Sample records for turkey satellite cell

  1. Expression of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), IGF binding protein-2 and myogenin during differentiation of myogenic satellite cells derived from the turkey.

    PubMed

    Ernst, C W; McFarland, D C; White, M E

    1996-10-01

    Myogenic satellite cells are essential for the development of postnatal skeletal muscle. The proliferation and differentiation of these cells are, in part, regulated by the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and it has been shown that the IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) are capable of modulating the actions of IGFs. We have examined the endogenous expression of IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and the myogenic regulatory factor, myogenin, during differentiation of clonally derived turkey muscle satellite cells. Cells were harvested at approximately 80% of confluent density. Additional cultures were rinsed, fed differentiation medium and harvested when approximately 20%, 60% and 80% differentiated (fused). Northern blot analyses were performed using total cellular RNA and labeled rat cDNAs specific for IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and myogenin. A single IGF-II mRNA transcript of approximately 4.0 kb was observed. The relative mRNA abundance was highest in proliferating cultures and decreased with the onset of differentiation, to approximately 60% of initial levels where it remained throughout differentiation. Use of the IGFBP-2 cDNA probe indicated a single mRNA transcript of approximately 2.0 kb. The level of expression of IGFBP-2 mRNA was highest in proliferating cells and decreased to 25%, 16% and 11% of initial levels as differentiation progressed. A single 1.8 kb mRNA transcript was detected with the myogenin probe. Expression of myogenin was undetectable in proliferating cultures and increased significantly as differentiation progressed. Serum-free medium was conditioned for 24 h (CM) at each time point and collected from similar cultures. An IGFBP species of M(r) approximately 30,000 was detected in CM by probing western blots with [125I] IGF-I (ligand blot analysis). The intensity of this band decreased with differentiation to 35%, 24% and 18% of the level for proliferating cultures. Western blots were also probed with an antibody raised against the M(r)-34,000 bovine IGFBP-2. This antibody specifically bound to the M(r)-30,000 IGFBP, and the level of antibody binding decreased as differentiation progressed. It therefore appears that IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and myogenin are expressed in a differentiation-dependent manner by turkey myogenic satellite cells and may thus be involved in the process of differentiation of avian muscle cells. PMID:8921582

  2. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form of control is to determine which of the many growth factors that can alter satellite cell behavior in vitro are at work in vivo. Little work has been done to determine what controls are at work after a regeneration response has been initiated. It seems likely that, after injury, growth factors are liberated through proteolytic activity and initiate an activation process whereby cells enter into a proliferative phase. After myofibers are formed, it also seems likely that satellite cell behavior is regulated through diffusible factors arising from the fibers rather than continuous control by circulating factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  3. The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation (25 Gy) on the subsequent in vitro growth of satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Schultz, E.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation on subsequent satellite cell growth, in vitro, was investigated to ascertain the ability of a 25 Gy dose to inhibit satellite cell proliferation. Satellite cells were isolated from the left (irradiated) and right (non-irradiated) Pectoralis thoracicus of two-week-old tom turkeys 16 h (n=3) and seven weeks (n=2) after the left Pectoralis thoracicus had been irradiated (25 Gy). Satellite cells isolated from the irradiated and non-irradiated muscles exhibited similar (P>0.10) in vitro proliferation indicating that a population of satellite cells survived an in vivo dose of 25 Gy. In additional experiments, satellite cell cultures derived from tom turkey Pectoralis thoracicus were irradiated (25 Gy) in vitro. The number of satellite cells did not (P>0.05) increase in irradiated cultures for 134 h following irradiation, while satellite cells in non-irradiated cultures proliferated (P<0.05) over this time. At later time periods, satellite cell number increased (P<0.05) in irradiated cultures indicating that a population of satellite cells survived irradiation. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that a 25 Gy dose of irradiation does not abolish satellite cell divisions in the turkey Pectoralis thoracicus.

  4. Satellite based estimates of terrestrial water storage variations in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenk, Onur

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided a new tool to study terrestrial water storage variations (TWS) at medium and large spatial scales, providing quantitative measures of TWS change. Linear trends in TWS variations in Turkey were estimated using GRACE observations for the period March 2003 to March 2009. GRACE showed a significant decrease in TWS in the southern part of the central Anatolian region up to a rate of 4 cm/year. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) model also captured this TWS decrease event but with underestimated trend values. The GLDAS model represents only a part of the total TWS variations, the sum of soil moisture (2 m column depth) and snow water equivalent, ignoring groundwater variations. Therefore, GLDAS model derived TWS variations were subtracted from GRACE derived TWS variations to estimate groundwater storage variations. Results revealed that decreasing trends of TWS observed by GRACE in the southern part of central Anatolia were largely explained by the decreasing trends of groundwater variations which were confirmed by the limited available well groundwater level data in the region.

  5. [Turkey].

    PubMed

    The capital of Turkey is Ankara. As of 1995, Turkey had a population of 61.9 million governed by a parliamentary republican regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $149 billion and $2450. Per capita income grew at 1.5% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Turkey owed $66.3 billion, then being serviced at $9.4 billion. For the same year, Turkey exported $32.711 billion in goods and services and imported $30.785 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 1.8% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 67 years, the infant mortality rate was 56 per 1000 births, % had access to health services, and 92% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347072

  6. Heterogeneity in the muscle satellite cell population

    PubMed Central

    Biressi, Stefano; Rando, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite cells, the adult stem cells responsible for skeletal muscle regeneration, are defined by their location between the basal lamina and the fiber sarcolemma. Increasing evidence suggests that satellite cells represent a heterogeneous population of cells with distinct embryological origin and multiple levels of biochemical and functional diversity. This review focuses on the rich diversity of the satellite cell population based on studies across species. Ultimately, a more complete characterization of the heterogeneity of satellite cells will be essential to understand the functional significance in terms of muscle growth, homeostasis, tissue repair, and aging. PMID:20849971

  7. Satellite cell therapy – from mice to men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cells are rare mononuclear skeletal muscle-resident cells that are the chief contributors to regenerative myogenesis following muscle injury. Although first identified more than 50 years ago, it is only recently that the murine satellite cell has become molecularly defined with the ability to prospectively isolate these cells from their niche. Human satellite cells are considerably less well understood with relatively few studies having been performed on them. In this review, a critical evaluation of this literature is provided along with a discussion of the practical and methodological issues involved with research on human satellite cells. The therapeutic potential of these and other cells types is also discussed, and the various challenges that face satellite cell therapy are addressed. PMID:23369649

  8. A webgis supported snow information system with long time satellite data for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surer, S.; Bolat, K.; Akyurek, Z.

    2012-04-01

    KARBILSIS is an online platform which is developed in order to provide end-users with daily remote sensing snow products for Turkey (www.karbilsis.com). The project has been started as a research activity after an award by Ministry of Science and Technology has been granted to our company. At the first stage of our project MODIS atmospherically corrected reflectance data has been downloaded covering the period of 2000-2011 which makes more than ten years of satellite imagery for Turkey. The archived MODIS data that have been obtained from National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is mainly MOD09GA product that includes seven spectral bands. Only the tiles which are covering Turkey have been archived namely 19&20 horizontal and 4&5 vertical ones. In order to provide scientists with a website giving the availability of analysis of snow covered area for long terms based on their area of interests, a fractional snow extent (FSE) product has been generated. For FSE product a normalized difference snow index (NDSI) based algorithm has been developed using daily land surface reflectance values (MOD09GA). In addition to MODIS data, four different Landsat images belonging to different days of snowy period (January, March, and May) have been used during algorithm development taking into account a better representation of different reflectance values of snow which highly varies depending on the accumulation and melting periods. Landsat images were used as reference images. First the Landsat images were orthorectified and mapped to a cartographic projection. Then image segmentation was applied to obtain homogeneous tiles, where the homogeneity is defined as similarity in pixel values. The mean-shift segmentation approach, where each pixel was associated with a significant mode of the joint domain density located in its neighborhood, was applied. After segmentation, the image was classified into snow and no-snow classes with Maximum Likelihood Classification Method. FSE products have been produced for around 12 years from 2000 to 2012 and it is being produced daily as the data is available. 72% overall accuracy was obtained from the validation analysis. Our website will be available to give service to our users to make analysis on snow extent with a long time series database for free. By the help of WEBGIS interface it is going to be possible to produce time series of snow cover areas, and produce graphs and summary statistics for a better management of information on snow cover in various fields from flood forecast integration, energy production planning of hydropower plants which are fed from snow melting, and producing input for climate models.

  9. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  10. Solar cells for solar power satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Oman

    1978-01-01

    The concept of a solar-cell array for a solar power satellite is developed to permit evaluation of its economic feasibility for generating power for delivery to public utilities on earth. Gallium arsenide solar cells were considered but it could not be assured that the world gallium resources could support constructions of two solar power satellites per year. Therefore, for preliminary

  11. Using Cell Phones From Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    During the past several years, an interest has grown in using commercial telecommunications techniques to supply Telemetry and Command (T&C) services. Recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) has outlined plans to utilize satellite-based telecommunications services to support space operations in space missions over the next several decades. NASA currently obtains the bulk of its telecommunications services for earth-orbiting satellites via the existing government-owned and controlled Space Network (SN) system. This system consists of the constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and the associated ground terminals and communications intrastructure. This system is valuable and effective for scientific satellites costing over one million dollars. However, for smaller satellites, this system becomes problematic due to the cost of transponders and support infrastructure. The nominal transponders for using the TDRS cannot be obtained for a cost in dollars, and size, weight, or power that the 3 Corner Satellite project can afford. For these types of nanosatellite missions, alternatives that fit the mission cost and satellite profiles are needed. In particular, low-cost access using existing commercial infrastructure would be useful to mission planners. In particular, the ability to obtain low data rate T&C services would be especially valuable. The nanosatellites generally have low T&C requirements and therefore would benefit from using commercial services that could operate in the 2400 bps - 9600 bps range, especially if contact times longer than the 5 - 10 minute ground station passes could be found.

  12. Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD. PMID:24977132

  13. Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD. PMID:25364710

  14. Solar cells for solar power satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, H.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of a solar-cell array for a solar power satellite is developed to permit evaluation of its economic feasibility for generating power for delivery to public utilities on earth. Gallium arsenide solar cells were considered but it could not be assured that the world gallium resources could support constructions of two solar power satellites per year. Therefore, for preliminary design an array blanket made from 5 by 10 cm silicon solar cells, 50 microns thick, and electrostatically bonded between borosilicate glass sheets was adopted. In annealing experiments, a radiated 50 microns thick cell was restored to its initial performance in a 500 C. Solar-cell efficiency effects significantly the solar power satellite mass, which varies from 90,000 metric tons for 20 percent cells to 120,000 metric tons for 12 percent cells. The anticipated cost of delivered power, based on 1977 dollars, varies from 4 cents per kWh with 18 percent cells, to 5 cents per kWh for 12 percent efficient cells.

  15. Satellite Cells and the Muscle Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hang; Price, Feodor

    2013-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle in mammals is a stable tissue under normal circumstances but has remarkable ability to repair after injury. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process involving the activation of various cellular and molecular responses. As skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells play an indispensible role in this process. The self-renewing proliferation of satellite cells not only maintains the stem cell population but also provides numerous myogenic cells, which proliferate, differentiate, fuse, and lead to new myofiber formation and reconstitution of a functional contractile apparatus. The complex behavior of satellite cells during skeletal muscle regeneration is tightly regulated through the dynamic interplay between intrinsic factors within satellite cells and extrinsic factors constituting the muscle stem cell niche/microenvironment. For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. Here, we review some recent advances, with focuses on functions of satellite cells and their niche during the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23303905

  16. Isolation, culture, and transplantation of muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Yoko; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells are a stem cell population required for postnatal skeletal muscle development and regeneration, accounting for 2-5% of sublaminal nuclei in muscle fibers. In adult muscle, satellite cells are normally mitotically quiescent. Following injury, however, satellite cells initiate cellular proliferation to produce myoblasts, their progenies, to mediate the regeneration of muscle. Transplantation of satellite cell-derived myoblasts has been widely studied as a possible therapy for several regenerative diseases including muscular dystrophy, heart failure, and urological dysfunction. Myoblast transplantation into dystrophic skeletal muscle, infarcted heart, and dysfunctioning urinary ducts has shown that engrafted myoblasts can differentiate into muscle fibers in the host tissues and display partial functional improvement in these diseases. Therefore, the development of efficient purification methods of quiescent satellite cells from skeletal muscle, as well as the establishment of satellite cell-derived myoblast cultures and transplantation methods for myoblasts, are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind satellite cell self-renewal, activation, and differentiation. Additionally, the development of cell-based therapies for muscular dystrophy and other regenerative diseases are also dependent upon these factors. However, current prospective purification methods of quiescent satellite cells require the use of expensive fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) machines. Here, we present a new method for the rapid, economical, and reliable purification of quiescent satellite cells from adult mouse skeletal muscle by enzymatic dissociation followed by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Following isolation of pure quiescent satellite cells, these cells can be cultured to obtain large numbers of myoblasts after several passages. These freshly isolated quiescent satellite cells or ex vivo expanded myoblasts can be transplanted into cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced regenerating mouse skeletal muscle to examine the contribution of donor-derived cells to regenerating muscle fibers, as well as to satellite cell compartments for the examination of self-renewal activities. PMID:24747722

  17. Donor satellite cell engraftment is significantly augmented when the host niche is preserved and endogenous satellite cells are incapacitated.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-09-01

    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy. PMID:22730231

  18. MOLECULAR MARKERS IN WILD TURKEY

    E-print Network

    Latch, Emily K.

    and conservation of wildlife species. In the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), these markers have been used, hybridization, Meleagris gallopavo, micro- satellite, mitochondrial, molecular marker, population, subspecies

  19. The frequency of tuberculosis in adult allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tulin Budak-Alpdogan; Yucel Tangün; Sevgi Kalayoglu-Besisik; Siret Ratip; Hamdi Akan; Zafer Baslar; Teoman Soysal; Mahmut Bayik; Haluk Koç

    2000-01-01

    In general, tuberculosis (Tb) is rarely seen in allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) recipients, but this observation has been challenged in developing countries such as Turkey, where Tb infection is more prevalent than in Europe and the US. In this retrospective study, we report on the incidence of Tb infections in 351 alloSCT recipients at 4 bone marrow transplantation units

  20. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  1. The potential for archiving and reconstituting valuable strains of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) using primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Wade, Alexander J; French, Nick A; Ireland, Grenham W

    2014-04-01

    Diseases such as avian in?uenza can destroy turkey ?ocks, potentially resulting in the loss of valuable or rare genetic material. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a means to archive such germplasm. Germline chimeras produced by intravascular transfer of primordial germ cells (PGC) have been reported in other avian species but not turkeys. This study examined the feasibility of both establishing an archive of frozen PGC, and producing germline chimeras by injecting the thawed PGC into host embryos. To meet these aims, the following experiments were performed: (1) PGC identification within turkey embryos; (2) development of an efficient method for isolation of turkey PGC; (3) demonstration that PGC can be cryopreserved, recovered, and retain viability; (4) reinjection into embryos and detection of injected PGC. Primordial germ cells were identified using periodic acid-Schiff reagent and the immunological marker OLP-1. Bloodstream PGC were isolated using Ficoll density gradient centrifugation with PGC recovery peaking at stages 13, 14, and 15 with 32 ± 4.9, 33 ± 6.4, and 26 ± 5.4 PGC recovered, respectively. Primordial germ cells were frozen using Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium, 20% fetal calf serum, and 10% dimethylsulfoxide and demonstrated 90 ± 1.7% viability after 3 mo frozen in liquid nitrogen. Freshly isolated and frozen thawed DiI- and Q-Tracker-labeled PGC repopulated stage 30 gonads after vascular transfer into ex ovo cultured embryos. The DiI-labeled cells repopulated gonads less frequently, with 36 ± 13.2% of gonads containing the DiI-labeled PGC, and 7 ± 3.8% of reinjected PGC reaching the gonads of positive embryos. The Q-tracker-labeled cells were detected more frequently in embryos, with 67 ± 21.1% having positive signals, and 44 ± 4.9% of reinjected Q-tracker-labeled PGC colonized the gonads of positive embryos. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using turkey PGC to archive turkey germplasm from different strains because frozen PGC reintroduced into host embryos can colonize the host gonads, suggesting the possibility of producing turkey germline chimeras. PMID:24706956

  2. Satellite cells from dystrophic muscle retain regenerative capacity

    PubMed Central

    Boldrin, Luisa; Zammit, Peter S.; Morgan, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, with a failure of muscle maintenance/repair mediated by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). The function of skeletal muscle stem cells resident in dystrophic muscle may be perturbed by being in an increasing pathogenic environment, coupled with constant demands for repairing muscle. To investigate the contribution of satellite cell exhaustion to this process, we tested the functionality of satellite cells isolated from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that satellite cells derived from young mdx mice contributed efficiently to muscle regeneration within our in vivo mouse model. To then test the effects of long-term residence in a dystrophic environment, satellite cells were isolated from aged mdx muscle. Surprisingly, they were as functional as those derived from young or aged wild type donors. Removing satellite cells from a dystrophic milieu reveals that their regenerative capacity remains both intact and similar to satellite cells derived from healthy muscle, indicating that the host environment is critical for controlling satellite cell function. PMID:25460248

  3. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a three dimensional level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development.

  4. Electrical analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen\\/fuel cell energy system in Denizli, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Engin Cetin; Ahmet Yilanci; Yusuf Oner; Metin Colak; Ismail Kasikci; Harun K. Ozturk

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen\\/fuel cell energy systems have been popular as energy production systems that are clean, environmental-friendly, modular, and independent from fossil fuels. In February 2007, a clean energy research facility consisting of a 5kWp photovoltaic system and a 2.4kWp hydrogen-fuel cell system was built to investigate these energy production technologies at Pamukkale University in Denizli, Turkey. In

  5. Evidence for Functionally Distinct Subpopulations of Steroidogenic Cells in the Domestic Turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) Adrenal Gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Kocsis; Ellen T. Lamm; Patrick J. McIlroy; Colin G. Scanes; Rocco V. Carsia

    1995-01-01

    A body of histological and functional evidence supports the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subpopulations of steroidogenic cells comprising the avian adrenal gland. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by evaluating the steroidogenic responses of density-dependent subpopulations of adrenal steroidogenic cells isolated from domestic turkeys fed either a high-normal (control) sodium diet (0.4% Na+) or a Na+-restricted

  6. The effect of syndecan-4 and glypican-1 expression on age-related changes in myogenic satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and fibroblast growth factor 2 responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Harthan, Laura B; McFarland, Douglas C; Velleman, Sandra G

    2013-12-01

    Satellite cells are multipotential stem cells responsible for muscle growth and regeneration. Satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and responsiveness to fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is, in part, regulated by the heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1. Syndecan-4 and glypican-1 expression declines with satellite cell age and may be associated with decreased satellite cell activity. The objective of the current study was to determine if overexpression of syndecan-4 and glypican-1 would increase proliferation, differentiation and FGF2 responsiveness in satellite cells isolated from pectoralis major muscle from 16-wk-old turkeys. Overexpression of syndecan-4 and glypican-1 did not have a significant effect on proliferation and differentiation in 1d, 7 wk, and 16 wk satellite cells, and did not affect FGF2 responsiveness during proliferation. Expression of syndecan-4 and glypican-1 increased differentiation at 48 h in 1d, 7 wk, and 16 wk cells treated with FGF2. Expression of myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4 was affected by the overexpression of syndecan-4 and glypican-1. However, changes in myogenic regulatory factor expression did not have a significant effect on proliferation or differentiation. These data demonstrate that syndecan-4 and glypican-1 are likely not directly associated with the age related decrease in satellite cell activity. PMID:24036479

  7. Human satellite cells have regenerative capacity and are genetically manipulable

    PubMed Central

    Marg, Andreas; Escobar, Helena; Gloy, Sina; Kufeld, Markus; Zacher, Joseph; Spuler, Andreas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Spuler, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. Human satellite cells are scarce; therefore, clinical investigation has been limited. We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were activated and proliferated efficiently in culture. Independent of donor age, as few as 2 to 4 PAX7+ satellite cells gave rise to several thousand myoblasts. Transplantation of human muscle fiber fragments into irradiated muscle of immunodeficient mice resulted in robust engraftment, muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that subjecting the human muscle fiber fragments to hypothermic treatment successfully enriches the cultures for PAX7+ cells and improves the efficacy of the transplantation and muscle regeneration. Finally, we successfully altered gene expression in cultured human PAX7+ satellite cells with Sleeping Beauty transposon–mediated nonviral gene transfer, highlighting the potential of this system for use in gene therapy. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to culture and manipulate a rare population of human tissue-specific stem cells and suggest that these PAX7+ satellite cells have potential to restore gene function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:25157816

  8. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  9. Myogenic potential of canine craniofacial satellite cells.

    PubMed

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  10. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  11. M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions activate satellite cell division.

    PubMed

    Marti, Merce; Montserrat, Núria; Pardo, Cristina; Mulero, Lola; Miquel-Serra, Laia; Rodrigues, Alexandre Miguel Cavaco; Andrés Vaquero, José; Kuebler, Bernd; Morera, Cristina; Barrero, María José; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-15

    Adult muscle stem cells and their committed myogenic precursors, commonly referred to as the satellite cell population, are involved in both muscle growth after birth and regeneration after damage. It has been previously proposed that, under these circumstances, satellite cells first become activated, divide and differentiate, and only later fuse to the existing myofiber through M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions. Our data show that satellite cells fuse with the myofiber concomitantly to cell division, and only when the nuclei of the daughter cells are inside the myofiber, do they complete the process of differentiation. Here we demonstrate that M-cadherin plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition and fusion, and is crucial for cell division activation. Treatment of satellite cells with M-cadherin in vitro stimulates cell division, whereas addition of anti-M-cadherin antibodies reduces the cell division rate. Our results suggest an alternative model for the contribution of satellite cells to muscle development, which might be useful in understanding muscle regeneration, as well as muscle-related dystrophies. PMID:24046443

  12. Use of Advanced Solar Cells for Commercial Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  13. Satellite cells: regenerative mechanisms and applicability in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Gustavo Torres; Zanette, Rafaella de Souza Salomão; do Amaral, Danielle Luciana Aurora Soares; da Guia, Francisco Carlos; Maranduba, Claudinéia Pereira; de Souza, Camila Maurmann; Guimarães, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart; Rettore, João Vitor Paes; Rabelo, Natana Chaves; do Carmo, Antônio Márcio Resende; Silva, Fernando de Sá; Maranduba, Carlos Magno da Costa

    2015-01-01

    The satellite cells are long regarded as heterogeneous cell population, which is intimately linked to the processes of muscular recovery. The heterogeneous cell population may be classified by specific markers. In spite of the significant amount of variation amongst the satellite cell populations, it seems that their activity is tightly bound to the paired box 7 transcription factor expression, which is, therefore, used as a canonical marker for these cells. Muscular dystrophic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, elicit severe tissue injuries leading those patients to display a very specific pattern of muscular recovery abnormalities. There have been works on the application of precursors cells as a therapeutic alternative for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and initial attempts have proven the cells inefficient; however later endeavours have proposed solutions for the experiments improving significantly the results. The presence of a range of satellite cells populations indicates the existence of specific cells with enhanced capability of muscular recovery in afflicted muscles. PMID:25763072

  14. Satellite Cells: Regenerative Mechanisms and Applicability in Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zanette, Rafaella de Souza Salomão; do Amaral, Danielle Luciana Aurora Soares; da Guia, Francisco Carlos; Maranduba, Claudinéia Pereira; de Souza, Camila Maurmann; Guimarães, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart; Rettore, João Vitor Paes; Rabelo, Natana Chaves; do Carmo, Antônio Márcio Resende; Silva, Fernando de Sá; Maranduba, Carlos Magno da Costa

    2015-01-01

    The satellite cells are long regarded as heterogeneous cell population, which is intimately linked to the processes of muscular recovery. The heterogeneous cell population may be classified by specific markers. In spite of the significant amount of variation amongst the satellite cell populations, it seems that their activity is tightly bound to the paired box 7 transcription factor expression, which is, therefore, used as a canonical marker for these cells. Muscular dystrophic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, elicit severe tissue injuries leading those patients to display a very specific pattern of muscular recovery abnormalities. There have been works on the application of precursors cells as a therapeutic alternative for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and initial attempts have proven the cells inefficient; however later endeavours have proposed solutions for the experiments improving significantly the results. The presence of a range of satellite cells populations indicates the existence of specific cells with enhanced capability of muscular recovery in afflicted muscles.

  15. The muscle satellite cell at 50: the formative years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In February 1961, Alexander Mauro described a cell 'wedged' between the plasma membrane of the muscle fibre and the surrounding basement membrane. He postulated that it could be a dormant myoblast, poised to repair muscle when needed. In the same month, Bernard Katz also reported a cell in a similar location on muscle spindles, suggesting that it was associated with development and growth of intrafusal muscle fibres. Both Mauro and Katz used the term 'satellite cell' in relation to their discoveries. Today, the muscle satellite cell is widely accepted as the resident stem cell of skeletal muscle, supplying myoblasts for growth, homeostasis and repair. Since 2011 marks both the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the satellite cell, and the launch of Skeletal Muscle, it seems an opportune moment to summarise the seminal events in the history of research into muscle regeneration. We start with the 19th-century pioneers who showed that muscle had a regenerative capacity, through to the descriptions from the mid-20th century of the underlying cellular mechanisms. The journey of the satellite cell from electron microscope curio, to its gradual acceptance as a bona fide myoblast precursor, is then charted: work that provided the foundations for our understanding of the role of the satellite cell. Finally, the rapid progress in the age of molecular biology is briefly discussed, and some ongoing debates on satellite cell function highlighted. PMID:21849021

  16. Evaluation of solar cell materials for a Solar Power Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K. I.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative solar cell materials being considered for the solar power satellite are described and price, production, and availability projections through the year 2000 are presented. The chief materials considered are silicon and gallium arsenide.

  17. Cellular dynamics in the muscle satellite cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Bentzinger, C Florian; Wang, Yu Xin; Dumont, Nicolas A; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cells, the quintessential skeletal muscle stem cells, reside in a specialized local environment whose anatomy changes dynamically during tissue regeneration. The plasticity of this niche is attributable to regulation by the stem cells themselves and to a multitude of functionally diverse cell types. In particular, immune cells, fibrogenic cells, vessel-associated cells and committed and differentiated cells of the myogenic lineage have emerged as important constituents of the satellite cell niche. Here, we discuss the cellular dynamics during muscle regeneration and how disease can lead to perturbation of these mechanisms. To define the role of cellular components in the muscle stem cell niche is imperative for the development of cell-based therapies, as well as to better understand the pathobiology of degenerative conditions of the skeletal musculature. PMID:24232182

  18. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Molnar, G; Schroedl, N A; Gonda, S R; Hartzell, C R

    1997-05-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and, therefore, provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75% satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached divided by cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and nonsatellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability because glucose levels in medium from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARV were joined together by cells into 3-D aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a 3-D level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development than is currently available with standard culture methods. PMID:9196898

  19. Solar power satellites - Heat engine or solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, H.; Gregory, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A solar power satellite is the energy-converting element of a system that can deliver some 10 GW of power to utilities on the earth's surface. We evaluated heat engines and solar cells for converting sunshine to electric power at the satellite. A potassium Rankine cycle was the best of the heat engines, and 50 microns thick single-crystal silicon cells were the best of the photovoltaic converters. Neither solar cells nor heat engines had a clear advantage when all factors were considered. The potassium-turbine power plant, however, was more difficult to assemble and required a more expensive orbital assembly base. We therefore based our cost analyses on solar-cell energy conversion, concluding that satellite-generated power could be delivered to utilities for around 4 to 5 cents a kWh.

  20. Epigenetic regulation of satellite cell activation during muscle regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Jeffrey Dilworth; Alexandre Blais

    2011-01-01

    Satellite cells are a population of adult muscle stem cells that play a key role in mediating muscle regeneration. Activation\\u000a of these quiescent stem cells in response to muscle injury involves modulating expression of multiple developmentally regulated\\u000a genes, including mediators of the muscle-specific transcription program: Pax7, Myf5, MyoD and myogenin. Here we present evidence\\u000a suggesting an essential role for the

  1. Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

  2. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 influences cell cycle progression in muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Mathieu; Figeac, Nicolas; White, Robert B.; Knopp, Paul; Zammit, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle retains a resident stem cell population called satellite cells, which are mitotically quiescent in mature muscle, but can be activated to produce myoblast progeny for muscle homeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. We have previously shown that satellite cell activation is partially controlled by the bioactive phospholipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and that S1P biosynthesis is required for muscle regeneration. Here we investigate the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) in regulating murine satellite cell function. S1PR3 levels were high in quiescent myogenic cells before falling during entry into cell cycle. Retrovirally-mediated constitutive expression of S1PR3 led to suppressed cell cycle progression in satellite cells, but did not overtly affect the myogenic program. Conversely, satellite cells isolated from S1PR3-null mice exhibited enhanced proliferation ex-vivo. In vivo, acute cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration was enhanced in S1PR3-null mice, with bigger muscle fibres compared to control mice. Importantly, genetically deleting S1PR3 in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy produced a less severe muscle dystrophic phenotype, than when signalling though S1PR3 was operational. In conclusion, signalling though S1PR3 suppresses cell cycle progression to regulate function in muscle satellite cells. PMID:23911934

  3. Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron satellite glial cell communication in dorsal

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron­ satellite glial cell communication in dorsal root activates P2X7 receptors in satellite cells that enwrap each DRG neuron and triggers the communication neuronal somata and thus triggers bidirectional communication between neurons and satellite cells. Results

  4. Analysis of Land Use Change and Urbanization in the Kucukcekmece Water Basin (Istanbul, Turkey) with Temporal Satellite Data using Remote Sensing and GIS

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, H. Gonca; Alganci, Ugur; Usta, Gokce

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and timely information about land use and land cover (LULC) and its changes in urban areas are crucial for urban land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. Also, monitoring and representation of urban sprawl and its effects on the LULC patterns and hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed is an essential part of water resource planning and management. This paper presents an image analysis study using multi temporal digital satellite imagery of LULC and changes in the Kucukcekmece Watershed (Metropolitan Istanbul, Turkey) from 1992 to 2006. The Kucukcekmece Basin includes portions of the Kucukcekmece District within the municipality of Istanbul so it faces a dramatic urbanization. An urban monitoring analysis approach was first used to implement a land cover classification. A change detection method controlled with ground truth information was then used to determine changes in land cover. During the study period, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on land-use patterns were cumulatively influenced by urban sprawl in the watershed. The proposed approach, which uses a combination of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, is an effective tool that enhances land-use monitoring, planning, and management of urbanized watersheds.

  5. Evaluating a mesoscale atmosphere model and a satellite-based algorithm in estimating extreme rainfall events in northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, I.; Onen, A.

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative precipitation estimates are obtained with more uncertainty under the influence of changing climate variability and complex topography from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. On the other hand, hydrologic model simulations depend heavily on the availability of reliable precipitation estimates. Difficulties in estimating precipitation impose an important limitation on the possibility and reliability of hydrologic forecasting and early warning systems. This study examines the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Multi Precipitation Estimates (MPE) algorithm in producing the temporal and spatial characteristics of the number of extreme precipitation events observed in the western Black Sea region of Turkey. Precipitation derived from WRF model with and without the three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation scheme and MPE algorithm at high spatial resolution (5 km) are compared with gauge precipitation. WRF-derived precipitation showed capabilities in capturing the timing of precipitation extremes and to some extent the spatial distribution and magnitude of the heavy rainfall events, whereas MPE showed relatively weak skills in these aspects. WRF skills in estimating such precipitation characteristics are enhanced with the application of the 3DVAR scheme. Direct impact of data assimilation on WRF precipitation reached up to 12% and at some points there is a quantitative match for heavy rainfall events, which are critical for hydrological forecasts.

  6. Pax7 Is Required for the Specification of Myogenic Satellite Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Seale; Luc A. Sabourin; Adele Girgis-Gabardo; Ahmed Mansouri; Peter Gruss; Michael A. Rudnicki

    2000-01-01

    The paired box transcription factor Pax7 was isolated by representational difference analysis as a gene specifically expressed in cultured satellite cell-derived myoblasts. In situ hybridization revealed that Pax7 was also expressed in satellite cells residing in adult muscle. Cell culture and electron microscopic analysis revealed a complete absence of satellite cells in Pax7?\\/? skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis

  7. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dine, Leslie; Levy, Alexander; Gonzalez-Sanabria, Olga

    1987-01-01

    The results of a 12 month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application are summarized. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 watt-hour/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. Using advanced light weight cell construction which was achieved in experimental cells, composite tankage material for the reactant gases and the reversible stack concept, system energy densities of 115 watt-hours/lb can be projected.

  8. Effect of yeast cell product (CitriStim) supplementation on turkey performance and intestinal immune cell parameters during an experimental lipopolysaccharide injection.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Sifri, Mamduh; Jeyabalan, Ramesh; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to identify the effect of whole yeast cell product supplementation in turkeys following an experimental inflammatory challenge. A total of 105 one-day-old turkey tom poults were fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, and 0.2% whole yeast cell product (CitriStim, ADM, Quincy, IL). At 6 wk of age and 16 wk of age, turkeys were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 0 or 0.25 mg/kg of BW in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. BW gain (P = 0.31) and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.53; 3.13, 2.94, and 2.98 for the 0, 0.10, and 0.20% CitriStim treatments, respectively) at 15 wk of age were not significantly affected by the treatment diets. Yeast cell wall product supplementation had no effect on growth in control-injected turkeys but decreased growth in LPS-injected turkeys (yeast × LPS, P < 0.05). Splenic macrophages from birds fed whole yeast cell product and injected with LPS produced higher (P < 0.01) nitric oxide than the control group injected with LPS at both 6 and 16 wk of age. At 6 and 16 wk of age, birds injected with LPS (P < 0.01; P < 0.01) and supplemented with whole yeast cell product (P = 0.05; P = 0.10) showed increased IL-1 mRNA amounts in cecal tonsils. In birds not injected with LPS, whole yeast cell supplementation increased regulatory T cell percentage and IL-10 mRNA amounts, whereas in birds injected with LPS, whole yeast cell supplementation decreased IL-10 mRNA amounts at both 6 (P < 0.01) and 16 wk (P = 0.01) of age in cecal tonsils. Whole yeast cell product supplementation increased Lactobacillus (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01) andBifidobacteria (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01) population at 6 and 16 wk of age. In conclusion, the effect of feeding whole yeast cell product on turkeys was dependent on the inflammatory status of the bird. PMID:25239535

  9. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Alexander; Vandine, Leslie L.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. The first, the integrated design, utilized a configuration in which the fuel cell and electrolysis cells are alternately stacked inside a pressure vessel. Product water is transferred by diffusion during electrolysis and waste heat is conducted through the pressure wall, thus using completely passive means for transfer and control. The second alkaline system, the dedicated design, uses a separate fuel cell and electrolysis stack so that each unit can be optimized in size and weight based on its orbital operating period. The third design was a dual function stack configuration, in which each cell can operate in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode, thus eliminating the need for two separate stacks and associated equipment. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 W-hr/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. System densities of 115 W-hr/lb are contemplated.

  10. Reflections on lineage potential of skeletal muscle satellite cells: Do they sometimes go MAD?

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Gabi; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal muscle growth and repair is supported by satellite cells - myogenic progenitors positioned between the myofiber basal lamina and plasma membrane. In adult muscles, satellite cells are quiescent but become activated and contribute differentiated progeny when myofiber repair is needed. The development of cells expressing osteogenic and adipogenic genes alongside myoblasts in myofiber cultures, raised the hypothesis that satellite cells possess mesenchymal plasticity. Clonal studies of myofiber-associated cells further suggested that satellite cell myogeneity and diversion into Mesencymal Alternative Differentiation (MAD) occur in vitro by a stochastic mechanism. However, in vivo this potential may be executed only when myogenic signals are impaired and the muscle tissue is compromised. Such a mechanism may contribute to the increased adipocity of aging muscles. Alternatively, it is possible that mesenchymal interstitial cells (sometimes co-isolated with myofibers), rather than satellite cells, account for the nonmyogenic cells observed in myogenic cultures. Herein, we first elaborate on the myogenic potential of satellite cells. We then introduce definitions of adult stem-cell unipotency, multipotency and plasticity, and elaborate on recent studies that established the status of satellite cells as myogenic stem cells. Lastly, we highlight evidence in favor of satellite cell plasticity and emerging hurdles restraining this hypothesis. PMID:17341181

  11. Inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling stimulates adult satellite cell function

    PubMed Central

    Price, Feodor D.; von Maltzahn, Julia; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Dumont, Nicolas A.; Yin, Hang; Chang, Natasha C.; Wilson, David H.; Frenette, Jérôme; Rudnicki, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Diminished regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle occurs during adulthood. We identified a reduction in the intrinsic capacity of murine adult satellite cells to contribute to regeneration and repopulate the niche. Gene expression analysis identified an increase in expression of JAK/STAT signaling targets between 3 week old and 18 month old mice. Knockdown of Jak2 or Stat3 significantly stimulated symmetric satellite stem cell divisions on cultured myofibers. Knockdown of Jak2 or Stat3 in prospectively isolated satellite cells markedly enhanced their ability to repopulate the satellite cell niche. Pharmacological inhibition of Jak2 and Stat3 similarly stimulated symmetric expansion of satellite cells in vitro and their engraftment in vivo. Intramuscular injection of these drugs resulted in a dramatic enhancement of muscle repair and force generation. Together these results reveal intrinsic properties that functionally distinguish adult satellite cells and suggest a promising therapeutic avenue for the treatment of muscle wasting diseases. PMID:25194569

  12. Notch1-mediated signaling regulates proliferation of porcine satellite cells (PSCs).

    PubMed

    Qin, Lili; Xu, Jian; Wu, Zhenfang; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Chong; Long, Qiaoming

    2013-02-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and fate decisions of mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the possible requirement for Notch signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of porcine satellite cells. We show that Notch1, 2 and 3 are expressed in cultured porcine satellite cells. Knock-down of NOTCH1, but not NOTCH2 and NOTCH3, decreases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. In contrast, enhancement of NOTCH1 expression via treatment of porcine satellite cells with recombinant NF-?B increases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. The alteration of porcine satellite cell proliferation is associated with significant changes in the expression of cell cycle related genes (cyclin B1, D1, D2, E1 and p21), myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) and the Notch effector Hes5. In addition, alteration of Notch1 expression in porcine satellite cells causes changes in the expression of GSK3?-3. Taken together, these findings suggest that of the four notch-related genes, Notch1is likely to be required for regulating the proliferation and therefore the maintenance of porcine satellite cells in vivo, and do so through activation of the Notch effector gene Hes5. PMID:23160004

  13. Progenitors of skeletal muscle satellite cells express the muscle determination gene, MyoD

    PubMed Central

    Kanisicak, Onur; Mendez, Julio J.; Yamamoto, Shoko; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Goldhamer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite cells are tissue-specific stem cells responsible for skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. Although satellite cells were identified almost 50 years ago, the identity of progenitor populations from which they derive remains controversial. We developed MyoDiCre knockin mice, and used Cre/lox lineage analysis to determine whether satellite cell progenitors express MyoD, a marker of myogenic commitment. Recombination status of satellite cells was determined by confocal microscopy of isolated muscle fibers and by electron microscopic observation of muscle tissue fixed immediately following isolation, using R26R-EYFP and R26R (?-gal) reporter mice, respectively. We show that essentially all adult satellite cells associated with limb and body wall musculature, as well as the diaphragm and extraocular muscles, originate from MyoD+ progenitors. Neonatal satellite cells were Cre-recombined, but only a small minority exhibited ongoing Cre expression, indicating that most satellite cells had expressed MyoD prenatally. We also show that satellite cell development in MyoD-null mice is not due to functional compensation by MyoD non-expressing lineages. The results suggest that satellite cells are derived from committed myogenic progenitors, irrespective of the anatomical location, embryological origin, or physiological properties of associated musculature. PMID:19464281

  14. Invited Review: Extrinsic regulation of domestic animal-derived myogenic satellite cells II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The existence of myogenic satellite cells was reported some forty-seven years ago, and, since that time, satellite cell research has flourished. So much new information is generated (daily) on these cells that it can be difficult for individuals to keep abreast of important issues related to the act...

  15. Rb1 Gene Inactivation Expands Satellite Cell and Postnatal Myoblast Pools*

    PubMed Central

    Hosoyama, Tohru; Nishijo, Koichi; Prajapati, Suresh I.; Li, Guangheng; Keller, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Satellite cells are well known as a postnatal skeletal muscle stem cell reservoir that under injury conditions participate in repair. However, mechanisms controlling satellite cell quiescence and activation are the topic of ongoing inquiry by many laboratories. In this study, we investigated whether loss of the cell cycle regulatory factor, pRb, is associated with the re-entry of quiescent satellite cells into replication and subsequent stem cell expansion. By ablation of Rb1 using a Pax7CreER,Rb1 conditional mouse line, satellite cell number was increased 5-fold over 6 months. Furthermore, myoblasts originating from satellite cells lacking Rb1 were also increased 3-fold over 6 months, while terminal differentiation was greatly diminished. Similarly, Pax7CreER,Rb1 mice exhibited muscle fiber hypotrophy in vivo under steady state conditions as well as a delay of muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-mediated injury. These results suggest that cell cycle re-entry of quiescent satellite cells is accelerated by lack of Rb1, resulting in the expansion of both satellite cells and their progeny in adolescent muscle. Conversely, that sustained Rb1 loss in the satellite cell lineage causes a deficit of muscle fiber formation. However, we also show that pharmacological inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 activity, which will result in pRb inactivation accelerates satellite cell activation and/or expansion in a transient manner. Together, our results raise the possibility that reversible pRb inactivation in satellite cells and inhibition of protein phosphorylation may provide a new therapeutic tool for muscle atrophy by short term expansion of the muscle stem cells and myoblast pool. PMID:21478154

  16. Globular adiponectin activates motility and regenerative traits of muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi, Tania; Giannoni, Elisa; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration of adult injured skeletal muscle is due to activation of satellite cells, a population of stem cells resident beneath the basal lamina. Thus, information on soluble factors affecting satellite cell activation, as well as migration towards injury and fusion into new myofibers are essential. Here, we show that globular adiponectin (gAd), positively affects several features of muscle satellite cells. gAd activates satellite cells to exit quiescence and increases their recruitment towards myotubes. gAd elicits in satellite cells a specific motility program, involving activation of the small GTPase Rac1, as well as expression of Snail and Twist transcription factors driving a proteolytic motility, useful to reach the site of injury. We show that satellite cells produce autocrine full length adiponectin (fAd), which is converted to gAd by activated macrophages. In turns, gAd concurs to attract to the site of injury both satellite cells and macrophages and induces myogenesis in muscle satellite cells. Thus, these findings add a further role for gAd in skeletal muscle, including the hormone among factors participating in muscle regeneration. PMID:22629295

  17. Globular Adiponectin Activates Motility and Regenerative Traits of Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi, Tania; Giannoni, Elisa; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration of adult injured skeletal muscle is due to activation of satellite cells, a population of stem cells resident beneath the basal lamina. Thus, information on soluble factors affecting satellite cell activation, as well as migration towards injury and fusion into new myofibers are essential. Here, we show that globular adiponectin (gAd), positively affects several features of muscle satellite cells. gAd activates satellite cells to exit quiescence and increases their recruitment towards myotubes. gAd elicits in satellite cells a specific motility program, involving activation of the small GTPase Rac1, as well as expression of Snail and Twist transcription factors driving a proteolytic motility, useful to reach the site of injury. We show that satellite cells produce autocrine full length adiponectin (fAd), which is converted to gAd by activated macrophages. In turns, gAd concurs to attract to the site of injury both satellite cells and macrophages and induces myogenesis in muscle satellite cells. Thus, these findings add a further role for gAd in skeletal muscle, including the hormone among factors participating in muscle regeneration. PMID:22629295

  18. Gliopathic Pain: When Satellite Glial Cells Go Bad

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Peter T.; Vit, Jean-Philippe; Bhargava, Aditi; Romero, Marcela; Sundberg, Christopher; Charles, Andrew C.; Jasmin, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Neurons in sensory ganglia are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs) that perform similar functions to the glia found in the CNS. When primary sensory neurons are injured, the surrounding SGCs undergo characteristic changes. There is good evidence that the SGCs are not just bystanders to the injury but play an active role in the initiation and maintenance of neuronal changes that underlie neuropathic pain. In this article the authors review the literature on the relationship between SGCs and nociception and present evidence that changes in SGC potassium ion buffering capacity and glutamate recycling can lead to neuropathic pain-like behavior in animal models. The role that SGCs play in the immune responses to injury is also considered. We propose the term gliopathic pain to describe those conditions in which central or peripheral glia are thought to be the principal generators of principal pain generators. PMID:19826169

  19. Myostatin signals through Pax7 to regulate satellite cell self-renewal

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Craig [AgResearch, Functional Muscle Genomics, Hamilton (New Zealand); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Hennebry, Alex; Thomas, Mark; Plummer, Erin [AgResearch, Functional Muscle Genomics, Hamilton (New Zealand); Ling, Nicholas [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Sharma, Mridula [AgResearch, Functional Muscle Genomics, Hamilton (New Zealand); Kambadur, Ravi [AgResearch, Functional Muscle Genomics, Hamilton (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)], E-mail: KRavi@ntu.edu.sg

    2008-01-15

    Myostatin, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-{beta}) super-family member, has previously been shown to negatively regulate satellite cell activation and self-renewal. However, to date the mechanism behind Myostatin function in satellite cell biology is not known. Here we show that Myostatin signals via a Pax7-dependent mechanism to regulate satellite cell self-renewal. While excess Myostatin inhibited Pax7 expression via ERK1/2 signaling, an increase in Pax7 expression was observed following both genetic inactivation and functional antagonism of Myostatin. As a result, we show that either blocking or inactivating Myostatin enhances the partitioning of the fusion-incompetent self-renewed satellite cell lineage (high Pax7 expression, low MyoD expression) from the pool of actively proliferating myogenic precursor cells. Consistent with this result, over-expression of Pax7 in C2C12 myogenic cells resulted in increased self-renewal through a mechanism which slowed both myogenic proliferation and differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that increased expression of Pax7 promotes satellite cell self-renewal, and furthermore Myostatin may control the process of satellite cell self-renewal through regulation of Pax7. Thus we speculate that, in addition to the intrinsic factors (such as Pax7), extrinsic factors both positive and negative in nature, will play a major role in determining the stemness of skeletal muscle satellite cells.

  20. The altered fate of aging satellite cells is determined by signaling and epigenetic changes.

    PubMed

    Parker, Maura H

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a striated tissue composed of multinucleated fibers that contract under the control of the somatic nervous system to direct movement. The stem cells of skeletal muscle, known as satellite cells, are responsible for muscle fiber growth, turnover, and regeneration. Satellite cells are activated and proliferate in response to stimuli, and simplistically, have two main fates-to repopulate the satellite cell niche, or differentiate to regenerate or repair muscle fibers. However, the ability to regenerate muscle and replace lost myofibers declines with age. This loss of function may be a result of extrinsic changes in the niche, such as alterations in signaling or modifications to the extracellular matrix. However, intrinsic epigenetic changes within satellite cells may also affect cell fate and cause a decline in regenerative capacity. This review will describe the mechanisms that regulate cell fate decisions in adult skeletal muscle, and how changes during aging affect muscle fiber turnover and regeneration. PMID:25750654

  1. The altered fate of aging satellite cells is determined by signaling and epigenetic changes

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Maura H.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a striated tissue composed of multinucleated fibers that contract under the control of the somatic nervous system to direct movement. The stem cells of skeletal muscle, known as satellite cells, are responsible for muscle fiber growth, turnover, and regeneration. Satellite cells are activated and proliferate in response to stimuli, and simplistically, have two main fates—to repopulate the satellite cell niche, or differentiate to regenerate or repair muscle fibers. However, the ability to regenerate muscle and replace lost myofibers declines with age. This loss of function may be a result of extrinsic changes in the niche, such as alterations in signaling or modifications to the extracellular matrix. However, intrinsic epigenetic changes within satellite cells may also affect cell fate and cause a decline in regenerative capacity. This review will describe the mechanisms that regulate cell fate decisions in adult skeletal muscle, and how changes during aging affect muscle fiber turnover and regeneration. PMID:25750654

  2. Phenotypic changes in satellite glial cells in cultured trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Belzer, Vitali; Shraer, Nathanael; Hanani, Menachem

    2010-11-01

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are specialized cells that form a tight sheath around neurons in sensory ganglia. In recent years, there is increasing interest in SGCs and they have been studied in both intact ganglia and in tissue culture. Here we studied phenotypic changes in SGCs in cultured trigeminal ganglia from adult mice, containing both neurons and SGCs, using phase optics, immunohistochemistry and time-lapse photography. Cultures were followed for up to 14 days. After isolation virtually every sensory neuron is ensheathed by SGCs, as in the intact ganglia. After one day in culture, SGCs begin to migrate away from their parent neurons, but in most cases the neurons still retain an intact glial cover. At later times in culture, there is a massive migration of SGCs away from the neurons and they undergo clear morphological changes, and at 7 days they become spindle-shaped. At one day in culture SGCs express the glial marker glutamine synthetase, and also the purinergic receptor P2X7. From day 2 in culture the glutamine synthetase expression is greatly diminished, whereas that of P2X7 is largely unchanged. We conclude that SGCs retain most of their characteristics for about 24 h after culturing, but undergo major phenotypic changes at later times. PMID:22032231

  3. Six family genes control the proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yajima, Hiroshi [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan)] [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Motohashi, Norio; Ono, Yusuke [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Shigeru; Ikeda, Keiko [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan)] [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Masuda, Satoru; Yada, Erica; Kanesaki, Hironori; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Kawakami, Kiyoshi, E-mail: kkawakam@jichi.ac.jp [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan)] [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Muscle satellite cells are essential for muscle growth and regeneration and their morphology, behavior and gene expression have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms involved in their proliferation and differentiation remain elusive. Six1 and Six4 proteins were expressed in the nuclei of myofibers of adult mice and the numbers of myoblasts positive for Six1 and Six4 increased during regeneration of skeletal muscles. Six1 and Six4 were expressed in quiescent, activated and differentiated muscle satellite cells isolated from adult skeletal muscle. Overexpression of Six4 and Six5 repressed the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. Conversely, knockdown of Six5 resulted in augmented proliferation, and that of Six4 inhibited differentiation. Muscle satellite cells isolated from Six4{sup +/-}Six5{sup -/-} mice proliferated to higher cell density though their differentiation was not altered. Meanwhile, overproduction of Six1 repressed proliferation and promoted differentiation of satellite cells. In addition, Six4 and Six5 repressed, while Six1 activated myogenin expression, suggesting that the differential regulation of myogenin expression is responsible for the differential effects of Six genes. The results indicated the involvement of Six genes in the behavior of satellite cells and identified Six genes as potential target for manipulation of proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells for therapeutic applications.

  4. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Christopher S.; Lee, Jonah D.; Jackson, Janna R.; Kirby, Tyler J.; Stasko, Shawn A.; Liu, Honglu; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; McCarthy, John J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the current study was to determine the necessity of satellite cells for long-term muscle growth and maintenance. We utilized a transgenic Pax7-DTA mouse model, allowing for the conditional depletion of > 90% of satellite cells with tamoxifen treatment. Synergist ablation surgery, where removal of synergist muscles places functional overload on the plantaris, was used to stimulate robust hypertrophy. Following 8 wk of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle demonstrated an accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibroblast expansion that resulted in reduced specific force of the plantaris. Although the early growth response was normal, an attenuation of hypertrophy measured by both muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area occurred in satellite cell-depleted muscle. Isolated primary myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) negatively regulated fibroblast ECM mRNA expression in vitro, suggesting a novel role for activated satellite cells/MPCs in muscle adaptation. These results provide evidence that satellite cells regulate the muscle environment during growth.—Fry, C. S., Lee, J. D., Jackson, J. R., Kirby, T. J., Stasko, S. A., Liu, H., Dupont-Versteegden, E. E., McCarthy, J. J., Peterson, C. A. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy. PMID:24376025

  5. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  6. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. The effects of exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and satellite cells].

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Shin; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle has a high degree of plasticity. The mass of skeletal muscle maintains owing to muscle protein synthesis and the regeneration by satellite cells. Skeletal muscle atrophy with aging (sarcopenia) is developed by decline of muscle protein synthesis and dysfunction of satellite cells. It is urgently necessary for today's highly aged society to elucidate the mechanism of sarcopenia and to establish prevention measure. This review shows that the positive effects of "exercise" on muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell function including their main molecular mechanism. PMID:25266091

  7. STAT3 signaling controls satellite cell expansion and skeletal muscle repair

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Matthew Timothy; Aydogdu, Tufan; Sala, David; Malecova, Barbora; Gatto, Sole; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Latella, Lucia; Sacco, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The progression of disease- and age-dependent skeletal muscle wasting results in part from a decline in the number and function of satellite cells, the direct cellular contributors to muscle repair1–10. However, little is known about the molecular effectors underlying satellite cell impairment and depletion. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with both age-related and muscle-wasting conditions11–13. The levels of STAT3, a downstream effector of IL-6, are also elevated with muscle wasting14,15, and STAT3 has been implicated in the regulation of self-renewal and stem cell fate in several tissues16–19. Here we show that IL-6–activated Stat3 signaling regulates satellite cell behavior, promoting myogenic lineage progression through myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) regulation. Conditional ablation of Stat3 in Pax7-expressing satellite cells resulted in their increased expansion during regeneration, but compromised myogenic differentiation prevented the contribution of these cells to regenerating myofibers. In contrast, transient Stat3 inhibition promoted satellite cell expansion and enhanced tissue repair in both aged and dystrophic muscle. The effects of STAT3 inhibition were conserved in human myoblasts. The results of this study indicate that pharmacological manipulation of STAT3 activity can be used to counteract the functional exhaustion of satellite cells, thereby maintaining the endogenous regenerative response and ameliorating muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25194572

  8. Importance of satellite cells in recovery from eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury

    E-print Network

    Rathbone, Christopher Ronald

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the elimination of satellite cell proliferation with []-irradiation would inhibit normal force recovery following eccentric contraction-induced injury. Adult female ICR mice were implanted with a...

  9. Acute effects of hindlimb unweighting on satellite cells of growing skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Edward; Darr, Kevin C.; Macius, Allison

    1994-01-01

    The proliferative behavior of satellite cells in growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles was examined at short periods after initiation of hindlimb unweighting. Mitotic activity of satellite cells in both muscles decreased below weight-bearing control levels within 24 h of initiation of hindlimb unweighting. This satellite cell response was equal to or greater than 48 h before any atrophic morphological changes that take place in the muscles. Suppression of mitotic activity was most severe in the soleus muscle where continuous infusion of label demonstrated that virtually all mitotic activity was abolished between 3 and 5 days. The results of this study suggest that satellite cell mitotic activity is a sensitive indicator of primary atrophic changes occurring in growing myofibers and may be a predictor of future morphological changes.

  10. Myogenic Satellite Cell Proliferative and Differentiative Responses to Components of Common Oral Ergogenic Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MELINDA E. FERNYHOUGH; DERI L. HELTERLINE; JAN L. VIERCK; MICHAEL V. DODSON; LUKE R. BUCCI; JEFF Feliciano

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of common ergogenic supplement components to alter satellite cell proliferative activity in vitro. Compounds studied were cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, L-glutathione, ?-hydroxybutyric acid, calcium-?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate monohydrate, DL-thioctic acid (?-lipoic acid), and ornithine ?-ketoglutarate. Satellite cells were exposed to different levels of ergogenic test compound for a specified amount of time and analyzed by counting mononucleated and

  11. Protective effect of ATP on skeletal muscle satellite cells damaged by H2O 2.

    PubMed

    Fei, Fei; Zhu, Dao-Li; Tao, Li-Jun; Huang, Bao-Zhu; Zhang, Hong-Hong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of ATP on skeletal muscle satellite cells damaged by H2O2 in neonatal rats and the possible mechanism. The skeletal muscle satellite cells were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, model group (cells treated with 0.1 mmol/L H2O2 for 50 s), protection group (cells treated with 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, or 0.25 mmol/L ATP for 24 h, and then with 0.1 mmol/L H2O2 for 50 s), proliferation group (cells treated with 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, or 0.25 mmol/L ATP for 24 h). MTT assay, FITC+PI+DAPI fluorescent staining, Giemsa staining and immunofluorescence were performed to examine cell viability and apoptosis, and apoptosis-related proteins. The results showed that the survival rate of skeletal muscle satellite cells was decreased and the apoptosis rate was increased after H2O2 treatment (P<0.01). Different doses of ATP had different effects on skeletal muscle satellite cells damaged by H2O2: the survival rate of muscle satellite cells treated with ATP at 4, 2, or 1 mmol/L was increased. The protective effect was most profound on cells treated with 2 mmol/L ATP. Immunofluorescence showed that ATP could increase the number of Bcl-2-positive cells (P<0.01) and decrease the number of the Bax-positive cells (P<0.01). It was concluded that ATP could protect skeletal muscle satellite cells against H2O2 damage in neonatal rats, which may be attributed to the up-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax, resulting in the suppression of apoptosis. PMID:25673197

  12. The regeneration process of the striated urethral sphincter involves activation of intrinsic satellite cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Yiou; Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur; Anthony Atala

    2003-01-01

    The regeneration of adult skeletal muscle is mediated by satellite cells. Classically, these are considered to be somitically derived cells that colonize the limbs during early embryogenesis. The striated urethral sphincter presents specific developmental characteristics that distinguish it from skeletal muscles, such as the non-somitic origin of its precursor cells and the late formation of its myofibers. This prompted us

  13. Age-related reduction of the satellite cell sheath around spinal ganglion neurons in the rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pannese; P. Procacci; M. Ledda; V. Conte

    1996-01-01

    Summary  The volumes of the nerve cell bodies and those of the enveloping satellite cell sheaths from spinal ganglia of young adult and aged rabbits were determined by morphometric methods using the electron microscope. The mean volume of the nerve cell bodies was greater in the old rabbits than in young adults; this is probably related to the larger body size

  14. Myf5 expression during fetal myogenesis defines the developmental progenitors of adult satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Biressi, Stefano; Bjornson, Christopher R.R.; Carlig, Poppy M.M.; Nishijo, Koichi; Keller, Charles; Rando, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Myf5 is a member of the muscle-specific determination genes and plays a critical role in skeletal muscle development. Whereas the expression of Myf5 during embryonic and fetal myogenesis has been extensively studied, its expression in progenitors that will ultimately give rise to adult satellite cells, the stem cells responsible for muscle repair, is still largely unexplored. To investigate this aspect, we have generated a mouse strain carrying a CreER coding sequence in the Myf5 locus. In this strain, Tamoxifen-inducible Cre activity parallels endogenous Myf5 expression. Combining Myf5CreER and Cre reporter alleles, we were able to evaluate the contribution of cells expressing Myf5 at distinct developmental stages to the pool of satellite cells in adult hindlimb muscles. Although it was possible to trace back the origin of some rare satellite cells to a subpopulation of Myf5+ve progenitors in the limb buds at the late embryonic stage (~E12), a significant number of satellite cells arise from cells which expressed Myf5 for the first time at the fetal stage (~E15). These studies provide direct evidence that adult satellite cells derive from progenitors that first express the myogenic determination gene Myf5 during fetal stages of myogenesis. PMID:23639729

  15. Turkey Goulash Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Turkey Goulash Ingredients: 8 ounces macaroni, whole-wheat 1 pound ground turkey 1 onion 1/2 green skillet to medium. Place ground turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break turkey into small pieces browned turkey on a plate covered with several layers of paper towels to absorb fat. Drain fat from

  16. Effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors on satellite cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Primary cultures of skeletal muscle satellite cells were induced to proliferate by exposure to physiologic levels of somatomedins and pharmacologic levels of insulin. In the presence of insulin concentrations that promote maximum proliferation, addition of oSM did not produce an additive effect, whereas the addition of MSA/rIGF-II did produce a significant increase in satellite cell proliferation above that induced by insulin. A more, in depth, analysis of the interaction of MSA/rIGF-II with its satellite cell receptor under a variety of experimental conditions revealed that binding of /sup 175/I-MSA/rIGF-II was inhibited by oSm nd MSA/rIGF-II, but not by insulin. Migration, and localization of /sup 125/I-MSA/rIGF-II-receptor complexes in 7% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels suggest that these complexes are Type II IGF receptors. In addition, this receptor system of satellite cells was shown to be modulated by other hormones; notably, pre-exposure of cells with insulin increased /sup 125/I-MSA/rIGF-II binding, while oSm, or MSA/rIGF-II preincubation decreased the binding of /sup 125/I-MSA/rIGF-II. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that somatomedins lay an important role in the control of postnatal muscle growth by providing a link between these hormones and satellite cells, one of the significant target cells involved in the growth process.

  17. Turkey Trouble

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Ross

    2011-09-11

    Limiting factors are things that can limit the size of a population such as food, water, shelter, disease, nesting sites, predation, and parasitism. In this activity students will play a game to simulate changes in a turkey population and will learn about limiting factors.

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates satellite cell differentiation and skeltal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Clow, Charlene; Jasmin, Bernard J

    2010-07-01

    In adult skeletal muscle, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed in myogenic progenitors known as satellite cells. To functionally address the role of BDNF in muscle satellite cells and regeneration in vivo, we generated a mouse in which BDNF is specifically depleted from skeletal muscle cells. For comparative purposes, and to determine the specific role of muscle-derived BDNF, we also examined muscles of the complete BDNF(-/-) mouse. In both models, expression of the satellite cell marker Pax7 was significantly decreased. Furthermore, proliferation and differentiation of primary myoblasts was abnormal, exhibiting delayed induction of several markers of differentiation as well as decreased myotube size. Treatment with exogenous BDNF protein was sufficient to rescue normal gene expression and myotube size. Because satellite cells are responsible for postnatal growth and repair of skeletal muscle, we next examined whether regenerative capacity was compromised. After injury, BDNF-depleted muscle showed delayed expression of several molecular markers of regeneration, as well as delayed appearance of newly regenerated fibers. Recovery of wild-type BDNF levels was sufficient to restore normal regeneration. Together, these findings suggest that BDNF plays an important role in regulating satellite cell function and regeneration in vivo, particularly during early stages. PMID:20427568

  19. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulates Satellite Cell Differentiation and Skeltal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Clow, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    In adult skeletal muscle, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed in myogenic progenitors known as satellite cells. To functionally address the role of BDNF in muscle satellite cells and regeneration in vivo, we generated a mouse in which BDNF is specifically depleted from skeletal muscle cells. For comparative purposes, and to determine the specific role of muscle-derived BDNF, we also examined muscles of the complete BDNF?/? mouse. In both models, expression of the satellite cell marker Pax7 was significantly decreased. Furthermore, proliferation and differentiation of primary myoblasts was abnormal, exhibiting delayed induction of several markers of differentiation as well as decreased myotube size. Treatment with exogenous BDNF protein was sufficient to rescue normal gene expression and myotube size. Because satellite cells are responsible for postnatal growth and repair of skeletal muscle, we next examined whether regenerative capacity was compromised. After injury, BDNF-depleted muscle showed delayed expression of several molecular markers of regeneration, as well as delayed appearance of newly regenerated fibers. Recovery of wild-type BDNF levels was sufficient to restore normal regeneration. Together, these findings suggest that BDNF plays an important role in regulating satellite cell function and regeneration in vivo, particularly during early stages. PMID:20427568

  20. Some relationships among germ, satellite and interstitial cells during chick gonad differentiation : A tissue culture study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    sex differentiation and the onset or arrest of meiosis in female or male germ cells. Wolff and his (Wolffand Haffen, 1965), thus indicating that testicular sex differentiation might be independentSome relationships among germ, satellite and interstitial cells during chick gonad differentiation

  1. Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that a two-cell structure is likely to be the unique property, and potentially satellite-accessible observable, of the exceptionally severe tornado. Analysis elucidating the dynamic, thermodynamic, and geometric properties of this two-cell structure is described. The analysis ultimately will furnish instrumentation requirements.

  2. The effect of strength training volume on satellite cells, myogenic regulatory factors, and growth factors.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, K E; Kvamme, N H; Nilsen, T S; Rønnestad, B; Ambjørnsen, I K; Norheim, F; Kadi, F; Hallèn, J; Drevon, C A; Raastad, T

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of training volume on activation of satellite cells. Healthy untrained men were randomly assigned into two groups. The 3L-1UB group (n = 10) performed three-set leg exercises and single-set upper body exercises, and the 1L-3UB group (n = 11) performed single-set leg exercises and three-set upper body exercises. Both groups performed three sessions (80-90 min) per week for 11 weeks. Biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis and m. trapezius. The number of satellite cells, satellite cells positive for myogenin and MyoD, and the number of myonuclei were counted. Homogenized muscle was analyzed for myogenin and MyoD, and extracted ribonucleic acid (RNA) was monitored for selected growth factor transcripts. Knee extensor strength increased more in the 3L-1UB group than in the 1L-3UB group (48 ± 4% vs 29 ± 4%), whereas the strength gain in shoulder press was similar in both training groups. The number of satellite cells in m. vastus lateralis increased more in the 3L-1UB group than in the 1L-3UB group. The number of myonuclei increased similarly in both groups. The messenger RNA expression of growth factors peaked after 2 weeks of training. In conclusion, increasing training volume enhanced satellite cell numbers in the leg muscle, but not in the upper body muscle. PMID:22417199

  3. Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

    2015-04-01

    The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells. PMID:25742797

  4. Forskolin-induced differentiation of BeWo cells stimulates increased tumor growth in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) egg.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ralf; Borges, Marcus; Kadyrov, Mamed

    2011-05-01

    Invasiveness of BeWo cells has been assessed in a variety of assay systems including matrigel and mouse. At the same time BeWo cells are mostly used as model system for trophoblast fusion. Here we aimed to test the properties of BeWo cells in a combined approach. We forced BeWo cells to differentiate by culturing the cells in the presence of forskolin and then used these cells for invasion assays on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the turkey. The chorioallantoic membranes of turkey eggs were incubated with medium containing forskolin, BeWo cells cultured in medium alone, BeWo cells cultured in forskolin and washed, and BeWo cells cultured in forskolin and used directly for application. Suspensions were applied onto ten CAM per condition. For local tumor formation eggs were checked for tumor development every 24h macroscopically for up to 12 days and immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 18 and Ki-67 were used for further analysis. Forskolin alone did not have any deleterious effect on the CAM. When the CAM was incubated with BeWo cells cultured in medium 40% of the eggs developed a macroscopically visible tumor. BeWo cells stimulated with forskolin and washed induced tumor growth in 50% of the eggs, while forskolin stimulated BeWo cells applied directly onto the CAM induced tumor growth in 70% of the eggs. Forced differentiation of BeWo cells by forskolin may lead to syncytial fusion in a plastic culture dish. Under the conditions used here, i.e. in direct contact to a living tissue, forskolin-induced differentiation of BeWo cells leads to an increase in tumor formation in the CAM. Thus BeWo cells may use signaling pathways to decide for both differentiation pathways similar to primary trophoblast depending on the environment. PMID:21440429

  5. Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron–satellite glial cell communication in dorsal root ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X.; Chen, Y.; Wang, C.; Huang, L.-Y. M.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that the cell body (soma) of a neuron, which contains the nucleus, is mainly responsible for synthesis of macromolecules and has a limited role in cell-to-cell communication. Using sniffer patch recordings, we show here that electrical stimulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons elicits robust vesicular ATP release from their somata. The rate of release events increases with the frequency of nerve stimulation; external Ca2+ entry is required for the release. FM1–43 photoconversion analysis further reveals that small clear vesicles participate in exocytosis. In addition, the released ATP activates P2X7 receptors in satellite cells that enwrap each DRG neuron and triggers the communication between neuronal somata and glial cells. Blocking L-type Ca2+ channels completely eliminates the neuron–glia communication. We further show that activation of P2X7 receptors can lead to the release of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) from satellite cells. TNF? in turn potentiates the P2X3 receptor-mediated responses and increases the excitability of DRG neurons. This study provides strong evidence that somata of DRG neurons actively release transmitters and play a crucial role in bidirectional communication between neurons and surrounding satellite glial cells. These results also suggest that, contrary to the conventional view, neuronal somata have a significant role in cell–cell signaling. PMID:17525149

  6. Evaluation of solar cells for potential space satellite power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation focused on the following subjects: (1) the relative merits of alternative solar cell materials, based on performance and availability, (2) the best manufacturing methods for various solar cell options and the effects of extremely large production volumes on their ultimate costs and operational characteristics, (3) the areas of uncertainty in achieving large solar cell production volumes, (4) the effects of concentration ratios on solar array mass and system performance, (5) the factors influencing solar cell life in the radiation environment during transport to and in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) the merits of conducting solar cell manufacturing operations in space.

  7. Reduced myotube diameter, atrophic signalling and elevated oxidative stress in cultured satellite cells from COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Pomiès, Pascal; Rodriguez, Julie; Blaquière, Marine; Sedraoui, Sami; Gouzi, Fares; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to skeletal limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been fully elucidated. Exhausted muscle regenerative capacity of satellite cells has been evocated, but the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and differentiate properly remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of satellite cells derived from COPD patients and healthy individuals, in terms of proliferative and differentiation capacities, morphological phenotype and atrophy/hypertrophy signalling, and oxidative stress status. Therefore, we purified and cultivated satellite cells from progressively frozen vastus lateralis biopsies of eight COPD patients and eight healthy individuals. We examined proliferation parameters, differentiation capacities, myotube diameter, expression of atrophy/hypertrophy markers, oxidative stress damages, antioxidant enzyme expression and cell susceptibility to H2O2 in cultured myoblasts and/or myotubes. Proliferation characteristics and commitment to terminal differentiation were similar in COPD patients and healthy individuals, despite impaired fusion capacities of COPD myotubes. Myotube diameter was smaller in COPD patients (P = 0.015), and was associated with a higher expression of myostatin (myoblasts: P = 0.083; myotubes: P = 0.050) and atrogin-1 (myoblasts: P = 0.050), and a decreased phospho-AKT/AKT ratio (myoblasts: P = 0.022). Protein carbonylation (myoblasts: P = 0.028; myotubes: P = 0.002) and lipid peroxidation (myotubes: P = 0.065) were higher in COPD cells, and COPD myoblasts were significantly more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, cultured satellite cells from COPD patients display characteristics of morphology, atrophic signalling and oxidative stress similar to those described in in vivo COPD skeletal limb muscles. We have therefore demonstrated that muscle alteration in COPD can be studied by classical in vitro cellular models. PMID:25339614

  8. Satellite cells isolated from aged or dystrophic muscle exhibit a reduced capacity to promote angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, R P; Flann, K L; Cardinal, T R; Rathbone, C R; Liu, X; Allen, R E

    2013-10-25

    Deficits in skeletal muscle function exist during aging and muscular dystrophy, and suboptimal function has been related to factors such as atrophy, excessive inflammation and fibrosis. Ineffective muscle regeneration underlies each condition and has been attributed to a deficit in myogenic potential of resident stem cells or satellite cells. In addition to reduced myogenic activity, satellite cells may also lose the ability to communicate with vascular cells for coordination of myogenesis and angiogenesis and restoration of proper muscle function. Objectives of the current study were to determine the angiogenic-promoting capacity of satellite cells from two states characterized by dysfunctional skeletal muscle repair, aging and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. An in vitro culture model composed of satellite cells or their conditioned media and rat adipose tissue microvascular fragments (MVF) was used to examine this relationship. Microvascular fragments cultured in the presence of rat satellite cells from adult muscle donors (9-12 month of age) exhibited greater indices of angiogenesis (endothelial cell sprouting, tubule formation and extensive branching) than MVF co-cultured with satellite cells from aged muscle donors (24 month of age). We sought to determine if the differential degree of angiogenesis we observed in the co-culture setting was due to soluble factors produced by each satellite cell age group. Similar to the co-culture experiment, conditioned media produced by adult satellite cells promoted greater angiogenesis than that of aged satellite cells. Next, we examined differences in angiogenesis-stimulating ability of satellite cells from 12 mo old MDX mice or age-matched wild-type mice. A reduction in angiogenesis activity of media conditioned by satellite cells from dystrophic muscle was observed as compared to healthy muscle. Finally, we found reduced gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in both aged and dystrophic satellite cells compared to their adult and normal counterparts, respectively. These results indicate that functional deficits in satellite cell activities during aging and diseased muscle may extend to their ability to communicate with other cells in their environment, in this case cells involved in angiogenesis. PMID:24070607

  9. Test on sealed Ni\\/Cd cells for satellite use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hallgren; P. E. Samsioe

    1975-01-01

    The performance of 6 Ah Ni\\/Cd cells manufactured for space application was evaluated. Capacity and charge\\/discharge voltages were determined as a function of operating temperature, charge current, and discharge current. A short study of charge efficiency and overcharge at constant voltage completed the characterization of the cell. The lifetime of the cell was studied in low orbit-like cycling over a

  10. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Nam, Deokhwa; Li, Yong; Ma, Ke

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1(-/-) mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25218946

  11. Muscle Atrophy Reversed by Growth Factor Activation of Satellite Cells in a Mouse Muscle Atrophy Model

    PubMed Central

    Hauerslev, Simon; Vissing, John; Krag, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth control factor, myostatin and atrophy markers MAFbx and MuRF1. Hypoxia-induced atrophy was partially restored by hepatocyte growth factor combined with leukemia inhibitory factor treatment. Dividing satellite cells were three-fold increased in the treatment group compared to control. Finally, we demonstrated that myostatin regulates satellite cell activation and myogenesis in vivo following treatment, consistent with previous findings in vitro. Our results suggest, not only a novel in vivo pharmacological treatment directed specifically at activating the satellite cells, but also a myostatin dependent mechanism that may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting seen in severely affected patients with muscular dystrophy and significant on-going regeneration. This treatment could potentially be applied to many conditions that feature muscle wasting to increase muscle bulk and strength. PMID:24963862

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIAL AND LEYDIG CELLS OF THE TURKEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike mammals, there is little fundamental information about spermatogenesis in birds. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphology, histochemistry, and lectin affinity of the seminiferous epithelial cells and Leydig cells in the pre-pubertal (8- to I5-wk old) and adult (40-to 44-wk old) do...

  13. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  14. IGF-1 colocalizes with muscle satellite cells following acute exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Amanda; Joanisse, Sophie; Moore, Daniel R; Bellamy, Leeann M; Mitchell, Cameron J; Phillips, Stuart M; Parise, Gianni

    2014-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The aim of this study was to quantify the change in satellite cell (SC) specific IGF-1 colocalization following exercise. We observed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the percentage of SC with IGF-1 colocalization from baseline to 72 h after a bout of resistance exercise. This strongly supports a role for IGF-1 in human SC function following exercise. PMID:24669996

  15. Cucumber Mosaic Virus D Satellite RNA–Induced Programmed Cell Death in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2000-01-01

    D satellite RNA (satRNA) with its helper virus, namely, cucumber mosaic virus, causes systemic necrosis in tomato. The infected plant exhibits a distinct spatial and temporal cell death pattern. The distinct features of chromatin condensation and nuclear DNA fragmentation indicate that programmed cell death is involved. In addition, satRNA localization and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling show that cell death is initiated from the infected phloem or cambium cells and spreads to other nearby infected cells. Timing of the onset of necrosis after inoculation implicates the involvement of cell developmental processes in initiating tomato cell death. Analysis of the accumulation of minus- and plus-strand satRNAs in the infected plants indicates a correlation between high amounts of minus-strand satRNA and tomato cell death. PMID:10899975

  16. Establishment and characterization of human embryonic stem cell lines, Turkey perspectives.

    PubMed

    Candan, Zafer Nihat; Kahraman, Semra

    2010-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC), which are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst stage embryos, are of great importance because of their unpredictable two unique features: their differentiation ability into all types of cells derived from three germ layers and their potentially unlimited capacity of self renewing with stable karyotype. These distinguished properties make hESC very promising cell source for regenerative medicine, tissue replacement therapies, and drug screening studies as well as genomics. However, due to the several technical problems, such as risk of teratoma formation, immune response, and unknown genetic pathways for lineage specific differentiation, and ethical drawbacks of their using in clinical treatments, hESC researches are still waiting to advance beyond to animal trials and drug studies. During the last decade, more than 300 new hESC lines have been derived and published by researchers worldwide. However, despite their similar well-known unique properties, recent studies reported that hESC lines have very individual properties and are differed from each other with regards to their differentiation ability and gene expression profiles. Therefore, all hESC lines should be characterized in detail and then registered in a stem cell bank for generating global database. In this report, the characteristic of hESC lines, which were established in Istanbul Memorial Hospital between 2003 and 2005, and derivation methods were described in detail to inform researchers and to facilitate new prospective cooperative studies. PMID:20349214

  17. Sorting single satellite cells from individual myofibers reveals heterogeneity in cell-surface markers and myogenic capacity.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Matthew R; Balakrishnan, Karthik R; Li, Ju; Conboy, Michael J; Huang, Haiyan; Mohanty, Swomitra K; Jabart, Eric; Hack, James; Conboy, Irina M; Sohn, Lydia L

    2013-04-01

    Traditional cell-screening techniques such as FACS and MACS are better suited for large numbers of cells isolated from bulk tissue and cannot easily screen stem or progenitor cells from minute populations found in their physiological niches. Furthermore, these techniques rely upon irreversible antibody binding, potentially altering cell properties, including gene expression and regenerative capacity. To address these challenges, we have developed a novel, label-free stem-cell analysis and sorting platform capable of quantifying cell-surface marker expression of single functional organ stem cells directly isolated from their micro-anatomical niche. Using our unique platform, we have discovered a remarkable heterogeneity in both the regenerative capacity and expression of CXCR4, ?1-integrin, Sca-1, M-cadherin, Syndecan-4, and Notch-1 in freshly isolated muscle stem (satellite) cells residing on different, single myofibers and have identified a small population of Sca-1(+)/Myf5(+) myogenic satellite cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of our single-cell platform for uncovering and functionally characterizing stem-cell heterogeneity in the organ microniche. PMID:23407661

  18. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Aldosterone Production by Turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) Adrenal Steroidogenic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Kocsis; Patrick J. McIlroy; Rocco V. Carsia

    1995-01-01

    The inhibitory action of atrial natriuretic (ANPs) on mammalian aldosterone synthesis is well documented. In addition, other work indicates that ANP and an analogue of its second messenger, 8-Br-cGMP, inhibit aldosterone production by chicken adrenal steroidogenic cells. However, the interaction between angiotensin II (AII) and ANP in the regulation of avian aldosterone production is poorly understood because chicken adrenal steroidogenic

  19. Regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers from autologous satellite cells multiplied in vitro. An experimental model for testing cultured cell myogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Alameddine, H.S.; Dehaupas, M.; Fardeau, M. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Paris (France))

    1989-07-01

    An experimental model used to test in vivo myogenicity of autologous satellite cells multiplied in vitro is described. Free muscle autotransplantation served as the basis and was combined with x-irradiation. Administration of 1500, 2500, and 3500 rad doses 24 hours before or after ischemia showed that inhibition of spontaneous regeneration is dose dependent and more efficient when irradiation was applied before injury. A single dose of 2500 rad before injury resulted in the formation of a cystic structure ideal for cell implantation. FITC-latex beads and/or carbocyanine dyes were internalized by mononucleated satellite cells in vitro. Labeling did not affect survival or development of these cells. No sign of marker release or spreading from labeled to unlabeled cells was detectable unless by the fusion process. These labels were retained for several weeks. Grafting of labeled dense cellular suspensions into x-irradiated ischemic muscles indicated that satellite cells retain their myogenic characteristic and are able to reform fully differentiated muscle fibers. 55 references.

  20. Total Solar Eclipse: Live from Turkey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-02-23

    On March 29, 2006, a team from the Exploratorium filmed and broadcast live the total eclipse of the Sun as seen from Side, Turkey. The web site created around this event includes streaming video of the eclipse, a slide show from first contact through totality and fourth contact, and an image gallery with photos of the eclipse and the chosen site in Turkey, a Roman-era amphitheater. There is also information about how the location was chosen, a map showing the path of totality, how the eclipse was filmed and broadcast live by satellite, and the mechanics of a solar eclipse.

  1. Problem Solvers: Talking Turkey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Britton

    This NCTM page allows users to download The "Talking Turkey" problem from Teaching Children Mathematics journal's regular department, "Problem Solvers." The activity provides opportunities for students to reason and communicate their thinking. Learners must help Sam determine how big a turkey his family should buy for this Thanksgiving’s feast. He finds some “rules of thumb” for buying turkeys but must make decisions based on his family's eating preferences for turkey.

  2. Spaceflight performance of several types of silicon solar cells on the LIPS 3 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, J.; Warfield, D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from exposure of several types of Solarex silicon cells to a space environment for nearly two years on the LIPS 3 satellite are presented. Experiments include standard thickness (10 mil) cells with and without back surface fields, and ultrathin (2 mil) cells also with and without back surface fields. A comparison between a widely used coverslide adhesive, DC 93-500 and a potential alternate is also presented. The major findings from the data are that the 2 mil cells without a back surface field show the smallest normalized short circuit current degradation and that the 10 mil back surface field cells show the greatest absolute power output for the radiation exposures and temperatures encountered. The new encapsulant (McGhan Nusil CV-2500) exhibits a degradation comparable to DC 93-500. A comparison is made with each of the cell types in this experiment with expectations based on JPL Radiation Handbook data.

  3. Mitochondria in perineuronal satellite cell sheaths of rabbit spinal ganglia: quantitative changes during life.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Carla; Sartori, Patrizia; Ledda, Maria; Pannese, Ennio

    2007-01-01

    We studied quantitative changes in mitochondria of perineuronal satellite cell sheaths (SCSs) of rabbit spinal ganglia from young to extremely advanced age (1, 3.6, 6.7 and 8.8 years). The mitochondrial structure did not differ in the four age groups, while mitochondrial size increased progressively and significantly with age. The mean percentage of cytoplasmic volume occupied by mitochondria decreased progressively and significantly from young to old animals. This decrease was mainly due to a progressive and significant reduction in the total mitochondrial volume. Lipofuscin accumulation had a negligible influence on this reduction. These results suggest that the ability of SCSs to produce energy decreases with age and that the reduced ability of spinal ganglion neurons to respond to high energy demands in old age may be in part due to the diminished contribution of perineuronal satellite cells. PMID:17587787

  4. Infrared and visible satellite rain estimation. I - A grid cell approach. II - A cloud definition approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between satellite-viewed cloudy grid cells and the variability of the precipitation contained therein, together with the relationships between the satellite-IR clouds and rainfall and the IR-thresholded visible clouds and rainfall. In the grid cell approach, IR, visible, and radar data for five days of the Florida Area Cumulus Experiment were examined using a 32-km grid and 30-min interval; the results of this experiment indicated that useful, accurate rainfall estimates beyond rain/no rain discrimination are unlikely. In the cloud definition approach, it was found that the cloud IR area was highly correlated with the rain area and with the volume rain rate across the entire spectrum of cloud sizes. It was poorly correlated with mean cloud rain rate.

  5. Satellite cells of the rat soleus muscle in the process of compensatory hypertrophy combined with denervation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V?ra Hanzlíková; Eva V. Macková; P. Hník

    1975-01-01

    Compensatory hypertrophy was induced in the rat soleus muscle by sectioning the tendon of the ipsilateral gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle. Seven days after tenotomy of synergistic muscles, when soleus hypertrophy attains about 40%, the number of satellite cells (expressed as percentage of all muscle nuclei found in the same cross-sections) as revealed by electron microscopy, was increased from 5.8±0.06% in

  6. Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Charlotte H; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Olesen, Jens L; Suetta, Charlotte; Teisner, Børge; Kjaer, Michael

    2004-07-01

    No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined in intramuscular dialysate samples taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of the exercising leg (day 0: 1.89 +/- 0.82 ng ml(-1); day 2: 1.68 +/- 0.37 ng ml(-1); day 4: 3.26 +/- 1.29 ng ml(-1), P < 0.05 versus basal; day 8: 4.68 +/- 2.06 ng ml(-1), P < 0.05 versus basal and control). No change was noted in the control leg. Despite this increase in N-CAM- and FA1-positive mononuclear cells, an increased expression of myogenin and the neonatal isoform of the myosin heavy chain (MHCn) was not observed. Interestingly, myofibre lesions resulting from extensive damage to the proteins within the myofibre, particularly desmin or dystrophin, were not observed, and hence did not appear to induce the expression of either N-CAM or FA1. We therefore propose that satellite cells can be induced to re-enter the cell growth cycle after a single bout of unaccustomed high intensity exercise. However, a single bout of exercise is not sufficient for the satellite cell to undergo terminal differentiation. PMID:15121802

  7. Ground deformation in an area later damaged by an earthquake: monitoring the Avcilar district of Istanbul, Turkey, by satellite radar interferometry 1992-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akarvardar, Samuray; Feigl, Kurt L.; Ergintav, Semih

    2009-08-01

    The Avcilar district of Istanbul was severely damaged by the M 7.4 Izmit (Kocaeli) earthquake of 1999. The same area underwent ground subsidence before the earthquake, as revealed by geodetic monitoring. Analysis of 14 synthetic aperture radar images acquired by the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites between 1992 and 1999 by interferometry (InSAR) measures the rate of subsidence. Using the General Inversion for Phase Technique (GIPhT), we analyse a set of 12 interferometric pairs. The interferometric fringe patterns show a rounded triangular shape that we interpret as secular subsidence at a constant rate. The maximum subsidence rate of 6 mm per year occurs at a point located at latitude 40.98°N and longitude 28.71°E. A simple four-parameter elastic Mogi model, consisting of three infinitesimal spherical sinks at a depth of 2.4 +/- 0.4 km deflating at 78 000 +/- 16 000 cubic metres per year, describes subsidence signal to first order. The model also accounts for tropospheric effects by estimating a vertical phase gradient and an additive offset for each image acquisition epoch. The model fits the data with a cost of 0.18 cycles per datum for the 4644 phase measurements included in the inversion. This fit is significantly better than either the null hypothesis or the initial model with 95 per cent confidence for 32 free parameters. The association of ground deformation with earthquake damage may be interpreted in terms of weak, compressible material in shallow subsurface layers.

  8. On spatial distribution of proton radiation belt from solar cell degradation of Akebono satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, W.; Miyoshi, Y.; Matsuoka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar cells on any satellite degrade gradually due to severe space radiation environment. We found a fair correlation between the decrease rate of solar cell output current of Akebono satellite orbiting in the inner magnetosphere and trapped proton flux from AP8 model between 1989 and 1992. After 1993, presumably as a result of long-term degradation, variation of solar cell output seems more susceptible to other causes such as high temperature effect, and simple monthly averaged data show no significant relation between them. One of possible causes for the temperature variation of the solar cells is terrestrial heat radiation with changing orientation of solar cell panels towards the earth and another is solar radiation varied with eccentric earth's orbit around the sun. In order to remove the possible temperature effect, we sort the data expected to be least affected by the terrestrial heat radiation from the orbit conditions, and also analyze difference of the output current for a month from that for the same month in the previous year. The analysis method leads us to successfully track a continuous correlation between the decease rate of solar cell output and energetic trapped proton flux up to 1996. We also discuss the best-fitted spatial distribution of energetic protons from comparison with model calculations.

  9. Effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma on development of immunity to coccidia in neonatal turkeys

    E-print Network

    Beltran, Ruben

    2002-01-01

    Our interest in gut immunity in commercial poultry led to investigation of the effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma (rtIFN?) on parameters of immunity to avian coccidia. In vitro experiments consisted of exposing baby hamster kidney cells...

  10. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

  11. Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle reveals factors that are necessary to maintain satellite cell integrity during ageing.

    PubMed

    Scimè, Anthony; Desrosiers, Justine; Trensz, Frédéric; Palidwor, Gareth A; Caron, Annabelle Z; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Grenier, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle ageing is characterized by faulty degenerative/regenerative processes that promote the decline of its mass, strength, and endurance. In this study, we used a transcriptional profiling method to better understand the molecular pathways and factors that contribute to these processes. To more appropriately contrast the differences in regenerative capacity of old muscle, we compared it with young muscle, where robust growth and efficient myogenic differentiation is ongoing. Notably, in old mice, we found a severe deficit in satellite cells activation. We performed expression analyses on RNA from the gastrocnemius muscle of young (3-week-old) and old (24-month-old) mice. The differential expression highlighted genes that are involved in the efficient functioning of satellite cells. Indeed, the greatest number of up-regulated genes in young mice encoded components of the extracellular matrix required for the maintenance of the satellite cell niche. Moreover, other genes included Wnt inhibitors (Wif1 and Sfrp2) and Notch activator (Dner), which are putatively involved in the interconnected signalling networks that control satellite cell function. The widespread expression differences for inhibitors of TGFbeta signalling further emphasize the shortcomings in satellite cell performance. Therefore, we draw attention to the breakdown of features required to maintain satellite cell integrity during the ageing process. PMID:19913570

  12. Fabrication of glass gas cells for the HALOE and MAPS satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, E. M.; Walthall, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment are satellite-borne experiments which measure trace constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. The instruments which obtain the data for these experiments are based on the gas filter correlation radiometer measurement technique. In this technique, small samples of the gases of interest are encapsulated in glass cylinders, called gas cells, which act as very selective optical filters. This report describes the techniques employed in the fabrication of the gas cells for the HALOE and MAPS instruments. Details of the method used to fuse the sapphire windows (required for IR transmission) to the glass cell bodies are presented along with detailed descriptions of the jigs and fixtures used during the assembly process. The techniques and equipment used for window inspection and for pairing the HALOE windows are discussed. Cell body materials and the steps involved in preparing the cell bodies for the glass-to-sapphire fusion process are given.

  13. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global coverage systems range from $1 Billion to $9 Billion, the availability of radiation hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  14. The depletion of skeletal muscle satellite cells with age is concomitant with reduced capacity of single progenitors to produce reserve progeny

    PubMed Central

    Day, Kenneth; Shefer, Gabi; Shearer, Andrew; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic progenitors residing on the myofiber surface that support skeletal muscle repair. We used mice in which satellite cells were detected by GFP expression driven by nestin gene regulatory elements to define age-related changes in both numbers of satellite cells that occupy hindlimb myofibers and their individual performance. We demonstrate a reduction in satellite cells per myofiber with age that is more prominent in females compared to males. Satellite cell loss also persists with age in myostatin-null mice regardless of increased muscle mass. Immunofluorescent analysis of isolated myofibers from nestin-GFP/Myf5nLacZ/+ mice reveals a decline with age in the number of satellite cells that express detectable levels of ?gal. Nestin-GFP expression typically diminishes in primary cultures of satellite cells as myogenic progeny proliferate and differentiate, but GFP subsequently reappears in the Pax7+ reserve population. Clonal analysis of sorted GFP+ satellite cells from hindlimb muscles shows heterogeneity in the extent of cell density and myotube formation among colonies. Reserve cells emerge primarily within high-density colonies, and the number of clones that produce reserve cells is reduced with age. Thus, satellite cell depletion with age could be attributed to a reduced capacity to generate a reserve population. PMID:20079729

  15. Expressed Sequence Tags for Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells, Myotube Formed-Cells and Adipocyte-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Smritee; Malik, Adeel; Tareq, K. M. A.; Roouf Bhat, Abdul; Park, Hee-Bok; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, SangHoon; Yang, Bohsuk; Young Chung, Ki; Choi, Inho

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle satellite cells (MSCs) represent a devoted stem cell population that is responsible for postnatal muscle growth and skeletal muscle regeneration. An important characteristic of MSCs is that they encompass multi potential mesenchymal stem cell activity and are able to differentiate into myocytes and adipocytes. To achieve a global view of the genes differentially expressed in MSCs, myotube formed-cells (MFCs) and adipocyte-like cells (ALCs), we performed large-scale EST sequencing of normalized cDNA libraries developed from bovine MSCs. Results A total of 24,192 clones were assembled into 3,333 clusters, 5,517 singletons and 3,842contigs. Functional annotation of these unigenes revealed that a large portion of the differentially expressed genes are involved in cellular and signaling processes. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) functional analysis of three subsets of highly expressed gene lists (MSC233, MFC258, and ALC248) highlighted some common and unique biological processes among MSC, MFC and ALC. Additionally, genes that may be specific to MSC, MFC and ALC are reported here, and the role of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase2 (DDAH2) during myogenesis and hemoglobin subunit alpha2 (HBA2) during transdifferentiation in C2C12 were assayed as a case study. DDAH2 was up-regulated during myognesis and knockdown of DDAH2 by siRNA significantly decreased myogenin (MYOG) expression corresponding with the slight change in cell morphology. In contrast, HBA2 was up-regulated during ALC formation and resulted in decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and CD36 mRNA expression upon knockdown assay. Conclusion In this study, a large number of EST sequences were generated from the MSC, MFC and ALC. Overall, the collection of ESTs generated in this study provides a starting point for the identification of novel genes involved in MFC and ALC formation, which in turn offers a fundamental resource to enable better understanding of the mechanism of muscle differentiation and transdifferentiation. PMID:24224006

  16. Spiral ganglion degeneration and hearing loss as a consequence of satellite cell death in saposin B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Akil, Omar; Sun, Ying; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Zhang, Wujuan; Ku, Tiffany; Lee, Chi-Kyou; Jones, Sherri; Grabowski, Gregory A; Lustig, Lawrence R

    2015-02-18

    Saposin B (Sap B) is an essential activator protein for arylsulfatase A in the hydrolysis of sulfatide, a lipid component of myelin. To study Sap B's role in hearing and balance, a Sap B-deficient (B(-/-)) mouse was evaluated. At both light and electron microscopy (EM) levels, inclusion body accumulation was seen in satellite cells surrounding spiral ganglion (SG) neurons from postnatal month 1 onward, progressing into large vacuoles preceding satellite cell degeneration, and followed by SG degeneration. EM also revealed reduced or absent myelin sheaths in SG neurons from postnatal month 8 onwards. Hearing loss was initially seen at postnatal month 6 and progressed thereafter for frequency-specific stimuli, whereas click responses became abnormal from postnatal month 13 onward. The progressive hearing loss correlated with the accumulation of inclusion bodies in the satellite cells and their subsequent degeneration. Outer hair cell numbers and efferent function measures (distortion product otoacoustic emissions and contralateral suppression) were normal in the B(-/-) mice throughout this period. Alcian blue staining of SGs demonstrated that these inclusion bodies corresponded to sulfatide accumulation. In contrast, changes in the vestibular system were much milder, but caused severe physiologic deficits. These results demonstrate that loss of Sap B function leads to progressive sulfatide accumulation in satellite cells surrounding the SG neurons, leading to satellite cell degeneration and subsequent SG degeneration with a resultant loss of hearing. Relative sparing of the efferent auditory and vestibular neurons suggests that alternate glycosphingolipid metabolic pathways predominate in these other systems. PMID:25698761

  17. Effects of Transient Hypoxia versus Prolonged Hypoxia on Satellite Cell Proliferation and Differentiation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jash, Sukanta; Adhya, Samit

    2015-01-01

    The microenvironment of the injury site can have profound effects on wound healing. Muscle injury results in ischemia leading to short-term local hypoxia, but there are conflicting reports on the role of hypoxia on the myogenic program in vivo and in vitro. In our rat model of mitochondrial restoration (MR), temporary upregulation of mitochondrial activity by a cocktail of organelle-encoded RNAs results in satellite cell proliferation and initiation of myogenesis. We now report that MR leads to a transient hypoxic response in situ. Inhibition of hypoxia by lowering mitochondrial O2 consumption, either by respiratory electron transport inhibitors, or by NO-mediated inhibition of O2 binding to cytochrome c oxidase, resulted in exacerbation of inflammation. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) or of Notch signaling components had a similar effect, and pharmacologic inhibition of HIF or Notch reduced the number of proliferating Pax7(+) cells. In contrast, a prolonged hypoxic response induced either by uncoupling of respiration from oxidative phosphorylation or through HIF stabilization by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) had an immediate anti-inflammatory effect. Although significant satellite cell proliferation occurred in presence of DMOG, expression of differentiation markers was affected. These results emphasize the importance of transient hypoxia as opposed to prolonged hypoxia for myogenesis. PMID:25788948

  18. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  19. Effects of Transient Hypoxia versus Prolonged Hypoxia on Satellite Cell Proliferation and Differentiation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jash, Sukanta; Adhya, Samit

    2015-01-01

    The microenvironment of the injury site can have profound effects on wound healing. Muscle injury results in ischemia leading to short-term local hypoxia, but there are conflicting reports on the role of hypoxia on the myogenic program in vivo and in vitro. In our rat model of mitochondrial restoration (MR), temporary upregulation of mitochondrial activity by a cocktail of organelle-encoded RNAs results in satellite cell proliferation and initiation of myogenesis. We now report that MR leads to a transient hypoxic response in situ. Inhibition of hypoxia by lowering mitochondrial O2 consumption, either by respiratory electron transport inhibitors, or by NO-mediated inhibition of O2 binding to cytochrome c oxidase, resulted in exacerbation of inflammation. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) or of Notch signaling components had a similar effect, and pharmacologic inhibition of HIF or Notch reduced the number of proliferating Pax7+ cells. In contrast, a prolonged hypoxic response induced either by uncoupling of respiration from oxidative phosphorylation or through HIF stabilization by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) had an immediate anti-inflammatory effect. Although significant satellite cell proliferation occurred in presence of DMOG, expression of differentiation markers was affected. These results emphasize the importance of transient hypoxia as opposed to prolonged hypoxia for myogenesis. PMID:25788948

  20. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  1. Analyses of the differentiation potential of satellite cells from myoD-/-, mdx, and PMP22 C22 mice

    PubMed Central

    Schuierer, Marion M; Mann, Christopher J; Bildsoe, Heidi; Huxley, Clare; Hughes, Simon M

    2005-01-01

    Background Sporadic and sometimes contradictory studies have indicated changes in satellite cell behaviour associated with the progressive nature of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Satellite cell proliferation and number are reportedly altered in DMD and the mdx mouse model. We recently found that satellite cells in MSVski transgenic mice, a muscle hypertrophy model showing progressive muscle degeneration, display a severe ageing-related differentiation defect in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that similar changes contribute to the gradual loss of muscle function with age in mdx and PMP22 mice, a model of human motor and sensory neuropathy type 1A (HMSN1A). Methods Single extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres were cultured from mdx and PMP22 mice and age- and genetic background-matched controls. Mice at several ages were compared with regard to the differentiation of satellite cells, assayed as the proportion of desmin-expressing cells that accumulated sarcomeric myosin heavy chain. Results Satellite cells of 2 month, 6 month, and 12 month old mdx mice were capable of differentiating to a similar extent to age-matched wild type control animals in an in vitro proliferation/differentiation model. Strikingly, differentiation efficiency in individual 6 month and 12 month old mdx animals varies to a much higher extent than in age-matched controls, younger mdx animals, or PMP22 mice. In contrast, differentiation of myoblasts from all myoD null mice assayed was severely impaired in this assay system. The defect in satellite cell differentiation that occurs in some mdx animals arises from a delay in differentiation that is not overcome by IGF-1 treatment at any phase of cultivation. Conclusion Overall, a defect in satellite cell differentiation above that arising through normal ageing does not occur in mdx or PMP22 mouse models of human disease. Nonetheless, the impaired differentiation of satellite cells from some mdx animals suggests that additional factors, environmental or epigenetic, may lead to deteriorating muscle repair through poor differentiation of satellite cells in genetically predisposed individuals. PMID:15762989

  2. Expression of adult fast pattern of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms by mouse satellite cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Senni, M I; Castrignano, F; Poiana, G; Cossu, G; Scarsella, G; Biagioni, S

    1987-01-01

    The pattern of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) molecular forms, obtained by sucrose gradient sedimentation, was studied at different in vitro developmental stages of myogenic cells isolated from adult mouse skeletal muscle. Only the globular forms were present in rapidly dividing satellite cells during the first days in culture. After myotube formation, a pattern similar to that described in mammalian fast-twitch skeletal muscle was observed. This pattern did not change during the following period in culture (up to 1 month) nor could it be modified by co-culturing with spinal cord motoneurons or by addition of brain-derived extracts. The internal-external localization of AChE molecular forms has been determined by the use of echothiophate iodide, a membrane-impermeant irreversible inhibitor of AChE. Echothiophate-treated cultures showed about 40% of both asymmetric and globular forms localized on the sarcolemma, with their active sites oriented outward. Analysis of culture medium from untreated cultures revealed the presence of both asymmetric and globular forms. When the same analysis was repeated on cultures of myoblasts derived from 16-day-old mouse embryos, the pattern of AChE forms was different. The myotubes derived from these cells exhibit a very small proportion of asymmetric form, which was not released into the medium. This pattern was not further modified during the following days of culture, nor by co-cultures with spinal cord motoneurons or by incubations with brain-derived extracts. Thus, the myotubes derived from myoblasts express in culture a clear phenotypic difference when compared to the corresponding myotubes from satellite cells, supporting the view that these two myogenic cells are endowed with different developmental programs. PMID:3449398

  3. Isolation of Nuclei from Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells and Myofibers for Use in Chromatin lmmunoprecipitation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Mallappa, Chandrashekara; Dacwag Vallaster, Caroline S.; lmbalzano, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating mechanisms controlling gene regulation frequently examine specific DNA sequences using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to determine whether specific regulatory factors or modified histones are present. While use of primary cells or cell line models for differentiating or differentiated tissue is widespread, the ability to assess factor binding and histone modification in tissue defines the events that occur in vivo and provides corroboration for studies in cultured cells. Many tissues can be analyzed with minimal modification to existing ChIP protocols that are designed for cultured cells; however, some tissues, such as skeletal muscle, are problematic in that accessibility of the cross-linking agent is limited. We describe a method to isolate skeletal muscle tissue nuclei suitable for use in ChIP protocols. Furthermore, we utilize a simple fractionation of digested skeletal muscle tissue that can separate mature myofibers from satellite cells, which are responsible for postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration, thereby allowing simultaneous preparation of nuclei from both cell types. PMID:22130858

  4. Dynamic elastic behavior of alpha-satellite DNA domains visualized in situ in living human cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have constructed a fluorescent alpha-satellite DNA-binding protein to explore the motile and mechanical properties of human centromeres. A fusion protein consisting of human CENP-B coupled to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of A. victoria specifically targets to centromeres when expressed in human cells. Morphometric analysis revealed that the alpha-satellite DNA domain bound by CENPB-GFP becomes elongated in mitosis in a microtubule-dependent fashion. Time lapse confocal microscopy in live mitotic cells revealed apparent elastic deformations of the central domain of the centromere that occurred during metaphase chromosome oscillations. These observations demonstrate that the interior region of the centromere behaves as an elastic element that could play a role in the mechanoregulatory mechanisms recently identified at centromeres. Fluorescent labeling of centromeres revealed that they disperse throughout the nucleus in a nearly isometric expansion during chromosome decondensation in telophase and early G1. During interphase, centromeres were primarily stationary, although motility of individual or small groups of centromeres was occasionally observed at very slow rates of 7-10 microns/h. PMID:8909532

  5. Earth-satellite path attenuation statistics influenced by orientation of rain cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is examined whether there may be preferred azimuths for earth-satellite paths along which fading and space diversity statistics are influenced differently than along other azimuths. Such preferred directions may exist if individual rain cells are statistically elongated along them for the given climatological region. The analysis is performed using the rain reflectivity data base obtained at Wallops Island during June, July and August 1973 using a high resolution radar. It is found that in the vicinity of Wallops Island increased attenuation and poorer diversity gains exist along paths whose azimuths and base lines lie in the NE-SW quadrants as compared to the NW-SE sectors. This result suggests the dominance of the major axis of rain cells in these quadrants.

  6. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented, which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can help minimize the cost of a global satellite communications system. An important distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium, Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation at orbital altitudes within the earth's radiation belts (10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4)km) can reduce the total cost of a system by several hundred percent, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells can be used. A detailed evaluation of the predicted performance of photovoltaic arrays using several different planar solar cell technologies is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge, and InP/Si which is currently under development. Several examples of applying the program are given, which show that the end of life (EOL) power density of different technologies can vary by a factor of ten for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation-soft technology can usually provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact upon the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate, these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global-coverage systems range from $1B to $9B, the availability of radiation-hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  7. Satellite cell activity is differentially affected by contraction mode in human muscle following a work-matched bout of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hyldahl, Robert D.; Olson, Ty; Welling, Tyson; Groscost, Logan; Parcell, Allen C.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal repair and adaptation of skeletal muscle is facilitated by resident stem cells (satellite cells). To understand how different exercise modes influence satellite cell dynamics, we measured satellite cell activity in conjunction with markers of muscle damage and inflammation in human skeletal muscle following a single work- and intensity-matched bout of eccentric (ECC) or concentric contractions (CON). Participants completed a single bout of ECC (n = 7) or CON (n = 7) of the knee extensors. A muscle biopsy was obtained before and 24 h after exercise. Functional measures and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine the extent of muscle damage and indices of satellite cell activity. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a multiplexed magnetic bead assay. Isokinetic peak torque decreased following ECC (p < 0.05) but not CON. Greater histological staining of the damage marker Xin was observed in muscle samples of ECC vs. CON. Tenasin C immunoreactivity increased 15 fold (p < 0.01) following ECC and was unchanged following CON. The inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) increased pre- to post-ECC (4.26 ± 1.4 vs. 10.49 ± 5.8 pg/ml, and 3.06 ± 0.7 vs. 6.25 ± 4.6 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in any cytokine post-CON. Satellite cell content increased 27% pre- to post-ECC (0.10 ± 0.031 vs. 0.127 ± 0.041, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in satellite cell number in CON (0.099 ± 0.027 vs. 0.102 ± 0.029, respectively). There was no fiber type-specific satellite cell response following either exercise mode. ECC but not CON resulted in an increase in MyoD positive nuclei per myofiber pre- to post-exercise (p < 0.05), but there was no change in MyoD DNA binding activity in either condition. In conclusion, ECC but not CON results in functional and histological evidence of muscle damage that is accompanied by increased satellite cell activity 24 h post-exercise. PMID:25566087

  8. Dual role of the caspase enzymes in satellite cells from aged and young subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fulle, S; Sancilio, S; Mancinelli, R; Gatta, V; Di Pietro, R

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cell (SC) proliferation and differentiation have critical roles in skeletal muscle recovery after injury and adaptation in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Normal ageing hinders SC proliferation and differentiation, and is associated with increased expression of a number of pro-apoptotic factors in skeletal muscle. In light of previous studies that have demonstrated age-related altered expression of genes involved in SC antioxidant and repair activity, this investigation was aimed at evaluating the incidence of apoptotic features in human SCs. Primary cells were obtained from vastus lateralis of nine young (27.3±2.0 years old) and nine old (71.1±1.8 years old) subjects, and cultured in complete medium for analyses at 4, 24, 48, and 72?h. Apoptosis was assessed using AnnexinV/propidium iodide staining, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling technique, RT-PCR, DNA microarrays, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence analysis. There was an increased rate of apoptotic cells in aged subjects at all of the experimental time points, with no direct correlation between AnnexinV-positive cells and caspase-8 activity. On the other hand, CASP2, CASP6, CASP7, and CASP9 and a number of cell death genes were upregulated in the aged SCs. Altogether, our data show age-related enhanced susceptibility of human SCs to apoptosis, which might be responsible for their reduced response to muscle damage. PMID:24336075

  9. Biological characteristics of muscle-derived satellite cells isolated from rats at different postnatal days.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ren; Haiqing, Wu; Hefei, Wang; Dong, Liu; Xiao, Wang; Yuzhen, Ma; Dongjun, Liu

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the in vitro growth characteristics and differential potential of muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) derived from rats at different postnatal (P) stages, in order to expand the range of source material for tissue engineering. Rat MDSCs were isolated from P5, P10, P15, P21 and P42 rat skeletal muscles using double enzyme digestion and differential adherent culture. Neurogenic, osteogenic and myogenic induction media were used to induce directed differentiation. Differentiated nerve cells, osteoblasts and myotubes were identified by their morphology and immunohistochemical staining. Most cells transformed into spindle-shaped mononuclear cells after 48 h and proliferated rapidly. MDSCs were difficult to isolate from P42 rats. After neurogenesis, four groups MDSCs formed neuron-specific enolase positive polygonal-shaped dendritic cells. After osteogenesis, P5, P10, P15 and P21 MDSCs formed Alizarin red- and osteocalcin-positive bone nodules. After myogenesis, myotubes were formed and were fast muscle myosin-positive. MDSCs derived from P5, P10, P15 and P21 rat skeletal muscle are easy to isolate, culture and amplify in vitro, which increases the range of source material available for tissue engineering. PMID:25805267

  10. Defining a role for non-satellite stem cells in the regulation of muscle repair following exercise.

    PubMed

    Boppart, Marni D; De Lisio, Michael; Zou, Kai; Huntsman, Heather D

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle repair is essential for effective remodeling, tissue maintenance, and initiation of beneficial adaptations post-eccentric exercise. A series of well characterized events, such as recruitment of immune cells and activation of satellite cells, constitute the basis for muscle regeneration. However, details regarding the fine-tuned regulation of this process in response to different types of injury are open for investigation. Muscle-resident non-myogenic, non-satellite stem cells expressing conventional mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, have the potential to significantly contribute to regeneration given the role for bone marrow-derived MSCs in whole body tissue repair in response to injury and disease. The purpose of this mini-review is to highlight a regulatory role for Pnon-satellite stem cells in the process of skeletal muscle healing post-eccentric exercise. The non-myogenic, non-satellite stem cell fraction will be defined, its role in tissue repair will be briefly reviewed, and recent studies demonstrating a contribution to eccentric exercise-induced regeneration will be presented. PMID:24204344

  11. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. PMID:25571987

  12. Evaluation of the effect of static magnetic fields combined with human hepatocyte growth factor on human satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Birk, Richard; Sommer, Ulrich; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schulz, Johannes D; Hörmann, Karl; Goessler, Ulrich Reinhart; Stern-Straeter, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising research field, which aims to create new functional muscle tissue in vitro, by utilizing the myogenic differentiation potential of human stem cells. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of static magnetic fields (SMF), combined with the use of the myogenic differentiation enhancing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), on human satellite cell cultures, which are one of the preferred stem cell sources in skeletal muscle tissue engineering. We performed almarBlue® proliferation assays and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the following myogenic markers: desmin (DES), myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen 1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and ?1 actin (ACTA1) to detect the effects on myogenic maturation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining (ICC) and fusion index (FI) determination as independent markers of differentiation were performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with HGF and HGF + SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. ICC verified the muscle phenotype at all time points. SMF enhanced the proliferation of satellite cell cultures treated with HGF. RT-PCR analysis, ICC and FI calculation revealed the effects of HGF/SMF on the investigated differentiation markers and stimulation with HGF and SMF verified the continuing maturation, however no significant increase in analysed markers could be detected when compared with control cultures treated with serum cessation. In conclusion, HGF or HGF + SMF stimulation of human satellite cell cultures did not lead to the desired enhancement of myogenic maturation of human satellite cell cultures compared with cell cultures stimulated with growth factor reduction. PMID:24682107

  13. Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain. PMID:24665354

  14. Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain. PMID:24665354

  15. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  16. Micro space power system using MEMS fuel cell for nano-satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkwang; Kim, Taegyu

    2014-08-01

    A micro space power system using micro fuel cell was developed for nano-satellites. The power system was fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technologies. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell was selected in consideration of space environment. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was selected as a hydrogen source while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was selected as an oxygen source. The power system consists of a micro fuel cell, micro-reactor, micro-pump, and fuel cartridges. The micro fuel cell was fabricated on a light-weight and corrosion-resistant glass plates. The micro-reactor was used to generate hydrogen from NaBH4 alkaline solution via a catalytic hydrolysis reaction. All components such as micro-pump, fuel cartridges, and auxiliary battery were integrated for a complete power system. The storability of NaBH4 solution was evaluated at -25 °C and the performance of the micro power system was measured at various operating conditions. The power output of micro power system reasonably followed up the given electric load conditions.

  17. Sodium and potassium currents in freshly isolated and in proliferating human muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, M; Widmer, H; Baroffio, A; Aubry, J P; Krause, R M; Kaelin, A; Bader, C R

    1994-01-01

    1. Human muscle satellite cells (SC) were studied either immediately after dissociation of muscle biopsies or later, as they proliferated in culture. A purification procedure combined with clonal cultures ensured that electrophysiological recordings were done in myogenic cells. Hoechst staining for the DNA attested that cells were mononucleated. 2. The goals of this study were to examine (i) whether the electrophysiological properties of freshly isolated SC resembled those of SC that proliferated in culture for several weeks, (ii) whether freezing and thawing affected these properties, and (iii) whether SC constituted a homogeneous population. 3. We found that there were only subtle differences between the electrophysiological results obtained in freshly isolated SC and in proliferating SC with or without previous freezing and thawing. Most SC expressed two voltage-gated currents, a TTX-resistant Na+ current and a calcium-activated potassium current (IK, Ca). 4. The level of expression of the Na+ current and of IK, Ca was affected in a different way by cellular proliferation; the normalized Na+ conductance (pS pF-1) of proliferating cells resembled that of freshly isolated SC, whereas the IK, Ca conductance increased 10 times. The analysis of the amplitude distributions of the Na+ current and of IK, Ca in the various SC preparations suggested that there was only one class of SC. PMID:8021836

  18. Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis. PMID:23990328

  19. Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    From funnel-cloud-length interpretation, the severe tornado is characterized by peak swirl speed relative to the axis of rotation of about 90 m/s. Thermohydrodynamic achievement of the pressure deficit from ambient necessary to sustain such swirls requires that a dry, compressionally heated, non-rotating downdraft of initially tropopause-level air lie within an annulus of rapidly swirling, originally low-level air ascending on a near-moist-adiabatic locus of thermodynamic states. The two-cell structure furnishes an observable parameter possibly accessible to a passively instrumented, geosynchronous meteorological satellite with mesoscale resolution, for early detection of a severe tornado. Accordingly, the low-level turnaround region, in which the surface inflow layer separates to become a free ascending layer and for which inviscid modeling suffices, is examined quantitatively. Preliminary results indicate that swirl overshoot, i.e., swirl speeds in the turnaround region in excess of the maximum achieved in the potential vortex, is modest.

  20. PPAR? and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Deng, Bing; Wen, Jianghui; Chen, Kun; Liu, Wu; Ye, Shengqiang; Huang, Haijun; Jiang, Siwen; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2015-03-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPAR? and MyoD, we analyzed PPAR? and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPAR? mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPAR? levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPAR? and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPAR? and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPAR? and MyoD expression. PMID:25646693

  1. Carm1 regulates Pax7 transcriptional activity through MLL1/2 recruitment during asymmetric satellite stem cell divisions.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Yoh-Ichi; Wang, Yu Xin; McKinnell, Iain W; Bedford, Mark T; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    In skeletal muscle, asymmetrically dividing satellite stem cells give rise to committed satellite cells that transcribe the myogenic determination factor Myf5, a Pax7-target gene. We identified the arginine methyltransferase Carm1 as a Pax7 interacting protein and found that Carm1 specifically methylates multiple arginines in the N terminus of Pax7. Methylated Pax7 directly binds the C-terminal cleavage forms of the trithorax proteins MLL1/2 resulting in the recruitment of the ASH2L:MLL1/2:WDR5:RBBP5 histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex to regulatory enhancers and the proximal promoter of Myf5. Finally, Carm1 is required for the induction of de novo Myf5 transcription following asymmetric satellite stem cell divisions. We defined the C-terminal MLL region as a reader domain for the recognition of arginine methylated proteins such as Pax7. Thus, arginine methylation of Pax7 by Carm1 functions as a molecular switch controlling the epigenetic induction of Myf5 during satellite stem cell asymmetric division and entry into the myogenic program. PMID:22863532

  2. Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

  3. Pancreatic Satellite Cells Derived Galectin-1 Increase the Progression and Less Survival of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Wang, Sen; Ye, Nianyuan; Li, Ping; Gao, Sujun; Miao, Yi; Wang, Daorong; Jiang, Kuirong

    2014-01-01

    Background Galectin-1, a member of carbohydrate-binding proteins with a polyvalent function on tumor progression, was found strongly expressed in pancreatic satellite cells (PSCs), which partner in crime with cancer cells and promote the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We evaluated the effects of PSCs derived Galectin-1 on the progression of PDAC, as well as the tumor establishment and development in mouse xenografts. Methods The relationship between immunohistochemistry staining intensity of Galectin-1 and clinicopathologic variables were assessed in 66 PDAC tissues, 18 chronic pancreatitis tissues and 10 normal controls. The roles of PSCs isolated from PDAC and normal pancreas on the proliferative activity, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and the invasion of CFPAC-1 in the co-cultured system, as well as on the tumor establishment and development in mouse xenografts by mixed implanting with CFPAC-1 subcutaneously were evaluated. Results Galectin-1 expression was gradually increased from normal pancreas (negative), chronic pancreatitis (weak) to PDAC (strong), in which Galectin-1 expression was also increased from well, moderately to poorly differentiated PDAC. Galectin-1 staining intensity of pancreatic cancer tissue was associated with increase in tumor size, lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion and differentiation and UICC stage, and served as the independent prognostic indicator of poor survival of pancreatic cancer. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that TGF-?1 upregulated Galectin-1 expression in PSCs, which could further promotes the proliferative activity, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, as well as the tumor establishment and growth. Conclusion Galectin-1 expression in stromal cells of pancreatic cancer suggests that this protein plays a role in the promotion of cancer cells invasion and metastasis and provides a therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24595374

  4. Bidirectional calcium signaling between satellite glial cells and neurons in cultured mouse trigeminal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Suadicani, Sylvia O.; Cherkas, Pavel S.; Zuckerman, Jonathan; Smith, David N.; Spray, David C.; Hanani, Menachem

    2010-01-01

    Astrocytes communicate with neurons, endothelial and other glial cells through transmission of intercellular calcium signals. Satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia share several properties with astrocytes, but whether this type of communication occurs between SGCs and sensory neurons has not been explored. In the present work we used cultured neurons and SGCs from mouse trigeminal ganglia to address this question. Focal electrical or mechanical stimulation of single neurons in trigeminal ganglion cultures increased intracellular calcium concentration in these cells and triggered calcium elevations in adjacent glial cells. Similar to neurons, SGCs responded to mechanical stimulation with increase in cytosolic calcium that spread to the adjacent neuron and neighboring glial cells. Calcium signaling from SGCs to neurons and among SGCs was diminished in the presence of the broad-spectrum P2 receptor antagonist suramin (50 µM) or in the presence of the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (100 µM), whereas signaling from neurons to SGCs was reduced by suramin, but not by carbenoxolone. Following induction of submandibular inflammation by Complete Freund’s Adjuvant injection, the amplitude of signaling among SGCs and from SGCs to neuron was increased, whereas the amplitude from neuron to SGCs was reduced. These results indicate for the first time the presence of bidirectional calcium signaling between neurons and SGCs in sensory ganglia cultures, which is mediated by the activation of purinergic P2 receptors, and to some extent by gap junctions. Furthermore, the results indicate that not only sensory neurons, but also SGCs release ATP. This form of intercellular calcium signaling likely plays key roles in the modulation of neuronal activity within sensory ganglia in normal and pathological states. PMID:19891813

  5. Decreasing trend of groundwater in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarachi, S.; Moghim, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    In these days the increasing demand for water has created problems for availability of its resources. Some recent issues like population growth, global warming and inefficient methods of water consumption, generated the need to find sources of water other than surface water such as ground water. Excess using of groundwater in most parts of the world causes depletion of ground water in those areas. Scientists are trying to find efficient means to quantify these trends. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) including two satellites launched in March 2002, is making measurements of the Earth's gravity field which is used to display the change of storage of the water on the Earth. GRACE makes it possible to find the trend of the change of storage all over the world.It can show specific areas in the world that have dramatic decreasing trend of water storage. One of these regions that have been considered in this study is Turkey in western Asia, as one of the countries deeply affected by global warming. Turkey is identified as one of the first places where desertification will start in Europe, according to estimates by the UN Environment Program (UNEP). Turkey has 25 underground water tables and they had a decrease in level of 27 meters in the past 25 years (Turkey water report 2009). In this paper the change of the ground water is evaluated by applying the GRACE storage anomalies and the mass conservation equation that concludes the reduction trend in groundwater. The results clarify that decreasing trend of groundwater is more noticeable during recent years, particularly since 2006. Our results show that in recent years the average decrease in ground water level is 2.5 cm per year and the maximum decrease occurred in May 2007 with the value of about 7.9 cm. KEY WORDS: water resources; Ground water; Turkey; GRACE

  6. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  7. Molecular Cell, Vol. 6, 9991011, November, 2000, Copyright 2000 by Cell Press Chromatin Opening of DNA Satellites

    E-print Network

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    of DNA Satellites by Targeted Sequence-Specific Drugs in chromosome condensation and PEV. We were en. This structural motif confers dramatic SARsophila melanogaster satellites. Dimeric oligopyrroles specificity to MATH, since the linked AT hooks favorwere shown to target the AT-rich satellites I, III

  8. Age-Specific Functional Epigenetic Changes in p21 and p16 in Injury-Activated Satellite Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ju; Han, Suhyoun; Cousin, Wendy; Conboy, Irina M

    2015-03-01

    The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here, we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CDKIs) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells, FGF2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15(INK4B) and p27(KIP1) , become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration. Stem Cells 2015;33:951-961. PMID:25447026

  9. Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

  10. Transient systemic mtDNA damage leads to muscle wasting by reducing the satellite cell pool

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Pickrell, Alicia M.; Rossi, Susana G.; Pinto, Milena; Dillon, Lloye M.; Hida, Aline; Rotundo, Richard L.; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2013-01-01

    With age, muscle mass and integrity are progressively lost leaving the elderly frail, weak and unable to independently care for themselves. Defined as sarcopenia, this age-related muscle atrophy appears to be multifactorial but its definite cause is still unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in this process. Using a novel transgenic mouse model of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that presents a premature aging-like phenotype, we studied the role of mtDNA damage in muscle wasting. We caused DSBs in mtDNA of adult mice using a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial-targeted endonuclease, mito-PstI. We found that a short, transient systemic mtDNA damage led to muscle wasting and a decline in locomotor activity later in life. We found a significant decline in muscle satellite cells, which decreases the muscle's capacity to regenerate and repair during aging. This phenotype was associated with impairment in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and assembly at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), also associated with muscle aging. Our data suggests that systemic mitochondrial dysfunction plays important roles in age-related muscle wasting by preferentially affecting the myosatellite cell pool. PMID:23760083

  11. Satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion as a determinant of orofacial neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    VIT, JEAN-PHILIPPE; JASMIN, LUC; BHARGAVA, ADITI; OHARA, PETER T.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) tightly envelop the perikarya of primary sensory neurons in peripheral ganglion and are identified by their morphology and the presence of proteins not found in ganglion neurons. These SGC-unique proteins include the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1, the connexin-43 (Cx43) subunit of gap junctions, the purinergic receptor P2Y4 and soluble guanylate cyclase. We also present evidence that the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel SK3 is present only in SGCs and that SGCs divide following nerve injury. All the above proteins are involved, either directly or indirectly, in potassium ion (K+) buffering and, thus, can influence the level of neuronal excitability, which, in turn, has been associated with neuropathic pain conditions. We used in vivo RNA interference to reduce the expression of Cx43 (present only in SGCs) in the rat trigeminal ganglion and show that this results in the development of spontaneous pain behavior. The pain behavior is present only when Cx43 is reduced and returns to normal when Cx43 concentrations are restored. This finding shows that perturbation of a single SGC-specific protein is sufficient to induce pain responses and demonstrates the importance of PNS glial cell activity in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. PMID:18568096

  12. Istanbul Technical University Istanbul, Turkey

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    Istanbul Technical University Istanbul, Turkey About: Having a 238 year prominent history, a contemporary education environment and an impressive faculty, Istanbul Technical University has been distinguished in Turkey with its engineering and architecture education. Istanbul Technical University

  13. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah [Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  14. Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Satellite Cells and Soccer Performance in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Metaxas, Thomas I.; Mandroukas, Athanasios; Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Kotoglou, Kostas; Ekblom, Björn; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to examine the muscle fiber type, composition and satellite cells in young male soccer players and to correlate them to cardiorespiratory indices and muscle strength. The participants formed three Groups: Group A (n = 13), 11.2 ± 0.4yrs, Group B (n=10), 13.1 ± 0.5yrs and Group C (n = 9), 15.2 ± 0.6yrs. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded and VO2max was measured on the treadmill. Group C had lower type I percentage distribution compared to A by 21.3% (p < 0.01), while the type IIA relative percentage was higher by 18.1% and 18.4% than in Groups A and B (p < 0.05). Groups B and C had higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values in all fiber types than in Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). The number of satellite cells did not differ between the groups. Groups B and C had higher peak torque at all angular velocities and absolute VO2max in terms of ml·min-1 than Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). It is concluded that the increased percentage of type IIA muscle fibers noticed in Group C in comparison to the Groups A and B should be mainly attributed to the different workload exercise and training programs. The alteration of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms composition even in children is an important mechanism for skeletal muscle characteristics. Finally, CSA, isokinetic muscle strength and VO2max values seems to be expressed according to age. Key Points Fifteen years old soccer players have higher IIA percentage distribution than the younger players by approximately 18%. The age and the training status play a crucial role in muscle fibers co-expression. Specific training in young athletes seems to alter significantly the muscular metabolic profile. PMID:25177173

  15. Multi-grid-cell validation of satellite aerosol property retrievals in INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Ramirez, S. A.; Eilers, J.; Kahn, R.; Chu, D. A.; Remer, L.; Quinn, P. K.; Rood, M. J.; Wang, W.

    2007-06-01

    Aerosol transport off the US Northeast coast during the Summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX) and Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiments produced a wide range of aerosol types and aerosol optical depth (AOD) values, often with strong horizontal AOD gradients. In these conditions we flew the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun photometer (AATS) on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft. Legs flown at low altitude (usually ?100 m ASL) provided comparisons of AATS AOD spectra to retrievals for 90 grid cells of the satellite radiometers MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR, all over the ocean. Characterization of the retrieval environment was aided by using vertical profiles by the J31 (showing aerosol vertical structure) and, on occasion, shipboard measurements of light scattering and absorption. AATS provides AOD at 13 wavelengths ? from 354 to 2138 nm, spanning the range of aerosol retrieval wavelengths for MODIS over ocean (466-2119 nm) and MISR (446-866 nm). Midvisible AOD on low-altitude J31 legs in satellite grid cells ranged from 0.05 to 0.9, with horizontal gradients often in the range 0.05 to 0.13 per 10 km. When possible, we used ship measurements of humidified aerosol scattering and absorption to estimate AOD below the J31. In these cases, which had J31 altitudes 60-110 m ASL (typical of J31 low-altitude transects), estimated midvisible AOD below the J31 ranged from 0.003 to 0.013, with mean 0.009 and standard deviation 0.003. These values averaged 6% of AOD above the J31. MISR-AATS comparisons on 29 July 2004 in 8 grid cells (each ˜17.6 km × 17.6 km) show that MISR versions 15 and 16 captured the AATS-measured AOD gradient (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.87 to 0.92), but the MISR gradient was somewhat weaker than the AATS gradient. The large AOD (midvisible values up to ˜0.9) and differing gradients in this case produced root-mean-square (RMS) MISR-AATS AOD differences of 0.03 to 0.21 (9 to 31%). MISR V15 Ångstrom exponent ? ( = -dlnAOD/dln?) was closer to AATS than was MISR V16. MODIS-AATS AOD comparisons on 8 overpasses using 61 grid cells (each nominally 10 km × 10 km) had R2 ˜ 0.97, with RMS AOD difference ˜0.03 (˜20%). About 87% of the MODIS AOD retrievals differed from AATS values by less than the predicted MODIS over-ocean uncertainty, ?? = ±0.03 ± 0.05?. In contrast to the small MODIS-AATS differences in AOD, MODIS-AATS differences in Ångstrom exponent ? were large: RMS differences for ?(553, 855 nm) were 0.28 for MODIS-Terra and 0.64 for MODIS-Aqua; RMS differences for ?(855, 2119 nm) were larger still, 0.61 for MODIS-Terra and 1.14 for MODIS-Aqua. The largest MODIS-AATS Ångstrom exponent differences were associated with small AOD values, for which MODIS AOD relative uncertainty is large. Excluding cases with AOD(855 nm) < 0.1 reduced MODIS-AATS ? differences substantially. In one grid cell on 21 July 2004, smoke over cloud appeared to impair the MODIS-Aqua cloud mask, resulting in retrieved AODs that significantly exceeded AATS values. Experiments with extending MODIS retrievals into the glint mask yielded MODIS AODs consistently less than AATS AODs, especially at long wavelength, indicating that the current MODIS glint mask limits should not be reduced to the extent tried here. The sign of the AOD differences within the glint mask (MODIS AOD < AATS AOD) is consistent with ship-measured wind speeds there.

  16. Repetitive centromeric satellite RNA is essential for kinetochore formation and cell division.

    PubMed

    Roši?, Silvana; Köhler, Florian; Erhardt, Sylvia

    2014-11-10

    Chromosome segregation requires centromeres on every sister chromatid to correctly form and attach the microtubule spindle during cell division. Even though centromeres are essential for genome stability, the underlying centromeric DNA is highly variable in sequence and evolves quickly. Epigenetic mechanisms are therefore thought to regulate centromeres. Here, we show that the 359-bp repeat satellite III (SAT III), which spans megabases on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, produces a long noncoding RNA that localizes to centromeric regions of all major chromosomes. Depletion of SAT III RNA causes mitotic defects, not only of the sex chromosome but also in trans of all autosomes. We furthermore find that SAT III RNA binds to the kinetochore component CENP-C, and is required for correct localization of the centromere-defining proteins CENP-A and CENP-C, as well as outer kinetochore proteins. In conclusion, our data reveal that SAT III RNA is an integral part of centromere identity, adding RNA to the complex epigenetic mark at centromeres in flies. PMID:25365994

  17. The acute satellite cell response and skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance training.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Leeann M; Joanisse, Sophie; Grubb, Amanda; Mitchell, Cameron J; McKay, Bryon R; Phillips, Stuart M; Baker, Steven; Parise, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is highly variable in humans. The main objective of this study was to explain the nature of this variability. More specifically, we focused on the myogenic stem cell population, the satellite cell (SC) as a potential mediator of hypertrophy. Twenty-three males (aged 18-35 yrs) participated in 16 wk of progressive, whole body resistance training, resulting in changes of 7.9±1.6% (range of -1.9-24.7%) and 21.0±4.0% (range of -7.0 to 51.7%) in quadriceps volume and myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA), respectively. The SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise (80% 1RM), analyzed via immunofluorescent staining resulted in an expansion of type II fibre associated SC 72 h following exercise (pre: 11.3±0.9; 72 h: 14.8±1.4 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Training resulted in an expansion of the SC pool associated with type I (pre: 10.7±1.1; post: 12.1±1.2 SC/type I fibre; p<0.05) and type II fibres (pre: 11.3±0.9; post: 13.0±1.2 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Analysis of individual SC responses revealed a correlation between the relative change in type I associated SC 24 to 72 hours following an acute bout of resistance exercise and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2?=?0.566, p?=?0.012) and the relative change in type II associated SC following 16 weeks of resistance training and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2?=?0.493, p?=?0.027). Our results suggest that the SC response to resistance exercise is related to the extent of muscular hypertrophy induced by training. PMID:25313863

  18. Peripheral inflammation suppresses inward rectifying potassium currents of satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mamoru; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nasu, Masanori; Matsumoto, Shigeji

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies indicate that silencing Kir4.1, a specific inward rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel subunit, in sensory ganglionic satellite glial cells (SGCs) induces behavioral hyperalgesia. However, the function of Kir4.1 channels in SGCs in vivo under pathophysiological conditions remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to examine whether peripheral inflammation in anesthetized rats alters the SGC Kir4.1 current using in vivo patch clamp and immunohistochemical techniques. Inflammation was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the whisker pad. The threshold of escape from mechanical stimulation applied to the orofacial area in inflamed rats was significantly lower than in naïve rats. The mean percentage of small/medium diameter trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons encircled by Kir4.1-immunoreactive SGCs in inflamed rats was also significantly lower than in naïve rats. In vivo whole-cell recordings were made using SGCs in the trigeminal ganglia (TRGs). Increasing extracellular K(+) concentrations resulted in significantly smaller potentiation of the mean peak amplitude of the Kir current in inflamed compared with naïve rats. In addition, the density of the Ba(2+)-sensitive Kir current associated with small-diameter TRG neurons was significantly lower in inflamed rats compared with naïve rats. Mean membrane potential in inflamed rats was more depolarized than in naïve rats. These results suggest that inflammation could suppress Kir4.1 currents of SGCs in the TRGs and that this impairment of glial potassium homeostasis in the TRGs contributes to trigeminal pain. Therefore, the Kir4.1 channel in SGCs may be a new molecular target for the treatment of trigeminal inflammatory pain. PMID:21680091

  19. The molecular responses of skeletal muscle satellite cells to continuous expression of IGF-1: implications for the rescue of induced muscular atrophy in aged rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Booth, F. W.; Spangenburg, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 50% of humans older than 85 years have physical frailty due to weak skeletal muscles. This indicates a need for determining mechanisms to combat this problem. A critical cellular factor for postnatal muscle growth is a population of myogenic precursor cells called satellite cells. Given the complex process of sarcopenia, it has been postulated that, at some point in this process, a limited satellite cell proliferation potential could become rate-limiting to the regrowth of old muscles. It is conceivable that if satellite cell proliferative capacity can be maintained or enhanced with advanced age, sarcopenia could potentially be delayed or prevented. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are to describe whether IGF-I can prevent muscular atrophy induced by repeated cycles of hindlimb immobilization, increase the in vitro proliferation in satellite cells from these muscles and, if so, the molecular mechanisms by which IGF-I mediates this increased proliferation. Our results provide evidence that IGF-I can enhance aged muscle regrowth possibly through increased satellite cell proliferation. The results also suggest that IGF-I enhances satellite cell proliferation by decreasing the cell cycle inhibitor, p27Kip1, through the PI3'-K/Akt pathway. These data provide molecular evidence for IGF-I's rescue effect upon aging-associated skeletal muscle atrophy.

  20. Charge efficiency of Ni/H2 cells during transfer orbit of Telstar 4 satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, W. C.; Maurer, Dean W.; Vyas, B.; Thomas, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    The TELSTAR 4 communication satellites being manufactured by Martin Marietta Astro Space (Astro Space) for AT&T are three axis stabilized spacecraft scheduled to be launched on expendable vehicles such as the Atlas or Ariane rockets. Typically, these spacecraft consist of a box that holds the electronics and supports the antenna reflectors and the solar array wings. The wings and reflectors are folded against the sides of the box during launch and the spacecraft is spun for attitude control in that phase; they are then deployed after achieving the final orbit. The launch phase and transfer orbits required to achieve the final geosynchronous orbit typically take 4 to 5 days during which time the power required for command, telemetry, attitude control, heaters, etc., is provided by two 50 AH nickel hydrogen batteries augmented by the exposed outboard solar panels. In the past, this situation has presented no problem since there was a considerable excess of power available from the array. In the case of large high powered spacecraft such as TELSTAR 4, however, the design power levels in transfer orbit approach the time-averaged power available from the exposed surface area of the solar arrays, resulting in a very tight power margin. To compound the difficulty, the array output of the spinning spacecraft in transfer orbit is shaped like a full wave rectified sine function and provides very low charging rates to the batteries during portions of the rotation. In view of the typically low charging efficiency of alkaline nickel batteries at low rates, it was decided to measure the efficiency during a simulation of the TELSTAR 4 conditions at the expected power levels and temperatures on three nickel hydrogen cells of similar design. The unique feature of nickel hydrogen cells that makes the continuous measurement of efficiency possible is that hydrogen is one of the active materials and thus, cell pressure is a direct measure of the state of charge or available capacity. The pressure is measured with a calibrated strain gage mounted on the outside of the pressurized cell.

  1. Impedances of Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF satellite) and comparison with cells stored terrestrially

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1991-01-01

    Impedances were measured on several Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. These cells were used to power instruments and recorders and had all been partially or fully discharged. Impedances were also measured on several cells that were stored in cold storage since manufacture. Unfortunately, none of the cells stored terrestrially had undergone any discharge, whereas all of the cells on the satellite were at least partially discharged early in the mission and then remained on orbit for about 5 years further. It has been observed by others that storage of an Li/SO2 cell after partial discharge, increases the resistance and thickness of the passive film on the Li electrode, as indicated by an increase in the time for recovery of voltage when a load is applied (voltage lag), or in some cases by an inability of a cell to sustain a normal current after such storage. Since the cells stored terrestrially were not discharged in the same manner as the LDEF cells, a direct comparison cannot be made. Thus, the effects of the space environment cannot be separated from the effects of storage after partial discharge. It is believed that the increases in impedance in the LDEF cells are largely due to the storage upon partial discharge rather than the effects of the space environment.

  2. Biotechnological developments in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Oezcengiz, G. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1996-05-01

    Turkey is a country not usually associated with industrial biotechnology. However, when current research potential in universities and other R and D centers and particularly contributions made to the international literature since the mid-1980s are taken into account, high-quality international-level work is now commonplace, especially in areas such as industrial microbiology, enzyme technology, biomaterials and biological wastewater treatment. Work in plant biotechnology is at a relatively early stage, but is expected to become a rapidly developing force in the near future. The present article documents current potential in Turkey, based on significant publications produced during the last 8 years. 268 refs.

  3. Increase in number of the gap junctions between satellite neuroglial cells during lifetime: an ultrastructural study in rabbit spinal ganglia from youth to extremely advanced age.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, C; Sartori, P; De Palo, S; Ledda, M; Pannese, E

    2005-09-30

    This study investigated quantitative aspects of the gap junctions between satellite neuroglial cells that envelope the spinal ganglion neurons in rabbits aged 1 year (young), 3.6 years (adult), 6.7 years (old), and 8.8 years (very old). Both the total number of gap junctions present in 30,000 microm2 of surface area occupied by perineuronal satellite cells, and the density of these junctions increased throughout life, including the extremely advanced age. By contrast, the mean length of individual gap junctions did not change with age. Thus, the junctional system which provides morphological support for the metabolic cooperation between satellite cells in rabbit spinal ganglia becomes more extensive as the age of the animal increases. These results support the hypothesis that the gap junctions between perineuronal satellite cells are involved in the spatial buffering of extracellular K+ and in neuroprotection. PMID:16140158

  4. Turkey and Sweet Potato Dinner Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Turkey and Sweet Potato Dinner Ingredients: 1 pound ground turkey 4 sweet potatoes 15 ounces green to 350ºF. 2. Heat skillet to medium. Place ground turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break turkey. Once it is done, put browned turkey on a plate covered with several layers of paper towels to absorb

  5. Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients: 1 onion 1/2 pound ground turkey 1 cup ketchup, low, brown ground turkey and onion together over medium heat 8 to 10 minutes or until turkey is no longer. Return turkey to skillet. 3. Add ketchup to skillet; cover and simmer over medium-low heat 10 minutes. 4

  6. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Activity and Trends at a Pediatric Transplantation Center in Turkey During 1998-2008

    PubMed Central

    Hazar, Volkan; Karasu, Gülsün; Uygun, Vedat; Akcan, Mediha; Küpesiz, Alphan; Ye?ilipek, Akif

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to document hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) activity and trends at our treatment center. Material and Methods: Data collected over a 10-year period were retrospectively analyzed, concentrating primarily on types of HSCT, transplant-related mortality (TRM), stem cell sources, indications for HSCT, and causes of death following HSCT. Results: In total, 222 allogeneic (allo)-HSCT (87.4%) and 32 autologous (auto)-HSCT (12.6%) procedures were performed between 1998 and 2008. Stem cells obtained from unrelated donors were used in 22.6% (50/222) of the allo- HSCTs. Cord blood was the source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in 12.2% of all transplants. The most common indication for allo-HSCT was hemoglobinopathy (43.2%), versus neuroblastoma (53.1%) for auto-HSCT. The TRM rate 1 year post transplantation was 18.3% ± 2.5% for all transplants, but differed according to transplantation type (23.5% ± 7.9% for auto-HSCT and 17.5% ± 2.6% for allo-HSCT). The most common cause of death 1 year post HSCT was infection (35.9%). Conclusion: The TRM rate in the patients that underwent allo-HSCT was similar to that which has been previously reported; however, the TRM rate in the patients that underwent auto-HSCT was higher than previously reported in developed countries. The selection of these patients to be transplanted must be made attentively. PMID:24744645

  7. Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during recovery from eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Knudsen, Inge Skovgaard; de Paoli, Frank; Mackey, Abigail L; Vissing, Kristian

    2014-11-01

    Human skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are essential for muscle regeneration and remodeling processes in healthy and clinical conditions involving muscle breakdown. However, the potential influence of protein supplementation on post-exercise SC regulation in human skeletal muscle has not been well investigated. In a comparative human study, we investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein supplementation following eccentric exercise on fiber type-specific SC accumulation. Twenty-four young healthy subjects received either hydrolyzed whey protein + carbohydrate (whey, n = 12) or iso-caloric carbohydrate (placebo, n = 12) during post-exercise recovery from 150 maximal unilateral eccentric contractions. Prior to and 24, 48 and 168 h post-exercise, muscle biopsies were obtained from the exercise leg and analyzed for fiber type-specific SC content. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and serum creatine kinase (CK) were evaluated as indices of recovery from muscle damage. In type II fiber-associated SCs, the whey group increased SCs/fiber from 0.05 [0.02; 0.07] to 0.09 [0.06; 0.12] (p < 0.05) and 0.11 [0.06; 0.16] (p < 0.001) at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and exhibited a difference from the placebo group (p < 0.05) at 48 h. The whey group increased SCs/myonuclei from 4?% [2; 5] to 10?% [4; 16] (p?

  8. Nitric oxide release from trigeminal satellite glial cells is attenuated by glial modulators and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Jens Christian; Cairns, Brian Edwin; Kumar, Ujendra; Somvanshi, Rishi Kumar; Dong, Xu-Dong; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is suggested to play an important role in primary headaches. It has been proposed that release of NO from satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) could contribute to the pathogenesis of these headaches. The principal aim of this study was to investigate if the phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ibudilast (Ibu) and 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3) could interfere with NO release from trigeminal SGCs. Since glutamate is released from activated TG neurons, the ability of glutamate to alter NO release from SGCs was also investigated. To study this, we isolated SGCs from the TG of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, provoked NO release from SGCs with forskolin (FSK; 0.1, 1, 10 ?M), and examined the effect of graded concentrations of Ibu (1, 10, 100 ?M), Vit D3 (5, 50, 500 nM), and glutamate (10, 100, 1000 ?M). Our results indicate that both Ibu and Vit D3 are capable of attenuating the FSK-mediated increased NO release from SGCs after 48 hours of incubation. Lower glutamate concentrations (10 and 100 ?M) significantly decreased NO release not only under basal conditions after 24 and 48 hours, but also after SGCs were stimulated with FSK for 48 hours. In conclusion, NO release from SGCs harvested from the TG can be attenuated by glial modulators and glutamate. As NO is thought to increase TG neuron excitability, the findings suggest that targeting SGCs may provide a novel therapeutic approach for management of craniofacial pain conditions such as migraine in the future. PMID:24379907

  9. Nitric oxide release from trigeminal satellite glial cells is attenuated by glial modulators and glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Jens Christian; Cairns, Brian Edwin; Kumar, Ujendra; Somvanshi, Rishi Kumar; Dong, Xu-Dong; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is suggested to play an important role in primary headaches. It has been proposed that release of NO from satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) could contribute to the pathogenesis of these headaches. The principal aim of this study was to investigate if the phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ibudilast (Ibu) and 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3) could interfere with NO release from trigeminal SGCs. Since glutamate is released from activated TG neurons, the ability of glutamate to alter NO release from SGCs was also investigated. To study this, we isolated SGCs from the TG of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, provoked NO release from SGCs with forskolin (FSK; 0.1, 1, 10 ?M), and examined the effect of graded concentrations of Ibu (1, 10, 100 ?M), Vit D3 (5, 50, 500 nM), and glutamate (10, 100, 1000 ?M). Our results indicate that both Ibu and Vit D3 are capable of attenuating the FSK-mediated increased NO release from SGCs after 48 hours of incubation. Lower glutamate concentrations (10 and 100 ?M) significantly decreased NO release not only under basal conditions after 24 and 48 hours, but also after SGCs were stimulated with FSK for 48 hours. In conclusion, NO release from SGCs harvested from the TG can be attenuated by glial modulators and glutamate. As NO is thought to increase TG neuron excitability, the findings suggest that targeting SGCs may provide a novel therapeutic approach for management of craniofacial pain conditions such as migraine in the future. PMID:24379907

  10. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  11. Turkey Bean Macaroni Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , chili beans, pepper, and oregano. Bring to a boiling, cover and reduce heat to low. Simmer for 20 pound ground turkey 48 ounces tomato juice, low sodium 15 ounces Mexican-style chili beans 1/2 teaspoon pepper 1 teaspoon oregano 8 ounces cheddar cheese, low fat, shredded Directions 1. Prepare macaroni

  12. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  13. Wind energy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Hana?asio?lu

    1999-01-01

    Wind and wind energy has always played an important role in the historical and economical development of Asia Minor and the geographical area covered by the Republic of Turkey today. The ancient city of Troia probably became rich with harbor fees from commercial vessels, which could not sail up the Dardanelles because of strong north-easterly winds and swift currents. As

  14. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  15. Educational Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksit, Necmi

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

  16. Let's Talk Turkey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This site will help users plan and enjoy their Thanksgiving feasts. This Thanksgiving site from the Food Network contains a host of resources, including recipes; turkey, pie, and stuffing guides; wine and leftover tips; and just in case, Kitchen Disaster 911.

  17. Turkeys and Cows

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Terry Kawas

    2011-11-17

    In honor of Thanksgiving, this blog posts an adaptation of the familiar chicken and cows problems that promote informal algebraic reasoning. Learners must find the correct number of turkeys and cows given the number of heads and the number of legs. A solution is modeled and a downloadable PDF of four more problems is included.

  18. The effect of nutritional status on myogenic gene expression of satellite cells derived from different muscle types.

    PubMed

    Powell, D J; McFarland, D C; Cowieson, A J; Muir, W I; Velleman, S G

    2014-09-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are a multipotential stem cell population responsible for facilitating posthatch muscle fiber hypertrophy. The proliferation and differentiation of SC is sensitive to nutritional regimen, and the SC response to nutrition varies depending upon their muscle type of origin. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of altering protein synthesis on the expression of several key genes regulating SC activity and the effect of muscle type. Satellite cells isolated from the fast glycolytic pectoralis major and the fast oxidative and glycolytic biceps femoris were studied. These genes included the myogenic regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD) and myogenin, the cell-membrane associated proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1, the extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin, and the transcription factor paired box 7. Protein synthesis potential varied by the concentration of the sulfur amino acids Met and Cys during SC proliferation and differentiation. The SC were cultured and treated with 1 of 6 Met/Cys concentrations: 60/192, 30/96 (control), 7.5/24, 3.0/9.6, 1.0/3.2, or 0/0 mg/L. A consistent pattern of gene expression emerged following Met/Cys manipulation as increasing reductions in mRNA expression for all genes were observed as Met/Cys concentration decreased, whereas increased Met/Cys concentration caused either no change or had a small negative effect on mRNA expression. Reduced paired box 7 expression would limit myogenic specification of SC, whereas decreased myogenic regulatory factor expression would affect subsequent myogenic development of the SC. Decreased levels of decorin affect SC response to growth factors like myostatin and transforming growth factor ?, and extracellular matrix organization. These data highlight the importance of nutrition on the expression of genes critical for satellite cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, and growth factor signal transduction. PMID:25037825

  19. Multi-Grid-Cell Validation of Satellite Aerosol Property Retrievals in INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Ramirez, S. A.; Eilers, J.; Kahn, R.; Chu, D. A.; Remer, L.; Quinn, P. K.; Rood, M. J.; Wang, W.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol transport off the US Northeast coast during the Summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX) and Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiments produced a wide range of aerosol types and aerosol optical depth (AOD) values, often with strong horizontal AOD gradients. In these conditions we flew the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun photometer (AATS) on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft. Legs flown at low altitude (usually less than 100 m ASL) provided comparisons of AATS AOD spectra to retrievals for 90 grid cells of the satellite radiometers MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR, all over the ocean. Characterization of the retrieval environment was aided by using vertical profiles by the J31 (showing aerosol vertical structure) and, on occasion, shipboard measurements of light scattering and absorption. AATS provides AOD at 13 wavelengths lambda from 354 to 2138 nm, spanning the range of aerosol retrieval wavelengths for MODIS over ocean (466-2119 nm) and MISR (446-866 nm). Midvisible AOD on low-altitude J31 legs in satellite grid cells ranged from 0.05 to 0.9, with horizontal gradients often in the range 0.05 to 0.13 per 10 km. When possible, we used ship measurements of humidified aerosol scattering and absorption to estimate AOD below the J31. In these cases, which had J31 altitudes 60-110 m ASL (typical of J31 low-altitude transects), estimated midvisible AOD below the J31 ranged from 0.003 to 0.013, with mean 0.009 and standard deviation 0.003. These values averaged 6 percent of AOD above the 53 1. MISR-AATS comparisons on 29 July 2004 in 8 grid cells (each -17.6 km x 17.6 km) show that MISR versions 15 and 16 captured the AATS-measured AOD gradient (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.87 to 0.92), but the MISR gradient was somewhat weaker than the AATS gradient. The large AOD (midvisible values up to -0.9) and differing gradients in this case produced root-mean-square (RMS) MISR-AATS AOD differences of 0.03 to 0.21 (9 to 31%). MISR V15 Angstrom exponent alpha (= -dlnAOD/dln lambda) was closer to AATS than was MISR V16. MODIS-AATS AOD comparisons on 8 overpasses using 61 grid cells (each nominally 10 km x 10 km) had R2 approximately 0.97, with RMS AOD difference approximately 0.03 (approximately 20%). About 87% of the MODIS AOD retrievals differed from AATS values by less than the predicted MODIS over-ocean uncertainty, Delta tau = plus/minus 0.03 plus/minus 0.05 tau. In contrast to the small MODIS-AATS differences in AOD, MODIS-AATS differences in Angstrom exponent alpha were large: RMS differences for alpha (553, 855 nm) were 0.28 for MODIS-Terra and 0.64 for MODIS-Aqua; RMS differences for alpha (855, 2119 nm) were larger still, 0.61 for MODIS-Terra and 1.14 for MODIS-Aqua. The largest MODIS-AATS Angstrom exponent differences were associated with small AOD values, for which MODIS AOD relative uncertainty is large. Excluding cases with AOD(855 nm) less than 0.1 reduced MODIS-AATS alpha differences substantially. In one grid cell on 21 July 2004, smoke over cloud appeared to impair the MODIS-Aqua cloud mask, resulting in retrieved AODs that significantly exceeded AATS values. Experiments with extending MODIS retrievals into the glint mask yielded MODIS AODs consistently less than AATS AODs, especially at long wavelength, indicating that the current MODIS glint mask limits should not be reduced to the extent tried here. The sign of the AOD differences within the glint mask (MODIS AOD less than AATS AOD) is consistent with ship-measured wind speeds there.

  20. Influence of static magnetic fields combined with human insulin-like growth factor 1 on human satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Birk, Richard; Sommer, J Ulrich; Haas, Dominik; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schultz, Johannes D; Hoermann, Karl; Stern-Straeter, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering represents a promising research field, targeting the creation of new functional muscle tissue in vitro. The aim of the present study was to show the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), as enhancing stimuli on human satellite cell cultures, which are preferred sources of stem cells in engineering skeletal muscle tissue. To detect effects on myogenic maturation and proliferation, AlamarBlue® proliferation, assay and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of following markers was performed: desmin (DES), myogenic factor-5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen-1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and ?1 actin (ACTA1). As a distinct marker of differentiation, immunohistochemical staining and fusion index determination was performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with IGF1 and IGF1-plus-SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. Proliferation was increased by additional SMF application to IGF1-stimulated cell cultures on the first day of myogenesis. Relative gene expression of measured markers was increased by IGF1 application in the first days of myogenesis except for ACTA1. Additional SMF application enhanced this effect. Nevertheless we were unable to demonstrate the formation of contractile muscle tissue. Immunhistochemical staining verified muscle origin and all markers were displayed. PMID:25189891

  1. Juxtacrine and paracrine interactions of rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, muscle-derived satellite cells, and neonatal cardiomyocytes with endothelial cells in angiogenesis dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Khazraiinia, Parvaneh; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Mohammadi, Elham; Molazem, Mohammad; Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad

    2013-03-15

    Research into angiogenesis has contributed to progress in the fast-moving field of regenerative medicine. Designing coculture systems is deemed a helpful method to understand the dynamic interaction of various cells involved in the angiogenesis process. We investigated the juxtacrine and paracrine interaction between 3 different cells, namely rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs), rat muscle-derived satellite cells (rSCs), and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (rCMs), and endothelial cells (ECs) during angiogenesis process. In vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assay was performed whereby ECs were monocultured or cocultured with rMSCs, rSCs, and rCMs or their conditioned media (CM). In addition, in vivo Matrigel plug assay for angiogenesis was conducted to assess the angiogenic potential of the rCM-, rMSC-, and rSC-derived CM. Our results demonstrated that the rMSCs, rSCs, and rCMs elongated along the EC tubules, whereas the rMSCs formed tube-like structures with sprouting tip cells, leading to improved angiogenesis in the coculture system. Moreover, the rMSC- and rSC-derived CM significantly improved angiogenesis tube formation on Matrigel, accelerated EC chemotaxis, and increased the arteriolar density, vascularization index, and vascularization flow index in the Matrigel plug in vivo. Western blotting showed that rMSCs secreted a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and stromal-derived factor-1-alpha. Tie2 is also shed from rMSCs. This study demonstrated that stem cells interact with ECs in the juxtacrine and paracrine manner during angiogenesis, and marrow MSCs have superior angiogenic properties. PMID:23072248

  2. Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle-Derived Satellite Cells for Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Mediated Transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere Goats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

  3. Potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Wu, Haiqing; Ma, Yuzhen; Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

  4. MALE RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEY

    E-print Network

    Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) in the northern extent of their native range, displaying, foraging, habitat, Kansas, loafing, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, riparian restoration, roosts

  5. Elevated In Vivo Levels of a Single Transcription Factor Directly Convert Satellite Glia into Oligodendrocyte-like Cells.

    PubMed

    Weider, Matthias; Wegener, Amélie; Schmitt, Christian; Küspert, Melanie; Hillgärtner, Simone; Bösl, Michael R; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Wegner, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system and ensure rapid saltatory conduction. Shortage or loss of these cells leads to severe malfunctions as observed in human leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis, and their replenishment by reprogramming or cell conversion strategies is an important research aim. Using a transgenic approach we increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression. These rarely studied and poorly characterized satellite glia did not go through a classic oligodendrocyte precursor cell stage. Instead, Sox10 directly induced key elements of the regulatory network of differentiating oligodendrocytes, including Olig2, Olig1, Nkx2.2 and Myrf. An upstream enhancer mediated the direct induction of the Olig2 gene. Unlike Sox10, Olig2 was not capable of generating oligodendrocyte-like cells in dorsal root ganglia. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that Sox10 can convert conducive cells into oligodendrocyte-like cells in vivo and delineates options for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25680202

  6. Elevated In Vivo Levels of a Single Transcription Factor Directly Convert Satellite Glia into Oligodendrocyte-like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weider, Matthias; Wegener, Amélie; Schmitt, Christian; Küspert, Melanie; Hillgärtner, Simone; Bösl, Michael R.; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Wegner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system and ensure rapid saltatory conduction. Shortage or loss of these cells leads to severe malfunctions as observed in human leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis, and their replenishment by reprogramming or cell conversion strategies is an important research aim. Using a transgenic approach we increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression. These rarely studied and poorly characterized satellite glia did not go through a classic oligodendrocyte precursor cell stage. Instead, Sox10 directly induced key elements of the regulatory network of differentiating oligodendrocytes, including Olig2, Olig1, Nkx2.2 and Myrf. An upstream enhancer mediated the direct induction of the Olig2 gene. Unlike Sox10, Olig2 was not capable of generating oligodendrocyte-like cells in dorsal root ganglia. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that Sox10 can convert conducive cells into oligodendrocyte-like cells in vivo and delineates options for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25680202

  7. Nitric Oxide-Proton Stimulation of Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons Increases MAP Kinase and Phosphatase Expression in Neurons and Satellite Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Stacy E.; Patil, Vinit V.; Durham, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated nitric oxide (NO) and proton levels in synovial fluid are implicated in joint pathology. However, signaling pathways stimulated by these molecules that mediate inflammation and pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have not been investigated. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of NO-proton stimulation of trigeminal neurons on the in vivo expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatases (MKPs) in trigeminal ganglion neurons and satellite glial cells. Low levels of the active MAPKs ERK, JNK, and p38 were localized in the cytosol of neurons and satellite glial cells in unstimulated animals. However, increased levels of active ERK and p38, but not JNK, were detected in the cytosol and nucleus of V3 neurons and satellite glial cells 15 min and 2 h following bilateral TMJ injections of a NO donor diluted in pH 5.5 medium. While ERK levels returned to near basal levels 24 h after stimulation, p38 levels remained significantly elevated. In contrast to MKP-2 and MKP-3 levels that were barely detectable in neurons or satellite glial cells, MKP-1 staining was readily observed in satellite glial cells in ganglia from unstimulated animals. However, neuronal and satellite glial cell staining for MKP-1, MKP-2, and MKP-3 were all significantly increased in response to NO-protons. Increased active ERK and p38 levels as well as elevated MKP levels were also detected in neurons and satellite glial cells located in V2 and V1 regions of the ganglion. Our data provide evidence that NO-proton stimulation of V3 neurons results in temporal and spatial changes in expression of active ERK and p38 and MKPs in all regions of the ganglion. We propose that in trigeminal ganglia these cellular events, which are involved in peripheral sensitization as well as control of inflammatory and nociceptive responses, may play a role in TMJ pathology. PMID:18938228

  8. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  9. Producing Turkeys for Show

    E-print Network

    Thornberry, Fredrick D.

    2005-12-14

    . Use top-quality feeds. 4. Follow recommended management practices during the entire brooding and growing period. 5. Cull birds closely and select the show entry properly. Purchasing Poults Most youth livestock shows have rules and regulations governing... with an approved worm- ing compound. a73 Check turkeys monthly for parasites. Pay particular attention to skin around the vent area. Control external para- sites (lice, mites, etc.) with applications of Sevin ? dust. a73 Fire ants can cause skin blisters and must...

  10. Terrorism in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced < 10 casualties per event. From 1984 to 2003, 15 terrorist attacks produced > or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support. PMID:15074499

  11. Red Cell Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in the Northern Region of Turkey: Is G6PD Deficiency Exclusively a Male Disease?

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut

    2015-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive genetic defect that can cause hemolytic crisis. However, this disease affects both males and females. In Turkey, the frequency of this enzyme deficiency was reported to vary, from 0.25 to 18%, by the geographical area. Its prevalence in the northern Black Sea region of Turkey is unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the northern region Turkey in children and adults with hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic anemia. This report included a total of 976 G6PD enzyme results that were analyzed between May 2005 and January 2014. G6PD deficiency was detected in 5.0% of all patients. G6PD deficiency was significantly less frequent in females (1.9%, 6/323) than in males (6.6%, 43/653). G6PD deficiency was detected in 3.7% of infants with hyperbilirubinemia, 9.2% of children, and 4.5% of adults with hemolytic anemia. In both the newborn group and the group of children, G6PD deficiency was significantly more frequent in males. In the combined group of children (groups I and II), the proportion of males was 74% and 67% in all groups (P = .0008). In conclusion, in northern region of Turkey, G6PD deficiency is an important cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic crisis in children and adults. This study suggests that most pediatricians thought that G6PD deficiency is exclusively a male disease. For this reason, some female patients may have been undiagnosed. PMID:25116429

  12. Characteristics of wild turkey hunters in Texas: comparing turkey stamp buyers to members of the National Wild Turkey Federation

    E-print Network

    Harmel-Garza, Karen D

    2001-01-01

    stamps to hunt turkeys in Texas. Turkey hunting and membership fees are a major source of income for wild turkey management and other wildlife programs in Texas. In this study, members of the Texas Chapter of the National Wild Turkey Federation...

  13. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human rights. Europe in return has tightened legislation and procedures to differentiate economically motivated refugees from authentic political asylum seekers. Further research is needed to investigate refugee problems. Further refugees may come due to the promotion of a Black Sea Cooperation Region and easier crossings of borders to the former Soviet Republics. Ethnic Turks in Moldavia or Romania or Bulgaria may leave due to unrest. Factors affecting asylum seekers are improvements in Turkey's human rights record, repeal of bans of the Kurdish language, completion of the South Eastern Development Project, and the European government policy on asylum. PMID:12285110

  14. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  15. Turkey and Thailand: Unlikely Twins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duncan McCargo; Ayse Zarakol

    2012-01-01

    This article compares recent political developments in two seemingly different countries: Turkey and Thailand. The similarities between the trajectories of Turkey and Thailand date back to their similar manner of incorporation into the modern international system in the late nineteenth century. In recent years, the rise of new societal groups based upon urbanized villagers has produced charismatic populist leaders who

  16. Turkey's Coal Potential and Future Appearances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Balat

    2006-01-01

    Turkey has very limited indigenous energy resources and has to import around 65% of primary energy to meet her needs. Turkey's vibrant economy has led to increased energy demand in recent years. Of Turkey's total energy consumption, around half is used by the industrial sector, a quarter in residential, and the rest in transportation and commercial. Turkey's share of natural

  17. Sea surface salinity under rain cells: SMOS satellite and in situ drifters observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutin, J.; Martin, N.; Reverdin, G.; Morisset, S.; Yin, X.; Centurioni, L.; Reul, N.

    2014-08-01

    We study the signature of rainfall on S1cm, the sea surface salinity retrieved from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission first by comparing SMOS S1cm with ARGO sea surface salinity measured at about 5 m depth in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and in the Southern Pacific Convergence Zone; second by investigating spatial variability of SMOS S1cm related to rainfall. The resulting estimated S1cm decrease associated with rainfall occurring within less than 1 h from the salinity measurement is close to -0.2 pss (mm h-1) -1. We estimate that rain induced roughness and atmospheric effects are responsible for no more than 20% of this value. We also study the signature of rainfall on sea surface salinity measured by surface drifters at 45 cm depth and find a decrease associated with rainfall of -0.21 (±0.14) pss (mm h-1) -1, consistent with SMOS observations. When averaged over one month, this rain associated salinity decrease is at most -0.2 in monthly 100 × 100 km2 pixels, and at most 40% of the difference between SMOS S1cm and interpolated in situ bulk salinity in pixels near the ITCZ. This suggests that more than half of this difference is related to the in situ products obtained from optimal interpolation and therefore influenced by smoothing and relaxation to climatology. Finally, further studies on the satellite-derived salinities should pay attention to that as well as to other sources of uncertainties in satellite measurements and not interpret fully the observed differences between in situ and satellite mapped products, as rain induced SSS variability.

  18. Defects in glycosylation impair satellite stem cell function and niche composition in the muscles of the dystrophic Large(myd) mouse.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jacob; Benn, Abigail; Jonuschies, Jacqueline; Boldrin, Luisa; Muntoni, Francesco; Hewitt, Jane E; Brown, Susan C; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-10-01

    The dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) is found at the muscle fiber sarcolemma and forms an essential structural link between the basal lamina and internal cytoskeleton. In a set of muscular dystrophies known as the dystroglycanopathies, hypoglycosylation of the DGC component ?-dystroglycan results in reduced binding to basal lamina components, a loss in structural stability, and repeated cycles of muscle fiber degeneration and regeneration. The satellite cells are the key stem cells responsible for muscle repair and reside between the basal lamina and sarcolemma. In this study, we aimed to determine whether pathological changes associated with the dystroglycanopathies affect satellite cell function. In the Large(myd) mouse dystroglycanopathy model, satellite cells are present in significantly greater numbers but display reduced proliferation on their native muscle fibers in vitro, compared with wild type. However, when removed from their fiber, proliferation in culture is restored to that of wild type. Immunohistochemical analysis of Large(myd) muscle reveals alterations to the basal lamina and interstitium, including marked disorganization of laminin, upregulation of fibronectin and collagens. Proliferation and differentiation of wild-type satellite cells is impaired when cultured on substrates such as collagen and fibronectin, compared with laminins. When engrafted into irradiated tibialis anterior muscles of mdx-nude mice, wild-type satellite cells expanded on laminin contribute significantly more to muscle regeneration than those expanded on fibronectin. These results suggest that defects in ?-dystroglycan glycosylation are associated with an alteration in the satellite cell niche, and that regenerative potential in the dystroglycanopathies may be perturbed. PMID:22887880

  19. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-01

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

  20. Extraocular muscle satellite cells are high performance myo-engines retaining efficient regenerative capacity in dystrophin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stuelsatz, Pascal; Shearer, Andrew; Li, Yunfei; Muir, Lindsey A; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Shen, Qingwu W; Kirillova, Irina; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are highly specialized skeletal muscles that originate from the head mesoderm and control eye movements. EOMs are uniquely spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and animal models of dystrophin deficiency. Specific traits of myogenic progenitors may be determinants of this preferential sparing, but very little is known about the myogenic cells in this muscle group. While satellite cells (SCs) have long been recognized as the main source of myogenic cells in adult muscle, most of the knowledge about these cells comes from the prototypic limb muscles. In this study, we show that EOMs, regardless of their distinctive Pax3-negative lineage origin, harbor SCs that share a common signature (Pax7(+), Ki67(-), Nestin-GFP(+), Myf5(nLacZ+), MyoD-positive lineage origin) with their limb and diaphragm somite-derived counterparts, but are remarkably endowed with a high proliferative potential as revealed in cell culture assays. Specifically, we demonstrate that in adult as well as in aging mice, EOM SCs possess a superior expansion capacity, contributing significantly more proliferating, differentiating and renewal progeny than their limb and diaphragm counterparts. These robust growth and renewal properties are maintained by EOM SCs isolated from dystrophin-null (mdx) mice, while SCs from muscles affected by dystrophin deficiency (i.e., limb and diaphragm) expand poorly in vitro. EOM SCs also retain higher performance in cell transplantation assays in which donor cells were engrafted into host mdx limb muscle. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive picture of EOM myogenic progenitors, showing that while these cells share common hallmarks with the prototypic SCs in somite-derived muscles, they distinctively feature robust growth and renewal capacities that warrant the title of high performance myo-engines and promote consideration of their properties for developing new approaches in cell-based therapy to combat skeletal muscle wasting. PMID:25236433

  1. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 4: Silicon solar cell annealing test, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, F.

    1979-01-01

    Laser annealing tests were conducted on ten 50 micron cells. Two were control cells that were not irradiated. These showed no loss in output due to exposure to the laser. Two cells were broken in handling. Six cells were successfully tested. All cells tested without breakage showed some recovery. One cell was subjected to two cycles and showed recovery on both cycles. Cells that were moderately degraded appeared to recover more completely than those more severly degraded. Exposure times ranged from two to ten seconds at 500 degrees centigrade. There was some indication that longer exposure was beneficial.

  2. Deep-fried Turkey

    E-print Network

    Birkhold, Sarah

    2000-11-09

    in the breast. Use any seasonings that you prefer. A heavy spice rub of Creole seasonings, black pepper or L-5382 10-00 thermometer that measures at least 450 degrees F should be used to measure oil temperature. You also will need clean serving platters...Deep-fried Turkey by Sarah G. Birkhold Assistant Professor and Extension Poultry Specialist, The Texas A&M University System lemon pepper can be applied both inside and outside the bird. Prepared marinades, available from the grocer, also can...

  3. Turkey’s Population Dynamýcs As A Candidate Country For EU Membership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harun Ucak

    2011-01-01

    Literally, it has been accepted that one of the major obstacles to Turkey’s EU membership is in population term. There has not been any enlargement process as large as Turkey’s population as a single state in EU history before. The enlargement in 2004 which includes 10 states involved 74 million people as whole member states while Turkey’s population is 72

  4. Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?

    PubMed

    Medina, Felipe S; Hunt, Gavin R; Gray, Russell D; Wild, J Martin; Kubke, M Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system. Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs). The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species. PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes), one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes) and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes). Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen), one Strigiform (barn owl), one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown), one Falconiform (chimango caracara), one Columbiform (pigeon) and one Galliform (chick). Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The discovery of PGCs in the zebra finch is of great importance because this species has the potential to become a robust animal model in which to study the function of neuron-glia interactions in healthy and diseased adult brains. PMID:23904989

  5. A new immuno- dystrophin-deficient model, the NSG-mdx4Cv mouse, provides evidence for functional improvement following allogeneic satellite cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Arpke, Robert W.; Darabi, Radbod; Mader, Tara L.; Zhang, Yu; Toyama, Akira; Lonetree, Cara-lin; Nash, Nardina; Lowe, Dawn A.; Perlingeiro, Rita C.R.; Kyba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of a myogenic cell population into an immunodeficient recipient is an excellent way of assessing the in vivo muscle-generating capacity of that cell population. To facilitate both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantations of muscle-forming cells in mice we have developed a novel immunodeficient muscular dystrophy model, the NSG-mdx4Cv mouse. The IL2Rg mutation, which is linked to the Dmd gene on the X chromosome, simultaneously depletes NK cells and suppresses thymic lymphomas, issues that limit the utility of the SCID/mdx model. The NSG-mdx4Cv mouse presents a muscular dystrophy of similar severity to the conventional mdx mouse. We show that this animal supports robust engraftment of both pig and dog muscle mononuclear cells. The question of whether satellite cells prospectively isolated by flow cytometry can confer a functional benefit upon transplantation has been controversial. Using allogeneic Pax7-ZsGreen donors and NSG-mdx4Cv recipients, we demonstrate definitively that as few as 900 FACS-isolated satellite cells can provide functional regeneration in vivo, in the form of an increased mean maximal force-generation capacity in cell-transplanted muscles, compared to a sham-injected control group. These studies highlight the potency of satellite cells to improve muscle function, and the utility of the NSG-mdx4Cv model for studies on muscle regeneration and Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy. PMID:23606600

  6. A new immuno-, dystrophin-deficient model, the NSG-mdx(4Cv) mouse, provides evidence for functional improvement following allogeneic satellite cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Arpke, Robert W; Darabi, Radbod; Mader, Tara L; Zhang, Yu; Toyama, Akira; Lonetree, Cara-Lin; Nash, Nardina; Lowe, Dawn A; Perlingeiro, Rita C R; Kyba, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Transplantation of a myogenic cell population into an immunodeficient recipient is an excellent way of assessing the in vivo muscle-generating capacity of that cell population. To facilitate both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantations of muscle-forming cells in mice, we have developed a novel immunodeficient muscular dystrophy model, the NSG-mdx(4Cv) mouse. The IL2Rg mutation, which is linked to the Dmd gene on the X chromosome, simultaneously depletes NK cells and suppresses thymic lymphomas, issues that limit the utility of the SCID/mdx model. The NSG-mdx(4Cv) mouse presents a muscular dystrophy of similar severity to the conventional mdx mouse. We show that this animal supports robust engraftment of both pig and dog muscle mononuclear cells. The question of whether satellite cells prospectively isolated by flow cytometry can confer a functional benefit upon transplantation has been controversial. Using allogeneic Pax7-ZsGreen donors and NSG-mdx(4Cv) recipients, we demonstrate definitively that as few as 900 FACS-isolated satellite cells can provide functional regeneration in vivo, in the form of an increased mean maximal force-generation capacity in cell-transplanted muscles, compared to a sham-injected control group. These studies highlight the potency of satellite cells to improve muscle function and the utility of the NSG-mdx(4Cv) model for studies on muscle regeneration and Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy. PMID:23606600

  7. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  8. Telaprevir Experience From Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Komur, Suheyla; Kurtaran, Behice; Inal, Ayse Seza; Pullukcu, Husnu; Ulu, Aslihan; Kuscu, Ferit; Yamazhan, Tansu; Tasova, Yesim; Aksu, Hasan Salih Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Background: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, triple drug regimens containing a protease inhibitor, peginterferon and ribavirin were found to significantly increase sustained virologic response rates compared to dual drug regimen containing pegylated interferon and ribavirin, especially in genotype 1. Objectives: In Turkey, telaprevir has been used since March 2013. We aimed to evaluate results of patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with telaprevir, peginterferon and ribavirin. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 28 patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection treated with triple drug regimen containing telaprevir, in three medical centers in Turkey, retrospectively. Demographic data of patients, treatment indications, adverse events and outcomes were recorded. Results: Of 28 patients intended to treat, 25 (89.2%) patients completed the treatment. Overall, 21 (82.1%) patients had relapse and five patients were non-responder. Regarding the treatment outcomes of Telaprevir based regimen, 20/26 patients achieved sustained virological response. Pruritus, rash, dysgeusia, anorectal discomfort and anemia were main adverse effects. Blood transfusion and ribavirin dose reduction required for 7 and 11 patients, respectively. Due to several adverse effects, 10 patients were hospitalized. Conclusions: Although more frequent and severe adverse effects, telaprevir has been promising for patients with treatment-experienced hepatitis C. PMID:25788959

  9. Intramuscular Transplantation of Human Postnatal Myoblasts Generates Functional Donor-Derived Satellite Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Skuk; Martin Paradis; Marlyne Goulet; Pierre Chapdelaine; David M Rothstein; Jacques P Tremblay

    2010-01-01

    Myogenic cell transplantation is an experimental approach for the treatment of myopathies. In this approach, transplanted cells need to fuse with pre-existing myofibers, form new myofibers, and generate new muscle precursor cells (MPCs). The last property was fully reported following myoblast transplantation in mice but remains poorly studied with human myoblasts. In this study, we provide evidence that the intramuscular

  10. The Hippo transducer YAP1 transforms activated satellite cells and is a potent effector of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma formation.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Annie M; Missiaglia, Edoardo; Galli, Giorgio G; Hettmer, Simone; Urcia, Roby; Carrara, Matteo; Judson, Robert N; Thway, Khin; Nadal, Gema; Selfe, Joanna L; Murray, Graeme; Calogero, Raffaele A; De Bari, Cosimo; Zammit, Peter S; Delorenzi, Mauro; Wagers, Amy J; Shipley, Janet; Wackerhage, Henning; Camargo, Fernando D

    2014-08-11

    The role of the Hippo pathway effector YAP1 in soft tissue sarcomas is poorly defined. Here we report that YAP1 activity is elevated in human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). In mice, sustained YAP1 hyperactivity in activated, but not quiescent, satellite cells induces ERMS with high penetrance and short latency. Via its transcriptional program with TEAD1, YAP1 directly regulates several major hallmarks of ERMS. YAP1-TEAD1 upregulate pro-proliferative and oncogenic genes and maintain the ERMS differentiation block by interfering with MYOD1 and MEF2 pro-differentiation activities. Normalization of YAP1 expression reduces tumor burden in human ERMS xenografts and allows YAP1-driven ERMS to differentiate in situ. Collectively, our results identify YAP1 as a potent ERMS oncogenic driver and a promising target for differentiation therapy. PMID:25087979

  11. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  12. NOAA's Satellites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) maintains this centralized resource on NOAA satellites, of interest to life and physical scientists alike. Featured and described here are NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS); NOAA's CoastWatch Program; and hundreds of Archived Satellite Images, Storm Animations and Special Events. Each section of the site points users to wealth of further information, spanning the technology of satellites to real-time satellite images. For users ranging from the curious student to the driven researcher, this site plays a central role in organizing NOAA satellite information.

  13. Satellite reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloor, G. P.

    1984-06-01

    The potential of the observation equipment in remote sensing satellites is described. United States meteorology, land use and oceanography satellites and the major US Earth observation programs are listed. Imaging satellite systems are described such as: visible light and near infrared, thermal IR window, and microwave window. It is concluded that a geometrical resolution between 10 and 40 m can be expected. In order to reduce the data flow from the satellite system the input side of the system (the object-sensor interaction) has to be known. Satellites with synthetic aperture radar are increasingly important, but satellites can never fully replace observations with aircraft and drones.

  14. Scanning electron-microscope observations of the perikaryal projections of rabbit spinal ganglion neurons after enzymatic removal of connective tissue and satellite cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pannese; M. Ledda; V. Conte; P. Procacci; S. Matsuda

    1990-01-01

    The true surface of rabbit spinal ganglion neurons has been made directly accessible to scanning electronmicroscope observation after removal of both the connective tissue and satellite cells that normally cover it. The neuronal surface is characterized by a profusion of slender projections whose shapes have been determined and whose length and width have been quantified. Controls carried out with transmission

  15. Development works on nickel/hydrogen cells. [for satellite energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to reduce the costs for NI/H2 cells by using nickel oxide electrodes with high capacity per unit area. No maintenance requirements, long cycle life, insensitivity to overcharge and cell reversal, and high power capability were revealed.

  16. Devastating Earthquake in Turkey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    The death toll will pass 10,000 today from Tuesday's earthquake, which measured 7.4 on the Richter scale and shattered a 400-mile stretch from northwestern Turkey to areas near central Ankara. Relief officials have publicly stated that they fear the worst for the estimated 35,000 people who remain trapped beneath rubble, as most will now have been without water for more than 72 hours. In addition to locating and rescuing survivors, the Turkish Government and international aid workers are working feverishly to organize relief efforts, prevent the spread of disease, repair damaged infrastructure, and contain a massive fire at the country's largest oil refinery. The sites listed provide information about this horrible act of nature

  17. Prevalence and molecular analysis of ?-thalassemia in Adiyaman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Genc, Ahmet; Tastemir Korkmaz, Deniz; Buyukleyla, Mehmet; Celiker, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in the Mediterranean region. We report here the results of a premarital screening carried out in Ad?yaman in the southeastern region of Turkey, a region with a hitherto unknown incidence of ?-thalassemia (?-thal). In order to detect ?-thal carrier frequency and genotypes of carriers from the city of Ad?yaman, Turkey, both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the red blood cell counts of 1616 people who applied for premarital tests were analyzed. Blood cell counts were measured by a cell counter and the hemoglobin (Hb) fractionation was carried out by HPLC. The frequency of ?-thal carriers in the city of Ad?yaman was 1.91% and the frequency of abnormal Hbs was 0.07%. We report 28 chromosomes of ?-thal traits with 10 different mutations, including the first report of codon 17 (AAG>TAG) in Turkey and one individual who was heterozygous for Hb D-Los Angeles [?121(GH4)Glu?Gln, GAA>CAA]. This study was the first to be performed on the frequency and molecular pathology of ?-thal mutations in Ad?yaman in the southeastern region of Turkey. We report that the prevalence of the thalassemia trait is similar in all regions of our country, but the prevalence of mutation heterogeneity varies from region to region. PMID:22356097

  18. Influence of Pasteurella multocida and high and low environmental temperatures on adrenals and bursa of Fabricius in turkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The morphologic changes in the adrenals and bursa of Fabricius were evaluated from turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. There was a slight hyperplasia of the adrenal cortical cells and a hypertrophy of the nuclei in the uninoculated turkeys maintained at both high and low temperatures, but these changes were more marked in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. Regardless of the temperature to which the turkeys were exposed, there was an increase in adrenal weight, hyperplasia of the cortical cells, hypertrophy of the nuclei of the cortical cells, and depletion of lipid in the cortical cells in the turkeys that became depressed after inoculation with P. multocida. In the uninoculated turkeys exposed to high temperatures there was a reduction in the weight of the bursa of Fabricius, atrophy of the follicles, and a reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicle, which did not occur in the bursae from uninoculated turkeys maintained at low temperatures. In the turkeys inoculated with P. multocida, there was a marked reduction in bursal weight, atrophy of the follicles, and reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicles.

  19. Evaluation of solar cells and arrays for potential solar power satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K.; Gaudet, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Proposed solar array designs and manufacturing methods are evaluated to identify options which show the greatest promise of leading up to the develpment of a cost-effective SPS solar cell array design. The key program elements which have to be accomplished as part of an SPS solar cell array development program are defined. The issues focussed on are: (1) definition of one or more designs of a candidate SPS solar array module, using results from current system studies; (2) development of the necessary manufacturing requirements for the candidate SPS solar cell arrays and an assessment of the market size, timing, and industry infrastructure needed to produce the arrays for the SPS program; (3) evaluation of current DOE, NASA and DOD photovoltaic programs to determine the impacts of recent advances in solar cell materials, array designs and manufacturing technology on the candidate SPS solar cell arrays; and (4) definition of key program elements for the development of the most promising solar cell arrays for the SPS program.

  20. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa, Michiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan) [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Aging Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)] [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Song, Si-Yong [Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan)] [Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro, E-mail: nao@ncgg.go.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)] [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  1. Relaxin Regulates MMP Expression and Promotes Satellite Cell Mobilization During Muscle Healing in Both Young and Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiaodong; Urso, Maria L.; Murray, Kiley; Fu, Freddie; Li, Yong

    2010-01-01

    The polypeptide hormone relaxin has been proven to be effective in promoting both the remodeling and regeneration of various tissues, including cardiac muscle. In addition, our previous study demonstrated that relaxin is beneficial to skeletal muscle healing by both promoting muscle regeneration and preventing fibrosis formation. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of relaxin in regulating both myogenic cell differentiation and muscle healing process are still unclear. In this study, C2C12 mouse myoblasts and primary human myoblasts were treated with relaxin to investigate its potential effect in vitro; relaxin was also injected intramuscularly into the injured site of the mouse on the second day after injury to observe its function in vivo, especially in the aged muscle. Results showed that relaxin promoted myogenic differentiation, migration, and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) of cultured myoblasts in vitro. In the injured muscle, relaxin administration promoted the activation of Pax7-positive skeletal muscle satellite cells and increased its local population compared with nontreated control muscles. Meanwhile, both angiogenesis and revascularization were increased, while the extended inflammatory reaction was repressed in the relaxin-treated injured muscle. Moreover, relaxin similarly promoted muscle healing in mice with aged muscle. These results revealed the multiple effects of relaxin in systematically improving muscle healing as well as its potential for clinical applications in patients with skeletal muscle injuries and diseases. PMID:20934971

  2. Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed in Myogenin Knock-Down Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells during Differentiation through RNA Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Smritee; Ahmad, Sarafraz; Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Cho, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jihoe; Kong, Joon Chan; Lee, Dong-Mok; Chung, Ki Yong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Choi, Inho

    2014-01-01

    Background The expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) consisting of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin (MyoG) and MRF4 characterizes various phases of skeletal muscle development including myoblast proliferation, cell-cycle exit, cell fusion and the maturation of myotubes to form myofibers. Although it is well known that the function of MyoG cannot be compensated for other MRFs, the molecular mechanism by which MyoG controls muscle cell differentiation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to profile changes in gene expression in response to MyoG knock-down (MyoGkd) in primary bovine muscle satellite cells (MSCs). Results About 61–64% of the reads of over 42 million total reads were mapped to more than 13,000 genes in the reference bovine genome. RNA-Seq analysis identified 8,469 unique genes that were differentially expressed in MyoGkd. Among these genes, 230 were up-regulated and 224 were down-regulated by at least four-fold. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) and pathway analysis of all up- and down-regulated genes identified overrepresentation for cell cycle and division, DNA replication, mitosis, organelle lumen, nucleoplasm and cytosol, phosphate metabolic process, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, cytoskeleton and cell morphogenesis, signifying the functional implication of these processes and pathways during skeletal muscle development. The RNA-Seq data was validated by real time RT-PCR analysis for eight out of ten genes as well as five marker genes investigated. Conclusions This study is the first RNA-Seq based gene expression analysis of MyoGkd undertaken in primary bovine MSCs. Computational analysis of the differentially expressed genes has identified the significance of genes such as SAP30-like (SAP30L), Protein lyl-1 (LYL1), various matrix metalloproteinases, and several glycogenes in myogenesis. The results of the present study widen our knowledge of the molecular basis of skeletal muscle development and reveal the vital regulatory role of MyoG in retaining muscle cell differentiation. PMID:24647404

  3. Regenerative fuel cell systems for mid- to high-orbit satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taenaka, R. K.; Adler, E.; Stofel, E. J.; Clark, K. B.

    1987-01-01

    An assessment of the present and projected capabilities of selected hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-halogen fuel cell and electrolyzer combinations for energy storage systems (ESS) in configurations useful for spacecraft missions operating in the 10- to 50-kW range for many years in midaltitude to geosynchronous orbits has recently been completed. Results of the study indicate that regenerative fuel cell ESS are feasible for the intended application. A computer model was used to provide tradeoff analyses for optimizing the various ESS fuel cell concepts. When appropriately configured to be compatible with the mission needs of the selected model spacecraft, the specific energy for these ESS are intermediate between that presently available for nickel-hydrogen batteries and that expected for the newly emerging sodium-sulfur technology.

  4. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  5. Chapter 8 Port Governance in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ersel Zafer Oral; Hakki Kisi; A. Güldem Cerit; Okan Tuna; Soner Esmer

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is located between Asia and Europe and attracts attention with its economic development. Turkey's landbridge position in north–south and east–west transportation means that ports are of vital importance to the efficiency of logistics activities of the country. Although Turkey has a strategic position in terms of logistics and shipping, its approximately 160 ports do not enjoy the usual benefits

  6. Skeletal muscle wasting with disuse atrophy is multi-dimensional: the response and interaction of myonuclei, satellite cells and signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Naomi E.; Myburgh, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle is essential for health and survival. There are marked losses of skeletal muscle mass as well as strength and physiological function under conditions of low mechanical load, such as space flight, as well as ground based models such as bed rest, immobilization, disuse, and various animal models. Disuse atrophy is caused by mechanical unloading of muscle and this leads to reduced muscle mass without fiber attrition. Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and myonuclei are integrally involved in skeletal muscle responses to environmental changes that induce atrophy. Myonuclear domain size is influenced differently in fast and slow twitch muscle, but also by different models of muscle wasting, a factor that is not yet understood. Although the myonuclear domain is 3-dimensional this is rarely considered. Apoptosis as a mechanism for myonuclear loss with atrophy is controversial, whereas cell death of satellite cells has not been considered. Molecular signals such as myostatin/SMAD pathway, MAFbx, and MuRF1 E3 ligases of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and IGF1-AKT-mTOR pathway are 3 distinctly different contributors to skeletal muscle protein adaptation to disuse. Molecular signaling pathways activated in muscle fibers by disuse are rarely considered within satellite cells themselves despite similar exposure to unloading or low mechanical load. These molecular pathways interact with each other during atrophy and also when various interventions are applied that could alleviate atrophy. Re-applying mechanical load is an obvious method to restore muscle mass, however how nutrient supplementation (e.g., amino acids) may further enhance recovery (or reduce atrophy despite unloading or ageing) is currently of great interest. Satellite cells are particularly responsive to myostatin and to growth factors. Recently, the hibernating squirrel has been identified as an innovative model to study resistance to atrophy. PMID:24672488

  7. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  8. Heat shock factor 1 binds to and transcribes satellite II and III sequences at several pericentromeric regions in heat-shocked cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eymery, Angeline, E-mail: aeymery@gmail.com [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France) [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France); INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 (France); Souchier, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.souchier@ujf-grenoble.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France) [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France); INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 (France); Vourc'h, Claire, E-mail: claire.vourch@ujf-grenoble.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France) [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France); INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 (France); Jolly, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.jolly@upmf-grenoble.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France) [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France); INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Cells respond to stress by activating the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which protect the cells against the deleterious effects of stress. This mechanism is controlled by the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). In parallel to HSP gene transcription, in human cells, HSF1 also binds to and transcribes satellite III repeated sequences present in numerous copies in the 9q12 pericentromeric region of chromosome 9. These HSF1 accumulation sites are termed nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). In tumor cells, however, the number of nSBs is higher than the number of 9q12 copies, suggesting the existence of other HSF1 targets. In this paper, we were interested in characterizing these other HSF1 binding sites. We show that HSF1 indeed binds to the pericentromeric region of 14 chromosomes, thereby directing the formation of 'secondary nSBs'. The appearance of secondary nSBs depends on the number of satellite sequences present in the target locus, and on the cellular amount of HSF1 protein. Moreover, secondary nSBs also correspond to transcription sites, thus demonstrating that heat shock induces a genome-wide transcription of satellite sequences. Finally, by analyzing published transcriptomic data, we show that the derepression of these large heterochromatic blocks does not significantly affect the transcription of neighboring genes.

  9. Alphoid satellite DNA is tightly associated with centromere antigens in human chromosomes throughout the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Masumoto, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Kenji; Okazaki, Tuneko (Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1989-03-01

    In this study, the authors have examined a DNA element specific to the centromere domain of human chromosomes. Purified HeLa chromosomes were digested with the restriction enzyme Sau3AI and fractionated by sedimentation through a sucrose gradient. Fractions showing antigenicity to anticentromere (kinetochore) serum obtained from a scleroderma CREST patient were used to construct a DNA library. From this library they found one clone which has specifically hybridized to the centromere domain of metaphase chromosomes using a biotinylated probe DNA and FITC-conjugated avidin. The clone contained a stretch of alphoid DNA dimer. To determine precisely the relative location of the alphoid DNA stretch and the centromere antigen, a method was developed to carry out in situ hybridization of DNA and indirect immunofluorescent staining of antigen on the same cell preparation. Using this method, they have found perfect overlapping of the alphoid DNA sites with the centromere antigen in both metaphase chromosomes and nuclei at various stages in the cell cycle. They have also observed this exact correlation at the attachment sites of artificially extended sister chromatids. These results suggest the possibility that alphoid DNA repeats are a key component of kinetochore structure.

  10. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  11. Effects of aflatoxin on young turkeys and broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Giambrone, J J; Diener, U L; Davis, N D; Panangala, V S; Hoerr, F J

    1985-09-01

    The effect of crude aflatoxin (AF) on the growth, performance, and immune response of turkeys and broilers was studied. Crude AF, produced from a natural outbreak of Aspergillus flavus on corn, was ground and mixed in rations to contain either 0, 100, 200, 400, or 800 ppb of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Turkeys (Experiment 1) and broilers (Experiment 2) were used in identical experimental designs. In each, 200, 14-day-old birds were divided equally by sex into five groups of 40 and were fed one of five AF diets for 35 days. In Experiment 1, crude AF greater than or equal to 400 ppb was highly toxic to turkeys. These levels produced signs and lesions of aflatoxicosis as well as a significant decrease in weight gain and feed conversion during 5 weeks. In addition, microscopic lesions, indicative of aflatoxicosis, were evident as low as 100 ppb, and significant decreases in cell-mediated immunity were noted in the 200 ppb group birds. Experiment 2 indicated that chickens were less susceptible to crude AF than turkeys. Neither morbidity nor mortality occurred in broilers. Gross lesions consistent with AF toxicity were evident in birds given 800 ppb and microscopic lesions were observed in birds given 100 ppb. Feed conversion was significantly increased in the 800 ppb broilers only. Cell-mediated immunity, measured by a delayed hypersensitive skin test, was significantly decreased in broilers receiving AF at 200 ppb or greater. Neither humoral immunity nor the development of the acquired immunity to Newcastle disease or fowl cholera vaccination were decreased in turkeys or broilers given AF. PMID:4048060

  12. Turkey and the European Union: The Simple Complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeki Kütük

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes the simple complexity of Turkey’s EU membership issue, the burden of history, and the role of Greece. Obviously, on the one hand, the hostile past between Europe and Turkey may still reflect negatively throughout Turkey’s integration process as some circles want to see the EU as a Christian club and, therefore, want to exclude it from the

  13. Artificial Satellites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leske, Cavin.

    2003-01-01

    Over 2,000 man-made satellites are currently orbiting the Earth, providing a wide range of services like communications, remote sensing, and global positioning. As more are launched and new technologies are developed, they will play an increasingly important role in everyday life.The Tech Museum offers this site (1) dedicated to the basics of satellites and their functions. A Java program complements the Satellite Anatomy section, which illustrates the standard components of three different categories of satellites. More information specific to satellite launches and their orbits can be found here (2). Most of the material is composed of fun experiments that demonstrate satellite operation. One of the most interesting features on this NASA site (3) is the Live 3D Java Tracking Display, which shows hundreds of different satellites and their current position in orbit. A few selected news articles and a separate section on satellite applications are also provided. The European Space Agency provides a look at solar power satellites (4), which could essentially "beam" energy to Earth. While it is not a new concept, the sheer magnitude of a project to construct a solar power satellite has thus far been too great to justify an attempt. At a conference held in December 2002 (5), representatives from the satellite industry convened to discuss current developments. Although many of the articles only address industry outlooks, some are more technology-oriented. For instance, one considers a new navigation system that could improve overall coverage and signal availability. A lesson plan (6) for grades K-5 teaches children how satellites are launched and some basic terminology. The activity uses different sized marbles, clay, and some other items to demonstrate fundamental concepts. Satellites of the Global Positioning System are being used for more than they were originally intended in England. This news article (7) describes how they are used to study earthquakes and corresponding movements in the Earth's crust. In other news (8), the largest communications satellite ever built was lost in November 2002. The failure of one of its launching rockets resulted in the satellite falling in a decaying orbit until it fell into the sea.

  14. Soaring Satellites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-08-30

    Working in small teams, learners try to build a satellite that can float for at least five seconds in the marked area of a vertical wind tube. Learners think about and explore the concepts of lift and weight as they try to adapt their satellite to hover between the lines.

  15. Satellite Tracker

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students use satellite tracking software available on the Internet to monitor a very large satellite, the International Space Station. Using information from this online resource, students predict and graph the motion of the space station at their location and create a 3-D display of its path through the sky.

  16. Biomass energy potential in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kaygusuz; M. F. Türker

    2002-01-01

    Biomass energy includes fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal wastes, charcoal and other fuels derived from biological sources. It currently accounts for about 14% of world energy consumption. Biomass is the main source of energy for many developed and developing countries. In Turkey energy wood is available in the form of forest chips, fuelwood, wood waste, wood pellets, and it is also

  17. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with ?-thalassemia major (?-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of ?-thalassemia (?-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years. PMID:25030194

  18. Renewable energy policies in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Durmus Kaya

    2006-01-01

    Achieving solution to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. Although, Turkey has substantial reserves of renewable energy resources, actual utilization of these resources are quite low.The aim of this study is to investigate the renewable

  19. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  20. Performance analysis for a guaranteed handover service in an LEO constellation with a “satellite-fixed cell” system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maral; J. Restrepo; E. del Re; R. Fantacci; G. Giambene

    1998-01-01

    It is anticipated that the satellite component of the future universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) will be based (partly or totally) on non-geostationary (nonGEO) constellations of satellites to serve mixed populations of users, each category being treated through different contracts stipulating different quality of service (QoS). In particular, we envisage a high-quality premium service which guarantees the success of each

  1. A Full Pharmacological Analysis of the Three Turkey ?-Adrenoceptors and Comparison with the Human ?-Adrenoceptors

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jillian G.

    2010-01-01

    Background There are three turkey ?-adrenoceptors: the original turkey ?-adrenoceptor from erythrocytes (t?trunc, for which the X-ray crystal structure has recently been determined), t?3C and t?4C-receptors. This study examined the similarities and differences between these avian receptors and mammalian receptors with regards to binding characteristics and functional high and low affinity agonist conformations. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable cell lines were constructed with each of the turkey ?-adrenoceptors and 3H-CGP12177 whole cell binding, CRE-SPAP production and 3H-cAMP accumulation assays performed. It was confirmed that the three turkey ?-adrenoceptors are distinct from each other in terms of amino acid sequence and binding characteristics. The greatest similarity of any of the turkey ?-adrenoceptors to human ?-adrenoceptors is between the turkey ?3C-receptor and the human ?2-adrenoceptor. There are pharmacologically distinct differences between the binding of ligands for the t?trunc and t?4C and the human ?-adrenoceptors (e.g. with CGP20712A and ICI118551). The t?trunc and t?4C-adrenoceptors appear to exist in at least two different agonist conformations in a similar manner to that seen at both the human and rat ?1-adrenoceptor and human ?3-adrenoceptors. The t?3C-receptor, similar to the human ?2-adrenoceptor, does not, at least so far, appear to exist in more than one agonist conformation. Conclusions/Significance There are several similarities, but also several important differences, between the recently crystallised turkey ?-adrenoceptor and the human ?-adrenoceptors. These findings are important for those the field of drug discovery using the recently structural information from crystallised receptors to aid drug design. Furthermore, comparison of the amino-acid sequence for the turkey and human adrenoceptors may therefore shed more light on the residues involved in the existence of the secondary ?-adrenoceptor conformation. PMID:21152092

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads

    E-print Network

    Butler, Matthew J.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia; RGWT) were randomly distributed around roads to identify . Line transects . Meleagris gallopavo intermedia . Rio Grande wild turkey. Roads . Texas Communicated

  3. Research Article Rio Grande Wild Turkey Habitat Selection in the

    E-print Network

    , USA ABSTRACT We recorded telemetry locations from 1,129 radiotagged turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo cattle grazing, habitat use, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, nesting ecology, Rio Grande wild turkey. Interactions between cattle and wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) varied depending on local habitat

  4. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps. PMID:18644708

  5. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibel Selim

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective\\u000a well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local\\u000a studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given these facts, the factors that\\u000a shape individual happiness and life

  6. Satellite Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-01-01

    This undergraduate meteorology tutorial focuses on the use of satellite imagery by forecasters. Different types of imagery are discussed, followed by training on the identification of particular types of weather systems.

  7. Satellite Images

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about the three types of satellite images (visible, infrared, and water vapor); how to identify basic cloud types and storm systems in satellite images; and demonstrate the basic knowledge necessary to interpret satellite observations. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  8. Declines in phytoplankton cell size in the subtropical oceans estimated from satellite remotely-sensed temperature and chlorophyll, 1998-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Woodworth, Phoebe A.

    2012-11-01

    Satellite remotely-sensed sea surface temperature (SST) and surface chlorophyll were used to estimate median phytoplankton cell size at monthly and 11 km2 resolution over the global ocean, 1998-2007. The temporal dynamics of median phytoplankton cell size were examined for the Pacific equatorial upwelling region and the subtropical oceans. For the equatorial upwelling region, cell size varied coherently with the El Niño Southern Oscillation with smaller (larger) median cell size during El Niños (La Niñas). Specifically, estimated median cell diameter increased by 34% between the 1998 El Nino and the 1999-2001 La Nina. In the subtropical oceans, over the period 1998-2007, median cell diameter exhibited statistically significant linear declines of about 2% in the North and South Pacific, and 4% in the North Atlantic. Pooling the data over all subtropical oceans, over the period 1998-2007, global median cell diameter declined by about 2%. These results suggest that phytoplankton cell size may vary on interannual and decadal scales resulting in changes in food chain length and hence energy transfer to higher trophic levels. Further, a shift to smaller sized phytoplankton has been hypothesized as a response to ocean warming. Thus, this approach, estimating phytoplankton cell size from remotely-sensed temperature and chlorophyll, has the potential to provide global monitoring of an aspect of phytoplankton community structure likely to be responsive to future climate change.

  9. Turkey: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on a marked oil production increase, an exploration program in the Black Sea and the planned development of an offshore gas field in the Sea of Mamara in Turkey. The production increase stems from development of new fields in southeastern Turkey by Turkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortakligi (TPAO), the national oil company. Discovered in 1989, development of Kahta, Karakus, Cendere and several other nearby finds have pushed Turkish crude output to the highest level in 14 years. Last May, BP entered into a three-year joint venture with TPAO to explore a 29,344 sq mi area in the Black Sea in waters to 6,500+ ft deep. The three-year program calls for BP to run seismic this year followed by its Airborne Laser Fluorosensor survey technique. Drilling will depend on survey results.

  10. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

  11. Genetic deletion of TNFR2 augments inflammatory response and blunts satellite-cell-mediated recovery response in a hind limb ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Sharath P; Rahimi, Layla; Yan, Xinhua; Silver, Marcy; Qin, Gangjian; Losordo, Douglas W; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A

    2015-04-01

    We have previously shown that TNF-tumor necrosis factor receptor-2/p75 (TNFR2/p75) signaling plays a critical role in ischemia-induced neovascularization in skeletal muscle and heart tissues. To determine the role of TNF-TNFR2/p75 signaling in ischemia-induced inflammation and muscle regeneration, we subjected wild-type (WT) and TNFR2/p75 knockout (p75KO) mice to hind limb ischemia (HLI) surgery. Ischemia induced significant and long-lasting inflammation associated with considerable decrease in satellite-cell activation in p75KO muscle tissue up to 10 d after HLI surgery. To determine the possible additive negative roles of tissue aging and the absence of TNFR2/p75, either in the tissue or in the bone marrow (BM), we generated 2 chimeric BM transplantation (BMT) models where both young green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive p75KO and WT BM-derived cells were transplanted into adult p75KO mice. HLI surgery was performed 1 mo after BMT, after confirming complete engraftment of the recipient BM with GFP donor cells. In adult p75KO with the WT-BMT, proliferative (Ki67(+)) cells were detected only by d 28 and were exclusively GFP(+), suggesting significantly delayed contribution of young WT-BM cell to adult p75KO ischemic tissue recovery. No GFP(+) young p75KO BM cells survived in adult p75KO tissue, signifying the additive negative roles of tissue aging combined with decreased/absent TNFR2/p75 signaling in postischemic recovery.-Sasi, S. P., Rahimi, L., Yan, X., Silver, M., Qin, G., Losordo, D. W., Kishore, R., Goukassian, D. A. Genetic deletion of TNFR2 augments inflammatory response and blunts satellite-cell-mediated recovery response in a hind limb ischemia model. PMID:25466901

  12. The Genome of Turkey Herpesvirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Afonso; E. R. Tulman; Z. Lu; L. Zsak; D. L. Rock; G. F. Kutish

    2001-01-01

    Here we present the first complete genomic sequence of Marek's disease virus serotype 3 (MDV3), also known as turkey herpesvirus (HVT). The 159,160-bp genome encodes an estimated 99 putative proteins and resembles alphaherpesviruses in genomic organization and gene content. HVT is very similar to MDV1 and MDV2 within the unique long (UL) and unique short (US) genomic regions, where homologous

  13. Neotectonics of Turkey - a synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Erdin

    Turkey forms one of the most actively deforming regions in the world and has a long history of devastating earthquakes. The better understanding of its neotectonic features and active tectonics would provide insight, not only for the country but also for the entire Eastern Mediterranean region. Active tectonics of Turkey is the manifestation of collisional intracontinental convergence- and tectonic escape-related deformation since the Early Pliocene (˜5 Ma). Three major structures govern the neotectonics of Turkey; they are dextral North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), sinistral East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) and the Aegean-Cyprean Arc. Also, sinistral Dead Sea Fault Zone has an important role. The Anatolian wedge between the NAFZ and EAFZ moves westward away from the eastern Anatolia, the collision zone between the Arabian and the Eurasian plates. Ongoing deformation along, and mutual interaction among them has resulted in four distinct neotectonic provinces, namely the East Anatolian contractional, the North Anatolian, the Central Anatolian ' Ova' and the West Anatolian extensional provinces. Each province is characterized by its unique structural elements, and forms an excellent laboratory to study active strike-slip, normal and reverse faulting and the associated basin formation.

  14. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  15. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirbas

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy

  16. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  17. Renewable energy and sustainable development in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Kaygusuz; Abdullah Kaygusuz

    2002-01-01

    Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. So clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life for Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use

  18. Warm turkey: other routes to abstinence.

    PubMed

    Miller, W R; Page, A C

    1991-01-01

    The requirement of immediate and abrupt quitting ("cold turkey") can be an obstacle to the acceptance and accomplishment of abstinence as a long-term outcome. Three alternative "warm turkey" routes to abstinence are discussed: (a) sobriety sampling, (b) tapering down, and (c) trial moderation. Clinical research evidence and case examples are provided in support of these alternative approaches. PMID:1787547

  19. New Records of Aphid Fauna in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kaygin, Azize Toper; Gorur, Gazi; Cota, Figen

    2010-01-01

    Three aphid species were identified as new records for Turkey aphid fauna from Bartin province. These species are Ceruraphis viburnicola (Gillette) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Dysaphis apiifolia (Theobald) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Macrosiphum mordvilkoi Miyazaki (Hemiptera: Aphididae). These records increase the recorded aphid-fauna of Turkey to 433 species. PMID:20569127

  20. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  1. Turkey: Another $1 Trillion Emerging Economy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Doral

    2010-01-01

    The strategic location of Turkey makes it a very important country in terms of geopolitics as well as economics. Turkey is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, the Caucasus, and the Middle East. It is where East meets West without clashing with each other but merging with each other. Even though, industry, trade, and finance are all dominated by

  2. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

  3. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  4. Education and Changing Social Realities in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirel, Ozcan

    The educational system of Turkey is discussed from a historical perspective. There are two main components to the educational system: formal education, which consists of preschool, primary, secondary, and higher education; and non-formal education, which provides educational opportunities for adults. Turkey has undergone a number of social changes…

  5. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  6. Satellite Winds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about the using successive satellite observations of clouds to determine wind direction and speed. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  7. TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION 1 TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION by Teri Murphy & Onur Sazak #12;Turkey's Civilian Capacity in post-Conflict Reconstruction By Teri-checking was indispensable for the realization of this project. #12;TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST

  8. Male Rio Grande Turkey Survival and Movements in the

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Texas Panhandle

    Wildlife managers depend on accurate information regarding wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survival patterns to properly manage turkey populations. Survival patterns of male Rio Grande wild turkeys (M. g. intermedia) have not been studied intensively. Wildlife managers in the Texas Panhandle, USA, and southwestern Kansas, USA, suspected that turkey populations were declining. From January 2000 through August 2002, we studied survival

  9. Management and Conservation Article Merriam's Turkey Nest Survival and Factors Affecting Nest

    E-print Network

    of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Factors influencing mammalian predation on turkey nests fluctuations of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo; Wakeling 1991, Roberts et al. 1995, Roberts and Porter 1996

  10. Astronomical Site Selection for Turkey Using GIS Techniques

    E-print Network

    Aksaker, Nazim; Erdogan, M Akif; Erdi, Erdem; Kaba, Kazim; Ak, Tansel; Aslan, Zeki; Bakis, Volkan; Demircan, Osman; Evren, Serdar; Keskin, Varol; Kucuk, Ibrahim; Ozdemir, Tuncay; Ozisik, Tuncay; Selam, Selim O

    2015-01-01

    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for \\textit{the best}, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national fundi...

  11. The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

    2014-08-01

    Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87. PMID:24485280

  12. General Ecological Characteristics Based on GIS Methods in Poyrazlar Lake, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikiel, C.; Kilic, D. E.; Atalay Dutucu, A.

    2012-04-01

    General Ecological Characteristics Based on GIS Methods in Poyrazlar Lake, Turkey Cercis Ikiel Derya Evrim Kilic• Ayse Atalay Dutucu Sakarya University, Art and Science Faculty, Department of Geography, Sakarya, Turkey In this research, general ecological features in Poyrazlar lake is investigated. The study area is located in the east part of Marmara region and north-western part of the Adapazari plain (north-western part of Turkey) between the coordinates of 40°48'-40°52' N and 30°23'-30°30' E. Research area is within phytogeographical region of Euro-Siberian that is among flora and phytogeographical region of Turkey. The main element of vegetation consists Humid-Mild Deciduous forests (especially Quercus spp.) and hydrophyte plants (such as reeds and Nymphaea alba L.). Poyrazlar lake, that's water is fresh, is one of the important wetland areas in the region with its ecological characteristics. Especially the research area is haunted by various migratory birds and it is an important recreation area. The objective of this study is to analyze particularly the formation of Poyrazlar lake, ecological features of this area and negative influence of surrounding human activities in the area. For this purpose topography, geology, soil maps, forest arrangement plan, Spot 5 (2010 period) satellite image for current land use map and field observations data are used. These images are analyzed by utilizing data image processing techniques in ERDAS Imagine© 10.0 and ArcGIS© 10.0 software. Keywords: Ecology; Ecological Features; GIS; Alluvial Dam Lake; Poyrazlar Lake

  13. Survival after cryogenic freezing of campylobacter species in ground Turkey patties treated with polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Gunther Iv, Nereus W; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Campylobacter species within a ground turkey product subjected to cryogenic freezing. Ground turkey patties with two different polyphosphate formulations added in two different concentrations were artificially contaminated with known concentrations of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The patties were cryogenically frozen at -80°F (-62.2°C) with liquid nitrogen vapor and held at -20°C for 7 or 33 days, after which the number of Campylobacter surviving in the patties was determined. On average the cryogenic freezing resulted in a 2.5-log decrease in the survival of C. jejuni cells and a 2.9-log decrease in C. coli cells present in the turkey patties. Additionally, the presence of polyphosphates in the turkey patties had no effect on Campylobacter survival up to the maximum allowed concentration (0.5%) for polyphosphates in poultry marinades. Finally, it was determined that the added polyphosphates had little effect on the pH of the ground turkey meat; an effect which previously had been implicated in the enhancement of Campylobacter survival due to the presence of polyphosphates. PMID:25710161

  14. Isolation and characterization of a turkey arthritis reovirus.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Ziegler, Andre; Patnayak, Devi P; Goyal, Sagar M

    2013-03-01

    During the spring and summer of 2011, the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Minnesota received 14 submissions of 15-to-18-week-old tom turkeys that were recumbent with wing tip bruises ("wing walkers") and uni- or bilateral swelling of the hock (tibiotarsal) joints. Gastrocnemius or digital flexor tendons were occasionally ruptured. A total of five turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV-MN1 through TARV-MN5) were isolated in specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs and QT-35 cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by electron microscopy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and gene sequence analysis. BLAST analysis on the basis of a 880 bp nucleotide sequence of the S4 gene confirmed all isolates as a reovirus. Phylogenetic analysis divided the five isolates into two subgroups: subgroup I containing TARV-MN1, -2, -3, and -5, and the other subgroup containing TARV-MN4. Isolates in subgroup I had a similarity of 97%-100% with each other, while subgroup II (TARV-MN4) had a similarity of only 89.2% with subgroup I viruses. This isolate showed 90%-93% similarity with turkey enteric reoviruses in the United States, while the other four isolates in subgroup I had 89%-97.6% similarity. These results indicate divergence within TARVs as well as from enteric viruses, which needs to be confirmed by complete genome sequence analysis. Further experimental studies are planned to determine the role of these isolates in turkey arthritis and to compare them with classical chicken reovirus. PMID:23678736

  15. How Satellites Work

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Collection of seven classroom activities that focus on satellite technology. Topics include: coordinated universal time (UTC); satellite pass prediction; satellite design; satellite orbits; satellite launching; and, use of satellites in at-sea rescues. Each activity provides list of materials needed, background information, and procedure.

  16. Extragonadal teratoma in a domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domestica).

    PubMed

    Pa?dzior, Katarzyna; Szweda, Magdalena; Otrocka-Domaga?a, Iwona; Rotkiewicz, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of a primary, spontaneous and, most probably, congenital teratoma in a domestic turkey, localized in front of the left eyeball. The unique localization allowed surgical excision of the tumour. The histopathological examination revealed that the tumour included structures derived from all three germ cell layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm (e.g. cartilaginous, osseous, haematopoietic, fibrous, nervous, glandular, squamous epithelial and smooth muscle tissues). The presence of epithelial cells as well as smooth muscle cells was confirmed using anti-cytokeratin and anti-desmin antibodies, respectively. The proliferative activity of the tumour cells was confirmed using proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining. The other cases of teratoma in wild and domestic birds are reviewed briefly. PMID:22702456

  17. Managing Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Integral Systems, Inc.'s EPOCH 2000 forms the core of NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission's command and control center. EPOCH 2000, which allows ground operators to monitor and control satellites over a wide area network, owes part of its heritage from work completed to support Goddard Space Flight Center. The software automates telemetry processing, commanding, anomaly detection, and archiving collected data. The NEAR spacecraft, launched in February 1996, will rendezvous in early 1999 and orbit the Asteroid Eros for a year. Integral Systems also provided Low Earth Orbit Autonomous Ground Terminals (LEO-Ts) to NASA. The LEO-T is designed to make it easier and less expensive for principal investigators to obtain telemetry, tracking and control services for their science missions. The company products have supported well over 70 satellite missions aimed at scientific research, meteorology, or communications applications.

  18. The Turkey Ig-Like Receptor Family: Identification, Expression and Function

    PubMed Central

    Windau, Katharina; Viertlboeck, Birgit C.; Göbel, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    The chicken leukocyte receptor complex located on microchromosome 31 encodes the chicken Ig-like receptors (CHIR), a vastly expanded gene family which can be further divided into three subgroups: activating CHIR-A, bifunctional CHIR-AB and inhibitory CHIR-B. Here, we investigated the presence of CHIR homologues in other bird species. The available genome databases of turkey, duck and zebra finch were screened with different strategies including BLAST searches employing various CHIR sequences, and keyword searches. We could not identify CHIR homologues in the distantly related zebra finch and duck, however, several partial and complete sequences of CHIR homologues were identified on chromosome 3 of the turkey genome. They were designated as turkey Ig-like receptors (TILR). Using cDNA derived from turkey blood and spleen RNA, six full length TILR could be amplified and further divided according to the typical sequence features into one activating TILR-A, one inhibitory TILR-B and four bifunctional TILR-AB. Since the TILR-AB sequences all displayed the critical residues shown to be involved in binding to IgY, we next confirmed the IgY binding using a soluble TILR-AB1-huIg fusion protein. This fusion protein reacted with IgY derived from various gallinaceous birds, but not with IgY from other bird species. Finally, we tested various mab directed against CHIR for their crossreactivity with either turkey or duck leukocytes. Whereas no staining was detectable with duck cells, the CHIR-AB1 specific mab 8D12 and the CHIR-A2 specific mab 13E2 both reacted with a leukocyte subpopulation that was further identified as thrombocytes by double immunofluorescence employing B-cell, T-cell and thrombocyte specific reagents. In summary, although the turkey harbors similar LRC genes as the chicken, their distribution seems to be distinct with predominance on thrombocytes rather than lymphocytes. PMID:23527222

  19. The Turkey Ig-like receptor family: identification, expression and function.

    PubMed

    Windau, Katharina; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The chicken leukocyte receptor complex located on microchromosome 31 encodes the chicken Ig-like receptors (CHIR), a vastly expanded gene family which can be further divided into three subgroups: activating CHIR-A, bifunctional CHIR-AB and inhibitory CHIR-B. Here, we investigated the presence of CHIR homologues in other bird species. The available genome databases of turkey, duck and zebra finch were screened with different strategies including BLAST searches employing various CHIR sequences, and keyword searches. We could not identify CHIR homologues in the distantly related zebra finch and duck, however, several partial and complete sequences of CHIR homologues were identified on chromosome 3 of the turkey genome. They were designated as turkey Ig-like receptors (TILR). Using cDNA derived from turkey blood and spleen RNA, six full length TILR could be amplified and further divided according to the typical sequence features into one activating TILR-A, one inhibitory TILR-B and four bifunctional TILR-AB. Since the TILR-AB sequences all displayed the critical residues shown to be involved in binding to IgY, we next confirmed the IgY binding using a soluble TILR-AB1-huIg fusion protein. This fusion protein reacted with IgY derived from various gallinaceous birds, but not with IgY from other bird species. Finally, we tested various mab directed against CHIR for their crossreactivity with either turkey or duck leukocytes. Whereas no staining was detectable with duck cells, the CHIR-AB1 specific mab 8D12 and the CHIR-A2 specific mab 13E2 both reacted with a leukocyte subpopulation that was further identified as thrombocytes by double immunofluorescence employing B-cell, T-cell and thrombocyte specific reagents. In summary, although the turkey harbors similar LRC genes as the chicken, their distribution seems to be distinct with predominance on thrombocytes rather than lymphocytes. PMID:23527222

  20. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  1. Optimum protein levels for off-season turkey hatching egg production in two strains of turkeys

    E-print Network

    Wahid, Md. Abdul

    1967-01-01

    of variation and degrees of freedom 12 Statistical analysis of differences in body weight, percent hen-day production of hatchable eggs and cull eggs as influenced by different protein levels in two strains of turkeys 25 Statistical analysis of differences... levels on hatchable egg pro- duction in two strains of turkeys (hen-day basis) 28 Effect of four protein levels on cull egg production in two strains of turkeys 29 Effect of four protein levels on checked eggs in two strains of turkeys 30 Effect...

  2. Role of the mTORC1 Complex in Satellite Cell Activation by RNA-Induced Mitochondrial Restoration: Dual Control of Cyclin D1 through MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Jash, Sukanta; Dhar, Gunjan; Ghosh, Utpalendu

    2014-01-01

    During myogenesis, satellite stem cells (SCs) are induced to proliferate and differentiate to myogenic precursors. The role of energy sensors such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in SC activation is unclear. We previously observed that upregulation of ATP through RNA-mediated mitochondrial restoration (MR) accelerates SC activation following skeletal muscle injury. We show here that during regeneration, the AMPK-CRTC2-CREB and Raptor-mTORC-4EBP1 pathways were rapidly activated. The phosho-CRTC2-CREB complex was essential for myogenesis and activated transcription of the critical cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 (Ccnd1). Knockdown (KD) of either mTORC or its subunit Raptor delayed SC activation without influencing the differentiation program. KD of 4EBP1 had no effect on SC activation but enhanced myofiber size. mTORC1 positively regulated Ccnd1 translation but destabilized Ccnd1 mRNA. These antithetical effects of mTORC1 were mediated by two microRNAs (miRs) targeted to the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of Ccnd1 mRNA: miR-1 was downregulated in mTORC-KD muscle, and depletion of miR-1 resulted in increased levels of mRNA without any effect on Ccnd1 protein. In contrast, miR-26a was upregulated upon mTORC depletion, while anti-miR-26a oligonucleotide specifically stimulated Ccnd1 protein expression. Thus, mTORC may act as a timer of satellite cell proliferation during myogenesis. PMID:25047835

  3. BILSAT-1: a Low-Cost Agile Earth Observation Microsatellite for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Andy; Gomes, Luis M.; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    TUBITAK-BILTEN has initiated a project to develop and propagate small satellite technologies in Turkey. As part of this initiative, TUBITAK-BILTEN is working with SSTL (UK) to develop a 100kg class microsatellite, BILSAT-1. With the successful completion of this project, TUBITAK-BILTEN will be capable of producing its own satellites, covering all phases from design to production. It is hoped that acquisition of these technologies will stimulate Turkish industry into greater involvement in space related activities. The project was started in August 2001 and will run through to launch scheduled for February 2003. BILSAT-1 will be one of the most capable microsatellites built by SSTL and features several technologies normally only found on larger satellites. Specifically, the Attitude Determination and Control System of BILSAT-1 will include dual-redundant star cameras, sun sensors and rate gyros to provide precise attitude information allowing very accurate attitude knowledge. Actuators on board will make the satellite extremely agile, allowing fast slew manoeuvres about its roll and pitch axes enabling the satellite to reduce imaging revisit times compared to fixed nadir-pointing gravity gradient stabilized satellites, and will allow novel and complex operations scenarios to be undertaken with the satellites prime payloads; a 26-metre GSD 4-band multispectral and a 12-metre GSD panchromatic imaging system. Stereoscopic imaging, target tracking and multiple attitude imaging are all operational scenarios that feature in the mission plan. Also on board the satellite are additional payloads, including a state-of-the-art Digital Signal Processing Board payload that will enable real time image compression in JPEG2000 format using a high performance floating point DSP, and a low resolution 9-band multispectral camera. BILSAT-1 will join the other 5 microsatellites in the SSTL-led international Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), providing the ability to enhance the imaging capabilities of the constellation whose objective is to provide EO with daily revisit worldwide. In parallel with the Satellite design and build activities at the Surrey Space Centre &SSTL in the UK, all the infrastructure required to design, produce and operate a satellite, is being constructed at BILTEN's premises in Turkey. This infrastructure includes assembly and integration rooms, a PCB prototyping workshop, research and development laboratories, and a satellite mission control ground station.

  4. The haematological profile of female bronze turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) vaccinated with various commercial strains of Newcastle disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M d S; Santos, Ivan F C; Paulillo, António C; Martins, Gislaine R V; Denadai, Janine; Lapela, Ivan M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of vaccination on avian blood parameters are poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether different strains (Ulster 2C, B1, live LaSota and inactivated LaSota) of Newcastle disease vaccines had an effect on the haematological profile of female turkeys. Seventy-five female turkeys were allocated to treatment groups according to vaccination strain. All the birds, except those in the control group, were vaccinated at 32 weeks of age and revaccinated at 40 and 48 weeks of age. Blood samples were obtained for haematological analyses and serum samples for the haemagglutination inhibition test. Haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in vaccinated female turkeys than in the control birds 28 days after vaccination. Monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 44-week-old female turkeys vaccinated with inactivated LaSota strain compared with the other groups. Turkeys vaccinated with the B1 strain showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) total white blood cell counts compared with the other groups vaccinated with various commercial strains of the Newcastle disease virus. In conclusion, female turkeys showed significant differences in haemoglobin concentrations, monocytes and white blood cell counts when vaccinated against Newcastle disease. PMID:25686083

  5. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys. PMID:23363433

  6. Activation of P2X7 receptors in glial satellite cells reduces pain through downregulation of P2X3 receptors in nociceptive neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Wang, Congying; Li, GuangWen; Gu, Yanping; Huang, Li-Yen Mae

    2008-01-01

    Purinergic ionotropic P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are closely associated with excitotoxicity and nociception. Inhibition of P2X7R activation has been considered as a potentially useful strategy to improve recovery from spinal cord injury and reduce inflammatory damage to trauma. The physiological functions of P2X7Rs, however, are poorly understood, even though such information is essential for making the P2X7R an effective therapeutic target. We show here that P2X7Rs in satellite cells of dorsal root ganglia tonically inhibit the expression of P2X3Rs in neurons. Reducing P2X7R expression using siRNA or blocking P2X7R activity by antagonists elicits P2X3R up-regulation, increases the activity of sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli, and evokes abnormal nociceptive behaviors in rats. Thus, contrary to the notion that P2X7R activation is cytotoxic, P2X7Rs in satellite cells play a crucial role in maintaining proper P2X3R expression in dorsal root ganglia. Studying the mechanism underlying the P2X7R–P2X3R control, we demonstrate that activation of P2X7Rs evokes ATP release from satellite cells. ATP in turn stimulates P2Y1 receptors in neurons. P2Y1 receptor activation appears to be necessary and sufficient for the inhibitory control of P2X3R expression. We further determine the roles of the P2X7R–P2Y1–P2X3R inhibitory control under injurious conditions. Activation of the inhibitory control effectively prevents the development of allodynia and increases the potency of systemically administered P2X7R agonists in inflamed rats. Thus, direct blocking P2X7Rs, as proposed before, may not be the best strategy for reducing pain or lessening neuronal degeneration because it also disrupts the protective function of P2X7Rs. PMID:18946042

  7. Propagation and characterization of turkey reoviruses isolated in Germany, 2004-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2004 to 2008, suspected avian reoviruses were isolated from turkey flocks in ten counties in Germany. The age of birds at isolation ranged from 9 to 54 days. The suspected avian reoviruses elicited characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) in chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cell culture. In 2009, CEK ...

  8. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  9. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  10. Genetic improvement of cotton in Turkey

    E-print Network

    Eksi, Ismail

    1990-01-01

    GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF COTTON IN TURKEY A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Ismail Eksi Submitted to the College of Agriculture of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE August, 1990... Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Major Subject: Agronomy GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF COTI'ON IN TURKEY A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by Ismail Eksi approved as to style and content by: kamal M. El-Zik, Chair, Advisory Committee 4 J. Bockholt, Committee Member...

  11. Influenza A and paramyxoviruses in turkeys

    E-print Network

    Ranck, Floyd Merrill

    1968-01-01

    - imposing strain meleagrium or strain yucaipa had no apparent effect upon NDV titers. However, concurrent exposure of turkeys to strain melegrium and NDV completely suppressed the develop- ment of detectable HI antibodies to strain meleagrium. Eleven...- to 12-month-old turkeys that had apparently been infected naturally with strain yucaipa, then experimentally inoculated with strain yucaipa, had an anamnestic response as shown by an increased HI titer. 11 MATERIALS AND METHODS Cultures Stock...

  12. Dressing the Thanksgiving Turkey: Using Measurement?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Myrna Mitchell

    2013-11-15

    This blog post presents a Thanksgiving activity that engages learners as they practice measuring with nonstandard units and comparing lengths. Learners use unifix cubes to measure the heights of four turkeys then compare and arrange them in order from shortest to tallest. The last part of the activity has students measuring Tom Turkey to determine which clothing he should be dressed in for dinner. The lesson plan and all student worksheets can be downloaded to a PDF.

  13. Transmission of Chlamydiae from grackles to turkeys.

    PubMed

    Grimes, J E

    1978-01-01

    Two female common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula) were inoculated intratracheally with 1.6 X 10(8) chick embryo lethal doses50 of a chlamydial organism isolated from turkeys. Eight female grackles were kept as uninoculated contacts. Six days later, two 12-week-old Broad-Breasted White turkeys (1 male and 1 female) were placed in the pen with the grackles. Chlamydiae were isolated in mice from cloacal swabs taken 14 days postinoculation from the infected grackles. Swabs from the contact grackles did not yield chlamydiae, nor did swabs taken 7 days later from all birds. Twenty-one days after being placed with the grackles, the turkeys developed signs of chlamydiosis. Cloacal swabs taken at 24 days yielded chlamydiae from only the female. Visceral organ tissues collected at 28 days from the male yielded chlamydiae. The only lesions in the turkeys at necropsy were enlarged spleens. The turkeys were serologically negative for chlamydial antibody both when placed and 15 days later, but were positive at days 24 and 28. These results indicate contact transmission of chlamydiae from infected grackles to turkeys. PMID:678235

  14. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--role of satellite cells in anabolic steroid-induced muscle growth in feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Dayton, W R; White, M E

    2014-01-01

    Both androgenic and estrogenic steroids are widely used as growth promoters in feedlot steers because they significantly enhance feed efficiency, rate of gain, and muscle growth. However, despite their widespread use relatively little is known about the biological mechanism by which androgenic and estrogenic steroids enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth in cattle. Treatment of feedlot steers with a combined estradiol (E2) and trenbolone acetate (TBA) implant results in an increased number of muscle satellite cells, increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA in muscle tissue, and increased levels of circulating IGF-1. Similarly, treatment of bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures with either TBA or E2 results in increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA, increased rates of proliferation and protein synthesis, and decreased rates of protein degradation. Effects of E2 on BSC are mediated at least in part through the classical E2 receptor, estrogen receptor-? (ESR1), the IGF-1 receptor (IGFR1), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR30). The effects of TBA appear to be primarily mediated through the androgen receptor. Based on current research results, it is becoming clear that anabolic steroid-enhanced bovine muscle growth involves a complex interaction of numerous pathways and receptors. Consequently, additional in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms involved in this complex process. The fundamental information generated by this research will help in developing future, safe, and effective strategies to increase rate and efficiency of muscle growth in beef cattle. PMID:24166993

  15. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  16. Reduction of exposure to blood donors in preterm infants submitted to red blood cell transfusions using pediatric satellite packs

    PubMed Central

    Uezima, Cristina Lika; Barreto, Ariane Moreira; Guinsburg, Ruth; Chiba, Akemi Kuroda; Bordin, José Orlando; Barros, Melca Maria O.; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In preterm newborn infants transfused with erythrocytes stored up to 28 days, to compare the reduction of blood donor exposure in two groups of infants classified according to birth weight. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with preterm infants with birth weight <1000g (Group 1) and 1000-1499g (Group 2), born between April, 2008 and December, 2009. Neonates submitted to exchange transfusions, emergency erythrocyte transfusion, or those who died in the first 24 hours of life were excluded. Transfusions were indicated according to the local guideline using pediatric transfusion satellite bags. Demographic and clinical data, besides number of transfusions and donors were assessed. . Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with multiple transfusions. RESULTS: 30 and 48 neonates were included in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The percentage of newborns with more than one erythrocyte transfusion (90 versus 11%), the median number of transfusions (3 versus 1) and the median of blood donors (2 versus 1) were higher in Group 1 (p<0.001), compared to Group 2. Among those with multiple transfusions, 14 (82%) and one (50%) presented 50% reduction in the number of blood donors, respectively in Groups 1 and 2. Factors associated with multiple transfusions were: birth weight <1000g (OR 11.91; 95%CI 2.14-66.27) and presence of arterial umbilical catheter (OR 8.59; 95%CI 1.94-38.13), adjusted for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of pediatrics satellites bags on blood donor reduction was higher in preterm infants with birth weight <1000g. PMID:24142309

  17. The Place of Natural Gas in Turkey’s Energy Sources and Future Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARUN KEMAL OZTURK; ARIF HEPBASLI

    2003-01-01

    Turkey is an important candidate to be the “energy corridor” in the transmission of the abundant oil and natural gas resources of the Middle East and Middle Asia countries to the Western market. Turkey is planning to increase its oil and gas pipeline infrastructure to accommodate its increased energy usage. The main objective of the present study is to investigate

  18. COLIBACILLOSIS AND TURKEY OSTEOMYELISTIS COMPLEX IN TURKEYS SELECTED FOR INCREASED BODY WEIGHT AND SUBJECTED TO STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two stress models were used to induce colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC): Escherichia coli challenge following dexamethasone injection (Dex) and E. coli challenge preceding transport stress (Transport). A total of 160 birds from 3 lines of turkeys: a slow growing line selected for...

  19. Turkey origin reovirus-induced immune dysfunction in specific-pathogen free and commercial turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, pathogenesis studies using genetically distinct turkey-origin reoviruses (TRVs) revealed that poults infected with certain TRV isolates had moderate to severe bursal atrophy, suggesting virus-induced immune dysfunction. In order to characterize the effect of TRV infection on the turkey imm...

  20. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  1. Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2012-01-01

    Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of < 1 m satellite images have become available at no cost to the research community. In addition, Landsat data are now free of charge from the U.S. Geological Survey, enabling the use of multiple images. We used 174 Landsat and eight high-resolution satellite images to document the areal extent of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2007-2011. Multiple Landsat images, primarily Thematic Mapper (TM) data from 1984 to 2011, enabled us to minimize differentiation problems between snow and glacier ice, a potential source of error. In addition, we used Ikonos, Quickbird, and World View-1 & -2 very high-resolution imagery to evaluate our TM accuracies and determine the area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

  2. LONG-TERM INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I EXPRESSION IN SKELETAL MUSCLES ATTENUATES THE ENHANCED IN VITRO PROLIFERATION ABILITY OF THE RESIDENT SATELLITE CELLS IN TRANSGENIC MICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue...

  3. Passive solar reflector satellite revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, C.; Daly, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Passive light weight reflectors in space which direct the incident solar energy to a specified location on the Earth surface are proposed as an alternative system for the solar power satellite to overcome conversion losses and to avoid the need for photovoltaic cells. On Earth, either photovoltaic cells or a steam turbine alternator on a solar tower, or a similar conventional, relatively high efficiency cycle are used for electricity generation. The constraints which apply to the design of the optical system if a single satellite is placed in geostationary orbit are outlined. A single lens and a two lens system are discussed.

  4. RioGrande Wild Turkey Life History and Management Calendar

    E-print Network

    Locke, Shawn; Cathey, James; Collier, Bret; Hardin, Jason

    2008-05-08

    This calendar is for landowners and managers who want to manage and improve their wild turkey habitat. The calendar is in easy-to-follow chart form and shows important annual events pertaining to wild turkey life history, habitat management...

  5. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...Review)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record...orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to continuation...respect to imports of certain pasta from...

  6. Spermatogenesis in the turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo): Quantitative approach in immature and adult males subjected to various photoperiods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Noirault; Jean-Pierre Brillard; Murray R. Bakst

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and quantitate the germ cell populations of the testes in sexually mature male turkeys (Trial 1), determine the duration of meiosis based on BrdU labeling and stereological analyses (Trial 2), and examine the impact of various photoperiods on germinal and somatic cell populations in immature and adult males (Trial 3). In Trial

  7. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  8. Assessing the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Evrendilek; C Ertekin

    2003-01-01

    To meet Turkey’s growing energy demand, the installed electric power capacity of 27.8 GW in 2001 has to be doubled by 2010 and increased fourfold by 2020. The difference between Turkey’s total primary energy supply (TPES) of from its own sources and total final consumption (TFC) is projected grow from 1 quad (1.06–2.06) in 1999 to 5.71 quads (2.79–8.5) in

  9. Mitotic recombination and segregation of satellites in Bloom's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Therman, E; Otto, P G; Shahidi, N T

    1981-01-01

    Mitotic recombination in satellite stalks--a phenomenon often difficult to distinguish from satellite association--was studied in a sister and a brother with Bloom's syndrome. Segregation after recombination was analyzed in the lymphocytes of the sister who had Q-bright satellites. Her cells varied greatly both in regard to the acrocentrics which displayed Q-bright satellites and the number of such satellites per cell. In 58 cells a total of 31 different patterns were seen. In 83 cells of 6 controls who also had Q-bright satellites on at least one acrocentric chromosome, not one cell was found in which the pattern differed from that characteristic of the person. Obviously exchanges between satellite stalks in patients with Bloom's syndrome are fairly frequent (estimated lower limit 6/1000) and very rare in persons who do not have this syndrome (estimated 0.1/1000). PMID:7261713

  10. IMAGE Satellite Scaling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about satellite size. Learners will calculate the volume of the IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite, the first satellite mission to image the Earth's magnetosphere. They will then determine the effect of doubling and tripling the satellite dimensions on the satellite's mass and cost. This is the first activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring Satellite Design educator guide.

  11. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  12. Satellite glial cells surrounding primary afferent neurons are activated and proliferate during monoarthritis in rats: is there a role for ATF3?

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Diana Sofia Marques; Castro-Lopes, José Manuel; Moreira Neto, Fani Lourença

    2014-01-01

    Joint inflammatory diseases are debilitating and very painful conditions that still lack effective treatments. Recently, glial cells were shown to be crucial for the development and maintenance of chronic pain, constituting novel targets for therapeutic approaches. At the periphery, the satellite glial cells (SGCs) that surround the cell bodies of primary afferents neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) display hypertrophy, proliferation, and activation following injury and/or inflammation. It has been suggested that the expression of neuronal injury factors might initially trigger these SGCs-related events. We then aimed at evaluating if SGCs are involved in the establishment/maintenance of articular inflammatory pain, by using the monoarthritis (MA) model, and if the neuronal injury marker activating transcriptional factor 3 (ATF3) is associated with these SGCs' reactive changes. Western Blot (WB) analysis of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was performed in L4-L5 DRGs from control non-inflamed rats and MA animals at different time-points of disease (4, 7, and 14d, induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection into the left hind paw ankle joint). Data indicate that SGCs activation is occurring in MA animals, particularly after day 7 of disease evolution. Additionally, double-immunostaining for ATF3 and GFAP in L5 DRG sections shows that SGCs's activation significantly increases around stressed neurons at 7d of disease, when compared with control animals. The specific labelling of GFAP in SGCs rather than in other cell types was also confirmed by immunohistochemical labeling. Finally, BrdU incorporation indicates that proliferation of SGCs is also significantly increased after 7 days of MA. Data indicate that SGCs play an important role in the mechanisms of articular inflammation, with 7 days of disease being a critical time-point in the MA model, and suggest that ATF3 might be involved in SGCs' reactive changes such as activation. PMID:25247596

  13. Satellite Glial Cells Surrounding Primary Afferent Neurons Are Activated and Proliferate during Monoarthritis in Rats: Is There a Role for ATF3?

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Diana Sofia Marques; Castro-Lopes, José Manuel; Neto, Fani Lourença Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Joint inflammatory diseases are debilitating and very painful conditions that still lack effective treatments. Recently, glial cells were shown to be crucial for the development and maintenance of chronic pain, constituting novel targets for therapeutic approaches. At the periphery, the satellite glial cells (SGCs) that surround the cell bodies of primary afferents neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) display hypertrophy, proliferation, and activation following injury and/or inflammation. It has been suggested that the expression of neuronal injury factors might initially trigger these SGCs-related events. We then aimed at evaluating if SGCs are involved in the establishment/maintenance of articular inflammatory pain, by using the monoarthritis (MA) model, and if the neuronal injury marker activating transcriptional factor 3 (ATF3) is associated with these SGCs' reactive changes. Western Blot (WB) analysis of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was performed in L4-L5 DRGs from control non-inflamed rats and MA animals at different time-points of disease (4, 7, and 14d, induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection into the left hind paw ankle joint). Data indicate that SGCs activation is occurring in MA animals, particularly after day 7 of disease evolution. Additionally, double-immunostaining for ATF3 and GFAP in L5 DRG sections shows that SGCs's activation significantly increases around stressed neurons at 7d of disease, when compared with control animals. The specific labelling of GFAP in SGCs rather than in other cell types was also confirmed by immunohistochemical labeling. Finally, BrdU incorporation indicates that proliferation of SGCs is also significantly increased after 7 days of MA. Data indicate that SGCs play an important role in the mechanisms of articular inflammation, with 7 days of disease being a critical time-point in the MA model, and suggest that ATF3 might be involved in SGCs' reactive changes such as activation. PMID:25247596

  14. Turkey's Renewable Energy Sources: Part 1. Historical Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARIF HEPBASLI; ONDER OZGENER

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy is accepted as a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, but also for the world. Turkey has a considerably high level of renewable energy resources that can be a part of the total energy network in the country. The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate the historical development of Turkey's renewable

  15. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Uslu; D. E. Fields; M. G. Yalcintas

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be

  16. Talking Turkey for democracy: Fundamentalism, fascism and the EU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surhan Cam

    2005-01-01

    The rise of pro-Islamic politics, the eastward expansion of the EU and the invasion of Iraq have increased the Western media's interest in the only Muslim member of Nato: Turkey. Popular discussion, however, has overshadowed a lack of systematic analyses for a proper understanding of major political developments in Turkey. This paper aims to debate Turkey's state of affairs from

  17. Development of geothermal energy utilization in Turkey: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arif Hepbasli; Leyla Ozgener

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy is accepted as a key source for the future, not only for Turkey but also for the world. Turkey has a considerably high level of renewable energy sources that can be a part of the total energy network in the country. Turkey is located in the Mediterranean sector of Alpine–Himalayan Tectonic Belt and has a place among the

  18. Hydropower Energy Versus Other Energy Sources in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. ?. Kömürcü; A. Akpinar

    2010-01-01

    Hydroelectric energy is one of the major renewable energy resources in Turkey. Turkey's gross hydropower potential is estimated as 433–442 terawatt hours\\/year; that is equal to 1% of world and 14% of European hydropower potential. This article presents the historical development, potential, and current status of hydropower, and examines the current role hydropower is playing in Turkey, along with some

  19. Ground Roost Resource Selection for Merriam's Wild Turkeys

    E-print Network

    for Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. Females and knowledge of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) demographics during the earliest portions of life of ground roosts have been less rigorously evaluated. Eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance roads. Our objective was to determine if and when Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo (Alectoris rufa), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamai- censis; Brennan

  1. Activation of GABA(B) receptors potentiates inward rectifying potassium currents in satellite glial cells from rat trigeminal ganglia: in vivo patch-clamp analysis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, M; Nasu, M; Kanazawa, T; Shimazu, Y

    2015-03-12

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that inflammation suppressed inward rectifying K(+) (Kir) currents in satellite glial cells (SGCs) from the trigeminal ganglia (TRGs) and that this impairment of glial potassium homeostasis in the trigeminal ganglion (TRG) contributed to trigeminal pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether activation of GABAB receptors modulates the Kir current in SGCs using in vivo patch-clamp and immunohistochemical techniques. Immunohistochemically, we found that immunoreactivity for glial-specific Kir channel subunit Kir4.1 and the GABAB receptor was co-expressed in SGCs from the TRGs. In vivo whole-cell recordings were made using SGCs from the TRGs of urethane-anesthetized rats. Application of baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, significantly increased the mean peak amplitude of Kir currents in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner. Baclofen-induced potentiation of the Kir current was abolished by co-application of 3-amino-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyprophylsulfonic acid (saclofen). In addition, baclofen significantly potentiated the density of the Ba(2+)-sensitive Kir current, and resulted in hyperpolarization of the mean membrane potential. These results suggest that activation of GABAB receptors potentiates the Kir current in SGCs and that GABA released from the TRG neuronal soma could contribute to buffering of extracellular K(+) concentrations following excitation of TRG neurons during the processing of sensory information, including the transmission of noxious stimuli. PMID:25542421

  2. The role of rain in satellite communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Hogg; Ta-Shing Chu

    1975-01-01

    The most fundamental obstacle encountered in design of satellite communication systems at frequencies above 10 GHz is attenuation by rain. The microwave power radiated toward an earth station, being limited by factors such as available primary power and size of antenna on the satellite, is insufficient, with present technology, to overcome the large attenuation produced by intense rain cells on

  3. ASPEC: Solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  4. ASPEC: Solar power satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  5. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickle cadmium spacecraft cells for the dynamic explorer satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation tests of 10 nickel cadmium cells are described. Although pressures were greater than what normally was exhibited by General Electric cells in the past, it is recommended that these cells be placed on life test simulating the predicted Dynamic Explorer flight profiles.

  6. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Comparative susceptibility of chickens, turkeys and ducks to infectious bursal disease virus using immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Oladele, O A; Adene, D F; Obi, T U; Nottidge, H O

    2009-02-01

    Twenty chicks, 12 turkey poults and 10 ducklings, all 5 weeks old were infected with 2 x 10(3.5) chick LD(50) IBD virus to determine the course of the virus in the 3 poultry species. Uninfected control birds were kept separately. Two infected and 2 control birds/species were euthanized at time intervals between 3 and 168 hours post infection (pi). Sections of thymus, bursa of Fabricius, spleen, liver, kidney, proventriculus and ceacal tonsil were stained for the detection of IBD virus antigen using immunoperoxidase technique. IBD virus antigen positive cells stained reddish-brown and the amount of such cells in tissue sections were noted and scored. Stained cells were present in all organs examined for up to 168 hours pi in the 3 poultry species except ceacal tonsils of ducks at 72 and 120 hours pi. Antigen score was highest in chickens and least in ducks as reflected by average of total scores/sampling time of 12, 10.8 and 8 in chickens, turkeys and ducks respectively. Total antigen score/sampling time in infected chickens peaked twice; 24/48 and 144 hours pi, whereas such bi-phasic peaks were absent in turkeys and ducks. Range of total antigen score at different sampling times was 7-17.5 in chickens, 10-13 in turkeys and 7-10 in ducks indicative of marked viral replication in chickens. Presence of IBD viral antigen in organs of all 3 poultry species is indicative of infections. The innate ability of turkeys and ducks to prevent appreciable replication of IBD virus after infection requires further investigation. PMID:18663594

  8. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  9. Cycle life evaluation of 3 Ah Li{subx}Mn{sub2}O{sub4}-based lithium-ion secondary cells for low-earth-orbit satellites. I. Full cell results.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Ogawa, K.; Kumeuchi, Y.; Enomoto, S.; Uno, M.; Saito, H.; Sone, Y.; Abraham, D.; Lindbergh, G.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Royal Inst. of Tech.; Advanced Engineering Services Co., Ltd.; NEC-Tokin Corp.; Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a candidate for the energy storage system onboard low-earth-orbit satellites. Cycle life performance under both orbital and terrestrial conditions must be investigated in order to evaluate any inadvertent effects due to the former and the validity of the latter, with a successful comparison allowing for the extension of terrestrial experimental matrices in order to identify the effects of ageing. The orbital performance of Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based pouch cells onboard the microsatellite REIMEI was monitored and compared with terrestrial experiments, with the cells found to be unaffected by orbital conditions. A lifetime matrix of different cycling depths-of-discharge (DODs: 0, 20, 40%) and temperatures (25, 45 C) was undertaken with periodic reference performance tests. A decrease in both the cell end-of-discharge cycling voltage and capacity was accelerated by both higher temperatures and larger DODs. Impedance spectra measured for all ageing conditions indicated that the increase was small, manifested in a state-of-charge dependent increase of the high-frequency semi-circle and a noticeable increase in the high-frequency real axis intercept. An evaluation of the change of both the resistance and capacity of 3 Ah cells led to the development of a potential prognostic state-of-health indicator. The use of elevated temperatures to accelerate cell ageing was validated.

  10. Spectrally resolved DNI measurements: Results of a field comparison of spectroradiometers, component cells and the SOLIS satellite model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstmaier, Tobias; van Riesen, Sascha; Schulz-Gericke, Jan; Gombert, Andreas; Behrendt, Tanja; Lorenz, Elke; Steiner, Marc; Schachtner, Michael; Siefer, Gerald; Bett, Andreas W.

    2012-10-01

    One remote sensing and two in-situ methods for quantifying the spectral distribution of the direct normal irradiance and its impact on multi-junction solar cells are compared for three different sites in Southern Europe, on the Arabian Peninsula and in the South West of the USA. For each method, the uncertainty is assessed. The spectral parameter Z is used to quantify the differences between the methods.

  11. Broadband Satellite Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Jozef Bem; Tadeusz W. Wieckowski; Ryszard J. Zielinski

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the interest in broadband satellite multimedia (BSM) systems has grown rapidly. Advancements in transmission technology have led to the availability of low-cost satellite earth terminals. The superior remote access capabilities of satellite networks are foreseen to provide broadband services to geographically diverse user groups. The desire to support a wide range of broadband services in satellite networks implies that

  12. INDOOR RADON MEASUREMENTS IN TURKEY DWELLINGS.

    PubMed

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Task?n, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2014-11-11

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. PMID:25389360

  13. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  14. Regulation of mouse satellite DNA replication time.

    PubMed Central

    Selig, S; Ariel, M; Goitein, R; Marcus, M; Cedar, H

    1988-01-01

    The satellite DNA sequences located near the centromeric regions of mouse chromosomes replicate very late in S in both fibroblast and lymphocyte cells and are heavily methylated at CpG residues. F9 teratocarcinoma cells, on the other hand, contain satellite sequences which are undermethylated and replicate much earlier in S. DNA methylation probably plays some role in the control of satellite replication time since 5-azacytidine treatment of RAG fibroblasts causes a dramatic temporal shift of replication to mid S. In contrast to similar changes accompanying the inactivation of the X-chromosome, early replication of satellite DNA is not associated with an increase in local chromosomal DNase I sensitivity. Fusion of F9 with mouse lymphocytes caused a dramatic early shift in the timing of the normally late replicating lymphocyte satellite heterochromatin, suggesting that trans-activating factors may be responsible for the regulation of replication timing. Images PMID:3366119

  15. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yi?it, Ozgen; Katlan?r, Eda; Kele?, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated with beta-lactam antibiotics. Demographic analysis of the cases revealed that 68% of them lived in the rural area, 75% had rodents at home, 46% used natural water supplies, 53% fed animals, 15% had contact with game animals and 5% had contact with ticks. Clinical samples from the patients were found culture negative for F.tularensis. The diagnosis of the cases was based on the presence of specific F.tularensis antibodies between 1/160-1/1280 titers obtained by microagglutination test. Additionally F.tularensis DNA was demonstrated in three lymph node aspirate samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Water samples were found negative both by culture and PCR assays. However, it was detected that there were problems in the chlorination of water supplies in the two villages where epidemics were seen. All the patients were treated with streptomycin (2 x 1 g, intramuscular, 10 days), and surgical intervention was performed for the patients (n= 12) with extremely large lymph nodes and suppuration. Erythema nodosum developed in two patients following the end of treatment. Death or serious complications such as pneumonia or meningitis were not detected. In conclusion, tularemia should be considered in patients presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy, sore throat, fever and unresponsive to previous treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics. For the management of the disease, healthcare personnel and the community should be educated concerning the risk factors and precautions for tularemia. PMID:22639311

  16. Survival of turkey arthritis reovirus in poultry litter and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Verma, Harsha; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Ziegler, Andre F; Noll, Sally L; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-04-01

    Turkey reoviruses (TRVs) can cause arthritis, tenosynovitis, and enteric diseases in turkeys, leading to huge economic losses. The TRVs are tentatively divided into turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) and turkey enteric reoviruses (TERVs) depending on the type of disease they produce. This study was conducted to determine the survival of these viruses in autoclaved and nonautoclaved poultry litter and drinking water at room temperature (approx. 25°C). Three isolates of TARV (TARV-O'Neil, TARV-MN2, and TARV-MN4) and one each of TERV (TERV-MN1) and chicken arthritis reovirus (CARV) were used in this study. The viruses were propagated and titrated on QT-35 cells. In autoclaved dechlorinated tap water, all 5 viruses were able to survive for 9 to 13?wk. In nonautoclaved water, all 5 viruses survived for at least 2?wk. In autoclaved litter, the viruses survived for 6 to 8?wk, and in nonautoclaved litter, they survived for 6 to 8?d only. The implications of these results are discussed below. PMID:25743416

  17. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  18. Cultural Studies in Turkey: Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pultar, Gonul; Kirtunc, Ayse Lahur

    2004-01-01

    In this essay, the authors aim at contributing to the debate on "International Perspectives on Cultural Studies in/and Education" by presenting a perspective from Turkey, and problematizing the issues that are encountered in the country in the instruction and practice of cultural studies. They start with a brief survey of the Ege University…

  19. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  20. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  1. Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults H. L. ShivaprasadA, M. S. FrancaA, P. R. WoolcockA, R. NordhausenB, M. DayC and M. Pantin-JackwoodC California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, AFresno and BDavis Branches, University of California, Davis, 2789 South Orange Av...

  2. Fundamentalist Bedfellows: Political Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    Defines Islamic creationism and anti-evolutionism in Turkey, provides information about political and cultural changes starting from the 1920s, and discusses Islamic movements at this time. Presents examples of politicians' approaches to this issue and points out the effects of Christian creationism and the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) on…

  3. DETERMINATION OF NUTRIENT MASS BALANCE IN TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) retention and excretion were determined for turkeys fed two diets at three different ages via mass balance from feed intake, carcass retention, and litter mass and composition. The two diets consisted of a typical industry diet (I) and a low P + 600 U/kg phyt...

  4. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  5. Clay Corner: Light up a Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Presents two activities that enable students to work with clay: a tile project and turkey candle-holders. Explains that before students actually create their own projects, they get an opportunity to experience the clay itself. Asserts that the new vocabulary, unusual equipment, and intriguing techniques make ceramics a motivating activity. (CMK)

  6. The kitchen furniture market in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelio Volpe

    2009-01-01

    This report offers an overview of the kitchen furniture sector in Turkey, providing recent trends, mid term perspectives and forecasts in kitchen furniture production and consumption, imports and exports, prices, marketing policies and distribution. Short profiles of major players are given as well their market shares. The report covers both kitchen furniture and built-in appliances sold through this channel. The

  7. Early Childhood Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…

  8. Turkey devastated by another major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The total number of dead from the disastrous earthquake that struck northwestern Turkey on August 17 could reach 40,000 and the property loss could be $40 billion, according to some reports. A week after the quake, relief efforts focused primarily on helping the tens of thousands injured and the hundreds of thousands homeless.

  9. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  10. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification.

    PubMed

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H

    2007-05-01

    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved. PMID:17057981

  11. DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT PORSUK/ULUKISLA, TURKEY

    E-print Network

    Manning, Sturt

    DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT PORSUK/ULUKISLA, TURKEY PRELIMINARY REPORT, 1987-1989 PAR August 1987; 15 August 1983; and 22 August 1989 the Aegean Dendrochronology Project visited the Bronze, at the kind invitation of its excavator, Prof. Olivier Pelon, to take samples for dendrochronological analysis

  12. Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fructuoso Ayala-Guerrero; G. Mexicano; J. I. Ramos

    2003-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other

  13. Rabies in foxes, Aegean region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Vos, Ad; Freuling, Conrad; Eskiizmirliler, Seza; Un, Hikmet; Aylan, Orhan; Johnson, Nicholas; Gürbüz, Semra; Müller, Winfried; Akkoca, Necdet; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R; Askaroglu, Haluk

    2009-10-01

    At the end of the 1990s in the Aegean region of Turkey, rabies rapidly spread among foxes. This spread likely resulted from spillover infection from dogs and led to increased rabies cases among cattle. To control this outbreak, oral rabies vaccination of foxes has been used. PMID:19861056

  14. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Shelmadine; Matt Cooke; Thomas Buford; Geoffrey Hudson; Liz Redd; Brian Leutholtz; Darryn S Willoughby

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. METHODS: Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 × 10-RM) 4 times\\/wk for 28 days while also ingesting 27 g\\/day of placebo

  15. Skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Grace W; Lamb, Elizabeth K; Kao, Race L

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (myoblasts) are the primary stem cells of skeletal muscle which contribute to growth, maintenance, and repair of the muscles. Satellite cells are the first stem cells used for cellular cardiomyoplasty more than 20 years ago. The isolation, culture, labeling, and identification of satellite cells are described in detail here. The implantation and outcomes of cellular cardiomyoplasty using satellite cells have been summarized in the previous chapter (Chapter 1). PMID:23807783

  16. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  17. Current leakage for low altitude satellites - Modeling applications. [simulation of high voltage solar cell array in ionospheric plasma environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konradi, A.; Mccoy, J. E.; Garriott, O. K.

    1979-01-01

    To simulate the behavior of a high voltage solar cell array in the ionospheric plasma environment, the large (90 ft x 55 ft diameter) vacuum chamber was used to measure the high-voltage plasma interactions of a 3 ft x 30 ft conductive panel. The chamber was filled with Nitrogen and Argon plasma at electron densities of up to 1,000,000 per cu cm. Measurements of current flow to the plasma were made in three configurations: (a) with one end of the panel grounded, (b) with the whole panel floating while a high bias was applied between the ends of the panel, and (c) with the whole panel at high negative voltage with respect to the chamber walls. The results indicate that a simple model with a constant panel conductivity and plasma resistance can adequately describe the voltage distribution along the panel and the plasma current flow. As expected, when a high potential difference is applied to the panel ends more than 95% of the panel floats negative with respect to the plasma.

  18. Toward a phenology network in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

  19. Solar power satellite, system definition study. Part 2, volume 3: SPS satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The differences in approach to solar energy conversion by solar cells and thermal engine systems are examined. Systems requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS) are given along with a description of the primary subsystems. Trades leading to exact configuration selection, for example, selection of the Rankine cycle operating temperatures are explained, and two satellite configurations are discussed.

  20. What are Satellites?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity, students differentiate between natural satellites and artificial satellites, and are challenged to create a model of an artificial satellite, including calculating the amount of energy required to power the satellite and the size of the solar array required to generate that power. Student worksheets, answer sheet, illustrations of satellites, teacher tips and Web links are included. This is Lesson 2 in What are Satellites, part of IMAGERS, Interactive Media Adventures for Grade School Education using Remote Sensing. The website provides hands-on activities in the classroom supporting the science content in two interactive media books, The Adventures of Echo the Bat and Amelia the Pigeon.

  1. Environmental temperature and Turkey performance: the use of diets containing increased levels of protein and use

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    supplied during brooding and rearing. The turkeys were debeaked at 8 d old. The controlled environmentEnvironmental temperature and Turkey performance: the use of diets containing increased levels 581 King 5turkeys kept under an 18 or 25 °C

  2. 75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the January 1, 2008, through December...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

  3. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

  4. 76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...Administration [A-489-807] Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice...antidumping duty order on certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey;...

  5. 78 FR 73838 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...Administration [C-489-819] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Postponement...countervailing duty investigation on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Turkey.\\1\\ The...1\\ See Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from Turkey:...

  6. Cross?protection between JMV Marek's disease?derived tumour transplant, Marek's disease and Turkey herpesviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicco V. Bülow

    1977-01-01

    Cross?protection tests were conducted using attenuated JMV (JMV?A) Marek's disease?derived lymphoblasts, glutaraldehyde?treated JMV tumour cells, attenuated Marek's disease virus (MDV, strain HPRS?16\\/att) and turkey herpesvirus (HVT, strain FC126) as vaccines, and virulent JMV and MDV (HPRS?16) for challenge. The JMV and JMV?A preparations were free of MDV, leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis viruses.Vaccination of chickens with attenuated MDV or with HVT provided

  7. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from outside the space arena in which organizations have pursued technological capability. Scholars have analyzed these examples and developed insightful frameworks. The paper draws key concepts from this literature about the nature of development, technology, knowledge and organizational learning. These concepts are relevant to learning in new satellite programs, but the ideas must be applied cautiously because of the nature of satellite technology. The paper draws three major lessons from the international development literature regarding absorptive capacity, tacit knowledge and organizational learning; it synthesizes these lessons into a cohesive, original framework. The closing section proposes future work on a detailed study of technological learning in specific government satellite programs.

  8. Satellite Imaging Corporation: IKONOS Satellite Images

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Satellite Imaging Corporation

    Satellite Imaging Corporation (SIC) acquires and processes imagery from the IKONOS satellite as well as others and makes the products available through their website. The images in the gallery are arranged in several categories based on what applications the images might be useful for, such as Agriculture, Coastal Management, or Sports and Tourism.

  9. Hurricane Katrina Satellite Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service

    This page provides access to a good number of satellite images of Hurricane Katrina taken by polar orbiting and geostationary satellites operated by NOAA. High resolution images are available on the site.

  10. To nest successfully, female Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) rely on endogenous

    E-print Network

    To nest successfully, female Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) rely on endogenous energy reserves of their expanded range, information on Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo mer- riami) is lacking, specifically

  11. Earth System: Satellites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    There are thousands of artificial satellites circling our planet for navigation, communications, entertainment, and science. These satellites are an integral part of our everyday life, and they collect data which cannot be obtained from Earth's surface. This video segment describes the basic components of a satellite and some of applications that have been developed for both geostationary and orbiting satellites. The segment is three minutes fifty seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  12. Modern Technologies: Satellites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Harris, Kathryn Louise.

    1998-01-01

    The world's increasing dependence on satellites was recently made clear when a PanAmSat communications satellite went down, disrupting communication and data transmission around the world. The eight resources in this week's In the News highlight satellites, and the many important roles they play in our lives. Today, satellites are used to convey a wealth of information, from communications to important scientific data.

  13. Dietary Butylated Hydroxytoluene Protects against Aflatoxicosis in Turkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Klein; Terry R. Van Vleet; Jeffery O. Hall; Roger A. Coulombe

    2002-01-01

    Turkeys are among the most sensitive species to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In mammals, dietary antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), have been shown to lessen the toxic effects of AFB1 by various mechanisms. To test whether BHT protects against aflatoxicosis in turkeys, we supplemented the feed of 10-day-old male white turkeys with low (1000

  14. Earthquake disaster risk assessment and evaluation for Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kas?m Arma?an Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is the one country in which 90% of the buildings are subject to the risk of earthquake disaster. Recent earthquakes\\u000a revealed that Turkey’s present residential reinforced-concrete constructions are insufficient in earthquake resistance. Many\\u000a of the buildings which collapsed or were severely damaged have been rehabilitated by applying simple methods, whose adequacy\\u000a is questionable. As in Japan and the United

  15. Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alper Baba; Gokmen Tayfur

    The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described.\\u000a Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination\\u000a fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey\\u000a include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal

  16. [Theme Issue: Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    One section of this journal is devoted to issues involving broadcast satellites. Separate articles discuss the need for international planning of satellite broadcasting, decisions made at the 1971 World Administrative Radio Conference for Space Telecommunications, potential problems in satellite broadcasting, a series of proposals drawn up by the…

  17. Satellite horn antennas design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Teniente; Ramón Gonzalo; Carlos del Río

    2009-01-01

    Telecommunication satellite horn antennas require now-a-days more and more stringent requirements based mainly in the increased bandwidth necessary to accommodate more transponders to increase the capacity of the new satellite services. In this aspect horn antennas play a key role in the development of wider bandwidth services on board satellites because they are usually the reason that limits bandwidth in

  18. Digital communications by satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Spilker Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Topics in digital satellite communications are treated extensively for a readership of students or communications system designers acquainted with communications theory fundamentals and random processes. Major parts of the book are: signal quantizing and multiplexing; satellite communications; modulation and coding in distorted channels; worldwide timing by satellite relay. Some specific topics treated include: PCM quantizing, sampling of nonbandlimited signals, delta

  19. Geostationary Satellite Server

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This database contains imagery from geosationary satellites. Visitors can access daily images or archived imagery form GOES-9, METEOSAT, and other satellites. The imagery features hemispheric and whole-disk views of Earth, water vapor maps, and images of storms and other special events. Links to satellite homepages and to other related topics are included.

  20. IMAGE Satellite Scale Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about scale model building. Learners will use mathematics to determine the scale model size, construct a pattern, and build a paper scale model of the IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite, the first satellite mission to image the Earth's magnetosphere. This is the second activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring Satellite Design educator guide.

  1. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  2. Effects of high-orbit spaceflight on signaling cascades and apoptosis in immune cells from mice flied on board the BION-M1 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselova, Elena; Shenkman, Boris; Lunin, Sergey; Parfenyuk, Svetlana; Novoselova, Tatyana; Fesenko, Eugeny

    The study was designed to evaluate immune cell activity in male C57bl mice after a 30-day high-orbit spaceflight (550 km, higher than conventional manned spaceflights) on board the BION-M1 satellite (Roskosmos Program, Russia). For the present study, thymus, spleens and plasma samples were collected from mice 12 h after landing and, additionally, 7 days subsequently. Assessing the activity of NF-kappaB signaling cascade by measuring Rel A (p65) protein phosphorylation in splenic lymphocytes, we showed that the NF-kappaB activity was significantly increased at 12 h after landing. Contrariwise, one week after landing, the NF-kappaB activity was markedly decreased, even below to the control values. Interestingly, after landing there were no significant changes in SAPK/JNK cascade activity in splenic lymphocytes as well as in the expression of transcription factor IRF3 in thymus cells. To assess the apoptosis status in thymus lymphocytes, levels of p53 protein and its phosphorylated form were measured in thymic lymphocytes. It is known that p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage, genomic aberrations, and other characteristic of apoptosis. The results showed that the high-orbit spaceflight environment caused some increase in level of p53 protein, but most notably, activated phosphorylated form of p53 protein. Calculated ratio of active and inactive forms of the protein (ph-p53/p53) 12 h after landing increased by more than 2-fold, indicating the apparent induction of apoptosis in thymus cells. Interestingly, 7 days after the landing, this ratio was not restored, but rather increased: the specified ratio was 4 times higher as compared to the ground-based control. We can conclude that response to the prolonged high-orbit spaceflight is not like the classic "stress response", which is usually observed under various stressful factors. It is known that the stress response is surely accompanied by increased SAPK/JNK cascade activity as well as the expression of the IRF3; in fact, we did not observed any changes in the SAPK/JNK phosphorylation or in the IRF3 production. Furthermore, stressful factors usually result in the fast, but reversible, thymus involution. But our measurements showed that the thymus depletion at 7th day after landing was expressed even more than 12 h after the spaceflight. This is consistent with the results of the level of apoptosis in thymus cells; indeed, the apoptosis in thymus lymphocytes 7 days after was higher than 12 h after landing. Collectively, these results indicate that the changes of immune cell homeostasis may be a result of exposure to damaging factors of not very high intensity. In any case, similar effects are caused, to our knowledge, by low doses of ionizing radiation. As spaceflight is not accompanied only with the gravitational changes, but also with other factors, such as radiation, it is possible that immune disbalance after spaceflight was caused by a combined action of several factors. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 12-04-00113-a.The authors express their gratitude to unified team involved in preparation and implementation of the spaceflight of BION-M #1.

  3. Skeletal muscle stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer CJ Chen; David J Goldhamer

    2003-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem

  4. A report on syphilis control in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Sven

    1954-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month survey of the nature and extent of venereal diseases in Turkey which was undertaken by the author, on behalf of WHO, at the request of the Turkish Government. The first part of the report outlines the present venereal-disease-control system and includes descriptions of the work undertaken by public authorities, hospitals and dispensaries, mobile venereal-disease-control teams, and laboratories; in the second part, the author enumerates certain recommendations for the intensification of the current control programme. These recommendations are particularly concerned with the control of syphilis (since the incidence of other venereal diseases in Turkey is of very secondary importance), and with the expansion, standardization, and co-ordination of serodiagnostic facilities and services. It is suggested that there might be a gradual intensification and reorientation of the present programme. A proposed plan of operations for an eight-year period is described. PMID:13182590

  5. Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

  6. Satellite Feature Identification: Cyclogenesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2012-08-17

    This module, Satellite Feature Identification: Cyclogenesis, uses water vapor satellite imagery to present a satellite perspective of basic features associated with the formation and development of extratropical cyclones. First, through an initial case study, the precursor elements leading to cyclogenesis are identified. Then three conceptual views of different ways cyclogenesis can evolve are presented along with additional examples to illustrate the concepts. Finally a series of exercises, again using real case studies, are used to emphasize the important points and provide realistic scenarios describing some of the many ways cyclogenesis reveals itself on satellite imagery. This module is part of the series: 'Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette'.

  7. Weather Satellite and Orbits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this interactive, online module, students learn about satellite orbits (geostationary and polar), remote-sensing satellite instruments (radiometers and sounders), satellite images, and the math and physics behind satellite technology. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  8. Vanguard I Satellite Structure and Separation Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, John T.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    A reevaluation of the Vanguard program objectives in January 1957 resulted in the production of the Vanguard I Satellite, a 6.44-inch-diameter, 3.25-pound sphere with six equally spaced solar cell clusters and six equally spaced antennas mounted on its surface. Experiment requirements necessitated the development of a mechanism to separate the satellite from the third-stage rocket. On the basis of the existing standard separation mechanism, a strap pull-pin girth-ring arrangement was developed. Both the satellite and the separation mechanism were fully tested prior to flight. Successful orbiting and flight operation proved the adequacy of the design.

  9. Genetic features of retinitis pigmentosa in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leyla S. Atmaca; Bekir Sitki ?ayli; Nurten Akarsu; Kaan Gündüz

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-two cases with retinitis pigmentosa from 42 index families were investigated to reveal the genetic features of the disease in Turkey. There were 42 propositi of whom 5 had a systemic syndrome associated with retinitis pigmentosa. Of the remaining 37 cases the condition was autosomal recessive in 21 (56.8%), sporadic in 12 (32.4%), autosomal dominant in 3 (8.1%) and X-linked

  10. Zinc Deficiency in Wheat in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismail Cakmak

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in soils and crop plants occurs nearly in all countries, particularly in cereal-growing areas. Turkey\\u000a is among the countries with the most severe Zn-deficient soils. Previously, wheat grown in Central Anatolia was low yielding\\u000a over many years, but the reason was unclear. In 1991\\/1992 a field experiment was conducted to determine whether micronutrients\\u000a were a possible cause

  11. Seismicity and the Crustal Structure in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambaz, Didem

    2014-05-01

    Turkey and adjacent areas which is located in the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt suffer from active seismicity for many years. The number of recorded earthquakes in the area increase day by day with the improvement of the seismic networks operated in the area. A well defined crustal (velocity-depth) model is one of the most important parameters in the process and the location of earthquake data. Three largest networks of Turkey are operated by Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) and TÜB?TAK Marmara Research Center (MRC). In this study an integrated homogeneous earthquake catalogue is obtained by combining the catalogues of these three agencies operating seismic networks in Turkey. Approximately 120.000 earthquakes in five years between 2008 and 2013 recorded by more than 400 broadband stations, belonging to the networks of KOERI, AFAD and MRC in the area are combined and relocated. Integrated homogeneous earthquake catalogue obtained in the frame of this study from the combination of three different catalogues are used not only for a better understanding and interpretation of the active tectonics and seismicity in the area, but also for obtaining the regional one dimensional (1-D) P and S wave velocity-depth models on a variety of different regional crustal structures in Turkey. Determination of the detailed crustal structure on different lithospheric fragments and the relocation of earthquakes by using these new models will improve the knowledge on the seismicity and the distribution of earthquake clusters together with a better understanding of the correlation of these earthquake locations with the existing active faults. The results of the study will also serve as an input for later studies for the determination of three dimensional (3-D) Vp and Vp/Vs models in the area.

  12. Trend analysis of streamflow in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ercan Kahya; Serdar Kalayc?

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents trends computed for the 31-year period of monthly streamflows obtained from 26 basins over Turkey. Four non-parametric trend tests (the Sen's T, the Spearman's Rho, the Mann-Kendall, and the Seasonal Kendall which are known as appropriate tools in detecting linear trends of a hydrological time series) are adapted in this study. Moreover, the Van Belle and Hughes’

  13. Healthcare Information Technology Infrastructures in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, M.; Ertürkmen, G. L.; Kabak, Y.; Namli, T.; Y?ld?z, M. H.; Ay, Y.; Ceyhan, B.; Hülür, Ü.; Öztürk, H.; Atbakan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sa?l?k-Net (Turkish for “Health-Net”), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sa?l?k-Net are also briefly summarized. Methods The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Results Sa?l?k-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients’ Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sa?l?k-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. Conclusion With the introduction of the “Health Transformation Program” in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality. PMID:24853036

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  16. Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Spears; Warren B. Ballard; Mark C. Wallace; Richard S. Phillips; Derrick P. Holdstock; John H. Brunjes; Roger D. Applegate; Michael S. Miller; Philip S. Gipson

    Knowledge of chick survival rates is required to develop species-specific habitat-survival relationships. We determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from hatching to time of tree roost at four sites in southwestern Kansas and the Texas Rolling Plains, May-August, 2000 and 2001. One-hundred twenty-three chicks from 39 broods were equipped with cyanoacrylate-attached transmitters. The

  17. Research on embryos in Turkey with ethical and legal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vatano?lu-Lutz, Emine Elif

    2012-01-01

    Technically, the term embryo refers to the products of conception after implantation into the wall of the womb, usually nearly two weeks after fertilization, up until the eighth week. Embryos contain stem cells which, according to scientists, could be used to cure a wide range of conditions. Stem cells can be coaxed into growing cells of any other type, which makes them potentially very useful indeed. However, removing stem cells from an embryo will kill the embryo, which some people object to. From the mid 1970s, IVF was being developed and research was carried out on the spare embryos produced. This research helped to improve IVF techniques, as well as to better understand the earliest stages of human development. Research also shed light on a variety of inheritable disorders. In Turkish Law, assisted reproduction treatment (ART) services are regulated with the Regulation of Assisted Reproductive Treatment Centers Act (RAPTCA) The Regulation was issued in 1987, but it has been amended several times since. Also, article 90 of the Turkish Penal Code covers some aspects of research on embryos. At the same time, the Biomedicine Convention (Oviedo Convention), signed by Turkey and which entered into force in 2003, has binding regulations about this issue. Different legal regulations and some ethical guidelines are in conflict with each other, creating much confusion for the researchers. In this paper these conflicts are discussed, giving some practical proposals. PMID:24592037

  18. General aspect of pneumoconiosis in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Cimrin, Arif; Erdut, Zeki

    2007-01-01

    During the past 20 years number of definitive occupational diseases has not increased above 1500 case/year according to official statistics in Turkey. Although pneumoconiosis is the most diagnosed occupational disease, incidence of pneumoconiosis is very low. The present paper aims at reaching conclusions on the true dimension of the pneumoconiosis problem by evaluating whole the studies and case presentations related to coal mine dust and crystalline silica exposure within occupational environment. Regarding the results of the workplace-based studies it could be predicted that 20,000 out of 220,000 workers in mining sector could have pneumoconiosis and approximately 5,000 new pneumoconiosis cases might have occurred each year. Case presentations show high-level dust exposures present at the work places. These working conditions might cause acute pneumoconiosis. Poor working conditions exist especially at small and micro scale establishments. In Turkey, infrastructural and superstructural problems on workplace supervision and follow-up, legal processes on workers’ health are complicated. Turkey has to provide healthy working conditions to those small-scale workplaces. Providing relevant assistance with activating people of the developed countries should be on top of the global efforts. PMID:21938215

  19. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  20. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  1. Build It Yourself: Satellite!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "Build It Yourself: Satellite!" is an online Flash game hosted on the James Webb Space Telescope website. The goal of the game is to explain the decision-making process of satellite design. The user can choose to build a "small," "medium," or "large" astronomy satellite. The user then selects science goals, wavelength, instruments, and optics. The satellite is then launched on the appropriate rocket (shown via an animation). Finally, the user is shown what their satellite might look like, as well as what kind of data it might collect, via examples from similar real-life satellites. Satellites range from small X-ray missions without optics (like the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) to large missions with segmented mirrors (like the James Webb Space Telescope).

  2. Prevalence of ?-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in Sanliurfa Province in southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Incebiyik, Adnan; Genc, Ahmet; Hilali, Nese Gul; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan; Kilic, Avni; Vural, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in Turkey, especially in the Mediterranean region of the country. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of the ?-thalassemia (?-thal) trait and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs) in couples who applied for premarital screening in Sanliurfa Province, in the southeastern region of Turkey, a province with the first reported incidence of ?-thal and abnormal Hbs. In the present study, in order to detect the prevalence of the ?-thal trait and abnormal Hbs in Sanliurfa Province, Turkey, a total of 37,962 couples who applied for premarital screening were analyzed. From January 2011 through March 2014, red blood cell (RBC) counts and Hb fractionation were carried out by a cell counter and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The prevalence of ?-thal with high Hb A2 (>3.5%) values was found at rates of 2.44% (n = 1853) in Sanliurfa Province. Additionally, the abnormal Hb rate was 1.57% (1193/75,924), and Hb S (HBB: c.20T > A), Hb C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) were reported as 0.50, 0.38 and 0.69, respectively. This study is the first to establish the frequency of ?-thal and abnormal Hbs in Sanliurfa Province, which has the highest birth frequency. We report that the frequency of the ?-thal trait is at a high-risk level compared to other cities in Turkey. Due to the high risk of ?-thal in Sanliurfa Province, a premarital screening program would be of great value in informing parents about offspring with ?-thal. PMID:25405917

  3. National Seismic Network System of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunbul, S.; Kadirio?lu, F. T.; Holo?lu, N.; Kartal, R. F.; Kiliç, T.; Yatman, A.; Iravul, Y.; Tüzel, B.

    2009-04-01

    In order to mitigate disaster losses, it is necessary to establish an effective disaster management and risk system. The first step of the management is constituted by preparedness studies before the earthquake (disaster). In order to determinate disaster and risk information it is necessary to have a seismological observation network. Due to the monitoring of the earhquakes in the country-wide scale, recording, evaluation, archieving and to inform to the public autority, the project named "Development of the National Seismic Network Project-USAG" has been started. 6 Three Component Short Period, 63 Broad-band, 13 One Component Short Period stations, 65 Local Network- Broad-band, and 247 accelerometers have been operated in the frame of this project. All of the stations transmit continuously their signal to the ERD (Earthquake Research Department) seismic data center in Ankara. Capability of the network is to determine an earthquake which is minimum local magnitude ML= 2.8 generally, in some region local magnitude threshold is ML=1.5 (the places where the stations are concentrated). Earthquake activity in Turkey and surrounding region has been observed 7 days / 24 hours, in ERD data center in Ankara. After the manuel location of an earthquake, If the magnitude is over 4.0, system sends to SMS message automaticaly to the authorized people and immediately press, public and national-local crisis center, scientific institutions are informed by fax and e-mail. Data exchange has been carried out to EMSC-CSEM. During the ?nstallation of the broad-band stations, the seismotectonics of the region has been taken into consideration. Earthqauke record stations are concentrated at the most important fault zones in Turkey; North Anatolian Fault System, East Anatolian Fault System, Bitlis Overlap Belt and Aegean Graben (or opening) System. After 1999 ?zmit and Düzce earthquakes, the number of the seismic stations in Turkey have been increased each passing year. In this study, a brief information about the developments of National Seismic Network System of Turkey will be given and in the light of these developments, recent earthquake activity in Turkey with local magnitude ML?5.0 will be presented.

  4. Initial evaluation tests of Eagle-Picher Industries 9.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the heat capacity mapping mission satellite and the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The results of tests to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality are reported. The tests consisted of the following: phenolptalein leak tests, internal short test, charge efficiency test, and overcharge tests. The results of tests for 10 cells are tabulated.

  5. The Role of Renewables in Future Energy Directions of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAMIL KAYGUSUZ

    2004-01-01

    Turkey is an energy importing country; more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited and lignites are characterized by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development in Turkey.

  6. Sustainable development of hydropower and biomass energy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Kaygusuz

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing energy demand for electricity and domestic heating in Turkey. Air pollutant emissions due to power generation and their harmful effects on the environment are also presented. We also argue in favor of small scale dams for sustainable development. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125

  7. Energy sector and wind energy potential in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tugrul Ogulata

    2003-01-01

    Turkey has very limited indigenous energy resources and has to import around 65% of primary energy to meet her needs. It is a large importer of primary energy despite having ample renewable energy sources.Turkey’s vibrant economy has led to increased energy demand in recent years. This situation is expected to continue in the near future because its economy is dependent

  8. Energy production, consumption, policies, and recent developments in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Çanka Kiliç; Durmu? Kaya

    2007-01-01

    Turkey is geographically in the middle of the world, which means it is surrounded by the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. This area is not only geographically, but also economically, very important. Turkey has a very young and increasing population. In addition to the increase in population, a growing number of city dwellers and rapid economic development are causing

  9. Turkey's energy overview beginning in the twenty-first century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirba?

    2002-01-01

    Turkey is at the crossroads of several volatile, strategically and economically important regions, including the awkward triangle of the Middle East, Central Asia and the Caucasus. With a young and growing population, low per capita electricity consumption, rapid urbanization and strong economic growth, Turkey, for nearly two decades, has been one of the fastest growing power markets in the world.

  10. Victims of Sex Trafficking in Turkey: Characteristics, Motivations, and Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oguzhan Omer Demir; James O. Finckenauer

    2010-01-01

    An emerging transnational crime problem, human trafficking occurs in almost every part of the world. But as a transit, source, and destination nexus for immigration, Turkey is particularly vulnerable in this regard. Turkey attracts many foreigners who choose to come there for geographical, historical, economic, and political reasons; some of these persons are victims of human trafficking. This article examines

  11. PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA IN MARKET-AGE TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in turkeys on-farm and at slaughter (i.e., before and after feed withdrawal, catching, loading, transportation, and pre-slaughter holding). In each of the six commercial turkey production flocks studied, 30 birds were r...

  12. Republic of Turkey, State Institute of Statistics (SIS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    The State Institute of Statistics (SIS) produces, collects, and compiles national social, economic, cultural, and demographic data for the Republic of Turkey. The SIS, a division of the Prime Ministry, provides the latest figures, indicators, and statistical reports on Turkey published by the Turkish government and other international statistical agencies.

  13. New Bythinella (Gastropoda, Bythinellidae) species from western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Y?ld?r?m, Mehmet Zeki; Kebapç?, Ümit; Koca, Seval Bahad?r; Yüce, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bythinella anatolica sp. n., Bythinella istanbulensis sp. n., Bythinella magdalenae sp. n., and Bythinella wilkei sp. n. from western Turkey are described herein. Illustrations of the shell and genitalia of the newly described taxa, together with comparisons with previously known Bythinella taxa and a key to the species from western Turkey, are also provided. PMID:25685028

  14. Turkey's foreign policy options: Europe, the USA or Central Asia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Kassimeris

    2010-01-01

    Accession to the European Union (EU) constitutes one of Turkey's primary foreign policy objectives. However, to establish whether the country would benefit from becoming part of an integrated Europe, its foreign policy alternatives to EU membership must also be examined. The first part of this article analyses Turkey's changing relations with Europe. Against this backdrop, the article then moves to

  15. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  16. A snapshot of renewable energy research in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melih Soner Celiktas; Tarkan Sevgili; Gunnur Kocar

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find out the development trends of the scientific studies in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. All the publications in the ISI Web database were screened using 36 different keywords in title or topics based on the affiliation addresses including the word “Turkey”. A total of 12,197 publications were processed article by article

  17. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  18. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  19. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  20. Higher Education in Turkey. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Leland C. Ed.

    This monograph examines the state of higher education in Turkey. Thirteen chapters cover: (1) "General Information on Turkey"; (2) "The Historical Development of Higher Education"; (3) "Administrative Structure"; (4) "The Teaching Staff"; (5) "Access to Higher Education"; (6) "Content and Organization of Course Programmes"; (7) "Diplomas and…

  1. Seismic hazard map of Turkey using the deterministic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Kayabali; Müge Akin

    2003-01-01

    Because the instrumental records of Turkey are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt was made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic way. In this regard, all active faults of Turkey, small and large, were evaluated together to obtain major fault systems. Then, the procedure suggested by Wells and

  2. Accreditation Policies of Turkey in Primary and Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuzan, Verda Gizem

    2012-01-01

    Turkey's quality of education is being improved in order to become a member of EU (European Union), and Turkey is following the EU's system of educational policies. In the field of education, to encourage teaching and learning, accreditation process is used. It helps programs improve and be accountable for their quality. Accreditation provides…

  3. Brain drain from Turkey: an investigation of students’ return intentions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nil Demet Güngör; Ays?t Tansel

    2008-01-01

    The emigration of skilled individuals from Turkey attracted greater media attention and the interest of policymakers in Turkey, particularly after the experience of recurrent economic crises that have led to an increase in unemployment among the highly educated young. This study estimates a model of return intentions using a data set compiled from an Internet survey of Turkish students residing

  4. Concentrated Urban Poverty: The Case of Izmir Inner Area, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    In Turkey, poverty has been a main subject of debates since 1960s. It used to be a serious problem for both rural areas and the big cities that gained migration. In Turkey and world-wide since the 1980s, however, there have been more research interests in the concentrated urban poverty, especially along with the increase in levels of impoverishment around the

  5. Turkey's Renewable Energy Sources: Part 2. Potential and Utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARIF HEPBASLI; ONDER OZGENER

    2004-01-01

    In Turkey, renewable energy sources (RESs) production is the second biggest production source after total coal production. About two-thirds of the need of the RESs is met by biomass, while the remaining is mainly met by hydroelectric energy. This article addresses both potential and utilization relating to Turkey's RESs such as hydroelectric, solar, geothermal, wind energies and biomass, while these

  6. The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Francis J.

    There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

  7. Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Cheese Helva Produced in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sengul; M. F. Ertugay

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological and chemical properties of Cheese helva, one of the traditional cheeses varieties produced in Turkey, was studied. This cheese is called Cheese helva since it is produced from wheat flour and milk cream. Samples were randomly collected from different villages in the Erzurum province of Turkey. The average of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB), yeast

  8. Vocational Education in Turkey: The Past, Changes and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbilek, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the present conditions and emerging issues about the future of vocational teacher education in Turkey. The paper discusses the background and historic legacies that have led to the restructuring of Faculties of Teacher Education in Turkey. The influence of the reforms from the foundation of the Turkish Republic are discussed as…

  9. International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

  10. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekerol, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters

    E-print Network

    Butler, Matthew J.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters helicopter. We used flocks with radio-tagged birds to estimate flock detectability. We also used simulations that wild turkey flock detectability was 94.7% (74.0­99.9%; 95% CI). Our simu- lations suggested helicopter

  12. Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey) Cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Altunok; E. Yazar; N. Yuksek

    2007-01-01

    Altunok V., E. Yazar, N. Yuksek: Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey) Cats. Acta Vet Brno 2007, 76: 171-177. The Turkish Van cat originates from eastern Turkey. One of the characteristic features of Van cats is the colour of their eyes, which can be both eyes blue, both eyes amber or one eye blue and the other amber. Serum

  13. Comparative gait analysis of two strains of turkey, meleagris gallopavo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abourachid

    1991-01-01

    1. Economic requirements have encouraged farmers to select broad?breasted strains of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). These birds are very heavy (more than 30 kg), have pectoral hypertrophy and are frequently lame. Traditional turkeys, closer to wild birds, weigh 9 kg on average.2. Gaits, which are motor pattern expressions, seem to be linked to species morphology. However, no significant differences are evident

  14. Microsatellite Loci for Genetic Mapping in the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Reed; L. D. Chaves; M. K. Hall; T. P. Knutson; J. A. Rowe; A. J. Torgerson

    2003-01-01

    New microsatellite loci for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) were developed from two small insert DNA libraries. Polymorphism at these new loci was examined in domestic birds and two resource populations designed for genetic linkage mapping. The majority of loci (152 of 168) was polymorphic in domestic turkeys and informative in two mapping resource populations and thus will be useful for

  15. Subclinical Infections with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akinci, Esragül; Ascioglu, Sibel; Öngürü, Pinar; Uyar, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    To investigate Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Turkey, we conducted a seroepidemiologic survey during January–April 2009. Seroprevalence of infection was 10% in a sample from an outbreak region and increased with patient age, indicating that the virus had been previously present in Turkey. We also estimated that 88% of infections were subclinical. PMID:22469474

  16. Turkey: Human Rights And The European Union Accession Partnership

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Turkey: Human Rights And The European Union Accession Partnership is a 31-page report detailing Human Rights Watch's recommendations for the EU's Accession Partnership Document laying out the human rights criteria Turkey will have to meet to be granted EU membership.

  17. Teaching in rural Turkey: pre-service teacher perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irem K?z?laslan

    2011-01-01

    Despite preliminary findings that preparing teachers for rural positions is of great importance in Turkey’s conditions, little has been reported regarding the measures that need to be addressed in order to effectively prepare teachers for remote areas. In response to this gap, the present study aimed to provide some preliminary views about the expectations of pre-service teachers in relation to

  18. Teaching in rural Turkey: pre-service teacher perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irem K?z?laslan

    2012-01-01

    Despite preliminary findings that preparing teachers for rural positions is of great importance in Turkey’s conditions, little has been reported regarding the measures that need to be addressed in order to effectively prepare teachers for remote areas. In response to this gap, the present study aimed to provide some preliminary views about the expectations of pre-service teachers in relation to

  19. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  20. Energy balance, energy sources, energy policy, future developments and energy investments in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirba?

    2001-01-01

    Turkey’s strategic location makes it a natural “energy bridge” between the major oil producing areas in the Middle East and Caspian Sea regions on the one hand and consumer markets in Europe on the other. Turkey’s port of Ceyhan is an important outlet, both for current Iraqi oil exports as well as for potential future (by 2004) Caspian oil exports.

  1. DISEASES DIAGNOSED IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Davidson; Victor F. Nettles; C. Edward Couvillion; Elizabeth W. Howerth

    Diagnostic findings are presented on 139 sick or dead wild turkeys examined during the period 1972 through 1984. Turkeys originated from eight southeastern states (Alabama, Ar- kansas, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia) and included 31 turkeys categorized as capture-related mortalities and 108 turkeys categorized as natural mortal- ities. Frequent diagnoses (? 10% of case accessions) in the

  2. Experimental infection in turkeys and chickens with Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

    PubMed

    van Empel, P; van den Bosch, H; Goovaerts, D; Storm, P

    1996-01-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale was found to cause growth retardation in both turkeys and chickens after experimental intra-air sac administration and to cause growth retardation together with airsacculitis and pneumonia after aerosol administration. Both turkey and chicken isolates of O. rhinotracheale were able to induce the same kind of respiratory inflammations and weight-gain losses in chickens as well as turkeys. Turkey rhinotracheitis virus was found to have a triggering effect on the O. rhinotracheale infection in turkeys, and Newcastle disease virus and to a lesser extent infectious bronchitis virus showed triggering effects on the O. rhinotracheale infection in chickens. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale could be reisolated from affected organs of experimentally infected birds. PMID:8980818

  3. The Plant Cell, Vol. 7, 1625-1634, October 1995 Q 1995 American Society of Plant Physiologists Symptom Attenuation by a Normally Virulent Satellite RNA

    E-print Network

    Simon, Anne

    Symptom Attenuation by a Normally Virulent Satellite RNA of Turnip Crinkle Virus 1s Associated by their helper virus. Sat-RNA C, as- sociated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), was previously found to intensify), including those as- sociatedwith turnip crinkle virus (TCV)and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), do not encode

  4. The Plant Cell, Vol. 9, 2051-2063, November 1997 O 1997American Society of Plant Physiologists Satellite RNA-Mediated Resistanceto Turnip CrinkleVirus in

    E-print Network

    Simon, Anne

    Satellite RNA-Mediated Resistanceto Turnip CrinkleVirus in Arabidopsis lnvolvesa ReductioninVirus Movement previously showedthat a sat-RNA (sat-RNAC) of turnip crinklevirus (TCV),which normally intensifiessymptoms (Harrison et al., 1987), indicat- ing the possible involvement of more than one mechanism. Turnip crinkle

  5. Remote sensing and archaeological survey in the Hierapolis of Phrygia territory, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2007-10-01

    The paper concerns the results of a research project on the application in archaeological survey of high resolution images of the QuickBird 2 satellite. The research is carried out within the activities of the Italian Archaeological Mission at Hierapolis of Phrygia, Turkey). The use of satellite images with high geometric, radiometric and spectral resolutions has constituted an important tool for archaeological research in the city and in the surrounding area, because vertical aerial photographies and recent and detailed cartographies are non-available. In fact the exceptional spatial resolution of the images makes them comparable to aerial photos on a medium scale; this type of documentation has an enormous potential in the study of urban and territorial ancient contexts. The examination of these images has permitted to detect surface anomalies and traces linked to archaeological buried structures or to paleo-environmental elements; moreover, particulary in the territory, the panchromatic images were georeferenced and used as the base field maps for the survey, in integration with GPS systems. The study of the satellite images and the ground truth verify have made fundamental contributions to the reconstruction of the urban layout of Hierapolis. Also much interesting were the results obtained in the territory of the city, with the integration of remote sensing and archaeological survey; the researches recovered numerous and important data on necropolis, aqueducts, roads, farms, quarries and villages dependent from Hierapolis. All the data collected are integrating into a GIS to produce archaeological maps.

  6. Satellite to satellite tracking error analysis studies and data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, C. L.; Rosenblatt, G.

    1975-01-01

    An error analysis was conducted to examine the effects of placing the target satellite in an orbit nearly coplanar with the relay satellite and of data span length on the accuracy with which the satellite states can be recovered. An analysis of error models using actual satellite to satellite tracking data spans is included. Results are tabulated.

  7. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    View Size: 124 kilometers (77 miles) wide, 148 kilometers (92 miles) distance Location: 39.7 degrees North latitude, 44.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: Looking South, 2 degrees down from horizontal, 1.25X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), August 31, 1989 (Landsat)

  8. Effect of vitamin D status improvement with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on skeletal muscle growth characteristics and satellite cell activity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hutton, K C; Vaughn, M A; Litta, G; Turner, B J; Starkey, J D

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SC) play a critical role in the hypertrophic growth of postnatal muscle. Increases in breast meat yield have been consistently observed in broiler chickens fed 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3), but it is unclear whether this effect is mediated by SC. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of vitamin D status improvement by replacing the majority of dietary vitamin D3 (D3) with 25OHD3 on SC activity and muscle growth characteristics in the pectoralis major (PM) and the biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Day-old, male Ross 708 broiler chickens (n = 150) were fed 1 of 2 corn and soybean meal-based diets for 49 d. The control diet (CTL) contained 5,000 IU D3 per kg of diet and the experimental diet (25OHD3) contained 2,240 IU D3 per kg of diet + 2,760 IU 25OHD3 per kg of diet. Ten birds per treatment were harvested every 7 d. Two hours before harvest, birds were injected intraperitoneally with 5'-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotically active cells. Blood was collected from each bird at harvest to measure circulating concentrations of 25OHD3, a marker of vitamin D status. The PM and BF muscles were weighed and processed for cryohistological determination of skeletal muscle fiber cross-sectional area, enumeration of Myf-5+ and Pax7+ SC, and mitotically active (BrdU+) SC using immunofluorescence microscopy. Circulating 25OHD3 concentrations were greater in 25OHD3-fed birds on d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 when compared with CTL (P < 0.001). Growth performance and feed efficiency did not differ among dietary treatments (P > 0.10). Improved vitamin D status as a result of feeding 25OHD3 increased the number of mitotically active (Pax7+;BrdU+) SC (P = 0.01) and tended to increase the density of Pax7+ SC (P = 0.07) in the PM muscles of broilers on d 21 and 35, respectively. Broiler chickens fed 25OHD3 also tended to have greater Myf-5+ SC density (P = 0.09) on d 14, greater total nuclear density (P = 0.05) on d 28, and a greater muscle fiber cross-sectional area (P = 0.09) on d 49 in their PM muscles compared with CTL birds. Collectively, these results suggest that improvement of vitamin D status by replacing the majority of D3 in the diet with 25OHD3 can stimulate SC activity in the predominantly fast-twitch PM muscle and provide evidence toward understanding the mechanism behind previously observed increases in breast meat yield in 25OHD3-fed commercial broiler chickens. PMID:24894000

  9. Satellites Orbiting Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In recent years, there has been a push to better understand how Earth works as a system- how land, oceans, air, and life all interact. Satellites in orbit around Earth are a fast and efficient way of gathering remotely sensed data about the planet as a whole. This animated video shows the orbital paths of the satellites in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS), a collection of satellites that work together to study Earth on a wide scale.

  10. Cycle life evaluation of 3Ah Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based lithium-ion secondary cells for low-earth-orbit satellites. II. Harvested electrode examination.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Ogawa, K.; Kumeuchi, Y.; Enomoto, S.; Uno, M.; Saito, H.; Sone, Y.; Abraham, D.; Lindbergh, G.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Royal Inst. of Tech.; Advanced Engineering Services Co.; NEC-Tokin Corp.; Inst .of Space and Astronautical Science

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a candidate for the energy storage system onboard low-earth-orbit satellites. Terrestrial experiments are able to capture the performance degradation of cells in orbit, therefore providing the opportunity for lifetime investigations. The lifetime performance of 3 Ah commercial Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based pouch cells was evaluated in a matrix of different cycling depths-of-discharge (DODs: 0, 20, 40%) and temperatures (25, 45 C). Aged cells were disassembled and the electrochemical performance of harvested electrodes investigated with two- and three-electrode pouch cells. The positive electrode had a larger decrease in capacity than the negative electrode. Both the positive and negative electrode contributed to the increase of cell impedance measured at high states-of-charge (SOCs). The data at low SOCs indicated that the increase of cell impedance was associated with the positive electrode, which showed a significant increase in the magnitude of the high-frequency semi-circle. This SOC-dependence was observed for cells cycled for either extended periods of time or at higher temperatures with a 40% DOD swing. Low-current cycling of positive electrodes revealed a change in the second potential plateau, possibly reflecting a structural change of the Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This could impact on the electrode kinetics and provide a possible explanation for the SOC-dependent change of the impedance.

  11. Use of Landsat Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Indices for Monitoring Drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Osman; Ekercin, Semih; Dadaser-Celik, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST) changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation condition index (VCI), and temperature vegetation index (TVX) were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2°C) in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984–2011). Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5–2°C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin. PMID:24587709

  12. Use of Landsat land surface temperature and vegetation indices for monitoring drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Osman; Ekercin, Semih; Dadaser-Celik, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST) changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation condition index (VCI), and temperature vegetation index (TVX) were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2°C) in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984-2011). Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5-2°C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin. PMID:24587709

  13. Polar Operational Environmental Satellite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates POES, the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite system. Comprised of several components (namely, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS)), these satellites make nearly polar orbits daily, providing global coverage of land, ocean, and atmospheric data. The POES Website includes an overview of the satellite system and lists data types such as vegetation index, sea surface temperature charts, volcanic eruption clouds, and much more. For researchers interested in environmental monitoring using satellite-based data, the POES Webpage will serve as a useful reference point.

  14. Satellite communication antenna technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R. (editor); Imbriale, W. A. (editor); Maanders, E. J. (editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  15. Methods of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  16. The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliot, John R.; Copley, Alex C.; Holley, R.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Parsons, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), body wave seismology, satellite imagery, and field observations to constrain the fault parameters of the Mw?7.1?2011?Van (Eastern Turkey) reverse-slip earthquake, in the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Distributed slip models from elastic dislocation modeling of the InSAR surface displacements from ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed interferograms indicate up to 9?m of reverse and oblique slip on a pair of en echelon NW?40 °–54 ° dipping fault planes which have surface extensions projecting to just 10?km north of the city of Van. The slip remained buried and is relatively deep, with a centroid depth of 14?km, and the rupture reaching only within 8–9?km of the surface, consistent with the lack of significant ground rupture. The up-dip extension of this modeled WSW striking fault plane coincides with field observations of weak ground deformation seen on the western of the two fault segments and has a dip consistent with that seen at the surface in fault gouge exposed in Quaternary sediments. No significant coseismic slip is found in the upper 8?km of the crust above the main slip patches, except for a small region on the eastern segment potentially resulting from the Mw?5.9 aftershock on the same day. We perform extensive resolution tests on the data to confirm the robustness of the observed slip deficit in the shallow crust. We resolve a steep gradient in displacement at the point where the planes of the two fault segments ends are inferred to abut at depth, possibly exerting some structural control on rupture extent.

  17. The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. R.; Copley, A. C.; Holley, R.; Scharer, K.; Parsons, B.

    2013-04-01

    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), body wave seismology, satellite imagery, and field observations to constrain the fault parameters of the Mw 7.1 2011 Van (Eastern Turkey) reverse-slip earthquake, in the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Distributed slip models from elastic dislocation modeling of the InSAR surface displacements from ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed interferograms indicate up to 9 m of reverse and oblique slip on a pair of en echelon NW 40 °-54 ° dipping fault planes which have surface extensions projecting to just 10 km north of the city of Van. The slip remained buried and is relatively deep, with a centroid depth of 14 km, and the rupture reaching only within 8-9 km of the surface, consistent with the lack of significant ground rupture. The up-dip extension of this modeled WSW striking fault plane coincides with field observations of weak ground deformation seen on the western of the two fault segments and has a dip consistent with that seen at the surface in fault gouge exposed in Quaternary sediments. No significant coseismic slip is found in the upper 8 km of the crust above the main slip patches, except for a small region on the eastern segment potentially resulting from the Mw 5.9 aftershock on the same day. We perform extensive resolution tests on the data to confirm the robustness of the observed slip deficit in the shallow crust. We resolve a steep gradient in displacement at the point where the planes of the two fault segments ends are inferred to abut at depth, possibly exerting some structural control on rupture extent.

  18. Hierarchical structures of correlations networks among Turkey’s exports and imports by currencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    We have examined the hierarchical structures of correlations networks among Turkey’s exports and imports by currencies for the 1996-2010 periods, using the concept of a minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT) which depend on the concept of ultrametricity. These trees are useful tools for understanding and detecting the global structure, taxonomy and hierarchy in financial markets. We derived a hierarchical organization and build the MSTs and HTs during the 1996-2001 and 2002-2010 periods. The reason for studying two different sub-periods, namely 1996-2001 and 2002-2010, is that the Euro (EUR) came into use in 2001, and some countries have made their exports and imports with Turkey via the EUR since 2002, and in order to test various time-windows and observe temporal evolution. We have carried out bootstrap analysis to associate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We have also used the average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) to observe the cluster structure more clearly. Moreover, we have obtained the bidimensional minimal spanning tree (BMST) due to economic trade being a bidimensional problem. From the structural topologies of these trees, we have identified different clusters of currencies according to their proximity and economic ties. Our results show that some currencies are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other currencies. We have also found that the obtained currencies play a key role for Turkey’s exports and imports and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  19. High Specific Energy NiH2 Batteries for GEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Fabre, M.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the SAFT qualification status history, cell and battery modifications, overall battery characteristics, satellite programs and battery types delivered, and battery performances for selected satellite missions.

  20. Effect of dietary prebiotic (mannan oligosaccharide) supplementation on the caecal bacterial community structure of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, A; Horgan, K; Clipson, N; Murphy, R A

    2012-10-01

    The identification of specific bacterial species influenced by mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation may assist in the formulation of new and improved diets that promote intestinal health and improve bird performance, offering suitable alternatives to antimicrobials in feed for sustainable poultry production. This study has been conducted to evaluate the use of a MOS compound derived from the yeast cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on turkey performance, bacterial community structure and their phylogenetic associations. A 42-day turkey trial was carried out on birds fed control and MOS-supplemented diets. Bird performance data (weight gains, feed consumption and feed efficiency ratios) were collected, and caecal contents were extracted from randomly caught poults on days 28, 35 and 42 posthatch. Bird performance data showed no improvements as a result of dietary supplementation. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) revealed the bacterial community structure to be significantly altered on days 28 and 35 posthatch but not day 42 as a result of dietary supplementation. This technique was coupled with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to elucidate phylogenetic identities of bacteria. The dominant bacteria of the caecum on all days in both treatment groups were members of phylum Firmicutes, followed by the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla, respectively. Statistical analysis of the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed that the composition of the MOS clone library differed significantly to the control on day 35 posthatch. It can be concluded that MOS alters the bacterial community structure in the turkey caecum. PMID:22538976

  1. Response of the Hepatic Transcriptome to Aflatoxin B1 in Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Melissa S.; Settlage, Robert E.; McMahon, Kevin W.; Mendoza, Kristelle M.; Rawal, Sumit; El-Nezami, Hani S.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. AFB1 is especially hepatotoxic in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), since these birds are unable to detoxify AFB1 by glutathione-conjugation. The impacts of AFB1 on the turkey hepatic transcriptome and the potential protection from pretreatment with a Lactobacillus-based probiotic mixture were investigated through RNA-sequencing. Animals were divided into four treatment groups and RNA was subsequently recovered from liver samples. Four pooled RNA-seq libraries were sequenced to produce over 322 M reads totaling 13.8 Gb of sequence. Approximately 170,000 predicted transcripts were de novo assembled, of which 803 had significant differential expression in at least one pair-wise comparison between treatment groups. Functional analysis linked many of the transcripts significantly affected by AFB1 exposure to cancer, apoptosis, the cell cycle or lipid regulation. Most notable were transcripts from the genes encoding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2, osteopontin, S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2, and lipoprotein lipase. Expression was modulated by the probiotics, but treatment did not completely mitigate the effects of AFB1. Genes identified through transcriptome analysis provide candidates for further study of AFB1 toxicity and targets for efforts to improve the health of domestic turkeys exposed to AFB1. PMID:24979717

  2. Response of the hepatic transcriptome to aflatoxin B1 in domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Monson, Melissa S; Settlage, Robert E; McMahon, Kevin W; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Rawal, Sumit; El-Nezami, Hani S; Coulombe, Roger A; Reed, Kent M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. AFB1 is especially hepatotoxic in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), since these birds are unable to detoxify AFB1 by glutathione-conjugation. The impacts of AFB1 on the turkey hepatic transcriptome and the potential protection from pretreatment with a Lactobacillus-based probiotic mixture were investigated through RNA-sequencing. Animals were divided into four treatment groups and RNA was subsequently recovered from liver samples. Four pooled RNA-seq libraries were sequenced to produce over 322 M reads totaling 13.8 Gb of sequence. Approximately 170,000 predicted transcripts were de novo assembled, of which 803 had significant differential expression in at least one pair-wise comparison between treatment groups. Functional analysis linked many of the transcripts significantly affected by AFB1 exposure to cancer, apoptosis, the cell cycle or lipid regulation. Most notable were transcripts from the genes encoding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2, osteopontin, S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2, and lipoprotein lipase. Expression was modulated by the probiotics, but treatment did not completely mitigate the effects of AFB1. Genes identified through transcriptome analysis provide candidates for further study of AFB1 toxicity and targets for efforts to improve the health of domestic turkeys exposed to AFB1. PMID:24979717

  3. The October 23, 2011, Van (Turkey) earthquake and its relationship with neighbouring structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro M.; Cannelli v.; Chini M.; Bignami C.; Melini D.; Stramondo S.; Saroli M.; Picchiani M.; Kyriakopoulos C.; Brunori C. A.

    2014-03-01

    The present work reports the analysis of a possible relationship due to stress transfer between the two earthquakes that hit the province of Van, Eastern Turkey, on October 23, 2011 (Mw = 7.2) and on November 9, 2011 (Mw = 5.6). The surface displacement field of the mainshock has been obtained through a combined data set made up of differential interferograms from COSMO-SkyMed and ENVISAT satellites, integrated with continuous GPS recordings from the Turkish TUSAGA-AKTIF network. This allowed us to retrieve the geometry and the slip distribution of the seismic source and to compute the Coulomb Failure Function (CFF) variation on the aftershock plane, in order to assess a possible causal relationship between the two events. Our results show that the November 9 earthquake could have been triggered by the October 23 shock, with transferred stress values largely exceeding 1 bar.

  4. The October 23, 2011, Van (Turkey) earthquake and its relationship with neighbouring structures

    PubMed Central

    Moro M., M M; Cannelli V., C V; Chini M., C M; Bignami C., B C; Melini D., M D; Stramondo S., S S; Saroli M., S M; Picchiani M., P M; Kyriakopoulos C., K C; Brunori C. A., B C A

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports the analysis of a possible relationship due to stress transfer between the two earthquakes that hit the province of Van, Eastern Turkey, on October 23, 2011 (Mw = 7.2) and on November 9, 2011 (Mw = 5.6). The surface displacement field of the mainshock has been obtained through a combined data set made up of differential interferograms from COSMO-SkyMed and ENVISAT satellites, integrated with continuous GPS recordings from the Turkish TUSAGA-AKTIF network. This allowed us to retrieve the geometry and the slip distribution of the seismic source and to compute the Coulomb Failure Function (CFF) variation on the aftershock plane, in order to assess a possible causal relationship between the two events. Our results show that the November 9 earthquake could have been triggered by the October 23 shock, with transferred stress values largely exceeding 1?bar. PMID:24618651

  5. Engineers checkout Early Bird-Communication Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Engineers Stanley R. Peterson (left) and Ray Bowerman (right), checkout the Early Bird, the world's first communication satellite. NASA launched the satellite built by Hughes Aircraft Corporation on April 6, 1955 at 6:48pm E.S.T. from Complex 17a at Cape Kennedy, Florida. Early Bird was built for the Communications Satellite Corporation and weighed about 85 pounds after being placed in a synchronous orbit of 22,300 miles above the earth. It was positioned over the Atlantic to provide 240 two-way telephone channels or 2-way television between Europe and North America. The outer surface of Early Bird was covered with 6,000 silicon-coated solar cells, which absorbed the sun's rays to provide power to the satellite for its intricate transmitting and receiving equipment.

  6. MIMO over Satellite: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pantelis-Daniel Arapoglou; Konstantinos Liolis; Massimo Bertinelli; Athanasios Panagopoulos; Panayotis Cottis; Riccardo De Gaudenzi

    2011-01-01

    The present article carries out a review of MIMO- based techniques that have been recently proposed for satellite communications. Due to the plethora of MIMO interpretations in terrestrial systems and the particularities of satellite communica- tions, this review is built on two pillars, namely fixed satellite and mobile satellite. Special attention is given to the characteristics of the satellite channel,

  7. Role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in estradiol-17?-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kamanga-Sollo, E; Thornton, K J; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2014-10-01

    In feedlot steers, estradiol-17? (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters. Although the positive effects of E2 on rate and efficiency of bovine muscle growth are well established, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Combined E2 and trenbolone acetate implants result in significantly increased muscle satellite cell number in feedlot steers. Additionally, E2 treatment stimulates proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells (BSC). Studies in nonmuscle cells have shown that binding of E2 to G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 results in activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9) resulting in proteolytic release of heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF) from the cell surface. Released hbEGF binds to and activates the epidermal growth factor receptor resulting in increased proliferation. To assess if GPER-1, MMP2/9, and/or hbEGF are involved in the mechanism of E2-stimulated BSC proliferation, we have examined the effects of G36 (a specific inhibitor of GPER-1), CRM197 (a specific inhibitor of hbEGF), and MMP-2/MMP-9 Inhibitor II (an inhibitor of MMP2/9 activity) on E2-stimulated BSC proliferation. Inhibition of GPER-1, MMP2/9, or hbEGF suppresses E2-stimulated BSC proliferation (P < 0.001) suggesting that all these are required in order for E2 to stimulate BSC proliferation. These results strongly suggest that E2 may stimulate BSC proliferation by binding to GPER-1 resulting in MMP2/9-catalyzed release of cell membrane-bound hbEGF and subsequent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by binding of released hbEGF. PMID:25010024

  8. Satellite B-ISDN traffic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyy, Dong-Jye; Inukai, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The impact of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) traffic on the advanced satellite broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) with onboard processing is reported. Simulation models were built to analyze the cell transfer performance through the statistical multiplexer at the earth station and the fast packet switch at the satellite. The effectiveness of ground ATM cell preprocessing was established, as well as the performance of several schemes for improving the down-link beam utilization when the space segment employs a fast packet switch.

  9. Special section on Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Narisma et al.

    Studies of the early stages and consequences of the ongoing convergence of three tectonic plates in Turkey over the past 10-20 million years are compiled in the 15 December 2003 issue of Geophysical Research Letters. The seismic models, mapping, and geochemistry studies can be used to estimate the lithospheric structure of the Anatolian plateau and to provide better earthquake hazard assessments in the area. New findings include a report suggesting that widespread volcanism has changed the interpretation of the Anatolian plateau's depth.

  10. Communication satellite technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  11. Satellites of spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  12. Satellite Teleconference Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin Community Coll., IL.

    The vocational education satellite teleconference project accomplished two goals: (1) identified, acquired, copied, and distributed to the Illinois Vocational Curriculum Center 100 marketing or training videotapes for staff development and classroom use; and (2) provided from 15-25 variable time (1- to 3-hour) satellite teleconferences in four…

  13. ASTER's Satellite Image Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    This site provides access to satellite images acquired by NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer satellite. The images are sorted into eight categories: Archeology, Cities, Geology, Hydrology, Land Use, Natural Hazards, and Volcanoes. Users can also view the most popular images and the most recent additions to the gallery.

  14. Signals from Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect for relative motion between a source of waves and an observer and the orbital dynamics of communications satellites. Presents preliminary calculations of the satellite's altitude and linear velocity using only the concepts of the Doppler shift and the mechanics of motion in a circular path. (JRH)

  15. Mobile satellite communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Wu; E. F. Miller; W. L. Pritchard; R. L. Pickholtz

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents an up-to-date overview as well as new results on mobile satellite communications. Specifically, the following subjects are addressed: worldwide activities; satellite orbits; multiple access techniques; Novstar global positioning system; economic and regulatory issues; future trends. Some of these technical and nontechnical subjects appeal disjoint, but they are unique and significant among the many facets, which effect the

  16. Efficient Packet Satellite Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH K. DEROSA; LAWRENCE H. OZAROW; LESLIE N. WEINER

    1979-01-01

    This paper gives an extensive analysis of a Packet satellite (PACSAT) communications system that uses a digital processing satellite in a packet data network. It is shown that multiple uplinks coupled with on-board switching and storage can provide significant gains in throughput, efficiency, and margin against instability. Design tradeoffs are presented and the theoretical results are verified by extensive computer

  17. Communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  18. Satellites pinpoint tornado clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Bell

    1981-01-01

    Research into ways to integrate data from satellites and other sources is helping weather forecasters improve their ability to determine quickly where thunderstorm clouds, and perhaps tornados, may occur. Field offices of the National Earth Satellite Service are using new technology to help Weather Service forecasters determine within hours when conditions are right for potentially dangerous storms. J. Purdom, a

  19. Engineer a Satellite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, learners select the scientific instruments for their satellite, calculate the power requirements for all the subsystems, and construct a scale model of their very own Earth observing satellite using building blocks and/or Legos. Includes instructions and worksheets.

  20. Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpsar, Cengiz

    This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

  1. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications

    E-print Network

    Giuseppe Vallone; Davide Bacco; Daniele Dequal; Simone Gaiarin; Vincenza Luceri; Giuseppe Bianco; Paolo Villoresi

    2014-06-16

    Quantum Communications on planetary scale require complementary channels including ground and satellite links. The former have progressed up to commercial stage using fiber-cables, while for satellite links, the absence of terminals in orbit has impaired theirs development. However, the demonstration of the feasibility of such links is crucial for designing space payloads and to eventually enable the realization of protocols such as quantum-key-distribution (QKD) and quantum teleportation along satellite-to-ground or intersatellite links. We demonstrated the faithful transmission of qubits from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors acting as transmitter in orbit, obtaining a low error rate suitable for QKD. We also propose a two-way QKD protocol exploiting modulated retroreflectors that necessitates a minimal payload on satellite, thus facilitating the expansion of Space Quantum Communications.

  2. Optimization of Satellite Constellation Reconfiguration

    E-print Network

    Optimization of Satellite Constellation Reconfiguration by Uriel Scialom Submitted Students #12;2 #12;Optimization of Satellite Constellation Reconfiguration by Uriel Scialom Submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics Abstract Traditional satellite constellation

  3. Baculovirus expression of turkey coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Breslin, J J; Smith, L G; Guy, J S

    2001-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) gene of turkey coronavirus (TCV) was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and expressed in the baculovirus expression system. A recombinant baculovirus containing the TCV N gene (rBTCV/N) was identified by polymerase chain reaction and expression of TCV N protein as determined by western immunoblot analysis. Two TCV-specific proteins, 52 and 43 kDa, were expressed by rBTCV/N; one of these proteins, p52, was comparable in size to native TCV N protein. Baculovirus-expressed N proteins were used as antigen in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of TCV-specific antibodies. The ELISA detected antibodies specific for TCV and infectious bronchitis virus, a closely related avian coronavirus, but did not detect antibodies specific for other avian viruses (avian influenza, avian reovirus, avian paramyxovirus 3, avian adenovirus 1, or Newcastle disease virus). These findings indicate that baculovirus-expressed TCV N protein is a suitable source of antigen for ELISA-based detection of TCV-specific antibodies in turkeys. PMID:11332474

  4. National childhood diabetes program activities in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hatun, ?ükrü

    2015-03-01

    Recent census figures in Turkey show that out of a population of 76.6 million, 22.7 million (29.7%) are younger than 18 years old. The great majority (>95%) of pediatric cases of diabetes in Turkey are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In recent years, with increase in number of pediatric endocrine centers around the country, the important issue of care for diabetic children and adolescents has been revived and major steps have been taken for improvement in pediatric care and its outreach to all diabetic children. The Childhood Diabetes Group continues its activities in cooperation with the Turkish Ministry of Health. A list of areas of interest of the Group include "School programs", "Incidence/prevalence studies and national registry system", "Educational guidelines for diabetes in children", "Increasing the numbers of camps and summer schools for diabetic children", "Organization of educational programs for the health team", "National guidelines for transition of diabetic children to adult clinics", "Improvement of school canteens", "Educational spots" to improve awareness of diabetes. The activities of the Childhood Diabetes Group will be discussed in detail in this article. PMID:25800469

  5. Machine-related farm injuries in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akdur, Okhan; Ozkan, Seda; Durukan, Polat; Avsarogullari, Levent; Koyuncu, Murat; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2010-06-01

    Traumas connected with agricultural production can result in serious injuries and mortality. The objective of the study was to describe the characteristics of agricultural machines related work injury cases admitted to the Emergency Department, and to asses factors related to injury severity and hospital admission in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. All the cases presented related to injuries caused by work with agricultural machines between January 2006-November 2007 were included in the study. Information was collected concerning the demographic structures of the patients. Injury sites, injury types, and clinical features were recorded. Initial injury severity scores of all the cases were diagnosed at hospital admission. 91.9 percent of the cases were male. Mean age was 35.8 +- 17.0. The most common machine causing injuries was a tractor with 46 percent of cases, and all of these were fall traumas. 18.9 percent of the cases was considered as slight injury, 43.2 percent as moderate, and 37.9 percent as severe. Two male cases resulted in fatality. Our findings suggest that tractors are the most dangerous agricultural machines, and falls from tractors as the most common injury mechanism among machine-related injuries, especially for young people. In the rural areas of our country, Turkey, agricultural machines cause serious injuries that require hospitalization. PMID:20684481

  6. Pharmacy in Turkey: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Tekiner, H

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacy in Turkey underwent a radical change within the last decade. Introduction of the Health Transformation Program in 2003 has had a significant impact on Turkey's pharmacy system in accordance with objectives of the program to establish new pricing regulations for pharmaceuticals based on reference prices, and to develop better computer based health information/record systems. In this context, Pharmaceutical Tracking (Track-and-Trace) System using two dimensional matrix barcodes was initiated to prevent not only drug counterfeiting, but also fraud against the medical insurance system and off-record transactions within the pharmaceutical sector; and the process of recording prescriptions in an electronic format was launched. Some other improvements have also been made with respect to pharmacy education, law and practice. In contrast with all these positive outcomes, Turkish pharmacy sector is currently in a deep financial struggle. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of the recent developments in Turkish pharmacy system and to discuss future roles and challenges of the profession. PMID:24974586

  7. United States relations with Turkey, 1939-1945

    E-print Network

    Simper, Calvin Charles

    1971-01-01

    with France and England. Almost iw. ediateiy after the Turkish shift in policy, Europe plunged into the second !world Mar and Turkey found herself formally tied to one of the alliances. This became an uncomfortable posi- tion after the fal'I of France...!jce ov r Turkish affairs, except on the matter of Turkey's chrone exports. To the United States the importance of th se exports lay not, in tlleir intrinsic worth, but rather they served as an indication of Turkey's 1eanings torjard the be11'rgorents...

  8. Satellite Services Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Key issues associated with the orbital servicing of satellites are examined including servicing spacecraft and equipment, servicing operations, economics, satellite design, docking and berthing, and fluid management.

  9. Solar power satellite cost estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harron, R. J.; Wadle, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The solar power configuration costed is the 5 GW silicon solar cell reference system. The subsystems identified by work breakdown structure elements to the lowest level for which cost information was generated. This breakdown divides into five sections: the satellite, construction, transportation, the ground receiving station and maintenance. For each work breakdown structure element, a definition, design description and cost estimate were included. An effort was made to include for each element a reference that more thoroughly describes the element and the method of costing used. All costs are in 1977 dollars.

  10. Upcoming communications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A new series of international and business communications satellites will be launched by ‘workhorse’ rocket systems, including updated Delta and Atlas/Centaur rockets, over the next few years. There is, of course, a ‘long-shot’ option that the space shuttle, as originally conceived, will be used to place the satellites in orbit, but no one is willing to bet right now that the shuttle will be functional and operational in time. Instead, the U.S. will employ updated versions of 15-20-year-old rockets to launch a series of satellites with names like ‘INTELSAT,’ ‘INSAT,’ ‘Palapa,’ and ‘SBS’ into geosynchronous orbits.INTELSAT V is the first of a new generation of international telecommunications satellites sponsored by the 105-nation International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), headquartered in Washington, D.C. The satellite, which weighs 1,928 kg at launch, has almost double the communications capability of early satellites in the INTELSAT series. It is positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean so as to provide communications between North America and Europe.

  11. Characteristic and Non-characteristic Pathological Findings in Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) of Sheep in the Ege District of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Toplu

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the pathological and immunohistochemical findings in naturally infected lambs from three outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Mugla and Aydin provinces of the Ege district of Turkey. At necropsy, ulcerative stomatitis, catarrhal or fibrinous bronchopneumonia, and acute catarrhal enteritis were observed. Histopathologically, syncytial cells containing inclusion bodies were seen in the tongue and in the buccal,

  12. 75 FR 4426 - Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and...for operation of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4, located in Miami...the beltline region of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 reactor pressure vessels....

  13. 76 FR 78886 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To Rescind Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To Rescind Countervailing Duty...welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey,'' (October 27, 2011). A Type...

  14. 75 FR 7562 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...Administration [A-489-807] Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice...antidumping duty order on certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey...through March 31, 2004. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey;...

  15. 75 FR 22552 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...Administration [A-489-807] Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey; Notice...administrative review of certain steel concrete of reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey...through March 31, 2004. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey;...

  16. Overview of commercial satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beakley, G. W.

    1984-07-01

    A brief history of communications satellites is presented, taking into account the launching of Sputnik 1 in October 1957, the Explorer 1 in January of 1958, the launch of the Score as the world's first active communications satellite in December 1958, the Communications Satellite Act in 1962, and the launch of 'Early Bird' in 1964. The Intelsat satellites are considered along with maritime satellite communications, the U.S. domestic satellite systems, Alaskan satellite communications, cable television, broadcast TV stations, print media, the hotel/motel industry as a large market for satellite communications terminals, the opening of a minicable and satellite master antenna TV market for TV receive-only systems, and business telecommunications earth terminals. Attention is also given to future directions regarding satellite positions, the concept of 'video-plus', and direct broadcast satellites.

  17. Satellite Tracking Threatened Species

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have combined forces to produce this Website on the use of satellite tracking to monitor migration routes of endangered birds. Targeting the general public, the site introduces readers to satellite tracking (using Direct Readout technology), offers animations of bird flight paths (see the section entitled Birdtracks), and gives additional information on birds (in the Bird Data Archives, select a bird and watch its flight path through time). While bird information is limited to several larger species (due to the size/weight of attached transmitters), the resource serves as a useful information base for anyone wishing to learn more about satellite tracking.

  18. Remote Sensing Using Satellites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathryn Ginger

    1998-06-30

    This website was developed for undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory earth or atmospheric science course. It is designed to supplement lecture and textbooks. Its goal is to make you a better consumer of weather information by providing dynamic graphics, animations, and science content about remote sensing, visible and infrared satellite imagery, and hurricanes. As part of the module, you will apply what you've learned by exploring recent hurricanes through satellite imagery. When you have completed this module, you should be able to view satellite imagery in a typical weather forecast on TV or the Web and recognize the importance of some features.

  19. Satellite Breakup Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leleux, Darrin P.; Smith, Jason T.

    2006-01-01

    Many satellite breakups occur as a result of an explosion of stored energy on-board spacecraft or rocket-bodies. These breakups generate a cloud of tens or possibly hundreds of thousands of debris fragments which may pose a transient elevated threat to spaceflight crews and vehicles. Satellite breakups pose a unique threat because the majority of the debris fragments are too small to be tracked from the ground. The United States Human Spaceflight Program is currently implementing a risk mitigation strategy that includes modeling breakup events, establishing action thresholds, and prescribing corresponding mitigation actions in response to satellite breakups.

  20. Satellite selection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klosko, S. M.; Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Colombo, O. L.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to give relative weight to the factors which influence the selection of satellites for inclusion in the gravity modeling problem associated with TOPEX. This scheme gives both credits and demerits in this process and does so in a relative sense stressing characteristics which are most important while factoring in the major problems associated with some satellites. Selection factors include a data value assessment, uniqueness of orbital characteristics, satellite similarity to TOPEX sensitivities, apsidal coverage, nonconservative force influences, and sensitivity to the anomalous field.