tested a previous analytical estimate of the dynamical friction timescale in Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) with fully non-linear N-body simulations. The simulations confirm that the dynamical friction timescale is significantly shorter in MOND than in equivalent Newtonian systems, i.e. systems with the same phase-space distribution of baryons and additional dark matter. An apparent conflict between this result and the long timescales determined for bars to slow and mergers to be completed in previous N-body simulations of MOND systems is explained. The confirmation of the short dynamical-friction timescale in MOND underlines the challenge that the Fornax dwarf spheroidal poses to the viability of MOND.

  4. Friction and dilatancy in immersed granular matter

    E-print Network

    Thibaut Divoux; Jean-Christophe Géminard

    2008-06-10

    The friction of a sliding plate on a thin immersed granular layer obeys Amonton-Coulomb law. We bring to the fore a large set of experimental results which indicate that, over a few decades of values, the effective dynamical friction-coefficient depends neither on the viscosity of the interstitial fluid nor on the size of beads in the sheared layer, which bears out the analogy with the solid-solid friction in a wide range of experimental parameters. We accurately determine the granular-layer dilatancy, which dependance on the grain size and slider velocity can be qualitatively accounted by considering the rheological behaviour of the whole slurry. However, additional results, obtained after modification of the grain surface by a chemical treatment, demonstrate that the theoretical description of the flow properties of granular matter, even immersed, requires the detailed properties of the grain surface to be taken into account.

  5. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    E-print Network

    Francesco Intravaia; Vanik E. Mkrtchian; Stefan Buhmann; Stefan Scheel; Diego A. R. Dalvit; Carsten Henkel

    2015-02-04

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton [New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 113045]. We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v^4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v^3.

  6. Casimir friction at zero and finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, Johan S.; Brevik, Iver

    2014-03-01

    The Casimir friction problem for dielectric plates that move parallell to each other is treated by assuming one of the plates to be at rest. The other performs a closed loop motion in the longitudinal direction. Therewith by use of energy dissipation the formalism becomes more manageable and transparent than in the conventional setting where uniform sliding motion is assumed from t = -? to t = +?. One avoids separating off a reversible interparticle force (independent of friction) from the total force. Moreover, the cases of temperatures T = 0 and finite T are treated on the same footing. For metal plates we find the friction force to be proportional to v 3 at T = 0 while at finite T it is proportional to v for small v as found earlier. Comparisons with earlier results of Pendry [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9, 10301 (1997); New J. Phys. 12, 033028 (2010)] and Barton [New J. Phys. 13, 043023 (2011)] are made.

  7. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel`s recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding, process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  8. Dynamical friction in an isentropic gas

    E-print Network

    Khajenabi, Fazeleh

    2012-01-01

    When a gravitating object moves across a given mass distribution, it creates an overdense wake behind it. Here, we performed an analytical study of the structure of the flow far from object when the flow is isentropic and the object moves subsonically within it. We show that the dynamical friction force is the main drag force on the object and by using a perturbation theory, we obtain the density, velocity and pressure of the perturbed flow far from the mass. We derive the expression of the dynamical friction force in an isentropic flow and show its dependence on the Mach number of the flow and on the adiabatic index. We find that the dynamical friction force becomes lower as the adiabatic index increases. We show analytically that the wakes are less dense in our isentropic case in comparison to the isothermal ones.

  9. Pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, liquid-vapor annular flows in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    The prediction of frictional pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, annular liquid-vapor flows in zero gravity using simulation experiments conducted on earth is described. The scheme extends the authors' earlier work on dispersed flows. The simulation experiments used two immiscible liquids of identical density, namely, water and n-butyl benzoate. Because of the lack of rigorous analytical models for turbulent, annular flows, the proposed scheme resorts to existing semiempirical correlations. Results based on two different correlations are presented and compared. Others may be used. It was shown that, for both dispersed and annular flow regimes, the predicted frictional pressure gradients in 0-g are lower than those in 1-g under otherwise identical conditions. The physical basis for this finding is given.

  10. Rolling-element bearings. [contact sliding friction study of solid bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    In contrast to hydrodynamic bearings, which depend for low-friction characteristics on a fluid film between the journal and the bearing surfaces, roller-element bearings employ a number of balls or rollers that roll in an annular space. The paper briefly outlines the advantages and disadvantages of roller-element bearings as compared to hydrodynamic bearings. The discussion covers bearing types, rolling friction, friction losses in rolling bearings, contact stresses, deformations, kinematics (normal and high speeds), bearing dynamics including elastohydrodynamics, load distribution, lubrication (grease, solid oil, oil-air mist), specific dynamic capacity and life, specific static capacity, and fatigue or wearout (elastohydrodynamics, wear). Rolling bearing wear factor as a function of operating environment is plotted and discussed.

  11. Low-temperature internal friction of fiber composites with a copper matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloshenko, V. A.; Dmitrenko, V. Yu.; Pilipenko, A. N.; Chishko, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the internal friction and shear modulus of composites with a copper matrix reinforced with fibers of different functional purposes (Cu, Fe, Al, NbTi) have been studied in the temperature range of 100-300 K. The internal friction demonstrates a peak located in a narrow temperature range and caused by a thermally activated relaxation process. It has been shown that its behavior is due to a number of technological factors whose combination determines the strength of adhesive bond of the composite components. The observed fact makes it possible to use the internal friction as a nondestructive method of controlling the adhesion strength of a fiber-matrix compound.

  12. Frictional properties of light-activated antimicrobial polymers in blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Prokopovich, Polina; Perni, Stefano; Piccirillo, Clara; Pratten, Jonathan; Parkin, Ivan P; Wilson, Michael

    2010-02-01

    The adhesion of microbes to catheter surfaces is a serious problem and the resulting infections frequently lead to longer hospitalisation and higher risk for the patient. Several approaches have been developed to produce materials that are less susceptible to microbial colonisation. One such approach is the incorporation of photoactivated compounds, such as Toluidine Blue O (TBO), in the polymeric matrix resulting in 'light-activated antimicrobial materials'. The insertion and removal of catheters can cause tissue damage and patient discomfort through frictional forces; hence the lubricity of a catheter material is also very important. In this work the tribological performance of silicone and polyurethane containing TBO and gold nanoparticles were evaluated using two different surfaces, the inner part of the aorta and the superior vena cava of sheep. Static and kinetic friction coefficients of these materials were measured using a tribometric device developed for in vitro applications using dry materials and those lubricated with blood. It was found that neither the preparation process nor the presence of TBO or gold nanoparticles, had an effect on the friction factors in comparison to those of untreated materials. In all cases, static and kinetic friction coefficients on aorta tissue were higher than those on vena cava due to higher surface roughness of the aorta. The presence of blood as a lubricant resulted in lower friction coefficients. PMID:19784866

  13. Friction and morphology of magnetic tapes in sliding contact with nickel-zinc ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Bhushan, B.

    1984-01-01

    Friction and morphological studies were conducted with magnetic tapes containing a Ni-Zn ferrite hemispherical pin in laboratory air at a relative humidity of 40 percent and at 23 C. The results indicate that the binder plays a significant role in the friction properties, morphology, and microstructure of the tape. Comparisons were made with four binders: nitrocellulose; poly (vinyledene) chloride; cellulose acetate; and hydroxyl-terminated, low molecular weight polyester added to the base polymer, polyester-polyurethane. The coefficient of friction was lowest for the tape with the nitrocellulose binder and increased in the order hydroxylterminated, low molecular weight polyester resin; poly (vinyledene) chloride; and cellulose acetate. The degree of enclosure of the oxide particles by the binder was highest for hydroxyl-terminated, low molecular weight polyester and decreased in the order cellulose acetate, poly (vinyledene) chloride, and nitrocellulose. The nature of deformation of the tape was a factor in controlling friction. The coefficient of friction under elastic contact conditions was considerably lower than under conditions that produced plastic contacts.

  14. Reduction of Noise from Disc Brake Systems Using Composite Friction Materials Containing Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoomi, Mohsen; Katbab, Ali Asghar; Nazockdast, Hossein

    2006-09-01

    Attempts have been made for the first time to prepare a friction material with the characteristic of thermal sensitive modulus, by the inclusion of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) as viscoelastic polymeric materials into the formulation in order to the increase the damping behavior of the cured friction material. Styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS) and nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (NBR/PVC) blend system were used as TPE materials. In order to evaluate the viscoelastic parameters such as loss factor (tan ?) and storage modulus (E?) for the friction material, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) were used. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of friction material and brake disc were determined by modal analysis. However, NBR/PVC and SEBS were found to be much more effective in damping behavior. The results from this comparative study suggest that the damping characteristics of commercial friction materials can be strongly affected by the TPE ingredients. This investigation also confirmed that the specimens with high TPE content had low noise propensity.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann simulation for forced two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, YuXian; Qian, YueHong

    2014-08-01

    The direct numerical simulations of forced two-dimensional turbulent flow are presented by using the lattice Boltzmann method. The development of an energy-enstrophy double cascade is investigated in the two cases of external force of two-dimensional turbulence, Gaussian force and Kolmogorov force. It is found that the friction force is a necessary condition of the occurrence of a double cascade. The energy spectrum k-3 in the enstrophy inertial range is in accord with the classical Kraichnan theory for both external forces. The energy spectrum of the Gaussian force case in an inverse cascade is k-2; however, the Kolmogorov force drives the k-5/3 energy in a backscatter cascade. The result agrees with Scott's standpoint, which describes nonrobustness of the two-dimensional turbulent inverse cascade. Also, intermittency is found for the enstrophy cascade in two cases of the external force form. Intermittency refers to the nonuniform distribution of saddle points in the two-dimensional turbulent flow.

  16. Dynamical friction in a relativistic plasma.

    PubMed

    Pike, O J; Rose, S J

    2014-05-01

    The work of Spitzer on dynamical friction in a plasma [L. Spitzer, Jr., Physics of Fully Ionized Gases, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1962), Chap. 5] is extended to relativistic systems. We derive the force of dynamical friction, diffusion tensor, and test particle relaxation rates for a Maxwellian background in the same form as Trubnikov [B. A. Trubnikov, in Reviews of Plasma Physics, edited by M. A. Leontovich (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 105], enabling high-temperature laboratory and astrophysical plasmas to be modeled in a consistent manner. PMID:25353904

  17. Gigantic maximum of nanoscale noncontact friction.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kohta; Hayashi, Kenichi; Shibayama, Yoshiyuki; Shirahama, Keiya

    2010-12-01

    We report measurements of noncontact friction between surfaces of NbSe2 and SrTiO3 and a sharp Pt-Ir tip that is oscillated laterally by a quartz tuning fork cantilever. At 4.2 K, the friction coefficients on both the metallic and insulating materials show a giant maximum at the tip-surface distance of several nanometers. The maximum is strongly correlated with an increase in the spring constant of the cantilever. These features can be understood phenomenologically by a distance-dependent relaxation mechanism with distributed time scales. PMID:21231483

  18. Influence of friction on granular segregation

    E-print Network

    Stephan Ulrich; Matthias Schröter; Harry L. Swinney

    2008-01-13

    Vertical shaking of a mixture of small and large beads can lead to segregation where the large beads either accumulate at the top of the sample, the so called Brazil Nut effect (BNE), or at the bottom, the Reverse Brazil Nut effect (RBNE). Here we demonstrate experimentally a sharp transition from the RBNE to the BNE when the particle coefficient of friction increases due to aging of the particles. This result can be explained by the two competing mechanisms of buoyancy and sidewall-driven convection, where the latter is assumed to grow in strength with increasing friction.

  19. Influence of friction on granular segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Stephan; Schröter, Matthias; Swinney, Harry L.

    2007-10-01

    Vertical shaking of a mixture of small and large beads can lead to segregation where the large beads either accumulate at the top of the sample, the so-called Brazil nut effect (BNE), or at the bottom, the reverse Brazil nut effect (RBNE). Here we demonstrate experimentally a sharp transition from the RBNE to the BNE when the particle coefficient of friction increases due to aging of the particles. This result can be explained by the two competing mechanisms of buoyancy and sidewall-driven convection, where the latter is assumed to grow in strength with increasing friction.

  20. Rheo-Chaos of Frictional Grains

    E-print Network

    Matthias Grob; Annette Zippelius; Claus Heussinger

    2015-10-27

    A two-dimensional dense fluid of frictional grains is shown to exhibit time-chaotic, spatially heterogeneous flow in a range of stress values, $\\sigma$, chosen in the unstable region of s-shaped flow curves. Stress controlled simulations reveal a phase diagram with reentrant stationary flow for small and large stress $\\sigma$. In between no steady flow state can be reached, instead the system either jams or displays time dependent heterogeneous strain rates $\\dot\\gamma({\\bf r},t)$. The results of simulations are in agreement with the stability analysis of a simple hydrodynamic model, coupling stress and microstructure which we tentatively associate with the frictional contact network.

  1. Parameterization of Autoconversion for Turbulent Kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrio, G. G.

    2006-12-01

    New sets of collision efficiencies were obtained by Khain-Pinsky for turbulent environments characterized by different energy dissipation rates. The objective of this study was exploring an inexpensive way to take into account the effects of turbulence on autoconversion, as the explicit solution of the SCE is too computationally expensive to be considered within most atmospheric models. Certain properties of the stochastic collection equation (SCE) solutions have been studied using the above-mentioned collision efficiencies for 5 different energy dissipation rates. The numerical scheme to solve the SCE is based on direct integration and its general structure is similar to that proposed by Berry and Reinhardt(BR). However, a finer partition partition was used to maximize the accuracy of the solutions. The mass spectrum was discretized into 110 categories between 2 and approximately 1000 microns (mass doubling every 4 categories). Initial droplet spectra were characterized mean mass radii ranging from 10 to 18 microns and mass relative variances between 0.2 and 1. Evolutions have shown the same features that lead to the widely used BR's parameterization for a non-turbulent collection kernel. As expected, the time necessary for the predominant radius to reach 40 microns (T40) decreased significantly when considering a more turbulent environment (and the same initial spectrum). However, an remarkable asymptotic behavior was observed for all turbulent kernels: size spectra resulted almost identical when they were compared at given times of evolution after their corresponding T40, independently of parameters of the initial distribution. The water mass that corresponds to drops with radii above 40 microns at T40 (Q40) have been obtained for more than thousand simulations corresponding to different initial parameters and turbulent dissipation rates. As an autoconversion rate can be expressed in terms of the ratio Q40/Q40, functional fits were obtained for these two quantities. Therefore, an expression analogous to that of BR was obtained for each turbulent dissipation rate. Additionally, a second set of formulae was adjusted to be used as factors multiplying an existing (non- turbulent) autoconversion parameterization, or to build a look-up table if the model is able to estimate the intensity of the turbulence.

  2. Mechanism of fault friction variations associated with rolling of non-spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Friction resisting the fault sliding is known to be rate and path-dependent, which is often related to the movement of the gouge particles. This movement includes particle rotation which can be modelled either using the Cosserat-type models or by direct computer simulation using a discrete element method. These models are however based on the notion that the gouge particles are spherical (circular in 2D) tacitly assuming that the real non-spherical shapes of the particles create quantities effects, which can be accounted for by introducing proper correction factors. We show that non-spherical particles behave qualitatively different. This is a result of the fact that the normal force applied to the non-spherical particle can create a moment whose resistance to the particle rolling changes with the angle - a phenomenon not possible in a spherical (circular) particle due to symmetry. If rolling of a particle is caused by macroscopic shear stress, the normal stress will resist or assist the rolling depending on the angle. As a result the effective friction coefficient associated with a single particle can be reduced to zero in the process of its rolling and then restore its initial value. This leads to the oscillatory behaviour of the friction coefficient as a function of displacement. When sliding involves the rolling of (very) many particles the random variations in their sizes and initial positions cause the friction coefficient to oscillate with decreasing amplitude; the characteristic displacement of this decrease can be an order of magnitude greater than the average particle size. If the gouge layer is sufficiently thick, the friction variations can be associated with rotating clusters of particles. The size of the clusters exceeds the particle size by a factor of the order of the ratio of the effective modulus of the particulate material to the acting shear stress. Thus the clusters may be significantly larger than the original particles and hence the variations in the friction coefficient can happen over considerable displacements.

  3. On the theory of compliant wall drag reduction in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical model has been developed which can explain how the motion of a compliant wall reduces turbulent skin friction drag. Available experimental evidence at low speeds has been used to infer that a compliant surface selectively removes energy from the upper frequency range of the energy containing eddies and through resulting surface motions can produce locally negative Reynolds stresses at the wall. The theory establishes a preliminary amplitude and frequency criterion as the basis for designing effective drag reducing compliant surfaces.

  4. Joule-Thomson effect and internal convection heat transfer in turbulent He II flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walstrom, P. L.

    1988-01-01

    The temperature rise in highly turbulent He II flowing in tubing was measured in the temperature range 1.6-2.1 K. The effect of internal convection heat transport on the predicted temperature profiles is calculated from the two-fluid model with mutual friction. The model predictions are in good agreement with the measurements, provided that the pressure gradient term is retained in the expression for internal convection heat flow.

  5. Ligand-mediated friction determines morphodynamics of spreading T cells.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Pierre; Varma, Rajat; Sengupta, Kheya; Limozin, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    Spreading of T cells on antigen presenting cells is a crucial initial step in immune response. Spreading occurs through rapid morphological changes concomitant with the reorganization of surface receptors and of the cytoskeleton. Ligand mobility and frictional coupling of receptors to the cytoskeleton were separately recognized as important factors but a systematic study to explore their biophysical role in spreading was hitherto missing. To explore the impact of ligand mobility, we prepared chemically identical substrates on which molecules of anti-CD3 (capable of binding and activating the T cell receptor complex), were either immobilized or able to diffuse. We quantified the T cell spreading area and cell edge dynamics using quantitative reflection interference contrast microscopy, and imaged the actin distribution. On mobile ligands, as compared to fixed ligands, the cells spread much less, the actin is centrally, rather than peripherally distributed and the edge dynamics is largely altered. Blocking myosin-II or adding molecules of ICAM1 on the substrate largely abrogates these differences. We explain these observations by building a model based on the balance of forces between activation-dependent actin polymerization and actomyosin-generated tension on one hand, and on the frictional coupling of the ligand-receptor complexes with the actin cytoskeleton, the membrane and the substrate, on the other hand. Introducing the measured edge velocities in the model, we estimate the coefficient of frictional coupling between T Cell receptors or LFA-1 and the actin cytoskeleton. Our results provide for the first time, to our knowledge, a quantitative framework bridging T cell-specific biology with concepts developed for integrin-based mechanisms of spreading. PMID:25468342

  6. Microscopic elasticity and rate and state friction evolution laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2012-12-01

    Rate and state friction formalism represents the dependence of macroscopic shear traction ?M on sliding velocity V and the history of the sliding surface. In macroscopic terms, ?M = PN[?0 + a ln(V/Vref) + b ln(?/?norm)], where PN is normal traction, ?0 is the coefficient of friction, a ? b ? 0.01 are small dimensionless parameters, Vref is a reference velocity, ? is the state variable that depends on history, and ?norm represents the effect of changes in normal traction. This representation does not consider microscopic elasticity and is inadequate over very small times. The apparent value of a just after a small decrease in shear traction is a factor of a few larger than its traditional value of ˜0.01. Changes of microscopic elastic strain energy may cause this effect. Microscopic elasticity affects friction after changes in normal traction. Shear traction does not change instantly after a sudden change in normal traction because time is required for real contact area to change. A hybrid of the aging law (where ?increases linearly with time during holds) and the slip law behavior (where the state variable does not change in the limit of zero sliding velocity) is necessary. Slip-law behavior dominates near steady state and also applies to sudden initial sliding where the state variable and porosity are far from steady state. Porosity increases from its initial value toward the steady state value over slip scaling with the critical displacementDc. The ratio of dilatant to shear strain in low porosity material is a modest fraction of 1 and related to the construct of dilatancy angle in engineering.

  7. Correlation of transonic-cone preston-tube data and skin friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Mostafa, A. S.; Reed, T. D.

    1984-01-01

    Preston-tube measurements obtained on the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Transition Cone have been correlated with theoretical skin friction coefficients in transitional and turbulent flow. This has been done for the NASA Ames 11-Ft Transonic Wind Tunnel (11 TWT) and flight tests. The developed semi-empirical correlations of Preston-tube data have been used to derive a calibration procedure for the 11 TWT flow quality. This procedure has been applied to the corrected laminar data, and an effective freestream unit Reynolds number is defined by requiring a matching of the average Preston-tube pressure in flight and in the tunnel. This study finds that the operating Reynolds number is below the effective value required for a match in laminar Preston-tube data. The distribution of this effective Reynolds number with Mach number correlates well with the freestream noise level in this tunnel. Analyses of transitional and turbulent data, however, did not result in effective Reynolds numbers that can be correlated with background noise. This is a result of the fact that vorticity fluctuations present in transitional and turbulent boundary layers dominate Preston-tube pressure fluctuations and, therefore, mask the tunnel noise eff ects. So, in order to calibrate the effects of noise on transonic wind tunnel tests only laminar data should be used, preferably at flow conditions similar to those in flight tests. To calibrate the effects of transonic wind-tunnel noise on drag measurements, however, the Preston-tube data must be supplemented with direct measurements of skin friction.

  8. Mixed-sediment transport modelling in Scheldt estuary with a physics-based bottom friction law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Qilong; Toorman, Erik A.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the main object is to investigate the performance of a few new physics-based process models by implementation into a numerical model for the simulation of the flow and morphodynamics in the Western Scheldt estuary. In order to deal with the complexity within the research domain, and improve the prediction accuracy, a 2D depth-averaged model has been set up as realistic as possible, i.e. including two-way hydrodynamic-sediment transport coupling, mixed sand-mud sediment transport (bedload transport as well as suspended load in the water column) and a dynamic non-uniform bed composition. A newly developed bottom friction law, based on a generalised mixing-length (GML) theory, is implemented, with which the new bed shear stress closure is constructed as the superposition of the turbulent and the laminar contribution. It allows the simulation of all turbulence conditions (fully developed turbulence, from hydraulic rough to hydraulic smooth, transient and laminar), and the drying and wetting of intertidal flats can now be modelled without specifying an inundation threshold. The benefit is that intertidal morphodynamics can now be modelled with great detail for the first time. Erosion and deposition in these areas can now be estimated with much higher accuracy, as well as their contribution to the overall net fluxes. Furthermore, Krone's deposition law has been adapted to sand-mud mixtures, and the critical stresses for deposition are computed from suspension capacity theory, instead of being tuned. The model has been calibrated and results show considerable differences in sediment fluxes, compared to a traditional approach and the analysis also reveals that the concentration effects play a very important role. The new bottom friction law with concentration effects can considerably alter the total sediment flux in the estuary not only in terms of magnitude but also in terms of erosion and deposition patterns.

  9. Mean profile of a high-Reynolds-number smooth-flat-plate turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Oweis, Ghanem F.; Winkel, Eric S.; Cutbirth, James M.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc

    2010-11-01

    Although smooth-flat-plate turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) have been studied for nearly a century, measurements at Reynolds numbers typical of marine & aerospace transportation systems are scarce. Experimental results at momentum-thickness Reynolds numbers (Re) up to 150,000 from the US Navy W.B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel using a polished 12.9-m-long flat-plate test model at water flow speeds up to 20 m/s are presented. Mean velocity profiles were measured 10.7 m from the leading edge of the model over a wall-normal range from less than one wall unit to more than twice the nominal boundary layer thickness using particle-tracking and laser-Doppler velocimetry. Static pressure and average skin-friction were measured independently. A mild favorable pressure gradient led to a flow speed increase of 2.5% over the test surface. The measurements span a factor of three in Re and were fitted to within experimental uncertainty using one set of constants and modern empirical inner- and outer-profile forms based on traditional TBL asymptotics. The fitted profiles satisfy the von-Karman momentum integral to within 1%, and show distinct differences from equivalent zero pressure gradient results. [Supported by DARPA & ONR

  10. Non- Oberbeck- Boussinesq effects in Poiseuille- Rayleigh- Bénard turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Alfredo; Zonta, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    The importance of the Oberbeck-Boussinesq (OB) approximation in turbulent Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard (PRB) flow is established via Direct numerical Simulation (DNS) of water flows with viscosity (?) and thermal expansion coefficient (?) purely varying with temperature (non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq conditions, NOB). In PRB flows, the combination of buoyancy driven/pressure driven effects produce a complex flow structure, which depends on the relative intensity of the flow parameters (i.e. the Grashof number, Gr , and the shear Reynolds number, Re?). In liquids, however, temperature variations induce local changes of fluid properties which influence the macroscopic flow field. We present results for different shear Richardson numbers (Ri? = Gr / Re?2) under constant temperature boundary conditions. As the Richardson number is increased, buoyant thermal plumes are generated. Rising and falling thermal plumes induce large scale thermal convection which increases momentum and heat transport efficiency. Analysis of friction factor (Cf) and Nusselt number (Nu) for NOB conditions shows that the effect of ? (T) is negligible, whereas the effect of ? (T) is critical.

  11. A model of wind shear and turbulence in the surface boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1973-01-01

    A model of wind and turbulence has been described for the surface boundary layer. The wind structure in the surface layer is considered to be a function of the surface parameters, stability, and height. The surface parameters considered are: (1) the surface roughness length; (2) the surface friction velocity; and (3) the zero plane displacement height. The stability parameter, Z/L, where L is the Monin-Obukov stability length, describes the thermal effect on the wind profile. The logarithmic wind profile is used to describe the mean wind field in the neutral boundary layer, and a logarithmic profile with a stability defect is used to describe the stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. For the very stable conditions, the logarithmic wind law does not hold. Under this condition, the layers of the atmosphere become disconnected and large scale frontal motions are the predominate factor in defining the wind profile. Figures are presented which represent some typical wind profiles in the very stable condition.

  12. Quantitative measurements of sliding friction coefficients of tribological interfaces with a new differential infrared radiometric instrument

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Quantitative measurements of sliding friction coefficients of tribological interfaces with a new sliding friction coefficient SFC measurements using a mechanical friction rig and infrared radiometric. INSTRUMENTAL DESIGN FOR SLIDING FRICTION COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENTS Figure 1 is an overview of the differential

  13. 30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56.19008 Section 56.19008...19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter...shall be equipped with synchronizing mechanisms that recalibrate the overtravel...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56.19008 Section 56.19008...19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter...shall be equipped with synchronizing mechanisms that recalibrate the overtravel...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56.19008 Section 56.19008...19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter...shall be equipped with synchronizing mechanisms that recalibrate the overtravel...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57.19008 Section 57.19008...19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter...shall be equipped with synchronizing mechanisms that recalibrate the overtravel...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 56.19008 Section 56.19008...19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter...shall be equipped with synchronizing mechanisms that recalibrate the overtravel...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57.19008 Section 57.19008...19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter...shall be equipped with synchronizing mechanisms that recalibrate the overtravel...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57.19008 Section 57.19008...19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter...shall be equipped with synchronizing mechanisms that recalibrate the overtravel...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19008 - Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. 57.19008 Section 57.19008...19008 Friction hoist synchronizing mechanisms. Where creep or slip may alter...shall be equipped with synchronizing mechanisms that recalibrate the overtravel...