Sample records for turbulent friction factors

  1. Analytical prediction of friction factors and Nusselt numbers of turbulent forced convection in rod bundles with smooth and rough surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Su; Atila P. Silva Freire

    2002-01-01

    A simple analytical method was developed for the prediction of the friction factor, f, of fully developed turbulent flow and the Nusselt number, Nu, of fully developed turbulent forced convection in rod bundles arranged in square or hexagonal arrays. The friction factor equation for smooth rod bundles was presented in a form similar to the friction factor equation for turbulent

  2. Friction factor of two-dimensional rough-boundary turbulent soap film flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Guttenberg; Nigel Goldenfeld

    2009-01-01

    We use momentum-transfer arguments to predict the friction factor f in two-dimensional turbulent soap film flows with rough boundaries (an analog of three-dimensional pipe flow) as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness r , considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of f?Re-1\\/2 in

  3. The friction factor of two-dimensional rough-pipe turbulent flows

    E-print Network

    Guttenberg, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    We use momentum transfer arguments to predict the friction factor $f$ in two-dimensional rough-pipe turbulent flows as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness r, considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of f ~ Re^-1/2 in flows dominated by the enstrophy cascade, distinct from the energy cascade scaling of Re^-1/4. For large Re, f ~ r in the enstrophy-dominated case. We use conformal map techniques to perform direct numerical simulations that are in satisfactory agreement with theory, and exhibit data collapse scaling of roughness-induced criticality, previously shown to arise in the 3D pipe data of Nikuradse.

  4. Subchannel and bundle friction factors and flowsplit parameters for laminar, transition, and turbulent longitudinal flows in wire-wrap spaced hexagonal arrays. [LMFBR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Hawley; C. Chiu; W. M. Rohsenow; N. E. Todreas

    1980-01-01

    Correlations are presented for subchannel and bundle friction factors and flowsplit parameters for laminar, transition and turbulent longitudinal flows in wire wrap spaced hexagonal arrays. These results are obtained from pressure drop models of flow in individual subchannels. For turbulent flow, an existing pressure drop model for flow in edge subchannels is extended, and the resulting edge subchannel friction factor

  5. Subchannel and bundle friction factors and flowsplit parameters for laminar, transition, and turbulent longitudinal flows in wire-wrap spaced hexagonal arrays. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Correlations are presented for subchannel and bundle friction factors and flowsplit parameters for laminar, transition and turbulent longitudinal flows in wire wrap spaced hexagonal arrays. These results are obtained from pressure drop models of flow in individual subchannels. For turbulent flow, an existing pressure drop model for flow in edge subchannels is extended, and the resulting edge subchannel friction factor is identified. Using the expressions for flowsplit parameters and the equal pressured drop assumption, the interior subchannel and bundle friction factors are obtained. For laminar flow, models are developed for pressure drops of individual subchannels. From these models, expressions for the subchannel friction factors are identified and expressions for the flowsplit parameters are derived.

  6. Friction-factor characteristics for narrow channels with honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Morrison, G. L.; Childs, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental determination of friction-factors for the flow of air in a narrow channel lined with various honeycomb geometries has been carried out. Test results show that, generally, the friction-factor is nearly constant or slightly decreases as the Reynolds number increases, a characteristic common to turbulent flow in pipes. However, in some test geometries this trend is remarkably different. The friction factor dramatically drops and then rises as the Reynolds number increases. This phenomenon can be characterized as a 'friction-factor jump'. Further investigations of the acoustic spectrum and friction-factor measurements for a broad range of Reynolds numbers indicate that the 'friction-factor jump' phenomenon is accompanied by an onset of a normal mode resonance excited coherent flow fluctuation structure, which occurs at Reynolds number of the order of 10,000. The purpose of this paper is to explain the friction-factor-jump phenomenon and friction-factor characteristics.

  7. Factors Affecting Friction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-Ph.D. Program,

    Based on what they have already learned about friction, students formulate hypotheses concerning the effects of weight and contact area on the amount of friction between two surfaces. In the Associated Activities (Does Weight Matter? and Does Area Matter?), students design and conduct simple experiments to test their hypotheses, using procedures similar to those used in the previous lesson (Discovering Friction). An analysis of their data will reveal the importance of weight to normal friction (the friction that occurs as a result of surface roughness) and the importance of surface area to the friction that occurs between smooth surfaces due to molecular attraction. Based on their data, students will also be able to calculate coefficients of friction for the materials tested, and compare these to published values for various materials.

  8. Wave friction factor rediscovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, J. P.

    2012-02-01

    The wave friction factor is commonly expressed as a function of the horizontal water particle semi-excursion ( A wb) at the top of the boundary layer. A wb, in turn, is normally derived from linear wave theory by {{U_{{wb}}/T_{{w}}}}{{2? }} , where U wb is the maximum water particle velocity measured at the top of the boundary layer and T w is the wave period. However, it is shown here that A wb determined in this way deviates drastically from its real value under both linear and non-linear waves. Three equations for smooth, transitional and rough boundary conditions, respectively, are proposed to solve this problem, all three being a function of U wb, T w, and ?, the thickness of the boundary layer. Because these variables can be determined theoretically for any bottom slope and water depth using the deepwater wave conditions, there is no need to physically measure them. Although differing substantially from many modern attempts to define the wave friction factor, the results coincide with equations proposed in the 1960s for either smooth or rough boundary conditions. The findings also confirm that the long-held notion of circular water particle motion down to the bottom in deepwater conditions is erroneous, the motion in fact being circular at the surface and elliptical at depth in both deep and shallow water conditions, with only horizontal motion at the top of the boundary layer. The new equations are incorporated in an updated version (WAVECALC II) of the Excel program published earlier in this journal by Le Roux et al. Geo-Mar Lett 30(5): 549-560, (2010).

  9. Heat Transfer Through Turbulent Friction Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, H.

    1943-01-01

    The "general Prandtl number" Pr(exp 1) - A(sub q)/A Pr, aside from the Reynolds number determines the ratio of turbulent to molecular heat transfer, and the temperature distribution in turbulent friction layers. A(sub q) = exchange coefficient for heat; A = exchange coefficient for momentum transfer. A formula is derived from the equation defining the general Prandtl number which describes the temperature as a function of the velocity. For fully developed thermal boundary layers all questions relating to heat transfer to and from incompressible fluids can be treated in a simple manner if the ratio of the turbulent shear stress to the total stress T(sub t)/T in the layers near the wall is known, and if the A(sub q)/A can be regarded as independent of the distance from the wall. The velocity distribution across a flat smooth channel and deep into the laminar sublayer was measured for isothermal flow to establish the shear stress ratio T(sub t)/T and to extend the universal wall friction law. The values of T(sub t)/T which resulted from these measurements can be approximately represented by a linear function of the velocity in the laminar-turbulent transition zone. The effect of the temperature relationship of the material values on the flow near the wall is briefly analyzed. It was found that the velocity at the laminar boundary (in contrast to the thickness of the laminar layer) is approximately independent of the temperature distribution. The temperature gradient at the wall and the distribution of temperature and heat flow in the turbulent friction layers were calculated on the basis of the data under two equations. The derived formulas and the figures reveal the effects of the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the exchange quantities and the temperature relationship of the material values.

  10. Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence

    E-print Network

    Protas, Bartosz

    Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence Thomas R. Bewley and Bartosz Protas Flow measurements are made of the two components of wall skin friction and the wall pressure, all terms the linear setting, this determination may be made based on skin friction measurements alone). Combining

  11. Turbulence intensity in the wave boundary layer and bottom friction under (mainly) flat bed conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Newgard; Alex E. Hay

    2007-01-01

    Variations with wave energy of near-bed turbulence and the wave friction factor are investigated in the near-shore zone for bed states spanning low-steepness sand ripples and flat bed, and for wave energies extending well into the sheet flow regime. The measurements were made using a 1.7-MHz pulse-coherent Doppler profiler in ca. 3-m mean water depth. Near-bed turbulence intensities, phase-averaged over

  12. Reconnection Dynamics and Mutual Friction in Quantum Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Jason; Baggaley, Andrew W.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the behaviour of the mutual friction force in finite temperature quantum turbulence in He, paying particular attention to the role of quantized vortex reconnections. Through the use of the vortex filament model, we produce three experimentally relevant types of vortex tangles in steady-state conditions, and examine through statistical analysis, how local properties of the tangle influence the mutual friction force. Finally, by monitoring reconnection events, we present evidence to indicate that vortex reconnections are the dominant mechanism for producing areas of high curvature and velocity leading to regions of high mutual friction, particularly for homogeneous and isotropic vortex tangles.

  13. Predicting friction factor in herbaceous emergent wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn-Thompson, T.; Hall, K.

    2012-12-01

    Over 53% of all wetlands in the US have been lost since the mid-1780s; to counteract wetland losses, wetland land area is being replaced through wetland restoration and mitigation. Development of the target wetland hydroperiod is critical to restoration success. For wetlands in which outflow is a component of the water budget, such as in riparian wetlands, surface water stage is controlled all or in part by the hydraulic resistance within the wetland, requiring accurate simulation of hydraulic resistance due to vegetation. Hydraulic models that consider vegetation rely on an accurate determination of a resistance parameter such as a friction factor or drag coefficient. At low Reynolds numbers typical of flows in wetlands, hydraulic resistance is orders of magnitude higher than fully turbulent flows and resistance parameters are functions of the flow regime as well as the vegetation density and structure. The exact relationship between hydraulic resistance, flow regime, and vegetation properties at the low-Reynolds number flows remains unclear. Prior research has typically involved laboratory studies of flow through idealized, individual stems. However, emergent wetland vegetation frequently grows as clumps. The goals of this research were to investigate the effect of clumping vegetation on flow resistance and to develop a prediction equation for use in wetland design. A 6-m by 1-m by 0.4-m recirculating flume was planted with mature common rush, Juncus effusus, a common emergent wetland plant. Three different flow rates (3, 4, and 5 L/s) and three different tailgate heights (0, 2.5, and 5 cm) were used to simulate a range of flow conditions. Plant spacing and clump diameter were varied (20 and 25 cm, 8 and 12 cm, respectively). Friction factors ranged from 9 to 40 and decreased with increasing plant density. Non-dimensional parameters determined through Buckingham Pi analysis were used in a regression analysis to develop a prediction model. Results of the regression analysis showed that the fraction of vegetated occupied area was most significant factor in determining friction factor.

  14. THEORETICAL SKIN-FRICTION LAW IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER A. CHESKIDOV

    E-print Network

    Cheskidov, Alexey

    THEORETICAL SKIN-FRICTION LAW IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER A. CHESKIDOV ABSTRACT. We study of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce-stream turbulence intensity, while one-parameter family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient

  15. Structure of atmospheric turbulence in the friction layer below 500 meters 

    E-print Network

    Maas, Stephan Joseph

    1975-01-01

    ' SCIENCE May i97S Major Subject: Meteorology STRUCTURE OF ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE IN THE FRICTION LAYER BELOW 500 METERS A Thesis by STEPHAN JOSEPH MAAS Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Commit ) (Head of, Depar ent) (Member...

  16. Reduction of turbulent skin-friction drag by oscillating discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Daniel; Ricco, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    A new drag-reduction method, based on the active technique proposed by Ricco & Hahn (2013), i.e. steadily rotating flush-mounted discs, is studied by DNS. The effect of sinusoidally oscillating discs on the turbulent channel-flow drag is investigated at Re? = 180 , based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. A parametric investigation on the disc diameter, tip velocity and oscillation period yielded a maximum drag reduction of 18.5%. Regions of net power saved, calculated by considering the power spent to enforce the disc motion against the viscous resistance of the fluid, are found to reach up to 6.5% for low disc tip velocities. Significantly, the characteristic time-scale for the oscillating disc forcing is double that for the steadily rotating discs, representing a further step towards industrial implementation. The oscillating disc forcing, similar to the steadily rotating disc forcing, creates streamwise-elongated structures between the discs. These structures - largely unaffected by the periodic wall forcing and persisting throughout the entire period of the oscillation - are the main contributor to the additional Reynolds stresses term created by the disc forcing, and are important for the drag reduction mechanism.

  17. Review of research into the concept of the microblowing technique for turbulent skin friction reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Danny

    2004-11-01

    A new technology for reducing turbulent skin friction, called the Microblowing Technique (MBT), is presented. Results from proof-of-concept experiments show that this technology could potentially reduce turbulent skin friction by more than 50% of the skin friction of a solid flat plate for subsonic and supersonic flow conditions. The primary purpose of this review paper is to provide readers with information on the turbulent skin friction reduction obtained from many experiments using the MBT. Although the MBT has a penalty for obtaining the microblowing air associated with it, some combinations of the MBT with suction boundary layer control methods are an attractive alternative for a real application. Several computational simulations to understand the flow physics of the MBT are also included. More experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computations are needed for the understanding of the unsteady flow nature of the MBT and the optimization of this new technology.

  18. An Experimental Study of Turbulent Skin Friction Reduction in Supersonic Flow Using a Microblowing Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.

    1999-01-01

    A new turbulent skin friction reduction technology, called the microblowing technique has been tested in supersonic flow (Mach number of 1.9) on specially designed porous plates with microholes. The skin friction was measured directly by a force balance and the boundary layer development was measured by a total pressure rake at the tailing edge of a test plate. The free stream Reynolds number was 1.0(10 exp 6) per meter. The turbulent skin friction coefficient ratios (C(sub f)/C(sub f0)) of seven porous plates are given in this report. Test results showed that the microblowing technique could reduce the turbulent skin friction in supersonic flow (up to 90 percent below a solid flat plate value, which was even greater than in subsonic flow).

  19. Review of Research into the Concept of the Microblowing Technique for Turbulent Skin Friction Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A new technology for reducing turbulent skin friction, called the Microblowing Technique (MBT), is presented. Results from proof-of-concept experiments show that this technology could potentially reduce turbulent skin friction by more than 50% of the skin friction of a solid flat plate for subsonic and supersonic flow conditions. The primary purpose of this review paper is to provide readers with information on the turbulent skin friction reduction obtained from many experiments using the MBT. Although the MBT has a penalty for obtaining the microblowing air associated with it, some combinations of the MBT with suction boundary layer control methods are an attractive alternative for a real application. Several computational simulations to understand the flow physics of the MBT are also included. More experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations are needed for the understanding of the unsteady flow nature of the MBT and the optimization of this new technology.

  20. Skin-friction drag reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidkar, Rahul A.; Leblanc, Luc; Kulkarni, Ambarish J.; Bahadur, Vaibhav; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Technologies for reducing hydrodynamic skin-friction drag have a huge potential for energy-savings in applications ranging from propulsion of marine vessels to transporting liquids through pipes. The majority of previous experimental studies using hydrophobic surfaces have successfully shown skin-friction drag reduction in the laminar and transitional flow regimes (typically Reynolds numbers less than ?106 for external flows). However, this hydrophobicity induced drag reduction is known to diminish with increasing Reynolds numbers in experiments involving wall bounded turbulent flows. Using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces (fabricated using large-length scalable thermal spray processes) on a flat plate geometry, we present water-tunnel test data with Reynolds numbers ranging from 106 to 9 × 106 that show sustained skin-friction drag reduction of 20%-30% in such turbulent flow regimes. Furthermore, we provide evidence that apart from the formation of a Cassie state and hydrophobicity, we also need a low surface roughness and an enhanced ability of the textured surface to retain trapped air, for sustained drag reduction in turbulent flow regimes. Specifically, for the hydrophobic test surfaces of the present and previous studies, we show that drag reduction seen at lower Reynolds numbers diminishes with increasing Reynolds number when the surface roughness of the underlying texture becomes comparable to the viscous sublayer thickness. Conversely, test data show that textures with surface roughness significantly smaller than the viscous sublayer thickness and textures with high porosity show sustained drag reduction in the turbulent flow regime. The present experiments represent a significant technological advancement and one of the very few demonstrations of skin-friction reduction in the turbulent regime using random-textured hydrophobic surfaces in an external flow configuration. The scalability of the fabrication method, the passive nature of this surface technology, and the obtained results in the turbulent regime make such hydrophobic surfaces a potentially attractive option for hydrodynamic skin-friction drag reduction.

  1. Analysis of turbulent skin friction generated in flow along a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monte, Stephane; Sagaut, Pierre; Gomez, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents an extension of FIK identity [K. Fukagata et al., Phys. Fluids 14, L73 (2002)] to turbulent axial flow along a cylinder. This relation gives the contributions of both the mean flow and the turbulent fluctuating flow to the skin friction coefficient. The later contribution is then further decomposed more precisely as proposed by B. Frohnapfel, Y. Hasegawa, and N. Kasagi, "Reactive Flow Control for Skin Friction Drag Reduction based on Sensing of the Streamwise Wall-Shear Stress," Euromech Fluid Mechanics Conference 8 (EFMC8), Bad Reichenhall, Germany, 13-16 Sept. 2010, S4-30. The Reynolds shear stress can be linked to the eigenvalues of the anisotropy tensor, the angle between the principal axis of the Reynolds stress tensor, and the mean flow direction and the turbulent kinetic energy. These eigenvalues and the alignment are important elements of the Reynolds stress profile. The present analysis is based on high-fidelity Reynolds-Stress-Model-based simulations. The results are first validated using available DNS and experimental data. Then, results are used in order to investigate the variations of the skin friction componential contributions with respect to characteristic dimensionless radius a+, Reynolds numbers, Rea (cylinder-radius-based Reynolds number) and Re? (boundary-layer-thickness-based Reynolds number), or curvature ratio ? /a, and anisotropic decomposition of the Reynolds stress. Explicit empirical formula for surface responses of skin friction and its turbulent component is given.

  2. Frictional drag reduction by injecting bubbly water into turbulent boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, H.; Miyanaga, M.; Haramoto, Y.; Guin, M.M. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Microbubbles, when in the inner zone of a turbulent boundary layer, are known to reduce frictional resistance drastically. Employing a new experimental technique, premixed bubbly water was injected into the boundary layer through a slit on the wall. There are optimum combinations of air- and water-flow rates for maximum reduction in resistance. The local frictional resistance became as low as one fifth of the value without injection at the optimum flow rate. Experiments with microbubble injection through porous plates were also done and compared with bubbly-water injection. Effects of wall orientation and bubble size, as well as energy balance of the injection process were examined.

  3. Skin-friction Drag Reduction in Turbulent Channel Flow with Idealized Superhydrophobic Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratsegari, Amirreza; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2013-11-01

    Skin-friction drag reduction by super-hydrophobic (SH) surfaces was investigated using Lattice Boltzmann DNS in turbulent channel flow with SH longitudinal microgrooves on both walls. The liquid/gas interfaces in the SH microgrooves were modeled as flat, shear-free surfaces. Drag reductions (DR) ranging from 5 % to 47 % were observed for microgrooves of size 4 <=g+0 =w+0 <= 128 in channels of bulk Reynolds number Reb =Ub h / ? = 3600 (Re?0 =u?0 h / ? ~ 230), where g+0 and w+0 denote the widths of the slip and no-slip surfaces in base flow wall units. It is shown that in both laminar and turbulent flow, DR scales as DR =Us /Ub + ? . In laminar flow, where DR is purely due to surface slip, ? = 0 . In turbulent flow, ? remains negligible when the slip length is smaller than the thickness of the viscous sublayer. For DR > 40 % , where the effect of surface slip can be felt in the buffer layer, ? attains a small non-zero value. Analysis of turbulence statistics and turbulence kinetic energy budgets confirms that outside of a layer of size approximately one slip length from the walls, the turbulence dynamics proceeds as in regular channel flow with no-slip walls.

  4. Friction Factor Characterization for High-Porosity Random Fiber Regenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center, the Department of Energy (DOE), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, Washington are developing a Stirling convertor for a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Power System to provide electric power for NASA Space Science Missions. STC is developing the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under contract to DOE. Steady-flow tests were completed to determine the friction factor for the high-porosity regenerators that are used in the TDC. STC fabricated a flow test fixture and three random fiber regenerator test samples, one each at approximately 80, 88, and 96 percent porosities. The flow tests were then completed by the NASA Glenn Flow Calibration Laboratory, and the data reduced to Reynolds number and friction factor. The results showed that the 80 and 88 percent porosity samples had similar characteristics while the 96 percent porosity sample had significantly higher friction factors for given Reynolds numbers compared to the samples with lower porosities. Comparisons were also made between the test data and existing correlations. STC used this data to derive a modified regenerator friction factor correlation for use in the Stirling design code GLIMPS for porosities greater than 88 percent. Using this new correlation, the final optimized regenerator design porosity was reduced from 96 to 90 percent.

  5. Effects of friction factor and slip factor on the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump

    E-print Network

    Sheth, Ketankumar Kantilal

    1985-01-01

    EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Ma]or Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Approved as to style and content by...

  6. Laser interferometer skin-friction measurements of crossing-shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.; Narayanswami, N.; Knight, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossing-shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 deg at Mach 3 and 15 deg at Mach 3.85. The measurements were made using a laser interferometer skin-friction meter, a device that determines the wall shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin-friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction center line. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k-epsilon model, are compared with the experimental results for the Mach 3.85, 15-deg interaction case. Although the k-epsilon model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin-friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near-surface flow in this complex interaction.

  7. Engineering prediction of turbulent skin friction and heat transfer in high-speed flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, A. M., Jr.; Bertram, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    A large collection of experimental turbulent-skin-friction and heat-transfer data for flat plates and cones was used to determine the most accurate of six of the most popular engineering-prediction methods; the data represent a Mach number range from 4 to 13 and ratio of wall to total temperature ranging from 0.1 to 0.7. The Spalding and Chi method incorporating virtual-origin concepts was found to be the best prediction method for Mach numbers less than 10; the limited experimental data for Mach numbers greater than 10 were not well predicted by any of the engineering methods except the Coles method.

  8. Effects of Riblets on Skin Friction in High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2012-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets are conducted to examine the effects of riblets on skin friction at supersonic speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers with an adiabatic wall, a Mach number of M1 = 2.5, and a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of Re = 1720 are considered. Simulations are conducted for boundary-layer flows over a clean surface and symmetric V- groove riblets with nominal spacings of 20 and 40 wall units. The DNS results confirm the few existing experimental observations and show that a drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved for riblets with proper spacing. The influence of riblets on turbulence statistics is analyzed in detail with an emphasis on identifying the differences, if any, between the drag reduction mechanisms for incompressible and high-speed boundary layers.

  9. Friction Factor Measurements in an Equally Spaced Triangular Tube Array

    SciTech Connect

    Vassallo P, Symolon P

    2007-03-19

    Friction factor data for adiabatic cross-flow of water in a staggered tube array was obtained over a Reynolds number range (based on hydraulic diameter and gap velocity) of about 10,000 to 250,000. The tubes were 12.7mm (0.5 inch) outer diameter, in a uniformly spaced triangular arrangement with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. The friction factor was compared to several literature correlations, and was found to be best matched by the Idelchik correlation. Other correlations were found to vary significantly from the test data. Based on the test data, a new correlation is proposed for this tube bundle geometry which covers the entire Reynolds number range tested.

  10. Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yoshihiro; Clarke, Daryl D.; Ozeki, Shinichi

    Friction materials such as disk pads, brake linings, and clutch facings are widely used for automotive applications. Friction materials function during braking due to frictional resistance that transforms kinetic energy into thermal energy. There has been a rudimentary evolution, from materials like leather or wood to asbestos fabric or asbestos fabric saturated with various resins such as asphalt or resin combined with pitch. These efforts were further developed by the use of woven asbestos material saturated by either rubber solution or liquid resin binder and functioned as an internal expanding brake, similar to brake lining system. The role of asbestos continued through the use of chopped asbestos saturated by rubber, but none was entirely successful due to the poor rubber heat resistance required for increased speeds and heavy gearing demands of the automobile industry. The use of phenolic resins as binder for asbestos friction materials provided the necessary thermal resistance and performance characteristics. Thus, the utility of asbestos as the main friction component, for over 100 years, has been significantly reduced in friction materials due to asbestos identity as a carcinogen. Steel and other fibrous components have displaced asbestos in disk pads. Currently, non-asbestos organics are the predominate friction material. Phenolic resins continue to be the preferred binder, and increased amounts are necessary to meet the requirements of highly functional asbestos-free disk pads for the automotive industry. With annual automobile production exceeding 70 million vehicles and additional automobile production occurring in developing countries worldwide and increasing yearly, the amount of phenolic resin for friction material is also increasing (Fig. 14.1). Fig. 14.1 Worldwide commercial vehicle production In recent years, increased fuel efficiency of passenger car is required due to the CO2 emission issue. One of the solutions to improve fuel efficiency is to lower the car body weight. It means that the weight of car components must be decreased. In the case of reduced weight for friction parts, the load applied to the friction parts would be higher (more heat also) and trend would lead to phenolic resins with improved heat resistance.

  11. Analysis of factors influencing the friction coefficients of shoe sole materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Derler; F. Kausch; R. Huber

    2008-01-01

    The slip resistance of pedestrian surfaces is usually characterized by friction coefficients measured with samples of shoe sole materials. The factors that influence the results of friction measurements were investigated for two elastomer materials and leather using the portable tribometer Floor Slide Control 2000, which was operated under varying conditions in a climate chamber on two reference surfaces. The friction

  12. Friction Factor for Flow in Rectangular Ducts with One Side Rib-Roughened

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youn, B.; Yuen, C.; Mills, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical simulations of incompressible turbulent flow through rectangular ducts with one side rib-roughened were performed to determine pressure drop. The "PHOENICS " software package was used for the computations, which required provision of a wall function for transverse rib-roughened surfaces. The present study was conducted in the range of 10(exp 5) less than or equal to Reynolds number less than or equal to 10(exp 7), 0.01 less than or equal to rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio less than or equal to 0.04, 10 less than or equal to pitch to rib height ratio less than or equal to 40. Using the numerical results, friction factor charts for various aspect ratios were generated. The numerical results agreed well with experimental data that was obtained for 10(exp 5) less than Reynolds less than 2 x 10(exp 5). In addition, a scheme for predicting friction factor using existing correlations for smooth and rough walls was developed.

  13. Friction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation demonstrates, through an animated, narrated slide-show, how frictional forces, including air resistance, can affect the motion of an object. This resource also includes an interactive test and review of the material. One is also able to download "myskoool" which allows allows one to download lessons to run offline and use anytime.

  14. Friction factor correlation for 217 pin wire-wrap spaced LMFBR fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.R.; Markley, R.A.

    1981-04-01

    Data from four independent water flow tests of 217 pin wire wrap spaced LMFBR fuel assemblies were analyzed and a friction factor correlation was developed. The data show that the mean friction factor varied little from one test to the next and the test statistics show that at a 3sigma confidence level, the uncertainty of predicting the friction factor is less than 1.7% from Reynolds numbers of 1000 to 100,000.

  15. Linear modeling of turbulent skin-friction reduction due to spanwise wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque-Daza, Carlos; Baig, Mirza; Lockerby, Duncan; Chernyshenko, Sergei; Davies, Christopher; University of Warwick Team; Imperial College Team; Cardiff University Team

    2012-11-01

    We present a study on the effect of streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise wall velocity on the growth of near-wall turbulent streaks using a linearized formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The changes in streak amplification due to the travelling waves induced by the wall velocity are compared to published results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) predictions of the turbulent skin-friction reduction over a range of parameters; a clear correlation between these two sets of results is observed. Additional linearized simulations but at a much higher Reynolds numbers, more relevant to aerospace applications, produce results that show no marked differences to those obtained at low Reynolds number. It is also observed that a close correlation exists between DNS data of drag reduction and a very simple characteristic of the ``generalized'' Stokes layer generated by the streamwise-travelling waves. Carlos.Duque-Daza@warwick.ac.uk - School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK caduqued@unal.edu.co - Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

  16. Charts Adapted from Van Driest's Turbulent Flat-plate Theory for Determining Values of Turbulent Aerodynamic Friction and Heat-transfer Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dorothy B; Faget, Maxime A

    1956-01-01

    A modified method of Van Driest's flat-plate theory for turbulent boundary layer has been found to simplify the calculation of local skin-friction coefficients which, in turn, have made it possible to obtain through Reynolds analogy theoretical turbulent heat-transfer coefficients in the form of Stanton number. A general formula is given and charts are presented from which the modified method can be solved for Mach numbers 1.0 to 12.0, temperature ratios 0.2 to 6.0, and Reynolds numbers 0.2 times 10 to the 6th power to 200 times 10 to the 6th power.

  17. The Relative Validity of the Concepts of Coefficient of Friction and Interface Friction Shear Factor for Use in Metal Deformation Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan T. Male; Vincent De Pierre; George Saul

    1973-01-01

    The relative validity of the concepts of constant coefficient of friction (f) and constant interface friction shear factor (m) as quantitative indices for defining friction stresses existing in metal deformation operations has been investigated by means of the ring compression test technique. Material flow stress values have been determined by ring compression tests using mathematical formulae based upon both concepts

  18. Measuring and modelling the frictional velocity u*, turbulence and heat fluxes above the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambke, Jens; Bye, John A. T.; Schmidt, Michael; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we analyse the frictional velocity u*, drag coefficient, vertical wind speed and turbulence profiles observed at different met-masts in the German North and Baltic Sea. We present an analysis of different models for the frictional velocity u* in convective, neutral and stable thermal stratification of the atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements performed with ultra-sonic anemometers are compared to profile-derived values and a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric thermal stability. Modelling: An improved approach to model the vertical wind speed profile is presented and compared against meso-scale model results (WRF, COSMO): Bye-Ekman-Coupling (BEC) describes the flux of momentum from the Ekman layer of the atmosphere through the Prandtl layer down to the air-sea interface by a modified wave boundary layer with enhanced Charnock dynamics (Bye et al. 2010). The BEC model is based on the coupled pair of similarity relations for "aerodynamically rough flow" in both fluids (air and sea). The derived drag law is of Charnock form, almost independent of the wave age and consistent with the transfer of momentum to the wave spectrum - which takes place in the smaller rather than the dominant wavelengths. Measurements: It was found that the frictional velocity u* is considerably smaller than predicted by conventional approaches using the Charnock relation: For wind speeds between 10 m/s and 15 m/s at 40 m height above the sea surface, u*(observed) is 14% smaller than u*(Charnock). Most important, we found unexpected, strong and obviously artificial distortions concerning the three wind speed components in the 10Hz data of the three ultra-sonic anemometers at the offshore met-mast FINO1 at 40 m, 60 m and 80 m height. The pattern of these distortions is independent from different post-processing procedures (planar-fit etc.). We anticipate that these artefacts imply severe problems for the eddy covariance technique. Moreover, these artefacts may be relevant in other (previous and on-going) ultra-sonic measurement campaigns where turbulent parameters such as u* and heat fluxes are derived. A simple, but innovative analysis is proposed to check ultra-sonic measurements with respect to these artefacts, using the original temporal 10Hz resolution of the data: The instantaneous vertical wind speed component w is analysed versus the instantaneous wind direction (called wind.dir in the following), computed from the instantaneous horizontal components u and v. The observational density is then plotted in the (w; wind.dir)-space. We found a pattern of stripes of very strong densities for specific wind direction bins, which are thinner than 1° and which cannot be attributed directly to the geometry of the anemometer (transducers, physical structure etc.). The source of this artificial pattern is still unclear and open for discussion. References: Bye JAT, Ghantous M, Wolff J-O (2010) On the variability of the Charnock constant and the functional dependence of the drag coefficient on wind speed. Ocean Dynamics 60(4) 851-860

  19. Friction-factor data for flat-plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Childs, Dara W.

    1992-01-01

    Friction factors for honeycomb surfaces were measured with a flat plate tester. The flat plate test apparatus was described and a method was discussed for determining the friction factor experimentally. The friction factor model was developed for the flat plate test based on the Fanno Line Flow. The comparisons of the friction factor were plotted for smooth surfaces and six-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressures, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor were found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width to clearance ratios.

  20. Laser Interferometer Skin-Friction measurements of crossing-shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, T. J.; Settles, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    Wall shear stress measurements beneath crossingshock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions have been made for three interactions of different strengths. The interactions are generated by two sharp fins at symmetric angles of attack mounted on a flat plate. The shear stress measurements were made for fin angles of 7 and 11 degrees at Mach 3 and 15 degrees at Mach 4. The measurements were made using a Laser Interferometer Skin Friction (LISF) meter; a device which determines the wail shear by optically measuring the time rate of thinning of an oil film placed on the test model surface. Results of the measurements reveal high skin friction coefficients in the vicinity of the fin/plate junction and the presence of quasi-two-dimensional flow separation on the interaction centerline. Additionally, two Navier-Stokes computations, one using a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and one using a k- model, are compared to the experimental results for the Mach 4, 15 degree interaction case. While the k- model did a reasonable job of predicting the overall trend in portions of the skin friction distribution, neither computation fully captured the physics of the near surface flow in this complex interaction.

  1. Understanding the friction factor behavior in liquid annular seals with deliberately roughened surfaces, a CFD approach

    E-print Network

    Villasmil Urdaneta, Larry Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    Bulk flow theory has been widely used to estimate annular seals dynamic coefficients. To predict the flow behavior through the seal, this theory relies on empirical friction factor correlations based on pipe data. Several experiments have gathered...

  2. Analysis of Instabilities and Their Impact on Friction Factor in Hole-Pattern Seals 

    E-print Network

    Sekaran, Aarthi 1985-

    2012-11-21

    The determination of the leakage and consequently the friction factor is an important part of analyzing the flow through a seal. This is done experimentally by means of a flat plate tester, which allows for the simplified ...

  3. Modified friction factor correlation for CICC's based on a porous media analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Bagnasco, Maurizio

    2011-09-01

    A modified correlation for the bundle friction factor in CICC's based on a porous media analogy is presented. The correlation is obtained by the analysis of the collected pressure drop data measured for 23 CICC's. The friction factors predicted by the proposed correlation are compared with those resulting from the pressure drop data for two CICC's measured recently using cryogenic helium in the SULTAN test facility at EPFL-CRPP.

  4. Entrance and exit region friction factor models for annular seal analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David Alan

    1988-01-01

    The Mach number definition and boundary conditions in Nelson's nominally-centered, annular gas seal analysis are revised. A method is described for determining the wall shear stress characteristics of an annular gas seal experimentally. Two friction factor models are developed for annular seal analysis; one model is based on flat-plate flow theory; the other uses empirical entrance and exit region friction factors. The friction factor predictions of the models are compared to experimental results. Each friction model is used in an annular gas seal analysis. The seal characteristics predicted by the two seal analyses are compared to experimental results and to the predictions of Nelson's analysis. The comparisons are for smooth-rotor seals with smooth and honeycomb stators. The comparisons show that the analysis which uses empirical entrance and exit region shear stress models predicts the static and stability characteristics of annular gas seals better than the other analyses. The analyses predict direct stiffness poorly.

  5. Behavior of mean and fluctuating skin friction in a conical diffuser with instantaneous flow reversals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh K. Singh; Ram S. Azad

    1995-01-01

    Measurements were made of the mean and fluctuating skin friction in an 8° total divergence angle conical diffuser using modern pulsed-wire anemometry. The development of streamwise and spanwise fluctuating skin friction, skewness and flatness factors of streamwise skin friction, and probability density distribution of the wall shear stress show the rapidly changing nature and complexity of the wall layer turbulence

  6. An artificial neural network for non-iterative calculation of the friction factor in pipeline flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walid H Shayya; Shyam S Sablani

    1998-01-01

    A non-iterative procedure was developed, using an artificial neural network (ANN), for calculating the friction factor, f, in the Darcy-Weisbach equation when estimating head losses due to friction in closed pipes. The Regula-Falsi method was used as an implicit solution procedure to estimate the f values for a range of Reynolds numbers, Re, and relative roughness e\\/D values (where e

  7. Direct measurements and analysis of skin friction and cooling downstream of multiple flush-slot injection into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. G.; Strokowski, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the reduction in surface skin friction and the effectiveness of surface cooling downstream of one to four successive flush slots injecting cold air at an angle of 10 deg into a turbulent Mach 6 boundary layer. Data were obtained by direct measurement of surface shear and equilibrium temperatures, respectively. Increasing the number of slots decreased the skin friction, but the incremental improvement in skin-friction reduction decreased as the number of slots was increased. Cooling effectiveness was found to improve, for a given total mass injection, as the number of slots was increased from one to four. Comparison with previously reported step-slot data, however, indicated that step slots with tangential injection are more effective for both reducing skin friction and cooling than the present flush-slot configuration. Finite-difference predictions are in reasonable agreement with skin-friction data and with boundary-layer profile data.

  8. Friction factor data for flat plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces 

    E-print Network

    Ha, Tae Woong

    1989-01-01

    the procedure of a test. Chapter IV shows the friction factor model for a one dimensional, steady, adiabatic flow of a perfect gas through a constant area duct. Exper imental data in chapter V and appendix A , B , and C are presented which depend on inlet...-honeycomb surfaces with three-clearances, 6.9 bar to 17.9 bar range of inlet pressure, and 5,000 to 100,000 range of the Reynolds number. The optimum geometries for the maximum friction factor are found as a function of cell width to cell depth and cell width...

  9. Vortex avalanches and the onset of superfluid turbulence

    E-print Network

    N. B. Kopnin

    2003-09-30

    Quantized circulation, absence of Galilean invariance due to a clamped normal component, and the vortex mutual friction are the major factors that make superfluid turbulence behave in a way different from that in classical fluids. The model is developed for the onset of superfluid turbulence that describes the initial avalanche-like multiplication of vortices into a turbulent vortex tangle.

  10. NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID FLOW IN DUCTS: FRICTION FACTOR AND LOSS COEFICIENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adelson Belizário Leal; Luis Américo Calçada; Cláudia Mirim Scheid

    The knowledge of the head loss in the flow of non-Newtonian fluids is very important for the execution of pipelines and pumping systems designs, common in plants of almost all kinds of industries. The determination of the total head loss involves the establishment of the friction factor corresponding to pressure drop in the straight section and the loss coefficients caused

  11. Analysis of Instabilities and Their Impact on Friction Factor in Hole-Pattern Seals

    E-print Network

    Sekaran, Aarthi 1985-

    2012-11-21

    The determination of the leakage and consequently the friction factor is an important part of analyzing the flow through a seal. This is done experimentally by means of a flat plate tester, which allows for the simplified representation of the seal...

  12. What Factors Does Friction Depend On? A Socio-Cognitive Teaching Intervention with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Koliopoulos, Dimitris; Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a socio-cognitive teaching strategy on young children. It tests their understanding of the factors that friction depends on when an object is projected across a horizontal surface. The study was conducted in three phases: pre-test, teaching intervention, and post-test. The sample…

  13. Friction factor and heat transfer of nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in laminar pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianzhong; Xia, Yi; Ku, Xiaoke

    2014-10-01

    Numerical simulations of polyalphaolefins-Al2O3 nanofluids containing cylindrical nanoparticles in a laminar pipe flow are performed by solving the Navier-Stokes equation with term of cylindrical nanoparticles, the general dynamic equation for cylindrical nanoparticles, and equation for nanoparticle orientation. The distributions of particle number and volume concentration, the friction factor, and heat transfer are obtained and analyzed. The results show that distributions of nanoparticle number and volume concentration are non-uniform across the section, with larger and smaller values in the region near the pipe center and near the wall, respectively. The non-uniformity becomes significant with the increase in the axial distance from the inlet. The friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds number. The relationships between the friction factor and the nanoparticle volume concentration as well as particle aspect ratio are dependent on the Reynolds number. The Nusselt number of nanofluids, directly proportional to the Reynolds number, particle volume concentration, and particle aspect ratio, is higher near the pipe entrance than at the downstream locations. The rate of increase in Nusselt number at lower particle volume concentration is more than that at higher concentration. Finally, the expressions of friction factor and Nusselt number as a function of particle volume concentration, particle aspect ratio, and Reynolds number are derived based on the numerical data.

  14. FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS

    E-print Network

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high Reynolds number were carried out for pipes with smooth to rough surfaces. The roughness was measured

  15. Evaluation of thermophysical properties, friction factor, and heat transfer of alumina nanofluid flow in tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sanjib

    Various thermophysical properties, fluid flow parameter and heat transfer characteristics were measured for nanofluid with 6% volume concentration of solid Al2O3 nanoparticles in water. Thermal conductivity measurements showed that there is a definite enhancement in thermal conductivity of the nanofluid compared to that of water. At 7°C, the enhancement was 16% which decreased to 6.96% at 50°C. The viscosity measurements of the 6% volume concentration Al2O 3/water nanofluid showed that its viscosity is higher by a factor of 1.25 to 10.24 than the viscosity of water. Also the measurements of the viscosity of different volume concentration of Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that, the viscosity decreases as the volume concentration decreases. The plot between the shear stress and strain rate for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it is a Newtonian fluid for the range of strain rate between 6-122 s-1. Several readings of viscosity were taken by subjecting the nanofluid to heating and cooling cycle. It was found that above 62.65°C, the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid experiences an irrecoverable increase in viscosity and when cooled from beyond this temperature, a hysteresis effect on the viscosity is seen. The friction factor results for laminar flow for the 6% volume concentration Al2O3/water nanofluid showed that it matches the value given by the Hagen-Poiseulle equation (f = 64/Re ). The transition from laminar flow to turbulent was found to occur at a Reynolds number of approximately 1500. The convective heat transfer results were in agreement with that proposed by the Lienhard correlation (Lienhard and Lienhard, 2008). For fully developed laminar flow, the Nusselt number under constant heat flux condition was found to be within ±7% of 4.36. In the laminar flow regime, the Nusselt numbers for thermally developing flow were within ±10% of the value calculated from the Lienhard correlation.

  16. Turbulent friction drag reduction using electroactive polymer and electromagnetically driven surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouder, Kevin; Potter, Mark; Morrison, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports aerodynamic testing of two spanwise-oscillating surfaces fabricated out of electroactive polymers (EAPs) in the dielectric form of actuation, and of an electromagnetic-driven linear motor. Hot-wire and PIV measurements of velocity and direct measurement of friction drag using a drag balance are presented. A maximum of 16 % surface friction reduction, as calculated by the diminution of the wall-normal streamwise velocity gradient, was obtained. Among other quantities, the spatial dependence of the drag reduction was investigated. When this spatial transient and portions which are static are accounted for, the direct drag measurements complement the hot-wire data. PIV measurements, where the laser beam was parallel to the oscillating surface at y + ? 15, support the hot-wire data. The two actuators are original in design, and significant contributions have been made to the development of EAPs. This experiment is the first to aerodynamically test EAP actuators at such a large scale and at a relatively moderate Re.

  17. Correlation of turbulence factor and hot wire turbulence measurements in subsonic flows of air

    E-print Network

    Wells, Curtis Sinclair

    1959-01-01

    contraction. In turbulence smasuremsmts in a long straight duct, ths turbulence nmy be assusmd to have attained isotropy. 20 REFERENCES 1. Dryden, H. L. , and. Kuethe, A. M. : Effect oi' Turbulence in Wind Tunnel Measurements . NACA Report No~ 2...

  18. Center for Turbulence Research Proceedings of the Summer Program 2012

    E-print Network

    Wang, Wei

    of turbulence generated and controlled by polymer additives is investi- gated from the perspective (Virk et al. 1970) was semi-empirical, yielding a correlation for the friction factor and the Virk log

  19. Improvement in the calculation of turbulent friction in smooth concentric annuli

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O.C. Jr.; Leung, J.C.M.

    1981-12-01

    Data for smooth concentric annuli having an overall -25 to +35 percent scatter about the Colbrook prediction for smooth tubes, along with calculation techniques, are reviewed. It is shown that the accepted methods of Meter and Bird, and of Rothfus, Monrad, and Senecal, deviate substantially from the correct limit for small gaps. Further, neither correctly predicts the data trends with decreasing radius ratio. It is demonstrated that the theoretically determined laminar equivalent diameter which provides similarity in laminar flow for round tubes and concentric annuli also provides similarity in turbulent flow. 36 refs.

  20. What factors does friction depend on? A socio-cognitive teaching intervention with young children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Ravanis; Dimitris Koliopoulos; Yannis Hadzigeorgiou

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a socio-cognitive teaching strategy on young children. It tests their understanding of the factors that friction depends on when an object is projected across a horizontal surface. The study was conducted in three phases: pre-test, teaching intervention, and post-test. The sample consisted of 68 preschool children who were assigned

  1. Influence of turbulence on the beam propagation factor of Gaussian Schell-model array beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoling Ji; Xiaoli Shao

    2010-01-01

    The analytical expression for the beam propagation factor (M2-factor) of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) array beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence is derived. It is shown that the M2-factor of GSM array beams depends on the beam number, the relative beam separation distance, the beam coherence parameter, the type of beam superposition, and the strength of turbulence. The turbulence results in an

  2. Parameters defining flow resistance and the friction factor behavior in liquid annular seals with deliberately roughened surfaces

    E-print Network

    Villasmil Urdaneta, Larry Alfonso

    2006-10-30

    replaced with stators containing different roughness patterns to reduce leakage and enhance rotor response. Several roughened seal experiments with liquid and air have produced leakage data indicating that the friction factor increases as the seal clearance...

  3. A comparison of rotordynamic-coefficient predictions for annular honeycomb gas seals using different friction-factor models

    E-print Network

    D'Sousa, Rohan Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Predictions of rotordynamic-coefficients for annular honeycomb gas seals are compared using different friction-factor models. Analysis shows that the fundamental improvement in predicting the rotordynamic-coefficients accurately is the two...

  4. Correlations for Predicting the Air-Side Nusselt Numbers and Friction Factors in Chilled-Water Cooling Coils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Mirth; S. Ramadhyani

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine Nusselt numbers and friction factors on the air side of wavy-finned, chilled-water cooling coils. General correlations of the dry-surface Nusselt numbers and friction factors were developed from the data obtained from five different cooling coils. A comparison of the Nusselt number correlation to data from the literature revealed that the correlation was generally

  5. Friction factor data for flat plate tests of smooth and honeycomb surfaces

    E-print Network

    Ha, Tae Woong

    1989-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree of M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E M A Y 1989 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering FRICTION F A C T O R DATA F O R F L A T P L A T E T E S T S OF S M O O T H AND H O N E Y C O M B SURFACES A Thesis by T A E W O O N G HA... Approved as to style and content by: D. W. Childs (Chairman of Committee) / C . C. Nelson (Member) R. Dar (Member) D. Rhode (Member) Rabins (Head otjDepartment) May 1989 A B S T R A C T Friction Factor Data for Flat Plate Tests of Smooth...

  6. The influence of void fraction on the submerged perforated sheet hydraulic friction factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinkov, V. N.; Elkin, I. V.; Emelianov, D. A.; Melikhov, V. I.; Melikhov, O. I.; Nerovnov, A. A.; Nikonov, S. M.; Parfenov, Yu. V.

    2015-07-01

    The results from an experimental investigation of two-phase flow motion through a submerged perforated sheet (SPS) obtained at the Elektrogorsk Research Center test facility are presented. The test facility, the test section of which is a transverse "cutout" from the full-scale PGV-1000 steam generator with the models of vessel internals, is described in detail. The procedure for carrying out trial startups is outlined, and the system of instrument and control devices is described. The SPS used in all experimental modes of operation had the perforation ratio (the hole area to the sheet area ratio) equal to 5.7%. The pressure in the system was around 7 MPa, and the flow rate of supplied steam was varied from 4.23 to 7.94 t/h, which corresponded to the steam velocity at the evaporation surface equal to 0.15-0.29 m/s. Distributions of pressure difference across the SPS and void fractions under the SPS and above it are obtained. The SPS hydraulic friction factor for a two-phase flow is determined as a result of processing the experimental data. A correction for two-phase nature of the flow for the SPS operating conditions is determined by comparing the obtained SPS hydraulic friction factor for a two-phase flow with the SPS hydraulic friction factor to single-phase flow of steam. It is shown that this correction can be either greater than unity (at low void fractions) or less than unity (at high void fractions).

  7. Acoustics of friction.

    PubMed

    Akay, Adnan

    2002-04-01

    This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of ultrasonic motors and other examples. Last, when considered phenomenologically, friction and boundary layer turbulence exhibit analogous properties and, when compared, each may provide clues to a better understanding of the other. PMID:12002837

  8. Acoustics of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akay, Adnan

    2002-04-01

    This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of ultrasonic motors and other examples. Last, when considered phenomenologically, friction and boundary layer turbulence exhibit analogous properties and, when compared, each may provide clues to a better understanding of the other.

  9. Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Channel with Rib-Groove Turbulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewkohkiat, Y.; Kongkaitpaiboon, V.; Eiamsa-ard, S.; Pimsarn, M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the effects of the rib-groove turbulators on the heat transfer and friction characteristics in a rectangular channel. The experiments encompass the Reynolds number range from 1800 to 10,000; pitch ratios (PR = P/e) 6.6-13.3 by using air as the working fluid. The obtained results demonstrate that heat transfer rate in term of Nusselt number (Nu) increases with the increase of Reynolds number, whereas friction factor (f) shows the opposite trend. Both Nusselt number and friction factor increase with decreasing pitch ratio. It is also observed that heat transfer rate and friction factor for the channels with rib-groove turbulators are higher than those for the smooth channel under similar test conditions. In addition, the correlations for heat transfer rate in term of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) for channel with rib-groove turbulators are also presented.

  10. Roughness-Induced Critical Phenomena in a Turbulent Flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel Goldenfeld

    2006-01-01

    I present empirical evidence that turbulent flows are closely analogous to critical phenomena, from a reanalysis of friction factor measurements in rough pipes. The data collapse found here corresponds to Widom scaling near critical points, and implies that a full understanding of turbulence requires explicit accounting for boundary roughness.

  11. Roughness-induced critical phenomena in a turbulent flow

    E-print Network

    Nigel Goldenfeld

    2005-11-15

    I present empirical evidence that turbulent flows are closely analogous to critical phenomena, from a reanalysis of friction factor measurements in rough pipes. The data collapse found here corresponds to Widom scaling near critical points, and implies that a full understanding of turbulence requires explicit accounting for boundary roughness.

  12. Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow. PMID:24745238

  13. New friction factor derived from study of Egyptian gas-field pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    El-Emam, N. [Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt); Gad, F.K.; Nafey, A.S. [Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt); Zoghaib, N. [Balayim Petroleum Co., Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-11-10

    Evaluations of a newly developed friction-factor equation (and hence a new gas-flow formula) indicate that it produces higher accuracy than all equations currently in use. Further, the new equation can be conveniently sued to optimize operating conditions of any existing gas pipeline or aid in designing new, similar gas pipelines. The evaluation of the new equation showed it to be more flexible in accommodating many ranges of flow rate by developing the relevant new constant related to gas flow rate. The proposed new equation can be used to estimate the effect of any variable on gas flow in a horizontal or inclined system in addition to facilitating the optimum design of any new gas pipeline.

  14. Investigation Of The Friction Factor Behavior for Flat Plate Tests Of Smooth And Roughened Surfaces With Supply Pressures Up To 84 Bars

    E-print Network

    Kheireddin, Bassem A.

    2010-10-12

    friction factor data and measure dynamic pressure oscillations. A detailed description of the test facility is described, and a theory for determining the friction factor is reviewed. Three clearances were investigated: 0.635, 0.381, and 0.254 mm. Tests...

  15. Review and proposal for best fit of wire-wrapped fuel bundle friction factor and pressure drop predictions using various existing correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bubelis; M. Schikorr

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the existing wire-wrapped fuel bundle friction factor\\/pressure drop correlations and to qualitatively evaluate which of the existing friction factor correlations are the best in retracing the results of a large set of the experimental data available on wire-wrapped fuel assemblies tested under different coolant conditions.

  16. Modeling of unsteady friction and viscoelastic damping in piping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, C.; Nicolet, C.; Bergant, A.; Müller, A.; Avellan, F.

    2012-11-01

    In real systems, the phenomena, such as pipe-wall viscoelasticity, unsteady friction or fluid structure interaction induce additional damping and dispersion of transient pressure waves than that defined by classical waterhammer. In this paper, unsteady friction models and viscoelastic damping models will be presented and a theoretical formulation of the viscoelastic damping in piping systems without cavitation will be developed. Firstly, the friction factor will be presented as the sum of the quasi-steady part and the unsteady part related to the instantaneous local acceleration and instantaneous convective acceleration. This unsteady friction model has been incorporated into the method of characteristic algorithm (MOC). Secondly, the damping will be defined in terms of viscoelastic effect attributed to a second viscosity ?'. This model is solved using the Finite Difference Method. Finally, numerical results from the unsteady friction and viscoelastic models are compared with results of laboratory measurements for waterhammer cases with low Reynolds number turbulent flows. This comparison validates the new viscoelastic model.

  17. Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Harlow, F.H.

    1987-04-01

    Current theories for material mixing include multiphase interpenetration and single-field turbulence transport with large density variations. Neither approach by itself is adequate for current problem-solving needs, but in combination they offer tremendous opportunities for the analysis of complex material dynamics. Multiphase theory contributes the ''ordered'' jets or particulate trajectories that penetrate in wave-like fashion; turbulence transport superimposes the important nonlinear diffusive component to the mixing. Shear impedance and energy transport arise naturally in this combined analysis.

  18. Friction Factor Measurement, Analysis, and Modeling for Flat-Plates with 12.15 mm Diameter Hole-Pattern, Tested with Air at Different Clearances, Inlet Pressures, and Pressure Ratios

    E-print Network

    Deva Asirvatham, Thanesh

    2011-02-22

    Friction factor data are important for better prediction of leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of gas annular seals. A flat-plate test rig is used to determine friction factor of hole-pattern/honeycomb flat-plate surfaces representing annular...

  19. Friction Factor Measurement, Analysis, and Modeling for Flat-Plates with 12.15 mm Diameter Hole-Pattern, Tested with Air at Different Clearances, Inlet Pressures, and Pressure Ratios 

    E-print Network

    Deva Asirvatham, Thanesh

    2011-02-22

    Friction factor data are important for better prediction of leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of gas annular seals. A flat-plate test rig is used to determine friction factor of hole-pattern/honeycomb flat-plate surfaces ...

  20. Application of surface renewal turbulence modeling for variable viscosity turbulent pipe flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    The surface renewal model of wall turbulence is coupled with the classical eddy diffusivity/mixing length approach for the turbulent core to analyze turbulent flow of a liquid with variable viscosity. The analysis indicates that the mean frequency of wall turbulence is decreased by cooling and increased by heating. The analysis also gives rise to friction factors and Nusselt numbers that are consistent with the experimental data for both cooling and heating. The predictions for distributions in dimensionless velocity are essentially insensitive to moderate changes in viscosity.

  1. Propagation factors of cosine-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Zhou; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wei

    2014-09-22

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function (WDF), we have studied the relative root-mean-square (rms) angular width and the propagation factor of cosine-Gaussian-correlated Schell-model (CGSM) beams propagating in non-Kolmogorov turbulence. It has been found that the CGSM beam has advantage over the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam for reducing the turbulence-induced degradation, and this advantage will be more obvious for the beams with larger parameter n and spatial coherence ? or under the condition of stronger fluctuation of turbulence. The CGSM beam with larger parameter n or smaller spatial coherence ? will be less affected by the turbulence. In addition, the effects of the slope-parameter ?, inner and outer scale and the refractive-index structure constant of the non-Kolmogorov's power spectrum on the propagation factor are also analyzed in detailed. PMID:25321718

  2. Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Uriel

    1996-01-01

    Written five centuries after the first studies of Leonardo da Vinci and half a century after A.N. Kolmogorov's first attempt to predict the properties of flow, this textbook presents a modern account of turbulence, one of the greatest challenges in physics. "Fully developed turbulence" is ubiquitous in both cosmic and natural environments, in engineering applications and in everyday life. Elementary presentations of dynamical systems ideas, probabilistic methods (including the theory of large deviations) and fractal geometry make this a self-contained textbook. This is the first book on turbulence to use modern ideas from chaos and symmetry breaking. The book will appeal to first-year graduate students in mathematics, physics, astrophysics, geosciences and engineering, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

  3. Evidence of rare backflow and skin-friction critical points in near-wall turbulence using micropillar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücker, Ch.

    2015-03-01

    The recent discovery of rare backflow events in turbulent boundary layer flows based on the analysis of simulation data has again raised the need of experimental visualizations of wall-shear stress fields in unsteady flows. The localization of critical points, which are thought to strongly correlate with large-scale events in the log-layer, is of importance. Up to now, there is no experimental proof of these rare events and their topological patterns. Their existence in a turbulent boundary-layer flow along a flat plate is shown herein by means of imaging with 2D arrays of flexible micropillars attached at the wall.

  4. Internal friction quality-factor Q under confining pressure. [of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Ahlberg, L.; Nadler, H.; Curnow, J.; Smith, T.; Cohen, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    It has been found in previous studies that small amounts of adsorbed volatiles can have a profound effect on the internal friction quality-factor Q of rocks and other porous media. Pandit and Tozer (1970) have suggested that the laboratory-measured Q of volatile-free rocks should be similar to the in situ seismic Q values of near-surface lunar rocks which according to Latham et al. (1970) are in the range of 3000-5000. Observations of dramatic increases in Q with outgassing up to values approaching 2000 in the seismic frequency range confirm this supposition. Measurements under confining pressures with the sample encapsulated under hard vacuum are reported to aid in the interpretation of seismic data obtained below the lunar surface. It has been possible to achieve in the experiments Q values just under 2000 at about 1 kbar for a terrestrial analog of lunar basalt. It was found that a well-outgassed sample maintains a high Q whereas one exposed to moisture maintains a low Q as the confining pressure is raised to 2.5 kbar. This result suggests that volatiles can indeed affect Q when cracks are partially closed and the high lunar seismic Q values reported are concomitant with very dry rock down to depths of at least 50 km.

  5. Beam propagation factor of radial Gaussian-Schell model beam array in non-Kolmogorov turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Tang; Baolin Ou

    2011-01-01

    The analytical expression for the beam propagation factor (M2-factor) of a radial Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) beam array propagating in non-Kolmogorov turbulence is derived. The influences of beam number, ring radius and generalized exponent on the M2-factor are investigated. The results indicate that the M2-factor has great dependence on the generalized exponent and the beam number. Moreover, there is an optimum

  6. Turbulent heat transfer and friction in a segmental channel that simulates leading-edge cooling channels of modern turbine blades 

    E-print Network

    Spence, Rodney Brian

    1995-01-01

    cooling channels are modeled as straight segmental channels with 90' rib turbulators on the curved wall only. The ribs are square in cross section and have a height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio of 0.0625. The rib array has a pitch-to-height ratio of 10...

  7. The influence of flow-induced non-Newtonian fluid properties on turbulent drag reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-W. Bewersdorff; N. S. Berman

    1988-01-01

    Friction factors and velocity profiles in turbulent drag reduction can be compared to Newtonian fluid turbulence when the shear viscosity at the wall shear rate is used for the Reynolds number and the local shear viscosity is used for the non-dimensional wall distance. On this basis, an apparent maximum drag reduction asymptote is found which is independent of Reynolds number

  8. The influence of free-stream turbulence on turbulent boundary layers with mild adverse pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, Jon A.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of near isotropic free-stream turbulence on the shape factors and skin friction coefficients of turbulent bounday layers is presented for the cases of zero and mild adverse pressure gradients. With free-stream turbulence, improved fluid mixing occurs in boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients relative to the zero pressure gradient condition, with the same free-stream turbulence intensity and length scale. Stronger boundary layers with lower shape factors occur as a result of a lower ratio of the integral scale of turbulence to the boundary layer thickness, and to vortex stretching of the turbulent eddies in the free stream, both of which act to improve the transmission of momentum from the free stream to the boundary layers.

  9. Friction reduction and heat transfer enhancement in turbulent pipe flow of non-Newtonian liquid-solid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, U. S.; Liu, K. V.

    1988-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has identified two concepts for developing advanced energy transmission fluids for thermal systems, in particular district heating and cooling systems. A test series was conducted at ANL to prove these concepts. This paper presents experimental results and discusses the degradation behavior of linear polymer additives and the flow and heat transfer characteristics of non-melting slurry flows. The test results furnished strong evidence that the use of friction reducing additives and slurries can yield improved thermal-hydraulic performance of thermal systems.

  10. Turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Cotton; George Bryan; Susan C. van den Heever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter addresses the small-scale, random motions (i.e., turbulence) in clouds. Because the smallest scales of motion in clouds are many orders of magnitude smaller than the characteristic length scale of clouds, then the governing equations must be filtered (i.e., averaged) to make simulation possible. The Reynolds averaging approach is examined first, and several closure models for this system are

  11. Influence of pressure gradient on streamwise skewness factor in turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dró?d?, Artur

    2014-08-01

    The paper shows an effect of favourable and adverse pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layer. The skewness factor of streamwise velocity component was chosen as a measure of the pressure gradient impact. It appears that skewness factor is an indicator of convection velocity of coherent structures, which is not always equal to the average flow velocity. The analysis has been performed based upon velocity profiles measured with hot-wire technique in turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient corresponding to turbomachinery conditions. The results show that the skewness factor decreases in the flow region subjected to FPG and increases in the APG conditions. The changes of convection velocity and skewness factor are caused by influence of large-scale motion through the mechanism called amplitude modulation. The large-scale motion is less active in FPG and more active in APG, therefore in FPG the production of vortices is random (there are no high and low speed regions), while in the APG the large-scale motion drives the production of vortices. Namely, the vortices appear only in the high-speed regions, therefore have convection velocity higher than local mean velocity. The convection velocity affects directly the turbulent sweep and ejection events. The more flow is dominated by large-scale motion the higher values takes both the convection velocity of small-scale structures and sweep events induced by them.

  12. Equivalence of Non-Equilibrium Ensembles and Representation of Friction in Turbulent Flows: The Lorenz 96 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    We construct different equivalent non-equilibrium statistical ensembles in a simple yet instructive N-degrees of freedom model of atmospheric turbulence, introduced by Lorenz in 1996. The vector field can be decomposed into an energy-conserving, time-reversible part, plus a non-time reversible part, including forcing and dissipation. We construct a modified version of the model where viscosity varies with time, in such a way that energy is conserved, and the resulting dynamics is fully time-reversible. For each value of the forcing, the statistical properties of the irreversible and reversible model are in excellent agreement, if in the latter the energy is kept constant at a value equal to the time-average realized with the irreversible model. In particular, the average contraction rate of the phase space of the time-reversible model agrees with that of the irreversible model, where instead it is constant by construction. We also show that the phase space contraction rate obeys the fluctuation relation, and we relate its finite time corrections to the characteristic time scales of the system. A local version of the fluctuation relation is explored and successfully checked. The equivalence between the two non-equilibrium ensembles extends to dynamical properties such as the Lyapunov exponents, which are shown to obey to a good degree of approximation a pairing rule. These results have relevance in motivating the importance of the chaotic hypothesis. in explaining that we have the freedom to model non-equilibrium systems using different but equivalent approaches, and, in particular, that using a model of a fluid where viscosity is kept constant is just one option, and not necessarily the only option, for describing accurately its statistical and dynamical properties.

  13. CFD analysis of heat transfer and friction factor charaterstics in a circular tube fitted with horizontal baffles twisted tape inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Bakar Mohamad, Abu

    2013-12-01

    Swirl/vortex flow generator is an important form of passive augmentation techniques. Twisted-tape is one of the most important members of this form which is used extensively in different type heat exchangers. This paper reports the effect of twisted tape inserts on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in circular tube under constant heat flux and laminar flow conditions using CFD simulation. Plain twisted tape inserts with twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91) and baffled twisted tape inserts with twist ratio (y = 2.93) have been used for the simulation using Fluent version 6.3.26. The results obtained by simulation matched with the literature correlations for plain tube with the discrepancy of less than ± 8% for Nusselt number and ± 6.25% for friction factor. The results have also revealed that the heat transfer in term of the Nusselt number enhanced with increases of Reynolds number, decreases of twist ratio and baffle insert. Among the various twist ratios, the twisted tape with twist ratio of y=2.93 and baffle is offered a maximum heat transfer enhancement.

  14. Turbulent pipe flow of power-law fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, M.R. [CHAM Ltd., London (United Kingdom)] [CHAM Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    Flows of non-Newtonian fluids through pipes are relevant in many engineering applications, especially within the manufacturing, process and wastewater industries. This paper reports on the numerical computation of the turbulent flow of power-law fluids in smooth circular tubes. The turbulence is represented by means of a modified version of an existing two-equation turbulence model. Numerical results are presented for the fully-developed friction factor and velocity profile, and compared with experimental data. The model is shown to produce fairly good agreement with experiment over a wide range of values for the power-law index and generalized Reynolds number.

  15. Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels

    SciTech Connect

    Revellin, Remi; Thome, John R. [EPFL, STI ISE LTCM, ME Gl 464, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime for Re{sub TP} < 2000, a transition regime for 2000 {<=} Re{sub TP} < 8000 and a turbulent regime for Re{sub TP} {>=} 8000. The laminar zone yields a much sharper gradient than in single-phase flow. The transition regime is not predicted well by any of the prediction methods for two-phase frictional pressure drops available in the literature. This is not unexpected since only a few data are available for this region in the literature and most methods ignore this regime, jumping directly from laminar to turbulent flow at Re{sub TP} = 2000. The turbulent zone is best predicted by the Mueller-Steinhagen and Heck correlation. Also, a new homogeneous two-phase frictional pressure drop has been proposed here with a limited range of application. (author)

  16. Turbulent flow simulation in a wire-wrap rod bundle of an LMFBR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Natesan; T. Sundararajan; Arunn Narasimhan; K. Velusamy

    2010-01-01

    The pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of wire-wrapped 19-pin rod bundles in a nuclear reactor subassembly of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) have been investigated through three-dimensional turbulent flow simulations. The predicted results of eddy viscosity based turbulence models (k–?, k–?) and the Reynolds stress model are compared with those of experimental correlations for friction factor and

  17. Direct Measurements of Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhawan, Satish

    1953-01-01

    A device has been developed to measure local skin friction on a flat plate by measuring the force exerted upon a very small movable part of the surface of the flat plate. These forces, which range from about 1 milligram to about 100 milligrams, are measured by means of a reactance device. The apparatus was first applied to measurements in the low-speed range, both for laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The measured skin-friction coefficients show excellent agreement with Blasius' and Von Karman's results. The device was then applied to high-speed subsonic flow and the turbulent-skin-friction coefficients were determined up to a Mach number of about 0.8. A few measurements in supersonic flow were also made. This paper describes the design and construction of the device and the results of the measurements.

  18. Elastomeric friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Vorvolakos

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation examines the tribology of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) elastomers from a practical and a fundamental perspective. We examine the adhesive, energetic, and tribological properties of several commercial biofouling release coatings, and show that adhesive (and bioadhesive) release from an elastomer depends on the friction of its surface. Having shown that friction is an obstacle to release, we lubricate a model

  19. Numerical simulation and optimization of single-phase turbulent flow in chevron-type plate heat exchanger with sinusoidal corrugations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weizhe Han; Khaled Saleh; Vikrant Aute; Guoliang Ding; Yunho Hwang; Reinhard Radermacher

    2011-01-01

    The thermal-hydrodynamic characteristics of a single-phase turbulent flow in chevron-type plate heat exchangers with sinusoidal-shaped corrugations have been numerically investigated in this article. The computational domain contains a corrugation channel, and the simulations adopted the shear-stress transport ?-? model as the turbulence model. The numerical simulation results in terms of Nusselt number and friction factor were compared with limited experimental

  20. Frictional melting of peridotite and seismic slip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Del Gaudio; G. Di Toro; R. Han; T. Hirose; S. Nielsen; T. Shimamoto; A. Cavallo

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the frictional strength along a fault at seismic slip rates (about 1 m\\/s) is a key factor controlling earthquake mechanics. At mantle depths, friction-induced melting and melt lubrication may influence earthquake slip and seismological data. We report on laboratory experiments designed to investigate dynamic fault strength and frictional melting processes in mantle rocks. We performed 20 experiments

  1. Investigation Of The Friction Factor Behavior for Flat Plate Tests Of Smooth And Roughened Surfaces With Supply Pressures Up To 84 Bars 

    E-print Network

    Kheireddin, Bassem A.

    2010-10-12

    ?bar,???=3.175?mm,??d=3.302????mm,?and?C p =0.635?mm). ....................32? Figure?18.??Mach?number?distribution?along?the?axial?location?? (P in ~84?bar,???=3.175?mm,??d=3.302?mm,??C p =0.635?mm)..............................33... ????????????????????????????? Figure?19.??Friction?factor?distribution?along?the?axial?location?? (P in ~84?bar,???=3.175?mm,??d=3.302?mm,??C p =0.635?mm)..............................34? Figure?20.?Typical?flow?rate?behavior?for?the?forward?process?method?? (P in ~84?bar,???=3.175?mm...

  2. Friction in perspective.

    PubMed

    Braun, S; Bluestein, M; Moore, B K; Benson, G

    1999-06-01

    In the past, most frictional resistance studies have been conducted in a steady state condition that does not simulate the dynamics of the oral environment. Various oral functions as chewing, swallowing, speaking, etc, as well as the oral tissues contacting any orthodontic appliances, result in periodic, repetitive, minute relative motion at the bracket/arch wire interfaces several thousand times each day. This in turn affects the normal forces at the interfaces, and because frictional resistance is directly proportional to the normal force, a pilot study was undertaken to emulate the dynamic environment of the oral cavity and its effect on frictional resistance. Tests of a limited sample of stainless steel arch wires and brackets typically used in sliding mechanics revealed that frictional resistance was effectively reduced to zero each time minute relative movements occurred at the bracket/arch wire interfaces. Factors such as the degree of dental tipping, relative arch wire/slot clearances, and method of tying, did not have a measurable effect on frictional resistance in the simulated dynamics of the oral environment. PMID:10358243

  3. Heat Transfer Coefficient and Friction Factor Prediction of Corrugated Tubes Combined With Twisted Tape Inserts Using Artificial Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Reza Jafari Nasr; Ali Habibi Khalaj

    2010-01-01

    In the research described here, artificial neural network (ANN) approach has been utilized to characterize the thermohydraulic behavior of corrugated tubes combined with twisted tape inserts in a turbulent flow regime. The experimental data sets were extracted from 57 tubes, 9 and 3 spirally corrugated tubes with varying geometries combined with 5 and 4 twisted tapes with different pitches. The

  4. Experimental Analysis of the Single-Phase Heat Transfer and Friction Factor inside the Horizontal Internally Micro-Fin Tube

    E-print Network

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    Internally Micro-Fin Tube H. K. Tam*,1 , L. M. Tam1,2 , W. W. Chu1 1 Department of Electromechanical transfer, internally micro-fin tubes are widely used in commercial HVAC applications. It is commonly with the data of a plain tube. From the results, the transition from laminar to turbulent was clearly

  5. Free-stream turbulence and concave curvature effects on heated, transitional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J.; Simon, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the transition process on flat-plate and concave curved-wall boundary layers for various free-stream turbulence levels was performed. Results show that for transition of a flat-plate, the two forms of boundary layer behavior, identified as laminar-like and turbulent-like, cannot be thought of as separate Blasius and fully-turbulent profiles, respectively. Thus, simple transition models in which the desired quantity is assumed to be an average, weighted on intermittency, of the theoretical laminar and fully turbulent values is not expected to be successful. Deviation of the flow identified as laminar-like from theoretical laminar behavior is shown to be due to recovery after the passage of a turbulent spot, while deviation of the flow identified as turbulent-like from the full-turbulent values is thought to be due to incomplete establishment of the fully-turbulent power spectral distribution. Turbulent Prandtl numbers for the transitional flow, computed from measured shear stress, turbulent heat flux and mean velocity and temperature profiles, were less than unity. For the curved-wall case with low free-stream turbulence intensity, the existence of Gortler vortices on the concave wall within both laminar and turbulent flows was established using liquid crystal visualization and spanwise velocity and temperature traverses. Transition was found to occur via a vortex breakdown mode. The vortex wavelength was quite irregular in both the laminar and turbulent flows, but the vortices were stable in time and space. The upwash was found to be more unstable, with higher levels of u' and u'v', and lower skin friction coefficients and shape factors. Turbulent Prandtl numbers, measured using a triple-wire probe, were found to be near unity for all post-transitional profiles, indicating no gross violation of Reynolds analogy. No evidence of streamwise vortices was seen in the high turbulence intensity case.

  6. Exploring Friction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this activity, Students will learn several important characteristics about friction. Students will also learn why athletes who curl in the Winter Olympics try to understand and control friction.

  7. Experimental Heat Transfer Coefficients and Friction Factors in a Rib-Roughened Leading-Edge Cooling Cavity of a Gas Turbine Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, Peter

    A gas turbine airfoil contains multiple coolant passageways. These passages usually have rib roughened wall surfaces in order to increase the heat transfer from the blade to the cooling air. Auxiliary power and compressed air is very valuable in a gas turbine, therefore low pumping power requirements are crucial. The thermal performance of three different coolant channel geometries with three different rib sizes was investigated. Heat transfer calculations were performed for Reynolds numbers ranging from 6,000 to 40,000. The performance characteristics were calculated through the use of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor. In this study, the most desirable characteristics are a high heat transfer coefficient and minimal pumping power requirements. The thermal performance of each case was determined by comparing the average Nusselt numbers to the friction factor ratio. The resulting value was then plotted against the Reynolds number for each case. The trending data indicated thermal efficiency decreases with an increasing Reynolds number for all cases. The picture data shows increased thermal efficiency at larger distances from the nose portion of the cavity. In addition, thermal efficiency was higher at the half distance of the rib pitch while areas close to the ribs saw a lower thermal efficiency. The following experimental data will show that Rig 2 and 3 are the most thermally efficient geometries, with Rig 2 requiring lower pumping power and Rig 3 having a higher average Nusselt number.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Characteristics in a Circular Tube Fitted with V-Cut Twisted Tape Inserts

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Sami D.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd S.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5?cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5?cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration. PMID:24078795

  9. Skin-Friction Measurements in Incompressible Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald W.; Walker, John H.

    1959-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to measure the local surface-shear stress and the average skin-friction coefficient in Incompressible flow for a turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate having zero pressure gradient. Data were obtained for a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 million to 45 million. The local surface-shear stress was measured by a floating-element skin-friction balance and also by a calibrated total head tube located on the surface of the test wall. The average skin-friction coefficient was obtained from boundary-layer velocity profiles.

  10. Ribbon turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venaille, Antoine; Nadeau, Louis-Philippe; Vallis, Geoffrey

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the non-linear equilibration of a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow in a channel with an initial eastward baroclinically unstable jet in the upper layer, paying particular attention to the role of bottom friction. In the limit of low bottom friction, classical theory of geostrophic turbulence predicts an inverse cascade of kinetic energy in the horizontal with condensation at the domain scale and barotropization in the vertical. By contrast, in the limit of large bottom friction, the flow is dominated by ribbons of high kinetic energy in the upper layer. These ribbons correspond to meandering jets separating regions of homogenized potential vorticity. We interpret these results by taking advantage of the peculiar conservation laws satisfied by this system: the dynamics can be recast in such a way that the initial eastward jet in the upper layer appears as an initial source of potential vorticity levels in the upper layer. The initial baroclinic instability leads to a turbulent flow that stirs this potential vorticity field while conserving the global distribution of potential vorticity levels. Statistical mechanical theory of the 1 1/2 layer quasi-geostrophic model predicts the formation of two regions of homogenized potential vorticity separated by a minimal interface. We explain that cascade phenomenology leads to the same result. We then show that the dynamics of the ribbons results from a competition between a tendency to reach the equilibrium state and baroclinic instability that induces meanders of the interface. These meanders intermittently break and induce potential vorticity mixing, but the interface remains sharp throughout the flow evolution. We show that for some parameter regimes, the ribbons act as a mixing barrier which prevents relaxation toward equilibrium, favouring the emergence of multiple zonal (eastward) jets.

  11. Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Silica and CNT Nanofluids in a Tube Flow MILIVOJE M@niu.edu * www.kostic.niu.edu Abstract: - An apparatus for exploring friction and heat transfer characteristics flow. Initial turbulent friction and heat transfer measurements for silica and carbon nanotube (CNT

  12. Measurements of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in rib-roughened channels simulating leading-edge cavities of a modern turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Li, T. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Spring, S.D. [GE Aircraft Engines, Lynn, MA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Leading edge cooling cavities in modern gas turbine blades play an important role in maintaining the leading edge temperature at levels consistent with air foil design life. These cavities often have a complex cross-sectional shape to be compatible with the external contour of the blade at the leading edge. A survey of many existing geometries shows that, for analytical as well as experimental analyses, such cavities can be simplified in shape by a four-sided polygon with one curved side similar to the leading edge curvature, a rectangle with one semicircular side (often the smaller side) or a trapezoid, the smaller base of which is replaced by a semicircle. Furthermore, to enhance the heat transfer coefficient in these cavities, they are mostly roughened on three sides with ribs of different geometries. Experimental data on friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in such cavities are rare if not nonexistent. A liquid crystal technique was used in this experimental investigation to measure heat transfer coefficients in six test sections representing the leading-edge cooling cavities. Both straight and tapered ribs were configured on the two opposite sidewalls in a staggered arrangement with angles of attack to the mainstream flow, {alpha}, of 60 and 90 deg. The ribs on the curved surface were of constant cross section with an angle of attack 90 deg to the flow. Heat transfer measurements were performed on the straight sidewalls, as well as on the round surface adjacent to the blade leading edge. Effects such as rib angle of attack to the mainstream flow and constant versus tapered rib cross-sectional areas were also investigated. Nusselt numbers, friction factors, and thermal performances are reported for nine rib geometries in six test sections.

  13. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    PubMed

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided.. PMID:22567633

  14. Introduction Rolling and Friction

    E-print Network

    Kuhn, Matthew R.

    Introduction Kinematics Solutions Rolling and Friction in Discrete Element Simulations Matthew R of rolling resistance Creep-friction definition Creep-friction vs. Cattaneo-Mindlin friction Classification / papers / EMI2011.pdf #12;Introduction Kinematics Solutions Classification of rolling resistance Creep-friction

  15. Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics of the Microfluidic Heat Sink with Variously-Shaped Ribs for Chip Cooling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Lian; Yang, Da-Wei; Wang, Yan; Niu, Di; Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Ding, Gui-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigated the heat transfer and friction characteristics of microfluidic heat sinks with variously-shaped micro-ribs, i.e., rectangular, triangular and semicircular ribs. The micro-ribs were fabricated on the sidewalls of microfluidic channels by a surface-micromachining micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process and used as turbulators to improve the heat transfer rate of the microfluidic heat sink. The results indicate that the utilizing of micro-ribs provides a better heat transfer rate, but also increases the pressure drop penalty for microchannels. Furthermore, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the microchannels are strongly affected by the rib shape. In comparison, the triangular ribbed microchannel possesses the highest Nusselt number and friction factor among the three rib types. PMID:25912351

  16. Quantum friction

    E-print Network

    R. Tsekov

    2015-06-06

    The Brownian motion of a light quantum particle in a heavy classical gas is theoretically described and a new expression for the friction coefficient is obtained for arbitrary temperature. At zero temperature it equals to the de Broglie momentum of the mean free path divided by the mean free path. Alternatively, the corresponding mobility of the quantum particle in the classical gas is equal to the square of the mean free path divided by the Planck constant. The Brownian motion of a quantum particle in a quantum environment is also discussed.

  17. Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuan Tran; Pinaki Chakraborty; Nicholas Guttenberg; Alisia Prescott; Hamid Kellay; Walter Goldburg; Nigel Goldenfeld; Gustavo Gioia

    2010-01-01

    There is a missing link between macroscopic properties of turbulent flows, such as the frictional drag of a wall-bounded flow, and the turbulent spectrum. To seek the missing link we carry out unprecedented experimental measurements of the frictional drag in turbulent soap-film flows over smooth walls. These flows are effectively two-dimensional, and we are able to create soap-film flows with

  18. Friction, wear, and lubrication in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    A review of studies and observations on the friction, wear, and lubrication behavior of materials in a vacuum environment is presented. The factors that determine and influence friction and wear are discussed. They include topographical, physical, mechanical, and the chemical nature of the surface. The effects of bulk properties such as deformation characteristics, fracture behavior, and structure are included.

  19. Modeling the interaction between micro-climate factors and moisture-related skin-support friction during patient

    E-print Network

    Vuik, Kees

    as a consequence of moisture development between the skin and mattress. This wetness results from transpiration-climate factors. This model contains an interaction between the amount of transpiration and ambient temperature, increase of humidity, increase in the skin- support contact pressure. Furthermore, we will analyze and use

  20. Determination of friction models for metallic die–workpiece interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Hayhurst; M. W. Chan

    2005-01-01

    A two-parameter friction model is used which combines the Coulomb friction model and the friction factor yield stress model. The drawback of this two-parameter model is the complex nature of its calibration. In this paper a new technique is proposed to calibrate the model, which utilizes two testpiece geometries, namely the solid cylindrical compression testpiece and the ring compression testpiece.

  1. Tactile texture and friction of soft sponge surfaces.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira; Suzuki, Makoto; Imai, Yumi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the tactile texture and frictional properties of five soft sponges with various cell sizes. The frictional forces were measured by a friction meter containing a contact probe with human-finger-like geometry and mechanical properties. When the subjects touched these sponges with their fingers, hard-textured sponges were deemed unpleasant. This tactile feeling changed with friction factors including friction coefficients, their temporal patterns, as well as mechanical and shape factors. These findings provide useful information on how to control the tactile textures of various sponges. PMID:25884490

  2. A skin friction gauge for impulsive flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, C. P.; Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    A new skin friction gauge has been designed for use in impulsive facilities. The gauge was tested in the T4 free piston shock tunnel, at the University of Queensland, using a 1.5 m long plate that formed one of the inner walls of a rectangular duct. The test gas was fair and the test section free stream flow had a stagnation enthalpy of 4.7 MJ/kg. Measurements were conducted in a laminar and turbulent boundary layer. The measurements compared well with laminar and turbulent analytical theory.

  3. Turbulent current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Smolyakov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density.

  4. Skin friction drag measurements by LDV.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, M K; Wanchoo, S; McLeod, P C; Ballard, G S; Mozumdar, S; Caraballo, N

    1981-08-15

    A laser Doppler velocimeter employing a microscope objective as the receiving lens has been developed for measuring fluid velocity inside the boundary layer flow field with a spatial resolution of 40 microm. The method was applied for direct measurement of aerodynamic skin friction drag from the measured velocity gradient at the wall. Experimental results obtained on skin friction and on velocity components in a turbulent boundary layer on a low speed wind tunnel showed good agreement with previously reported data using conventional instruments such as hot-wire anemometers and Preston tubes. The method thus provides a tool for measurement and control of skin friction on aerodynamic bodies without perturbing the flow field. PMID:20333049

  5. Dahl friction modeling

    E-print Network

    Chou, Danielle, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    The drive behind improved friction models has been better prediction and control of dynamic systems. The earliest model was of classical Coulomb friction; however, the discontinuity during force reversal of the Coulomb ...

  6. Osborne Reynolds' pipe flow: Direct computation from laminar through bypass transition to fully-developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald; Baltzer, Jon; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2012-11-01

    The most fundamental internal flow, smooth pipe from a slightly perturbed laminar inlet state continuously through bypass transition to fully-developed turbulence, has been computed using DNS over an axial domain length of 250 pipe radii. In the fully-developed turbulent region, mean and second-order turbulent statistics including the rate of viscous dissipation show excellent agreement with those obtained from an additional simulation using the conventional streamwise periodic boundary condition over an axial domain length of 30 pipe radii. Friction factor follows analytical solution prior to breakdown, and agrees with Moody's correlation after the completion of transition. During transition it exhibits an overshoot. Breakdown of the laminar pipe flow is characterized by the formation of large Lambda-shaped vortices pointing upstream, followed by their subsequent generation of small hairpin packets inclined towards the downstream direction.

  7. Influence of tube-entrance configuration on average heat-transfer coefficients and friction factors for air flowing in an Inconel tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowdermilk, Warren H; Grele, Milton D

    1950-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air flowing through an electrically heated Inconel tube having either a long-approach or a right-angle-edge entrance, an inside diameter of 0.402 inch, and a length of 24 inches over a range of Reynolds numbers up to 375,000 and average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 2000 degrees R. Good correlation of heat-transfer data was obtained for both entrances, which substantiates work previously reported. A fair correlation of friction data was obtained for both entrances. The entrance configuration had little effect on the average heat-transfer and friction coefficients.

  8. Distinguishing ichthyogenic turbulence from geophysical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujiana, Kandaga; Moum, James N.; Smyth, William D.; Warner, Sally J.

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of currents and turbulence beneath a geostationary ship in the equatorial Indian Ocean during a period of weak surface forcing revealed unexpectedly strong turbulence beneath the surface mixed layer. Coincident with the turbulence was a marked reduction of the current speeds registered by shipboard Doppler current profilers, and an increase in their variability. At a mooring 1 km away, measurements of turbulence and currents showed no such anomalies. Correlation with the shipboard echo sounder measurements indicate that these nighttime anomalies were associated with fish aggregations beneath the ship. The fish created turbulence by swimming against the strong zonal current in order to remain beneath the ship, and their presence affected the Doppler speed measurements. The principal characteristics of the resultant ichthyogenic turbulence are (i) low wave number roll-off of shear spectra in the inertial subrange relative to geophysical turbulence, (ii) Thorpe overturning scales that are small compared with the Ozmidov scale, and (iii) low mixing efficiency. These factors extend previous findings by Gregg and Horne (2009) to a very different biophysical regime and support the general conclusion that the biological contribution to mixing the ocean via turbulence is negligible.

  9. Scale-invariant cascades in turbulence and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas Ryan

    In this dissertation, I present work addressing three systems which are traditionally considered to be unrelated: turbulence, evolution, and social organization. The commonality between these systems is that in each case, microscopic interaction rules give rise to an emergent behavior that in some way makes contact with the macroscopic scale of the problem. The open-ended evolution of complexity in evolving systems is analogous to the scale-free structure established in turbulent flows through local transportation of energy. In both cases, an invariance is required for the cascading behavior to occur, and in both cases the scale-free structure is built up from some initial scale from which the behavior is fed. In turbulence, I examine the case of two-dimensional turbulence in order to support the hypothesis that the friction factor and velocity profile of turbulent pipe flows depend on the turbulent energy spectrum in a way unpredicted by the classic Prandtl theory. By simulating two-dimensional flows in controlled geometries, either an inverse energy cascade or forward enstrophy cascade can be produced. The friction factor scaling of the flow changes depending on which cascade is present, in a way consistent with momentum transfer theory and roughness-induced criticality. In the problem of evolution, I show that open-ended growth of complexity can be obtained by ensuring that the evolutionary dynamics are invariant with respect to changes in complexity. Finite system size, finite point mutation rate, and fixed points in the fitness landscape can all interrupt this cascade behavior, producing an analogue to the integral scale of turbulence. This complexity cascade can exist both for competing and for symbiotic sets of organisms. Extending this picture to the qualitatively-different levels of organization of real lifeforms (viruses, unicellular, biofilms, multicellular) requires an understanding of how the processes of evolution themselves evolve. I show that a separation of spatial or temporal scales can enhance selection pressure on parameters that only matter several generations down the line. Because of this, I conclude that the prime candidates for the emergence of novel evolutionary mechanisms are biofilms and things living in oscillating environments. Finally, in the problem of social organization, I show that different types of control hierarchies - leaders or communal decision making - can emerge depending on the relationship between the environment in which members of the social group act and the development and exchange of information.

  10. Microblowing Technique Demonstrated to Reduce Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Biesiadny, Tom J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. Reduced skin friction means less drag. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none of them has significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. An innovative skin-friction reduction technique, the Microblowing Technique (MBT), was invented in 1993. This is a unique concept in which an extremely small amount of air is blown vertically at a surface through very small holes. It can be used for aircraft or marine vehicles, such as submarines (where water is blown through the holes instead of air). As shown in the figure, the outer layer, which controls vertical flow, is a plate with high-vertical holes. The inner layer, which produces evenly distributed flow, is a low-permeability porous plate. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction.

  11. Turbulent boundary layers over nonstationary plane boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, A. T.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of predicting integral parameters and skin-friction coefficients of turbulent boundary layers developing over moving-ground-planes are evaluated using test information from three different wind tunnel facilities at the NASA Langley Research Center. These data include test information from the VSTOL tunnel which is presented for the first time. The three methods evaluated were: (1) relative integral parameter method, (2) relative power law method, and (3) modified law of the wall method. Methods (1) and (2) can be used to predict moving-ground-plane shape factors with an expected accuracy of + or - 10%. They may also be used to predict moving-ground-plane displacement and momentum thicknesses with lower expected accuracy. This decrease in accuracy can be traced to the failure of approximations upon which these methods are based to prove universal when compared with VSTOL tunnel test results.

  12. Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flat-plate Turbulent Boundary Layer at High Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Michio

    The near-wall, subgrid-scale (SGS) model [Chung and Pullin, "Large-eddy simulation and wall-modeling of turbulent channel flow'', J. Fluid Mech. 631, 281--309 (2009)] is used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of the incompressible developing, smooth-wall, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. In this model, the stretched-vortex, SGS closure is utilized in conjunction with a tailored, near-wall model designed to incorporate anisotropic vorticity scales in the presence of the wall. The composite SGS-wall model is presently incorporated into a computer code suitable for the LES of developing flat-plate boundary layers. This is then used to study several aspects of zero- and adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. First, LES of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are performed at Reynolds numbers Retheta based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness in the range Retheta = 103-1012. Results include the inverse skin friction coefficient, 2/Cf , velocity profiles, the shape factor H, the Karman "constant", and the Coles wake factor as functions of Re theta. Comparisons with some direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiment are made, including turbulent intensity data from atmospheric-layer measurements at Retheta = O (106). At extremely large Retheta , the empirical Coles-Fernholz relation for skin-friction coefficient provides a reasonable representation of the LES predictions. While the present LES methodology cannot of itself probe the structure of the near-wall region, the present results show turbulence intensities that scale on the wall-friction velocity and on the Clauser length scale over almost all of the outer boundary layer. It is argued that the LES is suggestive of the asymptotic, infinite Reynolds-number limit for the smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer and different ways in which this limit can be approached are discussed. The maximum Retheta of the present simulations appears to be limited by machine precision and it is speculated, but not demonstrated, that even larger Retheta could be achieved with quad- or higher-precision arithmetic. Second, the time series velocity signals obtained from LES within the logarithmic region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are used in combination with an empirical, predictive inner--outer wall model [Marusic et al., "Predictive model for wall-bounded turbulent flow'', Science 329, 193 (2010)] to calculate the statistics of the fluctuating streamwise velocity in the inner region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. Results, including spectra and moments up to fourth order, are compared with equivalent predictions using experimental time series, as well as with direct experimental measurements at Reynolds numbers Retau based on the friction velocity and the boundary layer thickness, Retau = 7,300, 13,600 and 19,000. LES combined with the wall model are then used to extend the inner-layer predictions to Reynolds numbers Retau = 62,000, 100,000 and 200,000 that lie within a gap in log(Retau) space between laboratory measurements and surface-layer, atmospheric experiments. The present results support a log-like increase in the near-wall peak of the streamwise turbulence intensities with Retau and also provide a means of extending LES results at large Reynolds numbers to the near-wall region of wall-bounded turbulent flows. Finally, we apply the wall model to LES of a turbulent boundary layer subject to an adverse pressure gradient. Computed statistics are found to be consistent with recent experiments and some Reynolds number similarity is observed over a range of two orders of magnitude.

  13. The calculation of properties of the flow over a backward facing step with the k-epsilon model of turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Hackman; A. B. Strong; G. D. Raithby

    1984-01-01

    The paper reports predictions of the mean velocity, the turbulent kinetic energy and the pressure and skin friction coefficients for turbulent flow over a backward facing step based on the standard k-epsilon closure for the turbulence shear stresses. In previous publications, errors due to the numerical algorithm as distinct from the turbulence model have been carefully assessed using different numerical

  14. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM); Redmond, James M. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  15. Optimal Shape Design of a Plane Diffuser in Turbulent Flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seokhyun Lim; Haecheon Choi

    2000-01-01

    Stratford (1959) experimentally designed an optimal shape of plane diffuser for maximum pressure recovery by having zero skin friction throughout the region of pressure rise. In the present study, we apply an algorithm of optimal shape design developed by Pironneau (1973, 1974) and Cabuk & Modi (1992) to a diffuser in turbulent flow, and show that maintaining zero skin friction

  16. Numerical investigation of pressure drop and heat transfer in developing laminar and turbulent nanofluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaei-Rad, Masoud

    2013-07-01

    This paper concerns the study of laminar and turbulent force convection heat transfer and pressure drop between horizontal parallel plates with a nanofluid composed of Al2O3 and water. A set of governing equations are solved using a non-staggered SIMPLE procedure for the velocity-pressure coupling. For the convection-diffusion terms a power-law scheme is employed. A modified k-? model with a two-layer technique for the near-wall region has been used to predict the turbulent viscosity. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction in the base fluid on laminar and turbulent flow variables are presented and discussed. The velocity and temperature profiles, friction factor, pressure coefficient and Nusselt number at different Reynolds numbers in the entrance region for both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes are reported under different thermal boundary conditions. The results show that the effect of the presence of nanoparticles in the base fluid on hydraulic and thermal parameters for the turbulent flow is not very significant, while the rate of heat transfer for the laminar flow with nanoparticles is greater than that of the base liquid. Furthermore, the thermal boundary layer and consequently the Nusselt number more quickly reach their fully developed values by increasing the percentage of nanoparticles in the base fluid for the laminar flow regime, while no changes in the trend are observed for the turbulent flow.

  17. Macroscopic effects of the spectral structure in turbulent flows

    E-print Network

    Tran, Tuan; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Prescott, Alisia; Kellay, Hamid; Goldburg, Walter; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Gioia, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Two aspects of turbulent flows have been the subject of extensive, split research efforts: macroscopic properties, such as the frictional drag experienced by a flow past a wall, and the turbulent spectrum. The turbulent spectrum may be said to represent the fabric of a turbulent state; in practice it is a power law of exponent \\alpha (the "spectral exponent") that gives the revolving velocity of a turbulent fluctuation (or "eddy") of size s as a function of s. The link, if any, between macroscopic properties and the turbulent spectrum remains missing. Might it be found by contrasting the frictional drag in flows with differing types of spectra? Here we perform unprecedented measurements of the frictional drag in soap-film flows, where the spectral exponent \\alpha = 3 and compare the results with the frictional drag in pipe flows, where the spectral exponent \\alpha = 5/3. For moderate values of the Reynolds number Re (a measure of the strength of the turbulence), we find that in soap-film flows the frictional ...

  18. Friction stir welding of aluminum alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu Zhi-hong; He Di-qiu; Wang Hong

    2004-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW), a new solid-state welding technology invited in the early 1990s, enables us weld aluminum alloys\\u000a and titanium alloys etc. The processing of FSW, the microstructure in FSW alloys and the factors influencing weld quality\\u000a are introduced. The complex factors affecting the properties are researched.

  19. Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Liquid or Gas Stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latzko, H.

    1944-01-01

    The,theory of heat.transfer from a solid body to a liquid stream could he presented previously** only with limiting assumptions about the movement of the fluid (potential flow, laminar frictional flow). (See references 1, 2, and 3). For turbulent flow, the most important practical case, the previous theoretical considerations did not go beyond dimensionless formulas and certain conclusions as to the analogy between the friction factor and the unit thermal conductance, (See references 4, 5, 6, and 7,) In order to obtain numerical results, an experimental treatment of the problem was resorted to, which gave rise to numerous investigations because of the importance of this problem in many branches of technology. However, the results of these investigations frequently deviate from one another. The experimental results are especially dependent upon the overall dimensions and the specific proportions of the equipment. In the present work, the attempt will be made to develop systematically the theory of the heat transfer and of the dependence of the unit thermal conductance upon shape and dimensions, using as a basis the velocity distribution for turbulent flow set up by Prandtl and Von Karman.

  20. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid in a circular pipe under laminar flow with wire coil inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekar, M.; Suresh, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Chandra Bose, A. [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, fully developed laminar flow convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated horizontal tube with and without wire coil inserts is presented. For this purpose, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of 43 nm size were synthesized, characterized and dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension containing 0.1% volume concentration of nanoparticles. The Nusselt number in the fully developed region were measured and found to increase by 12.24% at Re = 2275 for plain tube with nanofluid compared to distilled water. Two wire coil inserts made of stainless steel with pitch ratios 2 and 3 were used which increased the Nusselt numbers by 15.91% and 21.53% respectively at Re = 2275 with nanofluid compared to distilled water. The better heat transfer performance of nanofluid with wire coil insert is attributed to the effects of dispersion or back-mixing which flattens the temperature distribution and make the temperature gradient between the fluid and wall steeper. The measured pressure loss with the use of nanofluids is almost equal to that of the distilled water. The empirical correlations developed for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of Reynolds/Peclet number, pitch ratio and volume concentration fits with the experimental data within {+-}15%. (author)

  1. Turbulent transport and turbulence in radiative I mode plasmas in TEXTOR-94

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    Turbulent transport and turbulence in radiative I mode plasmas in TEXTOR-94 J.A. Boedoa , J¨ulich, Germany Abstract. First measurements of turbulence levels and turbulence induced transport in the outer edge of the plasma of TEXTOR-94 during radiative improved mode discharges show a reduction by a factor

  2. Friction induced rail vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralov, Ivan; Sinapov, Petko; Nedelchev, Krasimir; Ignatov, Ignat

    2012-11-01

    A model of rail, considered as multiple supported beam, subjected on friction induced vibration is studied in this work using FEM. The model is presented as continuous system and the mass and elastic properties of a real object are taken into account. The friction forces are nonlinear functions of the relative velocity during slipping. The problem is solved using Matlab Simulink.

  3. The laser interferometer skin-friction meter - A numerical and experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. D.; Westphal, R. V.

    1986-01-01

    Limits to the applicability of thin-film lubrication theory are established. The following two problems are considered: (1) the response of the oil film to a time-varying skin friction such as is encountered in turbulent boundary layers, and (2) a 'surface-wave instability' encountered at high skin-friction levels. Results corresponding to the first problem reveal that the laser interferometer skin-friction meter may, in principle, be applied to the measurement of instantaneous skin friction. In addressing the second problem, it is shown that the observed surface waves are not the result of a hydrodynamic instability.

  4. Wall Scaling and Wall Models for Complex Turbulent Flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Manhart; Nikolaus Peller; Margareta Petrovan Boiarciuc; Christophe Brun

    The near wall behaviour of complex turbulent flows is investigated by dimensional considerations and a priori investigations.\\u000a We consider separated incompressible and compressible flows. In incompressible turbulent flows, it is found that the flow\\u000a in the immediate vicinity of the wall is dependent on two parameters, based on wall friction and local pressure gradient,\\u000a respectively. In compressible turbulent flows, a

  5. Computational fluid dynamics investigation of turbulence models for non-newtonian fluid flow in anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binxin

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, 12 turbulence models for single-phase non-newtonian fluid flow in a pipe are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from three friction factor correlations. The turbulence models studied are (1) three high-Reynolds-number k-? models, (2) six low-Reynolds-number k-? models, (3) two k-? models, and (4) the Reynolds stress model. The simulation results indicate that the Chang-Hsieh-Chen version of the low-Reynolds-number k-? model performs better than the other models in predicting the frictional pressure drops while the standard k-? model has an acceptable accuracy and a low computing cost. In the model applications, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester with pumped circulation is performed to propose an improvement in the effective mixing standards recommended by the U.S. EPA based on the effect of rheology on the flow fields. Characterization of the velocity gradient is conducted to quantify the growth or breakage of an assumed floc size. Placement of two discharge nozzles in the digester is analyzed to show that spacing two nozzles 180° apart with each one discharging at an angle of 45° off the wall is the most efficient. Moreover, the similarity rules of geometry and mixing energy are checked for scaling up the digester. PMID:21047058

  6. Turbulence modeling for sharp-fin-induced shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    Solutions of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are presented and compared with a family of experimental results for the 3-D interaction of a sharp fin induced shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Several algebraic and two equation eddy viscosity turbulence models are employed. The computed results are compared with experimental surface pressure, skin friction, and yaw angle data as well as the overall size of the interaction. Although the major feature of the flow fields are correctly predicted, several discrepancies are noted. Namely, the maximum skin friction values are significantly underpredicted for the strongest interaction cases. These and other deficiencies are discussed.

  7. Effect of friction coefficient on Akers clasp retention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuuji Sato; Yasuhiko Abe; Yoshitaka Yuasa; Yasumasa Akagawa

    1997-01-01

    Statement of problem. Retentive force control of clasp retainers is one of the most essential factors for the successful function of removable partial dentures. However, it is not yet known how the friction coefficients differ among restored abutments and clasp materials, and how the friction coefficients affect the retention of clasps.Purpose. The purposes of this study were to clarify the

  8. Friction Causing Unpredictability

    E-print Network

    Joshua Oldham; Stefan Weigert

    2015-06-23

    The periodic motion of a classical point particle in a one-dimensional double-well potential acquires a surprising degree of complexity if friction is added. Finite uncertainty in the initial state can make it impossible to predict in which of the two wells the particle will finally settle. For two models of friction, we exhibit the structure of the basins of attraction in phase space which causes the final-state sensitivity. Adding friction to an integrable system with more than one stable equilibrium emerges as a possible "route to chaos" whenever initial conditions can be specified with finite accuracy only.

  9. Large-Eddy Simulations of Fully Developed Turbulent Channel and Pipe Flows with Smooth and Rough Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Namiko

    Studies in turbulence often focus on two flow conditions, both of which occur frequently in real-world flows and are sought-after for their value in advancing turbulence theory. These are the high Reynolds number regime and the effect of wall surface roughness. In this dissertation, a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) recreates both conditions over a wide range of Reynolds numbers Retau = O(102) - O(108) and accounts for roughness by locally modeling the statistical effects of near-wall anisotropic fine scales in a thin layer immediately above the rough surface. A subgrid, roughness-corrected wall model is introduced to dynamically transmit this modeled information from the wall to the outer LES, which uses a stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model operating in the bulk of the flow. Of primary interest is the Reynolds number and roughness dependence of these flows in terms of first and second order statistics. The LES is first applied to a fully turbulent uniformly-smooth/rough channel flow to capture the flow dynamics over smooth, transitionally rough and fully rough regimes. Results include a Moody-like diagram for the wall averaged friction factor, believed to be the first of its kind obtained from LES. Confirmation is found for experimentally observed logarithmic behavior in the normalized stream-wise turbulent intensities. Tight logarithmic collapse, scaled on the wall friction velocity, is found for smooth-wall flows when Re tau ? O(106) and in fully rough cases. Since the wall model operates locally and dynamically, the framework is used to investigate non-uniform roughness distribution cases in a channel, where the flow adjustments to sudden surface changes are investigated. Recovery of mean quantities and turbulent statistics after transitions are discussed qualitatively and quantitatively at various roughness and Reynolds number levels. The internal boundary layer, which is defined as the border between the flow affected by the new surface condition and the unaffected part, is computed, and a collapse of the profiles on a length scale containing the logarithm of friction Reynolds number is presented. Finally, we turn to the possibility of expanding the present framework to accommodate more general geometries. As a first step, the whole LES framework is modified for use in the curvilinear geometry of a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, with implementation carried out in a spectral element solver capable of handling complex wall profiles. The friction factors have shown favorable agreement with the superpipe data, and the LES estimates of the Karman constant and additive constant of the log-law closely match values obtained from experiment.

  10. Wall turbulence control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Stephen P.; Lindemann, A. Margrethe; Beeler, George B.; Mcginley, Catherine B.; Goodman, Wesley L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of wall turbulence control devices which were experimentally investigated are discussed; these include devices for burst control, alteration of outer flow structures, large eddy substitution, increased heat transfer efficiency, and reduction of wall pressure fluctuations. Control of pre-burst flow was demonstrated with a single, traveling surface depression which is phase-locked to elements of the burst production process. Another approach to wall turbulence control is to interfere with the outer layer coherent structures. A device in the outer part of a boundary layer was shown to suppress turbulence and reduce drag by opposing both the mean and unsteady vorticity in the boundary layer. Large eddy substitution is a method in which streamline curvature is introduced into the boundary layer in the form of streamwise vortices. Riblets, which were already shown to reduce turbulent drag, were also shown to exhibit superior heat transfer characteristics. Heat transfer efficiency as measured by the Reynolds Analogy Factor was shown to be as much as 36 percent greater than a smooth flat plate in a turbulent boundary layer. Large Eddy Break-Up (LEBU) which are also known to reduce turbulent drag were shown to reduce turbulent wall pressure fluctuation.

  11. Friction stir welding tool

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barnes, Timothy A. (Ammon, ID)

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  12. Friction stir weld tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  13. Friction Stir Weld Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  14. Fused metallic friction materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, P.A.

    1984-03-20

    A friction material member particularly useful in high load and temperature applications and a method for making the same are disclosed. The friction material member is made by preparing a mixture of sinterable metal particles, carbonaceous material, friction enhancers and curable polymeric resin; the mixture comprising at least about 50 percent by weight of metal particles and sufficient resin to coat and bond the metal particles, carbonaceous material and friction enhancers. The mixture is molded and the resin cured to form a piece in a solid preformed shape corresponding to the shape of the mold. Thereafter, the preformed piece is heated in a substantially oxygen free atmosphere for a time and at temperatures and pressures sufficient to fuse at least a portion of the metal particles into a sintered metal matrix. The preformed piece may be sintered to a metal backing plate during the heating step, or may be welded, brazed or soldered to the plate after heating. The resulting product may be classified as a hybrid friction material, i.e., being a cross between semi-metallic and sintered full metallic friction materials.

  15. Friction Stir Welding Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1998-01-01

    The research of this summer was a continuation of work started during the previous summer faculty fellowship period. The Friction Stir Welding process (FSW) patented by The Welding Institute (TWI), in Great Britain, has become a popular topic at the Marshall Space Flight Center over the past year. Last year it was considered a novel approach to welding but few people took it very seriously as a near term solution. However, due to continued problems with cracks in the new aluminum-lithium space shuttle external tank (ET), the friction stir process is being mobilized at full speed in an effort to mature this process for the potential manufacture of flight hardware. It is now the goal of NASA and Lockheed-Martin Corporation (LMC) to demonstrate a full-scale friction stir welding system capable of welding ET size barrel sections. The objectives this summer were: (1) Implementation and validation of the rotating dynamometer on the MSFC FSW system; (2) Collection of data for FSW process modeling efforts; (3) Specification development for FSW implementation on the vertical weld tool; (4) Controls and user interface development for the adjustable pin tool; and (5) Development of an instrumentation system for the planishing process. The projects started this summer will lead to a full scale friction stir welding system that is expected to produce a friction stir welded shuttle external tank type barrel section. The success of this could lead to the implementation of the friction stir process for manufacturing future shuttle external tanks.

  16. An extended friction model to capture load and temperature effects in robot joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Bittencourt; E. Wernholt; S. Sander-Tavallaey; T. Brogårdh

    2010-01-01

    Friction is the result of complex interactions between contacting surfaces in a nanoscale perspective. Depending on the application, the different models available are more or less suitable. Available static friction models are typically considered to be dependent only on relative speed of interacting surfaces. However, it is known that friction can be affected by other factors than speed. In this

  17. Isolating Curvature Effects in Computing Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2001-01-01

    The flow over the zero-pressure-gradient So-Mellor convex curved wall is simulated using the Navier-Stokes equations. An inviscid effective outer wall shape, undocumented in the experiment, is obtained by using an adjoint optimization method with the desired pressure distribution on the inner wall as the cost function. Using this wall shape with a Navier-Stokes method, the abilities of various turbulence models to simulate the effects of curvature without the complicating factor of streamwise pressure gradient can be evaluated. The one-equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model overpredicts eddy viscosity, and its boundary layer profiles are too full. A curvature-corrected version of this model improves results, which are sensitive to the choice of a particular constant. An explicit algebraic stress model does a reasonable job predicting this flow field. However, results can be slightly improved by modifying the assumption on anisotropy equilibrium in the model's derivation. The resulting curvature-corrected explicit algebraic stress model possesses no heuristic functions or additional constants. It lowers slightly the computed skin friction coefficient and the turbulent stress levels for this case (in better agreement with experiment), but the effect on computed velocity profiles is very small.

  18. Experimental measurements of unsteady turbulent boundary layers near separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations conducted to document the behavior of turbulent boundary layers on flat surfaces that separate due to adverse pressure gradients are reported. Laser and hot wire anemometers measured turbulence and flow structure of a steady free stream separating turbulent boundary layer produced on the flow of a wind tunnel section. The effects of sinusoidal and unsteadiness of the free stream velocity on this separating turbulent boundary layer at a reduced frequency were determined. A friction gage and a thermal tuft were developed and used to measure the surface skin friction and the near wall fraction of time the flow moves downstream for several cases. Abstracts are provided of several articles which discuss the effects of the periodic free stream unsteadiness on the structure or separating turbulent boundary layers.

  19. Hysteresis Losses in Rolling and Sliding Friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Greenwood; H. Minshall; D. Tabor

    1961-01-01

    Previous work on the mechanism of rolling friction has shown that it is mainly due to elastic hysteresis losses in the rolling elements. Under conditions of uniform tension or torsion it is generally assumed that the energy dissipated by hysteresis is a constant fraction (the hysteresis loss factor) of the elastic energy introduced during the cycle. This elastic input energy

  20. Forced convection and friction in triangular duct with uniformly spaced square ribs on inner surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, C. W.; Chan, T. L.; Chen, S.

    Experimental investigation had been conducted to study the steady-state forced convection heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the hydrodynamic fully-developed turbulent flow in the air-cooled horizontal equilateral triangular ducts, which were fabricated with the same length and hydraulic diameter. Inner surfaces of the ducts were fixed with square ribs with different side lengths of 6.35, 9.525 and 12.7mm, respectively, and the uniform separation between the centre lines of two adjacent ribs was kept constant at 57.15mm. Both the triangular ducts and the ribs were fabricated with duralumin. The experiments were performed with the hydraulic diameter based Reynolds number ranged from 3100 to 11300. The entire inner wall of the duct was heated uniformly, while the outer surface was thermally insulated. It was found that the Darcy friction factor of the duct was increasing rather linearly with the rib size, and forced convection could be enhanced by an internally ribbed surface. However, the heat transfer enhancement was not proportional to the rib size but a maximum forced convection heat transfer augmentation was obtained at the smallest rib of 6.35mm. Non-dimensional expressions for the determination of the steady-state heat transfer coefficient and Darcy friction factor of the equilateral triangular ducts, which were internally fabricated with uniformly spaced square ribs of different sizes, were also developed.

  1. Effects of Different Ligature Materials on Friction in Sliding Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Khamatkar, Aparna; Sonawane, Sushma; Narkhade, Sameer; Gadhiya, Nitin; Bagade, Abhijit; Soni, Vivek; Betigiri, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background: During orthodontic tooth movement friction occurs at the bracket wire interface. Out of the total force applied to the tooth movement, some of it is dissipated as friction, and the remainder is transferred to the supporting structures of the tooth to mediate tooth movement. However many factors affect friction, and method of arch wire ligation being an important contributing factor. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different ligature materials on friction in sliding mechanics and to compare the effect of environment (dry and wet) on friction produced in sliding mechanics. Materials and Methods: The evaluation of friction between the bracket and the archwire consisted of a simulated half arch fixed appliance with archwire ligated in a vertical position. Four 0.022” maxillary stainless steel premolar brackets having a - 0° torque and 0° angulation were aligned with a 0.019” × 0.025” stainless steel arch wire onto a rigid Plexiglass sheet. The movable test bracket was fitted with a 10 mm long, 0.045” thick stainless steel power arm on the bonding surface. Testing was performed on a Hounsfield material testing machine. A total of 100 g weight was suspended from the power arm and the load needed to move the bracket over the distance of not <4 mm across the central span was recorded separately. Fifteen representative readings were taken with one reading per test sample. Results: The results showed that the mean frictional force of different groups in dry and wet state was statistically significantly different. The mean frictional force in a dry state was statistically significantly higher than wet state in elastomeric group. Conclusion: The type of ligation material and environment significantly affected the degree of friction generated during sliding mechanics. Teflon coated stainless steel ligatures produced the least friction among the materials tested in both dry and wet conditions and there was no significant effect on friction in this group caused due to lubrication. PMID:26028900

  2. Effect of frictional heating on brake materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T.-L.; Peterson, M. B.; Ling, F. F.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory study of the properties of aircraft brake materials was made to determine ways of improving friction and wear behavior while minimizing surface temperatures. It is found that frictional variation at high temperature involves material softening and metal transfer, formation of oxides, and surface melting. The choice of proper materials to combat these effects is discussed. Minimum surface temperatures are found to result from use of materials with large density-specific heat and density-specific heat-conductivity factors, use of a higher load-lower friction system, and maximization of the contact area. Some useful trade-off criteria for the size of brake disks against weight considerations are suggested. Additional information on material behavior and peak braking temperatures was gathered from an inspection of used brake pads and rotor disks.

  3. Turbulent acceleration and heating in toroidal magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Garbet, X.; Esteve, D.; Sarazin, Y.; Abiteboul, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France)] [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Smolyakov, A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2013-07-15

    It is shown that turbulence is responsible for a source of momentum, which cannot be recast as a divergence of a momentum flux. This process is similar to turbulent heating, with similar properties. The sum over all species vanishes up to polarization contributions. Hence, toroidal momentum is transferred from species to species, mediated by turbulence. As for momentum flux, symmetry breaking is needed. Flow shear is investigated as a source of symmetry breaking, leading to a source of momentum proportional to the shear rate. Turbulent acceleration is significant for ion species. It is found that it is proportional to the charge number Z, while turbulent heating scales as Z{sup 2}/A, where A is the mass number. It is maximum in the edge, where the E × B flow shear rate and turbulence intensity are maximum. When both are large enough, the turbulent torque may overcome the collisional friction between impurities and main ions, thus leading to different toroidal velocities.

  4. Frictional Drag Reduction by Bubbles in Taylor-Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Yuichi; Oiwa, Hiroshi; Takeda, Yasushi

    2006-11-01

    Frictional drag reduction provided with small bubbles is investigated experimentally using a Couette-Taylor flow system, i.e. shear flow between concentric cylinders. Torque and bubble behavior are measured up to Re=4500 when air bubbles are injected constantly and rise through the cells. Silicone oil is used for avoiding uncertain interfacial property of bubbles as well as for keeping nearly mono-sized bubbles. We assess the effect of drag reduction with two types of evaluation factors, i.e. sensitivity and power gain. The sensitivity exceeds unity at Re<2000, proving that the drag is reduced more than the drop of mixture density. This originates from accumulation of bubbles into the rotating inner cylinder, which is little affected by turbulence. The power gain, which is defined by drag reduction power per bubble injection power, takes the highest value of O(10) at higher Re numbers around 2500. The image processing measurement finds this reason to be disappearance of azimuthal waves when the organized bubbles distribution transits from toroidal to spiral modes. Moreover, the axial spacing of bubble clouds expands during the transition, enforcing the reduction of momentum exchange.

  5. Skin friction balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ping, Tcheng (inventor); Supplee, Frank H., Jr. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A skin friction balance uses a parallel linkage mechanism to avoid inaccuracies in skin friction measurement attributable to off-center normal forces. The parallel linkage mechanism includes a stationary plate mounted in a cage, and an upper and lower movable plate which are linked to each other and to the stationary plate throught three vertical links. Flexure pivots are provided for pivotally connecting the links and the plates. A sensing element connected to the upper plate moves in response to skin friction, and the lower plate moves in the opposite direction of the upper plate. A force motor maintains a null position of the sensing element by exerting a restoring force in response to a signal generated by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT).

  6. Two-directional skin friction measurement utilizing a compact internally mounted thin-liquid-film skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seto, Jeffrey A.; Hornung, Hans G.

    1993-01-01

    A new, compact oil film skin friction meter capable of measuring skin friction in two directions has been designed and constructed. The instrument allows the thin liquid film technique to now be applied in flight and in a wider variety of laboratory conditions. The instrument was tested by comparing measurements with those given by a floating element gage in laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers with zero pressure gradient. Both instruments agreed satisfactorily with each other and with the expected curves for the laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Significant differences were at first seen between the oil film meter and two floating element gages in the case of a favorable pressure gradient, but when a correction is applied to account for the normal force acting on the pendulum-type gage, the three instruents are much closer. The directional sensitivity of the oil film gage is also demonstrated.

  7. Dependence of Surface and Volumetric Strain on Basal Friction in Model Fold-Thrust-Belts Determined Using Laser-Scanner Data and Digital Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Nilfouroushan; H. A. Koyi

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic evolution of fold-thrust-belt depends on many factors including frictional behavior of the basal decollement. The basal friction in turn depends on mechanical properties of deformed materials, pressure, temperature, fluid pressure and the base roughness. Earlier studies have shown that frictional decollements produce wedges with steep taper, whereas weak decollements with lower basal friction (like salt in the SE

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Biskamp

    2003-01-01

    After a brief outline of magnetohydrodynamic theory, this introductory book discusses the macroscopic aspects of MHD turbulence, and covers the small-scale scaling properties. Applications are provided for astrophysical and laboratory systems. Magnetic turbulence is the natural state of most astrophysical systems, such as stellar convection zones, stellar winds or accretion discs. It is also found in laboratory devices, most notably

  9. Low temperature friction force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Gregory Dunckle

    2010-01-01

    The application of friction force techniques within atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for direct measurements of friction forces at a sliding, single-asperity interface. The temperature dependence of such single-asperity contacts provides key insight into the comparative importance of dissipative mechanisms that result in dry sliding friction. A variable temperature (VT), ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) AFM was used with an interface consisting

  10. Downstream influence of swept slot injection in hypersonic turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Bushnell, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results of an experimental and numerical investigation of tangential swept slot injection into a thick turbulent boundary layer at Mach 6 are presented. Film cooling effectiveness, skin friction, and flow structure downstream of the swept slot injection were investigated. The data were compared with that for unswept slots, and it was found that cooling effectiveness and skin friction reductions are not significantly affected by sweeping the slot.

  11. a Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Near-Wall Turbulence in Drag Reducing Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussman, Wesley Ryan

    1990-01-01

    The structure of near-wall turbulence was studied experimentally in a water channel with and without drag reducing polymer additives. An oxygen bubble flow visualization technique was found to be superior to the usual hydrogen bubble method for studying the turbulent behavior of dilute polymer-water solutions. In addition to hydrogen and oxygen bubble observations, a laser Doppler anemometer system was used to obtain mean and fluctuating RMS velocities in the water channel with and without polymer additives. A semi-empirical model was developed using a time varying mixing length to represent the sweep-burst behavior observed in the present experiments and reported previously in the literature. The model was applied to drag reducing flows produced by a variety of polymer additives. Model predictions of the mean velocity, friction factors, Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy and production and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy as presented and compared to experimental data. A new maximum drag reduction asymptote for mean velocity, which combines the physically realistic behaviors of the classical Virk and Seyer-Metzner asymptotes, was obtained from the model.

  12. Friction in perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Braun; Maurice Bluestein; B. Keith Moore; Gary Benson

    1999-01-01

    In the past, most frictional resistance studies have been conducted in a steady state condition that does not simulate the dynamics of the oral environment. Various oral functions as chewing, swallowing, speaking, etc, as well as the oral tissues contacting any orthodontic appliances, result in periodic, repetitive, minute relative motion at the bracket\\/arch wire interfaces several thousand times each day.

  13. Robotic friction stir welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George E. Cook; Reginald Crawford; Denis E. Clark; Alvin M. Strauss

    2004-01-01

    The forces and torques associated with friction stir welding (FSW) are discussed as they relate to implementation of the welding process with industrial robots. Experimental results are presented that support the conclusions drawn from models developed by others. It is shown that even with heavy-duty industrial robots with high stiffness, force feedback is important for successful robotic FSW. Methods of

  14. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2010-05-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  15. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  16. Influences of peripherally-cut twisted tape insert on heat transfer and thermal performance characteristics in laminar and turbulent tube flows

    SciTech Connect

    Eiamsa-ard, Smith [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Seemawute, Panida [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Wongcharee, Khwanchit [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand)

    2010-09-15

    Effects of peripherally-cut twisted tape insert on heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance factor characteristics in a round tube were investigated. Nine different peripherally-cut twisted tapes with constant twist ratio (y/W = 3.0) and different three tape depth ratios (DR = d/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33), each with three different tape width ratios (WR = w/W = 0.11, 0.22 and 0.33) were tested. Besides, one typical twisted tape was also tested for comparison. The measurement of heat transfer rate was conducted under uniform heat flux condition while that of friction factor was performed under isothermal condition. Tests were performed with Reynolds number in a range from 1000 to 20,000, using water as a working fluid. The experimental results revealed that both heat transfer rate and friction factor in the tube equipped with the peripherally-cut twisted tapes were significantly higher than those in the tube fitted with the typical twisted tape and plain tube, especially in the laminar flow regime. The higher turbulence intensity of fluid in the vicinity of the tube wall generated by the peripherally-cut twisted tape compared to that induced by the typical twisted tape is referred as the main reason for achieved results. The obtained results also demonstrated that as the depth ratio increased and width ratio decreased, the heat transfer enhancement increased. Over the range investigated, the peripherally-cut twisted tape enhanced heat transfer rates in term of Nusselt numbers up to 2.6 times (turbulent regime) and 12.8 times (laminar regime) of that in the plain tube. These corresponded to the maximum performance factors of 1.29 (turbulent regime) and 4.88 (laminar regime). (author)

  17. Studies in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, Thomas B. (editor); Sarkar, Sutanu (editor); Speziale, Charles G. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on turbulence are presented. Individual topics addressed include: modeling the dissipation rate in rotating turbulent flows, mapping closures for turbulent mixing and reaction, understanding turbulence in vortex dynamics, models for the structure and dynamics of near-wall turbulence, complexity of turbulence near a wall, proper orthogonal decomposition, propagating structures in wall-bounded turbulence flows. Also discussed are: constitutive relation in compressible turbulence, compressible turbulence and shock waves, direct simulation of compressible turbulence in a shear flow, structural genesis in wall-bounded turbulence flows, vortex lattice structure of turbulent shear slows, etiology of shear layer vortices, trilinear coordinates in fluid mechanics.

  18. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  19. Friction-reducing device

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1990-04-24

    This patent describes a sucker rod coupling adapted to reduce friction within production tubing in a well bore. It comprises: a substantially cylindrical body member and roller assemblies; the body member comprising means at each end thereof for attaching the coupling to a sucker rod, and axially and circumferentially spaced recesses, each recess containing a roller guide connected to the body, and each recess being further adapted to receive and support a roller assembly around the roller guide in such manner that the roller assembly can revolve around the roller guide; the roller assemblies each comprising rollers rotatably mounted on and linked by a chain, the rollers being adapted to reduce frictional contact between the body member and the tubing by rotating between the roller guide and the tubing while the chain revolves around the roller guide.

  20. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  1. friction se boratoire : Lab

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    sera e la nano et dmis qu'il ex n ne soit actue quer que la m osité géométr augmentation rugosités. Grâ t microstru iste une corré ellement ferm modification rique de la s n, soit à une âce à des tech e géométrie c nano métrique ymères s'est l ion, friction e énéficié d'un dence le rôle ainsi que de l uer des surface

  2. Bioinspired orientation-dependent friction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Longjian; Iturri, Jagoba; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; del Campo, Aránzazu

    2014-09-23

    Spatular terminals on the toe pads of a gecko play an important role in directional adhesion and friction required for reversible attachment. Inspired by the toe pad design of a gecko, we study friction of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars terminated with asymmetric (spatular-shaped) overhangs. Friction forces in the direction of and against the spatular end were evaluated and compared to friction forces on symmetric T-shaped pillars and pillars without overhangs. The shape of friction curves and the values of friction forces on spatula-terminated pillars were orientation-dependent. Kinetic friction forces were enhanced when shearing against the spatular end, while static friction was stronger in the direction toward the spatular end. The overall friction force was higher in the direction against the spatula end. The maximum value was limited by the mechanical stability of the overhangs during shear. The aspect ratio of the pillar had a strong influence on the magnitude of the friction force, and its contribution surpassed and masked that of the spatular tip for aspect ratios of >2. PMID:25178923

  3. High Speed Ice Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  4. Turbulent heat transfer in a trapezoidal channel with transverse and v-shaped ribs on two opposite walls

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Karthik

    2006-04-12

    This study investigates the turbulent heat transfer and friction in a trapezoidal channel with opposite walls roughened with transverse and v-shaped ribs. The roughened channel depicts the internal cooling passage of an aerofoil near the trailing...

  5. Reduction of friction stress of ethylene glycol by attached hydrogen ions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinjin; Zhang, Chenhui; Deng, Mingming; Luo, Jianbin

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, it is shown that the friction stress of ethylene glycol can decrease by an order of magnitude to achieve superlubricity if there are hydrogen ions attached on the friction surfaces. An ultra-low friction coefficient (? = 0.004) of ethylene glycol between Si3N4 and SiO2 can be obtained with the effect of hydrogen ions. Experimental result indicates that the hydrogen ions adsorbed on the friction surfaces forming a hydration layer and the ethylene glycol in the contact region forming an elastohydrodynamic film are the two indispensable factors for the reduction of friction stress. The mechanism of superlubricity is attributed to the extremely low shear strength of formation of elastohydrodynamic film on the hydration layer. This finding may introduce a new approach to reduce friction coefficient of liquid by attaching hydrogen ions on friction surfaces. PMID:25428584

  6. Is friction velocity the most appropriate scale for correcting nocturnal carbon dioxide fluxes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otávio C. Acevedo; Osvaldo L. L. Moraes; Gervásio A. Degrazia; David R. Fitzjarrald; Antônio O. Manzi; José G. Campos

    2009-01-01

    The use of friction velocity u* as the turbulence scale for correcting eddy-covariance carbon dioxide fluxes in low-mixing conditions is questioned. This is done because u* is, itself, a flux and, therefore, its value is highly dependent on the temporal scale used for the analysis. The multiresolution decomposition is applied to data from three different ecosystems in Brazil, to show

  7. Sound scattering from atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, M. N.

    1975-01-01

    Sound propagation through a turbulent flow field with nonvanishing mean-flow velocity has been studied. The effects of compressibility on sound scattering are discussed. Using an analysis describing moving sources in a fixed frame, particular results are obtained for the far-field scattered sound intensity due to uniformly moving scattering turbulence. A formula is obtained showing the factor by which the scattered sound intensity is amplified due to the motion of the turbulence. In addition, this analysis was extended to include wave propagating through mean flow with constant gradient.

  8. Solid friction between soft filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A. W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-06-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials.

  9. Effects of unsteady free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on stagnation point heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, R. S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The combined effects of transient free stream velocity and free stream turbulence on heat transfer at a stagnation point over a cylinder situated in a crossflow are studied. An eddy diffusivity model was formulated and the governing momentum and energy equations are integrated by means of the steepest descent method. The numerical results for the wall shear stress and heat transfer rate are correlated by a turbulence parameter. The wall friction and heat transfer rate increase with increasing free stream turbulence intensity.

  10. Kolmogorov Behavior of Near-Wall Turbulence and Its Application in Turbulence Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The near-wall behavior of turbulence is re-examined in a way different from that proposed by Hanjalic and Launder and followers. It is shown that at a certain distance from the wall, all energetic large eddies will reduce to Kolmogorov eddies (the smallest eddies in turbulence). All the important wall parameters, such as friction velocity, viscous length scale, and mean strain rate at the wall, are characterized by Kolmogorov microscales. According to this Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence, the turbulence quantities, such as turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, etc. at the location where the large eddies become Kolmogorov eddies, can be estimated by using both direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and asymptotic analysis of near-wall turbulence. This information will provide useful boundary conditions for the turbulent transport equations. As an example, the concept is incorporated in the standard k-epsilon model which is then applied to channel and boundary flows. Using appropriate boundary conditions (based on Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence), there is no need for any wall-modification to the k-epsilon equations (including model constants). Results compare very well with the DNS and experimental data.

  11. Turbulence in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lecture notes for the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel (FDP) Special Course on 'Turbulence in Compressible Flows' have been assembled in this report. The following topics were covered: Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers, Compressible Turbulent Free Shear Layers, Turbulent Combustion, DNS/LES and RANS Simulations of Compressible Turbulent Flows, and Case Studies of Applications of Turbulence Models in Aerospace.

  12. Soliton turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tchen, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.

  13. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  14. Improved Skin Friction Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    An improved system for measuring aerodynamic skin friction which uses a dual-laser-beam oil-film interferometer was developed. Improvements in the optical hardware provided equal signal characteristics for each beam and reduced the cost and complexity of the system by replacing polarization rotation by a mirrored prism for separation of the two signals. An automated, objective, data-reduction procedure was implemented to eliminate tedious manual manipulation of the interferometry data records. The present system was intended for use in two-dimensional, incompressible flows over a smooth, level surface without pressure gradient, but the improvements discussed are not limited to this application.

  15. Holographic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Adams, Allan; Chesler, Paul M; Liu, Hong

    2014-04-18

    We construct turbulent black holes in asymptotically AdS4 spacetime by numerically solving Einstein's equations. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find that both the dual holographic fluid and bulk geometry display signatures of an inverse cascade with the bulk geometry being well approximated by the fluid-gravity gradient expansion. We argue that statistically steady-state black holes dual to d dimensional turbulent flows have horizons whose area growth has a fractal-like structure with fractal dimension D=d+4/3. PMID:24785028

  16. Mars - Wind friction speeds for particle movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Leach, R.; White, B.; Iversen, J.; Pollack, J.

    1976-01-01

    Wind friction threshold speeds for particle movement were determined in a low pressure boundary layer wind tunnel at an atmospheric pressure of 5.3 mb. The results imply that for comparable pressures on Mars, the minimum wind friction threshold speed is about 2.5 m/sec, which would require free-stream winds of 50 to 135 m/sec, depending on the character of the surface and the atmospheric conditions. The corresponding wind speeds at the height of the Viking lander meteorology instrument would be about a factor of two less than the free-stream wind speed. The particle size most easily moved by winds on Mars is about 160 microns; particles both larger and smaller than this (at least down to about 5 microns) require stronger winds to initiate movement.

  17. Analysis on the friction losses of a bent-axis type hydraulic piston pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeh-Sun Hong; Yoon-Ho Doh

    2004-01-01

    The design of an axial piston pump for electro-hydrostatic transmission systems requires accurate information where and how\\u000a much the internal friction and flow losses are produced. This study is particularly focused on the friction losses of a bent-axis\\u000a type hydraulic piston pump, aiming at finding out which design factors influence its torque efficiency most significantly.\\u000a To this end, the friction

  18. Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented in 1991 at The Welding Institute in the United Kingdom. A weld is made in the FSW process by translating a rotating pin along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. FSW avoids deleterious effects inherent in melting and promises to be an important welding process for any industries where welds of optimal quality are demanded. This article provides an introduction to the FSW process. The chief concern is the physical effect of the tool on the weld metal: how weld seam bonding takes place, what kind of weld structure is generated, potential problems, possible defects for example, and implications for process parameters and tool design. Weld properties are determined by structure, and the structure of friction stir welds is determined by the weld metal flow field in the vicinity of the weld tool. Metal flow in the vicinity of the weld tool is explained through a simple kinematic flow model that decomposes the flow field into three basic component flows: a uniform translation, a rotating solid cylinder, and a ring vortex encircling the tool. The flow components, superposed to construct the flow model, can be related to particular aspects of weld process parameters and tool design; they provide a bridge to an understanding of a complex-at-first-glance weld structure. Torques and forces are also discussed. Some simple mathematical models of structural aspects, torques, and forces are included.

  19. Orbital friction stir weld system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Carter, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for joining the ends of two cylindrical (i.e., pipe-shaped) sections together with a friction stir weld. The apparatus holds the two cylindrical sections together and provides back-side weld support as it makes a friction stir weld around the circumference of the joined ends.

  20. Optimization of ceramic friction materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Han; Li Huang; Jinsheng Zhang; Yafei Lu

    2006-01-01

    In order to prepare ceramic brake linings with higher friction performance and lower cost, combinatorial friction materials research was conducted. Raw materials used were screened by four criteria. Latin square coupled with Golden Section approach was utilized for experimental formulations design. Sensitivity series and comprehensive index of raw materials obtained from the relational grade analysis were used to rank the

  1. Friction in a Moving Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)

  2. Frictional melt and seismic slip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nielsen; G. Di Toro; T. Hirose; T. Shimamoto

    2008-01-01

    Frictional melt is implied in a variety of processes such as seismic slip, ice skating, and meteorite combustion. A steady state can be reached when melt is continuously produced and extruded from the sliding interface, as shown recently in a number of laboratory rock friction experiments. A thin, low-viscosity, high-temperature melt layer is formed resulting in low shear resistance. A

  3. Skin-Friction Measurements in a 3-D, Supersonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wideman, J. K.; Brown, J. L.; Miles, J. B.; Ozcan, O.

    1994-01-01

    The experimental documentation of a three-dimensional shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction in a nominal Mach 3 cylinder, aligned with the free-stream flow, and 20 deg. half-angle conical flare offset 1.27 cm from the cylinder centerline. Surface oil flow, laser light sheet illumination, and schlieren were used to document the flow topology. The data includes surface-pressure and skin-friction measurements. A laser interferometric skin friction data. Included in the skin-friction data are measurements within separated regions and three-dimensional measurements in highly-swept regions. The skin-friction data will be particularly valuable in turbulence modeling and computational fluid dynamics validation.

  4. Friction in surface micromachined microengines

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; LaVigne, G.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1996-03-01

    Understanding the frictional properties of advanced Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is essential in order to develop optimized designs and fabrication processes, as well as to qualify devices for commercial applications. We develop and demonstrate a method to experimentally measure the forces associated with sliding friction of devices rotating on a hub. The method is demonstrated on the rotating output gear of the microengine recently developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In-situ measurements of an engine running at 18300 rpm give a coefficient of friction of 0.5 for radial (normal) forces less than 4 {mu}N. For larger forces the effective coefficient of friction abruptly increases, suggesting a fundamental change in the basic nature of the interaction between the gear and hub. The experimental approach we have developed to measure the frictional forces associated with the microengine is generically applicable to other MEMS devices.

  5. Constraint counting for frictional jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, D. A.; Henkes, S.; Schwarz, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    While the frictionless jamming transition has been intensely studied in recent years, more realistic frictional packings are less well understood. In frictionless sphere packings, the transition is predicted by a simple mean-field constraint counting argument, the isostaticity argument. For frictional packings, a modified constraint counting argument, which includes slipping contacts at the Coulomb threshold, has had limited success in accounting for the transition. We propose that the frictional jamming transition is not mean field and is triggered by the nucleation of unstable regions, which are themselves dynamical objects due to the Coulomb criterion. We create frictional packings using MD simulations and test for the presence and shape of rigid clusters with the pebble game to identify the partition of the packing into stable and unstable regions. To understand the dynamics of these unstable regions we follow perturbations at contacts crucial to the stability of the ``frictional house of cards.''

  6. Bi-directional, buried-wire skin-friction gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higuchi, H.; Peake, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A compact, nonobtrusive, bi-directional, skin-friction gage was developed to measure the mean shear stress beneath a three-dimensional boundary layer. The gage works by measuring the heat flux from two orthogonal wires embedded in the surface. Such a gage was constructed and its characteristics were determined for different angles of yaw in a calibration experiment in subsonic flow with a Preston tube used as a standard. Sample gages were then used in a fully three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer on a circular cone at high relative incidence, where there were regimes of favorable and adverse pressure gradients and three-dimensional separation. Both the direction and magnitude of skin friction were then obtained on the cone surface.

  7. Turbulence modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.

  8. A numerical study of the effect of interwall spacing on turbulent flow in a corrugated duct

    SciTech Connect

    Ergin, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering; Ota, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Sakamoto, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The effect of varying interwall spacing on periodic fully developed turbulent flow in a corrugated duct is studied numerically. The k-{var_epsilon} model is adopted for turbulent closure, and computations are performed for the ratio of the corrugation height to the interwall spacing ranging from 0.45 to 2.0, and for the corrugation angles of 30{degree} and 45{degree}. The Reynolds number ranges from 500 to 7,000 while the Prandtl number is 0.7. The numerical procedure and implementation of the {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model is validated by comparing numerical results with the experimental data directly. The results are also compared with the numerical values obtained by using a two-layer low-Reynolds number turbulence model. At a given Reynolds number, an increase in the interwall spacing increases the size of the separated region. On the other hand the friction factor first increases with the decreasing interwall spacing, reaches its maximum value, and then decreases.

  9. Numerical simulation of turbulent heat transfer in an annular fuel channel augmented by spacer ribs

    SciTech Connect

    Takase, Kazuyuki; Akino, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of High Temperature Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of fuel channels with three dimensional trapezoidal spacer ribs for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were investigated under the same coolant conditions as the reactor operation, maximum fuel channel outlet temperature of 1,000 C and pressure of 4 MPa, and analytically by numerical simulations using the {kappa}-{var_epsilon} turbulence model. The turbulent heat transfer coefficients in the spacer ribbed fuel channel were 20 to 100% higher than those in a concentric smooth annulus for a region of Reynolds number exceeding 2,000. Furthermore, the predicted Nusselt number in the spacer ribbed fuel channel was in good agreement with the empirical correlation obtained from the present experimental data within an error of 10% with Reynolds number of more than 5000. On the other hand, the friction factors in the spacer ribbed fuel channel were higher than those in the smooth duct in the turbulent region, and also they could be predicted with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the present numerical simulation could clarify quantitatively the effects of the heat transfer augmentation due to the spacer ribs and the axial velocity increase due to a reduction in the annular channel cross-section.

  10. Physics and control of wall turbulence for drag reduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, John

    2011-04-13

    Turbulence physics responsible for high skin-friction drag in turbulent boundary layers is first reviewed. A self-sustaining process of near-wall turbulence structures is then discussed from the perspective of controlling this process for the purpose of skin-friction drag reduction. After recognizing that key parts of this self-sustaining process are linear, a linear systems approach to boundary-layer control is discussed. It is shown that singular-value decomposition analysis of the linear system allows us to examine different approaches to boundary-layer control without carrying out the expensive nonlinear simulations. Results from the linear analysis are consistent with those observed in full nonlinear simulations, thus demonstrating the validity of the linear analysis. Finally, fundamental performance limit expected of optimal control input is discussed. PMID:21382821

  11. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  12. Friction drive position transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waclawik, Ronald E.; Cayer, James L.; Lapointe, Kenneth M.

    1991-10-01

    A spring force loaded contact wheel mounted in a stationary position relative to a reciprocating shaft is disclosed. The apparatus of the present invention includes a tensioning assembly for maintaining absolute contact between the contact wheel and the reciprocating shaft wherein the tensioning assembly urges the contact wheel against the shaft to maintain contact therebetween so that the wheel turns as the shaft is linearly displaced. A rotary encoding device is coupled to the wheel for translating the angular and rotational movement thereof into an electronic signal for providing linear displacement information and derivative data with respect to displacement of the shaft. Absolute friction contact and cooperative interaction between the shaft and the contact wheel is further enhanced in the preferred embodiment by advantageously selecting the types of surface finish and the amount of surface area of the contact wheel relative to the surface condition of the shaft as well as by reducing the moment of inertia of the contact wheel.

  13. A simplified oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1988-01-01

    The oil-film method of skin friction measurement, which does not require calibration, nevertheless entails that interferometric measurements of the oil film be obtained. The oil-film method is presently simplified by eliminating interferometry and its requisite polished surface, by taking direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope with a small position-sensing photodiode. This technique has undergone verification in incompressible turbulent and laminar flows in flat-plate boundary layers and pipe flows; the meter is judged to be inexpensive, simple, and robust.

  14. Impact of turbulence on riverine zooplankton: a mesocosm experiment

    E-print Network

    Thorp, James H.

    Impact of turbulence on riverine zooplankton: a mesocosm experiment TAMARA D. SLUSS*, GARY A. COBBS. With increases in river discharge over time and space, zooplankton generally encounter increased turbulence diversity and densities. Of these factors, the role of turbulence on the distribution of zooplankton

  15. A k-epsilon-gamma equation turbulence model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji R. Cho; Myung K. Chung

    1992-01-01

    By considering the entrainment effect on the intermittency in the free boundary of shear layers, a set of turbulence model equations for the turbulent kinetic energy k, the dissipation rate epsilon, and the intermittency factor gamma is proposed. This makes it possible to incorporate explicitly the intermittency effect in the conventional k-epsilon turbulence model equations. The eddy viscosity nu(t) is

  16. Adhesion energy between mica surfaces: Implications for the frictional coefficient under dry and wet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    frictional strength of faults is a critical factor that contributes to continuous fault slip and earthquake occurrence. Frictional strength can be reduced by the presence of sheet-structured clay minerals. In this study, two important factors influencing the frictional coefficient of minerals were quantitatively analyzed by a newly developed computational method based on a combination of first-principles study and thermodynamics. One factor that helps reduce the frictional coefficient is the low adhesion energy between the layers under dry conditions. Potassium ions on mica surfaces are easily exchanged with sodium ions when brought into contact with highly concentrated sodium-halide solutions. We found that the surface ion exchange with sodium ions reduces the adhesion energy, indicating that the frictional coefficient can be reduced under dry conditions. Another factor is the lubrication caused by adsorbed water films on mineral surfaces under wet conditions. Potassium and sodium ions on mica surfaces have a strong affinity for water molecules. In order to remove the adsorbed water molecules confined between mica surfaces, a differential compressive stress of the order of tens of gigapascals was necessary at room temperature. These water molecules inhibit direct contact between mineral surfaces and reduce the frictional coefficient. Our results imply that the frictional coefficient can be modified through contact with fluids depending on their salt composition. The low adhesion energy between fault-forming minerals and the presence of an adsorbed water film is a possible reason for the low frictional coefficient observed at continuous fault slip zones.

  17. REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Matthews

    2005-05-01

    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project regarding a new technique for decreasing engine friction and wear via liner rotation. The experimental subtasks involved quantifying the reduction in engine friction for a prototype rotating liner engine relative to a comparable baseline engine. Both engine were single cylinder conversions of nominally identical production four-cylinder engines. Hot motoring tests were conducted initially and revealed that liner rotation decreased engine friction by 20% under motoring conditions. A well-established model was used to estimate that liner rotation should decrease the friction of a four-cylinder engine by 40% under hot motoring conditions. Hot motoring tear-down tests revealed that the crankshaft and valve train frictional losses were essentially the same for the two engines, as expected. However, the rotating liner engine had much lower (>70%) piston assembly friction compared to the conventional engine. Finally, we used the Instantaneous IMEP method to compare the crank-angle resolved piston assembly friction for the two engines. Under hot motoring conditions, these measurements revealed a significant reduction in piston assembly friction, especially in the vicinity of compression TDC when the lubrication regime transitions from hydrodynamic through mixed and into boundary friction. We have some remaining problems with these measurements that we expect to solve during the next few weeks. We will then perform these measurements under firing conditions. We also proposed to improve the state-of-the-art of numerical modeling of piston assembly friction for conventional engines and then to extend this model to rotating liner engines. Our research team first modeled a single ring in the Purdue ring-liner test rig. Our model showed good agreement with the test rig data for a range of speeds and loads. We then modeled a complete piston assembly in an engine. The model appears to produce the correct behavior, but we cannot quantify its strengths or weaknesses until our crank-angle-resolved measurements have been completed. Finally, we proposed and implemented a model for the effects of liner rotation on piston assembly friction. Here, we propose that the rotating liner design is analogous to the shaft-bushing mechanism. Therefore, we used the side-slip rolling friction model to simulate the effects of liner rotation. This model appears to be promising, but final analysis of its strengths and/or weaknesses must await our crank-angle-resolved measurements.

  18. Occurrence of turbulent flow conditions in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ruben; Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2014-09-26

    Having similar densities as liquids but with viscosities up to 20 times lower (higher diffusion coefficients), supercritical CO2 is the ideal (co-)solvent for fast and/or highly efficient separations without mass-transfer limitations or excessive column pressure drops. Whereas in liquid chromatography the flow remains laminar in both the packed bed and tubing, except in extreme cases (e.g. in a 75 ?m tubing, pure acetonitrile at 5 ml/min), a supercritical fluid can experience a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in more typical operation modes. Due to the significant lower viscosity, this transition for example already occurs at 1.3 ml/min for neat CO2 when using connection tubing with an ID of 127 ?m. By calculating the Darcy friction factor, which can be plotted versus the Reynolds number in a so-called Moody chart, typically used in fluid dynamics, higher values are found for stainless steel than PEEK tubing, in agreement with their expected higher surface roughness. As a result turbulent effects are more pronounced when using stainless steel tubing. The higher than expected extra-column pressure drop limits the kinetic performance of supercritical fluid chromatography and complicates the optimization of tubing ID, which is based on a trade-off between extra-column band broadening and pressure drop. One of the most important practical consequences is the non-linear increase in extra-column pressure drop over the tubing downstream of the column which leads to an unexpected increase in average column pressure and mobile phase density, and thus decrease in retention. For close eluting components with a significantly different dependence of retention on density, the selectivity can significantly be affected by this increase in average pressure. In addition, the occurrence of turbulent flow is also observed in the detector cell and connection tubing. This results in a noise-increase by a factor of four when going from laminar to turbulent flow (e.g. going from 0.5 to 2.5 ml/min for neat CO2). PMID:25145564

  19. Burgers turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérémie Bec; Konstantin Khanin

    2007-01-01

    The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions

  20. The influence of high temperatures on the tribological properties of automotive friction materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Luke

    Temperatures of over 800C can be generated at the frictional interface within the brake systems of large vehicles, such high temperatures result in severe wear at the frictional interface, and can also lead to a very dangerous condition known as brake fade, characterised by a sharp fall in the coefficient of friction between the pad and disc, resulting in a catastrophic loss of braking efficiency. Common friction materials are very specialised composites often containing up to 15 components bound together within a phenolic resin matrix. The high temperature behaviour of the various constituents of friction materials were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, focusing in particular on the thermal decomposition of the phenolic resin matrix material, where it has been firmly established that the thermal decomposition products of phenolic resin are the primary cause of brake fade. This has lead to the development of a novel approach for reducing fade in conventional resin based friction materials, involving a partial carbonisation to 400C. The high temperature wear characteristics of both modified and conventional friction materials were examined using standard dynamometer tests, as well as a 'continuous drag' type test machine, equipped with a heating facility. During this study a number of factors were identified as the main influences on the overall wear behaviour of friction materials. These included test temperature, sample test history, and the various effects of friction films, which were the subject of a detailed analysis. The formation of friction films was found to be an important facet of a successful friction material, producing a reduction in wear at the frictional interface. Films were examined and analysed using EDX, SEM, and X-ray diffraction techniques, which revealed the presence of a high proportion of magnetite (Fe3O4), containing iron which originated from the disc surface. It was established that the incorporation of iron in friction material formulations encouraged film formation, thereby reducing disc wear substantially.

  1. Identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio based on road type recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Hsin; Wang, Bo; Lu, Pingping; Xu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    The identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle dynamics and control. However, it is always not easy to identify the maximum road friction coefficient with high robustness and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions. The existing investigations on robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient are unsatisfactory. In this paper, an identification approach based on road type recognition is proposed for the robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio. The instantaneous road friction coefficient is estimated through the recursive least square with a forgetting factor method based on the single wheel model, and the estimated road friction coefficient and slip ratio are grouped in a set of samples in a small time interval before the current time, which are updated with time progressing. The current road type is recognized by comparing the samples of the estimated road friction coefficient with the standard road friction coefficient of each typical road, and the minimum statistical error is used as the recognition principle to improve identification robustness. Once the road type is recognized, the maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio are determined. The numerical simulation tests are conducted on two typical road friction conditions(single-friction and joint-friction) by using CarSim software. The test results show that there is little identification error between the identified maximum road friction coefficient and the pre-set value in CarSim. The proposed identification method has good robustness performance to external disturbances and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions and road variations, and the identification results can be used for the adjustment of vehicle active safety control strategies.

  2. Probing the Mechanisms of Rock Friction at the Nanometer Scale with Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Carpick, R.; Goldsby, D.; Tullis, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    In spite of the success of rate- and state-variable friction laws in describing laboratory data and reproducing a rich variety of earthquake phenomena when employed in models, these ‘laws’ lack a physical basis. To identify mechanisms underlying the time dependence of friction, i.e., the ’evolution effect’, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed to probe friction and adhesion for single asperity nanometer-scale contacts between Si AFM tips and wafers which have been thermally oxidized. 'lide-hold-slide’ (SHS) friction experiments in the AFM reveal a linear increase in friction (healing) with the log of the hold time th at given relative humidities (RH). Incrementally increasing RH in finite steps of 20% - from 0 to 40%, then from 40 to 80% - causes 1) an increase and decrease in adhesion force, respectively, 2) an increase and decrease in steady-state friction (?ss), respectively, and 3) an increase and decrease in frictional healing (?? after a hold), respectively, for any given th. Interestingly, the normalized friction healing factor ??/?ss increases monotonically with RH for any given th. Healing is substantially suppressed when the AFM tip is pulled out of contact and exposed to air for ~1800 s before a SHS test; healing can be revitalized by scanning the tip over the sample for a few millimeters. The experiments demonstrate that the time dependence of friction at nanometer-sized contacts is qualitatively similar to that observed in rock friction experiments: increasing humidity increases healing and healing depends on the history and chemistry of the tip surface. The data suggest that condensed water at the contact interface plays important roles, both physical and chemical, in dictating friction and healing in these experiments. Effects of tip history and chemistry on friction also suggest that mechanical creep of the tip and/or specimen contributes negligibly to frictional healing in these tests.

  3. Friction and wear of friction materials containing two different phenolic resins reinforced with aramid pulp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Jin Kim; Ho Jang

    2000-01-01

    Friction and wear characteristics of automotive friction materials containing two different phenolic resins (a straight novolac resin and a modified novolac resin) were investigated using a pad-on-disk type friction tester. Six different friction materials with different relative amounts of the phenolic resins and aramid pulp were manufactured and tested. Two different test modes were employed to examine the friction characteristics

  4. Friction microprobe investigation of particle layer effects on sliding friction

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Interfacial particles (third-bodies), resulting from wear or external contamination, can alter and even dominate the frictional behavior of solid-solid sliding in the absence of effective particle removal processes (e.g., lubricant flow). A unique friction microprobe, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was used to conduct fine- scale friction studies using 1.0 mm diameter stainless steel spheres sliding on several sizes of loose layers of fine aluminum oxide powders on both aluminum and alumina surfaces. Conventional, pin-on-disk experiments were conducted to compare behavior with the friction microprobe results. The behavior of the relatively thick particle layers was found to be independent of the nature of underlying substrate, substantiating previous work by other investigators. The time-dependent behavior of friction, for a spherical macrocontact starting from rest, could generally be represented by a series of five rather distinct phases involving static compression, slider breakaway, transition to steady state, and dynamic layer instability. A friction model for the steady state condition, which incorporates lamellar powder layer behavior, is described.

  5. Turbulent eddy viscosity modeling in transonic shock/boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inger, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The treatment of turbulence effects on transonic shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction is addressed within the context of a triple deck approach valid for arbitrary practical Reynolds numbers between 1000 and 10 billion. The modeling of the eddy viscosity and basic turbulent boundary profile effects in each deck is examined in detail using Law-of-the-Wall/Law-of-the-Wake concepts as the foundation. Results of parametric studies showing how each of these turbulence model aspects influences typical interaction zone property distributions (wall pressure, displacement thickness and local skin friction) are presented and discussed.

  6. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate ?-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms. PMID:21406818

  7. Rubber friction and tire dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate ?-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  8. Analytical skin friction and heat transfer formula for compressible internal flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dechant, Lawrence J.; Tattar, Marc J.

    1994-01-01

    An analytic, closed-form friction formula for turbulent, internal, compressible, fully developed flow was derived by extending the incompressible law-of-the-wall relation to compressible cases. The model is capable of analyzing heat transfer as a function of constant surface temperatures and surface roughness as well as analyzing adiabatic conditions. The formula reduces to Prandtl's law of friction for adiabatic, smooth, axisymmetric flow. In addition, the formula reduces to the Colebrook equation for incompressible, adiabatic, axisymmetric flow with various roughnesses. Comparisons with available experiments show that the model averages roughly 12.5 percent error for adiabatic flow and 18.5 percent error for flow involving heat transfer.

  9. Friction measurement in zero and adverse pressure gradient boundary layer using oil droplet interferometric method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pailhas, Guy; Barricau, P.; Touvet, Y.; Perret, L.

    2009-08-01

    The oil droplet interferometric technique has been used to investigate the skin friction distribution along a zero and adverse pressure gradient boundary layer developing in the Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille wind tunnel. This experimental task was a part of the WALLTURB project, funded by the European Community, in order to bring significant progress in the understanding of near wall turbulence in boundary layers. Skin friction values close to 0.01 Pa have been measured with this optical method. A comparison with the results obtained with hot-wire anemometry and macro-PIV demonstrates the great potential of the oil droplet technique.

  10. Friction Stir Welding

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    Probably the best resource to learn about friction stir welding (FSW) comes from the entity that developed the technology. The Welding Institute (1) offers a thorough overview of FSW and its advantages over other types of welding. The University of Cambridge (2) maintains another informative Web site about FSW. This is a more visual resource, allowing the visitor to view images and video clips that show FSW equipment and how the process works. Three introductory slide presentations are also available. For those who are unfamiliar with other types of welding, the Joining Technologies company (3) has an online welding reference center. Of particular interest is the Weld Defects section, which describes many of the problems of conventional welding that FSW solves. The American Welding Society published this research paper (4) in the January 2003 issue of the Welding Journal. The nine-page document presents experimental results of FSW tests, showing that defect-free welds can be achieved with a material such as mild steel. Automobile design is a prime application area for FSW, as is noted in a fact sheet from the National Transportation Research Center (5). It states that while other welding methods are suitable for standard metals in automobiles, new lightweight materials cannot be effectively joined unless a technique like FSW is used. A research paper that will be presented at an international conference in July 2003 (6) discusses the residual stresses resulting from a weld created with the FSW process. While welds of this type are typically much stronger than others, it is important to note how the performance of a weld is degraded by such residual stresses. NASA has devised a new technique, called thermal stir welding, that improves upon FSW. This breakthrough is presented in a two-page summary (7) that briefly explains the differences between thermal stir welding and other advanced methods. A new friction stir welding center was announced in November 2002, and it will be used in the construction of a new jet airplane. FSW will replace over half of the rivets traditionally used to hold planes together. This development, and its importance for jet manufacturing, are outlined in a press release from Eclipse Aviation (8).

  11. The International Conference on Science of Friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouji Miura; Hiroshi Matsukawa

    2007-01-01

    The first international conference on the science of friction in Japan was held at Irago, Aichi on 9–13 September 2007. The conference focused on the elementary process of friction phenomena from the atomic and molecular scale view. Topics covered in the conference are shown below.:Superlubricity and frictionElectronic and phononic contributions to frictionFriction on the atomic and molecular scalesvan der Waals

  12. Modeling of Instabilities and Self-organization at the Frictional Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Vahid

    The field of friction-induced self-organization and its practical importance remains unknown territory to many tribologists. Friction is usually thought of as irreversible dissipation of energy and deterioration; however, under certain conditions, friction can lead to the formation of new structures at the interface, including in-situ tribofilms and various patterns at the interface. This thesis studies self-organization and instabilities at the frictional interface, including the instability due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction, the transient process of frictional running-in, frictional Turing systems, the stick-and-slip phenomenon, and, finally, contact angle (CA) hysteresis as an example of solid-liquid friction and dissipation. All these problems are chosen to bridge the gap between fundamental interest in understanding the conditions leading to self-organization and practical motivation. We study the relationship between friction-induced instabilities and friction-induced self-organization. Friction is usually thought of as a stabilizing factor; however, sometimes it leads to the instability of sliding, in particular when friction is coupled with another process. Instabilities constitute the main mechanism for pattern formation. At first, a stationary structure loses its stability; after that, vibrations with increasing amplitude occur, leading to a limit cycle corresponding to a periodic pattern. The self-organization is usually beneficial for friction and wear reduction because the tribological systems tend to enter a state with the lowest energy dissipation. The introductory chapter starts with basic definitions related to self-organization, instabilities and friction, literature review, and objectives. We discuss fundamental concepts that provide a methodological tool to investigate, understand and enhance beneficial processes in tribosystems which might lead to self-organization. These processes could result in the ability of a frictional surface to exhibit "self-protection" and "self-healing" properties. Hence, this research is dealing with the fundamental concepts that allow the possibility of the development of a new generation of tribosystem and materials that reinforce such properties. In chapter 2, we investigate instabilities due to the temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction. The temperature-dependency of the coefficient of friction can have a significant effect on the frictional sliding stability, by leading to the formation of "hot" and "cold" spots on the contacting surfaces. We formulate a stability criterion and perform a case study of a brake disk. In chapter 3, we study frictional running-in. Running-in is a transient period on the onset of the frictional sliding, in which friction and wear decrease to their stationary values. In this research, running-in is interpreted as friction-induced self-organization process. We introduce a theoretical model of running-in and investigate rough profile evolution assuming that its kinetics is driven by two opposite processes or events, i.e., smoothening which is typical for the deformation-driven friction and wear, and roughening which is typical for the adhesion-driven friction and wear. In chapter 4, we investigate the possibility of the so-called Turing-type pattern formation during friction. Turing or reaction-diffusion systems describe variations of spatial concentrations of chemical components with time due to local chemical reactions coupled with diffusion. During friction, the patterns can form at the sliding interface due to the mass transfer (diffusion), heat transfer, various tribochemical reactions, and wear. In chapter 5, we investigate how interfacial patterns including propagating trains of stick and slip zones form due to dynamic sliding instabilities. These can be categorized as self-organized patterns. We treat stick and slip as two phases at the interface, and study the effects related to phase transitions. Our results show how interfacial patterns form, how

  13. Molecular Origins of Elastomeric Friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Sills; Katherine Vorvolakos; Manoj K. Chaudhury; René M. Overney

    Frictional properties of soft elastomers have been in question for over half of a century. Early studies [1–3] on natural rubber originated for the sole purpose of tabulating properties for bulk consumer applications, such as viscoelastic adhesives, [4,5] tires, [6] and windshield wipers, [7,8] to name a few. Empirical tabulation of frictional properties persisted until the early 1950’s, when Roth

  14. Friction Reduction in Mixed Lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashlie Martini; Dong Zhu; Qian Wang

    2007-01-01

    Minimization of frictional losses in the drivetrain of heavy-duty vehicles is important from both consumer satisfaction and\\u000a environmental perspectives. Approaches to friction reduction in these components can be evaluated using simulation-based investigations.\\u000a However, nearly all drivetrain components operate in the mixed lubrication regime which is difficult to model because both\\u000a hydrodynamic lubrication and surface contact are significant and therefore, the

  15. Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.

    PubMed

    Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

    2013-06-21

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence. PMID:23829741

  16. Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashimori, K.; Yokoi, N.; Hoshino, M.

    2013-06-01

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.

  17. Experiment study on friction drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guomin; Ma, Lisheng; Yao, Zhengqiu; Li, Guoping

    2004-09-01

    In the past years, friction drive was developed to overcome the inherent deficiencies in both worm drive and gear drive. No periodical error and free of backlash are the main advantages of friction drive. With the trend towards bigger and bigger aperture of the optical telescopes, there are some reports about friction drive employed to drive the telescopes. However friction drive has its own deficiencies, such as slippage and creepage. This report here describes the study on the friction drive finished in an experiment arranged by LAMOST project. It comprises three main parts. First, it introduces the experiment apparatus and proposes a new kind of measurement and adjustment mechanisms. Secondly, the report gives the analysis of friction drive characteristics theoretically, such as slippage, creepage and gives the results of corresponding experiments. The experiment shows that the lowest stable speed reaches 0.05?/s with precision of 0.009?(RMS), the preload has little influence on the drive precision in the case of constant velocity and the variable velocity when the angle acceleration is less than 5?/s2 with close loop control and the creepage velocity of this experiment system is 1.47?/s. Lastly, the analysis in the second section lists some measures to improve the precision and stability further. These measures have been actually conducted in the testing system and proved to be reliable.

  18. Solid friction between soft filaments

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew; Hilitski, Feodor; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A.W. C.; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L.; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments1,2. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments’ overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes’s drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament’s elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the properties of fibrous composite materials. PMID:25730393

  19. Refined turbulence models for simulation of IC-engine cylinder flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim Yavuz

    2000-01-01

    Turbulence and turbulent mixing are two of the most important factors that influence the efficiency and emissions level in internal combustion (IC) engines, particularly for diesel engines. This study has been performed with the premise to accurately predict in-cylinder turbulence by employing the large eddy simulation (LES) technique. In order to assess the turbulence scales involved correctly, a review of

  20. The Effect of Friction on Penetration in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Steve

    2002-01-01

    "Friction stir butt welding," as it was originally termed by Wayne Thomas and Christopher Dawes, in the early 1990s, but now commonly called "friction stir welding," has made great progress as a new welding technique. Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating the use of FSW for assembly of the Shuttle's external fuel tank since the late 1990s and hopes to have the process in use by the summer of 2002. In FSW, a cylindrical pin tool of hardened steel, is rotated and plunged into the abutting edges of the parts to be joined. The tool is plunged into the weldment to within about .050 in of the bottom to assure full penetration. As the tool moves along the joint, the tool shoulder helps produce frictional heating, causing the material to plasticize. The metal of the two abutting plates flows from the front of the tool to the back where it cools and coalesces to form a weld in the solid phase. One quarter inch thick plates of aluminum alloy 2219 were used in this study. Two samples, each consisting of two 4 in x 12 in plates, were friction stir welded. The anvil for one sample was coated with molybdenum sulfide, while for the other sample a sheet of roughened stainless steel was placed between the anvil and the sample. The retractable pin tool was used so that the depth of the pin tool penetration could be varied. As welding proceeded, the length of the pin tool was gradually increased from the starting point. The purpose of this investigation is to find out at what point, in the down ramp, penetration occurs. Differences in root structure of the friction stir weld due to differences in anvil friction will be observed. These observations will be analyzed using friction stir weld theory.

  1. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr Clark

    2012-10-31

    Test your factoring skills Factors and Multiples Jeopardy How much do you know about factoring and multiples? Play Jeopardy and find out! Prime Factoring Turkey Shoot Blast these turkeys using your factoring skills. Help the Professor Super save the planet by "cooking" the Giant Frozen Turkeys of Destruction. Math Lines 12 X-Factor Shoot the ball at the other factors to get a product of 12. You can also ...

  2. TURBULENT FRBRNNING MVK 130 Turbulent Combustion

    E-print Network

    TURBULENT FÖRBRÄNNING MVK 130 Turbulent Combustion Antal poäng: 3.0. Valfri för: M4. Kursansvarig program med hänsyn till de modeller som används. Litteratur S.R. Turns: An introduction to combustion, Mc

  3. A Study on the Friction Characteristics of Automotive Composite Brake Pads Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun Hae; Lee, Jung Ju; Nisitani, H.

    It has many variables and factors to design the friction materials for automotive brake pads. The purpose of this study is to develop the proper method to design at low-cost and to find friction characteristics of each raw materials. For the purpose of examining the effect of each major raw materials, we used the Taguchi L9(34) orthogonal matrix and 1/5 scale dynamo machine for evaluation of the friction characteristics of composite brake pads. Using Taguchi method, it is easy to investigate the influence of each component in complicated composites friction materials. After analyzing the testing results by the Taguchi method, the effect of factors and levels influenced friction behavior was studied.

  4. Groove geometry effects on turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhan, Abdulmajeed A.; Al Anii, Yaser T.; Shareef, Amer J.

    2013-02-01

    The present work represents a two-dimensional numerical prediction of forced turbulent flow heat transfer through a grooved tube. Four geometric groove shapes (circular, rectangular, trapezoidal and triangular) were selected to perform the study, as well as two aspect ratios of groove-depth to tube diameter ( e/D = 0.1 and 0.2). The study focuses on the influence of the geometrical shapes of grooves and groove-depth on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics for Reynolds number ranging from 10,000 to 20,000. The characteristics of Nusselt number, friction factor and entropy generation are studied numerically by the aid of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial code of FLUENT. It is observed that the best performance occurs with the lower depth-groove ratio, whereas it is found that the grooved tube provides a considerable increase in heat transfer at about 64.4 % over the smooth tube and a maximum gain of 1.52 on thermal performance factor is obtained for the triangular groove with ( e/D = 0.1).

  5. Local Friction in PS\\/PMMA Block Copolymer Melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodi M. Milhaupt; Timothy P. Lodge

    2000-01-01

    When two polymers are combined, whether as a miscible blend or as a block copolymer, the resulting dynamics cannot easily be predicted. Properties such as the zero-shear viscosity and tracer diffusivity are dependent on the local friction factor, zeta. The ability to predict composition (phi) and temperature dependence of zeta would be useful in understanding heterogeneous systems such as microstructured

  6. Turbulent Jets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, B. H.; Rosen, P. A.; Foster, J. M.; Perry, T. S.; Steinkamp, M. J.; Robey, H. F.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Gittings, M. L.; Coker, R. F.; Keiter, P. A.; Knauer, J. P.; Drake, R. P.; Remington, B. A.; Bennett, G. R.; Sinars, D. B.; Campbell, R. B.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2003-10-01

    Over the last few years we have fielded numerous supersonic jet experiments on the NOVA and OMEGA lasers and Sandia's pulsed-power Z-machine in a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Atomic Weapons Establishment, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory. These experiments are being conducted to help validate our radiation-hydrodynamic codes, especially the newly developing ASC codes. One of the outstanding questions is whether these types of jets should turn turbulent given their high Reynolds number. Recently we have modified our experiments to have more Kelvin-Helmholtz shear, run much later in time and therefore have a better chance of going turbulent. In order to diagnose these large (several mm) jets at very late times ( 1000 ns) we are developing point-projection imaging on both the OMEGA laser, the Sandia Z-Machine, and ultimately at NIF. Since these jets have similar Euler numbers to jets theorized to be produced in supernovae explosions, we are also collaborating with the astrophysics community to help in the validation of their new codes. This poster will present a review of the laser and pulsed-power experiments and a comparison of the data to simulations by the codes from the various laboratories. We will show results of simulations wherein these jets turn highly 3-dimensional and show characteristics of turbulence. With the new data, we hope to be able to validate the sub-grid-scale turbulent mix models (e. g. BHR) that are being incorporated into our codes.*This work is performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48, the Laboratory for Laser Energetics under Contract No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, Sandia National Laboratories under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000, the Office of Naval Research, and the NASA Astrophysical Theory Grant.

  7. Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2010-12-01

    Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begin with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretions on a spinning pair release 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscous stresses and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, extracting mass-energy and space-time from the vacuum. Turbulence mixes cooling temperatures until strong-force viscous stresses freeze out turbulent mixing patterns as the first fossil turbulence. Cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies show big bang turbulence fossils along with fossils of weak plasma turbulence triggered as plasma photon-viscous forces permitting gravitational fragmentation on supercluster to galaxy mass scales. Turbulent morphologies and viscous-turbulent lengths appear as linear gas-protogalaxy-clusters in the Hubble ultra-deep field at z~7. Protogalaxies fragment into Jeans mass clumps of primordial-gas planets at decoupling: the dark matter of galaxies. Shortly after the plasma-to-gas transition, planet mergers produce stars that explode on overfeeding to fertilize and distribute the first life.

  8. High speed friction microscopy and nanoscale friction coefficient mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, James L.; Lee, Sungjun; Andersen, Andreas Sø; Sutherland, Duncan S.; Huey, Bryan D.

    2014-11-01

    As mechanical devices in the nano/micro length scale are increasingly employed, it is crucial to understand nanoscale friction and wear especially at technically relevant sliding velocities. Accordingly, a novel technique has been developed for friction coefficient mapping (FCM), leveraging recent advances in high speed AFM. The technique efficiently acquires friction versus force curves based on a sequence of images at a single location, each with incrementally lower loads. As a result, true maps of the coefficient of friction can be uniquely calculated for heterogeneous surfaces. These parameters are determined at a scan velocity as fast as 2?mm?s?1 for microfabricated SiO2 mesas and Au coated pits, yielding results that are identical to traditional speed measurements despite being ~1000 times faster. To demonstrate the upper limit of sliding velocity for the custom setup, the friction properties of mica are reported from 200?µm?s?1 up to 2?cm?s?1. While FCM is applicable to any AFM and scanning speed, quantitative nanotribology investigations of heterogeneous sliding or rolling components are therefore uniquely possible, even at realistic velocities for devices such as MEMS, biological implants, or data storage systems.

  9. Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component

    E-print Network

    Eltsov, Vladimir; Krusius, Matti

    2013-01-01

    In Fermi superfluids, like superfluid 3He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared to the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. This causes profound changes in superfluid dynamics: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures.

  10. Numerical study of axial turbulent flow over long cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neves, J. C.; Moin, P.; Moser, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of transverse curvature are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations of turbulent axial flow over cylinders. Two cases of Reynolds number of about 3400 and layer-thickness-to-cylinder-radius ratios of 5 and 11 were simulated. All essential turbulence scales were resolved in both calculations, and a large number of turbulence statistics were computed. The results are compared with the plane channel results of Kim et al. (1987) and with experiments. With transverse curvature the skin friction coefficient increases and the turbulence statistics, when scaled with wall units, are lower than in the plane channel. The momentum equation provides a scaling that collapses the cylinder statistics, and allows the results to be interpreted in light of the plane channel flow. The azimuthal and radial length scales of the structures in the flow are of the order of the cylinder diameter. Boomerang-shaped structures with large spanwise length scales were observed in the flow.

  11. A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Turbulent Combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Peters

    2001-01-01

    The book Turbulent Combustion by Norbert Peters is a concise monograph on single-phase gaseous low Mach number turbulent combustion. It is compiled from the author's review papers on this topic plus some additional material. Norbert Peters characterizes turbulent combustion both by the way fuel and air are mixed and by the ratio of turbulent and chemical time scales. This approach

  13. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  14. Friction measurements on carbon fibre tows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, B.; Warnet, L.; Akkerman, R.

    2010-06-01

    Friction plays an important role in the production of fibre reinforced composite products. The fibrous tows deform during the forming phase. Friction is regarded as a dominant phenomenon in tow deformation mechanisms. The coefficient of friction is a material-interface characteristic which gives a relation between applied deformation loads and frictional forces. A capstan experiment has been performed with carbon fibre tows on a steel cylinder. This work aims to clarify friction related mechanisms and identify dominant parameters. The applicability of the capstan experiment is investigated with respect to the frictional behaviour of fibrous tows.

  15. Instantaneous engine frictional torque, its components and piston assembly friction

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A. (ed.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Henein, N.A. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Center for Automotive Research)

    1992-05-01

    The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as (P-[omega]) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, [omega], have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-[omega]) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

  16. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  17. Instantaneous engine frictional torque: Its components and piston assembly friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Fred A.; Henein, N. A.

    1992-05-01

    The overall goal of this report is to document the work done to determine the instantaneous frictional torque of an internal combustion engine by using a new approach known as the P-(omega) method developed at Wayne State University. The emphasis has been to improve the accuracy of the method, and apply it to both diesel and gasoline engines under different operating conditions. Also work included an investigation to determine the effect of using advanced materials and techniques to coat the piston rings on the instantaneous engine frictional torque and the piston assembly friction. The errors in measuring the angular velocity, omega, have been determined and found to be caused by variations in the divisions within one encoder, encoder-to-encoder variations, misalignment within the encoder itself, and misalignment between the encoder and crankshaft. The errors in measuring the cylinder gas pressure, P, have been determined and found to be caused by transducer-to-transducer variations, zero drift, thermal stresses and lack of linearity. The ability of the (P-(omega)) method in determining the frictional torque of many engine components has been demonstrated. These components include valve train, fuel injection pump with and without fuel injection, and piston with and without different ring combinations. The emphasis in this part of the research program has been on the piston-ring assembly friction. The effects of load and other operating variables on IFT have been determined. The motoring test, which is widely used in industry to measure engine friction has been found to be inaccurate. The errors have been determined at different loads.

  18. Friction between ring polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Erba?, Aykut; Paturej, Jaros?aw

    2015-04-28

    Friction between ring polymer brush bilayers sliding past each other at melt densities is studied using extensive coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling arguments, and the results are compared to the friction between bilayers of linear polymer brushes. We show that for a velocity range spanning over three decades, the frictional forces measured for ring polymer brushes are half of the corresponding friction in the case of linear brushes. In the linear-force regime, the weak inter-digitation between ring brush layers as compared to linear brushes leads also to a lower number of binary collisions between the monomers from opposing brushes. At high velocities, where the thickness of the inter-digitation between bilayers is on the order of monomer size regardless of brush topology, stretched segments of ring polymers adopt the double-stranded conformation. As a result, monomers of the double-stranded segments collide on average less with the monomers of the opposing ring brush even though a similar number of monomers occupies the inter-digitation layer for ring and linear brush bilayers. The numerical data obtained from our simulations are consistent with the proposed scaling analysis. Conformation-dependent friction reduction observed in ring brushes can have important consequences in non-equilibrium bulk systems. PMID:25747253

  19. Friction between ring polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erba?, Aykut; Paturej, Jaros?aw

    Friction between ring-polymer brushes at melt densities sliding past each other are studied using extensive course-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling arguments, and the results are compared to the friction between linear-polymer brushes. We show that for a velocity range spanning over three decades, the frictional forces measured for ring-polymer brushes are half the corresponding friction in case of linear brushes. In the linear-force regime, the weak inter-digitation of two ring brushes compared to linear brushes also leads to a lower number of binary collisions between the monomers of opposing brushes. At high velocities, where the thickness of the inter-digitation layer between two opposing brushes is on the order monomer size regardless of brush topology, stretched segments of ring polymers take a double-stranded conformation. As a result, monomers of the double-stranded segments collide less with the monomers of the opposing ring brush even though a similar number of monomers occupies the inter-digitation layer for ring and linear-brush bilayers. The numerical data obtained from our simulations is consistent with the proposed scaling analysis. Conformation-dependent frictional reduction observed in ring brushes can have important consequences in non-equilibrium bulk systems.

  20. Atmospheric turbulence MTF for optical waves' propagation through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Cao, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Fugen

    2014-11-01

    The conventional investigations for atmospheric turbulence have assumed that the refractive-index fluctuations of atmosphere are statistically homogeneous and isotropic. Developments of experimental and theoretical investigations have shown that the isotropic turbulence generally exists near the ground, and in the free atmosphere layer above the ground the anisotropic turbulence appears. Hence, deviations from the previously published results obtained with the isotropic turbulence assumption are possible. In this study, new analytic expressions for the anisotropic atmospheric turbulence modulation transfer function (MTF) are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. They consider both an anisotropic coefficient and a general spectral power law value in the range 3 to 4. When the anisotropic coefficient equals one (corresponding to the isotropic turbulence), the new results obtained in this work can reduce correctly to the previously published analytic expressions under isotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. The derived MTF models physically describe the turbulence anisotropic property of high atmospheric layer. Numerical calculations show that with the increase of anisotropic factor which is proportional to the atmospheric layer altitude, the atmospheric turbulence produces less effect on the imaging system.

  1. Frictional drag reduction by wavy advection of deformable bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Yuichi; Tasaka, Yuji; Yasushi, Takeda

    2009-02-01

    Bubbles can reduce frictional drag in wall turbulence, and its effect is expected to use for ships and pipelines to save their power consumptions. A number of basic experiments have been carried out to date for finding out the best condition for enhancing the drag reduction. One issue that remains at present is the difference of the performance between steady and unsteady status in terms of bubble concentration. All the experiments in the past deal with the steady effect, i.e., the drag reduction is evaluated as a function of mean void fraction or given gas flow rate of continuous injection. Despite to this, the actual phenomena highly depend on local interaction between two phases upon unsteady manner. We focus on this point and elucidate the influence of time-fluctuating void fraction on the total response to the drag reduction. This view is in fact important to estimate the persistency of the bubble-based drag reduction in the flow direction since bubbles formulate wavy advection during their migration. Our experiments are designed to measure the above-mentioned effect from laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows in a horizontal channel. For avoiding the contamination effect that worsens the reproducibility of the experiment, Silicone oil is used as carrier fluid. The oil also simulates the high Weber number bubble condition because of low surface tension. The unsteady interaction between the wavy advection of bubbles and the local skin friction, a synchronized system is constructed to connect the high-speed camera with the shear transducer, which can evaluate the interaction at 1000 fps. From the results, we confirm that the drag reduction is provided at Re>3000 in the turbulent flow regime, and also the total drag reduction is enhanced by the presence of the waves.

  2. Mixing and bottom friction: parametrization and application to the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.; Lepesqueur, J.

    2012-04-01

    Wave breaking has been observed to impact the bottom boundary layer in surf zones, with potential impacts on bottom friction. Observations in the inner surf zone have also shown a tendency to an underestimation of the wave-induced set-up when using usual model parameterizations. The present study investigates the possible impact of wave breaking on bottom friction and set-up using a recently proposed parameterization of the wave-induced turbulent kinetic energy in the vertical mixing parameterization of the wave-averaged flow. This parametrization proposed by Mellor (2002) allows us to take account the oscillations of the bottom boundary layer with the wave phases thanks to some additional turbulent source terms. First, the behavior of this parameterization, is investigated by comparing phase-resolving and phase-averaged solutions. The hydrodynamical model MARS (Lazure et Dumas, 2008) is used for this, using a modified k-epsilon model to take account the Mellor (2002) parametrization. It is shown that the phase averaged solution strongly overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy, which is similar to the situation of the air flow over waves (Miles 1996). The waves inhibits the turbulence and the wave-averaged parametrization is not able to reproduce correctly this phenomenom. Cases with wave breaking at the surface are simulated in order to study the influence of surface wave breaking on the bottom boundary layer. This parametrization is applied in the surf zone for two differents cases, one for a planar beach and one other for a barred beach with rip currents. The coupled model MARS-WAVEWATCH III is used for this (Bennis et al, 2011) and for a realistic planar beach, the mixing parameterization has only a limited impact on the bottom friction and the wave set-up, unless the bottom roughness is greatly enhanced in very shallow water, or for a spatially varying roughness. The use of the mixing parametrization requires an adjustement of the bottom roughness to fit the observations probably due to the expression of the additional source of turbulent kinetic energy. For an idealized barred beach, the results given by the mixing parametrization are compared with others from parametrizations that take account the wave effects on the bottom friction via the wave orbital velocity, and no via the turbulent kinetic energy as in Mellor (2002). The vertical profile of the rip current is significantly modified by the bottom friction parametrization, while the feedback of the waves on the flow (ie. two-way mode) changes the pattern of the rip currents in comparison with the one-way mode.

  3. Accurate and Independent Measurements of Wall-Shear Stress in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R"Uedi, J.-D.; Duncan, R.; Imayama, S.; Chauhan, K.

    2009-11-01

    Oil Film Interferometry (OFI) is used to directly measure the wall-shear stress in the high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers from three facilities used for ICET. Various optical arrangements were utilized to collect the digital images generated on transparent plugs integrated into the boundary layer surface. Test-section free stream velocities ranging from 10 to 60 m/s and development lengths from 5.5m to 21 m, resulted in friction velocities varying from 0.35 to 1.65 m/s, corresponding to boundary layer thicknesses varying by factors of nearly four. Silicon oils with viscosities from 20 to 1000 cSt were employed in the measurements, with multiple oils used for several of the test conditions. A reference temperature measurement was used in all three facilities and for the calibration of the oils as a function of temperature in four different laboratories using two types of viscometers. The processing of the images was carried out using several approaches and compared for consistency of the results. Results of the skin friction coefficient from the three wind tunnels are examined and compared as a function of the displacement thickness Reynolds number, as determined from hot-wire and Pitot probe profiles at comparable conditions, and are found to be accurately represented by the logarithmic Rotta relation. The various uncertainties and the final accuracy of this type of measurement are discussed.

  4. INVITED PAPER: Refined cf relation for turbulent channels and consequences for high-Re experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoun, E.-S.; Nagib, H.; Durst, F.

    2009-04-01

    There have been rising concerns regarding the accuracy of measurements in turbulent channel flows, in particular, measurements of the skin-friction results. In the present study, two different methods, namely, mean streamwise pressure gradient (PG) and oil film interferometry (OFI), are used to estimate the wall skin-friction relation, cf = f(Rem), for fully developed turbulent plane-channel flow over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The channel skin-friction data are then fitted to the well-known logarithmic friction law, providing outstanding agreement with values for the constants of the logarithmic law of the mean velocity profile. A revised logarithmic skin-friction relation is developed, providing good agreement with our skin-friction results and data from the literature, when constants of the logarithmic friction relation adopted from the recent work of Zanoun et al (2003 Phys. Fluids 15 3079-89, 2005 4th Int. Conf. on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, HEAT2005, 19-22 September, Cairo, Egypt) are utilized. A new experimental channel facility is proposed, allowing measurements at high Reynolds numbers well beyond those achieved previously in laboratories, i.e. over five times the highest Rem reached in the present study, while maintaining sufficiently high spatial resolution.

  5. Numerical computation of three-dimensional turbulent flow in tightly curved ducts and spiral turbine casings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Ho

    Three-dimensional computation of turbulent flow in curved ducts and spiral turbine casings is performed. Mathematical models are described by basic equations resolved by a developed numerical partial parabolic computation procedure. Effect of turbulent oscillations on friction force is analyzed by Prandtl mixing length flow theory. Computational procedure is tested on a 90 deg curved channel. Main flow characteristics, secondary flow, double vortex formation, retroaction, and outlet boundary conditions are considered. Mathematical and experimental results are concordant.

  6. Friction experiments with a capstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    The force of static friction on a cord wrapped through an angle ? around a rough-surfaced cylinder increases exponentially with ?. A small tension T1 at one end of the cord, maintaining contact between cord and cylinder, provides the condition for a substantially larger tension, of maximum value T2=T1 exp(?s?), at the other end. The validity of this relationship is studied for the kinetic friction case. The suitability of this system for an undergraduate experiment is discussed, together with practical applications—the donkey engine and the capstan—with a digression on sea chanties.

  7. Surface roughness and dry friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    Persson's multiscale contact mechanics theory combined with a multiscale Brillouin-Prandtl-Tomlinson model is used to show that on the basis of these models “dry friction” [i.e., kinetic friction that remains at exceedingly small velocities (but still above the creep range) close to its value at higher velocities] should almost always occur for self-affine surfaces when the dominant interaction between two surfaces in contact is due to interatomic hard core repulsion, except for extremely smooth surfaces (i.e., surfaces with a Hurst index very close to 1).

  8. Optimal Monetary Policy with Informational Frictions

    E-print Network

    Angeletos, George-Marios

    2011-11-05

    We study optimal monetary policy in an environment in which firms’ pricing and production decisions are subject to informational frictions. Our framework accommodates multiple formalizations of these frictions, including ...

  9. Skin Friction Measurements by a Dual-Laser-Beam Interferometer Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

    1981-01-01

    A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a "law-of-the-well" coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. (This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.)

  10. Skin friction measurements by a new nonintrusive double-laser-beam oil viscosity balance technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, D. J.; Higuchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    A portable dual-laser-beam interferometer that nonintrusively measures skin friction by monitoring the thickness change of an oil film subject to shear stress is described. The method is an advance over past versions in that the troublesome and error-introducing need to measure the distance to the oil leading edge and the starting time for the oil flow has been eliminated. The validity of the method was verified by measuring oil viscosity in the laboratory, and then using those results to measure skin friction beneath the turbulent boundary layer in a low-speed wind tunnel. The dual-laser-beam skin friction measurements are compared with Preston tube measurements, with mean velocity profile data in a 'law-of-the-wall' coordinate system, and with computations based on turbulent boundary-layer theory. Excellent agreement is found in all cases. This validation and the aforementioned improvements appear to make the present form of the instrument usable to measure skin friction reliably and nonintrusively in a wide range of flow situations in which previous methods are not practical.

  11. Experimental characterization of sliding and impact friction coefficients between steam generator tubes and avb supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslinger, K. H.; Steininger, D. A.

    1995-04-01

    Experiments are described that were designed to determine the sliding and the impact friction coefficients between steam generator tubes and anti-vibration bar supports. The test environments were air and water at ambient conditions, in order to allow bracketing of actual steam generator conditions. Two tube/AVB combinations were tested. The first combination consisted of materials used in a recent flow test program on a 5 X 12 U-tube bundle during which the turbulence and fluid-elastic responses of that tube bundle were characterized with different AVB clearances. The said flow test program was also successful in the experimental determination of "work rates" between tubes and AVBs with different boundary conditions, while the tubes were excited by different flow dependent forcing mechanisms. The second combination of materials consisted of an Inconel 600 tube matched with an AVB sample retrieved from an operating steam generator. Results of the present tests on the two material combinations show some differences in the dry friction coefficients, but relatively good agreement between the wet friction coefficients. In addition, friction coefficients were determined to be mostly independent of normal force and sliding velocity. Finally, friction coefficients for oblique impacts were quite similar to those for sliding motion under preload. Interpretation of the test results for normal or near normal impacts justifies use of a single friction coefficient for all combinations of tube to AVB interactions (possibly excluding rocking and rotation) in non-linear finite element, time-domain computer simulations of the tube/AVB dynamics under turbulence and/or fluid-elastic excitations.

  12. Low-Friction Joint for Robot Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical linkage allows adjacent parts to move relative to each other with low friction and with no chatter, slipping, or backlash. Low-friction joint of two surfaces in rolling contact, held in alinement by taut flexible bands. No sliding friction or "stick-slip" motion: Only rolling-contact and bending friction within bands. Proposed linkage intended for finger joints in mechanical hands for robots and manipulators.

  13. Showing Area Matters: A Work of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Domelen, David

    2010-01-01

    Typically, we teach the simplified friction equation of the form F[subscript s] = [mu][subscript s]N for static friction, where F[subscript s] is the maximum static friction, [mu][subscript s] is the coefficient of static friction, and "N" is the normal force pressing the surfaces together. However, this is a bit too simplified, and doesn't work…

  14. Joint Winter Runway Friction Program Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Wambold, James C.; Henry, John J.; Andresen, Arild; Bastian, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The major program objectives are: (1) harmonize ground vehicle friction measurements to report consistent friction value or index for similar contaminated runway conditions, for example, compacted snow, and (2) establish reliable correlation between ground vehicle friction measurements and aircraft braking performance. Accomplishing these objectives would give airport operators better procedures for evaluating runway friction and maintaining acceptable operating conditions, providing pilots information to base go/no go decisions, and would contribute to reducing traction-related aircraft accidents.

  15. Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of problems in…

  16. Turbulent drag reduction through oscillating discs

    E-print Network

    Wise, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The changes of a turbulent channel flow subjected to oscillations of wall flush-mounted rigid discs are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number is $R_\\tau$=$180$, based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. The primary effect of the wall forcing is the sustained reduction of wall-shear stress, which reaches a maximum of 20%. A parametric study on the disc diameter, maximum tip velocity, and oscillation period is presented, with the aim to identify the optimal parameters which guarantee maximum drag reduction and maximum net energy saving, computed by taking into account the power spent to actuate the discs. This may be positive and reaches 6%. The Rosenblat viscous pump flow is used to predict the power spent for disc motion in the turbulent channel flow and to estimate localized and transient regions over the disc surface subjected to the turbulent regenerative braking effect, for which the wall turbulence exerts work on the discs. The...

  17. Performance of a disc brake friction material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradnya Kosbe; Chittaranjan More

    2010-01-01

    The friction materials used in brakes are required to provide a stable coefficient of friction and a lower wear rate at various operating speeds, pressures, temperatures and environmental conditions. These friction materials must also be compatible with the rotor material in order to reduce its extensive wear, vibration and noise during braking. All of these requirements need to be achieved

  18. Advanced friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hol; M. V. Cid Alfaro; M. B. de Rooij; T. Meinders

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a more advanced friction model for large-scale forming simulations based on the surface changes on the

  19. Comprehensive analysis of buckling with friction

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.F.

    1995-12-31

    While analytic solutions are available for a limited number of special load cases, the general solution of buckling with friction requires a numerical solution. This paper describes the formulation and solution of the helical buckling of tubulars with friction. An example application demonstrates many surprising results, especially when friction forces from previous load steps are unloaded.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of buckling with friction

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.F.

    1996-09-01

    While analytic solutions are available for a limited number of special load cases, the general solution of buckling with friction requires a numerical solution. This paper describes the formulation and solution of the helical buckling of tubulars with friction. An example application demonstrates many surprising results, especially when friction forces from previous load steps are unloaded.

  1. Friction Modeling and Compensation for Haptic Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas L. Bernstein; Dale A. Lawrence; Lucy Y. Pao

    2005-01-01

    Friction cancellation and high gain force feedback are studied for their relative beneìts in mitigating the effects of friction in haptic interfaces. Although either technique alone is capable of signiìcant improvements, we ìnd that a combination of approximate cancellation coupled with variable-gain low-bandwidth force feedback provides ex- cellent friction reduction and is more robust. This improves the feel of the

  2. Interfacial friction measurement in surface force apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kumacheva

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the advances in shear and friction studies using Surface Forces Apparatus with shear capability is presented. Relative to traditional methods of measuring friction this approach provides a good control of the surface area, intersurface separation, and normal loads. The design of various shearing devices is discussed. The current status of experimental studies of friction between dry surfaces

  3. Dynamic models of friction wedge dampers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Gardner; Joseph P. Cusumano

    1997-01-01

    Friction wedges play a central role in the vertical dynamics of railroad freight cars. They also play a role in lateral dynamics and stability. While friction wedges are mechanically very simple, their inherent nonlinearities lead to complications in modeling and dynamics. In this paper we present two simplified models of the fundamental physics of friction wedge dampers in the geometry

  4. Friction Compensation and Robust Hybrid Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bona; M. Indri

    1993-01-01

    In force\\/position control, possible uncertainties about the manipulator parameters and the presence of friction and striction on the contact surfaces compromise the correct decoupling of the two controls and can sometimes cause instability. A fixed friction compensation function is constructed in order to achieve stability when friction and striction are present. Robust control techniques are applied. Simulation results of the

  5. Response of wind shear warning systems to turbulence with implication of nuisance alerts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Roland L.

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to predict the inherent turbulence response characteristics of candidate wind shear warning system concepts and to assess the potential for nuisance alerts. Information on the detection system and associated signal processing, physical and mathematical models, wind shear factor root mean square turbulence response and the standard deviation of the wind shear factor due to turbulence is given in vugraph form.

  6. Dilatation-dissipation corrections for advanced turbulence models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Wilcox

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes dilatation-dissipation based compressibility corrections for advanced turbulence models. Numerical computations verify that the dilatation-dissipation corrections devised by Sarkar and Zeman greatly improve both the k-omega and k-epsilon model predicted effect of Mach number on spreading rate. However, computations with the k-gamma model also show that the Sarkar\\/Zeman terms cause an undesired reduction in skin friction for the

  7. Critical Length Limiting Superlow Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes.

  8. Critical length limiting superlow friction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Urbakh, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Since the demonstration of superlow friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micromechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nanomanipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nanodevices with superlow friction, such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:25699452

  9. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  10. Friction forces in cosmological models

    E-print Network

    Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

    2014-08-23

    We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

  11. Prediction of dynamic friction forces in spur gears using alternate sliding friction formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Song; Cho, Sungmin; Singh, Rajendra

    2008-01-01

    In this communication, several sliding friction formulations used in spur gear dynamics are examined and compared in terms of the predictions of interfacial friction forces and off-line-of-action motions. Competing friction formulations include Coulomb models with time-varying friction coefficients and empirical expressions based on elasto-hydrodynamic and/or boundary lubrication regime principles. Predicted results compare well with friction force measurements.

  12. Turbulent heat transfer and friction in a square channel with discrete rib turbulators

    E-print Network

    McMillin, Robert Dale

    1989-01-01

    cm 10 i8 cm 4 00 3 x 2, cross-cu't pa. rallel 152 cm 5a 5b 60' 3 x 2, cross-cut 60 3 x 2 cross-cut para. llel crossed 1. 52 cm 1. 52 cm 4, ?' 3 x 2, cross-cut 4? 3 x, cross-cu't pa, rallel cl'ossed 1. 52 cm 1. 52 cm ia ib 30' 3 x... teniperature as a, starting value, equation (13) calcu- lates the bulk temperature at the first measurement station (i = 1). Apply equation (13) with the newly calculated Ti, ?t as Tt, i? to obtain values of Ts at subsequent nieasurement stations (i = 2, 3...

  13. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka, E-mail: ohira@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  14. Preface: Friction at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusc, Claudio; Smith, Roger; Urbakh, Michael; Vanossi, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Interfacial friction is one of the oldest problems in physics and chemistry, and certainly one of the most important from a practical point of view. Everyday operations on a broad range of scales, from nanometer and up, depend upon the smooth and satisfactory functioning of countless tribological systems. Friction imposes serious constraints and limitations on the performance and lifetime of micro-machines and, undoubtedly, will impose even more severe constraints on the emerging technology of nano-machines. Standard lubrication techniques used for large objects are expected to be less effective in the nano-world. Novel methods for control and manipulation are therefore needed. What has been missing is a molecular level understanding of processes occurring between and close to interacting surfaces to help understand, and later manipulate friction. Friction is intimately related to both adhesion and wear, and all three require an understanding of highly non-equilibrium processes occurring at the molecular level to determine what happens at the macroscopic level. Due to its practical importance and the relevance to basic scientific questions there has been major increase in activity in the study of interfacial friction on the microscopic level during the last decade. Intriguing structural and dynamical features have been observed experimentally. These observations have motivated theoretical efforts, both numerical and analytical. This special issue focusses primarily on discussion of microscopic mechanisms of friction and adhesion at the nanoscale level. The contributions cover many important aspects of frictional behaviour, including the origin of stick-slip motion, the dependence of measured forces on the material properties, effects of thermal fluctuations, surface roughness and instabilities in boundary lubricants on both static and kinetic friction. An important problem that has been raised in this issue, and which has still to be resolved, concerns the possibility of controlling frictional response. The ability to control and manipulate frictional forces is extremely important for a variety of applications. These include magnetic storage and recording systems, miniature motors, and more. This special issue aims to provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental works on nanotribology and possible applications. In selecting the papers we have tried to maintain a balance between new results and review-like aspects, so that the present issue is self-contained and, we hope, readily accessible to non-specialists in the field. We believe that the particular appeal of this collection of papers also lies in the fusion of both experiment and theory, thus providing the connection to reality of the sometimes demanding, mathematically inclined contributions. Profound thanks go to all our colleagues and friends who have contributed to this special issue. Each has made an effort not only to present recent results in a clear and lucid way, but also to provide an introductory review that helps the reader to understand the different topics.

  15. Turbulent heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of dilute water based Al2O3-Cu hybrid nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S; Venkitaraj, K P; Hameed, M Shahul; Sarangan, J

    2014-03-01

    A study on fully developed turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid flowing through a uniformly heated circular tube is presented in this paper. For this, Al2O3-Cu nanocomposite powder was synthesized in a thermo chemical route using hydrogen reduction technique and dispersed the hybrid nano powder in deionised water to form a stable hybrid nanofluid of 0.1% volume concentration. The prepared powder was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to confirm the chemical composition, determine the particle size and study the surface morphology. Stability of the nanofluid was ensured by pH and zeta potential measurements. The average heat transfer enhancement for Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid is 8.02% when compared to pure water. The experimental results also showed that 0.1% Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluids have slightly higher friction factor compared to 0.1% Al2O3/water nanofluid. The empirical correlations proposed for Nusselt number and friction factor were well agreed with the experimental data. PMID:24745264

  16. Friction of ice on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulson, Erland M.; Fortt, Andrew L.

    2012-12-01

    New measurements have been made of the friction coefficient of freshwater polycrystalline ice sliding slowly (5 × 10-8 to 1 × 10-3 m s-1) upon itself at temperatures from 98 to 263 K under low normal stresses (?98 kPa). Sliding obeys Coulomb's law: the shear stress is directly proportional to the normal stress across the interface, while cohesion offers little contribution to frictional resistance. The coefficient of kinetic friction of smooth surfaces varies from ?k = 0.15 to 0.76 and, at elevated temperatures (?223 K), exhibits both velocity strengthening at lower velocities (<10-5 to 10-4 m s-1) and velocity weakening at higher velocities. Strengthening and weakening are attributed to creep deformation of asperities and localized melting, respectively. At intermediate temperatures of 173 and 133 K, the kinetic coefficient appears to not exhibit significant dependence upon velocity. However, at the low temperature of 98 K the coefficient of kinetic friction exhibits moderate velocity strengthening at both the lowest and the highest velocities but velocity independence over the range of intermediate velocities. No effect was detected of either grain size or texture. Over the range of roughness 0.4 × 10-6 m ? Ra ? 12 × 10-6 m, a moderate effect was detected, where ?k ? Ra0.08. Slide-hold-slide experiments revealed that the coefficient of static friction increases by an amount that scales logarithmically with holding time. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to shearing across "tiger stripe" faults within the icy crust of Saturn's Enceladus, sliding of the arctic sea ice cover and brittle compressive failure of cold ice.

  17. Application of Navier-Stokes code PAB3D with kappa-epsilon turbulence model to attached and separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Lakshmanan, B.; Carlson, John R.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver was used to determine how accurately computations can predict local and average skin friction coefficients for attached and separated flows for simple experimental geometries. Algebraic and transport equation closures were used to model turbulence. To simulate anisotropic turbulence, the standard two-equation turbulence model was modified by adding nonlinear terms. The effects of both grid density and the turbulence model on the computed flow fields were also investigated and compared with available experimental data for subsonic and supersonic free-stream conditions.

  18. Turbulent Drag Reduction with Surfactant Additives — Basic Research and Application to an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Li, F. C.; Yu, B.; Wei, J. J.

    It is well known that a small amount of chemicals such as water-soluble polymers or surfactants dramatically suppresses turbulence when they are added to liquid flow at large Reynolds number. In the last two decades, the application of surfactants to heat transportation systems such as district heating and cooling systems has attracted much interest among researchers. It has been revealed that 70% of the pumping power used to drive hot water in primary pipelines or district heating systems was saved by adding only a few hundred ppm of surfactant into the circulating water. The technological achievement requires a new design strategy for pipeline networks and heat exchangers to handle the drag reducing liquid flow. In the case of a Newtonian fluid such as water or air, the knowledge for designing fluid systems has been accumulated and the accuracy of numerical prediction is sufficient. On the other hand, the design system for surfactant solutions is not mature because drag-reducing flow phenomena are much more complicated than for Newtonian flow, for example, the friction factor for a surfactant solution depends not only on Reynolds number but also pipe diameter. In order to provide a design strategy for heat transportation systems using surfactant additives, we are now carrying out both experimental and numerical studies for surfactant solutions. In this lecture, experimental and numerical studies on the turbulence structure in drag reducing flow will be introduced. The result of an application study relating to the air conditioning system will be also shown.

  19. Atomic roughness enhanced friction on hydrogenated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yalin; Wu, Xiawa; Martini, Ashlie

    2013-09-01

    Atomic friction on hydrogenated graphene is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Hydrogenation is found to increase friction significantly, and the atomic-level information provided by the simulations reveals that atomic roughness induced by hydrogenation is the primary cause of the friction enhancement. Other proposed mechanisms, specifically adhesion and rigidity, are excluded based on the simulation results and analyses performed using the Prandtl-Tomlinson model. In addition, it is found that friction does not monotonically increase with hydrogen coverage on the graphene surface; instead, a maximum friction is observed at a hydrogen coverage between 5 and 10%.

  20. Development of FDR-AF (Frictional Drag Reduction Anti-Fouling) Marine Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; GCRC-SOP Team

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. In this study, a novel skin-friction reducing marine paint has been developed by mixing fine powder of PEO(PolyEthyleneOxide) with SPC (Self-Polishing Copolymer) AF (Anti-Fouling) paint. The PEO is well known as one of drag reducing agent to exhibit Toms effect, the attenuation of turbulent flows by long chain polymer molecules in the near wall region. The frictional drag reduction has been implemented by injecting such polymer solutions to liquid flows. However, the injection holes have been a significant obstacle to marine application. The present PEO-containing marine paint is proposed as an alternative to realize Toms effect without any hole on the ship surface. The erosion mechanism of SPC paint resin and the subsequent dissolution of PEO enable the controlled release of PEO solution from the coating. Various tests such as towing tank drag measurement of flat plate and turbulence measurement in circulating water tunnel demonstrated over 10% frictional drag reduction compared with conventional AF paint. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP(No. 2011-0030013).

  1. Efficient solution of turbulent incompressible separated flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vittorio Michelassi; Francesco Martelli

    1990-01-01

    A computational method for incompressible separated flows based on two-dimensional approximate factorization is presented. Turbulence effects are accounted for by low-Reynolds number forms of the k-epsilon model. Mass conservation is enforced by the artificial compressibility method. Decoupling and coupling of the equations of motions with the turbulence model equations are investigated. Testing of the coupled solver showed no improvement in

  2. Turbulent flow of gas in fractures

    E-print Network

    Koh, Wong In

    1974-01-01

    was made to determine the variables which affect turbulent flow in fractures and the range in magnitude of the turbulence factors. Successful results were obtained on forty runs with lithologies of cores xanging from sandstone to shale~ with proppant... sises of 40 - 60, 20 - 40 and 10 - 20 mesh and with varying concentration of proppants . The confining pressure was varied for each core up to $, 000 psi step by step. The proppant concentration in each fracture was varied up to a complete monolayer...

  3. Effects of Mach Number and Wall-Temperature Ratio on Turbulent Heat Transfer at Mach Numbers from 3 to 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tendeland, Thorval

    1959-01-01

    Heat-transfer data were evaluated from temperature time histories measured on a cooled cylindrical model with a cone-shaped nose and with turbulent flow at Mach numbers 3.00, 3.44, 4.08, 4.56, and 5.04. The experimental data were compared with calculated values using a modified Reynold's analogy between skin-friction and heat-transfer. Theoretical skin- friction coefficients were calculated using the method of Van Driest the method of Sommer and Short. The heat-transfer data obtained from the model were found to correlate when the 'T' method of Sommer and Short was used. The increase in turbulent heat-transfer rate with a reduction in wall to freestream temperature ratio was of the same order of magnitude as has been found for the turbulent skin-friction coefficient.

  4. Turbulent flow in graphene

    E-print Network

    Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2010-06-05

    We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.

  5. THE FIRST TURBULENT COMBUSTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARL H. GIBSON

    2005-01-01

    The first turbulent combustion arises in a hot-big-bang cosmological model (Gibson, 2004) where nonlinear exothermic turbulence permitted by quantum mechanics, general relativity, multidimensional superstring theory, and fluid mechanics cascades from Planck to strong-force freeze-out scales with gravity balancing turbulent inertial-vortex forces. Interactions between Planck scale spinning and non-spinning black holes produce high Reynolds number turbulence and temperature mixing with huge

  6. Friction, Wear, and Surface Damage of Metals as Affected by Solid Surface Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisson, Edmond E; Johnson, Robert L; Swikert, Max A; Godfrey, Douglas

    1956-01-01

    As predicted by friction theory, experiments showed that friction and surface damage of metals can be reduced by solid surface films. The ability of materials to form surface films that prevent welding was a very important factor in wear of dry and boundary lubricated surfaces. Films of graphitic carbon on cast irons, nio on nickel alloys, and feo and fe sub 3 o sub 4 on ferrous materials were found to be beneficial. Abrasive films such as fe sub 2 o sub 3 or moo sub 3 were definitely detrimental. It appears that the importance of oxide films to friction and wear processes has not been fully appreciated.

  7. Formation of low-speed ribbons in turbulent channel flow subject to a spanwise travelling wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L. P.; Choi, K. S.; Fan, B. C.

    2011-12-01

    Turbulent flow control with skin-friction drag reduction subject to spanwise travelling wave (STW) induced by Lorentz force is investigated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) in a channel. The results show that STW produces a set of distinct longitudinal vortices, suppressing the regeneration of near-wall turbulence structures. It is also shown that the formation of low-speed ribbons by STW is associated with these longitudinal vortices, which weaken the sweep and ejection events in the near-wall region. At the same time, the production of counter-gradient Reynolds stresses is increased, leading to up to 30% of turbulent drag reduction by STW.

  8. A study of turbulence models for prediction of transitional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abid, Ridha

    1990-01-01

    Calculations of two-dimensional transitional boundary layer flows in zero and favorable pressure gradients are presented. The major focus is on the evaluation of current turbulence models to predict quantities such as skin-friction and heat transfer coefficients. Three turbulence models using the mixing length concept along with a one-equation model are considered. These models are tested by comparison with the experiments of Blair and Werle, who investigated flows over a heated flat plate for various levels of free-stream turbulence.

  9. Hypersonic laminar–turbulent transition on circular cones and scramjet forebodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Schneider

    2004-01-01

    Laminar–turbulent transition in hypersonic boundary layers has a dramatic effect on heat transfer, skin friction, and separation. This effect is critical to reentry vehicles and airbreathing cruise vehicles, yet the physics of the transition process is not yet well enough understood to be used for predictive purposes. The literature for transition on circular cones and scramjet forebodies is reviewed, from

  10. Turbulence and Holography

    E-print Network

    Vishnu Jejjala; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng; Chia-Hsiung Tze

    2008-06-30

    We examine the interplay between recent advances in quantum gravity and the problem of turbulence. In particular, we argue that in the gravitational context the phenomenon of turbulence is intimately related to the properties of spacetime foam. In this framework we discuss the relation of turbulence and holography and the interpretation of the Kolmogorov scaling in the quantum gravitational setting.

  11. Quantum Gravity and Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Vishnu Jejjala; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng; Chia-Hsiung Tze

    2010-05-18

    We apply recent advances in quantum gravity to the problem of turbulence. Adopting the AdS/CFT approach we propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. In the gravitational context, turbulence is intimately related to the properties of spacetime, or quantum, foam.

  12. A numerical treatment of steady, frictional boundary currents in a homogeneous ocean applied to a semi-enclosed basin

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Clifford Albert

    1967-01-01

    = Tee. ns A 8;. 'vt L'n s-sr s iiF in ps: tial fulf'llr . ent ef th, . re:Iu;reorients or the de~sec of Ivfr, STISR OF SCI' 3 'Lr JQ' sion Suhj ct: ~ Ei SIC A L O'C 4, Q+l OGRAlof'Y A NUMERICAL TREATMENT OF STEADY, FRICTIONAL BOUNDARY CURRENTS IN A... shape of a homogeneous ocean of constant depth. Neglecting nonlinear field accelerations, a frictional model is formulated which allov;s for vertical and horizontal exchange of sno- r. eniuna due to turbulence. Two limiting cases of this complete...

  13. TURBULENCE EFFECTS ON THE CHARGE CAPTURE PROCESS IN WEAK TURBULENT PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Sang-Chul; Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.k [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-10

    The turbulence effects on the charge capture process are investigated in weak turbulent plasmas. The effective interaction potential taking into account the correction factor to the nonlinear dielectric function due to the fluctuation of the electric fields and Bohr-Lindhard model are employed in order to obtain the electron capture radius and electron capture cross section in turbulent plasmas. It is shown that the influence of the fluctuating electric fields in the plasma considerably decreases the electron charge capture radius and electron capture probability. Hence, we have found that the turbulence effect strongly suppresses the electron capture cross section in weak turbulent plasmas. In addition, it is found that the electron capture radius and electron cross section decrease with an increase of the projectile energy.

  14. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  15. An Assessment of Oil Film Interferometry to Measure Skin Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monkewitz, Peter A.; Segalini, Antonio; Rüedi, Jean-Daniel

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, the independent measurement of wall shear stress with oil film interferometry has led to a step increase in the understanding of turbulent boundary layers. However, while many arguments depend critically on a precise knowledge of the skin friction, the systematic errors of the oil film technique are not well known. In particular the basic theory underlying the technique has essentially not evolved since it was first proposed by Tanner & Blows (J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., vol. 9, 1976, p. 194). The purpose of this study is to elucidate the dominant systematic error of the classical oil film method. We derive the corrections to the basic Tanner & Blows similarity solution for the film development in zero pressure gradient boundary layers and validate the analysis experimentally. This allows to formulate "best practice guidelines" for the oil film technique that help push uncertainties below 1%.

  16. Creep and friction of ice.

    PubMed

    Tabor, D; Walker, J C

    1970-10-10

    The creep of polycrystalline ice in uniaxial compression has been studied over a very wide range of strain rates. The creep is far too slow to explain the friction of ice observed at very low sliding speeds, but experiments with single crystals show that sliding produces recrystallization at the interface, the ice presenting an orientation favourable to easy glide in directions tangential to the interface. PMID:16058445

  17. Joining wood by friction welding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Stamm; J. Natterer; P. Navi

    2005-01-01

    At the Chair of Timber Constructions of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) tests were carried out\\u000a to join wooden work pieces by friction welding without any additional welding deposit. It could be determined that this kind\\u000a of technology, which is mainly used for thermoplastics and metal, can also be applied to wood. Tests were carried out

  18. Friction Stir Process Mapping Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kooney, Alex; Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In FSW (friction stir welding), the weld process performance for a given weld joint configuration and tool setup is summarized on a 2-D plot of RPM vs. IPM. A process envelope is drawn within the map to identify the range of acceptable welds. The sweet spot is selected as the nominal weld schedule. The nominal weld schedule is characterized in the expected manufacturing environment. The nominal weld schedule in conjunction with process control ensures a consistent and predictable weld performance.

  19. Modelling of friction stir welding

    E-print Network

    Colegrove, Paul Andrew

    articles and conference papers have been produced: H. R. Shercliff and P. A. Colegrove: 'Modelling of Friction Stir Welding', in 'Mathematical Modelling of Weld Phenomena 6', (ed. H. Celjak and H. K. H. D. Bhadeshia), 927-974; 2002, London, Maney... to the heat equation may suffice. Grong90 successfully implemented this approach to the metallurgical modelling of arc welds. The following section describes how thermal models can calculate the temperature and heat flow in FSW and a later section shows...

  20. Factoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Taylor

    2010-10-19

    In this lesson we will explore prime numbers and factors A prime number has only two factors, 1 and itself. The Greek scholar, Eratosthenes of Cyrene lived from approximately 275 to 195 BC. He is know for being the first to have computed the size of the Earth and served as the director of the famous library in

  1. Factorize

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students find factor pairs for a given number and then create a rectangle with those dimensions on a coordinate plane. This activity allows students to explore factorizations of numbers and how they relate to rectangles with that number as an area. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

  2. Mechanics of Turbulence of Multicomponent Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Kolesnichenko, Aleksander V.

    2002-02-01

    Turbulence in multicomponent reacting gas mixtures is an important mechanism underlying numerous natural phenomena closely related to the study of our space environment. This book develops a new mathematical approach for modelling multicomponent gas turbulence that adequately describes the combined processes of dynamics and heat and mass transfer when chemical kinetics and turbulent mixing are equally important. The developed models include the evolutionary transfer equations for the single-point second correlation moments of turbulent fluctuations of thermohydrodynamical parameters. The phenomenological approach to the closure problem in hydrodynamic equations of mean motion at the level of the first order moments is based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and enables defining relationships in a more general form as compared to those conventionally deduced using the mixing path concept. Based on the developed approach, turbulent exchange factors for a planetary upper atmosphere are evaluated, and a turbulent model of a protoplanetary accretion gas-dust disk involving heat and mass transfer and coagulation is also considered. As compared to previously published books on the problem of turbulence, this book deals, for the first time, with the complicated models of reacting gas mixtures. It is intended for graduate and postgraduate students in the fields of fluid gas dynamics, astrophysics, space physics, planetary sciences, and aeronomy, and especially for those dealing with computer modelling of the processes in such natural media. The book may also be of interest to specialists in the relevant fields of ecology, engineering, and material processing.

  3. Friction enhancement via micro-patterned wet elastomer adhesives on small intestinal surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiwoon Kwon; Eugene Cheung; Metin Sitti

    2006-01-01

    A micro-pillar-based silicone rubber adhesive coated with a thin silicone oil layer is investigated in this paper for developing friction-based clamping mechanisms for robotic endoscopic microcapsules. These adhesives are shown to enhance the frictional force between the capsule and the intestinal wall by a factor of about seven over a non-patterned flat elastomer material. In this study, tests performed on

  4. Shape-dependent adhesion and friction of Au nanoparticles probed with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, Youngji; Hong, Jong Wook; Lee, Hyunsoo; Han, Sang Woo; Park, Jeong Young

    2015-03-01

    The relation between surface structure and friction and adhesion is a long-standing question in tribology. Tuning the surface structure of the exposed facets of metal nanoparticles is enabled by shape control. We investigated the effect of the shape of Au nanoparticles on friction and adhesion. Two nanoparticle systems, cubic nanoparticles with a low-index (100) surface and hexoctahedral nanoparticles with a high-index (321) surface, were used as model nanoparticle surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was used to probe the nanoscale friction and adhesion on the nanoparticle surface. Before removing the capping layers, the friction results include contributions from both the geometric factor and the presence of capping layers. After removing the capping layers, we can see the exclusive effect of the surface atomic structure while the geometric effect is maintained. We found that after removing the capping layer, the cubic Au nanoparticles exhibited higher adhesion and friction, compared with cubes capped with layers covering 25% and 70%, respectively. On the other hand, the adhesion and friction of hexoctahedral Au nanoparticles decreased after removing the capping layers, compared with nanoparticles with capping layers. The difference in adhesion and friction forces between the bare Au surfaces and Au nanoparticles with capping layers cannot be explained by geometric factors, such as the slope of the nanoparticle surfaces. The higher adhesion and friction forces on cubic nanoparticles after removing the capping layers is associated with the atomic structure of (100) and (321) (i.e., the flat (100) surfaces of the cubic nanoparticles have a larger contact area, compared with the rough (321) surfaces of the hexoctahedral nanoparticles). This study implies an intrinsic relation between atomic structure and nanomechanical properties, with potential applications for controlling nanoscale friction and adhesion via colloid chemistry.

  5. Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rémi Revellin; John R. Thome

    2007-01-01

    Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime

  6. Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remi Revellin; John R. Thome

    2007-01-01

    Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar

  7. Friction-Induced Amorphization with ZDDP—An EXAFS Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Martin; M. Belin; J. L. Mansot; H. Dexpert; P. Lagarde

    1986-01-01

    Many experimental works are concerned with the microinvestigation of interface bodies created during the wear process (especially wear particles). Previous works wing STEM have shown that ZDDP wear protection is associated with the structureless nature of wear debris, so that friction-induced amorphization was a key factor to obtain the antiwear conditions.In this paper, the synchrotron radiation, EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption

  8. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: Direct simulation from laminar through gradual transition to fully developed turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J.; Baltzer, Jon R.

    2015-01-01

    The precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody’s correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition. PMID:26080447

  9. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: Direct simulation from laminar through gradual transition to fully developed turbulence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Adrian, Ronald J; Baltzer, Jon R

    2015-06-30

    The precise dynamics of breakdown in pipe transition is a century-old unresolved problem in fluid mechanics. We demonstrate that the abruptness and mysteriousness attributed to the Osborne Reynolds pipe transition can be partially resolved with a spatially developing direct simulation that carries weakly but finitely perturbed laminar inflow through gradual rather than abrupt transition arriving at the fully developed turbulent state. Our results with this approach show during transition the energy norms of such inlet perturbations grow exponentially rather than algebraically with axial distance. When inlet disturbance is located in the core region, helical vortex filaments evolve into large-scale reverse hairpin vortices. The interaction of these reverse hairpins among themselves or with the near-wall flow when they descend to the surface from the core produces small-scale hairpin packets, which leads to breakdown. When inlet disturbance is near the wall, certain quasi-spanwise structure is stretched into a Lambda vortex, and develops into a large-scale hairpin vortex. Small-scale hairpin packets emerge near the tip region of the large-scale hairpin vortex, and subsequently grow into a turbulent spot, which is itself a local concentration of small-scale hairpin vortices. This vortex dynamics is broadly analogous to that in the boundary layer bypass transition and in the secondary instability and breakdown stage of natural transition, suggesting the possibility of a partial unification. Under parabolic base flow the friction factor overshoots Moody's correlation. Plug base flow requires stronger inlet disturbance for transition. Accuracy of the results is demonstrated by comparing with analytical solutions before breakdown, and with fully developed turbulence measurements after the completion of transition. PMID:26080447

  10. Turbulent boundary-layer control with spanwise travelling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, Richard D.; Choi, Kwing-So

    2011-12-01

    It has been demonstrated through numerical simulations using Lorentz forcing that spanwise travelling waves on turbulent wall flows can lead to a skin-friction drag reduction on the order of 30%. As an aeronautical application of this innovative flow control technique, we have investigated into the use of Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators to generate spanwise travelling waves in air. The near-wall structures modified by the spanwise travelling waves were studied using the PIV technique in a wind tunnel, while the associated turbulence statistics were carefully documented using hot-wire anemometry. We observed the spreading of low-speed fluid by the spanwise travelling streamwise vortices, which seems to have greatly attenuated the turbulence production process. This is very much in line with the finding of DNS studies, where wide low-speed ribbons replaced the low-speed streaks.

  11. Assessment of RANS-based turbulent combustion models for prediction of gas turbine emissions: turbulence model and reaction mechanism effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Nanduri; I. B. Celik; P. A. Strakey; D. R. Parsons

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to assess current, commonly applied turbulence and combustion models with respect to their performance in gas-turbine combustion (GTC). Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-based turbulence and chemistry models are two primary factors influencing the uncertainty in predicting turbulent combustion characteristics, especially for GTC. RANS-based methods are the design tools of choice in the gas turbine industry

  12. Inhomogeneous distribution of droplets in cloud turbulence

    E-print Network

    Itzhak Fouxon; Yongnam Park; Roei Harduf; Changhoon Lee

    2014-10-30

    We solve the problem of spatial distribution of inertial particles that sediment in turbulent flow with small ratio of acceleration of fluid particles to acceleration of gravity $g$. The particles are driven by linear drag and have arbitrary inertia. The pair-correlation function of concentration obeys a power-law in distance with negative exponent. Divergence at zero signifies singular distribution of particles in space. Independently of particle size the exponent is ratio of integral of energy spectrum of turbulence times the wavenumber to $g$ times numerical factor. We find Lyapunov exponents and confirm predictions by direct numerical simulations of Navier-Stokes turbulence. The predictions include typical case of water droplets in clouds. This significant progress in the study of turbulent transport is possible because strong gravity makes the particle's velocity at a given point unique.

  13. Effect of trace moisture on friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2010-03-01

    Although the effects of humidity on friction have been widely studied, much less is known about friction behavior when only trace level moisture is present on a surface. Trace moisture is particularly important for hydrophilic surfaces because such surfaces will be often terminated with dissociated water even if they are transferred to nominally dry conditions. Here we demonstrate that friction of hydrophilic surfaces increases in the presence of trace moisture due to formation of hydrogen bonds across the interface. Using first principle calculations we discover that frictional instability during sliding is related to rotation of hydroxyl groups, which are bonded across the interface via hydrogen bonding. Using theoretical analysis based on Prandtl-Tomlinson's model we quantify free energy released during such instabilities and we predict that velocity dependence of trace moisture friction follows the same trend as dry friction.

  14. Switching friction with thermal- responsive gels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Cai, Meirong; Pei, Xiaowei; Liang, Yongmin; Zhou, Feng

    2013-11-01

    The thermosensitive graphene oxide (GO)/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM) composite hydrogels are prepared, and their tribological properties in response to external stimuli are evaluated. The frictional coefficient of the hydrogels is closely related to the gel composition and ambient temperature. When the gel is in swelling state below the low critical solution temperature (LCST), it shows ultra-low friction and exhibits high friction at a shrunk state above the LCST. The huge difference of frictional coefficient under two states can be reversibly switched many times by altering the temperature. The incorporation of a nonthermal sensitive monomer into pNIPAM could change the LCST and thus the transformation point of frictional coefficient can be altered. These reversible and tunable frictional hydrogels have potential application in the design of intelligent control equipment. PMID:24249089

  15. Anomalous electron-ion energy coupling in electron drift wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei

    Turbulence is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, and it is well known that turbulence couples energy input to dissipation by cascade processes. Plasma turbulence play a critical role in tokamak confinement. Magnetized plasma turbulence is quasi 2D, anisotropic, wave like and two fluid (i.e. electrons and ions) in structure. Thus, weakly collisional plasma turbulence can mediate electron and ion energy transfer. The issue of anomalous electron and ion energy coupling is particularly important for low collisionality, electron heated plasmas, such as ITER. In this work, we reconsider the classic problem of turbulent heating and energy transfer pathways in drift wave turbulence. The total turbulent heating, composed of quasilinear electron cooling, quasilinear ion heating, nonlinear ion heating and zonal flow frictional heating, is analyzed. In Chapter 2, the electron and ion energy exchange via linear wave and particle resonance will be computed. To address net heating, we show the turbulent heating in an annulus arises due to a wave energy flux differential across this region. We show this net heating is proportional to the Reynolds work on the zonal flow. Zonal flow friction heats ions, thus the turbulence and zonal flow interaction enters as an important energy transfer channel. Since zonal flows are nonlinearly generated, it follows that we should apply weak turbulence theory to calculate the nonlinear ion turbulent heating via the virtual mode resonance in the electron drift wave turbulence, which will be discussed in Chapter 3. We defines a new collisionless turbulent energy transfer channel through nonlinear Landau damping in the electron and ion energy coupling process. The result shows that nonlinear ion heating can exceed quasilinear ion heating, so that nonlinear heating becomes the principal collisionless wave energy dissipation channel in electron drift wave turbulence. This follows since the beat mode resonates with the bulk of the ion distribution, in contrast to the linear resonance which is located on the tail. This result also suggests that zonal flow shearing is not necessarily the only saturation mechanism of importance, especially for very low collisionality. This observation brings a new perspective on electron heat transport where ions, play a role as an energy "sink" in a collisionless plasma, such as ITER. In addition, it is shown that the electron turbulent energy transfer to ions in a collisionless plasma can be the same order as electron heat transport losses. Thus, it is necessary to consider the influence of collisionless energy transfer to determine the total energy budget in ITER.

  16. Frictional behavior of atomically thin sheets: hexagonal-shaped graphene islands grown on copper by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Egberts, Philip; Han, Gang Hee; Liu, Xin Z; Johnson, A T Charlie; Carpick, Robert W

    2014-05-27

    Single asperity friction experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been conducted on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene grown on polycrystalline copper foils. Graphene substantially lowers the friction force experienced by the sliding asperity of a silicon AFM tip compared to the surrounding oxidized copper surface by a factor ranging from 1.5 to 7 over loads from the adhesive minimum up to 80 nN. No damage to the graphene was observed over this range, showing that friction force microscopy serves as a facile, high contrast probe for identifying the presence of graphene on Cu. Consistent with studies of epitaxially grown, thermally grown, and mechanically exfoliated graphene films, the friction force measured between the tip and these CVD-prepared films depends on the number of layers of graphene present on the surface and reduces friction in comparison to the substrate. Friction results on graphene indicate that the layer-dependent friction properties result from puckering of the graphene sheet around the sliding tip. Substantial hysteresis in the normal force dependence of friction is observed with repeated scanning without breaking contact with a graphene-covered region. Because of the hysteresis, friction measured on graphene changes with time and maximum applied force, unless the tip slides over the edge of the graphene island or contact with the surface is broken. These results also indicate that relatively weak binding forces exist between the copper foil and these CVD-grown graphene sheets. PMID:24862034

  17. Numerical simulation of friction stir welding process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongun Kim; Harsha Badarinarayan; Ill Ryu; Ji Hoon Kim; Chongmin Kim; Kazutaka Okamoto; R. H. Wagoner; Kwansoo Chung

    2009-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical simulations of the friction stir butt welding and friction stir spot welding processes were performed for\\u000a AA5083-H18 sheets, utilizing commercial FVM codes which are based on the Eulerian formulation. For the friction stir butt\\u000a welding process, the computational fluid dynamics code, STAR-CCM+, was utilized under the steady state condition. Temperature\\u000a and strain rate histories along the material flow were

  18. Skin friction fields on delta wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodiga, S. A.; Liu, Tianshu

    2009-12-01

    The normalized skin friction fields on a 65° delta wing and a 76°/40° double-delta wing are measured by using a global luminescent oil-film skin friction meter. The detailed topological structures of skin friction fields on the wings are revealed for different angles of attack and the important features are detected such as reattachment lines, secondary separation lines, vortex bursting and vortex interaction. The comparisons with the existing flow visualization results are discussed.

  19. Theory and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication

    E-print Network

    Mueser, Martin

    .2 Including Surface Roughness and Elastic Deformations . . . . . . . . . . . 80 3.3 Imposing Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 #12;Theory and Simulation of Friction and Lubrication 67 Molecular dynamics (MD) and related

  20. Skin friction measurement in complex flows using thin oil film techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Grant NAG2-261 was initiated to support a program of research to study complex flows that occur in flight and laboratory experiments by building, testing and optimizing an on-board technique for direct measurement of surface shear stress using thin oil film techniques. The program of research has proceeded under the supervision of the NASA Ames Research Center and with further cooperation from the NASA Ames-Dryden and NASA Langley Research Centers. In accordance with the original statement of work, the following research milestones were accomplished: (1) design and testing of an internally mounted one-directional skin friction meter to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept; (2) design and construction of a compact instrument capable of measuring skin friction in two directions; (3) study of transitional and fully turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with and without longitudinal pressure gradients utilizing the compact two-directional skin friction meter; (4) study of the interaction between a turbulent boundary layer and a shock wave generated by a compression corner using the two-directional meter; and (5) flight qualification of the compact meter and accompanying electronic and pneumatic systems, preliminary installation into flight test fixture.

  1. A new turbulence model for predicting fluid flow and heat transfer in separating and reattaching flow. 1: Flow field calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Abe; T. Kondoh; Y. Nagano

    1994-01-01

    To calculate complex turbulent flows with separation and heat transfer, we have developed a new turbulence model for flow field, which is modified from the latest low-Reynolds-number kappa-epsilon model. The main improvement is achieved by the introduction of the Kolmogorov velocity scale, upsilon(sub c) equivalent to (nu epsilon)(exp 0.25), instead of the friction velocity upsilon(sub t), to account for the

  2. Turbulence Small Scale Properties Investigated by Light Scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antar Ghassan Y

    2001-01-01

    The small scales properties of turbulent density fluctuations are experimentally investigated using light scattering. This technique yields the Fourier transform of the density fluctuations. The fully developed turbulent flow is a compressed air-jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The deviation of the signal probability distribution from a Gaussian is quantified using the flatness factor that tends to 3 with decreasing

  3. Theoretical analysis of thermoviscoelastic contact between friction lining and wire rope in mine friction hoists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-xing PENG; Zhen-cai ZHU; Guo-an CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Serious accidents of mine hoists caused by high-speed sliding between friction lining and wire rope are often seen in coal mines. In order to solve this problem, we analyzed the contact characteristics between friction lining and wire rope. Then we carried out a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to explain the change in mechanical properties of the friction lining as function

  4. Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    E-print Network

    Chapman, S C

    2009-01-01

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide \\textit{in situ} observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterises this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum -with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of $\\sim 2$ in power- provides a test of this invariance.

  5. Generalized Similarity in Finite Range Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S. C.; Nicol, R. M. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum - with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approx2 in power - provides a test of this invariance.

  6. Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S C; Nicol, R M

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum--with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approximately 2 in power--provides a test of this invariance. PMID:20366193

  7. Range of turbulence-negligible propagation of Gaussian Schell-model array beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangli Ai; Youquan Dan

    2011-01-01

    For linear Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) array beams, the range of turbulence-negligible propagation, in which all of the spatial and angular spreading and the beam propagation factor increasing due to turbulence can be neglected, has been investigated in detail. It is shown that this range of GSM array beams increases with decreasing turbulent parameter and coherent parameter, and depends on the

  8. Turbulent Inflow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.

    1996-01-01

    In the present research, tilt rotor aeroacoustics have been studied experimentally and computationally. Experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. To date, these flow measurements are the only ones in existence for a hovering tilt rotor. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3) basic configuration changes (increasing the rotor/rotor spacing, reducing the rotor plane/wing clearance, operating the rotors out of phase). Also, an approximation to Sikorsky's Variable Diameter Tilt Rotor (VDTR) configuration was tested, and some flow measurements were made on a semi-span configuration of the model. Acoustic predictions were made using LOWSON.M, a Mathematica code. This hover prediction code, from HOVER.FOR, used blade element theory for the aerodynamics, and Prandtl's Vortex theory to model the wake, along with empirical formulas for the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, and stall. Aerodynamic models were developed from 7-hole pressure probe measurements of the mean velocity into the model rotors. LOWSON.M modeled a rotor blade as a single force and source/sink combination separated in the chordwise direction, at an effective blade radius. Spanwise, Mach-weighted integrals were used to find the equivalent forces and equivalent source strengths.

  9. Turbulence simulation in diverse conditions for FSO Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuksel, Heba; Meric, Hasim

    2012-10-01

    Simulation of beam propagation through turbulent media has always been a tricky subject when it comes to moderate-to-strong turbulent regimes. Creating a well controlled turbulent environment is beneficial as a fast and a practical approach when it comes to testing the optical wireless communication systems in diverse atmospheric conditions. Turbulent media is created using multiple phase screens each having controlled random variations in its frequency and power while the propagated beam is calculated using Fresnel diffraction method. The effect of the turbulent media is added to the propagated beam using modified Von Karman spectrum. Created scintillation screens are tested and compared with the experimental data which are gathered in different turbulence regimes within various atmospheric conditions. We believe that the general drawback of the beam propagation simulation is the difference in terms of spatial distribution and sequential phase textures. To overcome these two challenges we calculate the Aperture Averaging Factors to create more realistic results. In this manner, it is possible create more viable turbulent like scintillations thus the relationship between the turbulence strength and the simulated turbulence parameters are distinctly available. Our simulation gives us an elusive insight on the real atmospheric turbulent media. It improves our understanding on parameters that are involved in real time intensity fluctuations that occur in every wireless optical communication system.

  10. A review of the physics of ice surface friction and the development of ice skating.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Our walking and running movement patterns require friction between shoes and ground. The surface of ice is characterised by low friction in several naturally occurring conditions, and compromises our typical locomotion pattern. Ice skates take advantage of this slippery nature of ice; the first ice skates were made more than 4000 years ago, and afforded the development of a very efficient form of human locomotion. This review presents an overview of the physics of ice surface friction, and discusses the most relevant factors that can influence ice skates' dynamic friction coefficient. It also presents the main stages in the development of ice skating, describes the associated implications for exercise physiology, and shows the extent to which ice skating performance improved through history. This article illustrates how technical and materials' development, together with empirical understanding of muscle biomechanics and energetics, led to one of the fastest forms of human powered locomotion. PMID:24950115

  11. Wear and friction of oxidation-resistant mechanical carbon graphites at 650 C in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. P.; Wisnader, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the friction and wear properties of experimental carbon-graphites. Hemispherically tipped carbon-graphite rider specimens were tested in sliding contact with rotating Inconel X-750 disks in air. A surface speed of 1.33 m/sec, a load of 500 g, and a specimen temperature of 650 C were used. Results indicate: (1) hardness is not a major factor in determining friction and wear under the conditions of these studies. (2) Friction and wear as low as or lower than those observed for a good commercial seal material were attained with some of the experimental materials studied. (3) The inclusion of boron carbide (as an oxidation inhibitor) has a strong influence on wear rate. (4) Phosphate treatment reduces the friction coefficient when boron carbide is not present in the base material.

  12. Frictional behavior of large displacement experimental faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Blanpied, M.L.; Weeks, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The coefficient of friction and velocity dependence of friction of initially bare surfaces and 1-mm-thick simulated fault gouges (400 mm at 25??C and 25 MPa normal stress. Steady state negative friction velocity dependence and a steady state fault zone microstructure are achieved after ???18 mm displacement, and an approximately constant strength is reached after a few tens of millimeters of sliding on initially bare surfaces. Simulated fault gouges show a large but systematic variation of friction, velocity dependence of friction, dilatancy, and degree of localization with displacement. At short displacement (<10 mm), simulated gouge is strong, velocity strengthening and changes in sliding velocity are accompanied by relatively large changes in dilatancy rate. With continued displacement, simulated gouges become progressively weaker and less velocity strengthening, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate decreases, and deformation becomes localized into a narrow basal shear which at its most localized is observed to be velocity weakening. With subsequent displacement, the fault restrengthens, returns to velocity strengthening, or to velocity neutral, the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate becomes larger, and deformation becomes distributed. Correlation of friction, velocity dependence of friction and of dilatancy rate, and degree of localization at all displacements in simulated gouge suggest that all quantities are interrelated. The observations do not distinguish the independent variables but suggest that the degree of localization is controlled by the fault strength, not by the friction velocity dependence. The friction velocity dependence and velocity dependence of dilatancy rate can be used as qualitative measures of the degree of localization in simulated gouge, in agreement with previous studies. Theory equating the friction velocity dependence of simulated gouge to the sum of the friction velocity dependence of bare surfaces and the velocity dependence of dilatancy rate of simulated gouge fails to quantitatively account for the experimental observations.

  13. Free surface turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, D. W.; Trevino, G.

    1986-02-01

    When turbulent jets or wakes interact with a free surface, the turbulent eddies are apparently damped in the vertical direction and extended in the horizontal direction. Turbulent velocities are being measured for this zone of interaction to enable verifying turbulence modelling techniques. A two-dimensional jet is formed by pumping water through a rectangular slit into a channel filled with still water. Hot-film anemometry techniques measure velocity fluctuations in the jet and in the immediate neighborhood outside the jet. Some effects of jet flow rate and jet submergence have been studied. The raw data are sampled time records of the anemometer output voltages obtained at different positions in the jet. These time records together with the sensor calibration information are analyzed using digital signal processing techniques. The mean velocities, turbulence intensities, and velocity correlation functions are being calculated, and the results used to develop a two-point closure scheme and a mathematical model for jet flow turbulence.

  14. Rolling friction and energy dissipation in a spinning disc.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daolin; Liu, Caishan; Zhao, Zhen; Zhang, Hongjian

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of both experimental and theoretical investigations for the dynamics of a steel disc spinning on a horizontal rough surface. With a pair of high-speed cameras, a stereoscopic vision method is adopted to perform omnidirectional measurements for the temporal evolution of the disc's motion. The experiment data allow us to detail the dynamics of the disc, and consequently to quantify its energy. From our experimental observations, it is confirmed that rolling friction is a primary factor responsible for the dissipation of the energy. Furthermore, a mathematical model, in which the rolling friction is characterized by a resistance torque proportional to the square of precession rate, is also proposed. By employing the model, we perform qualitative analysis and numerical simulations. Both of them provide results that precisely agree with our experimental findings. PMID:25197246

  15. Implementation of tactile feedback by modifying the perceived friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biet, M.; Giraud, F.; Lemaire-Semail, B.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes implementation and initial evaluation of variable friction displays. We first analyse a device that comprises a stator of an ultrasonic motor supplied by only one channel. In this way, the stator does not induce any rotative movement but creates a slippery feeling on the stator's surface. Considering the range of frequency and amplitude needed to obtain this phenomenon, we interpret it as the squeeze film effect, which may be the dominant factor causing an impression of lubrication. This effect is thus able to decrease the friction coefficient between the fingertip and the stator as a function of the vibration amplitude. Moreover, if we add a position sensor, we can create a textured surface by generating alternatively sliding and braking sensations by tuning the vibration amplitude of the wave. Then, based on the principle of the first device, another device is proposed in order to enable a free exploration of the surface, according to ergonomic requirements.

  16. Frictional wave dissipation on a remarkably rough reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Rogers, Justin S.; Koweek, David; Dunbar, Robert B.

    2015-05-01

    We present a week of observations of wave dissipation on the south forereef of Palmyra Atoll. Using wave measurements made in 6.2 m and 11.2 m of water offshore of the surf zone, we computed energy fluxes and near-bottom velocity. Equating the divergence of the shoreward energy flux to its dissipation by bottom friction and parameterizating dissipation in terms of the root-mean-square velocity cubed, we find that the wave friction factor, fw, for this reef is 1.80 ± 0.07, nearly an order of magnitude larger than values previously found for reefs. We attribute this remarkably high value of fw to the complex canopy structure of the reef, which we believe may be characteristic of healthy reefs. This suggests that healthy reefs with high coral cover may provide greater coastal protection than do degraded reefs with low coral cover.

  17. Multiscale physics-based modeling of friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriten, Melih

    Frictional contacts between solids exist in nature and in a wide range of engineering applications. Friction causes energy loss, and it is the main source of wear and surface degradation which limits the lifetime of mechanical systems. Yet, friction is needed to walk, run, accelerate, slow down or stop moving systems. Whether desirable or not, friction is a very complex physical phenomenon. The behavior of systems with friction is nonlinear, and the physical mechanisms governing friction behavior span a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. A thorough study of friction should employ experimentalists and theoreticians in chemistry, materials science, tribology, mechanics, dynamics, and structural engineering. High spatial and temporal resolutions are required to capture and model essential physics of a frictional contact. However, such a detailed model is impractical in large-scale structural dynamics simulations; especially since frictional contacts can be numerous in a given application. Reduced-order models (ROMs) achieve broader applicability by compromising several aspects and accounting for the important physics. Hence, rather simple Coulomb friction is still the most ubiquitous model in the modeling and simulation literature. As an alternative, a reduced-order friction model built-up from micromechanics of surfaces is proposed in this work. Continuum-scale formulation of pre-sliding friction behavior is combined with material-strength-based friction coefficients to develop a physics-based friction model at asperity-scale. Then, the statistical summation technique is utilized to build a multiscale modeling framework. A novel joint fretting setup is designed for friction experiments in a practical setting, and the developed models are tested. Both asperity and rough surface friction models show good agreement with experimental data. The influences of materials, surface roughness and contact contamination on the friction are also studied. Finally, the developed models are incorporated in to a simple dynamical system to illustrate broader applicability. The models proposed in this work account for loading-history dependence, partial slip, gross slip, nonlinear stiffness and energy dissipation characteristics of frictional contacts. In doing so, the models require no curve-fit or look-up parameters. Instead, the formulations are developed from continuum mechanics, and the required parameters can be determined from simple tension/compression and surface roughness tests. In this sense, the developed models are physics-based and predictive. The parameters employed in the models depend on the contact conditions, surface roughness and material properties. For instance, the developed models use a dry-contact formulation at asperity-scale, and the macroscale friction predictions are tested only for dry contacts. However, the multiscale modeling approach can be applied to model the effect of lubrication provided that asperity-scale contact accounts for it. Besides, frictional contacts of certain materials exhibit severe adhesion, cold welding and galling behavior as demonstrated experimentally in this work. If these behaviors are modeled at asperity-scale, then the friction at rough contact scale can be obtained by the same procedure presented in this work. This flexibility is another significant advantage of the proposed modeling approach.

  18. A stable friction compensation scheme for motion control systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangsik Yang

    1992-01-01

    In mechanical positioning control systems, friction phenomenon makes undersirable responses. Friction compensation scheme\\u000a is frequently implemented to the control system together with the friction estimator in order to cancel the effect of the\\u000a friction. However, the error in the estimation of the friction results in undercompensation or overcompensation, which also\\u000a makes undesirable responses. In this paper, a new friction compensation

  19. Turbulence in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V. M.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the astrophysical scenarios in which turbulence plays an important role are discussed in view of the comparative advantages of currently available models of turbulence phenomena; attention is given to a specific model that has undergone continuous refinement since 1985. The desideratum in this inquiry is a turbulence model which incorporates the best features of an a priori deterministic model, as well as a redundant set of results from full numerical simulations for a wide variety of turbulent flows; there should also be a simplification of the former, and an enlargement of the complexities of the latter.

  20. Wave turbulence in magnetohydrodynamics

    E-print Network

    Sebastien Galtier

    2012-01-06

    This chapter reviews the recent progress made mainly during the last two decades on wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD) in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The interplanetary medium and the solar atmosphere are presented as two examples of media where anisotropic wave turbulence is relevant. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of space and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are eventually discussed.

  1. String Theory and Turbulence

    E-print Network

    Vishnu Jejjala; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng; Chia-Hsiung Tze

    2010-05-17

    We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.

  2. Three measuring techniques for assessing the mean wall skin friction in wall-bounded flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoun, E.-S.; Jehring, L.; Egbers, C.

    2014-04-01

    The present paper aims at evaluating the mean wall skin friction data in laminar and turbulent boundary layer flows obtained from two optical and one thermal measuring techniques, namely, laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA), oil-film interferometry (OFI), and surface hot-film anemometry (SHFA), respectively. A comparison among the three techniques is presented, indicating close agreement in the mean wall skin friction data obtained, directly, from both the OFI and the LDA near-wall mean velocity profiles. On the other hand, the SHFA, markedly, over estimates the mean wall skin friction by 3.5-11.7% when compared with both the LDA and the OFI data, depending on the thermal conductivity of the substrate and glue material, probe calibration, probe contamination, temperature drift and Reynolds number. Satisfactory agreement, however, is observed among all three measuring techniques at higher Reynolds numbers, Re x >106, and within ±5% with empirical relations extracted from the literature. In addition, accurate velocity data within the inertial sublayer obtained using the LDA supports the applicability of the Clauser method to evaluate the wall skin friction when appropriate values for the constants of the logarithmic line are utilized.

  3. Designing LES of the High Reynolds Surface Layer to Account for Numerical Friction in the Algorithm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, James; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Churchfield, Matthew; Lavely, Adam; Paterson, Eric; Moriarty, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    Numerical friction stabilizes large-eddy simulation (LES), but also impacts accuracy. We explore this issue using a theory (Brasseur & Wei 2010) where the LES is designed in a 3-parameter space that quantifies the level of friction in the SFS stress model (ReLES) , the relative content of resolved to SFS stress (?) , and surface layer resolution. To achieve law-of-the-wall in the mean, the LES must be in the ``high-accuracy zone'' (HAZ) of the ? - ReLES parameter space. Using rough-wall channel flow and atmospheric boundary layer LES, we analyze simulations that are identical except for spectral vs. finite volume (FV) algorithms. Numerical friction shifts the LES away from the HAZ in the ? - ReLES parameter space consistent with changes in mean shear-rate. The effective low pass filter from numerical friction shifts the total stress from resolved to subfilter-scale contributions, and effect that is more apparent when the spectral version of the LES is in the HAZ. A consequence is the enhancement of streamwise coherence in turbulence structure, particularly apparent in the integral scales. We shall discuss the requirements to adjust the FV LES to match a corresponding spectral LES in the HAZ, and differences in efficiency and accuracy. Support: NSF, DOE.

  4. Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction.

    PubMed

    Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel 'ribs' inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ?-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ? of the order of 10. Further increase in ? is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ? in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634

  5. More about fibre friction and its measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Emin Yuksekkay

    2009-01-01

    Unfortunately, the classical empirical friction laws do not hold true for fibrous and viscoelastic materials comprising most of the textile fibres. In the second half of the twentieth century, fibre surfaces have been studied by many distinguished scientists who were able to complete numerous researches for the frictional characteristics of different types of fibres. Most of the researchers have aimed

  6. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  7. Wiping Metal Transfer in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that as the friction stir pin-tool moves along a weld seam the displacement of metal takes place by a wiping action at the surface of a plug of metal that rotates with the tool. The wiping model is explained and some consequences for the friction stir welding process are drawn.

  8. The Friction and Lubrication of Polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Cohen; D. Tabor

    1966-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the friction of a typical polar polymer, nylon, and a typical non-polar polymer, polyethylene. The friction of unlubricated surfaces varies with load and geometry in a manner that can be explained in terms of the multi-asperity model of Howell & Lodge (1954), modified to allow for a deformation mode that is intermediate between elastic

  9. Internally architectured materials with directionally asymmetric friction

    PubMed Central

    Bafekrpour, Ehsan; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena; Molotnikov, Andrey; Estrin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Internally Architectured Materials (IAMs) that exhibit different friction forces for sliding in the opposite directions are proposed. This is achieved by translating deformation normal to the sliding plane into a tangential force in a manner that is akin to a toothbrush with inclined bristles. Friction asymmetry is attained by employing a layered material or a structure with parallel ‘ribs’ inclined to the direction of sliding. A theory of directionally asymmetric friction is presented, along with prototype IAMs designed, fabricated and tested. The friction anisotropy (the ?-coefficient) is characterised by the ratio of the friction forces for two opposite directions of sliding. It is further demonstrated that IAM can possess very high levels of friction anisotropy, with ? of the order of 10. Further increase in ? is attained by modifying the shape of the ribs to provide them with directionally dependent bending stiffness. Prototype IAMs produced by 3D printing exhibit truly giant friction asymmetry, with ? in excess of 20. A novel mechanical rectifier, which can convert oscillatory movement into unidirectional movement by virtue of directionally asymmetric friction, is proposed. Possible applications include locomotion in a constrained environment and energy harvesting from oscillatory noise and vibrations. PMID:26040634

  10. Financing Frictions and Firm Dynamics Ozge Gokbayrak

    E-print Network

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    , value firms and small firms are dom- inantly composed of financially distressed firms with low capitalFinancing Frictions and Firm Dynamics by ¨Ozge G¨okbayrak A dissertation submitted in partial) August 2007 #12;Financing Frictions and Firm Dynamics Copyright 2007 by ¨Ozge G¨okbayrak #12;Abstract My

  11. Affairs of State and Student Retention: An Exploratory Study of the Factors that Impact Student Retention in a Politically Turbulent Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Tsur, Dalia

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a country's security unrest on student retention. It draws on the key factors that influence retention worldwide, adopts Bourdieu's notion of cultural capital and also brings in concepts related to terrorism and security unrest traditionally absent from theories on student retention. Based on a case study carried…

  12. Novel Friction Law for the Static Friction Force based on Local Precursor Slipping

    PubMed Central

    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µM, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of µM decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control. PMID:25205283

  13. Novel Friction Law for the Static Friction Force based on Local Precursor Slipping

    E-print Network

    Yu Katano; Ken Nakano; Michio Otsuki; Hiroshi Matsukawa

    2014-09-11

    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient mM, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of mM decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control.

  14. Novel Friction Law for the Static Friction Force based on Local Precursor Slipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katano, Yu; Nakano, Ken; Otsuki, Michio; Matsukawa, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The sliding of a solid object on a solid substrate requires a shear force that is larger than the maximum static friction force. It is commonly believed that the maximum static friction force is proportional to the loading force and does not depend on the apparent contact area. The ratio of the maximum static friction force to the loading force is called the static friction coefficient µM, which is considered to be a constant. Here, we conduct experiments demonstrating that the static friction force of a slider on a substrate follows a novel friction law under certain conditions. The magnitude of µM decreases as the loading force increases or as the apparent contact area decreases. This behavior is caused by the slip of local precursors before the onset of bulk sliding and is consistent with recent theory. The results of this study will develop novel methods for static friction control.

  15. Interfacial Friction in Gas-Liquid Annular Flow: Analogies to Full and Transition Roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.C.; Beus, S.G.; Fore, L.B.

    1999-03-01

    New film thickness and pressure gradient data were obtained in a 5.08 by 101.6 mm duct for nitrogen and water in annular flow. Pressures of 3.4 and 17 atm and temperatures of 38 and 93 C were used to vary the gas density and liquid viscosity. These data are used to compute interfacial shear stresses and interfacial friction factors for comparison with several accepted literature correlations. These comparisons are reasonable for small values of the relative film thickness. However, the new data cover conditions not approached by the data used to construct those correlations. By combining the current data with the results of two other comprehensive modern experimental studies, a new correlation for the interfacial friction factor has been developed. This correlation adds elements of transition roughness to Wallis' fully-rough analogy to better predict interfacial friction factors over a wide range of gas Reynolds numbers and liquid film thicknesses.

  16. Large Friction Anisotropy of a Polydiacetylene Monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, A.R.; Carpick, R.W.; Sasaki, D.Y.

    1999-05-11

    Friction force microscopy measurements of a polydiacetylene monolayer film reveal a 300% friction anisotropy that is correlated with the film structure. The film consists of a monolayer of the red form of N-(2-ethanol)- 10,12 pentacosadiynamide, prepared on a Langmuir trough and deposited on a mica substrate. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the monolayer consists of domains of linearly oriented conjugated backbones with pendant hydrocarbon side chains above and below the backbones. Maximum friction occurs when the sliding direction is perpendicular to the backbone. We propose that the backbones impose anisotropic packing of the hydrocarbon side chains which leads to the observed friction anisotropy. Friction anisotropy is therefore a sensitive, optically-independent indicator of polymer backbone direction and monolayer structural properties.

  17. Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous

    E-print Network

    Carl H Gibson

    2012-11-25

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbulence patterns and fossil turbulence waves preserve and propagate energy and information about previous turbulence. Ignorance of fossil turbulence properties can be dangerous. Examples include the Osama bin Laden helicopter crash and the Air France 447 Airbus crash, both unfairly blamed on the pilots. Observations support the proposed definitions, and suggest even direct numerical simulations of turbulence require caution.

  18. Tidal Friction in the Earth and Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R. D.

    2006-12-01

    "Tidal Friction" is a classic subject in geophysics, with ties to some of the great scientists of the Victorian era. The subject has been reinvigorated over the past decade by space geodesy, and particularly by the Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter mission. In fact, the topic has now taken on some significance in oceanography, with potential implications for problems of mixing, thermocline maintenance, and the thermohaline circulation. Likewise, tidal measurements have become sufficiently precise to reveal new information about the solid earth. In this respect, the tidal force is an invaluable "probe" of the earth, at frequencies well outside the seismic band. This talk will "follow the energy" of tides while noting some important geophysical implications at each stage. In the present earth-moon-sun configuration, energy for tides is extracted from the earth's rotation. Ancient eclipses bear witness to this, and the discrepancy between Babylonian (and other) observations and tidal predictions yields unique information about the mantle and the overlying fluid envelope. Complementary information comes from tidal anelasticity estimates, which are now available at frequencies ranging from semidiurnal to fortnightly, monthly, and 18.6 years. These data, when combined with various kinds of gravity measurements, are relevant to the present-day sea-level problem. Solid-earth tidal dissipation represents less than 5% of the system total. As has long been realized, the largest energy sink is the ocean. About 70% of the oceanic dissipation occurs in shallow seas (the traditional sink) and 30% in the deep ocean, generally near rugged bottom topography. The latter represents a substantial amount of power, roughly 1 gigawatt, available for generation of internal tides and other baroclinic motions. Experiments like HOME are helping unravel the links between barotropic tides, internal tides, turbulence, and mixing. The latter opens possible linkages to climate, and recent work involving 18.6-year oscillations adds intriguing (although not completely convincing) evidence of climate connections from the nodal modulations of diurnal-band tides. Connections at longer periods are quite conceivable, since tides are critically sensitive to sea level, but most ideas along these lines are still speculative and in need of further development.

  19. Buckling flows - Exploring the origins and structure of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian

    1989-11-01

    Numerous natural flow phenomena exhibit geometric features that invite an analogy with the classical buckling of solid elastic columns (Euler buckling). The most striking feature of these flows is the deformation of the straight stream into a sinusoidal shape whose wavelength is unique. Only the straightening effect of solid walls or the stabilizing effects of transversal viscous diffusion and density stratification can prevent the stream from exhibiting the sinusoidal deformation. Other turbulent flow features include: the transition to turbulence in all straight and slender flows occurring when the local Reynolds number exceeds 100; the Reynold number range of 100 of the smallest eddy in a turbulent flow; the viscous sublayer with a constant thickness of order 10 appearing in turbulent flow near a straight wall; the Strouhal number for vortex shedding behind a cylinder in a cross-flow, a constant between 0.2 and 0.3; and the Colburn analogy between heat transfer and friction in a turbulent flow near a wall.

  20. Probability distribution functions in turbulent convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balachandar, S.; Sirovich, L.

    1991-01-01

    Results of an extensive investigation of probability distribution functions (pdf's) for Rayleigh-Benard convection, in the hard turbulence regime, are presented. It is seen that the pdf's exhibit a high degree of internal universality. In certain cases this universality is established within two Kolmogorov scales of a boundary. A discussion of the factors leading to universality is presented.

  1. Probability distribution functions in turbulent convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balachandar, S.; Sirovich, L.

    1991-01-01

    Results of an extensive investigation of probability distribution functions (pdfs) for Rayleigh-Benard convection, in hard turbulence regime, are presented. It is shown that the pdfs exhibit a high degree of internal universality. In certain cases this universality is established within two Kolmogorov scales of a boundary. A discussion of the factors leading to the universality is presented.

  2. Probability distribution functions in turbulent convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, S.; Sirovich, L.

    1991-05-01

    Results of an extensive investigation of probability distribution functions (pdf's) for Rayleigh-Bénard convection, in the hard turbulence regime, are presented. It is seen that the pdf's exhibit a high degree of internal universality. In certain cases this universality is established within two Kolmogorov scales of a boundary. A discussion of the factors leading to universality is presented.

  3. Probability distribution functions in turbulent convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, S.; Sirovich, L.

    1991-05-01

    Results of an extensive investigation of probability distribution functions (pdf's) for Rayleigh-Benard convection, in the hard turbulence regime, are presented. It is seen that the pdf's exhibit a high degree of internal universality. In certain cases this universality is established within two Kolmogorov scales of a boundary. A discussion of the factors leading to universality is presented.

  4. Probability distribution functions in turbulent convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandar, S.; Sirovich, L.

    1991-02-01

    Results of an extensive investigation of probability distribution functions (pdfs) for Rayleigh-Benard convection, in hard turbulence regime, are presented. It is shown that the pdfs exhibit a high degree of internal universality. In certain cases this universality is established within two Kolmogorov scales of a boundary. A discussion of the factors leading to the universality is presented.

  5. Turbulent Rivers Bjorn Birnir

    E-print Network

    Birnir, Björn

    Turbulent Rivers Bj¨orn Birnir Center for Complex and Nonlinear Science and Department the turbulent flow in rivers is proven. The existence of an associated invariant measure describing) function gives rise to Hack's law [16]; stating that the length of the main river, in mature river basins

  6. MHD turbulent processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, David

    1988-01-01

    Three areas of study in MHD turbulence are considered. These are the turbulent relaxation of the toroidal Z pinch, density fluctuations in MHD fluids, and MHD cellular automata. A Boolean computer game that updates a cellular representation in parallel and that has macroscopic averages converging to solutions of the two-dimensional MHD equations is discussed.

  7. Macrostructure of Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Vargas, R.; McClure, J. C.; Murr, L. E.; Nunes, A. C.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will discuss two of the well know large scale features of friction stir welds: the "onion rings" seen in transverse sections, and the striations on the surface of the work piece. It will be shown that the surface features (sometimes called "tool marks") are the result of irregularities on the rotating shoulder of the pin tool and disappear when the shoulder is polished. The "onion ring" structure seen in transverse cross sections is formed by parts of the "carousel", the zone of material adjacent to and rotating with the pin tool, that are shed off in each rotation. The relation between the carousel and the "ring vortex", a rotational flow extending both in and out of the carousel and resembling a smoke-ring with the hole centered on the pin tool, will be discussed.

  8. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  9. Jammed frictional tetrahedra are hyperstatic

    E-print Network

    Max Neudecker; Stephan Ulrich; Stephan Herminghaus; Matthias Schröter

    2013-06-20

    We prepare packings of frictional tetrahedra with volume fractions {\\phi} ranging from 0.469 to 0.622 using three different experimental protocols under isobaric conditions. Analysis via X-ray micro-tomography reveals that the contact number Z grows with {\\phi}, but does depend on the preparation protocol. While there exist four different types of contacts in tetrahedra packings, our analysis shows that the edge-to-face contacts contribute about 50% of the total increase in Z. The number of constraints per particle C increases also with {\\phi} and even the loosest packings are strongly hyperstatic i.e. mechanically over-determined with C approximately twice the degrees of freedom each particle possesses.

  10. Dissipation in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilicos, J. Christos

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews evidence concerning the cornerstone dissipation scaling of turbulence theory: [Formula: see text], with C?=const., ? the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] an integral length scale characterizing the energy-containing turbulent eddies. This scaling is intimately linked to the Richardson-Kolmogorov equilibrium cascade. Accumulating evidence shows that a significant nonequilibrium region exists in various turbulent flows in which the energy spectrum has Kolmogorov's ?5/3 wave-number scaling over a wide wave-number range, yet C?˜RemI/RenL, with m?1?n, ReI a global/inlet Reynolds number, and ReL a local turbulence Reynolds number.

  11. Computation of turbulent flows over backward and forward-facing steps using a near-wall Reynolds stress model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Sung HO

    1993-01-01

    Separation and reattachment of turbulent shear layers is observed in many important engineering applications, yet it is poorly understood. This has motivated many studies on understanding and predicting the processes of separation and reattachment of turbulent shear layers. Both of the situations in which separation is induced by adverse pressure gradient, or by discontinuities of geometry, have attracted attention of turbulence model developers. Formulation of turbulence closure models to describe the essential features of separated turbulent flows accurately is still a formidable task. Computations of separated flows associated with sharp-edged bluff bodies are described. For the past two decades, the backward-facing step flow, the simplest separated flow, has been a popular test case for turbulence models. Detailed studies on the performance of many turbulence models, including two equation turbulence models and Reynolds stress models, for flows over steps can be found in the papers by Thangam & Speziale and Lasher & Taulbee). These studies indicate that almost all the existing turbulence models fail to accurately predict many important features of back step flow such as reattachment length, recovery rate of the redeveloping boundary layers downstream of the reattachment point, streamlines near the reattachment point, and the skin friction coefficient. The main objectives are to calculate flows over backward and forward-facing steps using the NRSM and to make use of the newest DNS data for detailed comparison. This will give insights for possible improvements of the turbulence model.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Average Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Air Flowing in Circular Tubes Having Square-Thread-Type Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, E. W.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through electrically heated Inconel tubes having various degrees of square-thread-type roughness, an inside diameter of 1/2 inch, and a length of 24 inches. were obtained for tubes having conventional roughness ratios (height of thread/radius of tube) of 0 (smooth tube), 0.016, 0.025, and 0.037 over ranges of bulk Reynolds numbers up to 350,000, average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 1950deg R, and heat-flux densities up to 115,000 Btu per hour per square foot. Data The experimental data showed that both heat transfer and friction increased with increase in surface roughness, becoming more pronounced with increase in Reynolds number; for a given roughness, both heat transfer and friction were also influenced by the tube wall-to-bulk temperature ratio. Good correlation of the heat-transfer data for all the tubes investigated was obtained by use of a modification of the conventional Nusselt correlation parameters wherein the mass velocity in the Reynolds number was replaced by the product of air density evaluated at the average film temperature and the so-called friction velocity; in addition, the physical properties of air were evaluated at the average film temperature. The isothermal friction data for the rough tubes, when plotted in the conventional manner, resulted in curves similar to those obtained by other investigators; that is, the curve for a given roughness breaks away from the Blasius line (representing turbulent flow in smooth tubes) at some value of Reynolds number, which decreases with increase in surface roughness, and then becomes a horizontal line (friction coefficient independent of Reynolds number). A comparison of the friction data for the rough tubes used herein indicated that the conventional roughness ratio is not an adequate measure of relative roughness for tubes having a square-thread-type element. The present data, as well as those of other investigators, were used to isolate the influence of ratios of thread height to width, thread spacing to width, and the conventional roughness ratio on the friction coefficient. A fair correlation of the friction data was obtained for each tube with heat addition when the friction coefficient and Reynolds number were defined on the basis of film properties; however, the data for each tube retained the curve characteristic of that particular roughness. The friction data for all the rough tubes could be represented by a single line for the complete turbulence region by incorporating a roughness parameter in the film correlation. No correlation was obtained for the region of incomplete turbulence.

  13. Friction of Compression-ignition Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H , Jr

    1936-01-01

    The cost in mean effective pressure of generating air flow in the combustion chambers of single-cylinder compression-ignition engines was determined for the prechamber and the displaced-piston types of combustion chamber. For each type a wide range of air-flow quantities, speeds, and boost pressures was investigated. Supplementary tests were made to determine the effect of lubricating-oil temperature, cooling-water temperature, and compression ratio on the friction mean effective pressure of the single-cylinder test engine. Friction curves are included for two 9-cylinder, radial, compression-ignition aircraft engines. The results indicate that generating the optimum forced air flow increased the motoring losses approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure regardless of chamber type or engine speed. With a given type of chamber, the rate of increase in friction mean effective pressure with engine speed is independent of the air-flow speed. The effect of boost pressure on the friction cannot be predicted because the friction was decreased, unchanged, or increased depending on the combustion-chamber type and design details. High compression ratio accounts for approximately 5 pounds per square inch mean effective pressure of the friction of these single-cylinder compression-ignition engines. The single-cylinder test engines used in this investigation had a much higher friction mean effective pressure than conventional aircraft engines or than the 9-cylinder, radial, compression-ignition engines tested so that performance should be compared on an indicated basis.

  14. Dependence of internal friction on folding mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwei; De Sancho, David; Hoppe, Travis; Best, Robert B

    2015-03-11

    An outstanding challenge in protein folding is understanding the origin of "internal friction" in folding dynamics, experimentally identified from the dependence of folding rates on solvent viscosity. A possible origin suggested by simulation is the crossing of local torsion barriers. However, it was unclear why internal friction varied from protein to protein or for different folding barriers of the same protein. Using all-atom simulations with variable solvent viscosity, in conjunction with transition-path sampling to obtain reaction rates and analysis via Markov state models, we are able to determine the internal friction in the folding of several peptides and miniproteins. In agreement with experiment, we find that the folding events with greatest internal friction are those that mainly involve helix formation, while hairpin formation exhibits little or no evidence of friction. Via a careful analysis of folding transition paths, we show that internal friction arises when torsion angle changes are an important part of the folding mechanism near the folding free energy barrier. These results suggest an explanation for the variation of internal friction effects from protein to protein and across the energy landscape of the same protein. PMID:25721133

  15. Numerical analysis of friction stir welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyyuru, R. K.; Kailas, Satish V.

    2006-10-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW), which has several advantages over the conventional welding processes, is a solid-state welding process where no gross melting of the material being welded takes place. Despite significant advances over the last decade, the fundamental knowledge of thermomechanical processes during FSW is still not completely understood. To gain physical insight into the FSW process and the evaluation of the critical parameters, the development of models and simulation techniques is a necessity. In this article, the available literature on modeling of FSW has been reviewed followed by details of an attempt to understand the interaction between process parameters from a simulation study, performed using commercially available nonlinear finite element (FE) code DEFORM. The distributions of temperature, residual stress, strain, and strain rates were analyzed across various regions of the weld apart from material flow as a means of evaluating process efficiency and the quality of the weld. The distribution of process parameters is of importance in the prediction of the occurrence of welding defects, and to locate areas of concern for the metallurgist. The suitability of this modeling tool to simulate the FSW process has been discussed. The lack of the detailed material constitutive information and other thermal and physical properties at conditions such as very high strain rates and elevated temperatures seems to be the limiting factor while modeling the FSW process.

  16. Effect of trace moisture on friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Szlufarska, I.

    2010-03-01

    We report that even in nominally dry conditions trace moisture present on hydrophilic surfaces of SiC leads to a considerable increase in friction via formation of hydrogen bonds across the sliding interface. We perform quantum mechanical calculations to demonstrate that frictional instabilities on such surfaces are related to formation and breaking of hydrogen bonds between surface hydroxyl groups and to the elastic rotation of these groups. We perform a theoretical analysis based on the modified Prandtl-Tomlinson model and we predict that in the presence of trace moisture friction force will have logarithmic dependence on the sliding velocity.

  17. Skin friction for steel piles in sand 

    E-print Network

    Sulaiman, Ibrahim Hikmat

    1967-01-01

    - The Arkansas Pile Test iv vii 12 Art. 2. 5 - Skin Friction, Soil Shear Strength, snd Pile Movement Chapter III, Laboratory Tests on Small Piles in Sand Az't. 3. 1 ? Soil Classification Art. 3. 2 - Testing Apparatus 23 25 Art. 3. 3 ? Preparation... 12. 13. Grain Size Distribution by Sieve Analysis Triaxial Cell Arranged for Loading 24 26 14. Skin Friction Versus Pile Movement for Firm Sand. Iaboratory Test, Data 33 15. Skin Friction Versus Pile Movement for Dense Sand. Laboratory Test...

  18. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander M; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Ionic liquids - salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions - are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition. PMID:23942943

  19. Skin friction for steel piles in sand

    E-print Network

    Sulaiman, Ibrahim Hikmat

    1967-01-01

    SkiN FRICTION FOR STEZL PIIZS IN SAND A Theeia by I. H. Sulaiman Submittei io the graduate College of t, he Texan AAB Univen-ity in Ixantial fulfil. ment of bhe zequiremenbu for the degree of NASTZR 0F SCISNCZ May 196'7 bsrjor Subject...: Civil Engineering SKIN FRICTION FOR STEEL PILES IN SAND A Thesis by I. H. Sulaiman Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of C mmittee Head of Department Memb Member 111 Skin Friction For Steel Piles in Sand (May 1967) Ibr shim Hikmat...

  20. Skin friction measuring device for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Bellman, D. R. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    A skin friction measuring device for measuring the resistance of an aerodynamic surface to an airstream is described. It was adapted to be mounted on an aircraft and is characterized by a friction plate adapted to be disposed in a flush relationship with the external surface of the aircraft and be displaced in response to skin friction drag. As an airstream is caused to flow over the surface, a potentiometer connected to the plate for providing an electrical output indicates the magnitude of the drag.

  1. Quantized friction across ionic liquid thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander M.; Lovelock, Kevin R. J.; Gosvami, Nitya Nand; Welton, Tom; Perkin, Susan

    Ionic liquids, salts in the liquid state under ambient conditions, are of great interest as precision lubricants. Ionic liquids form layered structures at surfaces, yet it is not clear how this nano-structure relates to their lubrication properties. We measured the friction force between atomically smooth solid surfaces across ionic liquid films of controlled thickness in terms of the number of ion layers. Multiple friction-load regimes emerge, each corresponding to a different number of ion layers in the film. In contrast to molecular liquids, the friction coefficients differ for each layer due to their varying composition.

  2. On the use of k-epsilon turbulence model for computation of solid rocket internal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabnis, Jayant S.; Madabhushi, Ravi K.; Gibeling, Howard J.; McDonald, Henry

    1989-07-01

    The internal flow in a solid-propellant motor cold-flow model has been simulated via numerical solution of the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and a modified k-epsilon turbulence model. The modifications utilize the ratio for the wall injection velocity to the friction velocity as a similarity parameter in characterizing the relative dominance of the injection effects over the boundary-layer effects. This parameter is used in evaluating the turbulence kinetic energy and length scale at the porous surface. The low-Reynolds-number terms in the turbulence model are also modified using this parameter. The simulation results are compared with the experimentally measured axial-velocity, turbulence-intensity, Mach-number, and pressure profiles.

  3. A complete model of turbulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Wilcox; R. M. Traci

    1976-01-01

    A set of constitutive equations suitable for a priori computation of turbulent shear flows has been developed. Since no properties of a given turbulent flow need be known in advance in order to obtain a solution, the equations comprise a complete model of turbulence. Perturbation analysis shows that the model predicts a composite five-layer structure for an incompressible turbulent boundary

  4. Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion

    E-print Network

    Peters, Norbert

    Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion N. Peters Institut f¨ur Technische Mechanik RWTH Aachen Turbulent Combustion: Introduction and Overview 1 1.1 Moment Methods in Modeling Turbulence with Combustion and Velocity Scales . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4 Regimes in Premixed Turbulent Combustion

  5. Contact Friction Compensation for Robots Using Genetic Learning Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Der-cherng Liaw; Jeng-Tze Huang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the issues of contact friction compensation for constrained robots are presented. The proposed design consists of two loops. The inner loop is for the inverse dynamics control which linearizes the system by canceling nonlinear dynamics, while the outer loop is for friction compensation. Although various models of friction have been proposed in many engineering applications, frictional force

  6. On the compensation of friction forces in precision motion control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marayoshi Tomizuka

    1993-01-01

    Friction is a primary disturbance in motion control systems. Low velocity friction, which includes stiction, causes the motion of an axis to have a nonsmooth start and to stop near zero velocity introducing positioning and tracking errors. Friction has been studied extensively in tribology. Mathematical models exist to characterize friction mechanisms. One definite information available from the models is that

  7. Friction Problems in Servomechanisms: Modeling and Compensation Techniques

    E-print Network

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    Friction Problems in Servomechanisms: Modeling and Compensation Techniques Jan Tommy Gravdahl of this presentation Introduction Friction models 1. Static models 2. Models with time delay 3. Dynamic models Friction compensation 1. Non-model based compensation 2. Compensation based on static friction models 3

  8. Surface roughness and friction coefficient in peened friction stir welded 2195 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatamleh, Omar; Smith, James; Cohen, Donald; Bradley, Robert

    2009-05-01

    The tribological properties of friction stir welded 2195 aluminum alloy joints were investigated for several laser- and shot-peened specimens. The first portion of this study assessed the surface roughness changes at different regions of the weld resulting from the various peening processes and included an atomic force microscopy (AFM) study to reveal fine structures. The second portion investigated the friction characteristics for various conditions when slid against a 440C ball slider. Shot peening resulted in significant surface roughness when compared to the unpeened and laser-peened samples. The initial friction for all types of specimens was highly variable. However, long-term friction was shown to be lowest for samples with no peening treatment. Laser peening caused the friction to increase slightly. The shot peening process on the other hand resulted in an increase of the long-term friction effects on both sides of the weld.

  9. Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.

  10. Characteristics and analysis of a type of simulator of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinpeng; Dan, Youquan; Xu, Luopeng

    2014-12-01

    Comparison and analysis for several usual types of atmospheric turbulence simulator are first given in this paper. Considering the Tatarskii spectrum and the conditions of laboratory, secondly, the numerical calculations of the M2 factor and the spatial and angular widths of coherent Gaussian beams in turbulence are performed. Finally, a kind of a hot-wind atmospheric turbulence generator is designed and its characteristics are analyzed. The results show that the turbulence generator is very suitable to use in studying the effects of turbulence on the M2 factor of cw laser beams. Also, the values of both the structure constant of refractive index fluctuations Cn2 and the inner scale of turbulence required by the generator are still in accordance with those of actual atmospheric turbulence.

  11. Shock-Turbulence Interaction: Annotated Reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, A. C.

    1999-09-01

    Amplification of turbulence with a shock wave has been a central issue in compressible fluid dynamics research for over fifty years. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the phenomenon many unresolved questions remain and a consistent theory adequate for a usefully broad range of supersonic - hypersonic flow speeds, constituent gases, and unshocked/shocked thermodynamic state conditions has not emerged. However, very significant amplification of field-averaged turbulence intensity, factors of 6 to 10 or greater, have been measured in air at near standard atmospheric ambient conditions for low shock Mach numbers. Intensity is a convenient and commonly encountered measure of the vigor of turbulence. It is defined as the ratio of the rms fluctuating velocity magnitude to the mean flow speed. It is often expressed as a percentage.

  12. Turbulent drag reduction by passive mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirovich, L.; Karlsson, S.

    1997-08-01

    In many situations involving flows of high Reynolds number (where inertial forces dominate over viscous forces), such as aircraft flight and the pipeline transportation of fuels, turbulent drag is an important factor limiting performance. This has led to an extensive search for both active and passive methods for drag reduction. Here we report the results of a series of wind-tunnel experiments that demonstrate a passive means of effectively controlling turbulence in channel flow. Our approach involves the introduction of specified patterns of protrusions on the confining walls, which interact with the coherent, energy-bearing eddy structures in the wall region, and so influence the rate at which energy is dissipated in the turbulent flow. We show that relatively small changes in the arrangement of these protrusions can alter the response of the system from one of drag decrease to increased mixing (drag enhancement).

  13. Decay of swirl in turbulent two phase flow

    E-print Network

    Neeley, Patrick Foster

    1971-01-01

    irregularity and it has no fixed characteristics. The region in between these two types of flow is the transition region. Reynolds developed a non-dimensional number (Re = ? ) which is very important in deter- pVD mining whether the flow will be laminar... the turbulent flow and consequently the wall skin friction, Thomas (2, 3, 4 and 5) also studied two-phase flow in con- nection with an aqueous, homogeneous nuclear power reactor. He particularly observed the non ? Newtonian characteristics of thorium oxide...

  14. Vortex Multiplication in Applied Flow: the Precursor to Superfluid Turbulence

    E-print Network

    A. P. Finne; V. B. Eltsov; G. Eska; R. Hanninen; J. Kopu; M. Krusius; E. V. Thuneberg; M. Tsubota

    2005-10-27

    The dynamics of quantized vortices in rotating $^3$He-B is investigated in the low density (single-vortex) regime as a function of temperature. An abrupt transition is observed at $0.5 T_{\\rm c}$. Above this temperature the number of vortex lines remains constant, as they evolve to their equilibrium positions. Below this temperature the number of vortices increases linearly in time until the vortex density has grown sufficiently for turbulence to switch on. On the basis of numerical calculations we suggest a mechanism responsible for vortex formation at low temperatures and identify the mutual friction parameter which governs its abrupt temperature dependence.

  15. Outer-layer manipulators for turbulent drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, J. B., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The last ten years have yielded intriguing research results on aerodynamic boundary outer-layer manipulators as local skin friction reduction devices at low Reynolds numbers; net drag reduction device systems for entire aerodynamic configurations are nevertheless noted to remain elusive. Evidence has emerged for dramatic alterations of the structure of a turbulent boundary layer which persist for long distances downstream and reduce wall shear as a results of any one of several theoretically possible mechanisms. Reduced effectiveness at high Reynolds numbers may, however, limit the applicability of outer-layer manipulators to practical aircraft drag reduction.

  16. Modeling of turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, William W.

    1992-01-01

    The current progress is documented in the research and development of modeling techniques for turbulent shear flows. These include a two-scale model for compressible turbulent flows and a new energy transfer model. The former represents the status of the efforts to identify compressibility effects in turbulence. The energy transfer model refines a weakly nonlinear wave model developed earlier, which models directly the turbulent large structures. The objective of these activities is to develop second-order closures for compressible turbulent flows.

  17. Computation of turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Substantial advances made over the past decade in the prediction of turbulent flows are discussed. There was extensive work in the development of turbulence models, particularly for use in boundary layer calculations. Basic aspects of several important methods based on partial differential equations for the mean velocity field and turbulence quantities, including the relationship between the methods and suggestions for future development were reviewed. Work on three-dimensional time-dependent large eddy simulations is discussed. The emphasis is on the hydrodynamics of incompressible flows, but sources for consideration of heat transfer and compressibility are mentioned.

  18. Rheological effects on friction in elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachman, E. G.; Cheng, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation is presented of the friction in a rolling and sliding elastohydrodynamic lubricated contact. The rheological behavior of the lubricant is described in terms of two viscoelastic models. These models represent the separate effects of non-Newtonian behavior and the transient response of the fluid. A unified description of the non-Newtonian shear rate dependence of the viscosity is presented as a new hyperbolic liquid model. The transient response of viscosity, following the rapid pressure rise encountered in the contact, is described by a compressional viscoelastic model of the volume response of a liquid to an applied pressure step. The resulting momentum and energy equations are solved by an iterative numerical technique, and a friction coefficient is calculated. The experimental study was performed, with two synthetic paraffinic lubricants, to verify the friction predictions of the analysis. The values of friction coefficient from theory and experiment are in close agreement.

  19. Essays on economic growth and informational frictions

    E-print Network

    Pienknagura, Samuel (Samuel Jaime)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters on Economic Growth and Informational Frictions. Chapter 1 investigates the relation between financial development, R&D expenditure and aggregate growth. It provides empirical evidence ...

  20. Sliding friction on wet and dry sand.

    PubMed

    Fall, A; Weber, B; Pakpour, M; Lenoir, N; Shahidzadeh, N; Fiscina, J; Wagner, C; Bonn, D

    2014-05-01

    We show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some-but not too much-water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding. Too much water, on the other hand, makes the capillary bridges coalesce, resulting in a decrease of the modulus; in this case, we observe that the friction coefficient increases again. Our results, therefore, show that the friction coefficient is directly related to the shear modulus; this has important repercussions for the transport of granular materials. In addition, the polydispersity of the sand is shown to also have a large effect on the friction coefficient. PMID:24836256

  1. Material Flow in Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Richard; Reynolds, Anthony; Feng, C. R.; Knipling, Keith; Rowenhorst, David

    2013-01-01

    Friction stir welding generates periodic features within the weld. These "onion ring" features are associated with variations in both texture and the orientation of that texture along the length of the weld. Analysis of an AA2195 friction stir weld reveals the presence of periodic oscillations between the dominant B and overline{{B}} components of the ideal shear texture, suggesting a periodic reversal in the predominant shear orientation during welding that is inconsistent with current understandings of the friction stir welding process. Microstructural features present in the weld and machine force variations during welding indicate that these textures may arise from the oscillation of an off-centered tool. Such a tool oscillation can generate a periodic extrusion of material around the tool, giving rise to the observed flow features, machine force variations, and reversals of the local shear texture orientations. A new model of material flow during friction stir welding is proposed to explain the observed features.

  2. Effects of shear load on frictional healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, K. L.; Marone, C.

    2014-12-01

    During the seismic cycle of repeated earthquake failure, faults regain strength in a process known as frictional healing. Laboratory studies have played a central role in illuminating the processes of frictional healing and fault re-strengthening. These studies have also provided the foundation for laboratory-derived friction constitutive laws, which have been used extensively to model earthquake dynamics. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the affect of shear load on frictional healing. Frictional healing is quantified during slide-hold-slide (SHS) tests, which serve as a simple laboratory analog for the seismic cycle in which earthquakes (slide) are followed by interseismic quiescence (hold). We studied bare surfaces of Westerly granite and layers of Westerly granite gouge (thickness of 3 mm) at normal stresses from 4-25 MPa, relative humidity of 40-60%, and loading and unloading velocities of 10-300 ?m/s. During the hold period of SHS tests, shear stress on the sample was partially removed to investigate the effects of shear load on frictional healing and to isolate time- and slip-dependent effects on fault healing. Preliminary results are consistent with existing works and indicate that frictional healing increases with the logarithm of hold time and decreases with normalized shear stress ?/?f during the hold. During SHS tests with hold periods of 100 seconds, healing values ranged from (0.013-0.014) for ?/?f = 1 to (0.059-0.063) for ?/?f = 0, where ? is the shear stress during the hold period and ?f is the shear stress during steady frictional sliding. Experiments on bare rock surfaces and with natural and synthetic fault gouge materials are in progress. Conventional SHS tests (i.e. ?/?f = 1) are adequately described by the rate and state friction laws. However, previous experiments in granular quartz suggest that zero-stress SHS tests are not well characterized by either the Dieterich or Ruina state evolution laws. We are investigating the processes that produce shear stress dependent frictional healing, alternate forms of the state evolution law, and comparing results for friction of bare rock surfaces and granular fault gouge.

  3. Friction enhancement via micro-patterned wet elastomer adhesives on small intestinal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jiwoon; Cheung, Eugene; Park, Sukho; Sitti, Metin

    2006-12-01

    A micro-pillar-based silicone rubber adhesive coated with a thin silicone oil layer is investigated in this paper for developing friction-based clamping mechanisms for robotic endoscopic microcapsules. These adhesives are shown to enhance the frictional force between the capsule and the intestinal wall by a factor of about seven over a non-patterned flat elastomer material. In this study, tests performed on fresh samples of pig small intestine are used to optimize the diameter of the micro-pillars to maximize the frictional forces. In addition, the effects of other factors such as the oil viscosity and applied normal forces are investigated. It is demonstrated that the proposed micro-pillar pattern based elastomer adhesive exhibits a maximal frictional force when the pillar diameter is 140 microm and coated silicon oil has a very high viscosity (10,000 cSt). It is also found that the frictional force of the micro-patterned adhesive increases nonlinearly in proportion to the applied normal force. These adhesives would be used as a robust attachment material for developing robotic capsule endoscopes inside intestines with clamping capability. PMID:18458409

  4. Friction enhancement via micro-patterned wet elastomer adhesives on small intestinal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jiwoon; Cheung, Eugene; Park, Sukho; Sitti, Metin

    2006-12-01

    A micro-pillar-based silicone rubber adhesive coated with a thin silicone oil layer is investigated in this paper for developing friction-based clamping mechanisms for robotic endoscopic microcapsules. These adhesives are shown to enhance the frictional force between the capsule and the intestinal wall by a factor of about seven over a non-patterned flat elastomer material. In this study, tests performed on fresh samples of pig small intestine are used to optimize the diameter of the micro-pillars to maximize the frictional forces. In addition, the effects of other factors such as the oil viscosity and applied normal forces are investigated. It is demonstrated that the proposed micro-pillar pattern based elastomer adhesive exhibits a maximal frictional force when the pillar diameter is 140 µm and coated silicon oil has a very high viscosity (10 000 cSt). It is also found that the frictional force of the micro-patterned adhesive increases nonlinearly in proportion to the applied normal force. These adhesives would be used as a robust attachment material for developing robotic capsule endoscopes inside intestines with clamping capability.

  5. Object Moving Along a Circle with Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurcher, Ulrich; Kaufman, Miron

    2003-10-01

    We study the problem of an object gliding down an inverted hemisphere. For zero friction, we recover the case discussed in introductory physics. We extend these familiar results to the case when friction is present. We find the numerical solution for the equation of motion using the MathCAD software package as well as the analytical solution for the speed of the object along the trajectory. This material is suitable for an upper division Mechanics or Computational Physics course.

  6. Stochastic characterization of friction-induced vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalin Qiao

    2001-01-01

    Stochastic characteristics of friction-induced vibration are investigated especially for a pin-on-disc system and a brake disc. ^ The experimental investigation are performed at low disc speed based on a representative pin-disc apparatus. The interfacial forces between the rotating disc and the stationary pin (friction element assembly) are found to be essentially non-stationary and non-Gaussian wide band random processes. When the

  7. Modeling of Thermal-Assisted Dislocation Friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Liao; L. D. Marks

    2010-01-01

    We generalize a model for friction at a sliding interface involving the motion of misfit dislocations to include the effect\\u000a of thermally activated transitions across barriers. We obtain a comparatively simple form with the absolute zero-temperature\\u000a Peierls barrier replaced by an effective Peierls barrier which varies exponentially with temperature, in agreement with recent\\u000a experimental observations of thermally activated friction. Going

  8. Constitutive relations for cohesionless frictional granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sia Nemat-Nasser; Juhua Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the micro-mechanical model recently developed by Nemat-Nasser S. (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 48 (2000) 1541), a three-dimensional continuum mechanics model is presented for the deformation of granular materials which carry the applied load through frictional contacts. The model incorporates the anisotropy (or fabric) which develops as a frictional granular mass is deformed in shear, and includes the coupling

  9. Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

  10. Science of Friction–Adhesive Joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio Dragoni; Pierfranco Mauri

    \\u000a This chapter addresses the fundamental properties of hybrid friction–adhesive joints which combine any form of mechanical\\u000a tightening (stimulus for friction forces) with anaerobic adhesives. By filling the voids around the microareas of true metal-to-metal\\u000a contact between the mating parts, anaerobic adhesives allow the full area involved by the engagement to be usefully exploited.\\u000a Advantages ranging from sealing action, fretting suppression,

  11. Experimental research on the friction of pivots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaquerod, A; Defossez, L; Mugeli, H

    1930-01-01

    In horology the friction between solids is of the greatest importance; one limited, however, to the application of the laws of Coulomb which, do not at all correspond with reality. This report presents a review of the subject and some general conclusions. The choice of lubricant is discussed as well as the pressure between frictional surfaces. The gears in a watch are used extensively as examples.

  12. Analysis of nonlinear channel friction inverse problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiping Cheng; Guohua Liu

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Backus-Gilbert inverse theory, the singular value decomposition (SVD) for general inverse matrices and the optimization\\u000a algorithm are used to solve the channel friction inverse problem. The resolution and covariance friction inverse model in\\u000a matrix form is developed to examine the reliability of solutions. Theoretical analyses demonstrate that the convergence rate\\u000a of the general Newton optimization algorithm is

  13. Friction and wear behaviour of cemented carbides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jüri Pirso; Sergei Letunovitš; Mart Viljus

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the friction and sliding wear of WC–Co cemented carbides are studied. Friction and wear tests were carried out using six different WC–Co alloys (Co ranging from 6 to 20wt.%) under unlubricated conditions against steel (0.45wt.% C) disk. Tests were performed at sliding velocity of 2.2ms?1 and normal load of 40 and 180N. Sliding wear tests were carried

  14. Nonstationary multiscale turbulence simulation based on local PCA.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Alessandro; Cenedese, Angelo; Masiero, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Turbulence simulation methods are of fundamental importance for evaluating the performance of control strategies for Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. In order to obtain a reliable evaluation of the performance a statistically accurate turbulence simulation method has to be used. This work generalizes a previously proposed method for turbulence simulation based on the use of a multiscale stochastic model. The main contributions of this work are: first, a multiresolution local PCA representation is considered. In typical operating conditions, the computational load for turbulence simulation is reduced approximately by a factor of 4, with respect to the previously proposed method, by means of this PCA representation. Second, thanks to a different low resolution method, based on a moving average model, the wind velocity can be in any direction (not necessarily that of the spatial axes). Finally, this paper extends the simulation procedure to generate, if needed, turbulence samples by using a more general model than that of the frozen flow hypothesis. PMID:24417975

  15. Convex curvature effects on the heated turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A convexly curved and isothermally heated wall with a 45-cm radius of curvature is subjected to turbulent boundary layer flow measurements in order to determine wall heat transfer rates and mean velocity and temperature profiles. Significant curvature effects are noted, with Stanton number and skin friction coefficient reductions of 35-40 percent by comparison with flat plate values for the same momentum or enthalpy thickness Reynolds numbers. Profiles of mean velocity and temperature show a more rapid growth of the wake regions, and a shortening of the log-linear region, as a result of curvature. Turbulent Prandtl numbers deduced from the mean temperature profiles under the assumption of a wall thermal law were found to be increased by 40-50 percent by this strong convex curvature.

  16. Consecutive turbulence transition delay with reinforced passive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattarzadeh, Sohrab S.; Fransson, Jens H. M.; Talamelli, Alessandro; Fallenius, Bengt E. G.

    2014-06-01

    Miniature vortex generators (MVGs) are able to delay the transition to turbulence in a flat plate boundary layer if properly designed. Unfortunately, the natural recovery of the modulated laminar base flow in the streamwise direction is of exponential space scale and hence the passive laminar control fades away fairly rapidly. Here we show that by placing a second array of MVGs downstream of the first one it is possible to nourish the counter-rotating streamwise vortices responsible for the modulation, which results in a prolonged streamwise extent of the control. With this control strategy it is possible to delay the transition to turbulence, consecutively, by reinforcing the control effect and with the ultimate implication of obtaining a net skin-friction drag reduction of at least 65%.

  17. Delaying transition to turbulence by a passive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Jens H M; Talamelli, Alessandro; Brandt, Luca; Cossu, Carlo

    2006-02-17

    Reducing skin friction is important in nature and in many technological applications. This reduction may be achieved by reducing stresses in turbulent boundary layers, for instance tailoring biomimetic rough skins. Here we take a second approach consisting of keeping the boundary layer laminar as long as possible by forcing small optimal perturbations. Because of the highly non-normal nature of the underlying linearized operator, these perturbations are highly amplified and able to modify the mean velocity profiles at leading order. We report results of wind-tunnel experiments in which we implement this concept by using suitably designed roughness elements placed on the skin to enforce nearly optimal perturbations. We show that by using this passive control technique it is possible to sensibly delay transition to turbulence. PMID:16605999

  18. Supersonic separated turbulent boundary - layer over a wavy wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polak, A.; Werle, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    A prediction method is developed for calculating distributions of surface heating rates, pressure and skin friction over a wavy wall in a two-dimensional supersonic flow. Of particular interest is the flow of thick turbulent boundary layers. The surface geometry and the flow conditions considered are such that there exists a strong interaction between the viscous and inviscid flow. First, using the interacting turbulent boundary layer equations, the problem is formulated in physical coordinates and then a reformulation of the governing equations in terms of Levy-Lees variables is given. Next, a numerical scheme for solving interacting boundary layer equations is adapted. A number of modifications which led to the improvement of the numerical algorithm are discussed. Finally, results are presented for flow over a train of up to six waves at various flow conditions.

  19. A frictional law for volcanic ash gouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallée, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kendrick, J. E.; De Angelis, S.; Petrakova, L.; Hornby, A. J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic provinces are structurally active regions - undergoing continual deformation along faults. Within such fault structures, volcanic ash gouge, containing both crystalline and glassy material, may act as a potential fault plane lubricant. Here, we investigate the frictional properties of volcanic ash gouges with varying glass fractions using a rotary shear apparatus at a range of slip rates (1.3-1300 mm/s) and axial stresses (0.5-2.5 MPa). We show that the frictional behaviour of volcanic ash is in agreement with Byerlee's friction law at low slip velocities, irrespective of glass content. The results reveal a common non-linear reduction of the friction coefficient with slip velocity and yield a frictional law for fault zones containing volcanic ash gouge. Textural analysis reveals that strain localisation and the development of shear bands are more prominent at higher slip velocities (>10 mm/s). The textures observed here are similar to those recorded in ash gouge at the surface of extrusive spines at Mount St. Helens (USA). We use the rate-weakening component of the frictional law to estimate shear-stress-resistance reductions associated with episodic seismogenic slip events that accompany magma ascent pulses. We conclude that the internal structure of volcanic ash gouge may act as a kinematic marker of exogenic dome growth.

  20. Friction in Forming of UD Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, U.; Akkerman, R.; Haanappel, S. P.; ten Thije, R. H. W.; de Rooij, M. B.

    2011-05-01

    Inter-ply and tool/ply friction play a dominant role in hot stamp forming of UD fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates. This research treats friction measurements of a PEEK-AS4 composite system. To this end, an in-house developed friction tester is utilized to pull a laminate through two heat controlled clamping platens. The friction coefficient is determined by relating the clamp force to the pull force. The geometry of the gap between the clamping platens is monitored with micrometer accuracy. A first approach to describe the relation between the geometry and frictional behavior is undertaken by applying a standard thin-film theory for hydrodynamic lubrication. Experimental measurements showed that the thin-film theory does not entirely cover the underlying physics. Thus a second model is utilized, which employs a Leonov-model to describe the shear deformation of the matrix material, while its viscosity is described with a multi-mode Maxwell model. The combination of both models shows the potential to capture the complete frictional behavior.

  1. Friction in Forming of UD Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, U.; Haanappel, S. P. [Thermoplastic Composite Research Center, University of Twente, Horst building, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Akkerman, R. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Thermoplastic Composite Research Center, University of Twente, Horst building, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Thije, R. H. W. ten [Aniform Virtual Forming, Nieuwstraat 116, 7411 LP Deventer (Netherlands); Rooij, M. B. de [Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-05-04

    Inter-ply and tool/ply friction play a dominant role in hot stamp forming of UD fiber-reinforced thermoplastic laminates. This research treats friction measurements of a PEEK-AS4 composite system. To this end, an in-house developed friction tester is utilized to pull a laminate through two heat controlled clamping platens. The friction coefficient is determined by relating the clamp force to the pull force. The geometry of the gap between the clamping platens is monitored with micrometer accuracy. A first approach to describe the relation between the geometry and frictional behavior is undertaken by applying a standard thin-film theory for hydrodynamic lubrication. Experimental measurements showed that the thin-film theory does not entirely cover the underlying physics. Thus a second model is utilized, which employs a Leonov-model to describe the shear deformation of the matrix material, while its viscosity is described with a multi-mode Maxwell model. The combination of both models shows the potential to capture the complete frictional behavior.

  2. The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate: An experimental study of the fluid mechanics for adverse free stream pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, P. S.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation of transpired turbulent boundary layers in zero and adverse pressure gradients has been carried out. Profiles of: (1) the mean velocity, (2) the three intensities of the turbulent fluctuations, and (3) the Reynolds stress were obtained by hot-wire anemometry. The friction coefficients were measured by using an integrated form of the boundary layer equation to extrapolate the measured shear stress profiles to the wall.

  3. REDUCED ENGINE FRICTION AND WEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Matthews

    2003-07-08

    Progress was made on experimental and numerical subtasks during the second 6-month period of this project. One of the experimental subtasks scheduled for completion during the first 6 months was delayed due to a delay in receiving the prototype RLE face seal from the vendor. This component was acquired and testing was completed during the second 6 months. The test results indicate that this face seal fulfills the engineering objectives. The other experimental subtask scheduled for completion during the second 6-month period was final assembly of the prototype rotating liner engine. This subtask was completed on schedule. No results from this subtask were scheduled for this reporting period. One numerical subtask, development of the governing equations, was scheduled for completion during the first 6-month period but was completed during the second 6 months. However, we expect to re-explore these as we learn more throughout the course of the project. Two other numerical subtasks were scheduled to begin during the second 6 months: formulating the numerical equations governing piston assembly friction and coding/testing the resulting model. These subtasks were not scheduled for completion during this reporting period. Satisfactory progress was made.

  4. Stochastic geometry of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    Geometric statistics open the window into the most fundamental aspect of turbulence flows, their symmetries, both broken and emerging. On one hand, the study of the stochastic geometry of multi-point configurations reveals the statistical conservation laws which are responsible for the breakdown of scale invariance in direct turbulence cascades. On the other hand, the numerical and experimental studies of inverse cascade reveal that some families of isolines can be mapped to a Brownian walk (i.e. belong to the so-called SLE class) and are thus not only scale invariant but conformally invariant. That means that some aspects of turbulence statistics can be probably described by a conformal field theory. The talk is a review of broken and emerging symmetries in turbulence statistics.

  5. Containerless Ripple Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles

    2002-01-01

    One of the longest standing unsolved problems in physics relates to the behavior of fluids that are driven far from equilibrium such as occurs when they become turbulent due to fast flow through a grid or tidal motions. In turbulent flows the distribution of vortex energy as a function of the inverse length scale [or wavenumber 'k'] of motion is proportional to 1/k(sup 5/3) which is the celebrated law of Kolmogorov. Although this law gives a good description of the average motion, fluctuations around the average are huge. This stands in contrast with thermally activated motion where large fluctuations around thermal equilibrium are highly unfavorable. The problem of turbulence is the problem of understanding why large fluctuations are so prevalent which is also called the problem of 'intermittency'. Turbulence is a remarkable problem in that its solution sits simultaneously at the forefront of physics, mathematics, engineering and computer science. A recent conference [March 2002] on 'Statistical Hydrodynamics' organized by the Los Alamos Laboratory Center for Nonlinear Studies brought together researchers in all of these fields. Although turbulence is generally thought to be described by the Navier-Stokes Equations of fluid mechanics the solution as well as its existence has eluded researchers for over 100 years. In fact proof of the existence of such a solution qualifies for a 1 M$ millennium prize. As part of our NASA funded research we have proposed building a bridge between vortex turbulence and wave turbulence. The latter occurs when high amplitude waves of various wavelengths are allowed to mutually interact in a fluid. In particular we have proposed measuring the interaction of ripples [capillary waves] that run around on the surface of a fluid sphere suspended in a microgravity environment. The problem of ripple turbulence poses similar mathematical challenges to the problem of vortex turbulence. The waves can have a high amplitude and a strong nonlinear interaction. Furthermore, the steady state distribution of energy again follows a Kolmogorov scaling law; in this case the ripple energy is distributed according to 1/k (sup 7/4). Again, in parallel with vortex turbulence ripple turbulence exhibits intermittency. The problem of ripple turbulence presents an experimental opportunity to generate data in a controlled, benchmarked system. In particular the surface of a sphere is an ideal environment to study ripple turbulence. Waves run around the sphere and interact with each other, and the effect of walls is eliminated. In microgravity this state can be realized for over 2 decades of frequency. Wave turbulence is a physically relevant problem in its own right. It has been studied on the surface of liquid hydrogen and its application to Alfven waves in space is a source of debate. Of course, application of wave turbulence perspectives to ocean waves has been a major success. The experiment which we plan to run in microgravity is conceptually straightforward. Ripples are excited on the surface of a spherical drop of fluid and then their amplitude is recorded with appropriate photography. A key challenge is posed by the need to stably position a 10cm diameter sphere of water in microgravity. Two methods are being developed. Orbitec is using controlled puffs of air from at least 6 independent directions to provided the positioning force. This approach has actually succeeded to position and stabilize a 4cm sphere during a KC 135 segment. Guigne International is using the radiation pressure of high frequency sound. These transducers have been organized into a device in the shape of a dodecahedron. This apparatus 'SPACE DRUMS' has already been approved for use for combustion synthesis experiments on the International Space Station. A key opportunity presented by the ripple turbulence data is its use in driving the development of codes to simulate its properties.

  6. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrow, Harold N.

    1987-01-01

    Various types of atmospheric turbulence measurements are addressed for the purpose of stimulating discussion relative to available data. An outline of these various types of measurements are discussed. Some specific results of detailed characterization studies made at NASA Langley are emphasized. The most recent reports on statistics of turbulence encounters for various types of aircraft operations are summarized. Special severe encounter studies and reference to remote sensing are also included. Wind shear is considered to be a special topic and is not covered.

  7. Turbulence near thunderstorm tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Peter F.

    1993-01-01

    For several years, scientists at San Jose State University, NASA-Ames, and the University of Arizona have carried out cooperative research programs to understand the causes and effects of severe turbulence. The primary sources of data for this work are Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) tapes from airliners that have been involved in turbulence incidents. A significant result of the analysis of these data has been the identification and quantification of the turbulence causes. Turbulence signatures include breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, large amplitude mountain lee waves, turbulence in and around thunderstorms, and maneuvering. The requirements that must be met for a turbulence incident to be included in the NASA study are rather straightforward: (1) severe or greater turbulence must have been reported (usually with passenger injuries) and (2) the flight data tapes must be available. Despite these rather general criteria, and the fact that our cases are drawn from a wide geographical area over the U.S. and the Atlantic Ocean, we have found an interesting bias in our sample. Of 12 cases at cruise altitude, four were definitely associated with thunderstorms and two are suspected thunderstorm cases. The others were due to mountain waves, CAT, high level windshear/maneuvering, or to causes not yet determined. Although our sample is small, these numbers have raised several questions, not the least of which are: How pervasive is the problem of aircraft encounters with severe turbulence in or near thunderstorm tops (TNTT)? Given the available visible and radar evidence of thunderstorms, Why do such incidents occur? Can anything be done to allevaite the problem? This paper outlines some very preliminary efforts to answer these questions. In the following sections, physical and statistical characteristics of TNTT are discussed (Section 2), TNTT causes are summarized (Section 3), current recommendations for TNTT avoidance are reviewed (Section 4), and some suggestions to ameliorate the problem are given (Section 5).

  8. Floodplain friction parameterization in two-dimensional river flood models using vegetation heights derived from airborne scanning laser altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, David C.; Cobby, David M.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Bates, Paul D.

    2003-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) hydraulic models are currently at the forefront of research into river flood inundation prediction. Airborne scanning laser altimetry is an important new data source that can provide such models with spatially distributed floodplain topography together with vegetation heights for parameterization of model friction. The paper investigates how vegetation height data can be used to realize the currently unexploited potential of 2-D flood models to specify a friction factor at each node of the finite element model mesh. The only vegetation attribute required in the estimation of floodplain node friction factors is vegetation height. Different sets of flow resistance equations are used to model channel sediment, short vegetation, and tall and intermediate vegetation. The scheme was tested in a modelling study of a flood event that occurred on the River Severn, UK, in October 1998. A synthetic aperture radar image acquired during the flood provided an observed flood extent against which to validate the predicted extent. The modelled flood extent using variable friction was found to agree with the observed extent almost everywhere within the model domain. The variable-friction model has the considerable advantage that it makes unnecessary the unphysical fitting of floodplain and channel friction factors required in the traditional approach to model calibration.

  9. Mass transfer during drop formation in the presence of interfacial turbulence in the liquid-liquid systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nakaike; T. Mizukoshi; T. Aonuma; T. Tadaki

    1983-01-01

    The mass transfer rate during the drop formation in the presence of interfacial turbulence was investigated. The interfacial turbulence increases the mass transfer rate. The empirical equation was obtained for the enhancement factor of the mass transfer rate which is defined as the ratio of the overall mass transfer coefficient in the presence of interfacial turbulence to the estimated value

  10. Effective Medium Theory for Drag Reducing Micro-patterned Surfaces in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, I.

    2013-12-01

    Inspired by the lotus effect, many studies in the last decade have focused on micro- and nano-patterned surfaces. They revealed that patterns at the micro-scale combined with high contact angles can significantly reduce skin drag. However, the mechanisms and parameters that control drag reduction, e.g. Reynolds number and pattern geometry, are still unclear. We propose an effective medium representation of the micro-features, that treats the latter as a porous medium, and provides a framework to model flow over patterned surfaces in both Cassie and Wenzel states. Our key result is a closed-form expression for the skin friction coefficient in terms of frictional Reynolds (or Karman) number in turbulent regime, the viscosity ratio between the fluid in and above the features, and their geometrical properties. We apply the proposed model to turbulent flows over superhydrophobic ridged surfaces. The model predictions agree with laboratory experiments for Reynolds numbers ranging from 3000 to 10000.

  11. Internal Friction within the Earth and Seismic Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, I. B.

    2012-12-01

    The existing theory of internal friction within the Earth uses viscosity for its fluids and "viscoelastic quality factor" (Q) for solids. Despite its broad acceptance, it is rarely noticed that this model also faces serious theoretical and practical difficulties. Such difficulties arise in cases of heterogeneous media, which are most important in seismology. For example, for a long-period Love wave, the viscoelastic model violates the energy balance and overestimates the attenuation by ~ 5-12 %. In all existing Q models, fluid layers such as the outer core unrealistically contribute zero dissipation of free oscillations, seismic waves, and tides. For fluids, internal friction (Q-1) is directly proportional to viscosity, whereas from comparing seismic observations with geodynamics, this empirical correlation is opposite for the upper mantle. The viscoelastic model also produces nonphysical solutions and incorrect phases of acoustic impedances in heterogeneous media. These problems need to be addressed in order o understand the meaning of Q shown in many attenuation models. Fortunately, an alternate approach to internal friction is well known in continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. This approach is free from the above problems. Instead of Q and "material memory", it considers several specific mechanisms of energy dissipation: 1) viscosity for both solids or fluids, which can be Newtonian or non-Newtonian, 2) thermoelasticity, 3) scattering and variations of geometric spreading, and 4) kinetic transformations within the material. Here, we apply this approach to field and lab observations of seismic attenuation. As an example, we invert the Love-wave QL observed on the surface at 20-200-s periods for physical parameters 1)-3) above. With the exception of thermoelasticity on small heterogeneities, each of these mechanisms explains the observed frequency dependence of QL very closely. For several mechanisms, Love-wave attenuation is dominated by mantle layers at ~70-km depths, whereas for both types of viscosity, internal friction below 200-450 km is most important. Thus, seismic attenuation can be described by conventional mechanics, leading to constraints on physical parameters of the medium. However, distinguishing between different dissipation mechanisms within the mantle from surface-wave data remains a challenging problem. To solve it, we need to look beyond the viscoelastic Q and into the true physical models of internal friction.

  12. Volcanic Landslide Basal Friction as Measured by Seismic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Gordeev, E.

    2002-12-01

    The long runout of large landslides, and therefore apparently low basal friction, has long been a subject of intense debate. Volcanic landslides have even longer runouts than other avalanches, perhaps due to the importance of hot gases as a driving force or basal lubricant. We invert seismic data from the March 30, 1956 Bezymianny, Russia for an equivalent force source. We then compare the results with the May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens, USA eruptions in order to directly measure the basal friction of these landslides that both uncapped juvenile magma. Following previous work on landslides as seismic sources, we assume the Bezymianny landslide generated seismic waves by acting as a subhorizontal single force with the azimuth in the opposite direction (1800) from the landslide runout direction. We also assume a sinusoidal source-time function. We invert a regional record of the surface waves in the 0.01--0.055 Hz bandpass. Preliminary results indicate a single force source azimuth of 2670 from North with an amplitude 4.5*E11N at a source period T=23 s. This azimuth indicates that the landslide runout was due East within 300 of the current major axis of the explosion crater. The amplitude of the basal force is the most robustly determined parameter in the inversion. It is a factor of 15 smaller for Bezymianny than for Mount St. Helens. Bezymianny's low force cannot be explained simply by the smaller mass of its landslide as the ratio of the landslide masses for the two eruptions is only 5. Therefore, the effective coefficient of friction for Bezymianny is 1/3 that of Mount St. Helens. Bezymianny had a higher proportion of blast to landslide material (40--80%) than Mount St. Helens (<10%), which could explain the reduced friction as the hot, expanding magmatic gases released in the blast lubricate the basal layer. Alternatively, the reduced friction could be associated with the larger percentage of water in the landslide from the snow and glaciers at Bezymianny. %%

  13. Slip of a rigid cylinder along a viscoelastic foundation in the presence of friction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Belyi; A. D. Lizarev; V. U. Ognev; N. B. Rostanina; P. V. Sysoev

    1974-01-01

    The problem of the slip of a rigid infinitely long cylinder along a viscoelastic foundation in the presence of friction forces dependent on the slip rate is solved in a linear quasistatic arrangement. The effect of the rheological characteristics of the foundation material and other factors on the point displacement of the surface in front of the moving cylinder is

  14. Tyre friction behaviour under abrupt wheel torque transients on slippery road surfaces: experimental analysis and modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Ivanovi?; Joško Deur; Milan Kostelac; Tibor Pentek; Davor Hrovat

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows that, during abrupt wheel torque transients for ice surface and low vehicle speeds, the tyre can develop significantly larger longitudinal force than the peak value of the tyre static curve. This so-called dynamic tyre friction potential (DTFP) effect has many influencing factors such as the rate of change of the wheel torque, the vehicle speed, and the

  15. Tumor Suppressor p53 Slides on DNA with Low Friction and High Stability

    E-print Network

    Tumor Suppressor p53 Slides on DNA with Low Friction and High Stability Anahita Tafvizi,*yz Fang-432-5586; E-mail: antoine_van_oijen@hms.harvard.edu. The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor-terminus activate target genes in vivo much more slowly and lack the capacity to resist tumor transfor- mation

  16. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layers along curved surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, R. M. C.; Mellor, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A curved wall tunnel was designed, and an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer was set up on the straight section preceding the curved test section. Turbulent boundary layer flows with uniform and adverse pressure distributions along convex and concave walls were investigated. Hot-wire measurements along the convex surface indicated that turbulent mixing between fluid layers was very much reduced. However, the law of the wall held and the skin friction, thus determined, correlated well with other measurements. Hot-wire measurements along the concave test wall revealed a system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer and confirmed that concave curvature enhances mixing. A self-consistent set of turbulent boundary layer equations for flows along curved surfaces was derived together with a modified eddy viscosity. Solution of these equations together with the modified eddy viscosity gave results that correlated well with the present data on flows along the convex surface with arbitrary pressure distribution. However, it could only be used to predict the mean characteristics of the flow along concave walls because of the existence of the system of longitudinal vortices inside the boundary layer.

  17. Turbulent oceanic western-boundary layers at low latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quam Cyrille Akuetevi, Cataria; Wirth, Achim

    2013-04-01

    Low latitude oceanic western-boundary layers range within the most turbulent regions in the worlds ocean. The Somali current system with the Great Whirl and the Brazilian current system with its eddy shedding are the most prominent examples. Results from analytical calculations and integration of a one layer reduced-gravity fine resolution shallow water model is used to entangle this turbulent dynamics. Two types of wind-forcing are applied: a remote Trade wind forcing with maximum shear along the equator and a local Monsoon wind forcing with maximum shear in the vicinity of the boundary. For high values of the viscosity (> 1000m2s-1) the stationary solutions compare well to analytical predictions using Munk and inertial layer theory. When lowering the friction parameter time dependence results. The onset of instability is strongly influenced by inertial effects. The unstable boundary current proceeds as a succession of anti-cyclonic coherent eddies performing a chaotic dynamics in a turbulent flow. The dynamics is governed by the turbulent fluxes of mass and momentum. We determine these fluxes by analyzing the (potential) vorticity dynamics. We demonstrate that the boundary-layer can be separated in four sub-layers, which are (starting from the boundary): (1) the viscous sub-layer (2) the turbulent buffer-layer (3) the layer containing the coherent structures and (4) the extended boundary layer. The characteristics of each sub-layer and the corresponding turbulent fluxes are determined, as are the dependence on latitude and the type of forcing. A new pragmatic method of determining the eddy viscosity, based on Munk-layer theory, is proposed. Results are compared to observations and solutions of the multi-level primitive equation model (DRAKKAR).

  18. Rock Friction at the Micro-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Madden, A. S.; Bickmore, B.; Reches, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Typically, rock friction is measured on experimental samples that are a few cm to one m in size, while molecular-dynamic simulate friction at the nano-scale. We present here preliminary results of rock friction on tens-of-micron scale in the gap between the above scales. The analysis was conducted with the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) instrument. The main component of the AFM is a cantilever with a probe that interrogates the specimen surface through contact interaction forces. In our experiments the probe is a silica micro-sphere (25 microns) glued to the cantilever. We used the method developed by Kosoglu et al. (2011) and Attard et al. (2005) in which friction coefficients are extracted from hysteresis in measurements of cantilever defection versus probe-surface separation distance. We measured the friction coefficient of several types of surfaces, and the measurement at each micron-scale position was repeated tens of times. The surfaces include freshly cleaved biotite (3 positions with 368 repetitions), and fault surfaces of granite (8 positions), gabbro (8 positions), and dolomite (19 positions), which were sheared in a rotary apparatus at velocities up to 1 m/s and normal stress up to 7 MPa. Fault surfaces were measured parallel and perpendicular to the slickenside striations. Gouge was removed from the fault surfaces, and 33 positions were measured 'dry' (room air dry) and 10 positions were measured 'wet' (sample covered with water). We obtained consistent values of the friction coefficients. (1) Biotite: dry surfaces displayed mu=0.15, and wet surfaces displayed mu=0.26-0.29; (2) Granite: dry, pre-slip, polished surfaces displayed mu=0.64, dry fault surfaces measured parallel to slickensides had mu=0.52, and dry fault surfaces measured perpendicular to slickensides had mu=0.71; (3) Gabbro: dry fault surfaces measured parallel to slickensides had mu=0.48, and dry fault surfaces measured perpendicular to slickensides had mu=0.57; (4) Dolomite displayed more complex behavior. For dry fault surfaces measured parallel to slickensides, the friction dropped systematically from 0.64 to 0.26 with decreasing initial probe-surface separation distance, and wet fault surfaces displayed low friction of mu=0.16. Our preliminary conclusions are: (1) The friction mechanisms in our micro-scale (~ 50 microns) experiments may be similar to macro-scale friction mechanisms since our measured dry friction were similar to known rock friction of mu=0.6-0.8 at macro-scale; (2) The lower friction parallel to slickensides indicates slip-weakening due to fault-surface smoothening; (3) The strong effect (yet complicated) of water may be attributed to difference between smooth (biotite) and rough (dolomite & granite) surfaces. These results suggest that this AFM method can provide direct correlations between micro-scale surface textures and friction coefficient at the macro-scale.

  19. Surface roughness and friction coefficient in peened friction stir welded 2195 aluminum alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar Hatamleh; James Smith; Donald Cohen; Robert Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The tribological properties of friction stir welded 2195 aluminum alloy joints were investigated for several laser- and shot-peened specimens. The first portion of this study assessed the surface roughness changes at different regions of the weld resulting from the various peening processes and included an atomic force microscopy (AFM) study to reveal fine structures. The second portion investigated the friction

  20. Friction model for friction stir welding process simulation: Calibrations from welding experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Assidi; Lionel Fourment; Simon Guerdoux; Tracy Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The accurate 3D finite element simulation of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process requires a proper knowledge of both material and interface behaviors, but friction, the key phenomenon of this process, is quite difficult to model and identify. According to the extreme encountered conditions and the highly coupled nature of the material flow, simple tribological tests are not representative enough,

  1. Dynamic balance in turbulent reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, N.; Higashimori, K.; Hoshino, M.

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic balance between the enhancement and suppression of transports due to turbulence in magnetic reconnection is discussed analytically and numerically by considering the interaction of the large-scale field structures with the small-scale turbulence in a consistent manner. Turbulence is expected to play an important role in bridging small and large scales related to magnetic reconnection. The configurations of the mean-field structure are determined by turbulence through the effective transport. At the same time, statistical properties of turbulence are determined by the mean-field structure through the production mechanisms of turbulence. This suggests that turbulence and mean fields should be considered simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. Following the theoretical prediction on the interaction between the mean-fields and turbulence in magnetic reconnection presented by Yokoi and Hoshino (2011), a self-consistent model for the turbulent reconnection is constructed. In the model, the mean-field equations for compressible magnetohydrodynamics are treated with the turbulence effects incorporated through the turbulence correlation such as the Reynolds stress and turbulent electromotive force. Transport coefficients appearing in the expression for these correlations are not adjustable parameters but are determined through the transport equations of the turbulent statistical quantities such as the turbulent MHD energy, the turbulent cross helicity. One of the prominent features of this reconnection model lies in the point that turbulence is not implemented as a prescribed one, but the generation and sustainment of turbulence through the mean-field inhomogeneities are treated. The theoretical predictions are confirmed by the numerical simulation of the model equations. These predictions include the quadrupole cross helicity distribution around the reconnection region, enhancement of reconnection rate due to turbulence, localization of the reconnection region through the cross-helicity effect, etc. Some implications to the satellite observation of the magnetic reconnection will be also given. Reference: Yokoi, N. and Hoshino, M. (2011) Physics of Plasmas, 18, 111208.

  2. Preferential concentration of particles in a fully developed turbulent square duct flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Winkler; Sarma L. Rani; S. P. Vanka

    2004-01-01

    The preferential concentration of dense particles in a downward, fully developed turbulent square duct flow at Re?=360, based on mean friction velocity and duct width, is studied using large eddy simulations. Due to the low volume fractions involved (maximum volume fraction <10?5), one-way coupled simulations are performed, i.e., two-way coupling and particle–particle collisions are not considered. The continuous and the

  3. Polymer drag reduction with surface roughness in flat-plate turbulent boundary layer flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Petrie; S. Deutsch; T. A. Brungart; A. A. Fontaine

    2003-01-01

    Experimental results from a study of surface roughness effects on polymer drag reduction in a zero-pressure gradient flat-plate turbulent boundary layer are presented. Both slot-injected polymer and homogeneous polymer ocean cases were considered over a range of flow conditions and surface roughness. Balance measurements of skin friction drag reduction are presented. Drag reductions over 60% were measured for both the

  4. On the use of k-epsilon turbulence model for computation of solid rocket internal flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayant S. Sabnis; Ravi K. Madabhushi; Howard J. Gibeling; Henry McDonald

    1989-01-01

    The internal flow in a solid-propellant motor cold-flow model has been simulated via numerical solution of the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and a modified k-epsilon turbulence model. The modifications utilize the ratio for the wall injection velocity to the friction velocity as a similarity parameter in characterizing the relative dominance of the injection effects over the boundary-layer effects. This parameter is

  5. Inferences drawn from shock-enhanced turbulent mixing analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1987-10-16

    This discussion concerns analyses of physical shock-tube and shock-boundary layer interaction experiments, supplemented by computations. The basic issue is that of evaluating the influence of reflected shock waves on enhancing the balance of turbulent kinetic energy and resultant turbulent materials mixing during implosion and shock reflection intervals. Increases in random velocity amplitudes of a factor of 5 or greater implying turbulent kinetic energy increases of a factor of 12 or more have been observed in some low Mach Number shock-tube and boundary-layer shock wave interaction experiments. These results are analyzed to estimate their influence on increased turbulent material mixing subsequent to shock interaction. The analyses are developed with the assistance of two-dimensional, pseudospectral free turbulent field shock interaction numerical simulations as well as compressible turbulent boundary-layer shock interaction calculations. Of particular interest is the influence of Mach Number and pre-existing turbulent intensity on the enhancement ratios. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Subjective scaling of smooth surface friction.

    PubMed

    Smith, A M; Scott, S H

    1996-05-01

    1. Six men and four women, 30-51 yr of age, were asked to use the tip of the washed and dried index finger to stroke six different featureless, flat surfaces mounted on a three-dimensional force platform. The six surfaces were rosin-coated glass, glass, satin-finished aluminum, poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, Teflon, and nyloprint (polyamide plastic). The subjects were requested to indicate where the sensation produced by each surface should be placed on an unidimensional scale represented by an 18cm line labeled at one end by the words "most slippery" and at the other end by the words "most sticky." The coefficients of friction for each surface and for each subject were subsequently assessed by asking each subject to stroke the surfaces as if they were assessing its slipperiness for 5 s. 2. The finger forces normal and tangential to the stroked surfaces were digitized at 250 Hz and stored on a laboratory computer. The ratio of the mean tangential force to the mean perpendicular force during stroking was used to calculate the mean coefficient of kinetic friction. The mean friction for all subjects ranged from 0.43 for the nyloprint surface to 2.79 for the rosin-coated glass. Correlation coefficients calculated between the subjective estimates of friction and the measured coefficients of friction for each subject individually resulted in a mean correlation of 0.85 (n = 10, P < 0.001). 3. These data indicate that subjects can accurately scale relative differences in the friction of macroscopically smooth, flat surfaces, by modulating the tangential force applied to the finger while keeping the normal force relatively constant. The fact that subjects maintained a relatively constant normal force and instead varied the tangential force across different surfaces suggests that receptors sensitive to these tangential forces are important in the perception of smooth surface friction. PMID:8734594

  7. Gimballed Shoulders for Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert; Lawless, Kirby

    2008-01-01

    In a proposed improvement of tooling for friction stir welding, gimballed shoulders would supplant shoulders that, heretofore, have been fixedly aligned with pins. The proposal is especially relevant to self-reacting friction stir welding. Some definitions of terms, recapitulated from related prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed improvement. In friction stir welding, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a pin that rotates with the shoulder and protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. In conventional friction stir welding, the main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional friction stir welding is augmented with an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or forcecontrol system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding as practiced heretofore, there are two shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. Both shoulders rotate with the pin and remain aligned coaxially with the pin. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft into the friction-stir-welding machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. This concludes the prerequisite definitions of terms.

  8. Heat transfer and friction correlations for wavy plate fin-and-tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, N.H. [Univ. of Inchon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Youn, J.H. [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Webb, R.L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with heat exchangers having plate fins of herringbone wave configuration. Correlations are developed to predict the air-side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor as a function of flow conditions and geometric variables of the heat exchanger. Correlations are provided for both staggered and in-line arrays of circular tubes. A multiple regression technique was used to correlate 41 wavy fin geometries by Beecher and Fagan (1987), Wang et al. (1995) and Beecher (1968). For the staggered layout, 92% of the heat transfer data are correlated within {+-}10%, and 91% of the friction data are correlated within {+-}15%.

  9. Near-ground turbulence profiles from lunar scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, A.; Bustos, E.; Berdja, A.

    2010-05-01

    A simple and inexpensive six-channel array of photodiodes, LuSci, can measure weak moonlight scintillation produced by optical turbulence within few hundred metres above the ground. We describe the instrument, its operation and data reduction. Measured covariances of lunar scintillation are fitted to a smooth turbulence profile model with few parameters. Complete recipe for calculating the instrument response (including the effects of Moon's phases) is given. The robustness of the results relative to various experimental factors and model assumptions is investigated. We give examples of the data and compare LuSci with other turbulence profilers. LuSci finds numerous applications in nighttime site testing and monitoring.

  10. Friction and Plasticity at Seismic Slip Speeds: Experiments and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. M.; Fialko, Y.

    2009-12-01

    High-speed weakening processes directly bear on earthquake propagation physics and the origin of the anomalously low state of resolved shear stress on many major plate boundary faults systems, hazardous long run out landslides, and the motion on misaligned faults and low angle detachments. We put forward here a relatively simple non-linear weakening model and supporting experimental evidence that explains the principal properties of an initial high velocity weakening phase in terms of a thermally controlled increase in the plasticity and decrease in yield strength of the contacting asperities in response to frictional heating. It relies on the well understood concepts of rock plasticity at elevated temperatures and stresses and accounts for the factor of 3 to 4 times weakening we observe in high speed friction tests by considering both the Wachtman-Anderson relationship for the linear temperature dependent decrease of the elastic modulus and the hyperbolic sine creep law to account for greatly increasing creep rates at elevated contact stresses as local asperity temperatures rise above ~400-500°C. We conducted a series of high-speed friction experiments to test the model predictions. Experimental data indicate that there is a systematic evolution of the friction coefficient from 0.6-0.7 to as low as ~0.2 as velocities increase from 0.03 m/s to 2.5 m/s. The inferred power-law exponent of the velocity dependence is ~0.4, and the critical weakening velocity appears to depend on normal stress. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the observed velocity dependence of friction stems from thermal softening of the asperities. We infer the characteristic grain size using SEM images of the experimentally produced gouge. The grain sizes appear to be power law distributed with the majority of grains less than 1-5 microns in diameter. We calculate the temperature evolution within the gouge layer assuming 1-D non-steady heat conduction and complete conversion of mechanical work into heat. The predicted time history of temperature inside the sample is in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured temperature. We use this model to calculate the transient heating of individual asperities, and compare the calculated average strength of the asperities to the observed coefficient of friction (assuming that once high speed is reached, changes in the true contact area due to motion are negligible). The model reproduces the overall evolution of dynamic friction with slip velocity reasonably well. Consideration of the actual rheologies of the earth materials leads to the conclusion that variations in both effective normal stress conditions (?n - pf, pore fluid pressure) and slip velocity on a fault will result in very different evolutionary slip-weakening histories and that considerable transient fault weakening can occur even in the absence of either melting or hydrothermal pressurization.

  11. Spatial Heterogeneity Induces Scale Dependent Rock Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, F.; Fukuyama, E.; Xu, S.; Takizawa, S.; Mizoguchi, K.; Kawakata, H.; Passelègue, F. X.; Schubnel, A.

    2014-12-01

    We carried out large-scale biaxial friction experiments (Fukuyama et al., 2012; 2014) using a pair of meter-sized Indian gabbro as specimens, whose contacting area was 1.5 × 0.1 m2, normal stress was up to 6.7 MPa and loading velocity was up to 3 × 10-2 m/s. After each experiment, we found localized damages (i.e. grooves) were generated on the fault surface and gouges were distributed around them. We confirmed work rate dependency of rock friction as revealed by centimeter-sized rock samples (Di Toro et al., 2011), but further found that the meter-sized rock friction starts to decrease at one order of magnitude smaller work rate than that of the centimeter sized rock (Yamashita et al., 2013, AGU fall meeting). Here, we concluded that this difference is caused by stress localization and associated increase in heterogeneity on the fault as shown by: 1) Total amount of deviations of each local shear stress from the average, which were monitored by strain gauge array, increased with the decrease in friction. 2) Friction coefficients were negatively correlated with degree of spatial heterogeneity evaluated from the distribution of grooves and gouges. 3) Melt textures were found in the collected gouges by microscopic observation using HRSEM. Based on these observations, we propose a stress localization model; the fault surfaces are composed of patched and non-patched areas with high and low normal stress, respectively. The high normal stress patch leads to high shear stress, high mechanical work and thus production of much wear material (gouge), which further causes additional increase in normal stress. Assuming that the local friction follows the results by centimeter-sized gabbro experiments, we numerically simulated a slip-dependent friction for both patched and non-patched areas, and successively reproduced a weakening in macroscopic friction. We confirmed that the work rate dependency of simulated friction was consistent with that of biaxial experiments (Fig. 1). This result suggests this scale dependency should be taken into consideration since such heterogeneity should be common in nature.

  12. Effect of Surface Termination on Superlow Friction of Diamond Film: A Theoretical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yusuke; Shibata, Toshiaki; Onodera, Tasuku; Sahnoun, Riadh; Koyama, Michihisa; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Miyamoto, Akira

    2008-04-01

    We have applied molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculations to analyze the effects of H and OH terminations on the frictional properties of diamond films at the atomistic and electronic levels. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for H-, OH-, and non-terminated diamond surfaces against an iron surface. Results of molecular dynamics simulations show that the frictional force is clearly decreased by the H or OH termination on the diamond surfaces. Moreover, results of density functional calculations show that a covalent bond is formed between Fe and C, while H- or OH-terminated diamond surfaces interact repulsively with an iron surface owing to antibonding interactions. We concluded that this interaction change between iron and diamond surfaces is the major contributing factor for achieving a low friction in H- or OH-terminated diamond.

  13. Assessing the clarity of friction ridge impressions.

    PubMed

    Hicklin, R Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2013-03-10

    The ability of friction ridge examiners to correctly discern and make use of the ridges and associated features in finger or palm impressions is limited by clarity. The clarity of an impression relates to the examiner's confidence that the presence, absence, and attributes of features can be correctly discerned. Despite the importance of clarity in the examination process, there have not previously been standard methods for assessing clarity in friction ridge impressions. We introduce a process for annotation, analysis, and interchange of friction ridge clarity information that can be applied to latent or exemplar impressions. This paper: (1) describes a method for evaluating the clarity of friction ridge impressions by using color-coded annotations that can be used by examiners or automated systems; (2) discusses algorithms for overall clarity metrics based on manual or automated clarity annotation; and (3) defines a method of quantifying the correspondence of clarity when comparing a pair of friction ridge images, based on clarity annotation and resulting metrics. Different uses of this approach include examiner interchange of data, quality assurance, metrics, and as an aid in automated fingerprint matching. PMID:23313600

  14. Frictional properties of regenerated cartilage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yusuke; Tomita, Naohide; Aoki, Hideyuki; Sonobe, Masato; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Tamada, Yasushi; Suguro, Toru; Ikeuchi, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Although tribological function is the most important mechanical property of articular cartilage, few studies have examined this function in tissue-engineered cartilage. We investigated changes in the frictional properties of cartilage regenerated from the inoculation of rabbit chondrocytes into fibroin sponge. A reciprocating friction-testing apparatus was used to measure the friction coefficient of the regenerated cartilage under a small load. The specimen was slid against a stainless steel plate in a water vessel filled with physiological saline. The applied load was 0.03 N, the stroke length was 20 mm, and the mean sliding velocity was 0.8 mm/s. The friction coefficient of the regenerated cartilage decreased with increasing cultivation time, because a hydrophilic layer of synthesized extracellular matrix was formed on the fibroin sponge surface. The friction coefficient of the regenerated cartilage was as low as that of natural cartilage in the early stages of the sliding tests, but it increased with increasing duration of sliding owing to exudation of interstitial water from the surface layer. PMID:16271593

  15. Reduction of Noise from Disc Brake Systems Using Composite Friction Materials Containing Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoomi, Mohsen; Katbab, Ali Asghar; Nazockdast, Hossein

    2006-09-01

    Attempts have been made for the first time to prepare a friction material with the characteristic of thermal sensitive modulus, by the inclusion of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) as viscoelastic polymeric materials into the formulation in order to the increase the damping behavior of the cured friction material. Styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS) and nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (NBR/PVC) blend system were used as TPE materials. In order to evaluate the viscoelastic parameters such as loss factor (tan ?) and storage modulus (E?) for the friction material, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) were used. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of friction material and brake disc were determined by modal analysis. However, NBR/PVC and SEBS were found to be much more effective in damping behavior. The results from this comparative study suggest that the damping characteristics of commercial friction materials can be strongly affected by the TPE ingredients. This investigation also confirmed that the specimens with high TPE content had low noise propensity.

  16. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Snezhana I. Abarzhi; Serge Gauthier; Robert Rosner

    2008-01-01

    The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the

  17. Turbulence Structure and Wall Signature in Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    E-print Network

    Martín, Pino

    Turbulence Structure and Wall Signature in Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer Yin-Chiu Kan , Clara and hypersonic turbulent boundary layer datasets from direct numerical simulation (DNS). Contour plots and Marusic5 and Mathis, Hutchins and Marusic16 ). In contrast to supersonic and hypersonic flow regimes

  18. Linearly Forced Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, T. S.

    2003-01-01

    Stationary isotropic turbulence is often studied numerically by adding a forcing term to the Navier-Stokes equation. This is usually done for the purpose of achieving higher Reynolds number and longer statistics than is possible for isotropic decaying turbulence. It is generally accepted that forcing the Navier-Stokes equation at low wave number does not influence the small scale statistics of the flow provided that there is wide separation between the largest and smallest scales. It will be shown, however, that the spectral width of the forcing has a noticeable effect on inertial range statistics. A case will be made here for using a broader form of forcing in order to compare computed isotropic stationary turbulence with (decaying) grid turbulence. It is shown that using a forcing function which is directly proportional to the velocity has physical meaning and gives results which are closer to both homogeneous and non-homogeneous turbulence. Section 1 presents a four part series of motivations for linear forcing. Section 2 puts linear forcing to a numerical test with a pseudospectral computation.

  19. Modern turbulence and new challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaoshun, Zhang; Guixiang, Cui; Chunxiao, Xu

    2002-08-01

    The paper briefly reviews the progress in turbulence research in the 20th century and a number of issues are addressed based on achievements. The modern theroy of Navier-Stokes equation provides the theoretical basis for the development of turbulence research. The significance and bottle neck of DNS and the physical experiment in exploring turbulent flows are analyzed. The active manipulation of turbulence is directly guided by the knowledge of large-scale coherent structures. The existing problems in the large-eddy simulation are also pointed out. Scalar turbulence, which behaves quite different from fluid turbulence in many aspects, has drawn much attention in recent years. Besides the analysis of the difficulties in turbulence research, a number of examples are also presented to show how to use modern theory, computer and high technology to explore the nature of turbulence.

  20. Correlation of transonic-cone preston-tube data and skin friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Mostafa, A. S.; Reed, T. D.

    1984-01-01

    Preston-tube measurements obtained on the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Transition Cone have been correlated with theoretical skin friction coefficients in transitional and turbulent flow. This has been done for the NASA Ames 11-Ft Transonic Wind Tunnel (11 TWT) and flight tests. The developed semi-empirical correlations of Preston-tube data have been used to derive a calibration procedure for the 11 TWT flow quality. This procedure has been applied to the corrected laminar data, and an effective freestream unit Reynolds number is defined by requiring a matching of the average Preston-tube pressure in flight and in the tunnel. This study finds that the operating Reynolds number is below the effective value required for a match in laminar Preston-tube data. The distribution of this effective Reynolds number with Mach number correlates well with the freestream noise level in this tunnel. Analyses of transitional and turbulent data, however, did not result in effective Reynolds numbers that can be correlated with background noise. This is a result of the fact that vorticity fluctuations present in transitional and turbulent boundary layers dominate Preston-tube pressure fluctuations and, therefore, mask the tunnel noise eff ects. So, in order to calibrate the effects of noise on transonic wind tunnel tests only laminar data should be used, preferably at flow conditions similar to those in flight tests. To calibrate the effects of transonic wind-tunnel noise on drag measurements, however, the Preston-tube data must be supplemented with direct measurements of skin friction.

  1. Supernova-driven interstellar turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, M. K. Ryan

    To study how supernova feedback structures the turbulent interstellar medium, we construct 3D models of vertically stratified gas stirred by discrete supernova explosions, including vertical gravitational field and parametrized heating and cooling. The models reproduce many observed characteristics of the Galaxy such as global circulation of gas (i.e., galactic fountain) and the existence of cold dense clouds in the galactic disk. Global quantities of the model such as warm and hot gas filling factors in the midplane, mass fraction of thermally unstable gas, and the averaged vertical density profile are compared directly with existing observations, and shown to be broadly consistent. We find that energy injection occurs over a broad range of scales. There is no single effective driving scale, unlike the usual assumption for idealized models of incompressible turbulence. However, >90% of the total kinetic energy is contained in wavelengths shortward of 200 pc. The shape of the kinetic energy spectrum differs substantially from that of the velocity power spectrum, which implies that the velocity structure varies with the gas density. Velocity structure functions demonstrate that the phenomenological theory proposed by Boldyrev is applicable to the medium. We show that it can be misleading to predict physical properties such as the stellar initial mass junction based on numerical simulations that do not include self-gravity of the gas. Even if all the gas in turbulently Jeans unstable regions in our simulation is assumed to collapse and form stars in local freefall times, the resulting total collapse rate is significantly lower than the value consistent with the input supernova rate. Supernova-driven turbulence inhibits star formation globally rather than triggering it. Feedback from massive stars is perhaps the least understood aspect of the current scenario of large-scale structure formation. Many recent observations on both galactic and cosmological scales require efficient mechanical and chemical feedback from supernovae, but a successful theory for the feedback has been difficult to obtain. As a result, simple phenomenological treatments have often been used. We propose to improve our understanding of feedback in two steps. First, we perform a suite of numerical experiments in which the supernova rates and gas column densities are systematically varied according to the Kennicutt relation. Our simulations have a sufficiently high spatial resolution (1.95 pc) to follow detailed hydrodynamic interactions that structure the interstellar medium. At a given supernova rate, both thermal and turbulent pressures are nearly constant in the midplane, i.e., the equation of state is isobaric. In contrast, across our four models having different supernova rates, the gas averaged over ~100 pc regions shows P [is proportional to] [rho] 1. x , that is, the equation of state is less compressible than isothermal. Based on these local stratified ISM models, we construct a subgrid model for turbulent pressure, which will be a useful tool for including supernova feedback in cosmological simulations.

  2. Dynamical friction: effect of chaotic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, S. A.; Vergne, M. M.; Muzzio, J. C.

    1998-11-01

    We use numerical experiments to investigate the orbital decay, caused by dynamical friction, of a rigid satellite which moves within a larger stellar system (a galaxy); the self gravity of the particles that make up the galaxy is neglected. We study the influence on dynamical friction of chaotic orbits, present in non-integrable systems. Previous studies suggest that the presence of these orbits could enhance the effect of the dynamical friction; our goal is to verify this hypothesis, since, as much as we know, there are not simulations of this kind made by other authors. The influence of chaos is studied considering pairs of comparable models (similar density distributions) with different percentages of regular and chaotic orbits. For this purpose, we consider a Satoh modified potential to represent the galaxy, that is allowed to move on a circular orbit in a logarithmic potential; the rotation induces the appearence of chaotic orbits.

  3. Frictional Ignition Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Steve; Rosales, Keisa; Robinson, Michael J.; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The space flight community has been investigating lightweight composite materials for use in propellant tanks for both liquid and gaseous oxygen for space flight vehicles. The use of these materials presents some risks pertaining to ignition and burning hazards in the presence of oxygen. Through hazard analysis process, some ignition mechanisms have been identified as being potentially credible. One of the ignition mechanisms was reciprocal friction; however, test data do not exist that could be used to clear or fail these types of materials as "oxygen compatible" for the reciprocal friction ignition mechanism. Therefore, testing was performed at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to provide data to evaluate this ignition mechanism. This paper presents the test system, approach, data results, and findings of the reciprocal friction testing performed on composite sample materials being considered for propellant tanks.

  4. Channel Formation in Modified Friction Stir Channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Arash; Mostafapour, Amir; Rezazadeh, Vahid; Salahi, Salar

    2013-02-01

    Modified friction stir channeling (MFSC) is a new approach for fabrication of a continuous, integral channel in monolithic Al plate, which is carried out in a single pass. This technique is derived from Friction Stir Processing (FSP). Tool profile and position of tool pin against work piece were designed differently from conventional Friction Stir Channeling (FSC) process. In MFSC, Fabricated channel with more regular shape than FSC process shows that the channel formation mechanism is different from FSC. So, in this study, in order to understand the formation of channel, material flow in MFSC is investigated using weakened tool pin technique. Moreover, one of the most important channel properties is width of channel. This characteristic affected the channel area and shape of the channel. Width of channel was unknown in FSC process. But in MFSC, a new region is investigated which determines the channel width.

  5. Laser Peening Effects on Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatamleh, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a welding technique that uses frictional heating combined with forging pressure to produce high strength bonds. It is attractive for aerospace applications. Although residual stresses in FSW are generally lower when compared to conventional fusion welds, recent work has shown that significant tensile residual stresses can be present in the weld after fabrication. Therefore, laser shock peening was investigated as a means of moderating the tensile residual stresses produced during welding. This slide presentation reviews the effect of Laser Peening on the weld, in tensile strength, strain, surface roughness, microhardness, surface wear/friction, and fatigue crack growth rates. The study concluded that the laser peening process can result in considerable improvement to crack initiaion, propagation and mechanical properties in FSW.

  6. EBSD Analysis of Friction Stir Weld Textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, R. W.; Knipling, K. E.; Rowenhorst, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has become established as a convenient and accurate method for obtaining texture information. In friction stir welding, however, the complex, three-dimensional curvature of the deposited shear layers causes the textures to vary in orientation across the weld nugget. Only rarely are the EBSD data acquired in the shear deformation frame of reference. Thus, an analysis of those shear textures needs to take into consideration the local orientation of the shear deformation reference frame at the location of the analysis to appropriately identify the resultant texture. This article presents a systematic methodology for the analysis of friction stir weld textures that uses geometry-based rotations to align the analysis orientation to the local shear deformation frame of reference and thereby enable an accurate identification of the textures produced during the friction stir welding process.

  7. Friction Stir Welding of Steel Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The friction stir welding process has been developed primarily for the welding of aluminum alloys. Other higher melting allows such, as steels are much more difficult to join. Special attention must be given to pin tool material selection and welding techniques. This paper addresses the joining of steels and other high melting point materials using the friction stir welding process. Pin tool material and welding parameters will be presented. Mechanical properties of weldments will also be presented. Significance: There are many applications for the friction stir welding process other than low melting aluminum alloys. The FSW process can be expanded for use with high melting alloys in the pressure vessel, railroad and ship building industries.

  8. Casimir friction at zero and finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, Johan S.; Brevik, Iver

    2014-03-01

    The Casimir friction problem for dielectric plates that move parallell to each other is treated by assuming one of the plates to be at rest. The other performs a closed loop motion in the longitudinal direction. Therewith by use of energy dissipation the formalism becomes more manageable and transparent than in the conventional setting where uniform sliding motion is assumed from t = -? to t = +?. One avoids separating off a reversible interparticle force (independent of friction) from the total force. Moreover, the cases of temperatures T = 0 and finite T are treated on the same footing. For metal plates we find the friction force to be proportional to v 3 at T = 0 while at finite T it is proportional to v for small v as found earlier. Comparisons with earlier results of Pendry [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9, 10301 (1997); New J. Phys. 12, 033028 (2010)] and Barton [New J. Phys. 13, 043023 (2011)] are made.

  9. Physics of Friction in Disposable Plastic Syringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebmann-Vinson, A.; Vogler, E. A.; Martin, D. A.; Montgomery, D. B.; Sugg, H. W.; Monahan, L. A.

    1997-03-01

    Nosocomial applications of disposable plastic syringes demand excellent frictional behavior with no stick-slip over a broad velocity range and, simultaneously, a tight seal between stopper and barrel. However, when used in syringe pumps at slow injection speeds, stick-slip motion is frequently observed and high "break-out" forces are often necessary to initiate plunger movement after extended storage times. We have traced this frictional behavior to a velocity-dependent interaction between the elastomeric stopper and the plastic syringe barrel mediated by the syringe lubricant, almost universally a polydimethyl siloxane fluid. Lubricant properties were altered by crosslinking the surface of the silicone oil in an oxygen plasma. Changes in surface chemistry and morphology of the crosslinked oil were correlated with changes in frictional performance.

  10. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Yoshi Buhmann, Stefan; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.

  11. Method and device for frictional welding

    DOEpatents

    Peacock, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    A method for friction welding that produces a seal having essentially no gas porosity, comprises two rotationally symmetric, generally cylindrical members, spaced apart and coaxially aligned, that are rotated with respect to each other and brought together under high pressure. One member is preferably a generally cylindrical cannister that stores uranium within its hollow walls. The other member is preferably a generally cylindrical, hollow weld ring. An annular channel formed in the weld ring functions as an internal flash trap and is uniquely designed so that substantially all of the welding flash generated from the friction welding is directed into the channel`s recessed bottom. Also, the channel design limits distortion of the two members during the friction welding, process, further contributing to the complete seal that is obtained.

  12. Tunable Friction Behavior of Photochromic Fibrillar Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Gabriele; Ceseracciu, Luca; Oropesa-Nuñez, Reinier; Canale, Claudio; Salvatore, Princia; Fragouli, Despina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2015-06-01

    Grasslike compliant micro/nano crystals made of diarylethene (DAE) photochromic molecules are spontaneously formed on elastomer films after dipping them in a solution containing the photochromic molecules. The frictional forces of such micro- and nanofibrillar surfaces are reversibly tuned upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and dark storage cycles. This behavior is attributed to the Young's modulus variation of the single fibrils due to the photoisomerization process of the DAE molecules, as measured by advanced atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. In fact, a significant yet reversible decrease of the stiffness of the outer part of the fibrils in response to the UV light irradiation is demonstrated. The modification of the molecular structure of the fibrils influences their mechanical properties and affects the frictional behavior of the overall fibrillar surfaces. These findings provide the possibility to develop a system that controllably and accurately generates both low and high friction forces. PMID:26017025

  13. Friction coefficients of sorghum grain on steel, teflon, and concrete surfaces

    E-print Network

    Hossain, Quazi A

    1967-01-01

    termed "Coulomb friction" or dry friction. Merriam (26) differentiated it from "fluid friction" (that which occurs in the presence of a separating layer of lubricating fluid) and "internal friction" (that which resists e~ternal shear in a cohesionless...

  14. Ligand-mediated friction determines morphodynamics of spreading T cells.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Pierre; Varma, Rajat; Sengupta, Kheya; Limozin, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    Spreading of T cells on antigen presenting cells is a crucial initial step in immune response. Spreading occurs through rapid morphological changes concomitant with the reorganization of surface receptors and of the cytoskeleton. Ligand mobility and frictional coupling of receptors to the cytoskeleton were separately recognized as important factors but a systematic study to explore their biophysical role in spreading was hitherto missing. To explore the impact of ligand mobility, we prepared chemically identical substrates on which molecules of anti-CD3 (capable of binding and activating the T cell receptor complex), were either immobilized or able to diffuse. We quantified the T cell spreading area and cell edge dynamics using quantitative reflection interference contrast microscopy, and imaged the actin distribution. On mobile ligands, as compared to fixed ligands, the cells spread much less, the actin is centrally, rather than peripherally distributed and the edge dynamics is largely altered. Blocking myosin-II or adding molecules of ICAM1 on the substrate largely abrogates these differences. We explain these observations by building a model based on the balance of forces between activation-dependent actin polymerization and actomyosin-generated tension on one hand, and on the frictional coupling of the ligand-receptor complexes with the actin cytoskeleton, the membrane and the substrate, on the other hand. Introducing the measured edge velocities in the model, we estimate the coefficient of frictional coupling between T Cell receptors or LFA-1 and the actin cytoskeleton. Our results provide for the first time, to our knowledge, a quantitative framework bridging T cell-specific biology with concepts developed for integrin-based mechanisms of spreading. PMID:25468342

  15. Turbulent black holes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746

  16. Turbulent Pair Diffusion

    E-print Network

    F. Nicolleau; J. C. Vassilicos

    2002-05-01

    Kinematic Simulations of turbulent pair diffusion in planar turbulence with a -5/3 energy spectrum reproduce the results of the laboratory measurements of Jullien Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2872 (1999), in particular the stretched exponential form of the PDF of pair separations and their correlation functions. The root mean square separation is found to be strongly dependent on initial conditions for very long stretches of times. This dependence is consistent with the topological picture of turbulent pair diffusion where pairs initially close enough travel together for long stretches of time and separate violently when they meet straining regions around hyperbolic points. A new argument based on the divergence of accelerations is given to support this picture.

  17. Turbulent mixing and beyond.

    PubMed

    Abarzhi, S I; Sreenivasan, K R

    2010-04-13

    Turbulence is a supermixer. Turbulent mixing has immense consequences for physical phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales under both high- and low-energy-density conditions. It influences thermonuclear fusion in inertial and magnetic confinement systems; governs dynamics of supernovae, accretion disks and explosions; dominates stellar convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics; affects premixed and non-premixed combustion; controls standard turbulent flows (wall-bounded and free-subsonic, supersonic as well as hypersonic); as well as atmospheric and oceanic phenomena (which themselves have important effects on climate). In most of these circumstances, the mixing phenomena are driven by non-equilibrium dynamics. While each article in this collection dwells on a specific problem, the purpose here is to seek a few unified themes amongst diverse phenomena. PMID:20211872

  18. Cascades in nonlocal turbulence.

    PubMed

    Falkovich, Gregory; Vladimirova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    We consider developed turbulence in the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii model, which describes wide classes of phenomena from atomic and optical physics to condensed matter, fluids, and plasma. The well-known difficulty of the problem is that the hypothetical local spectra of both inverse and direct cascades in the weak-turbulence approximation carry fluxes that are either zero or have the wrong sign; Such spectra cannot be realized. We analytically derive the exact flux constancy laws (analogs of Kolmogorov's 4/5 law for incompressible fluid turbulence), expressed via the fourth-order moment and valid for any nonlinearity. We confirm the flux laws in direct numerical simulations. We show that a constant flux is realized by a nonlocal wave interaction in both the direct and inverse cascades. Wave spectra (second-order moments) are close to slightly (logarithmically) distorted thermal equilibrium in both cascades. PMID:25974433

  19. Cascades in nonlocal turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Vladimirova, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    We consider developed turbulence in the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii model, which describes wide classes of phenomena from atomic and optical physics to condensed matter, fluids, and plasma. The well-known difficulty of the problem is that the hypothetical local spectra of both inverse and direct cascades in the weak-turbulence approximation carry fluxes that are either zero or have the wrong sign; Such spectra cannot be realized. We analytically derive the exact flux constancy laws (analogs of Kolmogorov's 4/5 law for incompressible fluid turbulence), expressed via the fourth-order moment and valid for any nonlinearity. We confirm the flux laws in direct numerical simulations. We show that a constant flux is realized by a nonlocal wave interaction in both the direct and inverse cascades. Wave spectra (second-order moments) are close to slightly (logarithmically) distorted thermal equilibrium in both cascades.

  20. Constitutive equations for turbulent flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. B. Gatski

    2004-01-01

    This review is intended to provide both the specialist and non-specialist in the field of turbulence with a continuum mechanics perspective on developing closure models needed in the description of turbulent flows. Modeling considerations applicable to isothermal, incompressible turbulent flows are discussed within the framework of Reynolds-averaged transport equations for the statistical moments.