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Sample records for turkey satellite cell

  1. Temperature effect on proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells from turkeys with different growth rates.

    PubMed

    Clark, D L; Coy, C S; Strasburg, G M; Reed, K M; Velleman, S G

    2016-04-01

    Poultry selected for growth have an inefficient thermoregulatory system and are more sensitive to temperature extremes. Satellite cells are precursors to skeletal muscle and mediate all posthatch muscle growth. Their physiological functions are affected by temperature. The objective of the current study was to determine how temperature affects satellite cells isolated from the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle (breast muscle) of turkeys selected for increased 16 wk body weight (F line) in comparison to a randombred control line (RBC2) from which the F line originated. Pectoralis major muscle satellite cells were thermally challenged by culturing between 33°C and 43°C to analyze the effects of cold and heat on proliferation and differentiation as compared to control temperature of 38°C. Expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors: myogenic differentiation factor 1 (MYOD1) and myogenin (MYOG) were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At all sampling times, proliferation increased at a linear rate across temperature in both the RBC2 and F lines. Differentiation also increased at a linear rate across temperature from 33 to 41°C at all sampling times in both the F and RBC2 lines. Satellite cells isolated from F line turkeys were more sensitive to both hot and cold temperatures as proliferation and differentiation increased to a greater extent across temperature (33 to 43°C) when compared with the RBC2 line. Expression of MYOD1 and MYOG increased as temperatures increased from 33 to 41°C at all sampling times in both the F and RBC2 lines. These results demonstrate that satellite cell function is sensitive to both cold and hot temperatures and p. major muscle satellite cells from F line turkeys are more sensitive to temperature extremes than RBC2 satellite cells. PMID:26769270

  2. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form of control is to determine which of the many growth factors that can alter satellite cell behavior in vitro are at work in vivo. Little work has been done to determine what controls are at work after a regeneration response has been initiated. It seems likely that, after injury, growth factors are liberated through proteolytic activity and initiate an activation process whereby cells enter into a proliferative phase. After myofibers are formed, it also seems likely that satellite cell behavior is regulated through diffusible factors arising from the fibers rather than continuous control by circulating factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  3. Skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Schultz, E; McCormick, K M

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form of control is to determine which of the many growth factors that can alter satellite cell behavior in vitro are at work in vivo. Little work has been done to determine what controls are at work after a regeneration response has been initiated. It seems likely that, after injury, growth factors are liberated through proteolytic activity and initiate an activation process whereby cells enter into a proliferative phase. After myofibers are formed, it also seems likely that satellite cell behavior is regulated through diffusible factors arising from the fibers rather than continuous control by circulating factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8209136

  4. The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation (25 Gy) on the subsequent in vitro growth of satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Schultz, E.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation on subsequent satellite cell growth, in vitro, was investigated to ascertain the ability of a 25 Gy dose to inhibit satellite cell proliferation. Satellite cells were isolated from the left (irradiated) and right (non-irradiated) Pectoralis thoracicus of two-week-old tom turkeys 16 h (n=3) and seven weeks (n=2) after the left Pectoralis thoracicus had been irradiated (25 Gy). Satellite cells isolated from the irradiated and non-irradiated muscles exhibited similar (P>0.10) in vitro proliferation indicating that a population of satellite cells survived an in vivo dose of 25 Gy. In additional experiments, satellite cell cultures derived from tom turkey Pectoralis thoracicus were irradiated (25 Gy) in vitro. The number of satellite cells did not (P>0.05) increase in irradiated cultures for 134 h following irradiation, while satellite cells in non-irradiated cultures proliferated (P<0.05) over this time. At later time periods, satellite cell number increased (P<0.05) in irradiated cultures indicating that a population of satellite cells survived irradiation. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that a 25 Gy dose of irradiation does not abolish satellite cell divisions in the turkey Pectoralis thoracicus.

  5. Satellite Monitoring of Hazards: A Focus on Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, T. R.; Manzo, M.; Manconi, A.; Solaro, G.; Lanari, R.; Motagh, M.; Woith, H.; Parolai, S.; Shirzaei, M.; Zschau, J.; Baris, S.; Ansal, A.

    2010-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing data can provide important information on ground displacement, which can help scientists better understand and monitor geohazards such as earthquakes, volcano unrest, or landslides. However, access to such data and their results often has been difficult or has occurred with significant delay. As a result, a remotely sensed assessment of ground displacements is often not available until months or years after the occurrence of a natural disaster. In an attempt to facilitate access to satellite radar data and associated results in near real time, and to allow integration with other space-based and ground-based observation resources, the geohazards scientific community together with the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated the Geohazard Supersites program. As a contribution to risk reduction, this program seeks to promote data use and advance scientific research before, during, and after natural disasters. This program is contributing to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) theme Reducing the loss of life and property from natural and human-induced disasters. GEO is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS, launched by the leading industrialized countries in response to the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development.

  6. Turkey.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel government adopted a strong economic reform program in January 1980. As a result of various government economic policies, economic activity increased. The US and Turkey signed a Defense and Economic Cooperation Agreement in March 1980 that provided a new framework for US military activities in Turkey and committed the US to a "best effort" in providing defense support to the Turkish Armed Forces. PMID:12177973

  7. Skeletal muscle satellite cell diversity: satellite cells form fibers of different types in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Feldman, J L; Stockdale, F E

    1991-02-01

    Following skeletal muscle injury, new fibers form from resident satellite cells which reestablish the fiber composition of the original muscle. We have used a cell culture system to analyze satellite cells isolated from adult chicken and quail pectoralis major (PM; a fast muscle) and anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD; a slow muscle) to determine if satellite cells isolated from fast or slow muscles produce one or several types of fibers when they form new fibers in vitro in the absence of innervation or a specific extracellular milieu. The types of fibers formed in satellite cell cultures were determined using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific for avian fast and slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. We found that satellite cells were of different types and that fast and slow muscles differed in the percentage of each type they contained. Primary satellite cells isolated from the PM formed only fast fibers, while up to 25% of those isolated from ALD formed fibers that were both fast and slow (fast/slow fibers), the remainder being fast only. Fast/slow fibers formed from chicken satellite cells expressed slow MHC1, while slow MHC2 predominated in fast/slow fibers formed from quail satellite cells. Prolonged primary culture did not alter the relative proportions of fast to fast/slow fibers in high density cultures of either chicken or quail satellite cells. No change in commitment was observed in fibers formed from chicken satellite cell progeny repeatedly subcultured at high density, while fibers formed from subcultured quail satellite cell progeny demonstrated increasing commitment to fast/slow fiber type formation. Quail satellite cells cloned from high density cultures formed colonies that demonstrated a similar change in commitment from fast to fast/slow, as did serially subcloned individual satellite cell progeny, indicating that the observed change from fast to fast/slow differentiation resulted from intrinsic changes within a satellite cell. Thus satellite cells freshly isolated from adult chicken and quail are committed to form fibers of at least two types, satellite cells of these two types are found in different proportions in fast and slow muscles, and repeated cell proliferation of quail satellite cell progeny may alter satellite cell progeny to increasingly form fibers of a single type. PMID:1991555

  8. Satellite Cell Heterogeneity in Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Matthew T; Sacco, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    The cellular turnover required for skeletal muscle maintenance and repair is mediated by resident stem cells, also termed satellite cells. Satellite cells normally reside in a quiescent state, intermittently entering the cell cycle to fuse with neighboring myofibers and replenish the stem cell pool. However, the mechanisms by which satellite cells maintain the precise balance between self-renewal and differentiation necessary for long-term homeostasis remain unclear. Recent work has supported a previously unappreciated heterogeneity in the satellite cell compartment that may underlie the observed variability in cell fate and function. In this review, we examine the work supporting this notion as well as the potential governing principles, developmental origins, and principal determinants of satellite cell heterogeneity. PMID:26948993

  9. Old high resolution satellite images for landscape archaeology: case studies from Turkey and Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    The paper concerns the contribution for Landscape Archaeology from satellite images of 1960s and 1970s, very useful when old aerial photographs are scarce. Particularly, the study concerns the panchromatic photos taken by USA reconnaissance satellites from 1963 to 1972, declassified for civil use in 1995 and 2002, that in the last years are very used in the archaeological research; in fact, a lot of these images have an high geometric resolution, about between 2.74 and 1.83 m (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and some have a ground resolution about between 1.20 and 0.60 m (Gambit KH-7). These satellite images allow to examine very in detail ancient urban areas and territories that later are changed or partially destroyed; so, it is possible to detect and examine ancient structures, palaeo-environmental elements and archaeological traces of buried features now not visible. The paper presents some exemplificative cases study in Turkey and Iraq, in which the analysis of these images has made a fundamental contribution to the archaeological researches: particularly, for the reconstruction of the urban layout of the ancient city of Hierapolis of Phrygia and for the surveys in its territory, and for the study of the ancient topography of some archaeological sites of Iraq. In this second case, the research is gained in the context of the Iraq Virtual Museum Project; the comparison with recent high resolution satellite images (Ikonos-2, QuickBird-2, WorldView-1) also provide a fundamental tool for monitoring archaeological areas and for an evaluation of the situation after the first and the second Gulf War.

  10. Blood vessels and the satellite cell niche.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Rémi; Chrétien, Fabrice; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    The fate of stem cell is regulated by cues received from the surrounding area. Recently, the concept of "stem cell zone"--rather than a predefined niche--introduced the notion of dynamic and permanent interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment. In adult skeletal muscle, satellite cells are considered as the main stem cells responsible for muscle repair and maintenance. They are localized close to vessels regardless their state of activation and differentiation. Moreover, the number of satellite cells is positively correlated to the capillarization of the myofiber. Angiogenesis has been known for a long time to be essential for muscle repair. However, relationships between vessel cells and satellite/myogenic cells that govern myogenic cell expansion, myogenesis, and angiogenesis have been only recently investigated. In this chapter, we discuss the possible existence of a vascular amplifying/differentiating niche, in an attempt to reconciliate several recent observations showing that satellite/myogenic cells interact with various cell types during the time course of muscle regeneration. Indeed, endothelial cells (ECs) stimulate myogenic cell growth and, inversely, differentiating myogenic cells promote angiogenesis. However, stromal cells may also provide some proliferating or differentiating cues to satellite/myogenic cells in this vascular area. Although some molecular effectors have been identified, including growth factors and cytokines, molecular regulations that occur within this vascular amplifying/differentiating niche requires further investigation. At the end of muscle repair, maturation of newly formed vessels takes place. In this context, we discuss the potential quiescence niche of satellite cells and the specific role of periendothelial cells. Indeed, periendothelial cells promote the return to quiescence of a subset of satellite/myogenic cells and maintain their quiescence (through Angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 signaling). We ask to what extent the environment may control the fate choice of satellite/myogenic cells and we also question the "hypoxic niche" in skeletal muscle, such a quiescence niche having being observed in the bone marrow. PMID:21621069

  11. Activated Muscle Satellite Cells Chase Ghosts.

    PubMed

    Mourikis, Philippos; Relaix, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    The in vivo behaviors of skeletal muscle stem cells, i.e., satellite cells, during homeostasis and after injury are poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Webster et al. (2016) now perform a tour de force intravital microscopic analysis of this population, showing that "ghost fiber" remnants act as scaffolds to guide satellite cell divisions after injury. PMID:26849298

  12. PRMT7 Preserves Satellite Cell Regenerative Capacity.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Roméo Sébastien; Vogel, Gillian; Chen, Taiping; Crist, Colin; Richard, Stéphane

    2016-02-16

    Regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the continued presence of quiescent muscle stem cells (satellite cells), which become activated in response to injury. Here, we report that whole-body protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7(-/-) adult mice and mice conditionally lacking PRMT7 in satellite cells using Pax7-CreERT2 both display a significant reduction in satellite cell function, leading to defects in regenerative capacity upon muscle injury. We show that PRMT7 is preferentially expressed in activated satellite cells and, interestingly, PRMT7-deficient satellite cells undergo cell-cycle arrest and premature cellular senescence. These defects underlie poor satellite cell stem cell capacity to regenerate muscle and self-renew after injury. PRMT7-deficient satellite cells express elevated levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1 and low levels of its repressor, DNMT3b. Restoration of DNMT3b in PRMT7-deficient cells rescues PRMT7-mediated senescence. Our findings define PRMT7 as a regulator of the DNMT3b/p21 axis required to maintain muscle stem cell regenerative capacity. PMID:26854227

  13. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  14. A webgis supported snow information system with long time satellite data for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surer, S.; Bolat, K.; Akyurek, Z.

    2012-04-01

    KARBILSIS is an online platform which is developed in order to provide end-users with daily remote sensing snow products for Turkey (www.karbilsis.com). The project has been started as a research activity after an award by Ministry of Science and Technology has been granted to our company. At the first stage of our project MODIS atmospherically corrected reflectance data has been downloaded covering the period of 2000-2011 which makes more than ten years of satellite imagery for Turkey. The archived MODIS data that have been obtained from National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is mainly MOD09GA product that includes seven spectral bands. Only the tiles which are covering Turkey have been archived namely 19&20 horizontal and 4&5 vertical ones. In order to provide scientists with a website giving the availability of analysis of snow covered area for long terms based on their area of interests, a fractional snow extent (FSE) product has been generated. For FSE product a normalized difference snow index (NDSI) based algorithm has been developed using daily land surface reflectance values (MOD09GA). In addition to MODIS data, four different Landsat images belonging to different days of snowy period (January, March, and May) have been used during algorithm development taking into account a better representation of different reflectance values of snow which highly varies depending on the accumulation and melting periods. Landsat images were used as reference images. First the Landsat images were orthorectified and mapped to a cartographic projection. Then image segmentation was applied to obtain homogeneous tiles, where the homogeneity is defined as similarity in pixel values. The mean-shift segmentation approach, where each pixel was associated with a significant mode of the joint domain density located in its neighborhood, was applied. After segmentation, the image was classified into snow and no-snow classes with Maximum Likelihood Classification Method. FSE products have been produced for around 12 years from 2000 to 2012 and it is being produced daily as the data is available. 72% overall accuracy was obtained from the validation analysis. Our website will be available to give service to our users to make analysis on snow extent with a long time series database for free. By the help of WEBGIS interface it is going to be possible to produce time series of snow cover areas, and produce graphs and summary statistics for a better management of information on snow cover in various fields from flood forecast integration, energy production planning of hydropower plants which are fed from snow melting, and producing input for climate models.

  15. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P.; McKay, Bryon R.; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  16. Antifungal Treatment in Stem Cell Transplantation Centers in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akan, Hamdi; Atilla, Erden

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of various guidelines, the approach to antifungal treatment in stem cell transplantation centers differs according to country or even between centers. This led to the development of another survey that aims to understand the antifungal treatment policies of Turkish stem cell transplantation centers. Although there has been an increasing trend towards the use of diagnostic-based treatments in Turkey in the last few years, empirical treatment is still the main approach. The practices of the stem cell transplantation centers reflect the general trends and controversies in this area, while there is a considerable use of antifungal combination therapy. PMID:25913124

  17. Analysing Regional Land Surface Temperature Changes by Satellite Data, a Case Study of Zonguldak, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, S.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, climate change is one of the most important problems that the ecological system of the world has been encountering. Global warming and climate change have been studied frequently by all disciplines all over the world and Geomatics Engineering also contributes to such studies by means of remote sensing, global positioning system etc. Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing satellites is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and there are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. Generally three algorithms are used to obtain LST by using Landsat 5 TM data. These algorithms are radiative transfer equation method, single channel method and mono-window algorithm. Radiative transfer equation method is not applicable because during the satellite pass, atmospheric parameters must be measured in-situ. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Acquisition date of the image is 28.08.2011 and our study area is Zonguldak, Turkey. High resolution images are used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of these analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperature than the city center and arid land. Because different surface properties like reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank are all together in city center, LST differs about 10 ºC in the city center. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature because of land cover structure. Thanks to this research, LST has been obtained by remote sensing technique. Satellite imagery is an effective method to retrieve LST maps for large areas. LST maps can be generated periodically by means of satellite images. So, it can not only be useful for agricultural activities but also for preparing a substructure especially for regional climate change researches.

  18. Using Cell Phones From Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    During the past several years, an interest has grown in using commercial telecommunications techniques to supply Telemetry and Command (T&C) services. Recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) has outlined plans to utilize satellite-based telecommunications services to support space operations in space missions over the next several decades. NASA currently obtains the bulk of its telecommunications services for earth-orbiting satellites via the existing government-owned and controlled Space Network (SN) system. This system consists of the constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and the associated ground terminals and communications intrastructure. This system is valuable and effective for scientific satellites costing over one million dollars. However, for smaller satellites, this system becomes problematic due to the cost of transponders and support infrastructure. The nominal transponders for using the TDRS cannot be obtained for a cost in dollars, and size, weight, or power that the 3 Corner Satellite project can afford. For these types of nanosatellite missions, alternatives that fit the mission cost and satellite profiles are needed. In particular, low-cost access using existing commercial infrastructure would be useful to mission planners. In particular, the ability to obtain low data rate T&C services would be especially valuable. The nanosatellites generally have low T&C requirements and therefore would benefit from using commercial services that could operate in the 2400 bps - 9600 bps range, especially if contact times longer than the 5 - 10 minute ground station passes could be found.

  19. Determination of horizontal and vertical distribution of Calabrian pine stands in Turkey using SRTM satellite data and GIS.

    PubMed

    Yener, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Forest areas in Turkey are generally spread on rugged terrain and different elevations. Site factors such as location, elevation from sea level, aspect and slope are effective on an ecosystem's climate, soil characteristics, and hence vegetation. Description of such characteristics will allow for the description of forest ecosystems living on these sites and comparison of such ecosystems to each other. Factors such as elevation, aspect and slope can easily be generated from Digital Elevation Models. In this study, using a digital elevation model obtained from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) satellite data and 1/25,000 scale Forest Information System database, horizontal and vertical distribution of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.), which is spatially the most extensively spread needled tree species in Turkey, (to elevation classes) is determined and the generated results (map, table etc.) are presented. PMID:24558804

  20. Vaccination of turkeys with cell-free culture filtrate of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J; Qureshi, M A

    1991-01-01

    Turkeys given cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) of Pasteurella multocida strain R44/6 orally, via air sacs, or subcutaneously mixed 1:1 with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) at 6 and 9.5 weeks of age were compared with negative controls given bacteriologic medium and positive controls vaccinated with a commercial bacterin. At 13 weeks of age, serum antibody titers to P. multocida were detectable only in turkeys given CCF in IFA (low titers) and positive control turkeys (high titers), at which time turkeys were challenged orally with either the homologous strain or strain P-1059. Protection against challenge with strain R44/6 was provided by the commercial bacterin, CCF in IFA, and CCF given via air sacs. When turkeys were challenged with strain P-1059, protection was superior in turkeys given CCF via air sacs, intermediate in turkeys given commercial bacterin or CCF in IFA, and absent in negative control turkeys and turkeys given CCF orally. These results indicate CCF is an effective immunogen when administered via the lower respiratory tract for protecting turkeys against pasteurellosis. PMID:2029246

  1. Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD. PMID:25364710

  2. Satellite Cells and the Muscle Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hang; Price, Feodor

    2013-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle in mammals is a stable tissue under normal circumstances but has remarkable ability to repair after injury. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process involving the activation of various cellular and molecular responses. As skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells play an indispensible role in this process. The self-renewing proliferation of satellite cells not only maintains the stem cell population but also provides numerous myogenic cells, which proliferate, differentiate, fuse, and lead to new myofiber formation and reconstitution of a functional contractile apparatus. The complex behavior of satellite cells during skeletal muscle regeneration is tightly regulated through the dynamic interplay between intrinsic factors within satellite cells and extrinsic factors constituting the muscle stem cell niche/microenvironment. For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. Here, we review some recent advances, with focuses on functions of satellite cells and their niche during the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23303905

  3. Numb-deficient satellite cells have regeneration and proliferation defects

    PubMed Central

    George, Rajani M.; Biressi, Stefano; Beres, Brian J.; Rogers, Erik; Mulia, Amanda K.; Allen, Ronald E.; Rawls, Alan; Rando, Thomas A.; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The adaptor protein Numb has been implicated in the switch between cell proliferation and differentiation made by satellite cells during muscle repair. Using two genetic approaches to ablate Numb, we determined that, in its absence, muscle regeneration in response to injury was impaired. Single myofiber cultures demonstrated a lack of satellite cell proliferation in the absence of Numb, and the proliferation defect was confirmed in satellite cell cultures. Quantitative RT-PCR from Numb-deficient satellite cells demonstrated highly up-regulated expression of p21 and Myostatin, both inhibitors of myoblast proliferation. Transfection with Myostatin-specific siRNA rescued the proliferation defect of Numb-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Numb in satellite cells inhibited Myostatin expression. These data indicate a unique function for Numb during the initial activation and proliferation of satellite cells in response to muscle injury. PMID:24170859

  4. Numb-deficient satellite cells have regeneration and proliferation defects.

    PubMed

    George, Rajani M; Biressi, Stefano; Beres, Brian J; Rogers, Erik; Mulia, Amanda K; Allen, Ronald E; Rawls, Alan; Rando, Thomas A; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne

    2013-11-12

    The adaptor protein Numb has been implicated in the switch between cell proliferation and differentiation made by satellite cells during muscle repair. Using two genetic approaches to ablate Numb, we determined that, in its absence, muscle regeneration in response to injury was impaired. Single myofiber cultures demonstrated a lack of satellite cell proliferation in the absence of Numb, and the proliferation defect was confirmed in satellite cell cultures. Quantitative RT-PCR from Numb-deficient satellite cells demonstrated highly up-regulated expression of p21 and Myostatin, both inhibitors of myoblast proliferation. Transfection with Myostatin-specific siRNA rescued the proliferation defect of Numb-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Numb in satellite cells inhibited Myostatin expression. These data indicate a unique function for Numb during the initial activation and proliferation of satellite cells in response to muscle injury. PMID:24170859

  5. Acute airsacculitis in turkeys inoculated with cell-free culture filtrate of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J; Qureshi, M A

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six female and 26 male turkeys, inoculated into the caudal thoracic air sacs with cell-free culture filtrate of Pasteurella multocida strain R44/6, were examined from 0 to 6 hours post-inoculation and compared with 26 female and 26 male sham-inoculated control turkeys given brain-heart-infusion broth. The air sac reacted rapidly with exudation of heterophils. Microscopically, low numbers of heterophils were present within air sac blood vessels and also perivascularly by 0.5 hour after inoculation. These became more numerous by 1.5 and 3 hours post-inoculation. By 6 hours post-inoculation, there was severe swelling of air sac epithelial and mesothelial cells and thickening of the air sac by proteinaceous fluid and heterophils. Ultrastructurally, mesothelial and air sac epithelial cells were vacuolated, and interdigitating processes of epithelial cells were separated. Microscopically, in control turkeys, rare heterophils were present perivascularly at 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after inoculation. Ultrastructurally, all features were normal. In turkeys given cell-free culture filtrate, total cell counts in air sac lavage fluids increased markedly by 3 hours post-inoculation in which heterophils predominated (greater than 97%). There were only slight increases in cell counts of air sac lavages from control turkeys. The circulating blood heterophil cell count dropped transiently at 1.5 hours post-inoculation, followed by a return to normal 3 hours after inoculation, and by heterophilia by 6 hours post-inoculation in turkeys given either cell-free culture filtrate or brain-heart-infusion broth. These results indicate cell-free culture filtrate of P. multocida induces hematologic, cytologic, and morphologic changes indistinguishable from those induced by cultures of P. multocida. PMID:2017827

  6. Use of Japanese quail embryo fibroblast cells for propagation and assay of turkey herpesvirus FC-126.

    PubMed

    Colwell, W M; Simmons, D G; Muse, K E

    1974-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fibroblast cell culture monolayers were found to provide a very satisfactory system in which to propagate and assay turkey herpesvirus FC-126, which is used for production of Marek's disease vaccine. Japanese quail cells were more sensitive than duck cells and of approximately equal sensitivity to chicken cells. Foci of infection developed rapidly and uniformly, were of larger size, and were more easily discernible in quail cells than in chicken cells. PMID:4855648

  7. Satellite Cells in Muscular Dystrophy - Lost in Polarity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Natasha C; Chevalier, Fabien P; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Recent findings employing the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have revealed that muscle satellite stem cells play a direct role in contributing to disease etiology and progression of DMD, the most common and severe form of muscular dystrophy. Lack of dystrophin expression in DMD has critical consequences in satellite cells including an inability to establish cell polarity, abrogation of asymmetric satellite stem-cell divisions, and failure to enter the myogenic program. Thus, muscle wasting in dystrophic mice is not only caused by myofiber fragility but is exacerbated by intrinsic satellite cell dysfunction leading to impaired regeneration. Despite intense research and clinical efforts, there is still no effective cure for DMD. In this review we highlight recent research advances in DMD and discuss the current state of treatment and, importantly, how we can incorporate satellite cell-targeted therapeutic strategies to correct satellite cell dysfunction in DMD. PMID:27161598

  8. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  9. Satellite cell therapy – from mice to men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cells are rare mononuclear skeletal muscle-resident cells that are the chief contributors to regenerative myogenesis following muscle injury. Although first identified more than 50 years ago, it is only recently that the murine satellite cell has become molecularly defined with the ability to prospectively isolate these cells from their niche. Human satellite cells are considerably less well understood with relatively few studies having been performed on them. In this review, a critical evaluation of this literature is provided along with a discussion of the practical and methodological issues involved with research on human satellite cells. The therapeutic potential of these and other cells types is also discussed, and the various challenges that face satellite cell therapy are addressed. PMID:23369649

  10. Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Shin; Machida, Masanao; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed satellite cells, play essential roles in postnatal growth, maintenance, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. Our analysis showed that functional overload induces the expression of MyoD in satellite cells and enhances the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of these cells. The changes in satellite cell properties coincided with the inactivation of Notch signaling and the activation of Wnt signaling and likely involve modulation by transcription factors of the Sox family. These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise. PMID:26779264

  11. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo-jiang; Li, Ping-hua; Huang, Rui-hua; Sun, Wen-xing; Wang, Han; Li, Qi-fa; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wang-jun; Liu, Hong-lin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse) have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells. PMID:26104526

  12. Satellite cells from dystrophic muscle retain regenerative capacity.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Luisa; Zammit, Peter S; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, with a failure of muscle maintenance/repair mediated by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). The function of skeletal muscle stem cells resident in dystrophic muscle may be perturbed by being in an increasing pathogenic environment, coupled with constant demands for repairing muscle. To investigate the contribution of satellite cell exhaustion to this process, we tested the functionality of satellite cells isolated from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that satellite cells derived from young mdx mice contributed efficiently to muscle regeneration within our in vivo mouse model. To then test the effects of long-term residence in a dystrophic environment, satellite cells were isolated from aged mdx muscle. Surprisingly, they were as functional as those derived from young or aged wild type donors. Removing satellite cells from a dystrophic milieu reveals that their regenerative capacity remains both intact and similar to satellite cells derived from healthy muscle, indicating that the host environment is critical for controlling satellite cell function. PMID:25460248

  13. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a three dimensional level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development.

  14. Intraganglionic interactions between satellite cells and adult sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Christie, Kimberly; Koshy, Dilip; Cheng, Chu; Guo, GuiFang; Martinez, Jose A; Duraikannu, Arul; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2015-07-01

    Perineuronal satellite cells have an intimate anatomical relationship with sensory neurons that suggests close functional collaboration and mutual support. We examined several facets of this relationship in adult sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Collaboration included the support of process outgrowth by clustering of satellite cells, induction of distal branching behavior by soma signaling, the capacity of satellite cells to respond to distal axon injury of its neighboring neurons, and evidence of direct neuron-satellite cell exchange. In vitro, closely adherent coharvested satellite cells routinely clustered around new outgrowing processes and groups of satellite cells attracted neurite processes. Similar clustering was encountered in the pseudounipolar processes of intact sensory neurons within intact DRG in vivo. While short term exposure of distal growth cones of unselected adult sensory neurons to transient gradients of a PTEN inhibitor had negligible impacts on their behavior, exposure of the soma induced early and substantial growth of their distant neurites and branches, an example of local soma signaling. In turn, satellite cells sensed when distal neuronal axons were injured by enlarging and proliferating. We also observed that satellite cells were capable of internalizing and expressing a neuron fluorochrome label, diamidino yellow, applied remotely to distal injured axons of the neuron and retrogradely transported to dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons. The findings illustrate a robust interaction between intranganglionic neurons and glial cells that involve two way signals, features that may be critical for both regenerative responses and ongoing maintenance. PMID:25979201

  15. Satellite cells and myonuclei in neonatally denervated rat muscle.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Geuna, Stefano; Rodrigues, Silvana Perezin de Mattos; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai; Aragon, Flávio Ferrari

    2002-01-01

    While it is well know that the percentage of stellite cells in relation to myonuclei rapidly decreases in aneurally regenerating adult muscle, the fate of satellite cells in neonatally denervated muscles has received little attention so far. In the present study, rat tibialis anterior muscles were denervated at birth and analysed after 5, 7 and 10 weeks. At least 400 myonuclei in each muscle were assessed by electron microscopy and the percentage of satellite cell nuclei in relation to the number of myonuclei was calculated. The results indicated that the percentage of satellite cells steeply declines after neonatal denervation and, after 10 weeks, satellite cells were practically lacking in the muscles under analysis. This process of exhaustion of the satellite cell pool appears to be more rapid in developing than in adult muscles. PMID:12043920

  16. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  17. Myogenic potential of canine craniofacial satellite cells.

    PubMed

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthlmy, Ins; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  18. Satellite cell regulation following myotrauma caused by resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Vierck, J; O'Reilly, B; Hossner, K; Antonio, J; Byrne, K; Bucci, L; Dodson, M

    2000-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the primary mechanisms governing skeletal muscle hypertrophy are satellite cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation. Specific growth factors and hormones modulate satellite cell activity during normal muscle growth, but as a consequence of resistance exercise additional regulators may stimulate satellite cells to contribute to gains in myofiber size and number. Present knowledge of the regulation of the cellular, biochemical and molecular events accompanying skeletal muscle hypertrophy after resistance exercise is incomplete. We propose that resistance exercise may induce satellite cells to become responsive to cytokines from the immune system and to circulating hormones and growth factors. The purpose of this paper is to review the role of satellite cells and growth factors in skeletal muscle hypertrophy that follows resistance exercise. PMID:10805959

  19. Human satellite cells have regenerative capacity and are genetically manipulable.

    PubMed

    Marg, Andreas; Escobar, Helena; Gloy, Sina; Kufeld, Markus; Zacher, Joseph; Spuler, Andreas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Izsvk, Zsuzsanna; Spuler, Simone

    2014-10-01

    Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. Human satellite cells are scarce; therefore, clinical investigation has been limited. We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were activated and proliferated efficiently in culture. Independent of donor age, as few as 2 to 4 PAX7+ satellite cells gave rise to several thousand myoblasts. Transplantation of human muscle fiber fragments into irradiated muscle of immunodeficient mice resulted in robust engraftment, muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that subjecting the human muscle fiber fragments to hypothermic treatment successfully enriches the cultures for PAX7+ cells and improves the efficacy of the transplantation and muscle regeneration. Finally, we successfully altered gene expression in cultured human PAX7+ satellite cells with Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated nonviral gene transfer, highlighting the potential of this system for use in gene therapy. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to culture and manipulate a rare population of human tissue-specific stem cells and suggest that these PAX7+ satellite cells have potential to restore gene function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:25157816

  20. Marek's disease in turkeys: the induction of lesions and the establishment of lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Powell, P C; Howes, K; Lawn, A M; Mustill, B M; Payne, L N; Rennie, M; Thompson, M A

    1984-04-01

    The inoculation of turkeys with large doses of a virulent strain of Marek's disease virus (GA strain), but not of two other virulent strains (HPRS-16 and JM), was found to induce a disease resembling Marek's disease of the chicken. The most prominent lesions were lymphocytic leukaemia and lymphoid and reticular hyperplasia in the spleen and the liver. These developed after a prolonged latent period and the early histological changes (lymphoid cell destruction and reticuloendothelial cell hyperplasia) reported in chickens were not observed. Twelve cell lines were established from suspensions of spleen cells or of buffy coat cells from infected turkeys. These cells expressed both Marek's disease tumour-associated surface antigen and T-cell antigens. The cells carried the Marek's disease virus genome and when inoculated into chickens induced typical Marek's disease lymphomas. Nine of the cell lines were infected with an avian leukosis virus, but three lines were free of such infection. All cell lines had normal turkey karyotypes. PMID:18766837

  1. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  2. Use of advanced solar cells for commerical communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1995-01-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar- and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because of the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from Low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  3. Use of advanced solar cells for commercial communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-03-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  4. M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions activate satellite cell division.

    PubMed

    Marti, Merce; Montserrat, Núria; Pardo, Cristina; Mulero, Lola; Miquel-Serra, Laia; Rodrigues, Alexandre Miguel Cavaco; Andrés Vaquero, José; Kuebler, Bernd; Morera, Cristina; Barrero, María José; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-15

    Adult muscle stem cells and their committed myogenic precursors, commonly referred to as the satellite cell population, are involved in both muscle growth after birth and regeneration after damage. It has been previously proposed that, under these circumstances, satellite cells first become activated, divide and differentiate, and only later fuse to the existing myofiber through M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions. Our data show that satellite cells fuse with the myofiber concomitantly to cell division, and only when the nuclei of the daughter cells are inside the myofiber, do they complete the process of differentiation. Here we demonstrate that M-cadherin plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition and fusion, and is crucial for cell division activation. Treatment of satellite cells with M-cadherin in vitro stimulates cell division, whereas addition of anti-M-cadherin antibodies reduces the cell division rate. Our results suggest an alternative model for the contribution of satellite cells to muscle development, which might be useful in understanding muscle regeneration, as well as muscle-related dystrophies. PMID:24046443

  5. Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2011-01-01

    An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

  6. Satellite Cells: Regenerative Mechanisms and Applicability in Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zanette, Rafaella de Souza Salomão; do Amaral, Danielle Luciana Aurora Soares; da Guia, Francisco Carlos; Maranduba, Claudinéia Pereira; de Souza, Camila Maurmann; Guimarães, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart; Rettore, João Vitor Paes; Rabelo, Natana Chaves; do Carmo, Antônio Márcio Resende; Silva, Fernando de Sá; Maranduba, Carlos Magno da Costa

    2015-01-01

    The satellite cells are long regarded as heterogeneous cell population, which is intimately linked to the processes of muscular recovery. The heterogeneous cell population may be classified by specific markers. In spite of the significant amount of variation amongst the satellite cell populations, it seems that their activity is tightly bound to the paired box 7 transcription factor expression, which is, therefore, used as a canonical marker for these cells. Muscular dystrophic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, elicit severe tissue injuries leading those patients to display a very specific pattern of muscular recovery abnormalities. There have been works on the application of precursors cells as a therapeutic alternative for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and initial attempts have proven the cells inefficient; however later endeavours have proposed solutions for the experiments improving significantly the results. The presence of a range of satellite cells populations indicates the existence of specific cells with enhanced capability of muscular recovery in afflicted muscles. PMID:25763072

  7. The muscle satellite cell at 50: the formative years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In February 1961, Alexander Mauro described a cell 'wedged' between the plasma membrane of the muscle fibre and the surrounding basement membrane. He postulated that it could be a dormant myoblast, poised to repair muscle when needed. In the same month, Bernard Katz also reported a cell in a similar location on muscle spindles, suggesting that it was associated with development and growth of intrafusal muscle fibres. Both Mauro and Katz used the term 'satellite cell' in relation to their discoveries. Today, the muscle satellite cell is widely accepted as the resident stem cell of skeletal muscle, supplying myoblasts for growth, homeostasis and repair. Since 2011 marks both the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the satellite cell, and the launch of Skeletal Muscle, it seems an opportune moment to summarise the seminal events in the history of research into muscle regeneration. We start with the 19th-century pioneers who showed that muscle had a regenerative capacity, through to the descriptions from the mid-20th century of the underlying cellular mechanisms. The journey of the satellite cell from electron microscope curio, to its gradual acceptance as a bona fide myoblast precursor, is then charted: work that provided the foundations for our understanding of the role of the satellite cell. Finally, the rapid progress in the age of molecular biology is briefly discussed, and some ongoing debates on satellite cell function highlighted. PMID:21849021

  8. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  9. Muscle Satellite Cells: Exploring the Basic Biology to Rule Them

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Camila F.; Fernandes, Stephanie A.; Ribeiro Junior, Antonio F.; Vainzof, Mariz

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue with an enormous capacity to regenerate upon injury. This is accomplished by resident stem cells, named satellite cells, which were identified more than 50 years ago. Since their discovery, many researchers have been concentrating efforts to answer questions about their origin and role in muscle development, the way they contribute to muscle regeneration, and their potential to cell-based therapies. Satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state and upon requirement are activated, proliferating, and fusing with other cells to form or repair myofibers. In addition, they are able to self-renew and replenish the stem pool. Every phase of satellite cell activity is highly regulated and orchestrated by many molecules and signaling pathways; the elucidation of players and mechanisms involved in satellite cell biology is of extreme importance, being the first step to expose the crucial points that could be modulated to extract the optimal response from these cells in therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the basic aspects about satellite cells biology and briefly discuss recent findings about therapeutic attempts, trying to raise questions about how basic biology could provide a solid scaffold to more successful use of these cells in clinics. PMID:27042182

  10. Evaluation of solar cell materials for a Solar Power Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K. I.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative solar cell materials being considered for the solar power satellite are described and price, production, and availability projections through the year 2000 are presented. The chief materials considered are silicon and gallium arsenide.

  11. Cellular dynamics in the muscle satellite cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Bentzinger, C Florian; Wang, Yu Xin; Dumont, Nicolas A; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cells, the quintessential skeletal muscle stem cells, reside in a specialized local environment whose anatomy changes dynamically during tissue regeneration. The plasticity of this niche is attributable to regulation by the stem cells themselves and to a multitude of functionally diverse cell types. In particular, immune cells, fibrogenic cells, vessel-associated cells and committed and differentiated cells of the myogenic lineage have emerged as important constituents of the satellite cell niche. Here, we discuss the cellular dynamics during muscle regeneration and how disease can lead to perturbation of these mechanisms. To define the role of cellular components in the muscle stem cell niche is imperative for the development of cell-based therapies, as well as to better understand the pathobiology of degenerative conditions of the skeletal musculature. PMID:24232182

  12. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Molnar, G; Schroedl, N A; Gonda, S R; Hartzell, C R

    1997-05-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and, therefore, provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75% satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached divided by cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and nonsatellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability because glucose levels in medium from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARV were joined together by cells into 3-D aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a 3-D level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development than is currently available with standard culture methods. PMID:9196898

  13. Adult Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Muscle Connective Tissue and Satellite Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfus, Patrick A.; Chretien, Fabrice; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Kirova, Youlia; Caramelle, Philippe; Garcia, Luis; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gherardi, Romain K.

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscle includes satellite cells, which reside beneath the muscle fiber basal lamina and mainly represent committed myogenic precursor cells, and multipotent stem cells of unknown origin that are present in muscle connective tissue, express the stem cell markers Sca-1 and CD34, and can differentiate into different cell types. We tracked bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells in both muscle connective tissue and satellite cell niches of irradiated mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing BM cells. An increasing number of GFP+ mononucleated cells, located both inside and outside of the muscle fiber basal lamina, were observed 1, 3, and 6 months after transplantation. Sublaminal cells expressed unambiguous satellite cell markers (M-cadherin, Pax7, NCAM) and fused into scattered GFP+ muscle fibers. In muscle connective tissue there were GFP+ cells located close to blood vessels that expressed the ScaI or CD34 stem-cell antigens. The rate of settlement of extra- and intralaminal compartments by BM-derived cells was compatible with the view that extralaminal cells constitute a reservoir of satellite cells. We conclude that both muscle satellite cells and stem cell marker-expressing cells located in muscle connective tissue can derive from BM in adulthood. PMID:14982831

  14. Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

  15. Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Simona; Huerre, Michel; Riviere, Jean-Pierre; Coffey, Lark L.; Afonso, Philippe V.; Mouly, Vincent; de Monredon, Jean; Roger, Jean-Christophe; El Amrani, Mohamed; Yvin, Jean-Luc; Jaffar, Marie-Christine; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Sourisseau, Marion; Schwartz, Olivier; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Desprès, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells), and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. Conclusions/Significance This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans. PMID:17565380

  16. Determination of burnout levels of nurses working in stem cell transplantation units in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akkuş, Yeliz; Karacan, Yasemin; Göker, Hakan; Aksu, Salih

    2010-12-01

    Although burnout has been researched widely with regard to nurses working in different settings, until now it has not been investigated among stem cell transplantation unit nurses. This study's aim was to determine the burnout level of 57 nurses who were working in stem cell transplantation units in Turkey. The research instruments that were used included a form of demographic characteristics and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. For all the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation nurses, the mean subscale scores for emotional exhaustion were the highest, followed by personal accomplishment and then depersonalization. The burnout level rose with increasing age and duration on the job. Interventions to reduce burnout are needed at both the administrative and organizational levels. In addition, it is essential to address and prevent the problems that are related to burnout, especially among nurses who work in the same unit for a long time. PMID:21210922

  17. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 influences cell cycle progression in muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Mathieu; Figeac, Nicolas; White, Robert B.; Knopp, Paul; Zammit, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle retains a resident stem cell population called satellite cells, which are mitotically quiescent in mature muscle, but can be activated to produce myoblast progeny for muscle homeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. We have previously shown that satellite cell activation is partially controlled by the bioactive phospholipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and that S1P biosynthesis is required for muscle regeneration. Here we investigate the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) in regulating murine satellite cell function. S1PR3 levels were high in quiescent myogenic cells before falling during entry into cell cycle. Retrovirally-mediated constitutive expression of S1PR3 led to suppressed cell cycle progression in satellite cells, but did not overtly affect the myogenic program. Conversely, satellite cells isolated from S1PR3-null mice exhibited enhanced proliferation ex-vivo. In vivo, acute cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration was enhanced in S1PR3-null mice, with bigger muscle fibres compared to control mice. Importantly, genetically deleting S1PR3 in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy produced a less severe muscle dystrophic phenotype, than when signalling though S1PR3 was operational. In conclusion, signalling though S1PR3 suppresses cell cycle progression to regulate function in muscle satellite cells. PMID:23911934

  18. [Satellite cells of te dorsal root ganglia in neuronal hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Gontero, P; Geuna, S; Poncino, A; Giacobini Robecchi, M G

    1992-01-01

    Amputation of the lizard tail is followed by its complete regeneration over a period of six-eight months. The new tail is innervated only by the last three pairs of spinal nerves upstream from the plane of amputation, since no nerve cells are present in the regenerated. The corresponding dorsal root ganglia increase in volume (hypertrophic ganglia) and most of their sensory neurons become hypertrophic. Satellite cells belonging to this hypertrophic ganglia increase in number. This paper describes an autoradiographic study, after administration of tritiated thymidine, of the hypertrophic dorsal root ganglia of the lizard during tail regeneration. We evaluated the number of satellite cells which neo-synthetize DNA ("labeling index = LI%) and are therefore suitable to undergo cell division. The LI% was significatively increased in hypertrophic ganglia when compared to internal control ganglia (not directly involved in the reinnervation process) and normal ganglia (lizards with intact tails). The comparison between internal control ganglia and normal ganglia showed higher LI% values in the formers, although this difference was not statistically significative. These results are in line with those obtained by other authors and suggest that satellite cells of dorsal root ganglia can undergo cellular proliferation also in the adult, especially in particular experimental conditions. PMID:1503734

  19. The contribution of high resolution satellite images to the production of base-maps and cartographies for archaeological research in Turkey and Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    The paper concerns the contribution of high resolution satellite images to the production of base-maps and cartographies for archaeological research, using both during field work and in GIS dedicated to Cultural Heritage. Particularly, some experiences conducted during researches on Turkish and Iraqi archaeological sites are presented, where the use of satellite images was necessary because of both large scale cartographies and aero-photogrammetrical photos are not available. In the case of archaeological surveys in Hierapolis of Phrygia (south-western Turkey) they provided a fundamental tool for the research on the ground and for the analysis and management of data in the archaeological GIS of the territory. Ikonos-2 and QuickBird-2 images were ortho-rectified with the use of GCPs (taken with a differential GPS) and with DEMs and DSMs processed thanks different remote sensing data, radar (SRTM) and optical (Ikonos-2 and ASTER stereo-pairs), for the creation of space-maps and the extraction of cartographical elements: these (hydrology, modern topography, field boundaries, archaeological remains and traces, etc.) were used with the aims of the creation of new maps for archaeological purpose (the orography was extracted from DEMs) and the update of the existing ones. In the case of some ancient sites studied for the contextualization of the objects showed in the Virtual Museum of Iraq, high resolution images of the same satellites (and of WorldView-1) were ortho-rectified without GPCs and used for the creation or the update of the archaeological maps (generally very old), on which plans of excavated structures, recent discoveries, and archaeological traces and paleo-environmental elements were geo-referenced.

  20. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandine, Leslie; Gonzalez-Sanabria, Olga; Levy, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    The results of a 12 month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application are summarized. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 watt-hour/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. Using advanced light weight cell construction which was achieved in experimental cells, composite tankage material for the reactant gases and the reversible stack concept, system energy densities of 115 watt-hours/lb can be projected.

  1. BMP signaling balances proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cell descendants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The capacity of muscle to grow or to regenerate after damage is provided by adult stem cells, so called satellite cells, which are located under the basement lamina of each myofiber. Upon activation satellite cells enter the cell cycle, proliferate and differentiate into myoblasts, which fuse to injured myofibers or form new fibers. These processes are tightly controlled by many growth factors. Results Here we investigate the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) during satellite cell differentiation. Unlike the myogenic C2C12 cell line, primary satellite cells do not differentiate into osteoblasts upon BMP signaling. Instead BMP signaling inhibits myogenic differentiation of primary satellite cells ex vivo. In contrast, inhibition of BMP signaling results in cell cycle exit, followed by enhanced myoblast differentiation and myotube formation. Using an in vivo trauma model we demonstrate that satellite cells respond to BMP signals during the regeneration process. Interestingly, we found the BMP inhibitor Chordin upregulated in primary satellite cell cultures and in regenerating muscles. In both systems Chordin expression follows that of Myogenin, a marker for cells committed to differentiation. Conclusion Our data indicate that BMP signaling plays a critical role in balancing proliferation and differentiation of activated satellite cells and their descendants. Initially, BMP signals maintain satellite cells descendants in a proliferating state thereby expanding cell numbers. After cells are committed to differentiate they upregulate the expression of the BMP inhibitor Chordin thereby supporting terminal differentiation and myotube formation in a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:21645366

  2. Ethical and legal aspects of stem cell practices in Turkey: where are we?

    PubMed

    Ozturk Turkmen, H; Arda, B

    2008-12-01

    Advances in medical technology and information have facilitated clinical practices that favourably affect the success rates of treatment for diseases. Regenerative medicine has been the focus of the recent medical agenda, to the extent of fundamentally changing treatment paradigms. Stem cell practices, their efficacy, and associated ethical concerns have been debated intensively in many countries. Stem cell research is carried out along with the treatment of patients. Thus, various groups affected by the practices inevitably participate in the discussions. In addition to discussions based on avoiding any harm, providing benefits and respecting personal autonomy and justice, problems arise owing to the lack of legal regulations for stem cell research and practice. The dimensions of the problems vary in the developing countries, with widespread use of advanced medical technology but with lack of sources allocated for healthcare, dominance of paternalistic physician-patient relationships and failure to achieve a sufficient level of awareness of patients' rights. This article discusses the current situation of stem cell practices within the context of regenerative medicine in Turkey and ethical concerns about some of the legal regulations, such as the Regulation for Umblical Cord Blood Banking and Guidelines for Non-embryonic Stem Cell Study for Non-clinical Purposes directing the research on this issue. PMID:19043103

  3. Monitoring the changing position of coastlines using aerial and satellite image data: an example from the eastern coast of Trabzon, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sesli, Faik Ahmet; Karsli, Fevzi; Colkesen, Ismail; Akyol, Nihat

    2009-06-01

    Coastline mapping and coastline change detection are critical issues for safe navigation, coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and sustainable coastal development and planning. Changes in the shape of coastline may fundamentally affect the environment of the coastal zone. This may be caused by natural processes and/or human activities. Over the past 30 years, the coastal sites in Turkey have been under an intensive restraint associated with a population press due to the internal and external touristic demand. In addition, urbanization on the filled up areas, settlements, and the highways constructed to overcome the traffic problems and the other applications in the coastal region clearly confirm an intensive restraint. Aerial photos with medium spatial resolution and high resolution satellite imagery are ideal data sources for mapping coastal land use and monitoring their changes for a large area. This study introduces an efficient method to monitor coastline and coastal land use changes using time series aerial photos (1973 and 2002) and satellite imagery (2005) covering the same geographical area. Results show the effectiveness of the use of digital photogrammetry and remote sensing data on monitoring large area of coastal land use status. This study also showed that over 161 ha areas were filled up in the research area and along the coastal land 12.2 ha of coastal erosion is determined for the period of 1973 to 2005. Consequently, monitoring of coastal land use is thus necessary for coastal area planning in order to protecting the coastal areas from climate changes and other coastal processes. PMID:18560986

  4. TAK1 modulates satellite stem cell homeostasis and skeletal muscle repair

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yuji; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Akira, Shizuo; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are resident adult stem cells that are required for regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, signalling mechanisms that regulate satellite cell function are less understood. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is important in satellite stem cell homeostasis and function. Inactivation of TAK1 in satellite cells inhibits muscle regeneration in adult mice. TAK1 is essential for satellite cell proliferation and its inactivation causes precocious differentiation. Moreover, TAK1-deficient satellite cells exhibit increased oxidative stress and undergo spontaneous cell death, primarily through necroptosis. TAK1 is required for the activation of NF-κB and JNK in satellite cells. Forced activation of NF-κB improves survival and proliferation of TAK1-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, TAK1-mediated activation of JNK is essential to prevent oxidative stress and precocious differentiation of satellite cells. Collectively, our study suggests that TAK1 is required for maintaining the pool of satellite stem cells and for regenerative myogenesis. PMID:26648529

  5. TAK1 modulates satellite stem cell homeostasis and skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Hindi, Sajedah M; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Akira, Shizuo; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are resident adult stem cells that are required for regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, signalling mechanisms that regulate satellite cell function are less understood. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is important in satellite stem cell homeostasis and function. Inactivation of TAK1 in satellite cells inhibits muscle regeneration in adult mice. TAK1 is essential for satellite cell proliferation and its inactivation causes precocious differentiation. Moreover, TAK1-deficient satellite cells exhibit increased oxidative stress and undergo spontaneous cell death, primarily through necroptosis. TAK1 is required for the activation of NF-κB and JNK in satellite cells. Forced activation of NF-κB improves survival and proliferation of TAK1-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, TAK1-mediated activation of JNK is essential to prevent oxidative stress and precocious differentiation of satellite cells. Collectively, our study suggests that TAK1 is required for maintaining the pool of satellite stem cells and for regenerative myogenesis. PMID:26648529

  6. VES16 Li-Ion Cell For Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, S.; Prevot, D.; Reulier, D.; Vigier, F., , Dr.

    2011-10-01

    At a period when LEO satellite market is growing, as well as mission life time requirements, Saft has designed a new Li-ion cell aiming to answer those demanding requirements. This development is conducted with the support and partnership of CNES French agency. This VES16 cell combines benefits and heritage of low capacity MPS Li-ion cells, and advantages of Nickel oxide base Li-ion chemistry of VES100-140-180 cells. After a period of cycling evaluation of the cell with slight electrochemistry differences, an optimized cell design has been frozen and is submitted to a large qualification plan, including characterisations, environmental tests, and life time demonstrations. This paper presents the main BOL characteristics and performances achieved during the qualification program, including electrical, thermal and mechanical characterisations. It will also detail the expected lifetime data, and the key results obtained on VES16 cell in LEO mission cycling configuration. A specific paragraph also includes results in GEO cycling configuration, to highlight that the cell can be also proposed on geostationary spacecraft.

  7. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Alexander; Vandine, Leslie L.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. The first, the integrated design, utilized a configuration in which the fuel cell and electrolysis cells are alternately stacked inside a pressure vessel. Product water is transferred by diffusion during electrolysis and waste heat is conducted through the pressure wall, thus using completely passive means for transfer and control. The second alkaline system, the dedicated design, uses a separate fuel cell and electrolysis stack so that each unit can be optimized in size and weight based on its orbital operating period. The third design was a dual function stack configuration, in which each cell can operate in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode, thus eliminating the need for two separate stacks and associated equipment. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 W-hr/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. System densities of 115 W-hr/lb are contemplated.

  8. Real time of earthquakes prone areas by RST analysis of satellite TIR radiances: results of continuous monitoring over Italy and Turkey regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological satellites offering global coverage, continuity of observations and long term time series (starting even 30 years ago) offer a unique possibility not only to learn from the past but also to guarantee continuous monitoring whereas other observation technologies are lacking because too expensive or (like in the case of earthquake precursor studies) or considered useless by decision-makers. Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed (since 2001) in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transient possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. Since then several earthquakes occurred in Europe, Africa and America have been studied by analyzing decades of satellite observations always using a validation/confutation approach in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in presence/absence of significant seismic activity. In the framework of PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project (www.pre-earthquakes.org) , starting from October 2010 (still continuing) RST approach has been applied to MSG/SEVIRI data to generate TIR anomaly maps over Italian peninsula, continuously for all the midnight slots. Since September 2011 the same monitoring activity (still continuing) started for Turkey region. For the first time a similar analysis has been performed in real-time, systematically analyzing TIR anomaly maps in order to identify day by day possible significant (e.g. persistent in the space-time domain) thermal anomalies. During 2011 only in very few cases (1 in Italy in July and 2 in the Turkish region in September and November) the day by day analysis enhanced significant anomalies that in two cases were communicated to the other PRE-EARTHQUAKES partners asking for their attention. In this paper results of such analysis will be presented which seem to confirm results independently achieved (unfortunately without their knowledge) by other authors applying a similar approach to EOS/MODIS data over California region.

  9. Invited Review: Extrinsic regulation of domestic animal-derived myogenic satellite cells II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The existence of myogenic satellite cells was reported some forty-seven years ago, and, since that time, satellite cell research has flourished. So much new information is generated (daily) on these cells that it can be difficult for individuals to keep abreast of important issues related to the act...

  10. Discovery of Novel Small Molecules that Activate Satellite Cell Proliferation and Enhance Repair of Damaged Muscle.

    PubMed

    Billin, Andrew N; Bantscheff, Marcus; Drewes, Gerard; Ghidelli-Disse, Sonja; Holt, Jason A; Kramer, Henning F; McDougal, Alan J; Smalley, Terry L; Wells, Carrow I; Zuercher, William J; Henke, Brad R

    2016-02-19

    Skeletal muscle progenitor stem cells (referred to as satellite cells) represent the primary pool of stem cells in adult skeletal muscle responsible for the generation of new skeletal muscle in response to injury. Satellite cells derived from aged muscle display a significant reduction in regenerative capacity to form functional muscle. This decrease in functional recovery has been attributed to a decrease in proliferative capacity of satellite cells. Hence, agents that enhance the proliferative abilities of satellite cells may hold promise as therapies for a variety of pathological settings, including repair of injured muscle and age- or disease-associated muscle wasting. Through phenotypic screening of isolated murine satellite cells, we identified a series of 2,4-diaminopyrimidines (e.g., 2) that increased satellite cell proliferation. Importantly, compound 2 was effective in accelerating repair of damaged skeletal muscle in an in vivo mouse model of skeletal muscle injury. While these compounds were originally prepared as c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK-1) inhibitors, structure-activity analyses indicated JNK-1 inhibition does not correlate with satellite cell activity. Screening against a broad panel of kinases did not result in identification of an obvious molecular target, so we conducted cell-based proteomics experiments in an attempt to identify the molecular target(s) responsible for the potentiation of the satellite cell proliferation. These data provide the foundation for future efforts to design improved small molecules as potential therapeutics for muscle repair and regeneration. PMID:26696218

  11. BRE facilitates skeletal muscle regeneration by promoting satellite cell motility and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lihai; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The function of the Bre gene in satellite cells was investigated during skeletal muscle regeneration. The tibialis anterior leg muscle was experimentally injured in Bre knockout mutant (BRE-KO) mice. It was established that the accompanying muscle regeneration was impaired as compared with their normal wild-type counterparts (BRE-WT). There were significantly fewer pax7+ satellite cells and smaller newly formed myofibers present in the injury sites of BRE-KO mice. Bre was required for satellite cell fusion and myofiber formation. The cell fusion index and average length of newly-formed BRE-KO myofibers were found to be significantly reduced as compared with BRE-WT myofibers. It is well established that satellite cells are highly invasive which confers on them the homing ability to reach the muscle injury sites. Hence, we tracked the migratory behavior of these cells using time-lapse microscopy. Image analysis revealed no difference in directionality of movement between BRE-KO and BRE-WT satellite cells but there was a significant decrease in the velocity of BRE-KO cell movement. Moreover, chemotactic migration assays indicated that BRE-KO satellite cells were significantly less responsive to chemoattractant SDF-1α than BRE-WT satellite cells. We also established that BRE normally protects CXCR4 from SDF-1α-induced degradation. In sum, BRE facilitates skeletal muscle regeneration by enhancing satellite cell motility, homing and fusion. PMID:26740569

  12. Multi-cell satellite for the communications of year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, E.; Dilly, J.

    The multi-cell communication satellite concept allows an efficient use of the geostationary orbit and a large reduction of the bit transmission cost, as a Bell-type (phased array), multiple mobile narrow beams arrangement with SS-TDMA. It has a flat hexagonal flying-saucer shape, being erected in a low altitude orbit, through an automatic assembly process of a large number of quasi-identical hexagonal cells. Each cell has independent power supply, thrusters, RF modules etc…. Total assembly requires 10 ARIANE V or 4 SHUTTLE launches. An automatic tooling assembly using simple iterative manoeuvers is used to obtain the final shape, from initial cylindrical packages. Transfer into geostationary orbit is provided by low-thrust bi-propellant units attached to the cells, and released after burn-out. Assembly and transfer duration is about 6 months. Total traffic to 1000-2000 towns being 100 Gbits/s, the expected reduction of bit-transmission cost relative to year 1981 is 75-100 fold.

  13. Gliopathic pain: when satellite glial cells go bad.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Peter T; Vit, Jean-Philippe; Bhargava, Aditi; Romero, Marcela; Sundberg, Christopher; Charles, Andrew C; Jasmin, Luc

    2009-10-01

    Neurons in sensory ganglia are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs) that perform similar functions to the glia found in the CNS. When primary sensory neurons are injured, the surrounding SGCs undergo characteristic changes. There is good evidence that the SGCs are not just bystanders to the injury but play an active role in the initiation and maintenance of neuronal changes that underlie neuropathic pain. In this article the authors review the literature on the relationship between SGCs and nociception and present evidence that changes in SGC potassium ion buffering capacity and glutamate recycling can lead to neuropathic pain-like behavior in animal models. The role that SGCs play in the immune responses to injury is also considered. We propose the term gliopathic pain to describe those conditions in which central or peripheral glia are thought to be the principal generators of principal pain generators. PMID:19826169

  14. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Taro Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-08-14

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling.

  15. Vaccination of turkeys with cell-free culture filtrate of Pasteurella multocida: effects of ultrafiltration and endotoxin removal.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J; Avakian, A P; Carver, D K

    1992-01-01

    Cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) of Pasteurella multocida strain R44/6 (serotype 3/4/9/12) was fractionated by ultrafiltration into fractions of less than 10,000, greater than 10,000, greater than 30,000, and 10,000 to 30,000 molecular weight (MW). The less-than-10,000-MW fraction contained little endotoxin comparable to bacteriologic medium; the 10,000-to-30,000-MW fraction had a moderate amount of endotoxin, whereas the greater-than-10,000- and greater-than-30,000-MW fractions contained high levels of endotoxin. Following ultrafiltration, each fraction, except the less-than-10,000-MW fraction, was divided into two equal parts, and endotoxin was removed from one part. Turkeys were vaccinated with the various MW fractions of CCF, with and without endotoxin, via the air sacs at 6 and 9 weeks of age and compared with negative controls given bacteriologic medium and positive controls vaccinated with a commercial bacterin. Before oral challenge with strain P-1059 (serotype 3) at 12 weeks of age, antibody titers were detected only in positive control turkeys. Protection against challenge, as measured by post-challenge mortality and body-weight gain, was provided by the greater-than-10,000-, greater-than-30,000-, and 10,000-to-30,000-MW fractions containing endotoxin and the commercial bacterin. Turkeys that had been vaccinated with bacteriologic medium and the four different fractions without endotoxin were not protected. Results indicated that endotoxin in CCF of P. multocida is critical in protecting turkeys from pasteurellosis. PMID:1627112

  16. Vaccination of turkeys with cell-free culture filtrate of Pasteurella multocida: effects of dilution, iron chelation, and heterologous challenge.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J; Avakian, A P; Carver, D K

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments were done to further define cell-free culture filtrate (CCF) from Pasteurella multocida and its endotoxin content in protecting turkeys against challenge. In the first experiment, the greater-than-30,000-molecular-weight fraction of P. multocida strain R44/6 (serotype 3/4/9/12) CCF was used in 10-fold dilutions given by air-sac inoculation or aerosol to vaccinate turkeys, which were subsequently challenged with either homologous (P-1059, serotype 3) or heterologous (X-73, serotype 1) strains. Endotoxin content of the CCF fraction was high. Compared with positive controls given either live Clemson University vaccine or a commercial bacterin, homologous protection was provided by undiluted CCF and 1:10 dilutions of CCF, but there was no heterologous protection. In the second experiment, CCF of strain R44/6 in regular and iron-limiting media and CCF of strain FC127B (serotype 1/4) were used alone or in combination to vaccinate turkeys, which were challenged as in the first experiment. Homologous but not heterologous protection occurred, even though growth of strain R44/6 in iron-limiting media reduced endotoxin content of CCF by approximately 93%. These results indicate that endotoxin levels of less than 10% but greater than 1% of those in CCF from regular media are sufficient to induce protection in turkeys against homologous challenge but that CCF from either regular or iron-limiting medium does not provide protection against heterologous challenge. PMID:1485881

  17. Enhanced progesterone and testosterone secretion and depressed estradiol secretion in vitro from small white follicle cells of incubating turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Porter, T E; Hargis, B M; Silsby, J L; el Halawani, M E

    1989-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine if lower steroid secretion by the small white follicles in incubating turkey hens contributes to lower circulating steroid concentrations during this time. Turkey hens were grouped as either laying or incubating. Serum samples and the ovarian small white follicles (SWF; 2-7 mm diameter) were collected from each hen. The SWF were pooled for each group and their cells were dispersed by trypsin digestion. Serum-luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E) concentrations were lower and serum prolactin concentration was higher during incubation than during egg laying. SWF cells from incubating hens secreted more P and T and less E in response to ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH) than did similar cell suspensions from laying hens. The incubating hens' SWF cells' capacity to secrete E but not their capacity to secrete P or T in vitro is consistent with the observed circulating levels. It is hypothesized that lower levels of circulating LH and/or higher levels of prolactin found in incubating hens may have a depressing effect on aromatase activity and/or an up-regulating effect on LH-induced P and T secretion by the SWF cells. PMID:2744409

  18. Determination of seasonal changes in wetlands using CHRIS/Proba Hyperspectral satellite images: A case study from Acigöl (Denizli), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat; Avci, Damla Uca; Ozelkan, Emre; Bulbul, Ali; Civas, Melda; Tasdelen, Suat

    2015-01-01

    The changes in wetlands that occur through natural processes, as well as through industrialization and agricultural activities, are decreasing and even annihilating the living spaces of endemic species. Acigöl (Denizli, Turkey), which is a suitable habitat for flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), is a lake that is affected by seasonal anomalies as a result of being shallow. Acigöl, which is fed by precipitation, groundwater and the springs that occur along tectonic faults, has no water output other than evaporation and industrial activities. In addition to natural factors, it is important to determine the changes in the wetlands of Acig6l, where industrial salt is produced, in order to reveal the micro-ecological equilibrium, the relationship between climate and natural life, and regulation of industrial activities. Remote sensing tools are frequently used in determination of changes in wetlands. Changes in coastlines, water level and area covered by water are parameters that can be examined by remote sensing while investigating wetlands. In this study, the water-covered area was examined using remote sensing. Within the scope of this study, CHRIS/Proba Mode 2 (water bandset) hyperspectral satellite images, acquired on 9/17/2011 for the season and on 6/18/2012 - 6/19/2012 forwet season, were used in orderto present the seasonal changes in Acigöl, during one hydrogeological period. The processes of noise reduction, cloud screening, atmospheric correction, geometric correction, and identification of wetlands have been implemented on the CHRIS/Proba images. In determining the water-covered areas, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used. It was determined that W6 (560 nm) and W18 (1015 nm) and W2 (447 nm) and W18 (1015 nm) band combinations were most appropriate to be used in NDWI to demonstrate the water-land separation. Using Proba-NDWI image, it was established that an area of 27.4 km2 was covered with water during dry season, and 61.2 km2 was covered during wet season. The results indicated that; since the lake water area is directly affected by seasonal and annual climatic anomalies, water used by industrial facilities has to be drawn out of the lake in reasonable amount. PMID:26591885

  19. Myostatin signals through Pax7 to regulate satellite cell self-renewal

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Craig; Hennebry, Alex; Thomas, Mark; Plummer, Erin; Ling, Nicholas; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2008-01-15

    Myostatin, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-{beta}) super-family member, has previously been shown to negatively regulate satellite cell activation and self-renewal. However, to date the mechanism behind Myostatin function in satellite cell biology is not known. Here we show that Myostatin signals via a Pax7-dependent mechanism to regulate satellite cell self-renewal. While excess Myostatin inhibited Pax7 expression via ERK1/2 signaling, an increase in Pax7 expression was observed following both genetic inactivation and functional antagonism of Myostatin. As a result, we show that either blocking or inactivating Myostatin enhances the partitioning of the fusion-incompetent self-renewed satellite cell lineage (high Pax7 expression, low MyoD expression) from the pool of actively proliferating myogenic precursor cells. Consistent with this result, over-expression of Pax7 in C2C12 myogenic cells resulted in increased self-renewal through a mechanism which slowed both myogenic proliferation and differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that increased expression of Pax7 promotes satellite cell self-renewal, and furthermore Myostatin may control the process of satellite cell self-renewal through regulation of Pax7. Thus we speculate that, in addition to the intrinsic factors (such as Pax7), extrinsic factors both positive and negative in nature, will play a major role in determining the stemness of skeletal muscle satellite cells.

  20. [The influence of satellite cells on meat quality and its differential regulation].

    PubMed

    Shen, Lin-Yuan; Zhang, Shun-Hua; Wu, Ze-Hui; Zheng, Meng-Yue; Li, Xue-Wei; Zhu, Li

    2013-09-01

    Satellite cell is a kind of myogenic stem cells, which plays an important role in muscle development and injury repair. Through proliferation, differentiation and fusion of muscle fiber can satellite cells make new myonuclear, leading to the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle and fiber type transformation, and this would further affect the meat quality. Here, we review the relationship between muscle fiber development and meat quality attributes as well as the influence of the satellite cell differentiation on muscle fiber character. Besides, we also summarize the classical signaling pathway (i.e., Notch etc.) and influence of epigenetic regulation (i.e. miRNA) on muscle quality. PMID:24400481

  1. Reduced Satellite Cell Numbers and Myogenic Capacity in Aging Can Be Alleviated by Endurance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Gabi; Rauner, Gat; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Benayahu, Dafna

    2010-01-01

    Background Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary. Methodology Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo). The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro). We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging. PMID:20967266

  2. Six family genes control the proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yajima, Hiroshi; Motohashi, Norio; Ono, Yusuke; Sato, Shigeru; Ikeda, Keiko; Masuda, Satoru; Yada, Erica; Kanesaki, Hironori; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    2010-10-15

    Muscle satellite cells are essential for muscle growth and regeneration and their morphology, behavior and gene expression have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms involved in their proliferation and differentiation remain elusive. Six1 and Six4 proteins were expressed in the nuclei of myofibers of adult mice and the numbers of myoblasts positive for Six1 and Six4 increased during regeneration of skeletal muscles. Six1 and Six4 were expressed in quiescent, activated and differentiated muscle satellite cells isolated from adult skeletal muscle. Overexpression of Six4 and Six5 repressed the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. Conversely, knockdown of Six5 resulted in augmented proliferation, and that of Six4 inhibited differentiation. Muscle satellite cells isolated from Six4{sup +/-}Six5{sup -/-} mice proliferated to higher cell density though their differentiation was not altered. Meanwhile, overproduction of Six1 repressed proliferation and promoted differentiation of satellite cells. In addition, Six4 and Six5 repressed, while Six1 activated myogenin expression, suggesting that the differential regulation of myogenin expression is responsible for the differential effects of Six genes. The results indicated the involvement of Six genes in the behavior of satellite cells and identified Six genes as potential target for manipulation of proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells for therapeutic applications.

  3. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters in Vivo and in Vitro Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Lindsey S.; Seabolt, Brynn S.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Stahl, Chad H.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4) deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW) were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P), supra-adequate (1.2% total P) in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P) in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured in vitro for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. In vivo satellite cell proliferation was reduced (P < 0.05) among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered in vitro expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted. PMID:22822445

  4. Neonatal phosphate nutrition alters in vivo and in vitro satellite cell activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lindsey S; Seabolt, Brynn S; Rhoads, Robert P; Stahl, Chad H

    2012-06-01

    Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO(4)) deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO(4) nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW) were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO(4) adequate (0.9% total P), supra-adequate (1.2% total P) in PO(4) requirement or deficient (0.7% total P) in PO(4) content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured in vitro for 7 days to determine if PO(4) nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO(4) deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) sera PO(4) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO(4) improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO(4) adequate group. In vivo satellite cell proliferation was reduced (P < 0.05) among the PO(4) deficient pigs, and these cells had altered in vitro expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO(4) nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted. PMID:22822445

  5. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Christopher S.; Lee, Jonah D.; Jackson, Janna R.; Kirby, Tyler J.; Stasko, Shawn A.; Liu, Honglu; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; McCarthy, John J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the current study was to determine the necessity of satellite cells for long-term muscle growth and maintenance. We utilized a transgenic Pax7-DTA mouse model, allowing for the conditional depletion of > 90% of satellite cells with tamoxifen treatment. Synergist ablation surgery, where removal of synergist muscles places functional overload on the plantaris, was used to stimulate robust hypertrophy. Following 8 wk of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle demonstrated an accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibroblast expansion that resulted in reduced specific force of the plantaris. Although the early growth response was normal, an attenuation of hypertrophy measured by both muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area occurred in satellite cell-depleted muscle. Isolated primary myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) negatively regulated fibroblast ECM mRNA expression in vitro, suggesting a novel role for activated satellite cells/MPCs in muscle adaptation. These results provide evidence that satellite cells regulate the muscle environment during growth.—Fry, C. S., Lee, J. D., Jackson, J. R., Kirby, T. J., Stasko, S. A., Liu, H., Dupont-Versteegden, E. E., McCarthy, J. J., Peterson, C. A. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy. PMID:24376025

  6. New insights into the epigenetic control of satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Moresi, Viviana; Marroncelli, Nicoletta; Adamo, Sergio

    2015-07-26

    Epigenetics finely tunes gene expression at a functional level without modifying the DNA sequence, thereby contributing to the complexity of genomic regulation. Satellite cells (SCs) are adult muscle stem cells that are important for skeletal post-natal muscle growth, homeostasis and repair. The understanding of the epigenome of SCs at different stages and of the multiple layers of the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is constantly expanding. Dynamic interactions between different epigenetic mechanisms regulate the appropriate timing of muscle-specific gene expression and influence the lineage fate of SCs. In this review, we report and discuss the recent literature about the epigenetic control of SCs during the myogenic process from activation to proliferation and from their commitment to a muscle cell fate to their differentiation and fusion to myotubes. We describe how the coordinated activities of the histone methyltransferase families Polycomb group (PcG), which represses the expression of developmentally regulated genes, and Trithorax group, which antagonizes the repressive activity of the PcG, regulate myogenesis by restricting gene expression in a time-dependent manner during each step of the process. We discuss how histone acetylation and deacetylation occurs in specific loci throughout SC differentiation to enable the time-dependent transcription of specific genes. Moreover, we describe the multiple roles of microRNA, an additional epigenetic mechanism, in regulating gene expression in SCs, by repressing or enhancing gene transcription or translation during each step of myogenesis. The importance of these epigenetic pathways in modulating SC activation and differentiation renders them as promising targets for disease interventions. Understanding the most recent findings regarding the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate SC behavior is useful from the perspective of pharmacological manipulation for improving muscle regeneration and for promoting muscle homeostasis under pathological conditions. PMID:26240681

  7. New insights into the epigenetic control of satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Moresi, Viviana; Marroncelli, Nicoletta; Adamo, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics finely tunes gene expression at a functional level without modifying the DNA sequence, thereby contributing to the complexity of genomic regulation. Satellite cells (SCs) are adult muscle stem cells that are important for skeletal post-natal muscle growth, homeostasis and repair. The understanding of the epigenome of SCs at different stages and of the multiple layers of the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is constantly expanding. Dynamic interactions between different epigenetic mechanisms regulate the appropriate timing of muscle-specific gene expression and influence the lineage fate of SCs. In this review, we report and discuss the recent literature about the epigenetic control of SCs during the myogenic process from activation to proliferation and from their commitment to a muscle cell fate to their differentiation and fusion to myotubes. We describe how the coordinated activities of the histone methyltransferase families Polycomb group (PcG), which represses the expression of developmentally regulated genes, and Trithorax group, which antagonizes the repressive activity of the PcG, regulate myogenesis by restricting gene expression in a time-dependent manner during each step of the process. We discuss how histone acetylation and deacetylation occurs in specific loci throughout SC differentiation to enable the time-dependent transcription of specific genes. Moreover, we describe the multiple roles of microRNA, an additional epigenetic mechanism, in regulating gene expression in SCs, by repressing or enhancing gene transcription or translation during each step of myogenesis. The importance of these epigenetic pathways in modulating SC activation and differentiation renders them as promising targets for disease interventions. Understanding the most recent findings regarding the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate SC behavior is useful from the perspective of pharmacological manipulation for improving muscle regeneration and for promoting muscle homeostasis under pathological conditions. PMID:26240681

  8. The effect of temperature on proliferation and differentiation of chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells isolated from different muscle types.

    PubMed

    Harding, Rachel L; Halevy, Orna; Yahav, Shlomo; Velleman, Sandra G

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are a muscle stem cell population that mediate posthatch muscle growth and repair. Satellite cells respond differentially to environmental stimuli based upon their fiber-type of origin. The objective of this study was to determine how temperatures below and above the in vitro control of 38°C affected the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells isolated from the chicken anaerobic pectoralis major (p. major) or mixed fiber biceps femoris (b.femoris) muscles. The satellite cells isolated from the p. major muscle were more sensitive to both cold and hot temperatures compared to the b.femoris satellite cells during both proliferation and differentiation. The expressions of myogenic regulatory transcription factors were also different between satellite cells from different fiber types. MyoD expression, which partially regulates proliferation, was generally expressed at higher levels in p. major satellite cells compared to the b.femoris satellite cells from 33 to 43°C during proliferation and differentiation. Similarly, myogenin expression, which is required for differentiation, was also expressed at higher levels in p. major satellite cells in response to both cold and hot temperatures during proliferation and differentiation than b. femoris satellite cells. These data demonstrate that satellite cells from the anaerobic p. major muscle are more sensitive than satellite cells from the aerobic b. femoris muscle to both hot and cold thermal stress during myogenic proliferation and differentiation. PMID:27125667

  9. A simplified but robust method for the isolation of avian and mammalian muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current methods of isolation of muscle satellite cells from different animal species are highly variable making inter-species comparisons problematic. This variation mainly stems from the use of different proteolytic enzymes to release the satellite cells from the muscle tissue (sometimes a single enzyme is used but often a combination of enzymes is preferred) and the different extracellular matrix proteins used to coat culture ware. In addition, isolation of satellite cells is frequently laborious and sometimes may require pre-plating of the cell preparation on uncoated flasks or Percoll centrifugation to remove contaminating fibroblasts. The methodology employed to isolate and culture satellite cells in vitro can critically determine the fusion of myoblasts into multi-nucleated myotubes. These terminally differentiated myotubes resemble mature myofibres in the muscle tissue in vivo, therefore optimal fusion is a keystone of in vitro muscle culture. Hence, a simple method of muscle satellite cell isolation and culture of different vertebrate species that can result in a high fusion rate is highly desirable. Results We demonstrate here a relatively simple and rapid method of isolating highly enriched muscle satellite cells from different avian and mammalian species. In brief, muscle tissue was mechanically dissociated, digested with a single enzyme (pronase), triturated with a 10-ml pipette, filtered and directly plated onto collagen coated flasks. Following this method and after optimization of the cell culture conditions, excellent fusion rates were achieved in the duck, chicken, horse and cow (with more than 50% cell fusion), and to a lesser extent pig, pointing to pronase as a highly suitable enzyme to release satellite cells from muscle tissue. Conclusions Our simplified method presents a quick and simple alternative to isolating highly enriched muscle satellite cell cultures which can subsequently rapidly differentiate into well developed primary myotubes. The use of the same isolation protocol allows better inter-species comparisons of muscle satellite cells. Of all the farm animal species investigated, harvested chicken muscle cells showed the highest percentage of muscle satellite cells, and equine muscle cells presented the highest fusion index, an impressive ≈ 77%. Porcine cells displayed the lowest amount of satellite cells but still achieved a modest fusion rate of ≈ 41%. PMID:22720831

  10. Role of satellite glial cells in gastrointestinal pain

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Menachem

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) pain is a common clinical problem, for which effective therapy is quite limited. Sensations from the GI tract, including pain, are mediated largely by neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and to a smaller extent by vagal afferents emerging from neurons in the nodose/jugular ganglia. Neurons in rodent DRG become hyperexcitable in models of GI pain (e.g., gastric or colonic inflammation), and can serve as a source for chronic pain. Glial cells are another element in the pain signaling pathways, and there is evidence that spinal glial cells (microglia and astrocytes) undergo activation (gliosis) in various pain models and contribute to pain. Recently it was found that satellite glial cells (SGCs), the main type of glial cells in sensory ganglia, might also contribute to chronic pain in rodent models. Most of that work focused on somatic pain, but in several studies GI pain was also investigated, and these are discussed in the present review. We have shown that colonic inflammation induced by dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) in mice leads to the activation of SGCs in DRG and increases gap junction-mediated coupling among these cells. This coupling appears to contribute to the hyperexcitability of DRG neurons that innervate the colon. Blocking gap junctions (GJ) in vitro reduced neuronal hyperexcitability induced by inflammation, suggesting that glial GJ participate in SGC-neuron interactions. Moreover, blocking GJ by carbenoxolone and other agents reduces pain behavior. Similar changes in SGCs were also found in the mouse nodose ganglia (NG), which provide sensory innervation to most of the GI tract. Following systemic inflammation, SGCs in these ganglia were activated, and displayed augmented coupling and greater sensitivity to the pain mediator ATP. The contribution of these changes to visceral pain remains to be determined. These results indicate that although visceral pain is unique, it shares basic mechanisms with somatic pain, suggesting that therapeutic approaches to both pain types may be similar. Future research in this field should include additional types of GI injury and also other types of visceral pain. PMID:26528140

  11. Satellite cell activity, without expansion, after nonhypertrophic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Joanisse, Sophie; McKay, Bryon R; Nederveen, Joshua P; Scribbans, Trisha D; Gurd, Brendon J; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Parise, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to determine the effect of various nonhypertrophic exercise stimuli on satellite cell (SC) pool activity in human skeletal muscle. Previously untrained men and women (men: 29 ± 9 yr and women: 29 ± 2 yr, n = 7 each) completed 6 wk of very low-volume high-intensity sprint interval training. In a separate study, recreationally active men (n = 16) and women (n = 3) completed 6 wk of either traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (n = 9, 21 ± 4 yr) or low-volume sprint interval training (n = 10, 21 ± 2 yr). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after training. The fiber type-specific SC response to training was determined, as was the activity of the SC pool using immunofluorescent microscopy of muscle cross sections. Training did not induce hypertrophy, as assessed by muscle cross-sectional area, nor did the SC pool expand in any group. However, there was an increase in the number of active SCs after each intervention. Specifically, the number of activated (Pax7(+)/MyoD(+), P ≤ 0.05) and differentiating (Pax7(-)/MyoD(+), P ≤ 0.05) SCs increased after each training intervention. Here, we report evidence of activated and cycling SCs that may or may not contribute to exercise-induced adaptations while the SC pool remains constant after three nonhypertrophic exercise training protocols. PMID:26333785

  12. Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G.

    1995-01-16

    Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Theoretical Investigation of Laser-Radiation Effects on Satellite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Hadi, Yasser; El-Hameed, Afaf; Hamdy, Ola

    This research concerns with the studying of laser-powered solar panels for space applications. A model describing the laser effects on satellite solar cell has been developed. These effects are studied theoretically in order to determine the performance limits of the solar cells when they are powered by laser radiation during the satellite eclipse. A comparison between some different common types of the solar cells used for these purpose is considered in this study. The obtained results are reported to optimize the use of laser-powered satellites.

  14. A Pitx2-MicroRNA Pathway Modulates Cell Proliferation in Myoblasts and Skeletal-Muscle Satellite Cells and Promotes Their Commitment to a Myogenic Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Velasco, Estefanía; Vallejo, Daniel; Esteban, Francisco J.; Doherty, Chris; Hernández-Torres, Francisco; Franco, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of a proliferating-cell status from a quiescent state as well as the shift between proliferation and differentiation are key developmental steps in skeletal-muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to provide proper muscle regeneration. However, how satellite cell proliferation is regulated is not fully understood. Here, we report that the c-isoform of the transcription factor Pitx2 increases cell proliferation in myoblasts by downregulating microRNA 15b (miR-15b), miR-23b, miR-106b, and miR-503. This Pitx2c-microRNA (miRNA) pathway also regulates cell proliferation in early-activated satellite cells, enhancing Myf5+ satellite cells and thereby promoting their commitment to a myogenic cell fate. This study reveals unknown functions of several miRNAs in myoblast and satellite cell behavior and thus may have future applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:26055324

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Satellite Cells from Rat Head Branchiomeric Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal Monroy, Paola L.; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Wagener, Frank A.D.T.G.; Von den Hoff, Johannes W.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis and defective muscle regeneration can hamper the functional recovery of the soft palate muscles after cleft palate repair. This causes persistent problems in speech, swallowing, and sucking. In vitro culture systems that allow the study of satellite cells (myogenic stem cells) from head muscles are crucial to develop new therapies based on tissue engineering to promote muscle regeneration after surgery. These systems will offer new perspectives for the treatment of cleft palate patients. A protocol for the isolation, culture and differentiation of satellite cells from head muscles is presented. The isolation is based on enzymatic digestion and trituration to release the satellite cells. In addition, this protocol comprises an innovative method using extracellular matrix gel coatings of millimeter size, which requires only low numbers of satellite cells for differentiation assays. PMID:26274878

  16. TRAF6 regulates satellite stem cell self-renewal and function during regenerative myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hindi, Sajedah M; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Satellite cells are a stem cell population within adult muscle and are responsible for myofiber regeneration upon injury. Satellite cell dysfunction has been shown to underlie the loss of skeletal muscle mass in many acquired and genetic muscle disorders. The transcription factor paired box-protein-7 (PAX7) is indispensable for supplementing the reservoir of satellite cells and driving regeneration in normal and diseased muscle. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein and an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the activation of multiple cell signaling pathways in a context-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrated that TRAF6-mediated signaling is critical for homeostasis of satellite cells and their function during regenerative myogenesis. Selective deletion of Traf6 in satellite cells of adult mice led to profound muscle regeneration defects and dramatically reduced levels of PAX7 and late myogenesis markers. TRAF6 was required for the activation of MAPKs ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, which in turn activated the transcription factor c-JUN, which binds the Pax7 promoter and augments Pax7 expression. Moreover, TRAF6/c-JUN signaling repressed the levels of the microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206, which promote differentiation, to maintain PAX7 levels in satellite cells. We also determined that satellite cell-specific deletion of Traf6 exaggerates the dystrophic phenotype in the mdx (a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy) mouse by blunting the regeneration of injured myofibers. Collectively, our study reveals an essential role for TRAF6 in satellite stem cell function. PMID:26619121

  17. Age-dependent imbalance of the antioxidative system in human satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Fulle, Stefania; Di Donna, Silvia; Puglielli, Cristina; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Beccafico, Sara; Bellomo, Rosa; Protasi, Feliciano; Fanò, Giorgio

    2005-03-01

    The mature myofibres of human skeletal muscle are surrounded by a type of adult stem cell, known as the satellite cell, which lies outside the sarcolemma but within the basal lamina. These cells remain quiescent until external stimuli trigger their re-entry into the cell cycle. In humans, ageing is characterised by a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) associated with a decline in functional ability. One of the possible causes of this decline in muscle performance is a decrease in the antioxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, resulting in an abnormal accumulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) critical for cell life. The present study shows that: (i) the antioxidant activity of Catalase and Gluthatione transferase in satellite cells derived from the elderly is drastically reduced compared to that in cells isolated from young individuals; (ii) cell membrane fluidity is considerably different between the two age groups; and (iii) basal [Ca(2+)](i) levels in satellite cells increase significantly in an age-dependent manner. In view of the data obtained, we hypothesise that the destabilising oxidative damage that occurs during ageing in skeletal muscle also affects quiescent satellite cells, which spend their life in close anatomic and functional contact with adult fibres. This status is derived from a decrease in the antioxidative capacity, and may negatively affect the ageing satellite cells ability to repair muscle. PMID:15763396

  18. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Koike, Taro; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-08-14

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. PMID:26116536

  19. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymphocytes from chickens inoculated with herpesvirus of turkey against a Marek's disease lymphoma cell line (MSB-1).

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kitamoto N; Ikuta K; Kato S; Yamaguchi S

    1979-03-01

    Using a new device which increases the sensitivity of detection of specific immune lysis of target cells by labeling them with [35S]-methionine, the in vitro cell-mediated cytotoxic response of spleen lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes from chickens vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), O1 strain, against MSB-1 line cells was clearly demonstrated. The cytotoxic activity was clearly inhibited by pretreatment of effector lymphocytes with anti-T lymphocyte serum and complement. The activity was greater using T cells purified from spleen lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes than with the unfractionated cells, indicating that T lymphocytes play the main role in effector activity. Using sera from HVG-vaccinated chickens, no significant cytotoxic effects were detected in the complement-dependent antibody cytotoxicity test against MSB-1 cells. These results suggest that cellular immunity against the surface antigen of Marek's disease (MD) lymphoma cells is mainly related to the preventive mechanism against MD incidence by HVT vaccination.

  20. Acute effects of hindlimb unweighting on satellite cells of growing skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Edward; Darr, Kevin C.; Macius, Allison

    1994-01-01

    The proliferative behavior of satellite cells in growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles was examined at short periods after initiation of hindlimb unweighting. Mitotic activity of satellite cells in both muscles decreased below weight-bearing control levels within 24 h of initiation of hindlimb unweighting. This satellite cell response was equal to or greater than 48 h before any atrophic morphological changes that take place in the muscles. Suppression of mitotic activity was most severe in the soleus muscle where continuous infusion of label demonstrated that virtually all mitotic activity was abolished between 3 and 5 days. The results of this study suggest that satellite cell mitotic activity is a sensitive indicator of primary atrophic changes occurring in growing myofibers and may be a predictor of future morphological changes.

  1. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRedloxP/loxPCripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury. PMID:26052513

  2. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRed (loxP/loxP) Cripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury. PMID:26052513

  3. Myf5 expression during fetal myogenesis defines the developmental progenitors of adult satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Biressi, Stefano; Bjornson, Christopher R.R.; Carlig, Poppy M.M.; Nishijo, Koichi; Keller, Charles; Rando, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Myf5 is a member of the muscle-specific determination genes and plays a critical role in skeletal muscle development. Whereas the expression of Myf5 during embryonic and fetal myogenesis has been extensively studied, its expression in progenitors that will ultimately give rise to adult satellite cells, the stem cells responsible for muscle repair, is still largely unexplored. To investigate this aspect, we have generated a mouse strain carrying a CreER coding sequence in the Myf5 locus. In this strain, Tamoxifen-inducible Cre activity parallels endogenous Myf5 expression. Combining Myf5CreER and Cre reporter alleles, we were able to evaluate the contribution of cells expressing Myf5 at distinct developmental stages to the pool of satellite cells in adult hindlimb muscles. Although it was possible to trace back the origin of some rare satellite cells to a subpopulation of Myf5+ve progenitors in the limb buds at the late embryonic stage (~E12), a significant number of satellite cells arise from cells which expressed Myf5 for the first time at the fetal stage (~E15). These studies provide direct evidence that adult satellite cells derive from progenitors that first express the myogenic determination gene Myf5 during fetal stages of myogenesis. PMID:23639729

  4. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong; Jiang, Qinyang; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-07-17

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7{sup CreER} and Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7{sup CreER} was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes.

  5. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase stimulates Warburg-like glycolysis and activation of satellite cells during muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xing; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Dodson, Mike V; Du, Min

    2015-10-30

    Satellite cells are the major myogenic stem cells residing inside skeletal muscle and are indispensable for muscle regeneration. Satellite cells remain largely quiescent but are rapidly activated in response to muscle injury, and the derived myogenic cells then fuse to repair damaged muscle fibers or form new muscle fibers. However, mechanisms eliciting metabolic activation, an inseparable step for satellite cell activation following muscle injury, have not been defined. We found that a noncanonical Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway is rapidly activated in response to muscle injury, which activates AMPK and induces a Warburg-like glycolysis in satellite cells. AMPK?1 is the dominant AMPK? isoform expressed in satellite cells, and AMPK?1 deficiency in satellite cells impairs their activation and myogenic differentiation during muscle regeneration. Drugs activating noncanonical Shh promote proliferation of satellite cells, which is abolished because of satellite cell-specific AMPK?1 knock-out. Taken together, AMPK?1 is a critical mediator linking noncanonical Shh pathway to Warburg-like glycolysis in satellite cells, which is required for satellite activation and muscle regeneration. PMID:26370082

  7. Turkey osteomyelitis complex.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Balog, J M

    2000-07-01

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is defined by the US Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) to include normal-appearing processed turkey carcasses that contain lesions including green discoloration of the liver, arthritis/synovitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and osteomyelitis of the proximal tibia. The lesions are associated with many different opportunistic organisms, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, suggesting that TOC incidence may be influenced more by deficiencies in the host immune response rather than by the virulence of any one organism. This syndrome is primarily a disease of adolescent male turkeys, and birds with TOC lesions have decreased indices of cell-mediated immunity, leading to the hypothesis that defects in the immune response of individuals within flocks of male turkeys may be responsible for the occurrence of these opportunistic infections. We have developed an experimental model for this disease in which treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), either with or without air sac inoculation with Escherichia coli, produces all of the lesions associated with TOC. These studies suggest that TOC is a result of stress-induced immunosuppression in a subpopulation of male turkeys that respond to the stressors in modern poultry production in a detrimental manner. Supplemental vitamin D3 treatment protected male turkeys from the immunosuppression induced by multiple treatments with DEX and resulted in decreased incidence of mortality, TOC, green liver, and isolation of bacteria from tissues, lower air sacculitis scores, and lower heterophil to lymphocyte ratios than nonsupplemented controls. Vitamin D3 also protected BW; relative weights of the liver, heart, spleen, and bursa; and clinical chemistry values from the effects of DEX treatment. The ability of vitamin D3 supplementation to protect turkeys from the immunosuppressive effects of severe stress emphasizes its role as a prohormone that affects health and disease resistance in turkeys and suggests that variation in the vitamin D receptor genotype may be involved in this disease process. This model has potential value in the identification of other nutritional and physiological immunomodulators that can decrease TOC incidence and will provide a means for the divergent selection of birds more resistant to the stressors of turkey production. In addition, this model will provide justification for management options designed to minimize stress. PMID:10901209

  8. Function of Membrane-Associated Proteoglycans in the Regulation of Satellite Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Muscle growth can be divided into embryonic and postnatal periods. During the embryonic period, mesenchymal stem cells proliferate and differentiate to form muscle fibers. Postnatal muscle growth (hypertrophy) is characterized by the enlargement of existing muscle fiber size. Satellite cells (also known as adult myoblasts) are responsible for hypertrophy. The activity of satellite cells can be regulated by their extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is composed of collagens, proteoglycans, non-collagenous glycoproteins, cytokines and growth factors. Proteoglycans contain a central core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycans (GAGs: chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate) and N- or O-linked glycosylation chains. Membrane-associated proteoglycans attach to the cell membrane either through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor or transmembrane domain. The GAGs can bind proteins including cytokines and growth factors. Both cytokines and growth factors play important roles in regulating satellite cell growth and development. Cytokines are generally associated with immune cells. However, cytokines can also affect muscle cell development. For instance, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leukemia inhibitory factor have been reported to affect the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells and myoblasts. Growth factors are potent stimulators or inhibitors of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. The proper function of some cytokines and growth factors requires an interaction with the cell membrane-associated proteoglycans to enhance the affinity to bind to their primary receptors to initiate downstream signal transduction. This chapter is focused on the interaction of membrane-associated proteoglycans with cytokines and growth factors, and their role in satellite cell growth and development. PMID:27003397

  9. Wnt Protein-mediated Satellite Cell Conversion in Adult and Aged Mice Following Voluntary Wheel Running

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Shin; Hidaka, Ryo; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Muscle represents an abundant, accessible, and replenishable source of adult stem cells. Skeletal muscle-derived stem cells, called satellite cells, play essential roles in regeneration after muscle injury in adult skeletal muscle. Although the molecular mechanism of muscle regeneration process after an injury has been extensively investigated, the regulation of satellite cells under steady state during the adult stage, including the reaction to exercise stimuli, is relatively unknown. Here, we show that voluntary wheel running exercise, which is a low stress exercise, converts satellite cells to the activated state due to accelerated Wnt signaling. Our analysis showed that up-regulated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling directly modulated chromatin structures of both MyoD and Myf5 genes, resulting in increases in the mRNA expression of Myf5 and MyoD and the number of proliferative Pax7+Myf5+ and Pax7+ MyoD+ cells in skeletal muscle. The effect of Wnt signaling on the activation of satellite cells, rather than Wnt-mediated fibrosis, was observed in both adult and aged mice. The association of β-catenin, T-cell factor, and lymphoid enhancer transcription factors of multiple T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor regulatory elements, conserved in mouse, rat, and human species, with the promoters of both the Myf5 and MyoD genes drives the de novo myogenesis in satellite cells even in aged muscle. These results indicate that exercise-stimulated extracellular Wnts play a critical role in the regulation of satellite cells in adult and aged skeletal muscle. PMID:24482229

  10. Composite SERS-based satellites navigated by optical tweezers for single cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Stetciura, Inna Y; Yashchenok, Alexey; Masic, Admir; Lyubin, Evgeny V; Inozemtseva, Olga A; Drozdova, Maria G; Markvichova, Elena A; Khlebtsov, Boris N; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Gorin, Dmitry A; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we have designed composite SERS-active micro-satellites, which exhibit a dual role: (i) effective probes for determining cellular composition and (ii) optically movable and easily detectable markers. The satellites were synthesized by the layer-by-layer assisted decoration of silica microparticles with metal (gold or silver) nanoparticles and astralen in order to ensure satellite SERS-based microenvironment probing and satellite recognition, respectively. A combination of optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy can be used to navigate the satellites to a certain cellular compartment and probe the intracellular composition following cellular uptake. In the future, this developed approach may serve as a tool for single cell analysis with nanometer precision due to the multilayer surface design, focusing on both extracellular and intracellular studies. PMID:26040199

  11. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yosuke Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor. - Highlights: • EGF in combination with insulin induces proliferation of quiescent C2C12 cells. • Sphingosine kinase activity increases when reserve cells are stimulated with EGF. • EGF-induced activation of reserve cells is dependent on sphingosine kinase and ERK. • The S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. • EGF-induced reserve cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor.

  12. Myostatin inhibition induces muscle fibre hypertrophy prior to satellite cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; McPherron, Alexandra C

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fibres are multinucleated post-mitotic cells that can change dramatically in size during adulthood. It has been debated whether muscle fibre hypertrophy requires activation and fusion of muscle stem cells, the satellite cells. Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth during development and in the adult, and MSTN inhibition is therefore a potential therapy for muscle wasting diseases, some of which are associated with a depletion of satellite cells. Conflicting results have been obtained in previous analyses of the role of MSTN on satellite cell quiescence. Here, we inhibited MSTN in adult mice with a soluble activin receptor type IIB and analysed the incorporation of new nuclei using 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling by isolating individual myofibres. We found that satellite cells are activated by MSTN inhibition. By varying the dose and time course for MSTN inhibition, however, we found that myofibre hypertrophy precedes the incorporation of new nuclei, and that the overall number of new nuclei is relatively low compared to the number of total myonuclei. These results reconcile some of the previous work obtained by other methods. In contrast with previous reports, we also found that Mstn null mice do not have increased satellite cell numbers during adulthood and are not resistant to sarcopaenia. Our results support a previously proposed model of hypertrophy in which hypertrophy can precede satellite cell activation. Studies of the metabolic and functional effects of postnatal MSTN inhibition are needed to determine the consequences of increasing the cytoplasm/myonuclear ratio after MSTN inhibition. PMID:22393251

  13. Myostatin inhibition induces muscle fibre hypertrophy prior to satellite cell activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; McPherron, Alexandra C

    2012-05-01

    Muscle fibres are multinucleated post-mitotic cells that can change dramatically in size during adulthood. It has been debated whether muscle fibre hypertrophy requires activation and fusion of muscle stem cells, the satellite cells. Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth during development and in the adult, and MSTN inhibition is therefore a potential therapy for muscle wasting diseases, some of which are associated with a depletion of satellite cells. Conflicting results have been obtained in previous analyses of the role of MSTN on satellite cell quiescence. Here, we inhibited MSTN in adult mice with a soluble activin receptor type IIB and analysed the incorporation of new nuclei using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling by isolating individual myofibres. We found that satellite cells are activated by MSTN inhibition. By varying the dose and time course for MSTN inhibition, however, we found that myofibre hypertrophy precedes the incorporation of new nuclei, and that the overall number of new nuclei is relatively low compared to the number of total myonuclei. These results reconcile some of the previous work obtained by other methods. In contrast with previous reports, we also found that Mstn null mice do not have increased satellite cell numbers during adulthood and are not resistant to sarcopaenia. Our results support a previously proposed model of hypertrophy in which hypertrophy can precede satellite cell activation. Studies of the metabolic and functional effects of postnatal MSTN inhibition are needed to determine the consequences of increasing the cytoplasm/myonuclear ratio after MSTN inhibition. PMID:22393251

  14. Salamander limb regeneration involves the activation of a multipotent skeletal muscle satellite cell population

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Jamie I.; Lööf, Sara; He, Pingping; Simon, András

    2006-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, salamanders can regenerate complex structures after injury, including entire limbs. A central question is whether the generation of progenitor cells during limb regeneration and mammalian tissue repair occur via separate or overlapping mechanisms. Limb regeneration depends on the formation of a blastema, from which the new appendage develops. Dedifferentiation of stump tissues, such as skeletal muscle, precedes blastema formation, but it was not known whether dedifferentiation involves stem cell activation. We describe a multipotent Pax7+ satellite cell population located within the skeletal muscle of the salamander limb. We demonstrate that skeletal muscle dedifferentiation involves satellite cell activation and that these cells can contribute to new limb tissues. Activation of salamander satellite cells occurs in an analogous manner to how the mammalian myofiber mobilizes stem cells during skeletal muscle tissue repair. Thus, limb regeneration and mammalian tissue repair share common cellular and molecular programs. Our findings also identify satellite cells as potential targets in promoting mammalian blastema formation. PMID:16449193

  15. Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that a two-cell structure is likely to be the unique property, and potentially satellite-accessible observable, of the exceptionally severe tornado. Analysis elucidating the dynamic, thermodynamic, and geometric properties of this two-cell structure is described. The analysis ultimately will furnish instrumentation requirements.

  16. Characteristics of the Localization of Connexin 43 in Satellite Cells during Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ishido, Minenori; Kasuga, Norikatsu

    2015-04-28

    For myogenesis, new myotubes are formed by the fusion of differentiated myoblasts. In the sequence of events for myotube formation, intercellular communication through gap junctions composed of connexin 43 (Cx43) plays critical roles in regulating the alignment and fusion of myoblasts in advances of myotube formation in vitro. On the other hand, the relationship between the expression patterns of Cx43 and the process of myotube formation in satellite cells during muscle regeneration in vivo remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the relationship between Cx43 and satellite cells in muscle regeneration in vivo. The expression of Cx43 was detected in skeletal muscles on day 1 post-muscle injury, but not in control muscles. Interestingly, the expression of Cx43 was not localized on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in the regenerating muscles. Moreover, although the clusters of differentiated satellite cells, which represent a more advanced stage of myotube formation, were observed on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in regenerating muscles, the expression of Cx43 was not localized in the clusters of these satellite cells. Therefore, in the present study, it was suggested that Cx43 may not directly contribute to muscle regeneration via satellite cells. PMID:26019374

  17. Cytokine Gene Expression in Lung Mononuclear Cells of Chickens Vaccinated with Herpesvirus of Turkeys and Infected with Marek's Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Payvand; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Read, Leah R; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-11-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) enters the chicken host through the respiratory system. However, little is known about the host immune responses induced by MDV in the lungs. To characterize these responses, chickens were vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) and challenged with the RB1B strain of MDV via the respiratory route. Lung mononuclear cells of vaccinated only, challenged only, vaccinated and challenged, as well as age-matched controls were isolated at 4, 10, and 21 days post-infection. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression of various cytokines. There was significant upregulation of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 in lung mononuclear cells of HVT-vaccinated and RB1B challenged and unvaccinated and RB1B challenged chickens. However, in lung mononuclear cells isolated from chickens that were vaccinated with HVT but remained uninfected, there was an upregulation of IL-4 and IL-13. This study indicates that MDV- and HVT-associated cytokines expressed by lung mononuclear cells are temporally regulated and that these cytokines may be involved in immunity against the virus. PMID:26447971

  18. Electrical Stimulation Influences Satellite Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Unloading-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bao-Sheng; Cheung, Kwok-Kuen; Yeung, Simon S.; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Yeung, Ella W.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle atrophy caused by disuse is accompanied by adverse physiological and functional consequences. Satellite cells are the primary source of skeletal muscle regeneration. Satellite cell dysfunction, as a result of impaired proliferative potential and/or increased apoptosis, is thought to be one of the causes contributing to the decreased muscle regeneration capacity in atrophy. We have previously shown that electrical stimulation improved satellite cell dysfunction. Here we test whether electrical stimulation can also enhance satellite cell proliferative potential as well as suppress apoptotic cell death in disuse-induced muscle atrophy. Eight-week-old male BALB/c mice were subjected to a 14-day hindlimb unloading procedure. During that period, one limb (HU-ES) received electrical stimulation (frequency: 20 Hz; duration: 3 h, twice daily) while the contralateral limb served as control (HU). Immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques were used to characterize specific proteins in cell proliferation and apoptosis. The HU-ES soleus muscles showed significant improvement in muscle mass, cross-sectional area, and peak tetanic force relative to the HU limb (p<0.05). The satellite cell proliferative activity as detected within the BrdU+/Pax7+ population was significantly higher (p<0.05). The apoptotic myonuclei (detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) and the apoptotic satellite cells (detected by cleaved Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase co-labeled with Pax7) were reduced (p<0.05) in the HU-ES limb. Furthermore the apoptosis-inducing factor and cleaved caspase-3 were down-regulated while the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was up-regulated (p<0.05), in the HU-ES limb. These findings suggest that the electrical stimulation paradigm provides an effective stimulus to rescue the loss of myonuclei and satellite cells in disuse muscle atrophy, thus maintaining a viable satellite cell pool for subsequent muscle regeneration. Optimization of stimulation parameters may enhance the outcome of the intervention. PMID:22253929

  19. VAMP2 is expressed in muscle satellite cells and up-regulated during muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tajika, Yuki; Sato, Mahito; Murakami, Tohru; Takata, Kuniaki; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    Membrane trafficking is one of the most important mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of the forms and functions of the cell. However, it is poorly understood in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we have focused on vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs), which are components of the vesicle docking and fusion complex, and have performed immunostaining to investigate the expression of VAMPs in rat skeletal muscle tissue. We have found that VAMP2, but not VAMP1 or VAMP3, is expressed in satellite cells. VAMP2 is also expressed in myofibers in the soleus muscle and nerve endings. This is consistent with previous studies in which VAMP2 has been shown to regulate GLUT4 trafficking in slow-twitch myofibers in soleus muscle and neurotransmitter release in nerve endings. As satellite cells are quiescent myogenic cells, the expression of VAMP2 has further been examined in regenerating muscles after injury by the snake venom, cardiotoxin; we have observed enhanced expression of VAMP2 in immature myotubes with a peak at 3 days after injury. Our findings suggest that VAMP2 plays roles in quiescent satellite cells and is involved in muscle regeneration. The nature of the material transported in the VAMP2-bearing vesicles in satellite cells and myotubes is still under investigation. PMID:17468895

  20. Cell culture as a tool for the study of poultry skeletal muscle development.

    PubMed

    McFarland, D C

    1992-03-01

    Postnatal development of skeletal muscle is the responsibility of the myogenic satellite cells. Satellite cells, isolated from the pectoralis major muscle of young growing tom turkeys, have been cultured in vitro to provide a system for studying cellular and hormonal aspects of poultry skeletal muscle development. Satellite cell clones derived from primary cultures have been developed so that in vitro observations would not be confounded by the presence of nonmyogenic cells. Likewise, a serum-free medium that promotes proliferation of the turkey satellite cell has been developed to provide a hormonally controlled environment for in vitro developmental studies. These two techniques have enabled us to examine the following: 1) factors that influence satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, 2) the interaction of hormones with cellular receptors, 3) secretion of biologically important proteins from cells and 4) the expression of genes important to muscle development. PMID:1371806

  1. Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

    2015-04-01

    The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells. PMID:25742797

  2. Evaluation of solar cells for potential space satellite power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation focused on the following subjects: (1) the relative merits of alternative solar cell materials, based on performance and availability, (2) the best manufacturing methods for various solar cell options and the effects of extremely large production volumes on their ultimate costs and operational characteristics, (3) the areas of uncertainty in achieving large solar cell production volumes, (4) the effects of concentration ratios on solar array mass and system performance, (5) the factors influencing solar cell life in the radiation environment during transport to and in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) the merits of conducting solar cell manufacturing operations in space.

  3. Spotlight: Turkey.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1990-01-01

    Turkey's population stood at 55.4 million in 1989, with a 2.2% rate of natural increase. There were 30 births/1000 population (total fertility rate of 3.7) and 8 deaths/1000 population (infant mortality rate of 81/1000 live births). Until 1965, the Government of Turkey pursued a pronatalist population policy. However, a 1965 law allows individual freedom in determining one's family size and legalized contraception. Family planning service delivery programs have been integrated into numerous development projects. A 1983 survey indicated that 62% of eligible Turkish women were using some form of contraception, while 91% had knowledge of at least 1 modern method. The survey revealed an association between educational level and reproductive behavior: 82% of married women with a secondary education or more were contraceptive users compared with only 46% of illiterate married women. 50% of respondents expressed a desire for only 2 children. Internal and international immigration is, at present, Turkey's most pressing demographic concern. Trends in this area include migration from rural to urban areas of Turkey, emigration to West Germany for employment, and the immigration of ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and other Eastern European countries. PMID:12316015

  4. Sulforaphane causes a major epigenetic repression of myostatin in porcine satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huitao; Zhang, Rui; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Hölker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas

    2012-12-01

    Satellite cells function as skeletal muscle stem cells to support postnatal muscle growth and regeneration following injury or disease. There is great promise for the improvement of muscle performance in livestock and for the therapy of muscle pathologies in humans by the targeting of myostatin (MSTN) in this cell population. Human diet contains many histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), whose epigenetic effects on MSTN gene in satellite cells are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the epigenetic influences of SFN on the MSTN gene in satellite cells. The present work provides the first evidence, which is distinct from the effects of trichostatin A (TSA), that SFN supplementation in vitro not only acts as a HDAC inhibitor but also as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor in porcine satellite cells. Compared with TSA and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), SFN treatment significantly represses MSTN expression, accompanied by strongly attenuated expression of negative feedback inhibitors of the MSTN signaling pathway. miRNAs targeting MSTN are not implicated in posttranscriptional regulation of MSTN. Nevertheless, a weakly enriched myoblast determination (MyoD) protein associated with diminished histone acetylation in the MyoD binding site located in the MSTN promoter region may contribute to the transcriptional repression of MSTN by SFN. These findings reveal a new mode of epigenetic repression of MSTN by the bioactive compound SFN. This novel pharmacological, biological activity of SFN in satellite cells may thus allow for the development of novel approaches to weaken the MSTN signaling pathway, both for therapies of human skeletal muscle disorders and for livestock production improvement. PMID:23092945

  5. Myostatin knockout using zinc-finger nucleases promotes proliferation of ovine primary satellite cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salabi, Fatemeh; Nazari, Mahmood; Chen, Qing; Nimal, Jonathan; Tong, Jianming; Cao, Wen G

    2014-12-20

    Myostatin (MSTN) has previously been shown to negatively regulate the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote muscle growth and repair. Because the mechanism of MSTN in the biology of satellite cells is not well understood, this study was conducted to generate MSTN mono-allelic knockout satellite cells using the zinc-finger nuclease mRNA (MSTN-KO ZFN mRNA) and also to investigate the effect of this disruption on the proliferation and differentiation of sheep primary satellite cells (PSCs). Nineteen biallelic and four mono-allelic knockout cell clones were obtained after sequence analysis. The homologous mono-allelic knockout cells with 5-bp deletion were used to further evaluations. The results demonstrated that mono-allelic knockout of MSTN gene leads to translation inhibition. Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that knockout of MSTN contributed to an increase in CDK2 and follistatin and a decrease in p21 at the transcript level in proliferation conditions. Moreover, MSTN knockout significantly increased the proliferation of mutant clones (P < 0.01). Consistent with the observed increase in CDK2 and decrease in p21 in cells lacking MSTN, cell cycle analysis showed that MSTN negatively regulated the G1 to S progression. In addition, knockout of myostatin resulted in a remarkable increase in MyoD and MyoG expression under differentiating conditions but had no effect on Myf5 expression. These results expanded our understanding of the regulation mechanism of MSTN. Furthermore, the MSTN-KO ZFN mRNA system in PSCs could be used to generate transgenic sheep in the future. PMID:25449018

  6. Life cycle testing of sodium-sulfur satellite battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Dueber, R. E.; Fritts, D. H.

    1985-12-01

    The performance characteristics of sodium-beta double prime alumina-sulfur (Na/S) cells are being investigated under quiescent conditions (with the only variables being charge/discharge rates and the depth-of-discharge) with the purpose of establishing a basis for predicting the cycle life of the Na/S cells. All Na/S cells demonstrated a cycle life useful for certain Air Force applications, with no cycle life dependence on the depth-of-discharge values. The failures of two cells (of a total of eight tested) after extended cycling seems to be best explained by internal short circuiting, indicating the importance of cell matching when building batteries.

  7. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymphocytes from chickens inoculated with herpesvirus of turkey against a Marek's disease lymphoma cell line (MSB-1).

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, N; Ikuta, K; Kato, S; Yamaguchi, S

    1979-03-01

    Using a new device which increases the sensitivity of detection of specific immune lysis of target cells by labeling them with [35S]-methionine, the in vitro cell-mediated cytotoxic response of spleen lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes from chickens vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), O1 strain, against MSB-1 line cells was clearly demonstrated. The cytotoxic activity was clearly inhibited by pretreatment of effector lymphocytes with anti-T lymphocyte serum and complement. The activity was greater using T cells purified from spleen lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes than with the unfractionated cells, indicating that T lymphocytes play the main role in effector activity. Using sera from HVG-vaccinated chickens, no significant cytotoxic effects were detected in the complement-dependent antibody cytotoxicity test against MSB-1 cells. These results suggest that cellular immunity against the surface antigen of Marek's disease (MD) lymphoma cells is mainly related to the preventive mechanism against MD incidence by HVT vaccination. PMID:317001

  8. Barx2 is Expressed in Satellite Cells and is Required for Normal Muscle Growth and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Meech, Robyn; Gonzalez, Katie N.; Barro, Marietta; Gromova, Anastasia; Zhuang, Lizhe; Hulin, Julie-Ann; Makarenkova, Helen P.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle growth and regeneration are regulated through a series of spatiotemporally dependent signaling and transcriptional cascades. Although the transcriptional program controlling myogenesis has been extensively investigated, the full repertoire of transcriptional regulators involved in this process is far from defined. Various homeodomain transcription factors have been shown to play important roles in both muscle development and muscle satellite cell-dependent repair. Here, we show that the homeodomain factor Barx2 is a new marker for embryonic and adult myoblasts and is required for normal postnatal muscle growth and repair. Barx2 is coexpressed with Pax7, which is the canonical marker of satellite cells, and is upregulated in satellite cells after muscle injury. Mice lacking the Barx2 gene show reduced postnatal muscle growth, muscle atrophy, and defective muscle repair. Moreover, loss of Barx2 delays the expression of genes that control proliferation and differentiation in regenerating muscle. Consistent with the in vivo observations, satellite cell-derived myoblasts cultured from Barx2−/− mice show decreased proliferation and ability to differentiate relative to those from wild-type or Barx2+/− mice. Barx2−/− myoblasts show reduced expression of the differentiation-associated factor myogenin as well as cell adhesion and matrix molecules. Finally, we find that mice lacking both Barx2 and dystrophin gene expression have severe early onset myopathy. Together, these data indicate that Barx2 is an important regulator of muscle growth and repair that acts via the control of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:22076929

  9. Isolation and Culture of Skeletal Muscle Myofibers as a Means to Analyze Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keire, Paul; Shearer, Andrew; Shefer, Gabi; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-01-01

    Multinucleated myofibers are the functional contractile units of skeletal muscle. In adult muscle, mononuclear satellite cells, located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber, are the primary myogenic stem cells. This chapter describes protocols for isolation, culturing and immunostaining of myofibers from mouse skeletal muscle. Myofibers are isolated intact and retain their associated satellite cells. The first protocol discusses myofiber isolation from the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle. These short myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with PureCol collagen (formerly known as Vitrogen) using a serum replacement medium. Employing such culture conditions, satellite cells remain associated with the myofibers, undergoing proliferation and differentiation on the myofiber surface. The second protocol discusses the isolation of longer myofibers from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Different from the FDB preparation, where multiple myofibers are processed together, the longer EDL myofibers are typically processed and cultured individually in dishes coated with Matrigel using a growth factor rich medium. Under these conditions, satellite cells initially remain associated with the parent myofiber and later migrate away, giving rise to proliferating and differentiating progeny. Myofibers from other types of muscles, such as diaphragm, masseter, and extraocular muscles can also be isolated and analyzed using protocols described herein. Overall, cultures of isolated myofibers provide essential tools for studying the interplay between the parent myofiber and its associated satellite cells. The current chapter provides background, procedural, and reagent updates, and step-by-step images of FDB and EDL muscle isolations, not included in our 2005 publication in this series. PMID:23179849

  10. Inadequate satellite cell replication compromises muscle regrowth following postnatal nutrient restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perinatal growth impairment permanently compromises skeletal muscle mass. The present study assessed the contribution of muscle satellite cell replicative capacity to this deficit. Mouse dams were fed either a low protein (LP, n=7) or control (C, n=6) diet during lactation. Pups were weaned at 21 d ...

  11. Characterization of a plasma membrane glycoprotein common to myoblasts, skeletal muscle satellite cells, and glia.

    PubMed

    Wakshull, E; Bayne, E K; Chiquet, M; Fambrough, D M

    1983-12-01

    A plasma membrane glycoprotein common to embryonic chick myoblasts and adult chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells is the antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody C3/1. Although traces of the same antigen are present on some muscle-derived fibroblasts, the density of antigenic sites on myoblasts and satellite cells is so high that these cell types can be identified in tissues by immunocytochemical techniques. The antigen is exposed on the surfaces of myogenic cells growing in tissue culture and can be solubilized with detergent. This and other criteria establish that the antigen is a plasma membrane protein. The antigen, purified by affinity techniques, consists of a single type of polypeptide chain which migrates as a relatively broad band of apparent molecular weight 38,000 Da in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It has a very small sedimentation constant, suggesting that the solubilized form is either monomeric or dimeric. The concentration of antigenic sites increases during myogenesis in vitro; but during maturation the antigenic sites are lost from muscle fibers. Electron microscopic autoradiographic study of adult muscle labeled with iodinated monoclonal antibody demonstrated unequivocally that the antigenic sites in adult muscle are concentrated in the satellite cells. Although selective for myoblasts, immature myotubes and satellite cells in the myogenic lineage, the monoclonal antibody also binds at rather high levels to peripheral Schwann cells and teloglia, to some nonneuronal cells in cultures derived from embryonic spinal cord, to some glial elements of adult chicken brain, and to several cell types in the early embryo. PMID:6360753

  12. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  13. Cryptosporidiosis and turkey viral hepatitis in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Wages, D P; Ficken, M D

    1989-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis and turkey viral hepatitis were diagnosed in 25-day-old turkeys with increased mortality, enteritis, and stunting. Necropsy lesions included foul-smelling, tan-colored, loose feces in the terminal small intestines and ceca. The small intestines and ceca were congested. Multiple white to gray foci were present in the liver and pancreas. Mortality attributed to these conditions was estimated at 4.9%. Microscopic lesions included necrosis with accumulations of macrophages in the liver and pancreas. Bile-duct hyperplasia was present in the livers. Microscopic intestinal lesions consisted of mild to moderate atrophy of the villi of the distal small intestine (ileo-cecal junction) with infiltration of the lamina propria by mononuclear cells. Cryptosporidia were identified and appeared to be attached to villous epithelial cells of the terminal small intestines. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were also confirmed by fluorescent microscopic examination of feces stained auramine O. Reovirus was isolated on chicken embryo liver cells from affected livers. PMID:2930401

  14. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Nam, Deokhwa; Li, Yong; Ma, Ke

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1{sup −/−} mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. - Highlights: • Bmal1 is highly inducible by muscle injury and myogenic stimuli. • Genetic ablation of Bmal1 significantly impairs muscle regeneration. • Bmal1 promotes satellite cell expansion during muscle regeneration. • Bmal1-deficient primary myoblasts display attenuated growth and proliferation.

  15. Moderate-intensity treadmill running promotes expansion of the satellite cell pool in young and old mice.

    PubMed

    Shefer, Gabi; Rauner, Gat; Stuelsatz, Pascal; Benayahu, Dafna; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2013-09-01

    Satellite cells, the myogenic progenitors located at the myofibre surface, are essential for the repair of adult skeletal muscle. There is ample evidence for an age-linked decline in the number of satellite cells and performance in limb muscles. Hence, an effective means of activating and expanding the satellite cell pool may enhance muscle maintenance and reduce the impact of age-associated muscle deterioration (sarcopaenia). Accordingly, in the present study, we explored the beneficial effects of endurance exercise on satellite cells in young and old mice. Animals were subjected to an 8-week moderate-intensity treadmill-running approach that does not inflict apparent muscle damage (0° inclination, 11.5 m·min(-1) for 30 min·day(-1) , 6 days·week(-1) ). Myofibres of extensor digitorum longus muscles were then isolated from exercised and sedentary mice and used for monitoring the number of satellite cells, as well as for harvesting individual satellite cells for clonal growth assays. We specifically focused on satellite cell pools of single myofibres, with the view that daily wear of muscles probably affects individual myofibres rather than causing overall muscle damage. We found an expansion of the satellite cell pool in the exercised groups compared to the sedentary groups, with the same increase (~ 1.6-fold) in both ages. The results of the present study are in agreement with our findings obtained using rat gastrocnemius, indicating the consistent effect of exercise on satellite cell expansion in limb muscles. The experimental paradigm established in the present study is useful for investigating satellite cell dynamics at the myofibre niche, as well as for broader investigations of the impact of physiologically and pathologically relevant factors on adult myogenesis. PMID:23464362

  16. Absence of CD34 on Murine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells Marks a Reversible State of Activation during Acute Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Rainey, Sabrina; Srirangam, Kiran; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Reyes, Morayma

    2010-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle satellite cells are myogenic progenitors that reside on myofiber surface beneath the basal lamina. In recent years satellite cells have been identified and isolated based on their expression of CD34, a sialomucin surface receptor traditionally used as a marker of hematopoietic stem cells. Interestingly, a minority of satellite cells lacking CD34 has been described. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to elucidate the relationship between CD34+ and CD34- satellite cells we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate each population for molecular analysis, culture and transplantation studies. Here we show that unless used in combination with α7 integrin, CD34 alone is inadequate for purifying satellite cells. Furthermore, the absence of CD34 marks a reversible state of activation dependent on muscle injury. Conclusions/Significance Following acute injury CD34- cells become the major myogenic population whereas the percentage of CD34+ cells remains constant. In turn activated CD34- cells can reverse their activation to maintain the pool of CD34+ reserve cells. Such activation switching and maintenance of reserve pool suggests the satellite cell compartment is tightly regulated during muscle regeneration. PMID:20532193

  17. Signal-dependent fra-2 regulation in skeletal muscle reserve and satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Alli, N S; Yang, E C; Miyake, T; Aziz, A; Collins-Hooper, H; Patel, K; McDermott, J C

    2013-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that paradoxically also has some tissue-specific functions. In skeletal muscle cells, we document that the AP-1 subunit, Fra-2, is expressed in the resident stem cells (Pax7-positive satellite cells) and also in the analogous undifferentiated ‘reserve' cell population in myogenic cultures, but not in differentiated myofiber nuclei. Silencing of Fra-2 expression enhances the expression of differentiation markers such as muscle creatine kinase and myosin heavy chain, indicating a possible role of Fra-2 in undifferentiated myogenic progenitor cells. We observed that Fra-2 is a target of cytokine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling in cultured muscle cells, and extensive mass spectrometry and mutational analysis identified S320 and T322 as regulators of Fra-2 protein stability. Interestingly, Fra-2 S320 phosphorylation occurs transiently in activated satellite cells and is extinguished in myogenin-positive differentiating cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated Fra-2 expression and stabilization is linked to regulation of myogenic progenitor cells having implications for the molecular regulation of adult muscle stem cells and skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23807221

  18. Sorting single satellite cells from individual myofibers reveals heterogeneity in cell-surface markers and myogenic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Matthew R.; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Li, Ju; Conboy, Michael J.; Huang, Haiyan; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Jabart, Eric; Hack, James; Conboy, Irina M.; Sohn, Lydia L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional cell-screening techniques such as FACS and MACS are better suited for large numbers of cells isolated from bulk tissue and cannot easily screen stem or progenitor cells from minute populations found in their physiological niches. Furthermore, these techniques rely upon irreversible antibody binding, potentially altering cell properties, including gene expression and regenerative capacity. To address these challenges, we have developed a novel, label-free stem-cell analysis and sorting platform capable of quantifying cell-surface marker expression of single functional organ stem cells directly isolated from their micro-anatomical niche. Using our unique platform, we have discovered a remarkable heterogeneity in both the regenerative capacity and expression of CXCR4, β1-integrin, Sca-1, M-cadherin, Syndecan-4, and Notch-1 in freshly isolated muscle stem (satellite) cells residing on different, single myofibers and have identified a small population of Sca-1+/Myf5+ myogenic satellite cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of our single-cell platform for uncovering and functionally characterizing stem-cell heterogeneity in the organ microniche. PMID:23407661

  19. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  20. Regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers from autologous satellite cells multiplied in vitro. An experimental model for testing cultured cell myogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Alameddine, H.S.; Dehaupas, M.; Fardeau, M. )

    1989-07-01

    An experimental model used to test in vivo myogenicity of autologous satellite cells multiplied in vitro is described. Free muscle autotransplantation served as the basis and was combined with x-irradiation. Administration of 1500, 2500, and 3500 rad doses 24 hours before or after ischemia showed that inhibition of spontaneous regeneration is dose dependent and more efficient when irradiation was applied before injury. A single dose of 2500 rad before injury resulted in the formation of a cystic structure ideal for cell implantation. FITC-latex beads and/or carbocyanine dyes were internalized by mononucleated satellite cells in vitro. Labeling did not affect survival or development of these cells. No sign of marker release or spreading from labeled to unlabeled cells was detectable unless by the fusion process. These labels were retained for several weeks. Grafting of labeled dense cellular suspensions into x-irradiated ischemic muscles indicated that satellite cells retain their myogenic characteristic and are able to reform fully differentiated muscle fibers. 55 references.

  1. RNA-Seq analysis of isolated satellite cells in Prmt5 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kuenne, Carsten; Guenther, Stefan; Looso, Mario; Zhang, Ting; Krueger, Marcus; Zhou, Yonggang; Braun, Thomas; Kim, Johnny

    2015-09-01

    Satellite cells (SCs) represent a distinct population of stem cells, essential for maintenance, growth and regeneration of adult skeletal muscle. SCs are mononuclear and are located between the basal lamina and the plasma membrane of myofibers. They are typically characterized by presence of the transcription factor paired-box 7 (PAX7) that is widely used as a satellite cell marker. Under normal physiological conditions SCs are quiescent but are activated by insults such as injury, disease or exercise. Once activated, satellite cells proliferate and subsequently differentiate into myoblasts to finally fuse to form new myofibers or with preexisting myofibers to repair or rebuild the skeletal muscle. A minority of SCs retains stem cell characteristics and self-renews to assure future bouts of regeneration throughout most of adult life. While a comprehensive picture of the regulatory events controlling SC fate has not yet been achieved, several factors were recently identified playing important roles in functional processes. One example is the arginine methyltransferase Prmt5 that is known to have multiple roles in germ cells and is involved in the maintenance of ES cell pluripotency. We have previously shown that Prmt5 is required for muscle stem cell proliferation and regenerative myogenesis due to direct epigenetic regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21. Here we provide a dataset that investigates the loss of Prmt5 in isolated Pax7(+) primary SCs using the Pax7(CreERT2)/Prmt5(loxP/loxP) knockout mouse model. RNA-Seq raw and analyzed data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE66822. PMID:26484239

  2. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates cell migration of satellite cells. A role for the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate axis.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, Francesca; Bruno, Gennaro; Blescia, Sabrina; Bernacchioni, Caterina; Bruni, Paola; Donati, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Regulation of the motility of skeletal muscle precursor cells, such as satellite cells, is critically important for their proper recruitment at the site of tissue damage, and ultimately for its correct repair. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is well-recognized as a powerful bioactive agent, strongly stimulates cell migration of activated murine satellite cells. The biological effect exerted by LPA was found to be induced via activation of LPA1 and LPA3 , being abolished by cell treatment with the antagonist Ki16425, and severely impaired by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of the two receptor isoforms. In contrast, silencing of LPA2 potentiated the stimulation of cell motility by LPA, suggesting that it is negatively coupled to cell migration. Pharmacological inhibition of both sphingosine kinase (SK) isoforms using VPC96047, or the selective blocking of SK1 using VPC96091, abolished cell responsiveness to LPA; in agreement, gene silencing of SK1 or SK2 significantly reduced the biological effect of LPA. Moreover, the LPA-dependent stimulation of cell chemotaxis was found to be impaired by down-regulation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1P1 or S1P4 by specific siRNAs. In summary, the results obtained support the notion that the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SK/S1P) axis is critically involved in the mechanism by which LPA elicits its pro-migratory action. This study provides compelling new information on the regulatory mechanisms of satellite cell motility, and reinforces the view that the SK/S1P signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the control of skeletal muscle precursor cell biology. PMID:25131845

  3. Hyperhomocysteinemia inhibits satellite cell regenerative capacity through p38 alpha/beta MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Lominadze, David; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-07-15

    Chronic failure in maintenance and regeneration of skeletal muscles leads to lower muscle mass (sarcopenia), muscle weakness, and poor response to injury. Evidence suggests that aberrant p38 MAPK signaling undermines the repair process after injury in aged mice. Previous studies have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been associated with muscle weakness and lower than normal body weights. However, whether or not HHcy condition also compromises skeletal muscle regenerative capabilities is not clear. In the current study, we show that CBS-/+ mice, a model for HHcy condition, exhibited compromised regenerative function and cell proliferation upon injury. However, there was no significant difference in Pax7 expression levels in the satellite cells from CBS-/+ mouse skeletal muscles. Interestingly, the satellite cells from CBS-/+ mice not only exhibited diminished in vitro proliferative capabilities, but also there was heightened oxidative stress. In addition, there was enhanced p38 MAPK activation as well as p16 and p21 expression in the CBS-/+ mouse satellite cells. Moreover, the C2C12 myoblasts also exhibited higher p38 MAPK activation and p16 expression upon treatment with homocysteine in addition to enhanced ROS presence. Tissue engraftment potential and regeneration after injury were restored to some extent upon treatment with the p38-MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, in the CBS-/+ mice. These results together suggest that HHcy-induced diminished satellite cell proliferation involves excessive oxidative stress and p38 MAPK signaling. Our study further proposes that HHcy is a potential risk factor for elderly frailty, and need to be considered as a therapeutic target while designing the alleviation interventions/postinjury rehabilitation measures for adults with HHcy. PMID:25980021

  4. Myomir dysregulation and reactive oxygen species in aged human satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Mancinelli, Rosa; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2016-04-29

    Satellite cells that reside on the myofibre surface are crucial for the muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Aging goes along with a less effective regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue mainly due to the decreased myogenic capability of satellite cells. This phenomenon impedes proper maintenance and contributes to the age-associated decline in muscle mass, known as sarcopenia. The myogenic potential impairment does not depend on a reduced myogenic cell number, but mainly on their difficulty to complete a differentiation program. The unbalanced production of reactive oxygen species in elderly people could be responsible for skeletal muscle impairments. microRNAs are conserved post-transcriptional regulators implicated in numerous biological processes including adult myogenesis. Here, we measure the ROS level and analyze myomiR (miR-1, miR-133b and miR-206) expression in human myogenic precursors obtained from Vastus lateralis of elderly and young subjects to provide the molecular signature responsible for the differentiation impairment of elderly activated satellite cells. PMID:26975470

  5. Hepatocyte Growth Factor-mediated satellite cells niche perturbation promotes development of distinct sarcoma subtypes.

    PubMed

    Morena, Deborah; Maestro, Nicola; Bersani, Francesca; Forni, Paolo Emanuele; Lingua, Marcello Francesco; Foglizzo, Valentina; Šćepanović, Petar; Miretti, Silvia; Morotti, Alessandro; Shern, Jack F; Khan, Javed; Ala, Ugo; Provero, Paolo; Sala, Valentina; Crepaldi, Tiziana; Gasparini, Patrizia; Casanova, Michela; Ferrari, Andrea; Sozzi, Gabriella; Chiarle, Roberto; Ponzetto, Carola; Taulli, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) and Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma (UPS) are distinct sarcoma subtypes. Here we investigate the relevance of the satellite cell (SC) niche in sarcoma development by using Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) to perturb the niche microenvironment. In a Pax7 wild type background, HGF stimulation mainly causes ERMS that originate from satellite cells following a process of multistep progression. Conversely, in a Pax7 null genotype ERMS incidence drops, while UPS becomes the most frequent subtype. Murine EfRMS display genetic heterogeneity similar to their human counterpart. Altogether, our data demonstrate that selective perturbation of the SC niche results in distinct sarcoma subtypes in a Pax7 lineage-dependent manner, and define a critical role for the Met axis in sarcoma initiation. Finally, our results provide a rationale for the use of combination therapy, tailored on specific amplifications and activated signaling pathways, to minimize resistance emerging from sarcomas heterogeneity. PMID:26987019

  6. Lack of evidence for GDF11 as a rejuvenator of aged skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Hinken, Aaron C; Powers, Janine M; Luo, Guizhen; Holt, Jason A; Billin, Andrew N; Russell, Alan J

    2016-06-01

    Recent high-profile studies report GDF11 to be a key circulating 'anti-aging' factor. However, a screen of extracellular proteins attempting to identify factors with 'anti-aging' phenotypes in aged murine skeletal muscle satellite cells did not identify GDF11 activity. We have been unable to confirm the reported activity of GDF11, similar to other laboratories offering conflicting data and describe our attempts to do so in this short take. PMID:27139744

  7. On spatial distribution of proton radiation belt from solar cell degradation of Akebono satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, W.; Miyoshi, Y.; Matsuoka, A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar cells on any satellite degrade gradually due to severe space radiation environment. We found a fair correlation between the decrease rate of solar cell output current of Akebono satellite orbiting in the inner magnetosphere and trapped proton flux from AP8 model between 1989 and 1992. After 1993, presumably as a result of long-term degradation, variation of solar cell output seems more susceptible to other causes such as high temperature effect, and simple monthly averaged data show no significant relation between them. One of possible causes for the temperature variation of the solar cells is terrestrial heat radiation with changing orientation of solar cell panels towards the earth and another is solar radiation varied with eccentric earth's orbit around the sun. In order to remove the possible temperature effect, we sort the data expected to be least affected by the terrestrial heat radiation from the orbit conditions, and also analyze difference of the output current for a month from that for the same month in the previous year. The analysis method leads us to successfully track a continuous correlation between the decease rate of solar cell output and energetic trapped proton flux up to 1996. We also discuss the best-fitted spatial distribution of energetic protons from comparison with model calculations.

  8. The effect of temperature on apoptosis and adipogenesis on skeletal muscle satellite cells derived from different muscle types

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Rachel L; Clark, Daniel L; Halevy, Orna; Coy, Cynthia S; Yahav, Shlomo; Velleman, Sandra G

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are multipotential stem cells that mediate postnatal muscle growth and respond differently to temperature based upon aerobic versus anaerobic fiber-type origin. The objective of this study was to determine how temperatures below and above the control, 38°C, affect the fate of satellite cells isolated from the anaerobic pectoralis major (p. major) or mixed fiber biceps femoris (b. femoris). At all sampling times, p. major and b. femoris cells accumulated less lipid when incubated at low temperatures and more lipid at elevated temperatures compared to the control. Satellite cells isolated from the p. major were more sensitive to temperature as they accumulated more lipid at elevated temperatures compared to b. femoris cells. Expression of adipogenic genes, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) were different within satellite cells isolated from the p. major or b. femoris. At 72 h of proliferation, C/EBPβ expression increased with increasing temperature in both cell types, while PPARγ expression decreased with increasing temperature in p. major satellite cells. At 48 h of differentiation, both C/EBPβ and PPARγ expression increased in the p. major and decreased in the b. femoris, with increasing temperature. Flow cytometry measured apoptotic markers for early apoptosis (Annexin-V-PE) or late apoptosis (7-AAD), showing less than 1% of apoptotic satellite cells throughout all experimental conditions, therefore, apoptosis was considered biologically not significant. The results support that anaerobic p. major satellite cells are more predisposed to adipogenic conversion than aerobic b. femoris cells when thermally challenged. PMID:26341996

  9. High-Content Screening of Human Primary Muscle Satellite Cells for New Therapies for Muscular Atrophy/Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nierobisz, Lidia S; Cheatham, Bentley; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Sexton, Jonathan Z

    2013-01-01

    Myoblast proliferation and differentiation are essential for normal skeletal muscle growth and repair. Muscle recovery is dependent on the quiescent population of muscle stem cells - satellite cells. During muscle injury, satellite cells become mitotically active and begin the repair process by fusing with each other and/or with myofibers. Aging, prolonged inactivity, obesity, cachexia and other muscle wasting diseases are associated with a decreased number of quiescent and proliferating satellite cells, which impedes the repair process. A high-content/high-throughput platform was developed and utilized for robust phenotypic evaluation of human primary satellite cells in vitro for the discovery of chemical probes that may improve muscle recovery. A 1600 compound pilot screen was developed using two highly annotated small molecule libraries. This screen yielded 15 dose responsive compounds that increased proliferation rate in satellite cells derived from a single obese human donor. Two of these compounds remained dose responsive when counter-screened in 3-donor obese superlot. The Alk-5 inhibitor LY364947, was used as a positive control for assessing satellite cell proliferation/delayed differentiation. A multivariate approach was utilized for exploratory data analysis to discover proliferation vs. differentiation-dependent changes in cellular phenotype. Initial screening efforts successfully identified a number of phenotypic outcomes that are associated with desired effect of stimulation of proliferation and delayed differentiation. PMID:24396732

  10. Multi-temporal land cover classification of the Konya Basin, south-central Turkey, based on a LANDSAT TM-derived NDVI/NDMI time series: satellite remote sensing in support of landscape-scale soil biogeochemistry research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayes, M. T.; Ozdogan, M.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, terrestrial biogeochemists and soil scientists have called for new approaches to study human impacts on soil biogeochemical properties at landscape-wide, 100-1000 km2 spatial scales (Trumbore and Czimczik 2008). Here, we use satellite remote sensing to map land cover across a 16,000 km2 region in the Konya Basin, south-central Turkey, in support of research into agricultural and pastoral land use impacts on soil biogeochemistry. Our land cover classification is based on time series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) data, derived from eight LANDSAT TM images spanning the 2006-2007 growing seasons. Using a hierarchical, binary-split classification approach and a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm, we map five land cover classes that correspond with the following dominant land-use categories: 1) annual cultivated row-crops, 2) perennial orchards/cultivated woody vegetation, 3) fallow fields, 4) uncultivated woody vegetation, 5) steppe vegetation/rangeland. The final map has an overall classification accuracy of 87.4% (kappa = 0.842), determined via traditional confusion-matrix analysis and over 150 site visits during summer 2010. Classes 1 and 2, which have the highest per-pixel NDVI and NDMI sums across image dates, attain the highest producer and consumer accuracies (>95%). We also compare the relative contributions and efficacy of NDVI and NDMI in separating land cover classes, and the influence of radiometric correction and calibration across image dates on classification accuracies. Our results support previous research showing that NDVI time series can effectively classify agricultural landscapes in semi-arid to arid environments (Simonneaux et al. 2008; Pax-Lenny et al. 1996). By combining our land cover map with other geospatial information in a GIS, we demonstrate how satellite remote sensing can help expand spatial scales of terrestrial biogeochemistry research from experimental plots to landscapes. As an example, our final map proved to be a very practical tool for locating sites for soil sampling in the Konya Basin during the summer 2010 field season.

  11. Fabrication of glass gas cells for the HALOE and MAPS satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, E. M.; Walthall, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment are satellite-borne experiments which measure trace constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. The instruments which obtain the data for these experiments are based on the gas filter correlation radiometer measurement technique. In this technique, small samples of the gases of interest are encapsulated in glass cylinders, called gas cells, which act as very selective optical filters. This report describes the techniques employed in the fabrication of the gas cells for the HALOE and MAPS instruments. Details of the method used to fuse the sapphire windows (required for IR transmission) to the glass cell bodies are presented along with detailed descriptions of the jigs and fixtures used during the assembly process. The techniques and equipment used for window inspection and for pairing the HALOE windows are discussed. Cell body materials and the steps involved in preparing the cell bodies for the glass-to-sapphire fusion process are given.

  12. Leucine Promotes Proliferation and Differentiation of Primary Preterm Rat Satellite Cells in Part through mTORC1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie-Min; Yu, Mu-Xue; Shen, Zhen-Yu; Guo, Chu-Yi; Zhuang, Si-Qi; Qiu, Xiao-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to leucine modulates many cellular and developmental processes. However, in the context of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, the role of leucine and mTORC1 is less known. This study investigates the role of leucine in the process of proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells, and the relationship with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. Dissociation of primary satellite cells occurred with type I collagenase and trypsin, and purification, via different speed adherence methods. Satellite cells with positive expression of Desmin were treated with leucine and rapamycin. We observed that leucine promoted proliferation and differentiation of primary satellite cells and increased the phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin inhibited proliferation and differentiation, as well as decreased the phosphorylation level of mTOR. Furthermore, leucine increased the expression of MyoD and myogenin while the protein level of MyoD decreased due to rapamycin. However, myogenin expressed no affect by rapamycin. In conclusion, leucine may up-regulate the activation of mTORC1 to promote proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells. We have shown that leucine promoted the differentiation of myotubes in part through the mTORC1-MyoD signal pathway. PMID:26007333

  13. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global coverage systems range from $1 Billion to $9 Billion, the availability of radiation hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  14. Inflammatory sensitization of nociceptors depends on activation of NMDA receptors in DRG satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro; Araldi, Dionéia; Rodrigues, Marcos A.; Macedo, Larissa P.; Ferreira, Sérgio H.; Parada, Carlos Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in the inflammatory sensitization of peripheral nociceptor terminals to mechanical stimulation. Injection of NMDA into the fifth lumbar (L5)-DRG induced hyperalgesia in the rat hind paw with a profile similar to that of intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which was significantly attenuated by injection of the NMDAR antagonist d(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP-5) in the L5-DRG. Moreover, blockade of DRG AMPA receptors by the antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione had no effect in the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in thepaw, showing specific involvement of NMDARs in this modulatory effect and suggesting that activation of NMDAR in the DRG plays an important role in the peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia. In following experiments we observed attenuation of PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw by the knockdown of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2B, NR2D, and NR3A with antisense-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment in the DRG. Also, in vitro experiments showed that the NMDA-induced sensitization of cultured DRG neurons depends on satellite cell activation and on those same NMDAR subunits, suggesting their importance for the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia. In addition, fluorescent calcium imaging experiments in cultures of DRG cells showed induction of calcium transients by glutamate or NMDA only in satellite cells, but not in neurons. Together, the present results suggest that the mechanical inflammatory nociceptor sensitization is dependent on glutamate release at the DRG and subsequent NMDAR activation in satellite glial cells, supporting the idea that the peripheral hyperalgesia is an event modulated by a glutamatergic system in the DRG. PMID:25489099

  15. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Manuel; Bonanno, Elena; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Baldi, Jacopo; Mauriello, Alessandro; Orlandi, Augusto; Tancredi, Virginia; Gasbarra, Elena; Tarantino, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem cells activity. In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology. PMID:26101529

  16. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Manuel; Bonanno, Elena; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Baldi, Jacopo; Mauriello, Alessandro; Orlandi, Augusto; Tancredi, Virginia; Gasbarra, Elena; Tarantino, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem cells activity. In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology. PMID:26101529

  17. Cell-specific antiviral activity of 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine (FIAC) against Marek's disease herpesvirus and turkey herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Schat, K A; Schinazi, R F; Calnek, B W

    1984-10-01

    Three new fluoroarabinosylpyrimidine nucleosides (FIAC, FIAU and FMAU) were tested for in vitro activity against oncogenic and nononcogenic strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV) and herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT). Marek's disease is a herpesvirus-induced lymphoma in chickens. Nononcogenic strains of MDV and HVT can protect against this disease. All viruses were inhibited by 1 microM of these drugs in chick kidney cell (CKC) cultures, but only FMAU and FIAU were active in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) and spleen cell cultures. It was determined that whereas CKC produced the enzyme 2'-deoxycytidine-deaminase which is needed to deaminate FIAC to FIAU, CEF were devoid of this enzyme activity. In addition, the deaminase inhibitor 3,4,5,6-tetrahydrouridine prevented the antiviral activity of FIAC in CKC. FMAU was not active against two Marek's disease-derived lymphoblastoid tumor cell lines. PMID:6097179

  18. A Novel Approach to Collecting Satellite Cells From Adult Skeletal Muscles on the Basis of Their Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Wakao, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are generally collected using flow cytometry, but this method is not applicable when the cell surface marker is not well determined. Satellite cells, which are skeletal muscle stem cells, have the ability to regenerate damaged muscles and are expected to be applicable for treatment of muscle degeneration. Although the transcription factor Pax7 is a known specific marker of satellite cells, it is not located on the cell surface and therefore flow cytometry is not directly applicable. In the present study, we turned our attention to the stress tolerance of adult stem cells, and we propose long-term trypsin incubation (LTT) as a novel approach to collecting satellite cells from mouse and human skeletal muscles. LTT led to a remarkable increase in the ratio of Pax7(+) cells that retain normal myogenic stem cell function. In particular, human Pax7(+) cells made up approximately 30% of primary cultured cells, whereas after LTT, the ratio of Pax7(+) cells increased up to ∼80%, and the ratio of Pax7(+) and/or MyoD(+) myogenic cells increased to ∼95%. Once transplanted, LTT-treated cells contributed to subsequent muscle regeneration following repetitive muscle damage without additional cell transplantation. The stress tolerance of Pax7(+) cells is related to heat shock protein 27 and αB-crystallin, members of the small heat shock protein family. This approach, based on the stress resistance of adult stem cells, is a safe and inexpensive method of efficiently collecting human satellite cells and may also be used for collecting other tissue stem cells whose surface marker is unknown. PMID:23748608

  19. MMP-14 is necessary but not sufficient for invasion of three-dimensional collagen by human muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Dane K.; Mouly, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-five known matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs), mediate cell invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM). In a comparative three-dimensional assay, we analyzed human and mouse satellite cells' competence to invade an artificial ECM (collagen I). We identified a single MMP that 1) is expressed by human muscle satellite cells; 2) is induced at the mRNA/protein level by adhesion to collagen I; and 3) is necessary for invasion into a collagen I matrix. Interestingly, murine satellite cells neither express this MMP, nor invade the collagen matrix. However, exogenous human MMP-14 is not sufficient to induce invasion of a collagen matrix by murine cells, emphasizing species differences. PMID:24898588

  20. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit. Final contractor report

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.; Vandine, L.L.; Stedman, J.K.

    1987-07-01

    Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. The first, the integrated design, utilized a configuration in which the fuel cell and electrolysis cells are alternately stacked inside a pressure vessel. Product water is transferred by diffusion during electrolysis and waste heat is conducted through the pressure wall, thus using completely passive means for transfer and control. The second alkaline system, the dedicated design, uses a separate fuel cell and electrolysis stack so that each unit can be optimized in size and weight based on its orbital operating period. The third design was a dual function stack configuration, in which each cell can operate in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode, thus eliminating the need for two separate stacks and associated equipment. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 W-hr/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. System densities of 115 W-hr/lb are contemplated.

  1. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  2. Transcription of Satellite III non-coding RNAs is a general stress response in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Valgardsdottir, Rut; Chiodi, Ilaria; Giordano, Manuela; Rossi, Antonio; Bazzini, Silvia; Ghigna, Claudia; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    In heat-shocked human cells, heat shock factor 1 activates transcription of tandem arrays of repetitive Satellite III (SatIII) DNA in pericentromeric heterochromatin. Satellite III RNAs remain associated with sites of transcription in nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). Here we use real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of these genomic regions. Transcription is highly asymmetrical and most of the transcripts contain the G-rich strand of the repeat. A low level of G-rich RNAs is detectable in unstressed cells and a 104-fold induction occurs after heat shock. G-rich RNAs are induced by a wide range of stress treatments including heavy metals, UV-C, oxidative and hyper-osmotic stress. Differences exist among stressing agents both for the kinetics and the extent of induction (>100- to 80.000-fold). In all cases, G-rich transcripts are associated with nSBs. On the contrary, C-rich transcripts are almost undetectable in unstressed cells and modestly increase after stress. Production of SatIII RNAs after hyper-osmotic stress depends on the Tonicity Element Binding Protein indicating that activation of the arrays is triggered by different transcription factors. This is the first example of a non-coding RNA whose transcription is controlled by different transcription factors under different growth conditions. PMID:18039709

  3. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  4. Rat soleus muscle satellite cells during the recovery after gravitational unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtikova, Olga; Shenkman, Boris; Altaeva, Erzhena; Leinsoo, Toomas

    In this study the attempt was made to assess alterations of rat soleus satellite cell (SC) population during muscle regrowth after 14-day gravitational unloading (using the hindlimb suspension model). Myofiber size increases during the recovery period. SCs are supposed to participate in muscle growth by fusion with myofibers and supplying them with new myonuclei [Mitchell PO, Pavlath GK, 2001; Oishi Y., 2008]. Other points of view are known about SC participation in the recovery of atrophied muscle mass during the readaptation period [Bruusgaard J.C. et al., 2011; Jackson JR et al., 2012]. After 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension mki67 expression was fivefold lower as compared to control animals and increased gradually up to 28 times by the day 7 of reloading. Cdh15 was decreased after hindlimb unloading and rose from the 1st day of reloading. The expression reached control level to the day 7th of reloading. Cellular response was going on concurrently with the spike of IGF-1 blood level and the increase in muscle IGF-1 concentration. It is possible that in the early days of reloading period differentiation and fusion of satellite cells which were active by the end of hindlimb suspension occurred. Satellite cell incorporation was assessed by counting the amount of BrdU+ myonuclei under myofiber dystrophin layer. It came more intensively in the 1st day of readaptation. It is in accordance with the 4,5 time increase in myogenin expression as compared to hindlimb suspended animals detected at the same time point. Myogenin expression 3 fold decreased by 3rd day of readaptation. We observed only the tendency of resizing but no significant changes in in myonuclear domain size. The number of myonuclei per myofiber cross section was decreased after hindlimb suspension and was not restored by the day 14th of readaptation. Cdh15 and myogenin expression at some extent stabilized after 7 days of readaptation, but high mki67 level pointed to intensive proliferation, which could cause the increase of myonuclei and satellite cell number and enhancing protein synthesis in the late readaptation period. Supported by RFBR grant 13-04-01891

  5. Cytokine and satellite cell responses to muscle damage: interpretation and possible confounding factors in human studies.

    PubMed

    van de Vyver, M; Myburgh, K H

    2012-08-01

    It is plausible that multiple muscle biopsies following a muscle damaging intervention can exacerbate the inflammatory and subsequent satellite cell responses. To elucidate confounding effects of muscle biopsy procedure on satellite cell number, indirect markers of damage and the inflammatory response following acute downhill running (DHR) were investigated. 10 healthy male participant were divided into a non-exercising control (n = 4) and DHR (12 × 5min bouts, 10 % decline at 85 % VO(2)max) (n = 6) group. Blood samples were taken pre, post and every 24 h for 9 days. Serum was analysed for creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10. Muscle biopsies taken on days 1 and 2 post intervention from opposing legs were analysed for Pax7(+) satellite cells. In the DHR group, Mb (536 ± 277 ng mL(-1)), IL-6 (12.6 ± 4.7 pg mL(-1)) and IL-10 (27.3 ± 11.5 pg mL(-1)) peaked immediately post DHR, while CK (2651 ± 1911 U L(-1)), LDH (202 ± 47 U L(-1)) and TNF-α (25.1 ± 8.7 pg mL(-1)) peaked on day 1. A 30 % increase in Pax7(+) satellite cells on day 1 in the DHR group was no longer apparent on day 2. H&E staining show evidence of phagocytosis in the DHR group. No significant changes over time were observed in the control group for any of the variables measured. Events observed in the DHR group were as a result of the intervention protocol and subsequent muscle damage. The relationship between SC proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release appears to be complex since the IL-6/IL-10 response time differs significantly from the TNF-α response. PMID:22673937

  6. Spiral ganglion degeneration and hearing loss as a consequence of satellite cell death in saposin B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Akil, Omar; Sun, Ying; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Zhang, Wujuan; Ku, Tiffany; Lee, Chi-Kyou; Jones, Sherri; Grabowski, Gregory A; Lustig, Lawrence R

    2015-02-18

    Saposin B (Sap B) is an essential activator protein for arylsulfatase A in the hydrolysis of sulfatide, a lipid component of myelin. To study Sap B's role in hearing and balance, a Sap B-deficient (B(-/-)) mouse was evaluated. At both light and electron microscopy (EM) levels, inclusion body accumulation was seen in satellite cells surrounding spiral ganglion (SG) neurons from postnatal month 1 onward, progressing into large vacuoles preceding satellite cell degeneration, and followed by SG degeneration. EM also revealed reduced or absent myelin sheaths in SG neurons from postnatal month 8 onwards. Hearing loss was initially seen at postnatal month 6 and progressed thereafter for frequency-specific stimuli, whereas click responses became abnormal from postnatal month 13 onward. The progressive hearing loss correlated with the accumulation of inclusion bodies in the satellite cells and their subsequent degeneration. Outer hair cell numbers and efferent function measures (distortion product otoacoustic emissions and contralateral suppression) were normal in the B(-/-) mice throughout this period. Alcian blue staining of SGs demonstrated that these inclusion bodies corresponded to sulfatide accumulation. In contrast, changes in the vestibular system were much milder, but caused severe physiologic deficits. These results demonstrate that loss of Sap B function leads to progressive sulfatide accumulation in satellite cells surrounding the SG neurons, leading to satellite cell degeneration and subsequent SG degeneration with a resultant loss of hearing. Relative sparing of the efferent auditory and vestibular neurons suggests that alternate glycosphingolipid metabolic pathways predominate in these other systems. PMID:25698761

  7. Hepatocyte Growth Factor-mediated satellite cells niche perturbation promotes development of distinct sarcoma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Morena, Deborah; Maestro, Nicola; Bersani, Francesca; Forni, Paolo Emanuele; Lingua, Marcello Francesco; Foglizzo, Valentina; Šćepanović, Petar; Miretti, Silvia; Morotti, Alessandro; Shern, Jack F; Khan, Javed; Ala, Ugo; Provero, Paolo; Sala, Valentina; Crepaldi, Tiziana; Gasparini, Patrizia; Casanova, Michela; Ferrari, Andrea; Sozzi, Gabriella; Chiarle, Roberto; Ponzetto, Carola; Taulli, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) and Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma (UPS) are distinct sarcoma subtypes. Here we investigate the relevance of the satellite cell (SC) niche in sarcoma development by using Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) to perturb the niche microenvironment. In a Pax7 wild type background, HGF stimulation mainly causes ERMS that originate from satellite cells following a process of multistep progression. Conversely, in a Pax7 null genotype ERMS incidence drops, while UPS becomes the most frequent subtype. Murine EfRMS display genetic heterogeneity similar to their human counterpart. Altogether, our data demonstrate that selective perturbation of the SC niche results in distinct sarcoma subtypes in a Pax7 lineage-dependent manner, and define a critical role for the Met axis in sarcoma initiation. Finally, our results provide a rationale for the use of combination therapy, tailored on specific amplifications and activated signaling pathways, to minimize resistance emerging from sarcomas heterogeneity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12116.001 PMID:26987019

  8. Isolation of Nuclei from Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells and Myofibers for Use in Chromatin lmmunoprecipitation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Mallappa, Chandrashekara; Dacwag Vallaster, Caroline S.; lmbalzano, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating mechanisms controlling gene regulation frequently examine specific DNA sequences using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to determine whether specific regulatory factors or modified histones are present. While use of primary cells or cell line models for differentiating or differentiated tissue is widespread, the ability to assess factor binding and histone modification in tissue defines the events that occur in vivo and provides corroboration for studies in cultured cells. Many tissues can be analyzed with minimal modification to existing ChIP protocols that are designed for cultured cells; however, some tissues, such as skeletal muscle, are problematic in that accessibility of the cross-linking agent is limited. We describe a method to isolate skeletal muscle tissue nuclei suitable for use in ChIP protocols. Furthermore, we utilize a simple fractionation of digested skeletal muscle tissue that can separate mature myofibers from satellite cells, which are responsible for postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration, thereby allowing simultaneous preparation of nuclei from both cell types. PMID:22130858

  9. Potential Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Myogenic Program of Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Amritpal S.; Putman, Charles T.; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation. This review highlights mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the myogenic program of the stem cell population within skeletal muscles and identifies considerations for future studies. It is proposed that minimally three myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors, paired box 7 (Pax7), myogenic differentiation 1 protein, and myogenin, should be measured to confirm the stage of SCs within the myogenic program affected by omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26884682

  10. Earth-satellite path attenuation statistics influenced by orientation of rain cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is examined whether there may be preferred azimuths for earth-satellite paths along which fading and space diversity statistics are influenced differently than along other azimuths. Such preferred directions may exist if individual rain cells are statistically elongated along them for the given climatological region. The analysis is performed using the rain reflectivity data base obtained at Wallops Island during June, July and August 1973 using a high resolution radar. It is found that in the vicinity of Wallops Island increased attenuation and poorer diversity gains exist along paths whose azimuths and base lines lie in the NE-SW quadrants as compared to the NW-SE sectors. This result suggests the dominance of the major axis of rain cells in these quadrants.

  11. Potential Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on the Myogenic Program of Satellite Cells.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Amritpal S; Putman, Charles T; Mazurak, Vera C

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is associated with aging as well as pathological conditions. Satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in muscle regeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids are widely studied in a variety of muscle wasting diseases; however, little is known about their impact on skeletal muscle regeneration. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies examining the effect of omega-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid on the regulation of SC proliferation and differentiation. This review highlights mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the myogenic program of the stem cell population within skeletal muscles and identifies considerations for future studies. It is proposed that minimally three myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors, paired box 7 (Pax7), myogenic differentiation 1 protein, and myogenin, should be measured to confirm the stage of SCs within the myogenic program affected by omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:26884682

  12. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented, which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can help minimize the cost of a global satellite communications system. An important distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium, Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation at orbital altitudes within the earth's radiation belts (10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4)km) can reduce the total cost of a system by several hundred percent, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells can be used. A detailed evaluation of the predicted performance of photovoltaic arrays using several different planar solar cell technologies is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge, and InP/Si which is currently under development. Several examples of applying the program are given, which show that the end of life (EOL) power density of different technologies can vary by a factor of ten for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation-soft technology can usually provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact upon the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate, these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global-coverage systems range from $1B to $9B, the availability of radiation-hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  13. Development of a nitric oxide-releasing analogue of the muscle relaxant guaifenesin for skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guqi; Burczynski, Frank J; Hasinoff, Brian B; Zhang, Kaidong; Lu, Qilong; Anderson, Judy E

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates activation of satellite precursor cells to enter the cell cycle. This provides new precursor cells for skeletal muscle growth and muscle repair from injury or disease. Targeting a new drug that specifically delivers NO to muscle has the potential to promote normal function and treat neuromuscular disease, and would also help to avoid side effects of NO from other treatment modalities. In this research, we examined the effectiveness of the NO donor, iosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and a muscle relaxant, methocarbamol, in promoting satellite cell activation assayed by muscle cell DNA synthesis in normal adult mice. The work led to the development of guaifenesin dinitrate (GDN) as a new NO donor for delivering nitric oxide to muscle. The results revealed that there was a strong increase in muscle satellite cell activation and proliferation, demonstrated by a significant 38% rise in DNA synthesis after a single transdermal treatment with the new compound for 24 h. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that the markers of satellite cell myogenesis, expression of myf5, myogenin, and follistatin, were increased after 24 h oral administration of the compound in adult mice. This research extends our understanding of the outcomes of NO-based treatments aimed at promoting muscle regeneration in normal tissue. The potential use of such treatment for conditions such as muscle atrophy in disuse and aging, and for the promotion of muscle tissue repair as required after injury or in neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy, is highlighted. PMID:19317416

  14. KLF7 Regulates Satellite Cell Quiescence in Response to Extracellular Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Qingwu W; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Zhiguo; Feng, Fu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Yanyan; Wei, Huan; Li, Zhongwen; Wang, Xinxia; Wang, Yizhen

    2016-05-01

    Retaining muscle stem satellite cell (SC) quiescence is important for the maintenance of stem cell population and tissue regeneration. Accumulating evidence supports the model where key extracellular signals play crucial roles in maintaining SC quiescence or activation, however, the intracellular mechanisms that mediate niche signals to control SC behavior are not fully understood. Here, we reported that KLF7 functioned as a key mediator involved in low-level TGF-β signaling and canonical Notch signaling-induced SC quiescence and myoblast arrest. The data obtained showed that KLF7 was upregulated in quiescent SCs and nonproliferating myoblasts. Silence of KLF7 promoted SCs activation and myoblasts proliferation, but overexpression of KLF7 induced myogenic cell arrest. Notably, the expression of KLF7 was regulated by TGF-β and Notch3 signaling. Knockdown of KLF7 diminished low-level TGF-β and canonical Notch signaling-induced SC quiescence. Investigation into the mechanism revealed that KLF7 regulation of SC function was dependent on p21 and acetylation of Lys227 and/or 231 in the DNA binding domain of KLF7. Our study provides new insights into the regulatory network of muscle stem cell quiescence. Stem Cells 2016;34:1310-1320. PMID:26930448

  15. Adapted physical exercise enhances activation and differentiation potential of satellite cells in the skeletal muscle of old mice.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Barbara; Giagnacovo, Marzia; Costanzo, Manuela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Zancanaro, Carlo; Pellicciari, Carlo; Malatesta, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    During ageing, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and a decrease in muscle strength and endurance take place, in the condition termed sarcopenia. The mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex and still unclear; however, it is known that muscle atrophy is associated with a decline in the number and/or efficiency of satellite cells, the main contributors to muscle regeneration. Physical exercise proved beneficial in sarcopenia; however, knowledge of the effect of adapted physical exercise on the myogenic properties of satellite cells in aged muscles is limited. In this study the amount and activation state of satellite cells as well as their proliferation and differentiation potential were assessed in situ by morphology, morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and transmission electron microscopy on 28-month-old mice submitted to adapted aerobic physical exercise on a treadmill. Sedentary age-matched mice served as controls, and sedentary adult mice were used as a reference for an unperturbed control at an age when the capability of muscle regeneration is still high. The effect of physical exercise in aged muscles was further analysed by comparing the myogenic potential of satellite cells isolated from old running and old sedentary mice using an in vitro system that allows observation of the differentiation process under controlled experimental conditions. The results of this ex vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that adapted physical exercise increases the number and activation of satellite cells as well as their capability to differentiate into structurally and functionally correct myotubes (even though the age-related impairment in myotube formation is not fully reversed): this evidence further supports adapted physical exercise as a powerful, non-pharmacological approach to counteract sarcopenia and the age-related deterioration of satellite cell capabilities even at very advanced age. PMID:26739770

  16. Angiotensin II Inhibits Satellite Cell Proliferation and Prevents Skeletal Muscle Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Galvez, Sarah; Tiwari, Sumit; Rezk, Bashir M.; Semprun-Prieto, Laura; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Cachexia is a serious complication of many chronic diseases, such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although patients with advanced CHF or CKD often have increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and cachexia and Ang II causes skeletal muscle wasting in rodents, the potential effects of Ang II on muscle regeneration are unknown. Muscle regeneration is highly dependent on the ability of a pool of muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to proliferate and to repair damaged myofibers or form new myofibers. Here we show that Ang II reduced skeletal muscle regeneration via inhibition of satellite cell (SC) proliferation. Ang II reduced the number of regenerating myofibers and decreased expression of SC proliferation/differentiation markers (MyoD, myogenin, and active-Notch) after cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury in vivo and in SCs cultured in vitro. Ang II depleted the basal pool of SCs, as detected in Myf5nLacZ/+ mice and by FACS sorting, and this effect was inhibited by Ang II AT1 receptor (AT1R) blockade and in AT1aR-null mice. AT1R was highly expressed in SCs, and Notch activation abrogated the AT1R-mediated antiproliferative effect of Ang II in cultured SCs. In mice that developed CHF postmyocardial infarction, there was skeletal muscle wasting and reduced SC numbers that were inhibited by AT1R blockade. Ang II inhibition of skeletal muscle regeneration via AT1 receptor-dependent suppression of SC Notch and MyoD signaling and proliferation is likely to play an important role in mechanisms leading to cachexia in chronic disease states such as CHF and CKD. PMID:23831688

  17. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. PMID:25571987

  18. Follistatin induces muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell proliferation and inhibition of both myostatin and activin.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Hélène; Schakman, Olivier; Kalista, Stéphanie; Lause, Pascale; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Thissen, Jean-Paul

    2009-07-01

    Follistatin (FS) inhibits several members of the TGF-beta superfamily, including myostatin (Mstn), a negative regulator of muscle growth. Mstn inhibition by FS represents a potential therapeutic approach of muscle atrophy. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanisms of the FS-induced muscle hypertrophy. To test the role of satellite cells in the FS effect, we used irradiation to destroy their proliferative capacity. FS overexpression increased the muscle weight by about 37% in control animals, but the increase reached only 20% in irradiated muscle, supporting the role of cell proliferation in the FS-induced hypertrophy. Surprisingly, the muscle hypertrophy caused by FS reached the same magnitude in Mstn-KO as in WT mice, suggesting that Mstn might not be the only ligand of FS involved in the regulation of muscle mass. To assess the role of activin (Act), another FS ligand, in the FS-induced hypertrophy, we electroporated FSI-I, a FS mutant that does not bind Act with high affinity. Whereas FS electroporation increased muscle weight by 32%, the muscle weight gain induced by FSI-I reached only 14%. Furthermore, in Mstn-KO mice, FSI-I overexpression failed to induce hypertrophy, in contrast to FS. Therefore, these results suggest that Act inhibition may contribute to FS-induced hypertrophy. Finally, the role of Act as a regulator of muscle mass was supported by the observation that ActA overexpression induced muscle weight loss (-15%). In conclusion, our results show that satellite cell proliferation and both Mstn and Act inhibition are involved in the FS-induced muscle hypertrophy. PMID:19435857

  19. Micro space power system using MEMS fuel cell for nano-satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkwang; Kim, Taegyu

    2014-08-01

    A micro space power system using micro fuel cell was developed for nano-satellites. The power system was fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technologies. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell was selected in consideration of space environment. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was selected as a hydrogen source while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was selected as an oxygen source. The power system consists of a micro fuel cell, micro-reactor, micro-pump, and fuel cartridges. The micro fuel cell was fabricated on a light-weight and corrosion-resistant glass plates. The micro-reactor was used to generate hydrogen from NaBH4 alkaline solution via a catalytic hydrolysis reaction. All components such as micro-pump, fuel cartridges, and auxiliary battery were integrated for a complete power system. The storability of NaBH4 solution was evaluated at -25 °C and the performance of the micro power system was measured at various operating conditions. The power output of micro power system reasonably followed up the given electric load conditions.

  20. microRNA-128 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells by repressing Sp1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yang; Zhang, Wei Ran; Wang, Yi Min; Liu, Xin Feng; Li, Xin; Ding, Xiang Bin; Guo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 have been shown to regulate muscle development and promote myogenic differentiation; however, it is likely that a number of other miRNAs play important roles in regulating myogenesis as well. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been reported to be highly expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, and we found that miR-128 is also up-regulated during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. However, little is known about the functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle cell development. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-128 regulates the Sp1 gene. Over-expression of miR-128 reduced Sp1 protein levels and inhibited muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Inhibition of miR-128 increased Sp1 protein levels and promoted muscle satellite cell differentiation but also suppressed proliferation. Changes in miR-128 and Sp1 expression levels also affected the protein levels of MyoD and CDKN1A. Sp1, an activator of MyoD and a suppressor of CDKN1A, plays an important role in bovine muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The results of our study reveal a mechanism by which miR-128 regulates bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation via Sp1. PMID:26833195

  1. Evaluation of the effect of static magnetic fields combined with human hepatocyte growth factor on human satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Birk, Richard; Sommer, Ulrich; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schulz, Johannes D; Hörmann, Karl; Goessler, Ulrich Reinhart; Stern-Straeter, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising research field, which aims to create new functional muscle tissue in vitro, by utilizing the myogenic differentiation potential of human stem cells. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of static magnetic fields (SMF), combined with the use of the myogenic differentiation enhancing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), on human satellite cell cultures, which are one of the preferred stem cell sources in skeletal muscle tissue engineering. We performed almarBlue® proliferation assays and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the following myogenic markers: desmin (DES), myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen 1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and α1 actin (ACTA1) to detect the effects on myogenic maturation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining (ICC) and fusion index (FI) determination as independent markers of differentiation were performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with HGF and HGF + SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. ICC verified the muscle phenotype at all time points. SMF enhanced the proliferation of satellite cell cultures treated with HGF. RT-PCR analysis, ICC and FI calculation revealed the effects of HGF/SMF on the investigated differentiation markers and stimulation with HGF and SMF verified the continuing maturation, however no significant increase in analysed markers could be detected when compared with control cultures treated with serum cessation. In conclusion, HGF or HGF + SMF stimulation of human satellite cell cultures did not lead to the desired enhancement of myogenic maturation of human satellite cell cultures compared with cell cultures stimulated with growth factor reduction. PMID:24682107

  2. Natural infection of turkeys by infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Portz, Cristiana; Beltrão, Nilzane; Furian, Thales Quedi; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; Macagnan, Marisa; Griebeler, Josiane; Lima Rosa, Carlos André Veiga; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Back, Alberto; Barth Schatzmayr, Ortrud Monika; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2008-09-18

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an important respiratory pathogen of chickens that also infects pheasants and peafowl. Epidemiologically non-related commercial turkey flocks with clinical signs such as tracheitis, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis and expectoration of bloody mucus were examined for the presence of the virus. Laboratory ILTV detection was performed by virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell cultures, PCR and sequencing of amplification products, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. One ILTV turkey isolate was also experimentally inoculated into susceptible chickens and turkeys, reproducing a mild respiratory disease. This is the first description of natural infections with ILTV in turkeys. PMID:18436397

  3. The quasi-parallel lives of satellite cells and atrophying muscle.

    PubMed

    Biressi, Stefano; Gopinath, Suchitra D

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy or wasting accompanies various chronic illnesses and the aging process, thereby reducing muscle function. One of the most important components contributing to effective muscle repair in postnatal organisms, the satellite cells (SCs), have recently become the focus of several studies examining factors participating in the atrophic process. We critically examine here the experimental evidence linking SC function with muscle loss in connection with various diseases as well as aging, and in the subsequent recovery process. Several recent reports have investigated the changes in SCs in terms of their differentiation and proliferative capacity in response to various atrophic stimuli. In this regard, we review the molecular changes within SCs that contribute to their dysfunctional status in atrophy, with the intention of shedding light on novel potential pharmacological targets to counteract the loss of muscle mass. PMID:26257645

  4. The quasi-parallel lives of satellite cells and atrophying muscle

    PubMed Central

    Biressi, Stefano; Gopinath, Suchitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy or wasting accompanies various chronic illnesses and the aging process, thereby reducing muscle function. One of the most important components contributing to effective muscle repair in postnatal organisms, the satellite cells (SCs), have recently become the focus of several studies examining factors participating in the atrophic process. We critically examine here the experimental evidence linking SC function with muscle loss in connection with various diseases as well as aging, and in the subsequent recovery process. Several recent reports have investigated the changes in SCs in terms of their differentiation and proliferative capacity in response to various atrophic stimuli. In this regard, we review the molecular changes within SCs that contribute to their dysfunctional status in atrophy, with the intention of shedding light on novel potential pharmacological targets to counteract the loss of muscle mass. PMID:26257645

  5. Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    From funnel-cloud-length interpretation, the severe tornado is characterized by peak swirl speed relative to the axis of rotation of about 90 m/s. Thermohydrodynamic achievement of the pressure deficit from ambient necessary to sustain such swirls requires that a dry, compressionally heated, non-rotating downdraft of initially tropopause-level air lie within an annulus of rapidly swirling, originally low-level air ascending on a near-moist-adiabatic locus of thermodynamic states. The two-cell structure furnishes an observable parameter possibly accessible to a passively instrumented, geosynchronous meteorological satellite with mesoscale resolution, for early detection of a severe tornado. Accordingly, the low-level turnaround region, in which the surface inflow layer separates to become a free ascending layer and for which inviscid modeling suffices, is examined quantitatively. Preliminary results indicate that swirl overshoot, i.e., swirl speeds in the turnaround region in excess of the maximum achieved in the potential vortex, is modest.

  6. Growth characteristics of a herpesvirus of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Ash, R J; Ware, J D

    1972-12-01

    The herpesvirus of turkeys remains associated with cells attached to the culture vessel throughout its growth cycle. The level of infectious centers is essentially constant between 24 and 48 hr when the culture medium is unchanged. Thereafter, the number of infectious centers decreases. The cessation of virus synthesis is not due to insufficient numbers of uninfected cells or interferon production. Herpesvirus of turkeys does not replicate at 22 C and is similar to other herpesviruses in its sensitivity to interferon. The results define conditions to be considered in the preparation of infected cell suspensions commonly used as a vaccine against Marek's disease virus. PMID:4675446

  7. Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis. PMID:23990328

  8. Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis. PMID:23990328

  9. Mutations in the satellite cell gene MEGF10 cause a recessive congenital myopathy with minicores.

    PubMed

    Boyden, Steven E; Mahoney, Lane J; Kawahara, Genri; Myers, Jennifer A; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Estrella, Elicia A; Duncan, Anna R; Dey, Friederike; DeChene, Elizabeth T; Blasko-Goehringer, Jessica M; Bönnemann, Carsten G; Darras, Basil T; Mendell, Jerry R; Lidov, Hart G W; Nishino, Ichizo; Beggs, Alan H; Kunkel, Louis M; Kang, Peter B

    2012-05-01

    We ascertained a nuclear family in which three of four siblings were affected with an unclassified autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by severe weakness, respiratory impairment, scoliosis, joint contractures, and an unusual combination of dystrophic and myopathic features on muscle biopsy. Whole genome sequence from one affected subject was filtered using linkage data and variant databases. A single gene, MEGF10, contained nonsynonymous mutations that co-segregated with the phenotype. Affected subjects were compound heterozygous for missense mutations c.976T > C (p.C326R) and c.2320T > C (p.C774R). Screening the MEGF10 open reading frame in 190 patients with genetically unexplained myopathies revealed a heterozygous mutation, c.211C > T (p.R71W), in one additional subject with a similar clinical and histological presentation as the discovery family. All three mutations were absent from at least 645 genotyped unaffected control subjects. MEGF10 contains 17 atypical epidermal growth factor-like domains, each of which contains eight cysteine residues that likely form disulfide bonds. Both the p.C326R and p.C774R mutations alter one of these residues, which are completely conserved in vertebrates. Previous work showed that murine Megf10 is required for preserving the undifferentiated, proliferative potential of satellite cells, myogenic precursors that regenerate skeletal muscle in response to injury or disease. Here, knockdown of megf10 in zebrafish by four different morpholinos resulted in abnormal phenotypes including unhatched eggs, curved tails, impaired motility, and disorganized muscle tissue, corroborating the pathogenicity of the human mutations. Our data establish the importance of MEGF10 in human skeletal muscle and suggest satellite cell dysfunction as a novel myopathic mechanism. PMID:22371254

  10. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  11. Analytical study of pulsed laser irradiation on some materials used for photovoltaic cells on satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Hameed, Afaf M.

    2015-12-01

    The present research concerns on the study of laser-powered solar panels used for space applications. A mathematical model representing the laser effects on semiconductors has been developed. The temperature behavior and heat flow on the surface and through a slab has been studied after exposed to nano-second pulsed laser. The model is applied on two different types of common active semiconductor materials that used for photovoltaic cells fabrication as silicon (Si), and gallium arsenide (GaAs). These materials are used for receivers' manufacture for laser beamed power in space. Various values of time are estimated to clarify the heat flow through the material sample and generated under the effects of pulsed laser irradiation. These effects are theoretically studied in order to determine the performance limits of the solar cells when they are powered by laser radiation during the satellite eclipse. Moreover, the obtained results are carried out to optimize conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells and may be helpful to give more explanation for layout of the light-electricity space systems.

  12. Delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negates estrogen-induced augmentation of post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Gary; Iqbal, Sobia; Hubbard, Andrew; Hamilton, Victoria; Bombardier, Eric; Tiidus, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of a delay in post-ovariectomy replacement of 17β-estradiol (estrogen) on the post-exercise proliferation of muscle satellite cells. Nine-week-old, ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64) were distributed among 8 groups based on estrogen status (0.25 mg estrogen pellet or sham), exercise status (90 min run at 17 m·min(-1) and a grade of -13.5° or unexercised), and estrogen replacement ("proximal", estrogen replacement within 2 weeks; or "delayed", estrogen replacement at 11 weeks following ovariectomy). Significant increases in satellite cells were found in the soleus and white gastrocnemius muscle (immunofluorescent colocalization of nuclei with Pax7) 72 h following eccentric exercise (p < 0.05) in all exercised groups. Proximal E2 replacement resulted in a further augmentation of muscle satellite cells in exercised rats (p < 0.05) relative to the delayed estrogen replacement group. Expression of PI3K was unaltered and phosphorylation of Akt relative to total Akt increased following estrogen supplementation and exercise. Exercise alone did not alter the expression levels of Akt. An 11 week delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negated the augmenting influence seen with proximal (2 week delay) post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement on post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation. This effect appears to be independent of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26406298

  13. Clonal Characterization of Rat Muscle Satellite Cells: Proliferation, Metabolism and Differentiation Define an Intrinsic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Carlo A.; Pozzobon, Michela; Ditadi, Andrea; Archacka, Karolina; Gastaldello, Annalisa; Sanna, Marta; Franzin, Chiara; Malerba, Alberto; Milan, Gabriella; Cananzi, Mara; Schiaffino, Stefano; Campanella, Michelangelo; Vettor, Roberto; De Coppi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Satellite cells (SCs) represent a distinct lineage of myogenic progenitors responsible for the postnatal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. Distinguished on the basis of their unique position in mature skeletal muscle, SCs were considered unipotent stem cells with the ability of generating a unique specialized phenotype. Subsequently, it was demonstrated in mice that opposite differentiation towards osteogenic and adipogenic pathways was also possible. Even though the pool of SCs is accepted as the major, and possibly the only, source of myonuclei in postnatal muscle, it is likely that SCs are not all multipotent stem cells and evidences for diversities within the myogenic compartment have been described both in vitro and in vivo. Here, by isolating single fibers from rat flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle we were able to identify and clonally characterize two main subpopulations of SCs: the low proliferative clones (LPC) present in major proportion (∼75%) and the high proliferative clones (HPC), present instead in minor amount (∼25%). LPC spontaneously generate myotubes whilst HPC differentiate into adipocytes even though they may skip the adipogenic program if co-cultured with LPC. LPC and HPC differ also for mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATP balance and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation underlying diversities in metabolism that precede differentiation. Notably, SCs heterogeneity is retained in vivo. SCs may therefore be comprised of two distinct, though not irreversibly committed, populations of cells distinguishable for prominent differences in basal biological features such as proliferation, metabolism and differentiation. By these means, novel insights on SCs heterogeneity are provided and evidences for biological readouts potentially relevant for diagnostic purposes described. PMID:20049087

  14. Caspase 3 cleavage of Pax7 inhibits self-renewal of satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Sarah A.; Chang, Natasha C.; Dumont, Nicolas A.; Bell, Ryan A. V.; Putinski, Charis; Kawabe, Yoichi; Litchfield, David W.; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Megeney, Lynn A.

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle is dependent on the resident stem cell population, satellite cells (SCs). Self-renewal and maintenance of the SC niche is coordinated by the paired-box transcription factor Pax7, and yet continued expression of this protein inhibits the myoblast differentiation program. As such, the reduction or removal of Pax7 may denote a key prerequisite for SCs to abandon self-renewal and acquire differentiation competence. Here, we identify caspase 3 cleavage inactivation of Pax7 as a crucial step for terminating the self-renewal process. Inhibition of caspase 3 results in elevated Pax7 protein and SC self-renewal, whereas caspase activation leads to Pax7 cleavage and initiation of the myogenic differentiation program. Moreover, in vivo inhibition of caspase 3 activity leads to a profound disruption in skeletal muscle regeneration with an accumulation of SCs within the niche. We have also noted that casein kinase 2 (CK2)-directed phosphorylation of Pax7 attenuates caspase-directed cleavage. Together, these results demonstrate that SC fate is dependent on opposing posttranslational modifications of the Pax7 protein. PMID:26372956

  15. Influence of mesterolone on satellite cell distribution and fiber morphology within maturing chicken pectoralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Aldirawi, Mohammed H

    2012-05-01

    Mesterolone is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid used to treat hypogonadism. There are frequent reports of mesterolone abuse in human and equine sports to increase muscle mass and strength. However, limited information is available about how this drug exerts its effects on skeletal muscle. Satellite cells (SCs) are mononuclear myogenic stem cells that contribute to postnatal muscle growth and repair. As SC activation and subsequent differentiation to new myonuclei is a major event during muscle hypertrophy, this study investigated the influence of mesterolone on SC distribution within the pectoralis muscle of chickens. Specifically, this study tested the hypotheses that mesterolone induces avian skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and that mesterolone increases the number of SCs in avian skeletal muscle. Robust immunocytochemical techniques and morphometric analyses were used to calculate the numbers of SCs and myonuclei. Also, DNA concentration and Pax7 protein levels were measured to confirm immunocytochemical findings. Mesterolone significantly increased pectoralis mass and fiber size. All SC indices and number of myonuclei increased significantly by mesterolone administration. In addition, greater DNA concentration and Pax7 protein expression were found in mesterolone-treated birds. This study indicates that mesterolone can induce avian skeletal muscle hypertrophy and that this is correlated with increased number of SCs. We suggest that SCs are key cellular intermediaries for mesterolone-induced muscle hypertrophy. PMID:22419647

  16. Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

  17. Distance Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzgar, Nursel Selver

    2004-01-01

    Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by INTERNET, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural…

  18. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  19. Muscle fiber characteristics, satellite cells and soccer performance in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Thomas I; Mandroukas, Athanasios; Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Kotoglou, Kostas; Ekblom, Björn; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2014-09-01

    This study is aimed to examine the muscle fiber type, composition and satellite cells in young male soccer players and to correlate them to cardiorespiratory indices and muscle strength. The participants formed three Groups: Group A (n = 13), 11.2 ± 0.4yrs, Group B (n=10), 13.1 ± 0.5yrs and Group C (n = 9), 15.2 ± 0.6yrs. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded and VO2max was measured on the treadmill. Group C had lower type I percentage distribution compared to A by 21.3% (p < 0.01), while the type IIA relative percentage was higher by 18.1% and 18.4% than in Groups A and B (p < 0.05). Groups B and C had higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values in all fiber types than in Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). The number of satellite cells did not differ between the groups. Groups B and C had higher peak torque at all angular velocities and absolute VO2max in terms of ml·min(-1) than Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). It is concluded that the increased percentage of type IIA muscle fibers noticed in Group C in comparison to the Groups A and B should be mainly attributed to the different workload exercise and training programs. The alteration of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms composition even in children is an important mechanism for skeletal muscle characteristics. Finally, CSA, isokinetic muscle strength and VO2max values seems to be expressed according to age. Key PointsFifteen years old soccer players have higher IIA percentage distribution than the younger players by approximately 18%.The age and the training status play a crucial role in muscle fibers co-expression.Specific training in young athletes seems to alter significantly the muscular metabolic profile. PMID:25177173

  20. Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Satellite Cells and Soccer Performance in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Metaxas, Thomas I.; Mandroukas, Athanasios; Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Kotoglou, Kostas; Ekblom, Björn; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to examine the muscle fiber type, composition and satellite cells in young male soccer players and to correlate them to cardiorespiratory indices and muscle strength. The participants formed three Groups: Group A (n = 13), 11.2 ± 0.4yrs, Group B (n=10), 13.1 ± 0.5yrs and Group C (n = 9), 15.2 ± 0.6yrs. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded and VO2max was measured on the treadmill. Group C had lower type I percentage distribution compared to A by 21.3% (p < 0.01), while the type IIA relative percentage was higher by 18.1% and 18.4% than in Groups A and B (p < 0.05). Groups B and C had higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values in all fiber types than in Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). The number of satellite cells did not differ between the groups. Groups B and C had higher peak torque at all angular velocities and absolute VO2max in terms of ml·min-1 than Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). It is concluded that the increased percentage of type IIA muscle fibers noticed in Group C in comparison to the Groups A and B should be mainly attributed to the different workload exercise and training programs. The alteration of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms composition even in children is an important mechanism for skeletal muscle characteristics. Finally, CSA, isokinetic muscle strength and VO2max values seems to be expressed according to age. Key Points Fifteen years old soccer players have higher IIA percentage distribution than the younger players by approximately 18%. The age and the training status play a crucial role in muscle fibers co-expression. Specific training in young athletes seems to alter significantly the muscular metabolic profile. PMID:25177173

  1. The effect of nutritional status and muscle fiber type on myogenic satellite cell fate and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Powell, D J; McFarland, D C; Cowieson, A J; Muir, W I; Velleman, S G

    2014-01-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are multipotential stem cells that can be induced by nutrition to alter their cellular developmental fate, which may vary depending on their fiber type origin. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of restricting protein synthesis on inducing adipogenic transdifferentiation and apoptosis of SC originating from fibers of the fast glycolytic pectoralis major (p. major) and fast oxidative and glycolytic biceps femoris (b. femoris) muscles of the chicken. The availability of the essential sulfur amino acids Met and Cys was restricted to regulate protein synthesis during SC proliferation and differentiation. The SC were cultured and treated with 1 of 6 Met/Cys concentrations: 60/192, 30/96 (control), 7.5/24, 3/9.6, 1/3.2, or 0/0 mg/L. Reductions in Met/Cys concentrations from the control level resulted in increased lipid staining and expression of the adipogenic marker genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and stearoyl-CoA desaturase during differentiation in the p. major SC. Although b. femoris SC had increased lipid staining at lower Met/Cys concentrations, there was no increase in expression of either adipogenic gene. For both muscle types, SC Met/Cys, concentration above the control increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and stearoyl-CoA desaturase during differentiation. As Met/Cys concentration was decreased during proliferation, a dose-dependent decline in all apoptotic cells occurred except for early apoptotic cells in the p. major, which had no treatment effect (P < 0.05). During differentiation, decreasing Met/Cys concentration caused an increase in early apoptotic cells in both fiber types and no effect on late apoptotic cells except for an increase in the p. major 7.5/24 mg/L of Met/Cys treatment. In general, the viability of the SC was unaffected by the Met/Cys concentration except during proliferation in the p. major 0/0 mg/L of Met/Cys treatment, which increased SC viability. These data demonstrate the effect of nutrition on SC transdifferentiation to an adipogenic lineage and apoptosis, and the effect of fiber type on this response in an in vitro context. PMID:24570436

  2. Aged Muscle Demonstrates Fiber-Type Adaptations in Response to Mechanical Overload, in the Absence of Myofiber Hypertrophy, Independent of Satellite Cell Abundance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonah D; Fry, Christopher S; Mula, Jyothi; Kirby, Tyler J; Jackson, Janna R; Liu, Fujun; Yang, Lin; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2016-04-01

    Although sarcopenia, age-associated loss of muscle mass and strength, is neither accelerated nor exacerbated by depletion of muscle stem cells, satellite cells, we hypothesized that adaptation in sarcopenic muscle would be compromised. To test this hypothesis, we depleted satellite cells with tamoxifen treatment of Pax7(CreER)-DTA mice at 4 months of age, and 20 months later subjected the plantaris muscle to 2 weeks of mechanical overload. We found myofiber hypertrophy was impaired in aged mice regardless of satellite cell content. Even in the absence of growth, vehicle-treated mice mounted a regenerative response, not apparent in tamoxifen-treated mice. Further, myonuclear accretion occurred in the absence of growth, which was prevented by satellite cell depletion, demonstrating that myonuclear addition is insufficient to drive myofiber hypertrophy. Satellite cell depletion increased extracellular matrix content of aged muscle that was exacerbated by overload, potentially limiting myofiber growth. These results support the idea that satellite cells regulate the muscle environment, and that their loss during aging may contribute to fibrosis, particularly during periods of remodeling. Overload induced a fiber-type composition improvement, independent of satellite cells, suggesting that aged muscle is very responsive to exercise-induced enhancement in oxidative capacity, even with an impaired hypertrophic response. PMID:25878030

  3. Botulinum neurotoxin type A modulates vesicular release of glutamate from satellite glial cells.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Larissa Bittencourt; Poulsen, Jeppe Nrgaard; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the presence of cell membrane docking proteins synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 and 23 kD (SNAP-25 and SNAP-23) in satellite glial cells (SGCs) of rat trigeminal ganglion; whether cultured SGCs would release glutamate in a time- and calcium-dependent manner following calcium-ionophore ionomycin stimulation; and if botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA), in a dose-dependent manner, could block or decrease vesicular release of glutamate. SGCs were isolated from the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of adult Wistar rats and cultured for 7 days. The presence of SNAPs in TG sections and isolated SGCs were investigated using immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. SGCs were stimulated with ionomycin (5 ?M for 4, 8, 12 and 30 min.) to release glutamate. SGCs were then pre-incubated with BoNTA (24 hrs with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 pM) to investigate if BoNTA could potentially block ionomycin-stimulated glutamate release. Glutamate concentrations were measured by ELISA. SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 were present in SGCs in TG sections and in cultured SGCs. Ionomycin significantly increased glutamate release from cultured SGCs 30 min. following the treatment (P < 0.001). BoNTA (100 pM) significantly decreased glutamate release (P < 0.01). Results from this study demonstrated that SGCs, when stimulated with ionomycin, released glutamate that was inhibited by BoNTA, possibly through cleavage of SNAP-25 and/or SNAP-23. These novel findings demonstrate the existence of vesicular glutamate release from SGCs, which could potentially play a role in the trigeminal sensory transmission. In addition, interaction of BoNTA with non-neuronal cells at the level of TG suggests a potential analgesic mechanism of action of BoNTA. PMID:25754332

  4. Botulinum neurotoxin type A modulates vesicular release of glutamate from satellite glial cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Larissa Bittencourt; Poulsen, Jeppe Nrgaard; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of cell membrane docking proteins synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 and 23kD (SNAP-25 and SNAP-23) in satellite glial cells (SGCs) of rat trigeminal ganglion; whether cultured SGCs would release glutamate in a time- and calcium-dependent manner following calcium-ionophore ionomycin stimulation; and if botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA), in a dose-dependent manner, could block or decrease vesicular release of glutamate. SGCs were isolated from the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of adult Wistar rats and cultured for 7days. The presence of SNAPs in TG sections and isolated SGCs were investigated using immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. SGCs were stimulated with ionomycin (5?M for 4, 8, 12 and 30min.) to release glutamate. SGCs were then pre-incubated with BoNTA (24hrs with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100pM) to investigate if BoNTA could potentially block ionomycin-stimulated glutamate release. Glutamate concentrations were measured by ELISA. SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 were present in SGCs in TG sections and in cultured SGCs. Ionomycin significantly increased glutamate release from cultured SGCs 30min. following the treatment (P<0.001). BoNTA (100pM) significantly decreased glutamate release (P<0.01). Results from this study demonstrated that SGCs, when stimulated with ionomycin, released glutamate that was inhibited by BoNTA, possibly through cleavage of SNAP-25 and/or SNAP-23. These novel findings demonstrate the existence of vesicular glutamate release from SGCs, which could potentially play a role in the trigeminal sensory transmission. In addition, interaction of BoNTA with non-neuronal cells at the level of TG suggests a potential analgesic mechanism of action of BoNTA. PMID:25754332

  5. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Steroid Refractory Graft-versus-Host Disease in Children: A Pilot and First Study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Erbey, Fatih; Atay, Didem; Akcay, Arzu; Ovali, Ercument; Ozturk, Gulyuz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow of a third-party donor for refractory aGVHD. We report the first experience using MSCs to treat refractory aGVHD in 33 pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT from Turkey. Totally, 68 doses of bone marrow derived MSCs were infused. The median dose of MSC was 1.18 × 106 cells per kg body weight. Overall, complete response (CR) was documented in 18 patients, partial response (PR) was documented in 7 patients, and no response (NR) was documented in 8 patients. The 2-year estimated probability of overall survival (OS) for patients achieving CR and PR/NR was 63.8% and 29.4%, respectively (p = 0.0002). While the cumulative incidence of transplant related mortality (TRM) at day 100 after first MSC infusion was 46.6% in PR/NR patients, there was no any TRM at day 100 after first MSC infusion in CR patients (p = 0.001). Twelve patients developed chronic GVHD (cGVHD); eight of them were alive, with five having extensive disease and three having limited disease. In conclusion, MSCs appear to be safe and effective treatment option for pediatric patients with steroid refractory aGVHD. But the efficacy of MSCs on cGVHD in aGVHD patients treated with MSCs seems to be limited. PMID:26783400

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Steroid Refractory Graft-versus-Host Disease in Children: A Pilot and First Study from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erbey, Fatih; Atay, Didem; Akcay, Arzu; Ovali, Ercument; Ozturk, Gulyuz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow of a third-party donor for refractory aGVHD. We report the first experience using MSCs to treat refractory aGVHD in 33 pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT from Turkey. Totally, 68 doses of bone marrow derived MSCs were infused. The median dose of MSC was 1.18 × 10(6) cells per kg body weight. Overall, complete response (CR) was documented in 18 patients, partial response (PR) was documented in 7 patients, and no response (NR) was documented in 8 patients. The 2-year estimated probability of overall survival (OS) for patients achieving CR and PR/NR was 63.8% and 29.4%, respectively (p = 0.0002). While the cumulative incidence of transplant related mortality (TRM) at day 100 after first MSC infusion was 46.6% in PR/NR patients, there was no any TRM at day 100 after first MSC infusion in CR patients (p = 0.001). Twelve patients developed chronic GVHD (cGVHD); eight of them were alive, with five having extensive disease and three having limited disease. In conclusion, MSCs appear to be safe and effective treatment option for pediatric patients with steroid refractory aGVHD. But the efficacy of MSCs on cGVHD in aGVHD patients treated with MSCs seems to be limited. PMID:26783400

  8. Translation of tobacco necrosis virus and its satellite in a cell-free wheat germ system.

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, M S; Fraenkel-Conrat, H

    1977-01-01

    Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) and its satellite virus (STNV) each contain a single-stranded RNA genome, of about 1.4 X 10(6) and 0.4 X 10(6) daltons, respectively, which is very active in stimulating amino acid incorporation in a wheat germ cell-free system. With STNV RNA the predominant incorporation product of 22,000 daltons coelectrophoreses with viral coat protein and crossreacts with antibody to viral coat protein. A similar result is obtained with TNV RNA, the only major translation product being a 30,000-dalton protein which corresponds to the coat protein by gel sizing, serological tests, and tryptic peptide analysis. Other products appearing in smaller amounts are about 63,000, 43,000, and 26,000 daltons and smaller. The possible nature of these products is discussed, as well as the unusual feature of a large, presumably multigenic, viral RNA yielding the coat protein as the predominant translation product in a eukaryotic system. Much less STNV RNA than TNV RNA produces maximal translation. Cotranslation of both RNAs in vitro indicates that STNV RNA has a translational advantage over TNV RNA. The fact that these RNAs lack 5'-terminal capping and 3'-terminal poly(A) is discussed. PMID:267924

  9. Repetitive centromeric satellite RNA is essential for kinetochore formation and cell division.

    PubMed

    Rošić, Silvana; Köhler, Florian; Erhardt, Sylvia

    2014-11-10

    Chromosome segregation requires centromeres on every sister chromatid to correctly form and attach the microtubule spindle during cell division. Even though centromeres are essential for genome stability, the underlying centromeric DNA is highly variable in sequence and evolves quickly. Epigenetic mechanisms are therefore thought to regulate centromeres. Here, we show that the 359-bp repeat satellite III (SAT III), which spans megabases on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, produces a long noncoding RNA that localizes to centromeric regions of all major chromosomes. Depletion of SAT III RNA causes mitotic defects, not only of the sex chromosome but also in trans of all autosomes. We furthermore find that SAT III RNA binds to the kinetochore component CENP-C, and is required for correct localization of the centromere-defining proteins CENP-A and CENP-C, as well as outer kinetochore proteins. In conclusion, our data reveal that SAT III RNA is an integral part of centromere identity, adding RNA to the complex epigenetic mark at centromeres in flies. PMID:25365994

  10. Repetitive centromeric satellite RNA is essential for kinetochore formation and cell division

    PubMed Central

    Rošić, Silvana; Köhler, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome segregation requires centromeres on every sister chromatid to correctly form and attach the microtubule spindle during cell division. Even though centromeres are essential for genome stability, the underlying centromeric DNA is highly variable in sequence and evolves quickly. Epigenetic mechanisms are therefore thought to regulate centromeres. Here, we show that the 359-bp repeat satellite III (SAT III), which spans megabases on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, produces a long noncoding RNA that localizes to centromeric regions of all major chromosomes. Depletion of SAT III RNA causes mitotic defects, not only of the sex chromosome but also in trans of all autosomes. We furthermore find that SAT III RNA binds to the kinetochore component CENP-C, and is required for correct localization of the centromere-defining proteins CENP-A and CENP-C, as well as outer kinetochore proteins. In conclusion, our data reveal that SAT III RNA is an integral part of centromere identity, adding RNA to the complex epigenetic mark at centromeres in flies. PMID:25365994

  11. MicroRNA-133 Controls Brown Adipose Determination in Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells by Targeting Prdm16

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hang; Pasut, Alessandra; Soleimani, Vahab D.; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Antoun, Ghadi; Thorn, Stephanie; Seale, Patrick; Fernando, Pasan; van IJcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Dekemp, Robert A.; Boushel, Robert; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Rudnicki, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-dispensing thermogenic tissue that plays an important role in balancing energy metabolism. Lineage-tracing experiments indicate that brown adipocytes are derived from myogenic progenitors during embryonic development. However, adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) have long been considered uniformly determined toward the myogenic lineage. Here, we report that adult satellite cells give rise to brown adipocytes and that microRNA-133 regulates the choice between myogenic and brown adipose determination by targeting the 3′UTR of Prdm16. Antagonism of microRNA-133 during muscle regeneration increases uncoupled respiration, glucose uptake, and thermogenesis in local treated muscle and augments whole-body energy expenditure, improves glucose tolerance, and impedes the development of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-133 levels are downregulated in mice exposed to cold, resulting in de novo generation of satellite cell-derived brown adipocytes. Therefore, microRNA-133 represents an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23395168

  12. Acute tissue injury activates satellite cells and promotes sarcoma formation via the HGF/c-MET signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Van Mater, David; Añó, Leonor; Blum, Jordan M; Webster, Micah T; Huang, WeiQiao; Williams, Nerissa; Ma, Yan; Cardona, Diana M; Fan, Chen-Ming; Kirsch, David G

    2015-02-01

    Some patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) report a history of injury at the site of their tumor. Although this phenomenon is widely reported, there are relatively few experimental systems that have directly assessed the role of injury in sarcoma formation. We recently described a mouse model of STS whereby p53 is deleted and oncogenic Kras is activated in muscle satellite cells via a Pax7(CreER) driver following intraperitoneal injection with tamoxifen. Here, we report that after systemic injection of tamoxifen, the vast majority of Pax7-expressing cells remain quiescent despite mutation of p53 and Kras. The fate of these muscle progenitors is dramatically altered by tissue injury, which leads to faster kinetics of sarcoma formation. In adult muscle, quiescent satellite cells will transition into an active state in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We show that modulating satellite cell quiescence via intramuscular injection of HGF increases the penetrance of sarcoma formation at the site of injection, which is dependent on its cognate receptor c-MET. Unexpectedly, the tumor-promoting effect of tissue injury also requires c-Met. These results reveal a mechanism by which HGF/c-MET signaling promotes tumor formation after tissue injury in a mouse model of primary STS, and they may explain why some patients develop a STS at the site of injury. PMID:25503558

  13. A satellite cell-specific knockout of the androgen receptor reveals myostatin as a direct androgen target in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vanessa; Laurent, Michaël R; Sinnesael, Mieke; Cielen, Nele; Helsen, Christine; Clinckemalie, Liesbeth; Spans, Lien; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Deldicque, Louise; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2014-07-01

    Androgens have well-established anabolic actions on skeletal muscle, although the direct effects of the androgen receptor (AR) in muscle remain unclear. We generated satellite cell-specific AR-knockout (satARKO) mice in which the AR is selectively ablated in satellite cells, the muscle precursor cells. Total-limb maximal grip strength is decreased by 7% in satARKO mice, with soleus muscles containing ∼10% more type I fibers and 10% less type IIa fibers than the corresponding control littermates. The weight of the perineal levator ani muscle is markedly reduced (-52%). Thus, muscle AR is involved in fiber-type distribution and force production of the limb muscles, while it is a major determinant of the perineal muscle mass. Surprisingly, myostatin (Mstn), a strong inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth, is one of the most androgen-responsive genes (6-fold reduction in satARKO) through direct transcription activation by the AR. Consequently, muscle hypertrophy in response to androgens is augmented in Mstn-knockout mice. Our finding that androgens induce Mstn signaling to restrain their own anabolic actions has implications for the treatment of muscle wasting disorders.-Dubois, V., Laurent, M. R., Sinnesael, M., Cielen, N., Helsen, C., Clinckemalie, L., Spans, L., Gayan-Ramirez, G., Deldicque, L., Hespel, P., Carmeliet, G., Vanderschueren, D., and Claessens, F. A satellite cell-specific knockout of the androgen receptor reveals myostatin as a direct androgen target in skeletal muscle. PMID:24671706

  14. Acute tissue injury activates satellite cells and promotes sarcoma formation via the HGF/c-MET signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Van Mater, David; Añó, Leonor; Blum, Jordan M.; Webster, Micah T.; Huang, WeiQiao; Williams, Nerissa; Ma, Yan; Cardona, Diana M.; Fan, Chen-Min; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Some patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS) report a history of injury at the site of their tumor. While this phenomenon is widely reported, there are relatively few experimental systems that have directly assessed the role of injury in sarcoma formation. We recently described a mouse model of STS whereby p53 is deleted and oncogenic Kras is activated in muscle satellite cells via a Pax7CreER driver following intraperitoneal injection with tamoxifen. Here, we report that after systemic injection of tamoxifen, the vast majority of Pax7-expressing cells remain quiescent despite mutation of p53 and Kras. The fate of these muscle progenitors is dramatically altered by tissue injury, which leads to faster kinetics of sarcoma formation. In adult muscle, quiescent satellite cells will transition into an active state in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We show that modulating satellite cell quiescence via intramuscular (IM) injection of HGF increases the penetrance of sarcoma formation at the site of injection, which is dependent on its cognate receptor c-MET. Unexpectedly, the tumor promoting effect of tissue injury also requires c-Met. These results reveal a mechanism by which HGF/c-MET signaling promotes tumor formation after tissue injury in a mouse model of primary STS, and they may explain why some patients develop a STS at the site of injury. PMID:25503558

  15. UTX demethylase activity is required for satellite cell-mediated muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Faralli, Hervé; Wang, Chaochen; Nakka, Kiran; Benyoucef, Aissa; Sebastian, Soji; Zhuang, Lenan; Chu, Alphonse; Palii, Carmen G; Liu, Chengyu; Camellato, Brendan; Brand, Marjorie; Ge, Kai; Dilworth, F Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    The X chromosome-encoded histone demethylase UTX (also known as KDM6A) mediates removal of repressive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) to establish transcriptionally permissive chromatin. Loss of UTX in female mice is embryonic lethal. Unexpectedly, male UTX-null mice escape embryonic lethality due to expression of UTY, a paralog that lacks H3K27 demethylase activity, suggesting an enzyme-independent role for UTX in development and thereby challenging the need for active H3K27 demethylation in vivo. However, the requirement for active H3K27 demethylation in stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration remains untested. Here, we employed an inducible mouse KO that specifically ablates Utx in satellite cells (SCs) and demonstrated that active H3K27 demethylation is necessary for muscle regeneration. Loss of UTX in SCs blocked myofiber regeneration in both male and female mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that UTX mediates muscle regeneration through its H3K27 demethylase activity, as loss of demethylase activity either by chemical inhibition or knock-in of demethylase-dead UTX resulted in defective muscle repair. Mechanistically, dissection of the muscle regenerative process revealed that the demethylase activity of UTX is required for expression of the transcription factor myogenin, which in turn drives differentiation of muscle progenitors. Thus, we have identified a critical role for the enzymatic activity of UTX in activating muscle-specific gene expression during myofiber regeneration and have revealed a physiological role for active H3K27 demethylation in vivo. PMID:26999603

  16. Multi-Grid-Cell Validation of Satellite Aerosol Property Retrievals in INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Ramirez, Samuel; Eilers, J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. A.; Remer, L. A.; Quinn, P. K.; Rood, M. J.; Wang, W.

    2007-05-08

    Aerosol transport off the US Northeast coast in Summer 2004 produced a wide range of aerosol types and aerosol optical depth (AOD) values, often with strong horizontal AOD gradients. In these conditions we flew the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft. Legs flown at low altitude (usually ≤100 m ASL) provided comparisons of AATS AOD spectra to retrievals for 90 grid cells of the satellite radiometers MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR, all over the ocean. Characterization of the retrieval environment was aided by using vertical profiles by the J31 (showing aerosol vertical structure) and, on occasion, shipboard measurements of light scattering and absorption. AATS provides AOD at 13 wavelengths λ from 354 to 2138 nm, spanning the range of aerosol retrieval wavelengths for MODIS over ocean (466-2119 nm) and MISR (446-866 nm). Midvisible AOD on low-altitude J31 legs in satellite grid cells ranged from 0.05 to 0.9, with horizontal gradients often in the range 0.05 to 0.13 per 10 km. When possible, we used ship measurements of humidified aerosol scattering and absorption to estimate AOD below the J31. In these cases, which had J31 altitudes 60-110 m ASL (typical of J31 low-altitude transects), estimated midvisible AOD below the J31 ranged from 0.003 to 0.013, with mean 0.009 and standard deviation 0.003. These values averaged 6% of AOD above the J31. MISR-AATS comparisons on 29 July 2004 in 8 grid cells (each ~17.6 km x 17.6 km) show that MISR versions 15 and 16 captured the AATS-measured AOD gradient (correlation coefficient R2=0.87 to 0.92), but the MISR gradient was somewhat weaker than the AATS gradient. The large AOD (midvisible values up to ~0.9) and differing gradients in this case produced rootmean-square (RMS) MISR-AATS AOD differences of 0.03 to 0.21 (9 to 31%). MISR V15 Ångstrom exponent α (=-dlnAOD/dlnλ) was closer to AATS than was MISR V16. MODIS-AATS AOD comparisons on 8 overpasses using 61 grid cells (each nominally 10 km x 10 km) had R2 ~0.97, with RMS AOD difference ~0.03 (~20%). About 87% of the MODIS AOD retrievals differed from AATS values by less than the predicted MODIS over-ocean uncertainty, Δτ = ±0.03 ± 0.05τ . In contrast to the small MODIS-AATS differences in AOD, 2006jd007606 Page 3 of 50 2:41 PM, 1/19/07 RUSSELL ET AL.: MULTI-GRID-CELL SATELLITE VALIDATION MODIS-AATS differences in Ångstrom exponent α were large: RMS differences for α(553, 855 nm) were 0.28 for MODIS-Terra and 0.64 for MODIS-Aqua; RMS differences for α(855, 2119 nm) were larger still: 0.61 for MODIS-Terra and 1.14 for MODIS-Aqua. The largest MODISAATS Ångstrom exponent differences were associated with small AOD values, for which MODIS AOD relative uncertainty is large. Excluding cases with AOD(855 nm)<0.1 reduced MODIS-AATS α differences substantially. In one grid cell on 21 July 2004, smoke over cloud appeared to impair the MODIS-Aqua cloud mask, resulting in retrieved AODs that significantly exceeded AATS values. Experiments with extending MODIS retrievals into the glint mask yielded MODIS AODs consistently less than AATS AODs, especially at long wavelength, indicating that the current MODIS glint mask limits should not be reduced to the extent tried here. The sign of the AOD differences within the glint mask (MODIS AOD < AATS AOD) is consistent with ship-measured wind speeds there.

  17. Charge efficiency of Ni/H2 cells during transfer orbit of Telstar 4 satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, W. C.; Maurer, Dean W.; Vyas, B.; Thomas, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    The TELSTAR 4 communication satellites being manufactured by Martin Marietta Astro Space (Astro Space) for AT&T are three axis stabilized spacecraft scheduled to be launched on expendable vehicles such as the Atlas or Ariane rockets. Typically, these spacecraft consist of a box that holds the electronics and supports the antenna reflectors and the solar array wings. The wings and reflectors are folded against the sides of the box during launch and the spacecraft is spun for attitude control in that phase; they are then deployed after achieving the final orbit. The launch phase and transfer orbits required to achieve the final geosynchronous orbit typically take 4 to 5 days during which time the power required for command, telemetry, attitude control, heaters, etc., is provided by two 50 AH nickel hydrogen batteries augmented by the exposed outboard solar panels. In the past, this situation has presented no problem since there was a considerable excess of power available from the array. In the case of large high powered spacecraft such as TELSTAR 4, however, the design power levels in transfer orbit approach the time-averaged power available from the exposed surface area of the solar arrays, resulting in a very tight power margin. To compound the difficulty, the array output of the spinning spacecraft in transfer orbit is shaped like a full wave rectified sine function and provides very low charging rates to the batteries during portions of the rotation. In view of the typically low charging efficiency of alkaline nickel batteries at low rates, it was decided to measure the efficiency during a simulation of the TELSTAR 4 conditions at the expected power levels and temperatures on three nickel hydrogen cells of similar design. The unique feature of nickel hydrogen cells that makes the continuous measurement of efficiency possible is that hydrogen is one of the active materials and thus, cell pressure is a direct measure of the state of charge or available capacity. The pressure is measured with a calibrated strain gage mounted on the outside of the pressurized cell.

  18. Life-Long Transgene Expression in Skeletal Muscle Without Transduction of Satellite Cells Following Embryonic Myogenic Progenitor Transduction by Lentivirus Administered in Utero.

    PubMed

    Stitelman, David H; Brazelton, Tim R; Endo, Masayuki; Bora, Archana; Traas, Jeremy; Zoltick, Philip W; Flake, Alan W

    2015-08-15

    Embryologic events in mammalian myogenesis remain to be fully defined. Recent evidence supports the presence of a common progenitor arising in the dermomyotome that gives rise to both embryologic and adult muscle and postnatal myogenic stem cells (satellite cells). In this study, we utilize the technique of early intra-amniotic gene transfer to target nascent muscle progenitors as they traverse the primitive streak before formation of the dermomyotome. This technique robustly transduced both epaxial and hypaxial muscle groups. Marker gene expression is observed in up to 100% muscle fibers in the lower extremities and is sustained for the lifetime of the mouse. We next analyzed transduced muscle for satellite cell transduction using highly sensitive methodology. Surprisingly, despite high levels of sustained transgene expression in muscle fibers, satellite cells lacked the marker transgene. Our data suggest that dermatomyotome is a heterogeneous structure and that not all myogenic progenitors of dermatomyotome give rise to satellite cells. PMID:25915576

  19. Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

  20. The molecular responses of skeletal muscle satellite cells to continuous expression of IGF-1: implications for the rescue of induced muscular atrophy in aged rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Booth, F. W.; Spangenburg, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 50% of humans older than 85 years have physical frailty due to weak skeletal muscles. This indicates a need for determining mechanisms to combat this problem. A critical cellular factor for postnatal muscle growth is a population of myogenic precursor cells called satellite cells. Given the complex process of sarcopenia, it has been postulated that, at some point in this process, a limited satellite cell proliferation potential could become rate-limiting to the regrowth of old muscles. It is conceivable that if satellite cell proliferative capacity can be maintained or enhanced with advanced age, sarcopenia could potentially be delayed or prevented. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are to describe whether IGF-I can prevent muscular atrophy induced by repeated cycles of hindlimb immobilization, increase the in vitro proliferation in satellite cells from these muscles and, if so, the molecular mechanisms by which IGF-I mediates this increased proliferation. Our results provide evidence that IGF-I can enhance aged muscle regrowth possibly through increased satellite cell proliferation. The results also suggest that IGF-I enhances satellite cell proliferation by decreasing the cell cycle inhibitor, p27Kip1, through the PI3'-K/Akt pathway. These data provide molecular evidence for IGF-I's rescue effect upon aging-associated skeletal muscle atrophy.

  1. Impedances of Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF satellite) and comparison with cells stored terrestrially

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1991-01-01

    Impedances were measured on several Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. These cells were used to power instruments and recorders and had all been partially or fully discharged. Impedances were also measured on several cells that were stored in cold storage since manufacture. Unfortunately, none of the cells stored terrestrially had undergone any discharge, whereas all of the cells on the satellite were at least partially discharged early in the mission and then remained on orbit for about 5 years further. It has been observed by others that storage of an Li/SO2 cell after partial discharge, increases the resistance and thickness of the passive film on the Li electrode, as indicated by an increase in the time for recovery of voltage when a load is applied (voltage lag), or in some cases by an inability of a cell to sustain a normal current after such storage. Since the cells stored terrestrially were not discharged in the same manner as the LDEF cells, a direct comparison cannot be made. Thus, the effects of the space environment cannot be separated from the effects of storage after partial discharge. It is believed that the increases in impedance in the LDEF cells are largely due to the storage upon partial discharge rather than the effects of the space environment.

  2. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  3. The different fate of satellite cells on conductive composite electrospun nanofibers with graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudifard, Matin; Soleimani, Masoud; Hatamie, Shadie; Zamanlui, Soheila; Ranjbarvan, Parviz; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Hosseinzadeh, Simzar

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning of composite polymer solutions provides fantastic potential to prepare novel nanofibers for use in a variety of applications. The addition of graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets to bioactive polymers was found to enhance their conductivity and biocompatibility. Composite conductive nanofibers of polyaniline (PANI) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with G and GO nanosheets were prepared by an electrospinning process. The fabricated membranes were investigated by physical and chemical examinations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and tensile assay. The muscle satellite cells enriched by a pre-plating technique were cultured in the following and their proliferation and differentiation behavior studied by MTT, Real-Time PCR assays and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The cultured cells on composite nanofibrous PAN/PANI-CSA/G confirmed a higher proliferation and differentiation value compared to other groups including PAN/PANI-CSA/GO and PAN/PANI-CSA scaffolds. Furthermore, the higher stiffness of the former scaffold showed a lower cell spreading as a function of stem cell activation into more proliferative cells. It is supposed that the enhanced conductivity value in addition to relative higher stiffness of the PAN/PANI-CSA/G composite nanofibers plays a favorable role for proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. PMID:26962722

  4. PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in adipose-derived stem cells and muscle satellite cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Deng, Bing; Wen, Jianghui; Chen, Kun; Liu, Wu; Ye, Shengqiang; Huang, Haijun; Jiang, Siwen; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2015-03-06

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein belonging to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and also functions in adipocyte maturation. Studies have shown that MSTN can inhibit adipogenesis in muscle satellite cells (MSCs) but not in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). However, the mechanism by which MSTN differently regulates adipogenesis in these two cell types remains unknown. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) are two key transcription factors in fat and muscle cell development that influence adipogenesis. To investigate whether MSTN differentially regulates PPARγ and MyoD, we analyzed PPARγ and MyoD expression by assessing mRNA, protein and methylation levels in ADSCs and MSCs after treatment with 100 ng/mL MSTN for 0, 24, and 48 h. PPARγ mRNA levels were downregulated after 24 h and upregulated after 48 h of treatment in ADSCs, whereas in MSCs, PPARγ levels were downregulated at both time points. MyoD expression was significantly increased in ADSCs and decreased in MSCs. PPARγ and MyoD protein levels were upregulated in ADSCs and downregulated in MSCs. The CpG methylation levels of the PPARγ and MyoD promoters were decreased in ADSCs and increased in MSCs. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the different regulatory adipogenic roles of MSTN in ADSCs and MSCs act by differentially regulating PPARγ and MyoD expression. - Highlights: • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are upregulated by myostatin in ADSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD mRNA and protein levels are downregulated by myostatin in MSCs. • PPARγ exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • MyoD exhibited different methylation levels in myostatin-treated ADSCs and MSCs. • PPARγ and MyoD are differentially regulated by myostatin in ADSCs and MSCs.

  5. Enobosarm (GTx-024) Modulates Adult Skeletal Muscle Mass Independently of the Androgen Receptor in the Satellite Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vanessa; Simitsidellis, Ioannis; Laurent, Michaël R; Jardi, Ferran; Saunders, Philippa T K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Androgens increase skeletal muscle mass, but their clinical use is hampered by a lack of tissue selectivity and subsequent side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators elicit muscle-anabolic effects while only sparingly affecting reproductive tissues. The selective androgen receptor modulator, GTx-024 (enobosarm), is being investigated for cancer cachexia, sarcopenia, and muscle wasting diseases. Here we investigate the role of muscle androgen receptor (AR) in the anabolic effect of GTx-024. In mice lacking AR in the satellite cell lineage (satARKO), the weight of the androgen-sensitive levator ani muscle was lower but was decreased further upon orchidectomy. GTx-024 was as effective as DHT in restoring levator ani weights to sham levels. Expression of the muscle-specific, androgen-responsive genes S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and myostatin was decreased by orchidectomy and restored by GTx-024 and DHT in control mice, whereas the expression was low and unaffected by androgen status in satARKO. In contrast, insulin-like growth factor 1Ea expression was not different between satARKO and control muscle, decreased upon castration, and was restored by DHT and GTx-024 in both genotypes. These data indicate that GTx-024 does not selectively modulate AR in the satellite cell lineage and that cells outside this lineage remain androgen responsive in satARKO muscle. Indeed, residual AR-positive cells were present in satARKO muscle, coexpressing the fibroblast-lineage marker vimentin. AR positive, muscle-resident fibroblasts could therefore be involved in the indirect effects of androgens on muscle. In conclusion, both DHT and GTx-024 target AR pathways in the satellite cell lineage, but cells outside this lineage also contribute to the anabolic effects of androgens. PMID:26393303

  6. Comparison of growth characteristics between skeletal muscle satellite cell lines from diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhi-hao; Tan, Xungang; Jiao, Shuang; Zhang, Pei-jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. According to myosatellite cell lines (MSCs) established in vitro from diploid and triploid flounder, we compared the characters of growth and differentiation of their MSCs. The results would be useful for learning the muscle development mechanism in teleosts. Materials and Methods. The skeletal muscle cells from the diploid and triploid olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were isolated and cultured in vitro, respectively, and the cells were characterized at the morphology and molecular level; meanwhile, the performance of these cells’ proliferation and differentiation were analyzed. Results. Two new skeletal muscle cell lines (POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n)) from diploid and triploid flounder have been respectively subcultured for 67 times and 66 times. The cultured cells were mostly spindle-like mononuclear cells. They have normal flounder diploid karyotype (2n=48t) and triploid karyotype (3n=72t), respectively. Muscle satellite cell gene marker (pax7b) and myogenic cell protein marker (Desmin) were all expressed in cells of two cell lines. Both of the cells could differentiate into the large polynucleated muscle fibre cells, and immunofluorescence reactions of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were positive. There were more cells of POMSCS(3n) to differentiate into the muscle fibre cells than that of POMSCS(2n). However, POMSCS(2n) cells proliferated more rapidly than those of POMSCS(3n) (P < 0.05). The significant fluorescent signals were observed in both POMSCS(2n) and POMSCS(3n) cells after transfected with pEGFP-N3 reporter plasmid. Conclusions. The two cell lines have been established and characterized as MSCs. We suppose that it might be the differentiation capacity, rather than the proliferation activity of MSCs to play a key role in the better growth of triploid ones than diploid. Both cell lines will become the ideal tools to learn the mechanism of fish MSCs proliferation, differentiation and regeneration during muscle development in the future. PMID:26788421

  7. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi; Tufekovic, Goran; Verney, Julien; Olesen, Jens L; Suetta, Charlotte; Kjær, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19–26 years) were assigned to strength training (STR) while receiving a timed intake of creatine (STR-CRE) (n = 9), protein (STR-PRO) (n = 8) or placebo (STR-CON) (n = 8), or serving as a non-training control group (CON) (n = 7). Supplementation was given daily (STR-CRE: 6–24 g creatine monohydrate, STR-PRO: 20 g protein, STR-CON: placebo). Furthermore, timed protein/placebo intake were administered at all training sessions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at week 0, 4, 8 (week 8 not CON) and 16 of resistance training (3 days per week). Satellite cells were identified by immunohistochemistry. Muscle mean fibre (MFA) area was determined after histochemical analysis. All training regimes were found to increase the proportion of satellite cells, but significantly greater enhancements were observed with creatine supplementation at week 4 (compared to STR-CON) and at week 8 (compared to STR-PRO and STR-CON) (P < 0.01–0.05). At week 16, satellite cell number was no longer elevated in STR-CRE, while it remained elevated in STR-PRO and STR-CON. Furthermore, creatine supplementation resulted in an increased number of myonuclei per fibre and increases of 14–17% in MFA at week 4, 8 and 16 (P < 0.01). In contrast, STR-PRO showed increase in MFA only in the later (16 week, +8%) and STR-CON only in the early (week 4, +14%) phases of training, respectively (P < 0.05). In STR-CRE a positive relationship was found between the percentage increases in MFA and myonuclei from baseline to week 16, respectively (r = 0.67, P < 0.05). No changes were observed in the control group (CON). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that creatine supplementation in combination with strength training amplifies the training-induced increase in satellite cell number and myonuclei concentration in human skeletal muscle fibres, thereby allowing an enhanced muscle fibre growth in response to strength training. PMID:16581862

  8. Solar satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  9. The Acute Satellite Cell Response and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy following Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McKay, Bryon R.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Baker, Steven; Parise, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is highly variable in humans. The main objective of this study was to explain the nature of this variability. More specifically, we focused on the myogenic stem cell population, the satellite cell (SC) as a potential mediator of hypertrophy. Twenty-three males (aged 18–35 yrs) participated in 16 wk of progressive, whole body resistance training, resulting in changes of 7.9±1.6% (range of −1.9–24.7%) and 21.0±4.0% (range of −7.0 to 51.7%) in quadriceps volume and myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA), respectively. The SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise (80% 1RM), analyzed via immunofluorescent staining resulted in an expansion of type II fibre associated SC 72 h following exercise (pre: 11.3±0.9; 72 h: 14.8±1.4 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Training resulted in an expansion of the SC pool associated with type I (pre: 10.7±1.1; post: 12.1±1.2 SC/type I fibre; p<0.05) and type II fibres (pre: 11.3±0.9; post: 13.0±1.2 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Analysis of individual SC responses revealed a correlation between the relative change in type I associated SC 24 to 72 hours following an acute bout of resistance exercise and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.566, p = 0.012) and the relative change in type II associated SC following 16 weeks of resistance training and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.493, p = 0.027). Our results suggest that the SC response to resistance exercise is related to the extent of muscular hypertrophy induced by training. PMID:25313863

  10. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- ?-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  11. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  12. Nitric Oxide Sustains Long-Term Skeletal Muscle Regeneration by Regulating Fate of Satellite Cells Via Signaling Pathways Requiring Vangl2 and Cyclic GMP

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Roberta; Vantaggiato, Chiara; Pisa, Viviana; Azzoni, Emanuele; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Brunelli, Silvia; Sciorati, Clara; Clementi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic precursors that proliferate, activate, and differentiate on muscle injury to sustain the regenerative capacity of adult skeletal muscle; in this process, they self-renew through the return to quiescence of the cycling progeny. This mechanism, while efficient in physiological conditions does not prevent exhaustion of satellite cells in pathologies such as muscular dystrophy where numerous rounds of damage occur. Here, we describe a key role of nitric oxide, an important signaling molecule in adult skeletal muscle, on satellite cells maintenance, studied ex vivo on isolated myofibers and in vivo using the α-sarcoglycan null mouse model of dystrophy and a cardiotoxin-induced model of repetitive damage. Nitric oxide stimulated satellite cells proliferation in a pathway dependent on cGMP generation. Furthermore, it increased the number of Pax7+/Myf5− cells in a cGMP-independent pathway requiring enhanced expression of Vangl2, a member of the planar cell polarity pathway involved in the Wnt noncanonical pathway. The enhanced self-renewal ability of satellite cells induced by nitric oxide is sufficient to delay the reduction of the satellite cell pool during repetitive acute and chronic damages, favoring muscle regeneration; in the α-sarcoglycan null dystrophic mouse, it also slowed disease progression persistently. These results identify nitric oxide as a key messenger in satellite cells maintenance, expand the significance of the Vangl2-dependent Wnt noncanonical pathway in myogenesis, and indicate novel strategies to optimize nitric oxide-based therapies for muscular dystrophy. Stem Cells 2012; 30:197–209. PMID:22084027

  13. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding), intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days) and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding) groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) (P<0.05) and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) (P<0.05), and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) (P<0.01) and IGF-I (P<0.01) mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P<0.05) and of TRα was lower (P<0.01) than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P<0.05), indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (P<0.001) or RF (P<0.05) cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these effects. Thus, a moderate nutritional strategy for feed restriction should be chosen in early chick rearing systems. PMID:23127173

  14. Transcriptional profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in developing turkey skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle growth and development from embryo to adult consists of a series of carefully regulated changes in gene expression. Understanding these developmental changes in agriculturally important species is essential to the production of high quality meat products. For example, consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the turkey industry to unprecedented production through intensive genetic selection. However, achievements of increased body weight and muscle mass have been countered by an increased incidence of myopathies and meat quality defects. In a previous study, we developed and validated a turkey skeletal muscle-specific microarray as a tool for functional genomics studies. The goals of the current study were to utilize this microarray to elucidate functional pathways of genes responsible for key events in turkey skeletal muscle development and to compare differences in gene expression between two genetic lines of turkeys. To achieve these goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18d embryo (hyperplasia), 1d post-hatch (shift from myoblast-mediated growth to satellite cell-modulated growth by hypertrophy), and 16wk (market age) from two genetic lines: a randombred control line (RBC2) maintained without selection pressure, and a line (F) selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16wk body weight. Array hybridizations were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the developmental stages within genetic line, while Experiment 2 directly compared the two lines within each developmental stage. Results A total of 3474 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate; FDR < 0.001) by overall effect of development, while 16 genes were differentially expressed (FDR < 0.10) by overall effect of genetic line. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis was used to group annotated genes into networks, functions, and canonical pathways. The expression of 28 genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation, cell death/apoptosis, and calcium signaling/muscle function, as well as genes with miscellaneous function was confirmed by qPCR. Conclusions The current study identified gene pathways and uncovered novel genes important in turkey muscle growth and development. Future experiments will focus further on several of these candidate genes and the expression and mechanism of action of their protein products. PMID:21385442

  15. Network Analysis for the Identification of Differentially Expressed Hub Genes Using Myogenin Knock-down Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Arif Tasleem; Ahmad, Sarafraz; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho

    2015-01-01

    Muscle, a multinucleate syncytium formed by the fusion of mononuclear myoblasts, arises from quiescent progenitors (satellite cells) via activation of muscle-specific transcription factors (MyoD, Myf5, myogenin: MYOG, and MRF4). Subsequent to a decline in Pax7, induction in the expression of MYOG is a hallmark of myoblasts that have entered the differentiation phase following cell cycle withdrawal. It is evident that MYOG function cannot be compensated by any other myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). Despite a plethora of information available regarding MYOG, the mechanism by which MYOG regulates muscle cell differentiation has not yet been identified. Using an RNA-Seq approach, analysis of MYOG knock-down muscle satellite cells (MSCs) have shown that genes associated with cell cycle and division, DNA replication, and phosphate metabolism are differentially expressed. By constructing an interaction network of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using GeneMANIA, cadherin-associated protein (CTNNA2) was identified as the main hub gene in the network with highest node degree. Four functional clusters (modules or communities) were identified in the network and the functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes included in these clusters significantly contribute to skeletal muscle development. To confirm this finding, in vitro studies revealed increased expression of CTNNA2 in MSCs on day 12 compared to day 10. Expression of CTNNA2 was decreased in MYOG knock-down cells. However, knocking down CTNNA2, which leads to increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes (type I collagen α1 and type I collagen α2) along with myostatin (MSTN), was not found significantly affecting the expression of MYOG in C2C12 cells. We therefore propose that MYOG exerts its regulatory effects by acting upstream of CTNNA2, which in turn regulates the differentiation of C2C12 cells via interaction with ECM genes. Taken together, these findings highlight a new mechanism by which MYOG interacts with CTNNA2 in order to promote myoblast differentiation. PMID:26200109

  16. Expression of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta in Muscle Satellite Cells Inhibits Myogenesis in Cancer Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Marchildon, François; Lamarche, Émilie; Lala-Tabbert, Neena; St-Louis, Catherine; Wiper-Bergeron, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that causes profound weight loss and muscle mass atrophy and is estimated to be the cause of up to 30% of cancer deaths. Though the exact cause is unknown, patients with cancer cachexia have increased muscle protein catabolism. In healthy muscle, injury activates skeletal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, to differentiate and promote regeneration. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanism is inhibited in cancer cachexia due to persistent expression of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein beta (C/EBPβ) in muscle myoblasts. C/EBPβ is a bzip transcription factor that is expressed in muscle satellite cells and is normally downregulated upon differentiation. However, in myoblasts exposed to a cachectic milieu, C/EBPβ expression remains elevated, despite activation to differentiate, resulting in the inhibition of myogenin expression and myogenesis. In vivo, cancer cachexia results in increased number of Pax7+ cells that also express C/EBPβ and the inhibition of normal repair mechanisms. Loss of C/EBPβ expression in primary myoblasts rescues differentiation under cachectic conditions without restoring myotube size, indicating that C/EBPβ is an important inhibitor of myogenesis in cancer cachexia. PMID:26709824

  17. Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during recovery from eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Knudsen, Inge Skovgaard; de Paoli, Frank; Mackey, Abigail L; Vissing, Kristian

    2014-11-01

    Human skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are essential for muscle regeneration and remodeling processes in healthy and clinical conditions involving muscle breakdown. However, the potential influence of protein supplementation on post-exercise SC regulation in human skeletal muscle has not been well investigated. In a comparative human study, we investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein supplementation following eccentric exercise on fiber type-specific SC accumulation. Twenty-four young healthy subjects received either hydrolyzed whey protein + carbohydrate (whey, n = 12) or iso-caloric carbohydrate (placebo, n = 12) during post-exercise recovery from 150 maximal unilateral eccentric contractions. Prior to and 24, 48 and 168 h post-exercise, muscle biopsies were obtained from the exercise leg and analyzed for fiber type-specific SC content. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and serum creatine kinase (CK) were evaluated as indices of recovery from muscle damage. In type II fiber-associated SCs, the whey group increased SCs/fiber from 0.05 [0.02; 0.07] to 0.09 [0.06; 0.12] (p < 0.05) and 0.11 [0.06; 0.16] (p < 0.001) at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and exhibited a difference from the placebo group (p < 0.05) at 48 h. The whey group increased SCs/myonuclei from 4 % [2; 5] to 10 % [4; 16] (p < 0.05) at 48 h, whereas the placebo group increased from 5 % [2; 7] to 9 % [3; 16] (p < 0.01) at 168 h. MVC decreased (p < 0.001) and muscle soreness and CK increased (p < 0.001), irrespective of supplementation. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation may accelerate SC proliferation as part of the regeneration or remodeling process after high-intensity eccentric exercise. PMID:25063205

  18. Implantation of muscle satellite cells overexpressing myogenin improves denervated muscle atrophy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, H.; Lv, Y.; Shen, X.Q.; Xu, J.H.; Lu, H.; Fu, L.C.; Duan, T.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) overexpressing myogenin (MyoG) on denervated muscle atrophy. Rat MSCs were isolated and transfected with the MyoG-EGFP plasmid vector GV143. MyoG-transfected MSCs (MTMs) were transplanted into rat gastrocnemius muscles at 1 week after surgical denervation. Controls included injections of untransfected MSCs or the vehicle only. Muscles were harvested and analyzed at 2, 4, and 24 weeks post-transplantation. Immunofluorescence confirmed MyoG overexpression in MTMs. The muscle wet weight ratio was significantly reduced at 2 weeks after MTM injection (67.17±6.79) compared with muscles injected with MSCs (58.83±5.31) or the vehicle (53.00±7.67; t=2.37, P=0.04 and t=3.39, P=0.007, respectively). The muscle fiber cross-sectional area was also larger at 2 weeks after MTM injection (2.63×103±0.39×103) compared with MSC injection (1.99×103±0.58×103) or the vehicle only (1.57×103±0.47×103; t=2.24, P=0.049 and t=4.22, P=0.002, respectively). At 4 and 24 weeks post-injection, the muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area were similar across all three experimental groups. Immunohistochemistry showed that the MTM group had larger MyoG-positive fibers. The MTM group (3.18±1.13) also had higher expression of MyoG mRNA than other groups (1.41±0.65 and 1.03±0.19) at 2 weeks after injection (t=2.72, P=0.04). Transplanted MTMs delayed short-term atrophy of denervated muscles. This approach can be optimized as a novel stand-alone therapy or as a bridge to surgical re-innervation of damaged muscles. PMID:26871970

  19. Potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Wu, Haiqing; Ma, Yuzhen; Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

  20. Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle-Derived Satellite Cells for Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Mediated Transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere Goats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

  1. Long term effects of Marek's disease vaccination with cell-free herpesvirus of turkey and age at debeaking on performance and mortality of white leghorns.

    PubMed

    Lee, K

    1980-09-01

    Three-hundred-sixty, day-old Single Comb White Leghorn chicks were randomly placed in 8 treatment combinations. The combinations consisted of vaccinated or nonvaccinated chicks that were either not debeaked, or debeaked at day-old, 4 weeks old, or 8 weeks old. Vaccinated birds received 6,000 plaque forming units of cell-free herpesvirus of turkey vaccine per chick at day-old. Debeaking was performed by removing approximately two-thirds of the upper beak. Data were analyzed at the 5% level of probability. During the growing period (8 to 20 weeks of age), averag daily feed consumption per bird and feed efficiency for the vaccinated birds were not significantly different from those for the nonvaccinated. Regardless of the age at which debeaking was performed, the debeaked birds consumed significantly less feed and had superior feed efficiency than the nondebeaked birds. These traits were not significantly different among the various debeaked groups. Vaccination, or debeaking, or age at debeaking did not significantly influence mortality during the growing period. During the laying period (20 to 84 weeks), a significantly higher percentage of extra large eggs and a significantly lower percentage of medium eggs were collected from the vaccinated birds in comparison to those collected from the nonvaccinated. Also, average egg weight for the vaccinated birds was significantly heavier than that for the nonvaccinated. Debeaking at either 4 weeks or at 9 weeks of age caused a significant reduction in egg weight. Vaccination, or debeaking, or age at debeaking did not significantly influence hen-day egg production. Feed efficiency between the vaccinated and the nonvaccinated birds was not significantly different. Debeaking tended to improve feed efficiency. Vaccination as well as day-old debeaking significantly reduced laying house mortality. Debeaking the birds either at 4 weeks or at 8 weeks of age reduced laying house mortality numerically. PMID:7433359

  2. Small Cell Carcinomas of the Bladder Highly Express Somatostatin Receptor Type 2A: Impact on Prognosis and Treatment-A Multicenter Study of Urooncology Society, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Neşe, Nalan; Kumbaraci, Banu S; Baydar, Dilek E; Kiliçaslan, Işin; Sari, Ayşegül A; Şen, Sait; Gönül, Ipek I; Kankaya, Duygu; Özlük, Yasemin; Ermete, Murat; Özağari, Ayşim; Bal, Nebil; Kiremitçi, Saba; Yildiz, Kürşat; Tuna, Burçin; Şen, Nilay; Yörükoğlu, Kutsal

    2016-04-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder. Neuroendocrine carcinomas expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTR) in other viscera such as lung, pancreas, and gastrointestinal system respond to therapy with somatostatin analogs. In the present study, expressions of SSTRs 1 to 5 including type 2A are investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and their relationship with clinicopathologic factors was evaluated. Hundred primary bladder SmCC cases were collected from 12 centers in Turkey. Forty-three cases were pure SmCC. Other cases had mostly papillary urothelial carcinoma as a second component. The percentage of the SmCC component ranged from 5% to 100%. SSTR-2A expression was membranous, whereas the other receptors showed cytoplasmic staining. The percentages of positive cases for SSTR-1, SSTR-2A, SSTR-3, SSTR-4, and SSTR-5 were 4% (3/75), 61.4% (54/88), 2.4% (2/84), 24.4% (20/82), and 6.25% (5/80), respectively. The percentage of SmCC component was positively correlated with the percentage of SSTR-2A expression (P=0.003) while negatively correlated with patient age (P=0.032). SSTR-2A expression was correlated with survival as a bad prognostic factor (P=0.018). SSTR-1, SSTR-3, SSTR-4, and SSTR-5 expressions did not show any statistical significance with any parameter. In conclusion, although the limited number of cases with adequate term follow-up, SSTR-2A expression could be a prognostic factor and somatostatin analogs therapeutic candidate for SmCCs of the bladder as these tumors show high percentage of SSTR-2A expression. PMID:25906124

  3. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  4. Lost in Translation: Preserving Satellite Cell Function with Global Translational Control.

    PubMed

    Eliazer, Susan; Brack, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Quiescence is highly regulated to preserve stem cell function. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Zismanov et al. (2016) show that P-eIF2α, a translational initiation factor, reinforces the quiescent state of muscle stem cells by safeguarding against cell-cycle entry and lineage progression. PMID:26748748

  5. Apical blebs on sperm-storage tubule epithelial cell microvilli: their release and interaction with resident sperm in the turkey hen oviduct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Located at the anterior end of the turkey hen vagina are numerous discrete tubular invaginations of the surface epithelium, collectively referred to as the sperm-storage tubules (SSTs). Following mating or artificial insemination, sperm ascend the vagina, enter the SSTs, and ove...

  6. Flight Data of a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cell Module without a Coverglass by a Nano Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Shirou; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kibe, Koichi; Nakamura, Yuya; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    A CIGS solar cell module without a coverglass was demonstrated by a small satellite since October 2005. A coverglass is normally used to protect the cell performance from low-energy (<3MeV) protons in space. This mission evaluates the model to assess the cell performance of CIGS solar cells, which thus far exhibited no degradation by thermal annealing effect in space. Flight data indicates that the performance has showed no degradation for about 900 days.

  7. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  8. Feather the Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents a cut-and-paste turkey puzzle for students to use that combines the use of card or automated catalog records with the Thanksgiving theme. Students are given Thanksgiving topics and asked to find subjects, titles, authors, or keywords in order to assemble the puzzle. (LRW)

  9. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  10. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eres, Figen

    2010-01-01

    The quality and the prevalence of education are the major indicators of the development of a society. It is a kind of human right to every person living in the society to be educated in a sufficient way. The education of the disabled people, a social reality in Turkey, is not sufficiently carried out. This paper aims at the education of the…

  11. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  12. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  13. Educational Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksit, Necmi

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

  14. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  15. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research

  16. Naturally occurring clinical reticuloendotheliosis in turkeys and chickens.

    PubMed

    Okoye, J O; Ezema, W; Agoha, J N

    1993-06-01

    Outbreaks of clinical reticuloendotheliosis (RE) were observed in a turkey flock and two pullet flocks. Clinical signs in turkeys included sleepiness, weakness, anorexia, diarrhoea and reduced egg production. The pullets showed severe emaciation, loss of back feathers, anorexia and diarrhoea. Fifteen out of 54 turkeys died before the flock was killed. One pullet flock suffered 20% mortality while the other had an average daily mortality of four to six out of 2000 birds for 9 weeks with a total mortality of 16.4%. Necropsy of the dead turkeys and pullets showed neoplastic nodules or grey foci in the internal organs especially the liver, intestines and spleen. Histopathological sections of the organs had proliferation of reticular cells with necrosis of the parenchyma and focal lymphocytic infiltration. RE virus antigens and precipitating antibodies were detected in the serum samples collected from the birds. It was suspected that natural RE could be a more serious problem than earlier reported in some countries. PMID:18671014

  17. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 4: Silicon solar cell annealing test, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, F.

    1979-01-01

    Laser annealing tests were conducted on ten 50 micron cells. Two were control cells that were not irradiated. These showed no loss in output due to exposure to the laser. Two cells were broken in handling. Six cells were successfully tested. All cells tested without breakage showed some recovery. One cell was subjected to two cycles and showed recovery on both cycles. Cells that were moderately degraded appeared to recover more completely than those more severly degraded. Exposure times ranged from two to ten seconds at 500 degrees centigrade. There was some indication that longer exposure was beneficial.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  19. Extraocular muscle satellite cells are high performance myo-engines retaining efficient regenerative capacity in dystrophin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Stuelsatz, Pascal; Shearer, Andrew; Li, Yunfei; Muir, Lindsey A; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Shen, Qingwu W; Kirillova, Irina; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2014-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are highly specialized skeletal muscles that originate from the head mesoderm and control eye movements. EOMs are uniquely spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and animal models of dystrophin deficiency. Specific traits of myogenic progenitors may be determinants of this preferential sparing, but very little is known about the myogenic cells in this muscle group. While satellite cells (SCs) have long been recognized as the main source of myogenic cells in adult muscle, most of the knowledge about these cells comes from the prototypic limb muscles. In this study, we show that EOMs, regardless of their distinctive Pax3-negative lineage origin, harbor SCs that share a common signature (Pax7+, Ki67−, Nestin-GFP+, Myf5nLacZ+, MyoD-positive lineage origin) with their limb and diaphragm somite-derived counterparts, but are remarkably endowed with a high proliferative potential as revealed in cell culture assays. Specifically, we demonstrate that in adult as well as in aging mice, EOM SCs possess a superior expansion capacity, contributing significantly more proliferating, differentiating and renewal progeny than their limb and diaphragm counterparts. These robust growth and renewal properties are maintained by EOM SCs isolated from dystrophin-null (mdx) mice, while SCs from muscles affected by dystrophin deficiency (i.e., limb and diaphragm) expand poorly in vitro. EOM SCs also retain higher performance in cell transplantation assays in which donor cells were engrafted into host mdx limb muscle. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive picture of EOM myogenic progenitors, showing that while these cells share common hallmarks with the prototypic SCs in somite-derived muscles, they distinctively feature robust growth and renewal capacities that warrant the title of high performance myo-engines and promote consideration of their properties for developing new approaches in cell-based therapy to combat skeletal muscle wasting. PMID:25236433

  20. Satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Philip A.

    A review of the economic and technological status of the satellite communications industry is presented. The history of satellite communications is outlined, focusing on the launching of Syncom III in 1963. The basic operation of communication satellites is explained. The differences between C and Ku frequency bands are examined. Economic issues related to satellite communications are discussed in detail.

  1. Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Felipe S.; Hunt, Gavin R.; Gray, Russell D.; Wild, J. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system. Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs). The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species. PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes), one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes) and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes). Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen), one Strigiform (barn owl), one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown), one Falconiform (chimango caracara), one Columbiform (pigeon) and one Galliform (chick). Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The discovery of PGCs in the zebra finch is of great importance because this species has the potential to become a robust animal model in which to study the function of neuron-glia interactions in healthy and diseased adult brains. PMID:23904989

  2. Weather satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-02-01

    A manual about the operation of meteorological satellites and of the reception station KOSMOSS of the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) is presented. A historical review of meteorological satellites is given. The theory of satellite orbits and the calculation of favorable orbits are presented. Solar radiation is treated. The TIROS N series and METEOSAT are described. The reception of satellite signals and image processing are explained. The interpretation of satellite pictures is treated.

  3. In ovo feeding of IGF-1 to ducks influences neonatal skeletal muscle hypertrophy and muscle mass growth upon satellite cell activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, He-He; Wang, Ji-Wen; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Chen, Xi; Yu, Hai-Yue; Jin, Hai-Bo; Li, Liang; Han, Chun-Chun; Xu, Feng; Kang, Bo; He, Hua; Xu, Heng-Yong

    2012-04-01

    To investigate reasons for the muscle increase observed when eggs are treated by IGF-1 and whether or not satellite cell activation is specific to different types of myofibers, duck eggs were administrated with IGF-1. After injection, during the neonatal stages, the duck breast muscle and leg muscle were isolated for analysis. The muscle weight, muscle fiber diameter (MFD), cross-sectional area (CSA), the number of myofibers per unit area (MFN) and frequency of satellite cell activation and mitosis at the embryo stage of 27 days (27E) and the postnatal stage of 2 days after hatching (P2D) were determined. In addition, expression of two important myogenic transcription factors MyoD and Myf5 were detected and compared in the two types of muscle tissues. Results indicated that IGF-1 administration increased the duck body weight, MFD, CSA, MFN, and quantity of activated satellite cells and mitotic nuclei in the two types of muscle tissues. The MyoD and Myf5 expressed at a higher level in IGF-1-treated muscle. IGF-1 stimulated muscle weight growth more in the leg muscle than in the breast muscle. These results indicate that in ovo feeding of IGF-1 can stimulate duck growth and, especially, lead to increased muscle hypertrophy. These increases appear to be mainly dependent on the activation of satellite cells, some of which proliferate and fuse to the myofiber, enabling increased muscle mass. IGF-1 can indirectly affect satellite cells by regulating the expression of two important myogenic transcription factors, MyoD and Myf5, which help activate satellite cells. PMID:21618537

  4. Short-term ursolic acid promotes skeletal muscle rejuvenation through enhancing of SIRT1 expression and satellite cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Nuredin; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Soleimani, Masoud; Hemmati, Roohullah; Noori-Zadeh, Ali; Javan, Mohammad; Tashakor, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a triterpenoid compound, which exerts its influences on the skeletal muscles. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unclear. In this study, muscle satellite cells were isolated and purified by high-throughput pre-plating method (∼>60%) from 10 days old mice skeletal muscles. Evaluation of paired-box 7 (Pax7) expressions then confirmed the purification. Treatment of the cells with UA showed that UA up-regulated SIRT1 (∼35 folds) and overexpressed PGC-1α (∼175 folds) gene significantly. Moreover, the number of muscle satellite cells, which accompanied by initiation of neomyogenesis in the animal skeletal muscles, was increased (∼3.4 times). We also evaluated UA-mediated changes in the cellular energy status in the skeletal muscles. The results revealed that in the UA-treated mice, ATP and ADP contents in the various skeletal muscle tissue types, including: Gastrocnemius (Gas), Tibialis Anterior (Tib) and Gluteus Maximus (Glu) have been significantly decreased (P≤0.001); 2.2, 3.2, 2 times for ATP, and 9.6, 35.7, 11.6 times for ADP, respectively; however to compensate this process mitochondrial biogenesis occurred (12.33%±1.5 times). Furthermore, a rise in ATP/ADP ratio was observed 2.5, 4.5, 2.05 times for Gas, Tib and Glu muscles, respectively (P≤0.001). Alternatively, UA enhanced the expression of myoglobin (∼2 folds) in concert with remodeling of glycolytic muscle fibers to mainly fast IIA (∼30%) and slow-twitch (∼4%) types as well. Finally, our study indicated that UA indirectly mimicked beneficial effects of short-term calorie restriction and exercise (fast-oxidative) by directing the skeletal muscle composition toward oxidative metabolism. PMID:26898441

  5. Red cell glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the northern region of Turkey: is G6PD deficiency exclusively a male disease?

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut

    2015-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive genetic defect that can cause hemolytic crisis. However, this disease affects both males and females. In Turkey, the frequency of this enzyme deficiency was reported to vary, from 0.25 to 18%, by the geographical area. Its prevalence in the northern Black Sea region of Turkey is unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the northern region Turkey in children and adults with hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic anemia. This report included a total of 976 G6PD enzyme results that were analyzed between May 2005 and January 2014. G6PD deficiency was detected in 5.0% of all patients. G6PD deficiency was significantly less frequent in females (1.9%, 6/323) than in males (6.6%, 43/653). G6PD deficiency was detected in 3.7% of infants with hyperbilirubinemia, 9.2% of children, and 4.5% of adults with hemolytic anemia. In both the newborn group and the group of children, G6PD deficiency was significantly more frequent in males. In the combined group of children (groups I and II), the proportion of males was 74% and 67% in all groups (P = .0008). In conclusion, in northern region of Turkey, G6PD deficiency is an important cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic crisis in children and adults. This study suggests that most pediatricians thought that G6PD deficiency is exclusively a male disease. For this reason, some female patients may have been undiagnosed. PMID:25116429

  6. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  7. Bmi1 is expressed in postnatal myogenic satellite cells, controls their maintenance and plays an essential role in repeated muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Robson, Lesley G; Di Foggia, Valentina; Radunovic, Aleksandar; Bird, Katy; Zhang, Xinyu; Marino, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Satellite cells are the resident stem cell population of the adult mammalian skeletal muscle and they play a crucial role in its homeostasis and in its regenerative capacity after injury. We show here that the Polycomb group (PcG) gene Bmi1 is expressed in both the Pax7 positive (+)/Myf5 negative (-) stem cell population as well as the Pax7+/Myf5+ committed myogenic progenitor population. Depletion of Pax7+/Myf5- satellite cells with reciprocal increase in Pax7+/Myf5+ as well as MyoD positive (+) cells is seen in Bmi1-/- mice leading to reduced postnatal muscle fiber size and impaired regeneration upon injury. Bmi1-/- satellite cells have a reduced proliferative capacity and fail to re-enter the cell cycle when stimulated by high serum conditions in vitro, in keeping with a cell intrinsic defect. Thus, both the in vivo and in vitro results suggest that Bmi1 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the stem cell pool in postnatal skeletal muscle and is essential for efficient muscle regeneration after injury especially after repeated muscle injury. PMID:22096526

  8. [Suicide in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Koc, I; Albayrak, F

    1993-01-01

    "This paper mainly deals with the socio-demographic characteristics and sex differentials of persons [committing] suicide [in Turkey] on the basis of the 1990 Suicide Statistics.... Causes of suicide and suicide methods are also [discussed].... There is a strong relationship between socio-demographic factors, such as urbanization, aging and household patterns and suicide rates." The impact of sex roles and socialization is considered. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12159425

  9. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  10. Leishmaniasis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ok, U Z; Balcioğlu, I C; Taylan Ozkan, A; Ozensoy, S; Ozbel, Y

    2002-10-01

    Leishmaniases are widespread in most countries in the Mediterranean basin, including Turkey. Two forms are observed in Turkey; Leishmania infantum is responsible from visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and L. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Phlebotomus sergenti, P. papatasi, P. major and P. syriacus are considered to be the probable vectors, and dogs are the main reservoir of L. infantum, while P. sergenti is the main suspected vector of L. tropica.VL is sporadically seen mainly in the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia Regions, but CL is endemic, especially in the Southeastern and Mediterranean Regions. Major touristic sites are free of both infections, and no infection is reported in any tourist. Mean number of annual VL and CL cases reported to Ministry of Health are 40 and 1,204, respectively, in the last four years. These data suggest that both VL and CL represent a public health problem in Turkey, but a decline is observed in the number of cases with both infections in recent years. PMID:12387909

  11. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Safeguards Genomic Integrity of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kollu, Swapna; Abou-Khalil, Rana; Shen, Carl; Brack, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To ensure accurate genomic segregation, cells evolved the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), whose role in adult stem cells remains unknown. Inducible perturbation of a SAC kinase, Mps1, and its downstream effector, Mad2, in skeletal muscle stem cells shows the SAC to be critical for normal muscle growth, repair, and self-renewal of the stem cell pool. SAC-deficient muscle stem cells arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle with elevated aneuploidy, resisting differentiation even under inductive conditions. p21CIP1 is responsible for these SAC-deficient phenotypes. Despite aneuploidy’s correlation with aging, we find that aged proliferating muscle stem cells display robust SAC activity without elevated aneuploidy. Thus, muscle stem cells have a two-step mechanism to safeguard their genomic integrity. The SAC prevents chromosome missegregation and, if it fails, p21CIP1-dependent G1 arrest limits cellular propagation and tissue integration. These mechanisms ensure that muscle stem cells with compromised genomes do not contribute to tissue homeostasis. PMID:25960061

  13. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Safeguards Genomic Integrity of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells.

    PubMed

    Kollu, Swapna; Abou-Khalil, Rana; Shen, Carl; Brack, Andrew S

    2015-06-01

    To ensure accurate genomic segregation, cells evolved the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), whose role in adult stem cells remains unknown. Inducible perturbation of a SAC kinase, Mps1, and its downstream effector, Mad2, in skeletal muscle stem cells shows the SAC to be critical for normal muscle growth, repair, and self-renewal of the stem cell pool. SAC-deficient muscle stem cells arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle with elevated aneuploidy, resisting differentiation even under inductive conditions. p21(CIP1) is responsible for these SAC-deficient phenotypes. Despite aneuploidy's correlation with aging, we find that aged proliferating muscle stem cells display robust SAC activity without elevated aneuploidy. Thus, muscle stem cells have a two-step mechanism to safeguard their genomic integrity. The SAC prevents chromosome missegregation and, if it fails, p21(CIP1)-dependent G1 arrest limits cellular propagation and tissue integration. These mechanisms ensure that muscle stem cells with compromised genomes do not contribute to tissue homeostasis. PMID:25960061

  14. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth

    PubMed Central

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Riis, Simon; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; de Paoli, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P < 0.01) and exhibited a group difference from Ecc (P < 0.05), which did not increase. Myonuclei content in type I fibers increased in all groups (P < 0.01), while a specific accretion of myonuclei in type II fibers was observed in the Whey-Conc (P < 0.01) and Placebo-Ecc (P < 0.01) groups. Similarly, whereas type I fiber CSA increased independently of intervention (P < 0.001), type II fiber CSA increased exclusively with Whey-Conc (P < 0.01) and type II fiber hypertrophy correlated with whole muscle hypertrophy exclusively following Conc training (P < 0.01). In conclusion, isolated concentric knee extensor resistance training appears to constitute a stronger driver of SC content than eccentric resistance training while type II fiber hypertrophy was accentuated when combining concentric resistance training with whey protein supplementation. PMID:25103976

  15. Atrophy, inducible satellite cell activation, and possible denervation of supraspinatus muscle in injured human rotator-cuff muscle.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Deanna; Leiter, Jeff R S; Macek, Bryce; Davidson, Michael J; MacDonald, Peter B; Anderson, Judy E

    2015-09-15

    The high frequency of poor outcome and chronic pain after surgical repair of shoulder rotator-cuff injury (RCI) prompted this study to explore the potential to amplify muscle regeneration using nitric oxide (NO)-based treatment. After preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biopsies of supraspinatus and ipsilateral deltoid (as a control) were collected during reparative surgery for RCI. Muscle fiber diameter, the pattern of neuromuscular junctions observed with alpha-bungarotoxin staining, and the γ:ε subunit ratio of acetylcholine receptors in Western blots were examined in tandem with experiments to determine the in vitro responsiveness of muscle satellite cells to activation (indicated by uptake of bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU) by the NO-donor drug, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). Consistent with MRI findings of supraspinatus atrophy (reduced occupation ratio and tangent sign), fiber diameter was lower in supraspinatus than in deltoid. ISDN induced a significant increase over baseline (up to 1.8-fold), in the proportion of BrdU+ (activated) Pax7+ satellite cells in supraspinatus, but not in deltoid, after 40 h in culture. The novel application of denervation indices revealed a trend for supraspinatus muscle to have a higher γ:ε subunit ratio than deltoid (P = 0.13); this ratio inversely with both occupancy ratio (P < 0.05) and the proportion of clusters at neuromuscular junctions (P = 0.05). Results implicate possible supraspinatus denervation in RCI and suggest NO-donor treatment has potential to promote growth in atrophic supraspinatus muscle after RCI and improve functional outcome. PMID:26135801

  16. Tissue-Engineered External Anal Sphincter Using Autologous Myogenic Satellite Cells and Extracellular Matrix: Functional and Histological Studies.

    PubMed

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Kajbafzadeh, Majid; Sabetkish, Shabnam; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Tavangar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the regaining histological characteristics of bioengineered external anal sphincters (EAS) in rabbit fecal incontinence model. The EAS of 16 rabbits were resected and decellularized. The decellularized scaffolds were transplanted to the terminal rectum following a period of 6 months of fecal incontinency (5 days after sterilization). The rabbits were divided into two groups: in group 1 (n = 8), myogenic satellite cells were injected into the transplanted sphincters. In group 2 (n = 8), the transplanted scaffolds remained in situ without cellular injection. The histological evaluation was performed with desmin, myosin, smooth muscle actin, CD31, and CD34 at 3-month intervals. The rabbits were followed for 2 years. Electromyography (EMG) with needle and electrical stimulation, pudendal and muscle electrical stimulation were also performed after 2 years of transplantation. At the time of biopsy, no evidence of inflammation or rejection was observed and the transplanted EAS appeared histologically and anatomically normal. The immunohistochemistry staining validated that the histological features of EAS was more satisfactory in group 1 in short-term follow-up. However, no statistically significant difference was detected between two groups in long-term follow-ups (p value > 0.05). In both groups, grafted EAS contracted in response to electrical signals delivered to the muscle and the pudendal nerve. However, more signals were detected in group 1 in EMG evaluation. In conclusion, bioengineered EAS with myogenic satellite cells can gain more satisfactory histological outcomes in short-term follow-ups with better muscle electrical stimulation outcomes. PMID:26424474

  17. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human rights. Europe in return has tightened legislation and procedures to differentiate economically motivated refugees from authentic political asylum seekers. Further research is needed to investigate refugee problems. Further refugees may come due to the promotion of a Black Sea Cooperation Region and easier crossings of borders to the former Soviet Republics. Ethnic Turks in Moldavia or Romania or Bulgaria may leave due to unrest. Factors affecting asylum seekers are improvements in Turkey's human rights record, repeal of bans of the Kurdish language, completion of the South Eastern Development Project, and the European government policy on asylum. PMID:12285110

  18. Development works on nickel/hydrogen cells. [for satellite energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to reduce the costs for NI/H2 cells by using nickel oxide electrodes with high capacity per unit area. No maintenance requirements, long cycle life, insensitivity to overcharge and cell reversal, and high power capability were revealed.

  19. On the spatial extent of the proton radiation belt from solar cell output variation of the Akebono satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, W.; Miyoshi, Y.; Matsuoka, A.

    2014-06-01

    Output current of silicon solar cells of Akebono satellite orbiting in the inner magnetosphere decreased from 13 A in 1989 to about 7 A in 2009, due to accumulated damage by energetic particles. A fair correlation between the monthly decrease rate of solar cell output current and trapped proton flux was found between 1989 and 1992, indicating that trapped energetic protons are responsible for the solar cell degradation. Simple variation from month to month was dominated by a fluctuation with one-year period and the correlation was not discernible after 1993. On the other hand, during orbiting the earth, another kind of decrease of output current emerged at low altitude above the sub-solar point, i.e., in the midst of sunlit condition. The decrease was larger in later years. The fact indicates more prominent temperature effect in the later years because of progress of the degradation. By removing data affected by the orbit condition above, variation from the same month in the previous year shows a clear oscillation due to orbit precession correlated with trapped energetic proton flux up to 1996. The amplitude of the annual variation oscillation tends to be larger than that expected from a degradation model based on energetic proton distribution of the NASA’s AP8 model. The larger oscillation amplitude suggests that the proton radiation belt was more sharply localized than given by the AP8 model throughout the early half of 1990s.

  20. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K. L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

  1. Evaluation of solar cells and arrays for potential solar power satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K.; Gaudet, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Proposed solar array designs and manufacturing methods are evaluated to identify options which show the greatest promise of leading up to the develpment of a cost-effective SPS solar cell array design. The key program elements which have to be accomplished as part of an SPS solar cell array development program are defined. The issues focussed on are: (1) definition of one or more designs of a candidate SPS solar array module, using results from current system studies; (2) development of the necessary manufacturing requirements for the candidate SPS solar cell arrays and an assessment of the market size, timing, and industry infrastructure needed to produce the arrays for the SPS program; (3) evaluation of current DOE, NASA and DOD photovoltaic programs to determine the impacts of recent advances in solar cell materials, array designs and manufacturing technology on the candidate SPS solar cell arrays; and (4) definition of key program elements for the development of the most promising solar cell arrays for the SPS program.

  2. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa, Michiko; Aging Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 ; Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke; Song, Si-Yong; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2011-01-15

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  3. Regenerative fuel cell systems for mid- to high-orbit satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taenaka, R. K.; Adler, E.; Stofel, E. J.; Clark, K. B.

    1987-01-01

    An assessment of the present and projected capabilities of selected hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-halogen fuel cell and electrolyzer combinations for energy storage systems (ESS) in configurations useful for spacecraft missions operating in the 10- to 50-kW range for many years in midaltitude to geosynchronous orbits has recently been completed. Results of the study indicate that regenerative fuel cell ESS are feasible for the intended application. A computer model was used to provide tradeoff analyses for optimizing the various ESS fuel cell concepts. When appropriately configured to be compatible with the mission needs of the selected model spacecraft, the specific energy for these ESS are intermediate between that presently available for nickel-hydrogen batteries and that expected for the newly emerging sodium-sulfur technology.

  4. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) Is Indispensable for Maintenance of the Muscle Satellite Cell Pool.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Sakiko; Yoda, Masaki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Tohmonda, Takahide; Okada, Yasunori; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2015-11-20

    Satellite cells (SCs) are muscle-specific stem cells that are essential for the regeneration of damaged muscles. Although SCs have a robust capacity to regenerate myofibers, the number of SCs decreases with aging, leading to insufficient recovery after muscle injury. We herein show that ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10), a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with a critical role in Notch processing (S2 cleavage), is essential for the maintenance of SC quiescence. We generated mutant mice in which ADAM10 in SCs can be conditionally abrogated by tamoxifen injection. Tamoxifen-treated mutant mice did not show any apparent defects and grew normally under unchallenged conditions. However, these mice showed a nearly complete loss of muscle regeneration after chemically induced muscle injury. In situ hybridization and flow cytometric analyses revealed that the mutant mice had significantly less SCs compared with wild type controls. Of note, we found that inactivation of ADAM10 in SCs severely compromised Notch signaling and led to dysregulated myogenic differentiation, ultimately resulting in deprivation of the SC pool in vivo. Taken together, the present findings underscore the role of ADAM10 as an indispensable component of Notch signaling in SCs and for maintaining the SC pool. PMID:26453297

  5. Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed in Myogenin Knock-Down Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells during Differentiation through RNA Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Smritee; Ahmad, Sarafraz; Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Cho, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jihoe; Kong, Joon Chan; Lee, Dong-Mok; Chung, Ki Yong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Choi, Inho

    2014-01-01

    Background The expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) consisting of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin (MyoG) and MRF4 characterizes various phases of skeletal muscle development including myoblast proliferation, cell-cycle exit, cell fusion and the maturation of myotubes to form myofibers. Although it is well known that the function of MyoG cannot be compensated for other MRFs, the molecular mechanism by which MyoG controls muscle cell differentiation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to profile changes in gene expression in response to MyoG knock-down (MyoGkd) in primary bovine muscle satellite cells (MSCs). Results About 61–64% of the reads of over 42 million total reads were mapped to more than 13,000 genes in the reference bovine genome. RNA-Seq analysis identified 8,469 unique genes that were differentially expressed in MyoGkd. Among these genes, 230 were up-regulated and 224 were down-regulated by at least four-fold. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) and pathway analysis of all up- and down-regulated genes identified overrepresentation for cell cycle and division, DNA replication, mitosis, organelle lumen, nucleoplasm and cytosol, phosphate metabolic process, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, cytoskeleton and cell morphogenesis, signifying the functional implication of these processes and pathways during skeletal muscle development. The RNA-Seq data was validated by real time RT-PCR analysis for eight out of ten genes as well as five marker genes investigated. Conclusions This study is the first RNA-Seq based gene expression analysis of MyoGkd undertaken in primary bovine MSCs. Computational analysis of the differentially expressed genes has identified the significance of genes such as SAP30-like (SAP30L), Protein lyl-1 (LYL1), various matrix metalloproteinases, and several glycogenes in myogenesis. The results of the present study widen our knowledge of the molecular basis of skeletal muscle development and reveal the vital regulatory role of MyoG in retaining muscle cell differentiation. PMID:24647404

  6. Recent activity in Turkey.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The role of Pathfinder grants to recent family planning projects led by business and labor in Turkey is described. Pathfinder funded a major portion of the Turkish Family Planning and Health Foundation, a grant agency set up to complement government programs. One current project is a survey of family planning needs of squatter communities. The Foundation's founder established a factory-based family planning clinic, aided by Pathfinder, now self-supporting. The Turkish TURK-IS Labor Federation has supported several other worksite clinics, and has placed family planning among its top priorities. Pathfinder supported development of their population policy statement. Turkey has only recently passed progressive family planning legislation and permitted significant private sector activities. The population of 52 million is growing at 2.8%. Unemployment is high; per capita income is $1160. The government's goals are to reduce fertility from 4.3 to 2.5 children per woman and increase contraceptive prevalence from 20% to 60% by the year 2000. PMID:12179678

  7. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    PubMed

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA. PMID:26551994

  8. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta protects muscle satellite cells from apoptosis after injury and in cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, F; Fu, D; Lala-Tabbert, N; Wiper-Bergeron, N

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor expressed in muscle satellite cells (SCs), inhibits the myogenic program and is downregulated early in differentiation. In a conditional null model in which C/EBPβ expression is knocked down in paired box protein 7+ (Pax7+) SCs, cardiotoxin (CTX) injury is poorly repaired, although muscle regeneration is efficient in control littermates. While myoblasts lacking C/EBPβ can differentiate efficiently in culture, after CTX injury poor regeneration was attributed to a smaller than normal Pax7+ population, which was not due to a failure of SCs to proliferate. Rather, the percentage of apoptotic SCs was increased in muscle lacking C/EBPβ. Given that an injury induced by BaCl2 is repaired with greater efficiency than controls in the absence of C/EBPβ, we investigated the inflammatory response following BaCl2 and CTX injury and found that the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a proinflammatory cytokine, were robustly elevated following CTX injury and could induce C/EBPβ expression in myoblasts. High levels of C/EBPβ expression in myoblasts correlated with resistance to apoptotic stimuli, while its loss increased sensitivity to thapsigargin-induced cell death. Using cancer cachexia as a model for chronic inflammation, we found that C/EBPβ expression was increased in SCs and myoblasts of tumor-bearing cachectic animals. Further, in cachectic conditional knockout animals lacking C/EBPβ in Pax7+ cells, the SC compartment was reduced because of increased apoptosis, and regeneration was impaired. Our findings indicate that the stimulation of C/EBPβ expression by IL-1β following muscle injury and in cancer cachexia acts to promote SC survival, and is therefore a protective mechanism for SCs and myoblasts in the face of inflammation. PMID:26913600

  9. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta protects muscle satellite cells from apoptosis after injury and in cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Marchildon, F; Fu, D; Lala-Tabbert, N; Wiper-Bergeron, N

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor expressed in muscle satellite cells (SCs), inhibits the myogenic program and is downregulated early in differentiation. In a conditional null model in which C/EBPβ expression is knocked down in paired box protein 7+ (Pax7+) SCs, cardiotoxin (CTX) injury is poorly repaired, although muscle regeneration is efficient in control littermates. While myoblasts lacking C/EBPβ can differentiate efficiently in culture, after CTX injury poor regeneration was attributed to a smaller than normal Pax7+ population, which was not due to a failure of SCs to proliferate. Rather, the percentage of apoptotic SCs was increased in muscle lacking C/EBPβ. Given that an injury induced by BaCl2 is repaired with greater efficiency than controls in the absence of C/EBPβ, we investigated the inflammatory response following BaCl2 and CTX injury and found that the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a proinflammatory cytokine, were robustly elevated following CTX injury and could induce C/EBPβ expression in myoblasts. High levels of C/EBPβ expression in myoblasts correlated with resistance to apoptotic stimuli, while its loss increased sensitivity to thapsigargin-induced cell death. Using cancer cachexia as a model for chronic inflammation, we found that C/EBPβ expression was increased in SCs and myoblasts of tumor-bearing cachectic animals. Further, in cachectic conditional knockout animals lacking C/EBPβ in Pax7+ cells, the SC compartment was reduced because of increased apoptosis, and regeneration was impaired. Our findings indicate that the stimulation of C/EBPβ expression by IL-1β following muscle injury and in cancer cachexia acts to promote SC survival, and is therefore a protective mechanism for SCs and myoblasts in the face of inflammation. PMID:26913600

  10. Skeletal muscle wasting with disuse atrophy is multi-dimensional: the response and interaction of myonuclei, satellite cells and signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Naomi E.; Myburgh, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle is essential for health and survival. There are marked losses of skeletal muscle mass as well as strength and physiological function under conditions of low mechanical load, such as space flight, as well as ground based models such as bed rest, immobilization, disuse, and various animal models. Disuse atrophy is caused by mechanical unloading of muscle and this leads to reduced muscle mass without fiber attrition. Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and myonuclei are integrally involved in skeletal muscle responses to environmental changes that induce atrophy. Myonuclear domain size is influenced differently in fast and slow twitch muscle, but also by different models of muscle wasting, a factor that is not yet understood. Although the myonuclear domain is 3-dimensional this is rarely considered. Apoptosis as a mechanism for myonuclear loss with atrophy is controversial, whereas cell death of satellite cells has not been considered. Molecular signals such as myostatin/SMAD pathway, MAFbx, and MuRF1 E3 ligases of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and IGF1-AKT-mTOR pathway are 3 distinctly different contributors to skeletal muscle protein adaptation to disuse. Molecular signaling pathways activated in muscle fibers by disuse are rarely considered within satellite cells themselves despite similar exposure to unloading or low mechanical load. These molecular pathways interact with each other during atrophy and also when various interventions are applied that could alleviate atrophy. Re-applying mechanical load is an obvious method to restore muscle mass, however how nutrient supplementation (e.g., amino acids) may further enhance recovery (or reduce atrophy despite unloading or ageing) is currently of great interest. Satellite cells are particularly responsive to myostatin and to growth factors. Recently, the hibernating squirrel has been identified as an innovative model to study resistance to atrophy. PMID:24672488

  11. Satellite guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The University of Rhode Island's Sea Grant Program has published what it calls the first user's guide to environmental satellite data. Written by Peter Cornillon, an oceanographer at Rhode Island, the guide spells out which agencies distribute information from 14 environmental satellites. For those unfamiliar with remote-sensing techniques, the guide also delineates the various sensors the satellites carry and the types of information they produce. The heart of the looseleaf-formatted guide is an overview of the characteristics and objectives of each satellite and the characteristics of the data available.

  12. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B₁.

    PubMed

    Monson, Melissa S; Cardona, Carol J; Coulombe, Roger A; Reed, Kent M

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB₁ can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB₁ challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB₁ in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB₁ (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log₂ fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB₁ effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  13. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Melissa S.; Cardona, Carol J.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  14. Diet-induced obesity impairs muscle satellite cell activation and muscle repair through alterations in hepatocyte growth factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Donna M; Trajcevski, Karin E; Al-Sajee, Dhuha; Wang, David C; Thomas, Melissa; Anderson, Judy E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A healthy skeletal muscle mass is essential in attenuating the complications of obesity. Importantly, healthy muscle function is maintained through adequate repair following overuse and injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on skeletal muscle repair and the functionality of the muscle satellite cell (SC) population. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard chow or high-fat diet (60% kcal fat; DIO) for 8weeks. Muscles from DIO mice subjected to cardiotoxin injury displayed attenuated muscle regeneration, as indicated by prolonged necrosis, delayed expression of MyoD and Myogenin, elevated collagen content, and persistent embryonic myosin heavy chain expression. While no significant differences in SC content were observed, SCs from DIO muscles did not activate normally nor did they respond to exogenous hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) despite similar receptor (cMet) density. Furthermore, HGF release from crushed muscle was significantly less than that from muscles of chow fed mice. This study demonstrates that deficits in muscle repair are present in DIO, and the impairments in the functionality of the muscle SC population as a result of altered HGF/c-met signaling are contributors to the delayed regeneration. PMID:26296771

  15. Angiogenesis as a novel therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy through decreased ischemia and increased satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary muscular dystrophy caused by mutation in dystrophin, and there is no curative therapy. Dystrophin is a protein which forms the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the sarcolemma linking the muscle cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. When dystrophin is absent, muscle fibers become vulnerable to mechanical stretch. In addition to this, accumulating evidence indicates DMD muscle having vascular abnormalities and that the muscles are under an ischemic condition. More recent studies demonstrate decreased vascular densities and impaired angiogenesis in the muscles of murine model of DMD. Therefore, generation of new vasculature can be considered a potentially effective strategy for DMD therapy. The pro-angiogenic approaches also seem to be pro-myogenic and could induce muscle regeneration capacity through expansion of the satellite cell juxtavascular niche in the mouse model. Here, we will focus on angiogenesis, reviewing the background, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor-pathway, effect, and concerns of this strategy in DMD. PMID:24600399

  16. Unitized electrolysis propulsion and fuel cell power for selected satellite missions

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J.F.; Humble, R.; Groot, W.A. de; Oleson, S.R.; Mitlitsky, R.; Weisberg, A.H.; Myers, B.; Carter, P.H. II

    1998-07-01

    An integrated modular propulsion and regenerative electro-energy storage system for propulsion and power functions on board spacecraft is described. The system is based on electrolysis and fuel cell principles integrated in a single unit. With water as the working fluid for both the power and propulsion systems, a clean, safe, low cost and low weight solution for many spacecraft missions is assured. The system can be designed for stand-alone propulsion, or integrated with the power system. Representative missions for two different size spacecraft are given. Both missions show a significant weight savings when electrolysis propulsion systems are used. The weight savings are augmented when the power system is unified with the propulsion system.

  17. Effects of Dexamethasone on Satellite Cells and Tissue Engineered Skeletal Muscle Units.

    PubMed

    Syverud, Brian C; VanDusen, Keith W; Larkin, Lisa M

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has potential for application as a graft source for repairing soft tissue injuries, a model for testing pharmaceuticals, and a biomechanical actuator system for soft robots. However, engineered muscle to date has not produced forces comparable to native muscle, limiting its potential for repair and for use as an in vitro model for pharmaceutical testing. In this study, we examined the trophic effects of dexamethasone (DEX), a glucocorticoid that stimulates myoblast differentiation and fusion into myotubes, on our tissue engineered three-dimensional skeletal muscle units (SMUs). Using our established SMU fabrication protocol, muscle isolates were cultured with three experimental DEX concentrations (5, 10, and 25 nM) and compared to untreated controls. Following seeding onto a laminin-coated Sylgard substrate, the administration of DEX was initiated on day 0 or day 6 in growth medium or on day 9 after the switch to differentiation medium and was sustained until the completion of SMU fabrication. During this process, total cell proliferation was measured with a BrdU assay, and myogenesis and structural advancement of muscle cells were observed through immunostaining for MyoD, myogenin, desmin, and α-actinin. After SMU formation, isometric tetanic force production was measured to quantify function. The histological and functional assessment of the SMU showed that the administration of 10 nM DEX beginning on either day 0 or day 6 yielded optimal SMUs. These optimized SMUs exhibited formation of advanced sarcomeric structure and significant increases in myotube diameter and myotube fusion index, compared with untreated controls. Additionally, the optimized SMUs matured functionally, as indicated by a fivefold rise in force production. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the addition of DEX to our process of engineering skeletal muscle tissue improves myogenesis, advances muscle structure, and increases force production in the resulting SMUs. PMID:26790477

  18. Heat shock factor 1 binds to and transcribes satellite II and III sequences at several pericentromeric regions in heat-shocked cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eymery, Angeline; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Souchier, Catherine; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Vourc'h, Claire; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Jolly, Caroline; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700

    2010-07-01

    Cells respond to stress by activating the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which protect the cells against the deleterious effects of stress. This mechanism is controlled by the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). In parallel to HSP gene transcription, in human cells, HSF1 also binds to and transcribes satellite III repeated sequences present in numerous copies in the 9q12 pericentromeric region of chromosome 9. These HSF1 accumulation sites are termed nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). In tumor cells, however, the number of nSBs is higher than the number of 9q12 copies, suggesting the existence of other HSF1 targets. In this paper, we were interested in characterizing these other HSF1 binding sites. We show that HSF1 indeed binds to the pericentromeric region of 14 chromosomes, thereby directing the formation of 'secondary nSBs'. The appearance of secondary nSBs depends on the number of satellite sequences present in the target locus, and on the cellular amount of HSF1 protein. Moreover, secondary nSBs also correspond to transcription sites, thus demonstrating that heat shock induces a genome-wide transcription of satellite sequences. Finally, by analyzing published transcriptomic data, we show that the derepression of these large heterochromatic blocks does not significantly affect the transcription of neighboring genes.

  19. An empirical modeling of spatial distribution of trapped protons from solar cell degradation of the Akebono satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, W.; Miyoshi, Y.; Matsuoka, A.

    2015-12-01

    Output current of silicon solar cells of Akebono satellite orbiting in the inner magnetosphere decreased from 13 A in 1989 to about 7 A in 2009, due to accumulated damage by energetic particles. Annual decrease from the same month in the previous year shows a clear oscillation due to orbit precession correlated with trapped energetic proton flux up to 1996. Although phase of the oscillation in annual variation shows a clear correlation, the amplitude tends to be larger than that expected from a degradation model based on energetic proton distribution of the NASA's AP8 model. We have worked on modeling of the L-shell distribution of trapped energetic protons which provides best-fit for the degradation of solar cells. The results by assuming Gaussian distribution of proton flux for L value are as follows. (1) If we assume a steady state before 1996, the best-fitted distribution has a peak around L = 1.6 and a width of dL = 0.1 (i.e., half width of 1/e decrease from the peak). (2) If we employ a dynamic model with temporal variation and introduce a different distribution between April 1991 and June 1992, RMSE is further improved from the static model. Modeled distributions have its center around L = 1.9, suggesting outward shift or expansion of the proton radiation belt during the interval. Our modeling gives more confined distribution than given by the AP8 and AP9 models, but is more consistent with the CRRESPRO model based on the observation before November 1991.

  20. Electrospun Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers and their in vitro biocompatibility: prospective matrix for satellite cell adhesion and cultivation.

    PubMed

    Amna, Touseef; Hassan, M Shamshi; Van Ba, Hoa; Khil, Myung-Seob; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Hwang, I H

    2013-03-01

    We report the fabrication of novel Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers with the improved cellular response for potential tissue engineering applications. In this study, Fe3O4/TiO2 hybrid nanofibers were prepared by facile sol-gel electrospinning using titanium isopropoxide and iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate as precursors. The obtained electrospun nanofibers were vacuum dried at 80 °C and then calcined at 500 °C. The physicochemical characterization of the synthesized composite nanofibers was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern. To examine the in vitro cytotoxicity, satellite cells were treated with as-prepared Fe3O4/TiO2 and the viability of cells was analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay at regular time intervals. The morphological features of unexposed satellite cells and exposed to Fe3O4/TiO2 composite were examined with a phase contrast microscope whereas the quantification of cell viability was carried out via confocal laser scanning microscopy. The morphology of the cells attached to hybrid matrix was observed by Bio-SEM. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the satellite cells could attach to the Fe3O4/TiO2 composite nanofibers after being cultured. We observed that Fe3O4-TiO2 composite nanofibers could support cell adhesion and growth. Results from this study therefore suggest that Fe3O4/TiO2 composite scaffold with small diameters (approximately 200 nm) can mimic the natural extracellular matrix well and provide possibilities for diverse applications in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25427477

  1. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (Editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  2. Fourteen days of bed rest induces a decline in satellite cell content and robust atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; English, Kirk L; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Fry, Christopher S

    2016-04-15

    Bed rest, a ground-based spaceflight analog, induces robust atrophy of skeletal muscle, an effect that is exacerbated with increasing age. We examined the effect of 14 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle satellite cell content and fiber type atrophy in middle-aged adults, an understudied age demographic with few overt signs of muscle aging that is representative of astronauts who perform long-duration spaceflight. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of healthy middle-aged adults [n= 7 (4 male, 3 female); age: 51 ± 1 yr] before (Pre-BR) and after (Post-BR) 14 days of bed rest. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression, cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell and myonuclear content, and capillary density. Peak oxygen consumption, knee extensor strength, and body composition were also measured Pre-BR and Post-BR. Post-BR MyHC type 2a fiber percentage was reduced, and mean CSA decreased in all fiber types (-24 ± 5%;P< 0.05). Satellite cell content was also reduced Post-BR (-39 ± 9%;P< 0.05), and the change in satellite cell content was significantly correlated with the change in mean fiber CSA (r(2)= 0.60;P< 0.05). A decline in capillary density was observed Post-BR (-23 ± 6%;P< 0.05), and Post-BR capillary content was significantly associated with Post-BR peak aerobic capacity (r(2)= 0.59;P< 0.05). A subtle decline in myonuclear content occurred during bed rest (-5 ± 1%;P< 0.05). The rapid maladaptation of skeletal muscle to 14 days of mechanical unloading in middle-aged adults emphasizes the need for robust countermeasures to preserve muscle function in astronauts. PMID:26796754

  3. Influence of Pasteurella multocida and high and low environmental temperatures on adrenals and bursa of Fabricius in turkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The morphologic changes in the adrenals and bursa of Fabricius were evaluated from turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. There was a slight hyperplasia of the adrenal cortical cells and a hypertrophy of the nuclei in the uninoculated turkeys maintained at both high and low temperatures, but these changes were more marked in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. Regardless of the temperature to which the turkeys were exposed, there was an increase in adrenal weight, hyperplasia of the cortical cells, hypertrophy of the nuclei of the cortical cells, and depletion of lipid in the cortical cells in the turkeys that became depressed after inoculation with P. multocida. In the uninoculated turkeys exposed to high temperatures there was a reduction in the weight of the bursa of Fabricius, atrophy of the follicles, and a reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicle, which did not occur in the bursae from uninoculated turkeys maintained at low temperatures. In the turkeys inoculated with P. multocida, there was a marked reduction in bursal weight, atrophy of the follicles, and reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicles.

  4. Inverted cellular radio satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Harvey M.; Edwards, William L.; Pederson, Lee W.

    In cellular radio systems, frequencies can be reused for mobile communications because of the ability to handoff conversations as a user passes from one cell to another. One of the two focal points of this paper deals with the economics and technical issues pursuant to existing satellite technology interacted with cellular radio technology. The second focal point of this paper concerns the proposed low altitude satellite global packet network called the Multiple Satellite System (MSS).

  5. Satellite Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Makram; Hanna, Y. S.; Samwel, S. W.; Hegazy, Maroof A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper concerns on the satellite laser ranging (SLR) in Egypt. The three generations which can be loosely defined by their single shot root mean square precision, are discussed. The laser generators used at the Helwan half automatic and full automatic stations are described. The equipments used for the operation of the satellite laser ranging and their upgrading are presented. The observations carried out from Helwan-SLR stations are mentioned. The importance of the satellite laser ranging from Egypt and their contributions to the SLR network are explained. The modification requested for increasing the performance of the Helwan-SLR station is given.

  6. Turkey: Reviews of National Policies for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The first of three parts of this review of Turkey's educational system and national educational policies, the examiner's report, begins by singling out essential features of modern Turkey that affect the provision of education and to which the system is having to respond. These include Turkey's unique geographic situation, its continuing devotion…

  7. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle

  8. Tumorous diseases of turkeys - an update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update is primarily focused on addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  9. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  10. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  11. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  12. Turkey. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since 2003 have been improvements in citizens health status, the introduction of the GHIS, the instigation of a purchaser provider split in the health care system, the introduction of a family practitioner scheme nationwide, the introduction of a performance-based payment system in Ministry of Health hospitals, and transferring the ownership of the majority of public hospitals to the Ministry of Health. Future challenges for the Turkish health care system include, reorganizing and enforcing a referral system from primary to higher levels of care, improving the supply of health care staff, introducing and extending public hospital governance structures that aim to grant autonomous status to public hospitals, and further improving patient rights. PMID:22455830

  13. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Meryem

    2004-10-01

    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education. PMID:15465171

  14. Satellite Videoconferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is helping thousands of teachers to learn more about aerospace matters, improve their classroom skills, and expand significantly the content of their aerospace education curricula by means of live educational satellite videoconferences. The 1 1/2 hour 'Update for Teachers' programs originate at Oklahoma State University (OSU) Telecommunications Center. The television signals are transmitted to the WESTAR IV communications satellite, which remits them to participating schools across the U.S. and in parts of Mexico and Canada. The schools are equipped with small home style satellite reception dishes. Education Satellite Videoconference programs are conducted four times yearly, covering a variety of aerospace subjects. Teachers can call toll-free and have questions answered after the speaker's presentations. Information about NASA educational resources and how to obtain them will be provided.

  15. Satellite myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23–27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time – such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  16. Satellite congestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    At last count, there were more than 160 satellites in geostationary orbits, circling the earth at an altitude of 37,000 km, and according to a research review published recently by the Rand Corporation, that's already too crowded. The risk of physical collisions among satellites is small, say authors Alvin L. Hiebert and William Sollfrey, but there is an emerging problem with what they call “spectral and orbital congestion,” the result of too many satellites and ground stations sending out too many electromagnetic signals that can interfere with one another.The report comes at a time when the Federal Communications Commission is planning to reduce the spacing between satellites along the U.S. segment of the orbital arc so that 37 additional satellites can be squeezed into the high orbit favored for telecommunications. “As more satellites are launched and others are shifted to avoid collisions, interference problems will get more complicated,” say the authors of the report.

  17. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  18. Possible role of gap junction intercellular channels and connexin 43 in satellite glial cells (SGCs) for preservation of human spiral ganglion neurons : A comparative study with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Glueckert, Rudolf; Linthicum, Fred H; Rieger, Gunde; Blumer, Michael; Bitsche, Mario; Pechriggl, Elisabeth; Rask-Andersen, Helge; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies

    2014-02-01

    Human spiral ganglion (SG) neurons show remarkable survival properties and maintain electric excitability for a long time after complete deafness and even separation from the organ of Corti, features essential for cochlear implantation. Here, we analyze and compare the localization and distribution of gap junction (GJ) intercellular channels and connexin 43 (Cx43) in cells surrounding SG cell bodies in man and guinea pig by using transmission electron microscopy and confocal immunohistochemistry. GJs and Cx43 expression has been recognized in satellite glial cells (SGCs) in non-myelinating sensory ganglia including the human SG. In man, SG neurons can survive as mono-polar or "amputated" cells with unbroken central projections following dendrite degeneration and consolidation of the dendrite pole. Cx43-mediated GJ signaling between SGCs is believed to play a key role in this "healing" process and could explain the unique preservation of human SG neurons and the persistence of cochlear implant function. PMID:24241398

  19. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  20. Healthcare in overview of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Munis; Uzak, Aslı Subasioglu; Karabulut, Yesim

    2010-12-01

    Turkey is one of the leading countries with its developing economy, high young population, and with its geopolitical location being an intersection between Asia and Europe. It is aimed at setting a good example for developed and developing countries with its health policy targets. We reported and discussed here the demographic data of Turkish population, the main aims of Ministry of Health, social security system and its scope and structure, health services, healthcare institutions and their infrastructures, human resources in health, health staff training and also outline of Turkish foreign policy. We mentioned predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine according to Turkey's healthcare approach. PMID:23199111

  1. IL-6 Induced STAT3 Signalling Is Associated with the Proliferation of Human Muscle Satellite Cells Following Acute Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Kyle G.; McKay, Bryon R.; De Lisio, Michael; Little, Jonathon P.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Parise, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the satellite cell (SC) is a key regulator of muscle growth during development and muscle adaptation following exercise, the regulation of human muscle SC function remains largely unexplored. STAT3 signalling mediated via interleukin-6 (IL-6) has recently come to the forefront as a potential regulator of SC proliferation. The early response of the SC population in human muscle to muscle-lengthening contractions (MLC) as mediated by STAT3 has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve male subjects (212 y; 8312 kg) performed 300 maximal MLC of the quadriceps femoris at 180s?1 over a 55 range of motion with muscle samples (vastus lateralis) and blood samples (antecubital vein) taken prior to exercise (PRE), 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3) and 24 hours (T24) post-exercise. Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of muscle biopsies were purified and analyzed for total and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) by western blot. p-STAT3 was detected in cytoplasmic fractions across the time course peaking at T24 (p<0.01 vs. PRE). Nuclear total and p-STAT3 were not detected at appreciable levels. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a progressive increase in the proportion of SCs expressing p-STAT3 with ?60% of all SCs positive for p-STAT3 at T24 (p<0.001 vs. PRE). Additionally, cMyc, a STAT3 downstream gene, was significantly up-regulated in SCs at T24 versus PRE (p<0.05). Whole muscle mRNA analysis revealed induction of the STAT3 target genes IL-6, SOCS3, cMyc (peaking at T3, p<0.05), IL-6R? and GP130 (peaking at T24, p<0.05). In addition, Myf5 mRNA was up-regulated at T24 (p<0.05) with no appreciable change in MRF4 mRNA. Conclusions/Significant Findings We demonstrate that IL-6 induction of STAT3 signaling occurred exclusively in the nuclei of SCs in response to MLC. An increase in the number of cMyc+ SCs indicated that human SCs were induced to proliferate under the control of STAT3 signaling. PMID:21408055

  2. Small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Dermott, S.

    1986-01-01

    Satellites smaller than Mimas (r = 195 km) are distinguished by irregular overall shapes and by rough limb topography. Material properties and impact cratering dominate the shaping of these objects. Long fragmentation histories can produce a variety of internal structures, but so far there is no direct evidence that any small satellite is an equilibrium ellipsoid made up of noncohesive gravitationally bound rubble. One many bodies that orbit close to their primary the tidal and rotational components of surface gravity strongly affect the directions of local g and thereby affect the redistribution of regolith by mass wasting. Downslope movement of regolith is extensive on Deimos, and is probably effective on many other small satellites. It is shown that in some cases observed patterns of downslope mass wasting cold produce useful constraints on the satellite's mean density. The diversity of features seen in the few high-resolution images of small satellites currently available suggests that these objects have undergone complex histories of cratering, fragmentation, and regolith evolution.

  3. Genetic deletion of TNFR2 augments inflammatory response and blunts satellite-cell-mediated recovery response in a hind limb ischemia model

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Sharath P.; Rahimi, Layla; Yan, Xinhua; Silver, Marcy; Qin, Gangjian; Losordo, Douglas W.; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that TNF–tumor necrosis factor receptor-2/p75 (TNFR2/p75) signaling plays a critical role in ischemia-induced neovascularization in skeletal muscle and heart tissues. To determine the role of TNF-TNFR2/p75 signaling in ischemia-induced inflammation and muscle regeneration, we subjected wild-type (WT) and TNFR2/p75 knockout (p75KO) mice to hind limb ischemia (HLI) surgery. Ischemia induced significant and long-lasting inflammation associated with considerable decrease in satellite-cell activation in p75KO muscle tissue up to 10 d after HLI surgery. To determine the possible additive negative roles of tissue aging and the absence of TNFR2/p75, either in the tissue or in the bone marrow (BM), we generated 2 chimeric BM transplantation (BMT) models where both young green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive p75KO and WT BM-derived cells were transplanted into adult p75KO mice. HLI surgery was performed 1 mo after BMT, after confirming complete engraftment of the recipient BM with GFP donor cells. In adult p75KO with the WT-BMT, proliferative (Ki67+) cells were detected only by d 28 and were exclusively GFP+, suggesting significantly delayed contribution of young WT-BM cell to adult p75KO ischemic tissue recovery. No GFP+ young p75KO BM cells survived in adult p75KO tissue, signifying the additive negative roles of tissue aging combined with decreased/absent TNFR2/p75 signaling in postischemic recovery.—Sasi, S. P., Rahimi, L., Yan, X., Silver, M., Qin, G., Losordo, D. W., Kishore, R., Goukassian, D. A. Genetic deletion of TNFR2 augments inflammatory response and blunts satellite-cell-mediated recovery response in a hind limb ischemia model. PMID:25466901

  4. Stimulation with monochromatic green light during incubation alters satellite cell mitotic activity and gene expression in relation to embryonic and posthatch muscle growth of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Qiao, X; Yue, H Y; Yao, J H; Qi, G H

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight (BW) and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated the morphological and molecular basis of this phenomenon. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880) were pre-weighed and randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 incubation treatment groups: (1) dark condition (control group), and (2) monochromatic green light group (560 nm). The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps and were equalized at the intensity of 15 lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day 1 until hatching. After hatch, 120 male 1-day-old chicks from each group were housed under incandescent white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. No effects of light stimuli during embryogenesis on hatching time, hatchability, hatching weight and bird mortality during the feeding trial period were observed in the present study. Compared with the dark condition, the BW, pectoral muscle weight and myofiber cross-sectional areas were significantly greater on 7-day-old chicks incubated under green light. Green light also increased the satellite cell mitotic activity of pectoral muscle on 1- and 3-day-old birds. In addition, green light upregulated MyoD, myogenin and myostatin mRNA expression in late embryos and/ or newly hatched chicks. These data suggest that stimulation with monochromatic green light during incubation promote muscle growth by enhancing proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in late embryonic and newly hatched stages. Higher expression of myostatin may ultimately help prevent excessive proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in birds incubated under green light. PMID:24168791

  5. High performance satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Neil R.; Edelson, Burton I.

    1997-06-01

    The high performance satellite communications networks of the future will have to be interoperable with terrestrial fiber cables. These satellite networks will evolve from narrowband analogue formats to broadband digital transmission schemes, with protocols, algorithms and transmission architectures that will segment the data into uniform cells and frames, and then transmit these data via larger and more efficient synchronous optional (SONET) and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks that are being developed for the information "superhighway". These high performance satellite communications and information networks are required for modern applications, such as electronic commerce, digital libraries, medical imaging, distance learning, and the distribution of science data. In order for satellites to participate in these information superhighway networks, it is essential that they demonstrate their ability to: (1) operate seamlessly with heterogeneous architectures and applications, (2) carry data at SONET rates with the same quality of service as optical fibers, (3) qualify transmission delay as a parameter not a problem, and (4) show that satellites have several performance and economic advantages over fiber cable networks.

  6. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  7. The Educational System of Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Studies (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    An overview of the basic system of education in Turkey from preschool to the university level is included in this booklet. A brief discussion of educational history stresses the significance of the placing of schools under control of the Ministry of Education in 1924 in an effort to promote national integration, and the importance of the adoption…

  8. Alcohol fuel research in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

    1998-12-01

    Turkey, like most of the developing countries of the world, has vast agricultural potential, yet the country is highly dependent on oil imports, which satisfy 90% of its crude oil demand. Since Turkey had an economy based on agriculture, the usage of national resources in the energy field is extremely important. In the first years of the Turkish Republic, in 1931, the usage of national resources as an alternative to conventional fuels became a subject of increasing interest. Since then a lot of research has been conducted, but only a limited amount of application has been realized. Alcohol has always occupied an important place among the alternative fuel studies. The subject has been the scope of some research institute projects and university and government development planning studies. In Turkey, one of the most important studies in this area has been undertaken by the authors` research group in their university. This study is a general review of alcohol usage as an alternative automotive fuel in Turkey. This review includes a short history of the subject, the approach of the government, the research results, possible developments on the subject in the near future, and finally, it concludes with proposals.

  9. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years. PMID:25030194

  10. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  11. Satellite description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, F. C.; Clegg, P. E.; Neugebauer, G.; Langford, D.; Pouw, A.; Irace, W.; Houck, J.

    The onboard computers and their associated software, the attitude control system, and data recording and the communication links of the infrared astronomy satellite (TRAS) are discussed. The IRAS telescope system is considered in detail. Attention is directed towards the cryogenics, thermal control, optics, focal plane assembly, and electronics associated with the telescope system.

  12. Response of specific-pathogen-free turkeys to vaccines derived from marble spleen disease virus and hemorrhagic enteritis virus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J M

    1994-01-01

    Tissue-culture-propagated marble spleen disease virus (MSDV-TC) and two preparations of spleen homogenate (MSDV-SH and MSDV-SH-TC) were compared as anti-hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) vaccines in specific-pathogen-free turkeys. Both types of vaccines spread horizontally among turkeys, induced anti-HEV antibodies, and protected turkeys against challenge with virulent HEV. Antibody development and horizontal spread of virus occurred earlier in turkeys given MSDV-SH or MSDV-SH-TC than in those given MSDV-TC. Virulent HEV was serially passed in MDTC-RP19 cells. The 30th passage virus (HEV-P30) was nonpathogenic for turkeys but was immunogenic. Turkeys exposed to HEV-P30 had viral antigen in the spleen, developed neutralizing antibodies, and resisted virulent HEV. The principal difference between MSDV-TC and HEV-P30 vaccines was that MSDV-TC caused well-defined splenomegaly in turkeys, whereas HEV-P30 protected turkeys without causing spleen enlargement. PMID:7832705

  13. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps. PMID:18644708

  14. Effect of cyclophosphamide on selected hematologic parameters of the turkey.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J

    1988-01-01

    The effect of three daily cyclophosphamide (CY) injections (doses of 0-100 mg/kg.day) on selected hematologic parameters in 7-to-8-week-old female Nicholas turkeys was examined. CY induced significant leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and heteropenia 24 to 72 hours after the initial injection; time depended on cell type and dose of CY. Significant linear correlation between increasing CY dose and increasing severity of circulating cell depression occurred. CY had no significant effect on circulating numbers of monocytes, packed cell volume, or plasma protein. Changes in basophils and eosinophils could not be identified because of their low numbers. PMID:3202775

  15. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection. PMID:9876849

  16. Healthcare financing: how does Turkey compare?

    PubMed

    Akhmedjonov, Alisher; Güç, Yunus; Akinci, Fevzi

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of Turkey's healthcare financing. After comparing financing data on Turkey and other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries, they examine Turkey's performance on a wide range of healthcare input and outcome indicators using descriptive data drawn from the World Health Organization, World Bank, OECD, and Turkish Statistical Institute. The data analysis shows that Turkey ranks low by a number of key healthcare indicators across the OECD countries. Empirical analysis suggests that although many factors are associated with improvements in healthcare outcomes, a significant part of changes in life expectancy at birth are associated with higher spending on healthcare. PMID:21864057

  17. Theca cell cytochrome P450 17-hydroxylase and aromatase messenger ribonucleic acid abundance and serum steroid levels during follicular atresia associated with incubation behavior in the domestic turkey hen.

    PubMed

    Tabibzadeh, C; Silsby, J L; Rozenboim, I; Pitts, G R; Foster, D N; el Halawani, M E

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to examine changes in cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (C17) and aromatase (ARO) mRNA contents in the theca layer of preovulatory follicles (POF) as turkey hens transit from egg laying to incubation. Hens were grouped into the following categories: 1) laying hens--laid one egg per day and nested 1-2 times per day; 2) transitional hens--laid one egg per day and nested > 4 times per day; and 3) Day 1, Day 3, and Day 5 incubating hens--laid no eggs for 2, 4, or 6 days, respectively, and nested > 4 times per day. Small white follicles (SWF) and the theca layer from the largest (F1) and the third (F3), fifth (F5), and seventh (F7) largest POF were dispersed and challenged with testosterone (T) for 5 h. Relative levels of C17 and ARO mRNA were examined from the theca layers of F1, F3, F5, F7, and SWF. The number of atretic follicles increased from 0 (layers) to 8 (Day 5 incubating hens). Serum LH, progesterone (P), and estradiol (E), but not T, declined on Day 1 of incubation. Basal levels of P, T, and E from theca and SWF cells declined in incubating hens. Both basal and T-stimulated theca and SWF production of E decreased in incubating hens. C17 and ARO mRNA declined in SWF, F7, and F5 during follicular atresia. It is suggested that reduced gene expression of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes may be a partial determinant of reduced circulating sex steroid levels in incubating hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7819456

  18. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  19. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

  20. Health services pricing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoglu, D; Dziegielewski, S F

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important and complex decisions that public services managers have to make is pricing. This is especially difficult within public health care because pricing decisions are influenced by a myriad of ideological, political, economic and professional arguments. In Turkey the majority of health care services are provided under public auspice; however, recent changes in governmental policy have led to increased competition among hospitals in both the public and private sector. Therefore, all institutions are being watched and remain open to government scrutiny and regulation. The aim of the study is to analyze how the private and governmental hospitals determine pricing or the actual cost of services in Turkey. Also, comparisons are made between health services expenditures and the Consumer Price Index with suggestions provided for public and private hospital managers in regard to the general cost of health services. PMID:11183658

  1. Timation 3 satellite. [artificial satellite for navigation, space radiation, and time transfer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the Timation 3 satellite are discussed. A diagram of the basic structure is provide to show the solar panels, navigation and telemetry antennas, gravity gradient booms, and solar cell experiments. The specific application of the satellite for time management or time transfer for navigation purposes is reported. Various measurements and experiments conducted by the satellite are described.

  2. Cerebral encephalomalacia in commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Cummings, T S; Wages, D P

    1993-01-01

    A flock of 9 1/2-week-old commercial tom turkeys experienced high mortality after consuming a complete feed containing an unidentified toxic substance. Initially, turkeys were found dead. Clinically, the birds were calm and still but became hyperexcitable with noise. A small percentage of birds exhibited torticollis, opisthotonos, circling, ataxia, and blindness. Findings at necropsy and upon microscopic examination were bilaterally symmetrical areas of necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres in the area of the neostriatum that were well demarcated from the surrounding normal neuropil. A feeding trial with the suspect feed in twelve 4-week-old turkey hens induced clinical disease and gross and microscopic brain changes similar to those observed in the field case. Analyses for the following substances in the suspect feed were either negative or within acceptable limits: salt, selenium, furazolidone, monensin, amprolium, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and carbamates. The toxic component of the feed remains unidentified. PMID:8257395

  3. TDRS satellite over African Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This post deploy view of a TDRS satellite shows a segment of the African Rift Valley near Lake Baringo, Kenya, Africa (3.0S, 36.0E). The African Rift Valley system is a geologic fault having its origins in southern Turkey, through the near east forming the bed of the Jordan River, Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea and down through east Africa. The line of lakes and valleys of east Africa are the result of the faulting activity.

  4. Serotonin Localization in the Turkey Vaginal but not Sperm Storage Tubule Epithelia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our knowledge regarding the mechanism of sperm selection and transport in the hen’s vagina is meager. Preliminary observations indicate the presence of non-neuron endocrine cells in the epithelia lining the lumina of the turkey hen vagina and uterovaginal junction. While no cells in the vagina or U...

  5. Role of the mTORC1 complex in satellite cell activation by RNA-induced mitochondrial restoration: dual control of cyclin D1 through microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Jash, Sukanta; Dhar, Gunjan; Ghosh, Utpalendu; Adhya, Samit

    2014-10-01

    During myogenesis, satellite stem cells (SCs) are induced to proliferate and differentiate to myogenic precursors. The role of energy sensors such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in SC activation is unclear. We previously observed that upregulation of ATP through RNA-mediated mitochondrial restoration (MR) accelerates SC activation following skeletal muscle injury. We show here that during regeneration, the AMPK-CRTC2-CREB and Raptor-mTORC-4EBP1 pathways were rapidly activated. The phosho-CRTC2-CREB complex was essential for myogenesis and activated transcription of the critical cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 (Ccnd1). Knockdown (KD) of either mTORC or its subunit Raptor delayed SC activation without influencing the differentiation program. KD of 4EBP1 had no effect on SC activation but enhanced myofiber size. mTORC1 positively regulated Ccnd1 translation but destabilized Ccnd1 mRNA. These antithetical effects of mTORC1 were mediated by two microRNAs (miRs) targeted to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Ccnd1 mRNA: miR-1 was downregulated in mTORC-KD muscle, and depletion of miR-1 resulted in increased levels of mRNA without any effect on Ccnd1 protein. In contrast, miR-26a was upregulated upon mTORC depletion, while anti-miR-26a oligonucleotide specifically stimulated Ccnd1 protein expression. Thus, mTORC may act as a timer of satellite cell proliferation during myogenesis. PMID:25047835

  6. Salmonella Levels in Turkey Neck Skins, Drumstick Bones, and Spleens in Relation to Ground Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Guran, Husnu S; Harrison, Mark A; Hofacre, Charles L; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella levels (presence and numbers) in turkey drumstick bone, spleen, and neck skin samples in relation to Salmonella contamination levels in ground turkey at the flock level. Over a 10-month period, a total of 300 samples of each turkey part (i.e., neck skin, spleen, and drumstick) from 20 flocks were collected at a commercial turkey processing plant after the evisceration step. Turkey flocks included in this study were classified as "targeted" and "nontargeted" based on the company's historical ground turkey contamination data. A flock that originated from a turkey farm that had previously produced one or more flocks with ≥20% Salmonella prevalence in ground turkey was labeled as a targeted flock (n = 13). The remaining seven flocks with <20% prevalence were labeled as nontargeted. All samples collected were tested for Salmonella presence and numbers by using most-probable-number and selective enrichment methods. Further genotypic analysis (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of the isolates was performed. Ground turkey samples were collected and analyzed for Salmonella levels by the cooperating turkey company. The outside surface of bone and spleen were sterilized prior to Salmonella analysis. The overall Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, drumstick bone, spleen, and ground turkey samples was 42.0, 9.3, 6.7, and 14.5%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, spleen, drumstick bone, and ground turkey from the targeted flocks was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those from nontargeted flocks. There was a significant relationship between Salmonella presence in neck skin (when most probable numbers were ≥2 log) and Salmonella-positive ground turkey lot. Based on our findings, Salmonella was detected internally in drumstick bones and spleens at low levels, whereas Salmonella presence at higher levels in neck skin may indicate a flock with greater potential for Salmonella contamination of ground turkey. PMID:26555516

  7. Epidemiological investigations on Q fever in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Payzin, Sabahattin

    1953-01-01

    Q fever is endemic in Turkey in both human beings and animals. Cows, sheep, goats, and dogs may play a role as reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii. Ornithodorus lahorensis ticks also harbour the agent. The disease is disseminated throughout Turkey; epidemics among human beings are relatively rare. PMID:20603969

  8. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  9. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  10. INTESTINAL FLORA OF WILD AND DOMESTIC TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

  11. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  12. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  13. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  14. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

  15. Cryptosporidia in the respiratory tract of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Ranck, F M; Hoerr, F J

    1987-01-01

    Cryptosporidia were found in the respiratory tract of turkeys in eight flocks on five different farms over a 4-month period. Turkeys ranged in age from 2 1/2 weeks to 11 weeks of age. All had respiratory signs. Diagnoses were made by examining wet smears and confirmed by histopathological examinations. PMID:3619834

  16. Talking Turkey at the Wildwood Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Mike

    1994-01-01

    A vocational education program at the Wildwood Education Center (Hornell, NY) enabled 9th and 10th grade special education students to design, build, and market turkey calls. A module on wildlife management piqued student interest in wildlife calls and turkey hunting and led to the project. The program improved vocational skills and increased…

  17. Principals' Openness to Change in Malatya, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Mahire; Beycioglu, Kadir; Konan, Necdet

    2008-01-01

    When change is deemed necessary, principals' attitudes towards changes are significant for successful restructuring of schools. This study aimed to ascertain the extent to which principals in Malatya, Turkey, are open to change. A questionnaire was administered to 156 elementary and secondary school principals in Malatya, Turkey. This…

  18. Reduction of exposure to blood donors in preterm infants submitted to red blood cell transfusions using pediatric satellite packs

    PubMed Central

    Uezima, Cristina Lika; Barreto, Ariane Moreira; Guinsburg, Ruth; Chiba, Akemi Kuroda; Bordin, José Orlando; Barros, Melca Maria O.; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In preterm newborn infants transfused with erythrocytes stored up to 28 days, to compare the reduction of blood donor exposure in two groups of infants classified according to birth weight. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with preterm infants with birth weight <1000g (Group 1) and 1000-1499g (Group 2), born between April, 2008 and December, 2009. Neonates submitted to exchange transfusions, emergency erythrocyte transfusion, or those who died in the first 24 hours of life were excluded. Transfusions were indicated according to the local guideline using pediatric transfusion satellite bags. Demographic and clinical data, besides number of transfusions and donors were assessed. . Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with multiple transfusions. RESULTS: 30 and 48 neonates were included in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The percentage of newborns with more than one erythrocyte transfusion (90 versus 11%), the median number of transfusions (3 versus 1) and the median of blood donors (2 versus 1) were higher in Group 1 (p<0.001), compared to Group 2. Among those with multiple transfusions, 14 (82%) and one (50%) presented 50% reduction in the number of blood donors, respectively in Groups 1 and 2. Factors associated with multiple transfusions were: birth weight <1000g (OR 11.91; 95%CI 2.14-66.27) and presence of arterial umbilical catheter (OR 8.59; 95%CI 1.94-38.13), adjusted for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of pediatrics satellites bags on blood donor reduction was higher in preterm infants with birth weight <1000g. PMID:24142309

  19. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Meteor-2 (second generation meteorological satellite) and an experimental satellite on which instruments are being tested and modified for the requirements of hydrometeorology and a determination of natural resources are presently operational in the U.S.S.R. Television devices with a 1-10 km terrain image resolution operating in the visible and infrared region are used to determine the space system, velocity and direction of cloud movements and provide information about the snow and ice cover, cyclones, storms, vortices in the atmosphere, and velocity and direction of wind. Images with a 50-1000 m resolution make possible geological and hydrological surveys, an evaluation of the state of vegetation and crops, detection of forest fires, determination of pollution of the atmosphere and sea and determination of optimal fishing regions in the ocean. Measurement of the intensity of atmospheric radiation in narrow infrared regions and very high frequencies allows remote evaluation of the temperature and humidity distribution in the vertical cross section of the Earth's atmosphere.

  20. Satellite bioclimatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite-acquired, remotely sensed observations of the earth's land areas are substantially advancing knowledge of global vegetation patterns. Recognition that combined visible/near infrared spectral reflectance observations are a general indicator of the presence, condition and magnitude of vegetation foliage provides a basis for explanation. This information is of considerable value in climatic research because of the links between climate variables and vegetation foliage. Presence of vegetation foliage is predominantly determinated by a combination of local heat and moisture conditions. In turn, foliar presence determines local rates of photosynthesis, affects surface albedo, and influences local rates of evapotranspiration as well as other elements of surface energy/mass balance. Availability of these remotely sensed data provides, for the first time, a consistent, global means to directly study interactions between climate and vegetation. This understanding is now being incorporated in climatological research and should improve understanding of macroscale bioclimatology. Remote sensing technology and understanding of this technology are continuing to develop rapidly and further major advances in this new field of'satellite bioclimatology' can be expected in the near future.

  1. Site Testing for an Optical Observatory in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Z.; Aydin, C.; Tunca, Z.; Dimircan, O.; Derman, E.; Golbasi, O.; Marsoglu, A.

    1989-01-01

    Site testing observations made between 1982 and 1986 are reported. Long-term meteorological records have indicated, and on-site observations have confirmed, that the southwest and southeast of Turkey contain good potential observatory sites. An inspection of the visual and infrared images received from the satellites Meteosat and NOAA-7 have indicated that the Antalya Bay region and the southeast of Turkey have statistically less cloud cover. The resolution of the images is too low to locate a mountain top above an inversion layer. The average height and frequency of occurrence of an inversion layer have been deduced from radiosonde data. Four candidate sites have been selected by reconnaissance in the potential regions. Atmospheric seeing observations by the polar star trail method and meteorological observations have been carried out simultaneously on two sites at a time. The comparison of the mountains has shown Bakirlitepe to stand out as a good site. It has further been shown that Bakirlitepe compares very favorably with the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma, which is one of the world's best observatories.

  2. Astronomical site selection for Turkey using GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksaker, N.; Yerli, S. K.; Erdoğan, M. A.; Erdi, E.; Kaba, K.; Ak, T.; Aslan, Z.; Bakış, V.; Demircan, O.; Evren, S.; Keskin, V.; Küçük, İ.; Özdemir, T.; Özışık, T.; Selam, S. O.

    2015-10-01

    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for the best, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national funding has been awarded to produce a prototype of an on-site test unit (to measure both astronomical and meteorological parameters) which might be used in this list of locations.

  3. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--role of satellite cells in anabolic steroid-induced muscle growth in feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Dayton, W R; White, M E

    2014-01-01

    Both androgenic and estrogenic steroids are widely used as growth promoters in feedlot steers because they significantly enhance feed efficiency, rate of gain, and muscle growth. However, despite their widespread use relatively little is known about the biological mechanism by which androgenic and estrogenic steroids enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth in cattle. Treatment of feedlot steers with a combined estradiol (E2) and trenbolone acetate (TBA) implant results in an increased number of muscle satellite cells, increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA in muscle tissue, and increased levels of circulating IGF-1. Similarly, treatment of bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures with either TBA or E2 results in increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA, increased rates of proliferation and protein synthesis, and decreased rates of protein degradation. Effects of E2 on BSC are mediated at least in part through the classical E2 receptor, estrogen receptor-α (ESR1), the IGF-1 receptor (IGFR1), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR30). The effects of TBA appear to be primarily mediated through the androgen receptor. Based on current research results, it is becoming clear that anabolic steroid-enhanced bovine muscle growth involves a complex interaction of numerous pathways and receptors. Consequently, additional in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms involved in this complex process. The fundamental information generated by this research will help in developing future, safe, and effective strategies to increase rate and efficiency of muscle growth in beef cattle. PMID:24166993

  4. The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

    2014-08-01

    Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87. PMID:24485280

  5. Outer planet satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon.

  6. A fine structural study of the turkey harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M H; Rothwell, B; Burns, R B

    1986-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the turkey Harderian gland is described and the findings support previous histological descriptions of the gland. The gland is a compound tubulo-acinar structure composed of characteristic bipolar epithelial cells providing a predominantly merocrine secretion to the lumina. In the basal aspect of the cell, aggregations of non-secretory lipid-like droplets were evident and apically, the secretion was mucoid. The cells had abundant mitochondria, granular endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and a complex network of Golgi elements. In the subepithelial regions, myoepithelial cells and large numbers of plasma cells were seen. Within the granular endoplasmic reticulum cisternae of the epithelial cells, fibrillary or crystalline rods in some instances measuring up to 10 micron in length, with a 7.0 nm repeat pattern, were frequently seen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693084

  7. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, A M; Yalin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available. PMID:10770073

  8. Satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheney, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Since altimetry data are not really old enough to use the term data archaeology, Mr. Cheney referred to the stewardship of these data. He noted that it is very important to document the basis for an altimetry data set as the algorithms and corrections used to arrive at the Geophysical Data Record (GDR) have been improving and are continuing to improve the precision of sea level data derived from altimetry. He noted that the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data set has recently been reprocessed by his organization in the National Ocean Service of NOAA and made available to the scientific community on CD/ROM disks by the National Oceanographic Data Center of the U.S. (NODC). The new data set contains a satellite orbit more precise by an order of magnitude together with an improved water vapor correction. A new, comprehensive GDR Handbook has also been prepared.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a turkey arthritis reovirus.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Ziegler, Andre; Patnayak, Devi P; Goyal, Sagar M

    2013-03-01

    During the spring and summer of 2011, the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Minnesota received 14 submissions of 15-to-18-week-old tom turkeys that were recumbent with wing tip bruises ("wing walkers") and uni- or bilateral swelling of the hock (tibiotarsal) joints. Gastrocnemius or digital flexor tendons were occasionally ruptured. A total of five turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV-MN1 through TARV-MN5) were isolated in specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs and QT-35 cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by electron microscopy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and gene sequence analysis. BLAST analysis on the basis of a 880 bp nucleotide sequence of the S4 gene confirmed all isolates as a reovirus. Phylogenetic analysis divided the five isolates into two subgroups: subgroup I containing TARV-MN1, -2, -3, and -5, and the other subgroup containing TARV-MN4. Isolates in subgroup I had a similarity of 97%-100% with each other, while subgroup II (TARV-MN4) had a similarity of only 89.2% with subgroup I viruses. This isolate showed 90%-93% similarity with turkey enteric reoviruses in the United States, while the other four isolates in subgroup I had 89%-97.6% similarity. These results indicate divergence within TARVs as well as from enteric viruses, which needs to be confirmed by complete genome sequence analysis. Further experimental studies are planned to determine the role of these isolates in turkey arthritis and to compare them with classical chicken reovirus. PMID:23678736

  10. Identification of miR-2400 gene as a novel regulator in skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation by targeting MYOG gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei Wei; Tong, Hui Li; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hu, Qian; Yang, Yu; Li, Shu Feng; Yan, Yun Qin; Li, Guang Peng

    2015-08-07

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study in our laboratory showed that the expression level of miR-2400, a novel and unique miRNA from bovine, had significantly changed in skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) during differentiation, however, the function and expression pattern for miR-2400 in MDSCs has not been fully understood. In this report, we firstly identified that the expression levels of miR-2400 were down-regulated during MDSCs differentiation by stem-loop RT-PCR. Over-expression and inhibition studies demonstrated that miR-2400 promoted MDSCs proliferation by EdU (5-ethynyl-2′ deoxyuridine) incorporation assay and immunofluorescence staining of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of myogenin (MYOG) mRNA. These data suggested that miR-2400 could promote MDSCs proliferation through targeting MYOG. Furthermore, we found that miR-2400, which was located within the eighth intron of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) gene, was down-regulated in MDSCs in a direct correlation with the WHSC1L1 transcript by Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi). In addition, these observations not only provided supporting evidence for the codependent expression of intronic miRNAs and their host genes in vitro, but also gave insight into the role of miR-2400 in MDSCs proliferation. - Highlights: • miR-2400 is a novel and unique miRNA from bovine. • miR-2400 could promote skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation. • miR-2400 directly targeted the 3′ untranslated regions of MYOG mRNA. • miR-2400 could be coexpressed together with its host gene WHSC1L1.

  11. Neuronal Subtype and Satellite Cell Tropism Are Determinants of Varicella-Zoster Virus Virulence in Human Dorsal Root Ganglia Xenografts In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella during primary infection. VZV reactivation from neuronal latency may cause herpes zoster, post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and other neurologic syndromes. To investigate VZV neuropathogenesis, we developed a model using human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) xenografts in immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The SCID DRG model provides an opportunity to examine characteristics of VZV infection that occur in the context of the specialized architecture of DRG, in which nerve cell bodies are ensheathed by satellite glial cells (SGC) which support neuronal homeostasis. We hypothesized that VZV exhibits neuron-subtype specific tropism and that VZV tropism for SGC contributes to VZV-related ganglionopathy. Based on quantitative analyses of viral and cell protein expression in DRG tissue sections, we demonstrated that, whereas DRG neurons had an immature neuronal phenotype prior to implantation, subtype heterogeneity was observed within 20 weeks and SGC retained the capacity to maintain neuronal homeostasis longterm. Profiling VZV protein expression in DRG neurons showed that VZV enters peripherin+ nociceptive and RT97+ mechanoreceptive neurons by both axonal transport and contiguous spread from SGC, but replication in RT97+ neurons is blocked. Restriction occurs even when the SGC surrounding the neuronal cell body were infected and after entry and ORF61 expression, but before IE62 or IE63 protein expression. Notably, although contiguous VZV spread with loss of SGC support would be predicted to affect survival of both nociceptive and mechanoreceptive neurons, RT97+ neurons showed selective loss relative to peripherin+ neurons at later times in DRG infection. Profiling cell factors that were upregulated in VZV-infected DRG indicated that VZV infection induced marked pro-inflammatory responses, as well as proteins of the interferon pathway and neuroprotective responses. These neuropathologic changes observed in sensory ganglia infected with VZV may help to explain the neurologic sequelae often associated with zoster and PHN. PMID:26090802

  12. Neuronal Subtype and Satellite Cell Tropism Are Determinants of Varicella-Zoster Virus Virulence in Human Dorsal Root Ganglia Xenografts In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella during primary infection. VZV reactivation from neuronal latency may cause herpes zoster, post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and other neurologic syndromes. To investigate VZV neuropathogenesis, we developed a model using human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) xenografts in immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The SCID DRG model provides an opportunity to examine characteristics of VZV infection that occur in the context of the specialized architecture of DRG, in which nerve cell bodies are ensheathed by satellite glial cells (SGC) which support neuronal homeostasis. We hypothesized that VZV exhibits neuron-subtype specific tropism and that VZV tropism for SGC contributes to VZV-related ganglionopathy. Based on quantitative analyses of viral and cell protein expression in DRG tissue sections, we demonstrated that, whereas DRG neurons had an immature neuronal phenotype prior to implantation, subtype heterogeneity was observed within 20 weeks and SGC retained the capacity to maintain neuronal homeostasis longterm. Profiling VZV protein expression in DRG neurons showed that VZV enters peripherin+ nociceptive and RT97+ mechanoreceptive neurons by both axonal transport and contiguous spread from SGC, but replication in RT97+ neurons is blocked. Restriction occurs even when the SGC surrounding the neuronal cell body were infected and after entry and ORF61 expression, but before IE62 or IE63 protein expression. Notably, although contiguous VZV spread with loss of SGC support would be predicted to affect survival of both nociceptive and mechanoreceptive neurons, RT97+ neurons showed selective loss relative to peripherin+ neurons at later times in DRG infection. Profiling cell factors that were upregulated in VZV-infected DRG indicated that VZV infection induced marked pro-inflammatory responses, as well as proteins of the interferon pathway and neuroprotective responses. These neuropathologic changes observed in sensory ganglia infected with VZV may help to explain the neurologic sequelae often associated with zoster and PHN. PMID:26090802

  13. LONG-TERM INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I EXPRESSION IN SKELETAL MUSCLES ATTENUATES THE ENHANCED IN VITRO PROLIFERATION ABILITY OF THE RESIDENT SATELLITE CELLS IN TRANSGENIC MICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue...

  14. Satellites in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    1988-01-01

    Describes the methods and materials used to obtain satellite pictures from weather satellites. Discusses possible physics lessons which can be done using this equipment including orbital mechanics, and how the satellite works. (CW)

  15. Tracheal mucus transport rate in normal turkeys and in turkeys infected with Bordetella avium (Alcaligenes faecalis).

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Edwards, J F; Lay, J C; Tveter, D E

    1986-01-01

    Using the radiopharmaceutical 99mtechnetium-sulfur colloid, the tracheal mucus transport rate (TMTR) was measured in healthy unanesthetized turkeys and in turkeys infected with Bordetella avium. The TMTR of uninfected turkeys was 35.6 +/- 14.4 cm/min. The TMTR of B. avium-infected turkeys was normal on days 0 through 14 postexposure (PE), despite heavy bacterial colonization of the tracheal epithelium. On day 21 PE, the TMTR of B. avium-infected turkeys was significantly depressed (P less than or equal to 0.01) compared with that of control turkeys. Depressed transport was associated with extensive loss of ciliated epithelium from the tracheal mucosa and replacement of the normal mucosa by immature nonciliated epithelium or metaplastic squamous epithelium. PMID:3729858

  16. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  17. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, A; Kucukomeroglu, B; Damla, N; Cevik, U

    2011-04-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and (137)Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h(-1) and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y(-1). In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y(-1) from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. PMID:21382657

  18. The Turkey Ig-Like Receptor Family: Identification, Expression and Function

    PubMed Central

    Windau, Katharina; Viertlboeck, Birgit C.; Göbel, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    The chicken leukocyte receptor complex located on microchromosome 31 encodes the chicken Ig-like receptors (CHIR), a vastly expanded gene family which can be further divided into three subgroups: activating CHIR-A, bifunctional CHIR-AB and inhibitory CHIR-B. Here, we investigated the presence of CHIR homologues in other bird species. The available genome databases of turkey, duck and zebra finch were screened with different strategies including BLAST searches employing various CHIR sequences, and keyword searches. We could not identify CHIR homologues in the distantly related zebra finch and duck, however, several partial and complete sequences of CHIR homologues were identified on chromosome 3 of the turkey genome. They were designated as turkey Ig-like receptors (TILR). Using cDNA derived from turkey blood and spleen RNA, six full length TILR could be amplified and further divided according to the typical sequence features into one activating TILR-A, one inhibitory TILR-B and four bifunctional TILR-AB. Since the TILR-AB sequences all displayed the critical residues shown to be involved in binding to IgY, we next confirmed the IgY binding using a soluble TILR-AB1-huIg fusion protein. This fusion protein reacted with IgY derived from various gallinaceous birds, but not with IgY from other bird species. Finally, we tested various mab directed against CHIR for their crossreactivity with either turkey or duck leukocytes. Whereas no staining was detectable with duck cells, the CHIR-AB1 specific mab 8D12 and the CHIR-A2 specific mab 13E2 both reacted with a leukocyte subpopulation that was further identified as thrombocytes by double immunofluorescence employing B-cell, T-cell and thrombocyte specific reagents. In summary, although the turkey harbors similar LRC genes as the chicken, their distribution seems to be distinct with predominance on thrombocytes rather than lymphocytes. PMID:23527222

  19. The Turkey Ig-like receptor family: identification, expression and function.

    PubMed

    Windau, Katharina; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The chicken leukocyte receptor complex located on microchromosome 31 encodes the chicken Ig-like receptors (CHIR), a vastly expanded gene family which can be further divided into three subgroups: activating CHIR-A, bifunctional CHIR-AB and inhibitory CHIR-B. Here, we investigated the presence of CHIR homologues in other bird species. The available genome databases of turkey, duck and zebra finch were screened with different strategies including BLAST searches employing various CHIR sequences, and keyword searches. We could not identify CHIR homologues in the distantly related zebra finch and duck, however, several partial and complete sequences of CHIR homologues were identified on chromosome 3 of the turkey genome. They were designated as turkey Ig-like receptors (TILR). Using cDNA derived from turkey blood and spleen RNA, six full length TILR could be amplified and further divided according to the typical sequence features into one activating TILR-A, one inhibitory TILR-B and four bifunctional TILR-AB. Since the TILR-AB sequences all displayed the critical residues shown to be involved in binding to IgY, we next confirmed the IgY binding using a soluble TILR-AB1-huIg fusion protein. This fusion protein reacted with IgY derived from various gallinaceous birds, but not with IgY from other bird species. Finally, we tested various mab directed against CHIR for their crossreactivity with either turkey or duck leukocytes. Whereas no staining was detectable with duck cells, the CHIR-AB1 specific mab 8D12 and the CHIR-A2 specific mab 13E2 both reacted with a leukocyte subpopulation that was further identified as thrombocytes by double immunofluorescence employing B-cell, T-cell and thrombocyte specific reagents. In summary, although the turkey harbors similar LRC genes as the chicken, their distribution seems to be distinct with predominance on thrombocytes rather than lymphocytes. PMID:23527222

  20. Satellite glial cells surrounding primary afferent neurons are activated and proliferate during monoarthritis in rats: is there a role for ATF3?

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Diana Sofia Marques; Castro-Lopes, Jos Manuel; Moreira Neto, Fani Lourena

    2014-01-01

    Joint inflammatory diseases are debilitating and very painful conditions that still lack effective treatments. Recently, glial cells were shown to be crucial for the development and maintenance of chronic pain, constituting novel targets for therapeutic approaches. At the periphery, the satellite glial cells (SGCs) that surround the cell bodies of primary afferents neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) display hypertrophy, proliferation, and activation following injury and/or inflammation. It has been suggested that the expression of neuronal injury factors might initially trigger these SGCs-related events. We then aimed at evaluating if SGCs are involved in the establishment/maintenance of articular inflammatory pain, by using the monoarthritis (MA) model, and if the neuronal injury marker activating transcriptional factor 3 (ATF3) is associated with these SGCs' reactive changes. Western Blot (WB) analysis of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was performed in L4-L5 DRGs from control non-inflamed rats and MA animals at different time-points of disease (4, 7, and 14d, induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection into the left hind paw ankle joint). Data indicate that SGCs activation is occurring in MA animals, particularly after day 7 of disease evolution. Additionally, double-immunostaining for ATF3 and GFAP in L5 DRG sections shows that SGCs's activation significantly increases around stressed neurons at 7d of disease, when compared with control animals. The specific labelling of GFAP in SGCs rather than in other cell types was also confirmed by immunohistochemical labeling. Finally, BrdU incorporation indicates that proliferation of SGCs is also significantly increased after 7 days of MA. Data indicate that SGCs play an important role in the mechanisms of articular inflammation, with 7 days of disease being a critical time-point in the MA model, and suggest that ATF3 might be involved in SGCs' reactive changes such as activation. PMID:25247596

  1. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickle cadmium spacecraft cells for the dynamic explorer satellite program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-04-01

    Evaluation tests of 10 nickel cadmium cells are described. Although pressures were greater than what normally was exhibited by General Electric cells in the past, it is recommended that these cells be placed on life test simulating the predicted Dynamic Explorer flight profiles.

  2. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickle cadmium spacecraft cells for the dynamic explorer satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation tests of 10 nickel cadmium cells are described. Although pressures were greater than what normally was exhibited by General Electric cells in the past, it is recommended that these cells be placed on life test simulating the predicted Dynamic Explorer flight profiles.

  3. ASPEC: Solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  4. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  5. DIAGNOSING LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE VIRUS IN LIVE WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) USING WHOLE BLOOD.

    PubMed

    Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Jagne, Jarra; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a retrovirus that infects wild and domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ). The first cases of LPDV in the United States were diagnosed in 2009, and subsequent surveillance has revealed the virus to be widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern half of the country. More research is needed to determine whether LPDV is having a negative effect on turkey populations, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a simple method for diagnosing the virus in living birds. Infected animals may appear asymptomatic, and diagnostics currently rely on tissue or bone marrow, which can be difficult to obtain. This study investigated the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect LPDV in whole blood, compared with previous methods using buffy coat (concentrated white blood cells) and bone marrow. Paired samples of whole blood and buffy coat were collected from 137 live turkeys and paired samples of whole blood and bone marrow were collected from 32 turkeys postmortem. Compared with buffy coat, whole blood had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity. When compared with bone marrow, whole blood had 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Both comparisons had a high degree of agreement using Cohen's kappa statistic. Based on these results, PCR of whole blood provides detection of LPDV in living birds that is on par with both buffy coat and bone marrow. PMID:26667537

  6. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  7. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  8. Impacts of anthropogenic factors on land degradation during the anthropocene in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors that effected the beginning of the Anthropogenic Era (human age) in Turkey and formation of biomes. Destruction of vegetation, soil erosion and land degradation are the most important factors in the formation of anthropogenic biomes in Turkey. For this reason, first of all, a literature review about land degradation, which has been going on for past 300 years in Turkey, and about its causes was made. Changes that have occurred over the last 70 years were studied with the help of aerial photos and satellite images. In addition, studies we have conducted in the last 35 years have contributed substantially to the determination of the extent of the destruction of vegetation and land degradation in Turkey. As a result of research based on literature reviews and fieldwork, the impact of humans on the natural habitat were identified, and the current situation was studied. The findings about the current situation that emerged due to human impact were then transferred to an electronic environment, and a map of anthropogenic biomes was produced with the help of ArcGIS Desktop software. Based on the results obtained, one can say that the natural habitat has considerably changed over the last 200 years; vegetation has been damaged, and land degradation has become faster because of human activities. These results indicate that 97% of natural biomes have become anthropogenic biomes, and this change has become more obvious during 20h century in Turkey. The results also show that the change has been more influential after 1950. PMID:26591882

  9. DIFFERENTIAL HETEROPHIL INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND FUNCTIONS IN WILD-TYPE AND COMMERCIAL TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparison of cell signaling and functions in heterophils from a commercial line (A) to wild-type Rio Grande turkeys days 4 and 7 post-hatch was conducted. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK 1/2 and total protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activities were measured. After stimulation...

  10. Effect of Cookery and Holding on Hams and Turkey Rolls Contaminated with Clostridium perfringens1

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Dorothy H.; Ripp, Nancy M.

    1967-01-01

    Canned hams, turkey rolls, and ground-beef casseroles were inoculated with a mixture of vegetative cells and spores of selected strains of Clostridium perfringens, in approximately known numbers. After cooking and holding at different temperatures for various times, samples of the food were plated directly on sulfadiazine-polymixin-sulfite-agar. In all cases, small but measurable percentages of the organisms survived cookery. The number of cells viable after cookery of the ham or turkey was influenced by the position of the slice of meat in the roast as well as by the final temperature to which the product was heated. Plate counts for turkey or beef casserole held at temperatures in the range of 5 to 10 C for 48 hr indicated stabilization of the population or a tendency to decrease. At 24 C, the multiplication of cells was apparent in 4 hr and rapid in 6 hr. When the food was maintained at 68 C, populations remained viable for 6 hr and the counts did not change markedly. In turkey maintained at 37 C, the number of cells increased sharply within 4 hr. PMID:4294821

  11. Propagation and characterization of turkey reoviruses isolated in Germany, 2004-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2004 to 2008, suspected avian reoviruses were isolated from turkey flocks in ten counties in Germany. The age of birds at isolation ranged from 9 to 54 days. The suspected avian reoviruses elicited characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) in chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cell culture. In 2009, CEK ...

  12. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  13. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  14. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  15. Dieldrin-14C elimination from turkeys.

    PubMed

    Davison, K L; Sell, J L

    1978-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to find ways of removing dieldrin2 residues from tissues of broiler-type turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). The turkeys were contaminated with dieldrin and dieldrin-14C by oral dosing. Elimination was measured by assaying for 14C in the droppings. Carcass retention was measured by assaying the tissue for 14C, and in one experiment, dieldrin residues were measured by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Charcoal, Colestipol, and cholestyramine at dosages approximately equal to an intake of 5% of the diet were ineffective gastrointestinal adsorbants for removing dieldrin residues from the turkeys. Starvation accelerated the elimination of dieldrin from the turkeys, but only if the body lipids were reduced to approximately 10% or less of the carcass dry matter. PMID:677948

  16. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to include iodine compatible control valves with internal heaters and temperature sensors to coincide with the iodine-compatible thruster. A key advantage to using iodine as a propellant is that it may be stored in the tank as an unpressurized solid on the ground and before flight operations. During operations, the tank is heated to vaporize the propellant. Iodine vapor is then routed through custom flow control valves to control mass flow to the thruster and cathode assembly. The thruster then ionizes the vapor and accelerates it via magnetic and electrostatic fields, resulting in high specific impulse, characteristic of a highly efficient propulsion system. The iSat spacecraft is a 12-unit (12U) CubeSat with dimensions of about 8 inches x 8 inches x 12 inches (20 centimeters x 20 centimeters x 30 centimeters). The spacecraft frame will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSat spacecraft includes full three-axis control and will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system. After the CubeSat has successfully detached from its launch vehicle, it will deploy its solar panels, correct for tip-off and maintain attitude control before ground contact. An initial check-out period of two weeks is planned for testing all subsystems. The spacecraft will charge the power system while in sunlight, using momentum wheels and magnetic torque rods to rotate the vehicle to the required attitude.

  17. Satellite glial cell P2Y12 receptor in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in lingual neuropathic pain mechanisms in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been reported that the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R) is involved in satellite glial cells (SGCs) activation, indicating that P2Y12R expressed in SGCs may play functional roles in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms. However, the involvement of P2Y12R in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms is still unknown. We therefore studied the reflex to noxious mechanical or heat stimulation of the tongue, P2Y12R and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistries in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in a rat model of unilateral lingual nerve crush (LNC) to evaluate role of P2Y12R in SGC in lingual neuropathic pain. Results The head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the lateral tongue were significantly decreased in LNC-rats compared to sham-rats. These nocifensive effects were apparent on day 1 after LNC and lasted for 17 days. On days 3, 9, 15 and 21 after LNC, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells significantly increased in the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branch regions of TG. On day 3 after LNC, P2Y12R expression occurred in GFAP-IR cells but not neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-IR cells (i.e. neurons) in TG. After 3 days of successive administration of the P2Y12R antagonist MRS2395 into TG in LNC-rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly decreased coincident with a significant reversal of the lowered head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue compared to vehicle-injected rats. Furthermore, after 3 days of successive administration of the P2YR agonist 2-MeSADP into the TG in naïve rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly increased and head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle-injected rats. Conclusions The present findings provide the first evidence that the activation of P2Y12R in SGCs of TG following lingual nerve injury is involved in the enhancement of TG neuron activity and nocifensive reflex behavior, resulting in neuropathic pain in the tongue. PMID:22458630

  18. Myogenic-specific ablation of Fgfr1 impairs FGF2-mediated proliferation of satellite cells at the myofiber niche but does not abolish the capacity for muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Danoviz, Maria E.; Phelps, Michael; Stuelsatz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are Pax7+ myogenic stem cells that reside between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. In mature muscles, SCs are typically quiescent, but can be activated in response to muscle injury. Depending on the magnitude of tissue trauma, SCs may divide minimally to repair subtle damage within individual myofibers or produce a larger progeny pool that forms new myofibers in cases of overt muscle injury. SC transition through proliferation, differentiation and renewal is governed by the molecular blueprint of the cells as well as by the extracellular milieu at the SC niche. In particular, the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in regulating SCs during growth and aging is well recognized. Of the several FGFs shown to affect SCs, FGF1, FGF2, and FGF6 proteins have been documented in adult skeletal muscle. These prototypic paracrine FGFs transmit their mitogenic effect through the FGFRs, which are transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors. Using the mouse model, we show here that of the four Fgfr genes, only Fgfr1 and Fgfr4 are expressed at relatively high levels in quiescent SCs and their proliferating progeny. To further investigate the role of FGFR1 in adult myogenesis, we have employed a genetic (Cre/loxP) approach for myogenic-specific (MyoDCre-driven) ablation of Fgfr1. Neither muscle histology nor muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced injury were overtly affected in Fgfr1-ablated mice. This suggests that FGFR1 is not obligatory for SC performance in this acute muscle trauma model, where compensatory growth factor/cytokine regulatory cascades may exist. However, the SC mitogenic response to FGF2 is drastically repressed in isolated myofibers prepared from Fgfr1-ablated mice. Collectively, our study indicates that FGFR1 is important for FGF-mediated proliferation of SCs and its mitogenic role is not compensated by FGFR4 that is also highly expressed in SCs. PMID:26074812

  19. Identification of miR-2400 gene as a novel regulator in skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation by targeting MYOG gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei Wei; Tong, Hui Li; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hu, Qian; Yang, Yu; Li, Shu Feng; Yan, Yun Qin; Li, Guang Peng

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study in our laboratory showed that the expression level of miR-2400, a novel and unique miRNA from bovine, had significantly changed in skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) during differentiation, however, the function and expression pattern for miR-2400 in MDSCs has not been fully understood. In this report, we firstly identified that the expression levels of miR-2400 were down-regulated during MDSCs differentiation by stem-loop RT-PCR. Over-expression and inhibition studies demonstrated that miR-2400 promoted MDSCs proliferation by EdU (5-ethynyl-2' deoxyuridine) incorporation assay and immunofluorescence staining of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-2400 directly targeted the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of myogenin (MYOG) mRNA. These data suggested that miR-2400 could promote MDSCs proliferation through targeting MYOG. Furthermore, we found that miR-2400, which was located within the eighth intron of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) gene, was down-regulated in MDSCs in a direct correlation with the WHSC1L1 transcript by Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi). In addition, these observations not only provided supporting evidence for the codependent expression of intronic miRNAs and their host genes in vitro, but also gave insight into the role of miR-2400 in MDSCs proliferation. PMID:26047700

  20. Cycle life evaluation of 3 Ah Li{subx}Mn{sub2}O{sub4}-based lithium-ion secondary cells for low-earth-orbit satellites. I. Full cell results.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Ogawa, K.; Kumeuchi, Y.; Enomoto, S.; Uno, M.; Saito, H.; Sone, Y.; Abraham, D.; Lindbergh, G.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Royal Inst. of Tech.; Advanced Engineering Services Co., Ltd.; NEC-Tokin Corp.; Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a candidate for the energy storage system onboard low-earth-orbit satellites. Cycle life performance under both orbital and terrestrial conditions must be investigated in order to evaluate any inadvertent effects due to the former and the validity of the latter, with a successful comparison allowing for the extension of terrestrial experimental matrices in order to identify the effects of ageing. The orbital performance of Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based pouch cells onboard the microsatellite REIMEI was monitored and compared with terrestrial experiments, with the cells found to be unaffected by orbital conditions. A lifetime matrix of different cycling depths-of-discharge (DODs: 0, 20, 40%) and temperatures (25, 45 C) was undertaken with periodic reference performance tests. A decrease in both the cell end-of-discharge cycling voltage and capacity was accelerated by both higher temperatures and larger DODs. Impedance spectra measured for all ageing conditions indicated that the increase was small, manifested in a state-of-charge dependent increase of the high-frequency semi-circle and a noticeable increase in the high-frequency real axis intercept. An evaluation of the change of both the resistance and capacity of 3 Ah cells led to the development of a potential prognostic state-of-health indicator. The use of elevated temperatures to accelerate cell ageing was validated.

  1. Electric power for space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The development of electric power systems for satellites is discussed as an evolutionary process requiring the integration of power generation, power storage, and power control and distribution. The growth of space electric power systems is traced. The capabilities and limitations of the various elements (i.e. silicon solar cells) are discussed together with their impact on future technological growth.

  2. Tethered Communication Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes concept for placing several communication satellites in geostationary orbit without taking up more space than assigned to single satellite. Proposed scheme eases orbital crowding more economically than space platforms. Concept requires minimal redesign of existing satellites and accommodates many satellites in just one orbital slot. System much lighter in weight than geostationary platform and easier and more economical to transport.

  3. Current situation of scrap batteries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktaş, S.; Sirkeci, A. A.; Açma, E.

    This article reports the current situation of waste batteries and policies in Turkey. Turkey is a developing country where the battery consumption per person is around three to four pieces annually. Although the rate of consumption in Europe is around 10, the required amount of battery is growing rapidly with increasing technological development. According to the statistics of the year 2002, 10 million pieces of GSM batteries are consumed, whereas 250 million pieces of other sort of batteries are used in Turkey annually. Consumption figures suggest that the market value of the consumed batteries approximates to US$ 200 million. Based upon the amount of the used battery and marketing values, it is estimated that 10,000 t of scrap batteries will accumulate per annum. Only 1.2% of scrap batteries in Turkey can be recollected through Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. At present, there is no recycling plant in Turkey to recycle scrap batteries. In this investigation, the variety of batteries used, the situation of scrap battery collection and its capacity and also the possibilities of recycling of scrap batteries in Turkey are put forward.

  4. Salt toxicosis in commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Wages, D P; Ficken, M D; Cook, M E; Mitchell, J

    1995-01-01

    Salt toxicosis was confirmed in a flock of 20,000 thirteen-week-old tom turkeys experiencing an increase in mortality. Clinical signs included polydipsia, diarrhea, ataxia, incoordination, tremors that progressed to depression, sternal and lateral recumbency accompanied by torticollis, and death. Mortality over a 5-day period was 6.7%. Necropsy lesions included pallor and dehydration of pectoral muscles, hepatic congestion, and fluid-filled small and large intestines. Microscopic lesions consisted of bilaterally symmetrical areas of necrosis within the cerebral hemispheres accompanied by vascular congestion and edema, as well as hyalinization of the glomerular capillary walls of the kidney and eosinophilic granular casts in the renal tubules. Average salt concentration in the feed from affected houses with 8.04%. PMID:7794177

  5. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  6. Polymorphism of conventional genetic markers and HLA system in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, S; Abaci-Kalfoglu, E

    1997-03-01

    This study is part of a general survey in which the regional variability of various genetic markers in Turkey will be analyzed with special regard to its application in forensic medicine. Blood samples from 3173 unrelated healthy individuals of both sexes and from different regions of Turkey have been sampled and were typed for the blood group polymorphisms AB0, MNSs, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, P, Lutheran and Lewis, for the red cell enzyme polymorphisms adenylate kinase (AK), glyoxalase (GLO), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), esterase D (ESD), red cell acid phosphatase (aP), and for the serum protein polymorphisms group specific component (vitamin D binding protein, GC) and transferrin (TF). In addition to this the HLA-A and HLA-B antigens of the major histocompatibility complex (HLA) were also typed in 973 individuals. The blood group polymorphisms were typed by the classical haemagglutination methods. Serum protein and red cell enzyme polymorphisms were determined by conventional cellulose acetate electrophoresis. HLA antigens were typed by the standard two stage microlymphocytotoxicity technique. Genetic equilibrium can be assumed for all polymorphic systems under study. The results indicate some regional differences in the distribution of allele frequencies. PMID:9161681

  7. Immunopathogenesis of haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV) in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Rautenschlein, S; Sharma, J M

    2000-01-01

    Infection of turkeys with the haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), a type II avian adenovirus, results in varying rates of morbidity and mortality. The disease is characterised by splenomegaly, intestinal haemorrhage, sudden death and immunosuppression. The mechanisms of HEV immunopathogenesis and immunosuppression are not fully understood. Recent studies indicate that immune responses play a central role in disease pathogenesis. HEV infects B cells and macrophages and induces necrosis as well as apoptosis in infected and possibly in by-stander cells. The ability of the infected birds to mount an optimum humoral immune response as well as normal macrophage functions such as phagocytosis may be impaired. Elevated numbers of splenic CD4(+) cells during the acute phase of infection may be associated with viral clearance. Types I and II interferons (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis-like factors (TNF) are released at the peak of the infection. Cytokines may play a protective as well as a destructive role. While a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines may lead to systemic shock associated with haemorrhagic enteritis and death, release of IFNs may protect turkeys from the disease. Treatment with thalidomide, which is a potent TNF down-regulatory drug, prevented HEV-induced intestinal haemorrhage and treatment with an IFN-inducing chemical prevented HEV-replication and inhibited HEV-induced pathological and histopathological lesions. PMID:10717290

  8. Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2012-01-01

    Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of < 1 m satellite images have become available at no cost to the research community. In addition, Landsat data are now free of charge from the U.S. Geological Survey, enabling the use of multiple images. We used 174 Landsat and eight high-resolution satellite images to document the areal extent of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2007-2011. Multiple Landsat images, primarily Thematic Mapper (TM) data from 1984 to 2011, enabled us to minimize differentiation problems between snow and glacier ice, a potential source of error. In addition, we used Ikonos, Quickbird, and World View-1 & -2 very high-resolution imagery to evaluate our TM accuracies and determine the area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

  9. Effect of whole wheat feeding on selected immune parameters in growing male turkeys.

    PubMed

    Tyka?owski, B; Smia?ek, M; Pestka, D; Stenzel, T; Jankowski, J; Mikulski, D; Koncicki, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of whole wheat feeding on selected parameters of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in growing turkeys. A total of 210 one-day-old heavy-type Hybrid Converter male turkeys were randomly divided into three different dietary treatment groups, each consisting of 7 replicate pens of 10 birds per pen. Until 4 wk of age, all birds were fed a commercial diet formulated to meet nutrient requirements. From 5 to 12 wk of age, diets were composed of wheat (ground-pelleted or whole grain) and protein-fat-mineral-vitamin concentrate. The total wheat concentration in diets was 500 or 600 g/kg in the feeding periods of 5-8 and 9-12 wk of birds' age, respectively. Whole grain wheat had a 0, 50 or 100% share of the total wheat amount in the daily ration in treatment groups W0, W50 or W100, respectively. Commercial vaccines against ND (Newcastle disease) and TRT (Turkey rhinotracheitis) were administered to turkeys via the drinking water on days 20 and 30, respectively. Over the entire experiment, a significant linear decrease was observed in body weight gains (BWG) with increasing dietary levels of whole grain wheat. As a result the BWG of control turkeys (W0) were significantly higher than the BWG of group W100 birds (P = 0.002). A significant linear increase in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with increasing dietary levels of whole grain wheat (P < 0.001). The levels of antibodies against TRT and ND viruses after immunization were significantly higher in both the W50 and W100 group, in comparison to group W0 (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively). Turkeys from group W50, in comparison to those from groups W0 and W100, had a significantly higher percentage of CD4+ T cell subpopulation within the lymphocytes isolated from blood and ileal mucosa, as well as CD4+ CD8+ and CD8+ T cell subpopulations within the blood immunocompetent cells (P = 0.022, P = 0.029, P = 0.009 and P = 0.011, respectively). In the cecal tonsils, the percentage of CD8+ T cell subpopulation was significantly lower in group W50 than in groups W0 and W100 (P = 0.014). The results of our study indicate that diluting diets with whole grain wheat stimulates the non-specific cell-mediated defense mechanisms of the gastrointestinal immune system in turkeys, thus positively affecting humoral response after vaccination. PMID:24988851

  10. Turkey origin reovirus-induced immune dysfunction in specific-pathogen free and commercial turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, pathogenesis studies using genetically distinct turkey-origin reoviruses (TRVs) revealed that poults infected with certain TRV isolates had moderate to severe bursal atrophy, suggesting virus-induced immune dysfunction. In order to characterize the effect of TRV infection on the turkey imm...

  11. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  12. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  13. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  14. Feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging-based smoking cessation program in ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Holtrop, Jodi S; Ba?ci Bosi, A Tlay; Bilir, Nazmi; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Salih Emri, A K

    2013-08-01

    Data from high-income countries suggest that cell phone-based smoking cessation programs have the potential to affect cessation rates. There is a paucity of research, however, about the feasibility of cell phone-based smoking cessation programs in lower income countries that have higher smoking prevalence rates. A one-arm feasibility and acceptability pilot study of SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program, was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The authors recruited 75 daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the subsequent 30 days into the 6-week SMS Turkey program. Recruitment was completed in 4 months. Participant retention was high: Almost all (96%) completed the program, and 84% provided 12-week follow-up data. Most (89%) of the respondents who completed the 4-week follow-up measures (n=38, 51%) said that the text messages were easy to understand and referred to what they were experiencing and feeling during the quitting process (78%). On the basis of intention to treat, 13% of participants (n=10) reported, at 12-week follow-up, continuous abstinence since their quit date, confirmed by carbon monoxide readings. The cell phone text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention appears feasible and acceptable in Ankara, Turkey. PMID:23627304

  15. Comparison of ozone profiles from ground-based lidar, electrochemical concentration cell balloon sonde, ROCOZ-A rocket ozonesonde, and stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McDermid, I.S.; Godin, S.M. ); Barnes, R.A. ); Parsons, C.L.; Torres, A. ); McCormick, M.P.; Chu, W.P. ); Wang, P. ); Butler, J. ); Newman, P.; Burris, J.; Ferrare, R.; Whiteman, D.; McGee, T.J. )

    1990-06-20

    A series of coordinated atmospheric ozone profile measurements was made during October and November 1988. The instruments making observations and their locations were as follows. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Goddard Space Flight Center differential absorption lidar systems were located at the JPL-Table Mountain Facility 34.4{degree}N, 117.7{degree}W. The electrochemical concentration cell balloon sondes and the rocket ozonesondes were both launched from Point Mugu Naval Air Station at 34.2{degree}N, 119.2{degree}W. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) satellite measurements were at various latitudes and longitudes but only measurements made within 1,000 km of both of the above sites were considered for this intercomparison study. It was found that least for the time of year of the study, SAGE II measurements agreed only when they were made much closer than 1,000 km (<500 km) from the other sites, and this is explained in terms of the large latitudinal gradient observed in the ozone concentration profile. Agreement to 5% was seen between the instruments, over the altitude range from 20 to 50 km, when the measurements were made close together in both time and space.

  16. Tracheal mucus transport rate and bacterial clearance in turkeys exposed by aerosol to La Sota strain of Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Edwards, J F; Lay, J C; Tveter, D E

    1987-01-01

    Tracheal mucus transport rate (TMTR) and quantitative clearance of aerosolized Escherichia coli from the trachea, lung, and air sac were measured in healthy unanesthetized turkeys and in turkeys exposed by aerosol to a La Sota vaccine strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The TMTR of uninfected turkeys was 42.4 +/- 14.7 cm/min. The TMTR of NDV-infected turkeys was depressed on days 3 through 7 postexposure (PE); depression was significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) on day 7 PE. Tracheal E. coli clearance in NDV-infected turkeys was reduced on days 4 through 9 PE, significantly so on day 5 PE (P less than or equal to 0.01). Depression of TMTR and tracheal E. coli clearance were associated histologically with replacement of normal pseudostratified columnar epithelium by 3 to 8 layers of immature nonciliated cells. E. coli clearance by the lung and air sac of NDV-infected turkeys was depressed on days 5 through 9 PE. PMID:3304262

  17. Current leakage for low altitude satellites - Modeling applications. [simulation of high voltage solar cell array in ionospheric plasma environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konradi, A.; Mccoy, J. E.; Garriott, O. K.

    1979-01-01

    To simulate the behavior of a high voltage solar cell array in the ionospheric plasma environment, the large (90 ft x 55 ft diameter) vacuum chamber was used to measure the high-voltage plasma interactions of a 3 ft x 30 ft conductive panel. The chamber was filled with Nitrogen and Argon plasma at electron densities of up to 1,000,000 per cu cm. Measurements of current flow to the plasma were made in three configurations: (a) with one end of the panel grounded, (b) with the whole panel floating while a high bias was applied between the ends of the panel, and (c) with the whole panel at high negative voltage with respect to the chamber walls. The results indicate that a simple model with a constant panel conductivity and plasma resistance can adequately describe the voltage distribution along the panel and the plasma current flow. As expected, when a high potential difference is applied to the panel ends more than 95% of the panel floats negative with respect to the plasma.

  18. The Mexican national satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

    1983-10-01

    The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

  19. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  20. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  1. Solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) concept, under evaluation by NASA since 1974, is discussed. A typical system providing a total of 10,000 MW of electrical power to the ground receiving stations is considered. Energy conversion systems, including the photovoltaic device category using single-crystal silicon cells, are taken into account, as are the 2.45-GHz microwave power-transmission link and the ground receiver (or rectenna). Concepts involving space construction of the satellite's large structures (5 x 25 km) are described, noting that a process similar to the familiar roll-forming of light sheet metal parts has been adapted to the space environment. Transportation vehicles are discussed, including the Space Shuttle planned to reach 60 flights per year by the mid 1980's. Electrical power forecasts and advanced systems cost projections are analyzed, together with a description of costs estimates. The indirect economics of energy research and development, and the present NASA/DOE SPS program are noted.

  2. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  3. Turkey liver - a chromium enriched food source

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, M.M.; Bryden, N.A.; Richards, M.; Anderson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    There are presently no known foods for humans that are particularly good sources of chromium. As a means of obtaining Cr enriched foods, turkeys were fed diets containing various levels of supplemental chromium. Four groups of 6-month old turkey hens were fed either the basal diet for laying hens or this diet supplemented with 25, 100 or 200 ..mu..g of chromium as chromium chloride per g of diet. Liver Cr concentration of the turkeys sacrificed after 1 week increased from 7 ng/g (wet wt) while consuming the basal diet to 15, 48 and 68 ng/g, respectively, while consuming the diets with supplemental chromium. Comparable values for the turkeys sacrificed after 5 weeks were 2, 43, 170 and 325 ng/g. Similar trends but higher chromium values were observed for kidney samples. The chromium contents of the dark and white meat and eggs were not altered significantly. Chromium concentrations of the pancreas, gizzard and heart increased marginally; final chromium concentrations were less than 23 ng/g even after 5 weeks on the highest level of supplemental chromium. Chromium content of spleen and lungs was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the pancreas, gizzard or heart. Therefore, turkey liver is a food source suitable for Cr enrichment while the eggs, dark and white meat and other edible parts do not appear to be enriched following chromium supplementation.

  4. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. DNA methylation at a bovine alpha satellite I repeat CpG site during development following fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Couldrey, Christine; Wells, David N

    2013-01-01

    Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (αsatI-5) during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at αsatI-5 and resulting SCNT blastocysts showed significantly more methylation than IVF blastocysts. At implantation, no difference in methylation was observed between SCNT and AI in trophoblast tissue at αsatI-5, however, SCNT embryos were significantly hyper-methylated compared to AI controls at this time point. Following implantation, DNA methylation at αsatI-5 decreased in AI but not SCNT placental tissues. In contrast to placenta, the proportion of methylation at αsatI-5 remained high in adrenal, kidney and muscle tissues during development. Differences in the average proportion of methylation were smaller in somatic tissues than placental tissues but, on average, SCNT somatic tissues were hyper-methylated at αsatI-5. Although sperm from all bulls was less methylated than somatic tissues at αsatI-5, on average this site remained hyper-methylated in sperm from cloned bulls compared with control bulls. This developmental time course confirms that epigenetic reprogramming does occur, at least to some extent, following SCNT. However, the elevated methylation levels observed in SCNT blastocysts and cellular derivatives implies that there is either insufficient time or abundance of appropriate reprogramming factors in oocytes to ensure complete reprogramming. Incomplete reprogramming at this CpG site may be a contributing factor to low SCNT success rates, but more likely represents the tip of the iceberg in terms of incompletely reprogramming. Until protocols ensure the epigenetic signature of a differentiated somatic cell is reset to a state resembling totipotency, the efficiency of SCNT is likely to remain low. PMID:23383311

  6. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites. PMID:21994595

  7. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  8. Platelet satellitism in infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Laskaj, Renata; Sikiric, Dubravka; Skerk, Visnja

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet satellitism is a phenomenon of unknown etiology of aggregating platelets around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other blood cells which causes pseudothrombocytopenia, visible by microscopic examination of blood smears. It has been observed so far in about a hundred cases in the world. Case subject and methods Our case involves a 73-year-old female patient with a urinary infection. Biochemical serum analysis (CRP, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine) and blood cell count were performed with standard methods on autoanalyzers. Serum protein fractions were examined by electrophoresis and urinalysis with standard methods on autoanalyzer together with microscopic examination of urine sediment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood culture and urine culture tests were performed with standard methods. Results Due to typical pathological values for bacterial urinary infection, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Blood smear examination revealed phenomenon, which has persisted for three weeks after the disease has been cured. Blood smears with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (Na, Li-heparin) and capillary blood. Discussion We hypothesize that satellitism was induced by some immunological mechanism through formation of antibodies which have mediated platelets binding to neutrophil membranes and vice versa. Unfortunately we were unable to determine the putative trigger for this phenomenon. To our knowledge this is the second case of platelet satellitism ever described in Croatia. PMID:26110042

  9. Stereo Measurements from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R.

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this presentation include: 1) 'Stereographic Observations from Geosynchronous Satellites: An Important New Tool for the Atmospheric Sciences'; 2) 'Thunderstorm Cloud Top Ascent Rates Determined from Stereoscopic Satellite Observations'; 3) 'Artificial Stereo Presentation of Meteorological Data Fields'.

  10. Satellite-Delivered Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnall, Gail C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  11. Solar power satellite, system definition study. Part 2, volume 3: SPS satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The differences in approach to solar energy conversion by solar cells and thermal engine systems are examined. Systems requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS) are given along with a description of the primary subsystems. Trades leading to exact configuration selection, for example, selection of the Rankine cycle operating temperatures are explained, and two satellite configurations are discussed.

  12. P2Y2 receptor antagonists as anti-allodynic agents in acute and sub-chronic trigeminal sensitization: role of satellite glial cells.

    PubMed

    Magni, Giulia; Merli, Davide; Verderio, Claudia; Abbracchio, Maria P; Ceruti, Stefania

    2015-07-01

    Trigeminal (TG) pain often lacks a satisfactory pharmacological control. A better understanding of the molecular cross-talk between TG neurons and surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) could help identifying innovative targets for the development of more effective analgesics. We have previously demonstrated that neuronal pro-algogenic mediators upregulate G protein-coupled nucleotide P2Y receptors (P2YRs) expressed by TG SGCs in vitro. Here, we have identified the specific P2YR subtypes involved (i.e., the ADP-sensitive P2Y1 R and the UTP-responsive P2Y2 R subtypes), and demonstrated the contribution of neuron-derived prostaglandins to their upregulation. Next, we have translated these data to an in vivo model of TG pain (namely, rats injected with Complete Freund's adjuvant in the temporomandibular joint), by demonstrating activation of SGCs and upregulation of P2Y1 R and P2Y2 R in the ipsi-lateral TG. To unequivocally link P2YRs to the development of facial allodynia, we treated animals with various purinergic antagonists. The selective P2Y2 R antagonist AR-C118925 completely inhibited SGCs activation, exerted a potent anti-allodynic effect that lasted over time, and was still effective when administration was started 6-days post induction of allodynia, i.e. under subchronic pain conditions. Conversely, the selective P2Y1 R antagonist MRS2179 was completely ineffective. Moreover, similarly to the anti-inflammatory drug acetylsalicylic acid and the known anti-migraine agent sumatriptan, the P2X/P2Y nonselective antagonist PPADS was only partially effective, and completely lost its activity under sub-chronic conditions. Taken together, our results highlight glial P2Y2 Rs as potential "druggable" targets for the successful management of TG-related pain. PMID:25779655

  13. Differential Muscle Hypertrophy Is Associated with Satellite Cell Numbers and Akt Pathway Activation Following Activin Type IIB Receptor Inhibition in Mtm1 p.R69C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Michael W.; Viola, Marissa G.; Meng, Hui; Edelstein, Rachel V.; Liu, Fujun; Yan, Ke; Luna, Elizabeth J.; Lerch-Gaggl, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Pierson, Christopher R.; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L.; Pearsall, Scott; Yang, Lin; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy is a congenital myopathy caused by deficiency of myotubularin. Patients often present with severe perinatal weakness, requiring mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. We recently reported that an activin receptor type IIB inhibitor produced hypertrophy of type 2b myofibers and modest increases of strength and life span in the severely myopathic Mtm1δ4 mouse model of X-linked myotubular myopathy. We have now performed a similar study in the less severely symptomatic Mtm1 p.R69C mouse in hopes of finding greater treatment efficacy. Activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment of Mtm1 p.R69C animals produced behavioral and histological evidence of hypertrophy in gastrocnemius muscles but not in quadriceps or triceps. The ability of the muscles to respond to activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment correlated with treatment-induced increases in satellite cell number and several muscle-specific abnormalities of hypertrophic signaling. Treatment-responsive Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscles displayed lower levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 and higher levels of phosphorylated eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase than were observed in Mtm1 p.R69C quadriceps muscle or in muscles from wild-type littermates. Hypertrophy in the Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscle was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6. Our findings indicate that muscle-, fiber type-, and mutation-specific factors affect the response to hypertrophic therapies that will be important to assess in future therapeutic trials. PMID:24726641

  14. Monensin toxicity in turkey breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Wages, D P; Gonder, E

    1989-01-01

    High mortality in two flocks of 1900 turkey breeder hens accidentally fed 280 g monensin/ton of complete feed is described. Mortality attributed to the poisoning was 76% in flock 1 and 18% in flock 2. Clinically, turkeys were found dead, exhibited respiratory distress with wings extended laterally, had fine tremors, or showed posterior paresis and inability to rise. The most striking finding at necropsy was the almost complete absence of gross lesions. Some turkeys had severely congested lungs; however, many did not. A few birds had pale streaks within the adductor muscles of the legs. Microscopic lesions included myofiber degeneration and necrosis of skeletal and myocardial muscle. Serum phosphorus, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase were markedly elevated, whereas potassium, chloride, and calcium values were lowered. PMID:2930400

  15. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  16. [Theme Issue: Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    One section of this journal is devoted to issues involving broadcast satellites. Separate articles discuss the need for international planning of satellite broadcasting, decisions made at the 1971 World Administrative Radio Conference for Space Telecommunications, potential problems in satellite broadcasting, a series of proposals drawn up by the…

  17. Functional characterization of the turkey macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

    PubMed

    Park, Myeongseon; Kim, Sungwon; Fetterer, Raymond H; Dalloul, Rami A

    2016-08-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a soluble protein that inhibits the random migration of macrophages and plays a pivotal immunoregulatory function in innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this study was to clone the turkey MIF (TkMIF) gene, express the active protein, and characterize its basic function. The full-length TkMIF gene was amplified from total RNA extracted from turkey spleen, followed by cloning into a prokaryotic (pET11a) expression vector. Sequence analysis revealed that TkMIF consists of 115 amino acids with 12.5 kDa molecular weight. Multiple sequence alignment revealed 100%, 65%, 95% and 92% identity with chicken, duck, eagle and zebra finch MIFs, respectively. Recombinant TkMIF (rTkMIF) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified through HPLC and endotoxin removal. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed an approximately 13.5 kDa of rTkMIF monomer containing T7 tag in soluble form. Western blot analysis showed that anti-chicken MIF (ChMIF) polyclonal antisera detected a monomer form of TkMIF at approximately 13.5 kDa size. Further functional analysis revealed that rTkMIF inhibits migration of both mononuclear cells and splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner, but was abolished by the addition of anti-ChMIF polyclonal antisera. qRT-PCR analysis revealed elevated transcripts of pro-inflammatory cytokines by rTkMIF in LPS-stimulated monocytes. rTkMIF also led to increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-17F transcripts in Con A-activated splenocytes, while IL-10 and IL-13 transcripts were decreased. Overall, the sequences of both the turkey and chicken MIF have high similarity and comparable biological functions with respect to migration inhibitory activities of macrophages and enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that turkey and chicken MIFs would be biologically cross-reactive. PMID:27062968

  18. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from outside the space arena in which organizations have pursued technological capability. Scholars have analyzed these examples and developed insightful frameworks. The paper draws key concepts from this literature about the nature of development, technology, knowledge and organizational learning. These concepts are relevant to learning in new satellite programs, but the ideas must be applied cautiously because of the nature of satellite technology. The paper draws three major lessons from the international development literature regarding absorptive capacity, tacit knowledge and organizational learning; it synthesizes these lessons into a cohesive, original framework. The closing section proposes future work on a detailed study of technological learning in specific government satellite programs.

  19. Effects of high-orbit spaceflight on signaling cascades and apoptosis in immune cells from mice flied on board the BION-M1 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselova, Elena; Shenkman, Boris; Lunin, Sergey; Parfenyuk, Svetlana; Novoselova, Tatyana; Fesenko, Eugeny

    The study was designed to evaluate immune cell activity in male C57bl mice after a 30-day high-orbit spaceflight (550 km, higher than conventional manned spaceflights) on board the BION-M1 satellite (Roskosmos Program, Russia). For the present study, thymus, spleens and plasma samples were collected from mice 12 h after landing and, additionally, 7 days subsequently. Assessing the activity of NF-kappaB signaling cascade by measuring Rel A (p65) protein phosphorylation in splenic lymphocytes, we showed that the NF-kappaB activity was significantly increased at 12 h after landing. Contrariwise, one week after landing, the NF-kappaB activity was markedly decreased, even below to the control values. Interestingly, after landing there were no significant changes in SAPK/JNK cascade activity in splenic lymphocytes as well as in the expression of transcription factor IRF3 in thymus cells. To assess the apoptosis status in thymus lymphocytes, levels of p53 protein and its phosphorylated form were measured in thymic lymphocytes. It is known that p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage, genomic aberrations, and other characteristic of apoptosis. The results showed that the high-orbit spaceflight environment caused some increase in level of p53 protein, but most notably, activated phosphorylated form of p53 protein. Calculated ratio of active and inactive forms of the protein (ph-p53/p53) 12 h after landing increased by more than 2-fold, indicating the apparent induction of apoptosis in thymus cells. Interestingly, 7 days after the landing, this ratio was not restored, but rather increased: the specified ratio was 4 times higher as compared to the ground-based control. We can conclude that response to the prolonged high-orbit spaceflight is not like the classic "stress response", which is usually observed under various stressful factors. It is known that the stress response is surely accompanied by increased SAPK/JNK cascade activity as well as the expression of the IRF3; in fact, we did not observed any changes in the SAPK/JNK phosphorylation or in the IRF3 production. Furthermore, stressful factors usually result in the fast, but reversible, thymus involution. But our measurements showed that the thymus depletion at 7th day after landing was expressed even more than 12 h after the spaceflight. This is consistent with the results of the level of apoptosis in thymus cells; indeed, the apoptosis in thymus lymphocytes 7 days after was higher than 12 h after landing. Collectively, these results indicate that the changes of immune cell homeostasis may be a result of exposure to damaging factors of not very high intensity. In any case, similar effects are caused, to our knowledge, by low doses of ionizing radiation. As spaceflight is not accompanied only with the gravitational changes, but also with other factors, such as radiation, it is possible that immune disbalance after spaceflight was caused by a combined action of several factors. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 12-04-00113-a.The authors express their gratitude to unified team involved in preparation and implementation of the spaceflight of BION-M #1.

  20. Poisoning by toxic honey in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Stlpinar, N; Mat, A; Satgano?lu, Y

    1993-01-01

    One of the food intoxications encountered in Turkey is the case caused by toxic honey made by bees from Rhododendron species. R. luteum and R. ponticum are the two species which grow in the north regions of Turkey. Grayanotoxins, mainly Grayanotoxin I (Andromedotoxin) occurring only in Ericaceae plants, are the compounds responsible for poisoning. In this investigation, the diagnosis and treatment of 11 cases of poisoning admitted to Kartal Occupational Diseases Hospital between 1983 and 1988 are presented. The results of the light microscopic and chemical analysis of toxic honey samples are compared with those of the ordinary honey samples and the extract of Rhododendron leaves. PMID:8481104

  1. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings.

    PubMed

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Task?n, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2015-12-01

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. PMID:25389360

  2. A case of salinomycin intoxication in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Van Assen, Earl J

    2006-03-01

    A flock of 4287 heavy hybrid turkey hens were accidentally fed broiler premix containing salinomycin sodium and suffered a 34.5% death loss. Measures taken to ensure food safety for the remaining flock and consumer food safety included feed record studies, on-farm veterinary consultation, diagnostic laboratory studies, and CgFARAD and CFIA consultation. The remaining turkeys were processed 3 weeks after the initial toxicosis with no evidence of lesions that would render the product unfit for human consumption. PMID:16604983

  3. a Survey of Landnet Sites Focusing on Tuz GÖLÜ Salt Lake, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, S. Z.; Özen, H.; Chander, G.

    2012-07-01

    Radiometric calibration is critical to ensure the accuracy, veracity, continuity and reliability of satellite data measured from multiple sensors and platforms, and is thus recognized as a key activity by all satellite operators. For imaging sensors, vicarious methods using natural targets (such as salt lakes, deserts, or flatlands that are well-characterized and preferably temporally and spatially stable) as a reference are similarly well established. However, while selecting a target site, it is important that its quality and location are selected to minimize sources of uncertainty for any given sensor. To maximize the benefit from limited resources and minimize the impact on satellite operators, the Infrared Visible Optical Sensor (IVOS) sub-group of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) has selected a few, well-characterized, regularly instrumented target sites, which have since become known as LANDNET sites. Currently, there are eight LANDNET sites: 1) Dome C, Antarctica; 2) Dunhuang, China, Asia; 3) Lspec Frenchman Flat, NV, USA, North America; 4) Ivanpah, NV/CA, USA, North America; 5) La Crau, France, Europe; 6) Negev, Southern Israel, Asia; 7) Railroad Valley Playa, NV, USA, North America; 8) Tuz Gölü, Central Anatolia, Turkey, Asia. This work summarizes the key characteristics, and areas of application of each of the LANDNET sites, especially that of Tuz Gölü, to guide and inform researchers on site selection, and increase international awareness and collaboration in this field. Additionally, detailed information about the Tuz Gölü, Turkey test site is provided, including geographical characteristics, spatial uniformity qualities, and opportunities for international researchers to conduct experiments and measurements. Practical, technical, and logistical experience gained through the international field campaigns organized over the last few years at Tuz Gölü is also shared in detail.

  4. Survey: National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The national Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) receives data at periodic intervals from satellites of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series and from the Improved TIROS (Television Infrared Observational Satellite) Operational Satellite. Within the conterminous United States, direct readout and processed products are distributed to users over facsimile networks from a central processing and data distribution facility. In addition, the NESS Satellite Field Stations analyze, interpret, and distribute processed geostationary satellite products to regional weather service activities.

  5. Retrospective Study on the Isolation of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale from Chickens and Turkeys in Central California: 294 cases (2000-12).

    PubMed

    Hauck, R; Chin, R P; Shivaprasad, H L

    2015-03-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, and mostly oxidase-positive bacterium that causes respiratory infections in chickens and turkeys worldwide and can also spread to nonrespiratory organs. The present report analyzes 294 cases in which O. rhinotracheale was isolated from turkeys or chickens in central California in the years 2000 through 2012. Two hundred sixteen cases were from turkey flocks and 78 from chicken flocks. The median age of turkey flocks was 8.7 wk; the median age of chicken flocks was 6.4 wk. From turkeys, O. rhinotracheale was more often isolated from August to January than during the rest of the year. Chickens cases were more evenly distributed throughout the year. The organs with the highest isolation rate were the infraorbital sinus and trachea, followed by lungs and air sacs. Isolation from other organs was rare. Pure cultures were obtained from relatively more turkey organs than chicken organs. The organ from which there was the highest chance to obtain a pure culture was the air sac. In 108 turkey flocks (50.0%) and 64 chicken flocks (82.1%) at least one other respiratory pathogen was detected. The most common gross lesions were increased mucus in trachea, caseous or fibrinous exudate in the air sacs, consolidated lungs indicating pneumonia, congested and edematous lungs, and a flattened trachea. For most types of lesions, the percentage of affected turkeys was higher than the percentage of affected chickens. The percentage of birds with lesions was higher if other respiratory pathogens were present. Overall, the host species (turkey or chicken) was a more important factor for the prevalence of most lesions than the detection of other respiratory pathogens. The most common histopathologic lesions in the sinus and trachea were heterophilic or mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. In the lungs and air sacs, the inflammation was characterized by heterophilic infiltration and/or fibrin accumulation. These results are helpful in selecting the most appropriate samples for isolation of O. rhinotracheale. In addition, they show the incidence of the bacterium in turkeys and chickens and which lesions can be expected after infection with O. rhinotracheale, and they indicate that in some cases O. rhinotracheale can be the primary, or at least the major, pathogen. PMID:26292546

  6. Digital satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, T. T.

    1986-06-01

    The use of satellite communications in point-to-multipoint transmission of data is studied. The theory, systems, and equipment for satellite communications are described. The topics of satellite orbits, satellite construction, earth station equipment, and the analysis of the satellite link are discussed. Different types of digital modulation for carrier transmission, and techniques for enhancing the transmission capacity, such as digital speech interpolation and demand assignment, are examined. Techniques and equipment for performing the multiple access-broadcasting functions including FDMA, TDMA, DAMA, CDMA, and random access are considered.

  7. Satellite communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, B. G.

    Technological and applications aspects of satellite communication (SC) are examined in chapters contributed by leading experts. Topics addressed include SC organizations, multiple-access techniques, the electromagnetic spectrum and its regulation, propagation and interference problems, modulation and modems, coding, networking and services, earth-station and satellite antennas, repeaters, and spacecraft engineering. Consideration is given to military SC, space stations and earth-resources platforms, data-relay satellites, direct-broadcasting satellites, cost-effective spacecraft engineering for LEO satellites, project organization and costing, and future trends.

  8. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, A. H.

    The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

  9. Epidemiology of a Herpesvirus of Turkeys: Possible Sources and Spread of Infection in Turkey Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Witter, R. L.; Solomon, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Parameters of turkey herpesvirus (HVT) infection were followed sequentially from hatching through 20 weeks in two commercial turkey flocks. Maternal antibody was uniformly present at hatching but decreased below detectable levels by the 3rd week. Virus was first isolated at the 5th and 6th weeks and thereafter spread rapidly within the flocks. Development of active antibody followed that of viremia by 1 week. Both virus and antibody were present in virtually all turkeys after the 7th or 10th week; however, the incidence of tumors was negligible. Dust and litter from infected flocks were negative for HVT by poult bioassay, but the infection was easily transmitted by exposure of poults to dirty isolation cages or air from HVT-infected turkeys. Attempts to demonstrate congenital transmission of HVT by direct virus isolation from embryos of infected breeders or by isolation rearing procedures were unsuccessful. Images PMID:4343407

  10. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles. PMID:26574038

  11. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, D J; Lashev, L D; Yanev, S G; Pandova, B

    2007-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (EFL) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP) was investigated in 7-8 month old turkeys (6 birds per sex). EFL was administered intravenously (i.v.) and orally (p.o.) at a dose 10 mg kg(-1) body weight. Blood was taken prior to and at 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h following drug administration. The concentrations of EFL and CIP in blood serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum concentrations versus time were analysed by a noncompartmental analysis. The elimination half-live and the mean residence time of EFL after i.v. injection for the serum were after oral administration 6.64+/-0.90 h, 8.96+/-1.18 h and 6.92+/-0.97 h, 11.91+/-1.87 h, respectively. After single p.o. administration, EFL was absorbed slowly (MAT=2.76+/-0.48 h) with time to reach maximum serum concentrations of 6.33+/-2.54 h. Maximum serum concentrations was 1.23+/-0.30 microg mL(-1). Oral bioavailability for for EFL after oral administration was found to be 69.20+/-1.49%. The ratios C(max)/MIC and AUC(0 --> 24)/MIC were respectively from 161.23+/-5.9 h to 12.90+/-0.5 h for the pharmacodynamic predictor C(max)/MIC, and from 2153.44+/-66.6 h to 137.82+/-4.27 h for AUC(0 --> 24)/MIC, for the different clinically significant microorganisms, whose values for MIC varies from 0.008 microg L(-1) to 0.125 microg mL(-1). PMID:17107697

  12. Satellite altitude determination uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Satellite altitude determination uncertainties are discussed from the standpoint of the GEOS-C satellite. GEOS-C will be tracked by a number of the conventional satellite tracking systems, as well as by two advanced systems; a satellite-to-satellite tracking system and lasers capable of decimeter accuracies which are being developed in connection with the Goddard Earth and Ocean Dynamics Applications program. The discussion is organized in terms of a specific type of GEOS-C orbit which would satisfy a number of scientific objectives including the study of the gravitational field by means of both the altimeter and the satellite-to-satellite tracking system, studies of tides, and the Gulf Stream meanders.

  13. Effect of dexamethasone on bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2015-08-15

    Stress has been shown to affect the immune system of turkeys making them more susceptible to bacterial infections. Five-week-old male and female turkeys were treated with 3 intra-muscular injections of dexamethasone (Dex) at 0, 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg body weight. Twenty-four hours after the third injection birds were bled and white blood cell (WBC) differentials and bacteriostatic activity of monocytes were measured. Dex at both 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg decreased phagocytic activity in females only. Bacteriostatic activity was decreased at both concentrations of Dex at 8 and 16 h post-infection in both sexes and was lower in males as compared to females. Total WBC counts were increased in females at both concentrations of Dex whereas male total WBC counts were unaffected. Both males and females had an increase in the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Within the same study, replicate pens of turkeys were challenged with intra-air sac inoculation of 100 cfu of Escherichia coli. Isolation of E. coli was significantly increased by both Dex and E. coli challenge, but there were no differences between sexes. These results suggest that stress can compromise the bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and increase bacterial colonization of blood and tissues, potentially affecting food safety. PMID:26099808

  14. Dimensioning of Aeronautical Satellite Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbock, M.; Jahn, A.; Werner, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will provide a generalised baseline for a systematic AirCom design process and address in particular the dimensioning of satellite systems for aeronautical services. These services will roll out soon in medium- and long-haul aircraft. The offered services will range from low rate telephony, internet access, and streaming applications for video and audio. The aggregate bit rates on up- and downlink will certainly be statistically time-dependent and asymmetric in forward and backward direction. A tool will be described that is able to model this traffic. Furthermore the dimensioning of satellite constellations can be done. Due to the stochastic nature of the traffic, multi-service models for the traffic generation of different services will be described. Furthermore, the traffic will be affected by the available bit rate and shaping or blocking will equalize the peak loads. If fleets with many aircraft are considered, aeronautical traffic models must be based on actual aircraft routes, flight schedules, location and time of day, as well as seats per aircraft and type of aircraft (charter, business etc.). The regionally distributed traffic has to be served by several satellites and appropriate sharing of the serving satellites may spread the traffic in hot zones and yield a better load distribution. When aeronautical services will spread out, the capacity demand will grow quickly and the capacity of existing Ku-band GEO satellites will soon be exceeded. Changing to higher frequency bands will provide large spectrum portions and smaller spotbeams will allow better frequency reuse. Even constellations with non-geostationary satellites could be re-advent to serve better the higher latitude regions. Then, another mobility component for the fast changing satellite topology need to be addressed, and routing issues of the traffic must be considered. The paper will describe solutions for the mapping of satellites and traffic demand as well as routing algorithms. Numerical values will show the capabilities of the developed tool by calculating the performance of some selected scenarios. The paper will also address wireless cabin services (cell phones and W-LAN access for laptops) of the WirelessCabin project.

  15. Vanguard I Satellite Structure and Separation Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, John T.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    A reevaluation of the Vanguard program objectives in January 1957 resulted in the production of the Vanguard I Satellite, a 6.44-inch-diameter, 3.25-pound sphere with six equally spaced solar cell clusters and six equally spaced antennas mounted on its surface. Experiment requirements necessitated the development of a mechanism to separate the satellite from the third-stage rocket. On the basis of the existing standard separation mechanism, a strap pull-pin girth-ring arrangement was developed. Both the satellite and the separation mechanism were fully tested prior to flight. Successful orbiting and flight operation proved the adequacy of the design.

  16. Clay Corner: Light up a Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Presents two activities that enable students to work with clay: a tile project and turkey candle-holders. Explains that before students actually create their own projects, they get an opportunity to experience the clay itself. Asserts that the new vocabulary, unusual equipment, and intriguing techniques make ceramics a motivating activity. (CMK)

  17. MAXIMIZING THE FERTILITY POTENTIAL OF TURKEY SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkeys are the only commercial poultry species completely dependent upon artificial insemination for fertile egg production. Although time and labor-intensive, artificial insemination has proven to be a key strategy for achieving rapid genetic improvements in economically important traits such as g...

  18. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  19. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  20. Multigrade Schooling in Turkey: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksoy, Naciye

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews multigrade schooling in Turkey, with an emphasis on its status in the education system, as well as the curriculum practices, teacher training and problems associated with it. It is viewed by the State as an "inevitable" practice that arises through limited number of pupils and classrooms in small and scattered settlement areas…

  1. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  2. The Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, M. A.; Uysal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using science literacy results from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey within the education production function framework. We find that program types have large…

  3. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  4. Elementary School Curriculum Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Yusuf; Isiksal, Mine; Bulut, Safure

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the nature of the new elementary school curriculum in Turkey. In particular, the authors provide a coherent picture of the fundamentals, basic elements and the classroom implications of the new curriculum development initiative in five content areas: mathematics, science, social science, life science, and Turkish. This…

  5. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  6. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary

  7. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  8. Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

  9. Fundamentalist Bedfellows: Political Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    Defines Islamic creationism and anti-evolutionism in Turkey, provides information about political and cultural changes starting from the 1920s, and discusses Islamic movements at this time. Presents examples of politicians' approaches to this issue and points out the effects of Christian creationism and the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) on…

  10. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between

  11. Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults H. L. ShivaprasadA, M. S. FrancaA, P. R. WoolcockA, R. NordhausenB, M. DayC and M. Pantin-JackwoodC California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, AFresno and BDavis Branches, University of California, Davis, 2789 South Orange Av...

  12. Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kemal

    2006-01-01

    In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

  13. PREVALENCE OF ARCOBACTER IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Arcobacter in live turkeys was determined for six Midwestern commercial flocks. In the first study (summer 2003), cloacal (n = 298) and feather swabs (n = 75), cecal (n = 70), and crop (n = 50) contents, drinker water (n = 46), and environmental (n = 25) samples were monitored. I...

  14. Toward a phenology network in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

  15. The Genome of Turkey Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, C. L.; Tulman, E. R.; Lu, Z.; Zsak, L.; Rock, D. L.; Kutish, G. F.

    2001-01-01

    Here we present the first complete genomic sequence of Marek's disease virus serotype 3 (MDV3), also known as turkey herpesvirus (HVT). The 159,160-bp genome encodes an estimated 99 putative proteins and resembles alphaherpesviruses in genomic organization and gene content. HVT is very similar to MDV1 and MDV2 within the unique long (UL) and unique short (US) genomic regions, where homologous genes share a high degree of colinearity and their proteins share a high level of amino acid identity. Within the UL region, HVT contains 57 genes with homologues found in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), six genes with homologues found only in MDV, and two genes (HVT068 and HVT070 genes) which are unique to HVT. The HVT US region is 2.2 kb shorter than that of MDV1 (Md5 strain) due to the absence of an MDV093 (SORF4) homologue and to differences at the UL/short repeat (RS) boundary. HVT lacks a homologue of MDV087, a protein encoded at the UL/RS boundary of MDV1 (Md5), and it contains two homologues of MDV096 (glycoprotein E) in the RS. HVT RS are 1,039 bp longer than those in MDV1, and with the exception of an ICP4 gene homologue, the gene content is different from that of MDV1. Six unique genes, including a homologue of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2, are found in the RS. This is the first reported Bcl-2 homologue in an alphaherpesvirus. HVT long repeats (RL) are 7,407 bp shorter than those in MDV1 and do not contain homologues of MDV1 genes with functions involving virulence, oncogenicity, and immune evasion. HVT lacks homologues of MDV1 oncoprotein MEQ, CxC chemokine, oncogenicity-associated phosphoprotein pp24, and conserved domains of phosphoprotein pp38. These significant genomic differences in and adjacent to RS and RL regions likely account for the differences in host range, virulence, and oncogenicity between nonpathogenic HVT and highly pathogenic MDV1. PMID:11134310

  16. Communication satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  17. The influence of phytoncides on the immune system of broiler chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Śmiałek, Marcin; Tykałowski, Bartłomiej; Pestka, Daria; Stenzel, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of adiSalmoSOL PF dietary supplement, given for 3 days in drinking water, on selected parameters of cell-mediated (Experiment I) and humoral (Experiment II) immunity in chicken and turkey broilers. In Experiment I, birds were randomly divided into two groups of 10 birds each. Group 1 comprised control turkeys or chickens, whereas group 2 birds were administered adiSalmoSOLPF. In Experiment II, a total of 69 chickens were divided into three groups (1-3) of 23 birds each. At the age of 25 days, group 1 was given adiSalmoSOLPF. Birds from groups 1-3 were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Group 2 was given adiSalmoSOLPF after vaccination. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and spleen, CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and ileal mucosa and IgM + B lymphocyte in the ileal mucosa were observed in group 2 chickens. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils and blood, and CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and ileal mucosa was recorded in group 2 turkeys. No differences in percentages of IgM + B lymphocytes were observed between turkey groups. In Experiment II, the highest post-vaccination titers of anti-IB antibodies were observed in group 2, but it was not statistically significant. The results of our study indicate that adiSalmoSOLPF showed immunomodulatory activity in chickens and turkeys. PMID:26648771

  18. Differential ex vivo responses of primary leukocytes from turkey pedigree lines to Salmonella Heidelberg.

    PubMed

    Potter, Tiffany D; Glover, Paige K; Evans, Nicholas P; Dalloul, Rami A

    2016-02-01

    Escalating product recalls as a consequence of Salmonella-contaminated poultry products have resulted in detrimental economic impacts in the poultry industry. One potential long-term alternative method to Salmonella prevention is genetic selection to improve innate resistance. This study evaluated the ex vivo effects of Salmonella Heidelberg (SH) on phagocytic and bactericidal leukocyte function in turkeys from six pedigree lines (A-F). Day-of-hatch poults (n = 48) were placed and raised in cages (2 birds/gender/genetic line/cage) to 35 d when heterophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were extracted from males and females of each line. Cells were used in phagocytic and bactericidal assays to determine the ex vivo effects of SH on turkey leukocyte activity. Data were analyzed using the Fit Model platform in JMP Pro 10.0 (SAS Institute Inc.) with differences considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and data reported as LS Means with SEM. Although genetic line had no significant effect on phagocytosis of SH by heterophils and PBMCs, cumulatively, female cells exhibited higher phagocytosis potential than those from males. The main effect of gender was significant on bactericidal activity of PBMCs when incubated at a 1:10 and 1:100 PBMC to SH ratio. Genetic line also had a significant effect on bactericidal activity of PBMCs with cells from line F exhibiting the best activity. These results suggest that gender had a marked cumulative effect on phagocytosis of SH by heterophils and PBMCs while both genetic line and gender had a prominent effect on bacterial killing of SH by turkey PBMCs. Once able to determine genetic markers associated with these immune responses to Salmonella, genetic selection for increased resistance may become feasible in turkeys. PMID:26706359

  19. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1975-01-01

    Meteorological satellites include experimental satellites operated by NASA and operational satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The operational system currently provides pictures of the entire globe, temperature measurements throughout the world, and wind measurements in selected parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Aspects of vertical sounding are discussed along with questions of parameter extraction technique development, macroscale phenomena, the heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system and the climate, and studies of ocean surface and hydrology.

  20. Satellite services system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  1. Effect of vitamin D status improvement with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on skeletal muscle growth characteristics and satellite cell activity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hutton, K C; Vaughn, M A; Litta, G; Turner, B J; Starkey, J D

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SC) play a critical role in the hypertrophic growth of postnatal muscle. Increases in breast meat yield have been consistently observed in broiler chickens fed 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3), but it is unclear whether this effect is mediated by SC. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of vitamin D status improvement by replacing the majority of dietary vitamin D3 (D3) with 25OHD3 on SC activity and muscle growth characteristics in the pectoralis major (PM) and the biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Day-old, male Ross 708 broiler chickens (n = 150) were fed 1 of 2 corn and soybean meal-based diets for 49 d. The control diet (CTL) contained 5,000 IU D3 per kg of diet and the experimental diet (25OHD3) contained 2,240 IU D3 per kg of diet + 2,760 IU 25OHD3 per kg of diet. Ten birds per treatment were harvested every 7 d. Two hours before harvest, birds were injected intraperitoneally with 5'-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotically active cells. Blood was collected from each bird at harvest to measure circulating concentrations of 25OHD3, a marker of vitamin D status. The PM and BF muscles were weighed and processed for cryohistological determination of skeletal muscle fiber cross-sectional area, enumeration of Myf-5+ and Pax7+ SC, and mitotically active (BrdU+) SC using immunofluorescence microscopy. Circulating 25OHD3 concentrations were greater in 25OHD3-fed birds on d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 when compared with CTL (P < 0.001). Growth performance and feed efficiency did not differ among dietary treatments (P > 0.10). Improved vitamin D status as a result of feeding 25OHD3 increased the number of mitotically active (Pax7+;BrdU+) SC (P = 0.01) and tended to increase the density of Pax7+ SC (P = 0.07) in the PM muscles of broilers on d 21 and 35, respectively. Broiler chickens fed 25OHD3 also tended to have greater Myf-5+ SC density (P = 0.09) on d 14, greater total nuclear density (P = 0.05) on d 28, and a greater muscle fiber cross-sectional area (P = 0.09) on d 49 in their PM muscles compared with CTL birds. Collectively, these results suggest that improvement of vitamin D status by replacing the majority of D3 in the diet with 25OHD3 can stimulate SC activity in the predominantly fast-twitch PM muscle and provide evidence toward understanding the mechanism behind previously observed increases in breast meat yield in 25OHD3-fed commercial broiler chickens. PMID:24894000

  2. Methods of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  3. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  4. Satellite system survivability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, F. H.

    Present U.S. military capability relies heavily on Earth satellites to maintain connectivity. The essential nature of these satellite systems has made them tempting targets to nuclear attack in wartime. The author reviews U.S. history in high-altitude nuclear device testing and nuclear effects testing on satellies, events in which he directly participated. Physics of the production of nuclear enhanced high-altitude electron belts are reviewed. The author discusses primary affects of the enhanced environment on satellite components. A glimpse into future satellite hardening reveals measures against developing directed energy weapons.

  5. Satellite networks for education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite based educational networking is discussed with particular attention given to the potential uses of communications satellites to help meet educational needs in the United states. Four major subject areas were covered; (1) characteristics and structure of networks, (2) definition of pressures within educational establishment that provide motivation for various types of networks, (3) examination of current educational networking status for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intra-state educational communication networks, computer networks, and cable television for education, and (4) identification of possible satellite based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems.

  6. Satellite Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

  7. Acute airsacculitis in turkeys inoculated with phorbol myristate acetate.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Barnes, H J

    1990-06-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), which induces acute pulmonary injury in mammals, induced acute airsacculitis in turkeys after intra-airsac inoculation of 0.1 mg/kg. Grossly, air sacs contained multifocal to diffuse hemorrhage and edema at postinoculation hours (PIH) 3 and 6. Microscopically, there was multifocal congestion and small thrombocyte aggregates within small blood vessels by PIH 0.5, with a few vessels containing small numbers of marginating heterophils. By PIH 1.5, thrombocyte aggregates were larger and more numerous, and moderate numbers of heterophils were located perivascularly. Erythrocytes and proteinaceous fluid were in air sac interstitium. By PIH 3 and 6, hemorrhage and exudation of proteinaceous fluid had increased, in some instances severely distending the air sac. Ultrastructurally, changes resulting from PMA-induced injury were thrombocyte aggregation and degeneration, air sac epithelial cell vacuolation with separation of interdigitating cell processes, and endothelial cell vacuolar degeneration with loss of vascular integrity. Air sac lavage fluids had mildly increased total cell counts by PIH 1.5, but values returned to baseline by the end of the experiment, indicating lack of cell exudation into the air sac lumen. Circulating leukocyte changes included transient lymphopenia at PIH 3 and marked heterophilia at PIH 6. These results indicate that thrombocytes and/or heterophils are central to the pathogenesis of injury induced in air sacs by PMA and that the air sac responds differently to PMA than to pathogenic bacteria. PMID:2368955

  8. Advanced communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    The increase in demand for satellite communications services brought about shortages in available transponder capacity, especially at C-band. Interest shifted to the Ku-band frequency and currently carriers are rapidly moving to secure orbital slots for future satellite development. Projections of communications service demands over the next decade indiate growth in voice, data, and video services such that saturation of both C-band and Ku-band will occur by 1990. Emphasis must and will shift to Ka-band (20/30 GHz) frequency for fixed-satellite service. Advanced technologies such as multibeam antennas coupled with on-board satellite switching to allow implementation in this band of very high capacity satellite systems will be applied to meet the demand. Satellite system concepts that are likely in the 1990's and are likely to bring a new dimension to satellite delivered communication service are presented. The NASA 30/20 GHz communications satellite system demonstration program is discussed with emphasis on the related technology development.

  9. Signals from Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect for relative motion between a source of waves and an observer and the orbital dynamics of communications satellites. Presents preliminary calculations of the satellite's altitude and linear velocity using only the concepts of the Doppler shift and the mechanics of motion in a circular path. (JRH)

  10. Communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  11. Jovian satellite nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of the history of Jovian satellite nomenclature is given to indicate the background for the names proposed for the numbered satellites. The new names are consistent with established tradition and should cause minimal confusion with other named objects in the solar system.

  12. Maritime satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Leonid I.; Morozov, Igor'd.; Solov'ev, Vladimir I.

    Principles underlying the design and operation of maritime satellite communications systems are reviewed, with reference to Inmarsat and Sarsat. Particular attention is given to the design of search and rescue systems, the development of the onboard equipment, and the characteristics of coastal and shipboard earth stations. Finally, the organization of maritime satellite communications systems is discussed, and questions of system efficiency are examined.

  13. Which satellites were used?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... (Scanner and NonScanner) were used. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center built the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) on which the first ERBE instruments were launched by the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ERBE instruments were also launched on two ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather monitoring satellites, NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 in 1984 and 1986, ...

  14. Satellite Teleconference Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin Community Coll., IL.

    The vocational education satellite teleconference project accomplished two goals: (1) identified, acquired, copied, and distributed to the Illinois Vocational Curriculum Center 100 marketing or training videotapes for staff development and classroom use; and (2) provided from 15-25 variable time (1- to 3-hour) satellite teleconferences in four

  15. Communication satellite technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  16. Interactive Learning by Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.

    1987-01-01

    Describes three systems of interactive satellite instruction for high school credit: German by Satellite, offered by the University of Oklahoma; Accelerated Learning of Spanish, originating in Utah; and the TI-IN network, which broadcasts 14 different high school courses from San Antonio, Texas. (JC)

  17. Approximations of satellite stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markellos, V. V.; Szebehely, V.

    1981-01-01

    Modifications and corrections are presented to relations obtained in an investigation conducted by Szebehely (1978), who has discussed the problem of Hill's (1878) stability of satellites in the restricted problem of three bodies. Attention is given to an approximation of the Jacobian constant for the satellite, the critical value of the Jacobian constant, and approximate solutions.

  18. Outer planets satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation takes into account the published literature on outer planet satellites for 1979-1982. It is pointed out that al