Sample records for turkey satellite cell

  1. BILSAT-1: first Earth observation satellite of Turkey - operations and lessons learned

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gokhan Yuksel; Onder Belce; Hakan Urhan

    2005-01-01

    BILSAT-1 is an enhanced micro satellite designed and manufactured in the framework of a KHTT program between SSTL (UK) and TUBITAK-BILTEN (Turkey). The satellite was launched by a COSMOS 3M launch vehicle from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia on September 27, 2003. After being injected in a sun synchronous orbit at a 686 km altitude, it was commissioned successfully via

  2. The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation (25 Gy) on the subsequent in vitro growth of satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Schultz, E.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation on subsequent satellite cell growth, in vitro, was investigated to ascertain the ability of a 25 Gy dose to inhibit satellite cell proliferation. Satellite cells were isolated from the left (irradiated) and right (non-irradiated) Pectoralis thoracicus of two-week-old tom turkeys 16 h (n=3) and seven weeks (n=2) after the left Pectoralis thoracicus had been irradiated (25 Gy). Satellite cells isolated from the irradiated and non-irradiated muscles exhibited similar (P>0.10) in vitro proliferation indicating that a population of satellite cells survived an in vivo dose of 25 Gy. In additional experiments, satellite cell cultures derived from tom turkey Pectoralis thoracicus were irradiated (25 Gy) in vitro. The number of satellite cells did not (P>0.05) increase in irradiated cultures for 134 h following irradiation, while satellite cells in non-irradiated cultures proliferated (P<0.05) over this time. At later time periods, satellite cell number increased (P<0.05) in irradiated cultures indicating that a population of satellite cells survived irradiation. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that a 25 Gy dose of irradiation does not abolish satellite cell divisions in the turkey Pectoralis thoracicus.

  3. Turkeys 

    E-print Network

    2009-01-01

    of improvements observed was less than 2%, a response statistcally not significant in justifying changes in practical turkey diet formulation. Waibel (1972) summitted findings that differ from those r eported by Yacowitz et al. (1956). Waibel (1972) repor ted...THE EFFECT OF DIETARY FAT ON THE ABSORPTION OF MINERALS IN TURKEY POULTS A Thesis by JAMES ALLEN BYRD II Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 5 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  4. [Turkey].

    PubMed

    The capital of Turkey is Ankara. As of 1995, Turkey had a population of 61.9 million governed by a parliamentary republican regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $149 billion and $2450. Per capita income grew at 1.5% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Turkey owed $66.3 billion, then being serviced at $9.4 billion. For the same year, Turkey exported $32.711 billion in goods and services and imported $30.785 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 1.8% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 67 years, the infant mortality rate was 56 per 1000 births, % had access to health services, and 92% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347072

  5. Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Bentzinger, C Florian; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Skeletal muscles are essential for vital functions such as movement, postural support, breathing, and thermogenesis. Muscle tissue is largely composed of long, postmitotic multinucleated fibers. The life-long maintenance of muscle tissue is mediated by satellite cells, lying in close proximity to the muscle fibers. Muscle satellite cells are a heterogeneous population with a small subset of muscle stem cells, termed satellite stem cells. Under homeostatic conditions all satellite cells are poised for activation by stimuli such as physical trauma or growth signals. After activation, satellite stem cells undergo symmetric divisions to expand their number or asymmetric divisions to give rise to cohorts of committed satellite cells and thus progenitors. Myogenic progenitors proliferate, and eventually differentiate through fusion with each other or to damaged fibers to reconstitute fiber integrity and function. In the recent years, research has begun to unravel the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling satellite cell behavior. Nonetheless, an understanding of the complex cellular and molecular interactions of satellite cells with their dynamic microenvironment remains a major challenge, especially in pathological conditions. The goal of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current knowledge on satellite cell characteristics, functions, and behavior in muscle regeneration and in pathological conditions. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1027-1059, 2015. PMID:26140708

  6. Old high resolution satellite images for landscape archaeology: case studies from Turkey and Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    The paper concerns the contribution for Landscape Archaeology from satellite images of 1960s and 1970s, very useful when old aerial photographs are scarce. Particularly, the study concerns the panchromatic photos taken by USA reconnaissance satellites from 1963 to 1972, declassified for civil use in 1995 and 2002, that in the last years are very used in the archaeological research; in fact, a lot of these images have an high geometric resolution, about between 2.74 and 1.83 m (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and some have a ground resolution about between 1.20 and 0.60 m (Gambit KH-7). These satellite images allow to examine very in detail ancient urban areas and territories that later are changed or partially destroyed; so, it is possible to detect and examine ancient structures, palaeo-environmental elements and archaeological traces of buried features now not visible. The paper presents some exemplificative cases study in Turkey and Iraq, in which the analysis of these images has made a fundamental contribution to the archaeological researches: particularly, for the reconstruction of the urban layout of the ancient city of Hierapolis of Phrygia and for the surveys in its territory, and for the study of the ancient topography of some archaeological sites of Iraq. In this second case, the research is gained in the context of the Iraq Virtual Museum Project; the comparison with recent high resolution satellite images (Ikonos-2, QuickBird-2, WorldView-1) also provide a fundamental tool for monitoring archaeological areas and for an evaluation of the situation after the first and the second Gulf War.

  7. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Alway, Stephen E; Myers, Matthew J; Mohamed, Junaith S

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  8. Determination of horizontal and vertical distribution of Calabrian pine stands in Turkey using SRTM satellite data and GIS.

    PubMed

    Yener, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Forest areas in Turkey are generally spread on rugged terrain and different elevations. Site factors such as location, elevation from sea level, aspect and slope are effective on an ecosystem's climate, soil characteristics, and hence vegetation. Description of such characteristics will allow for the description of forest ecosystems living on these sites and comparison of such ecosystems to each other. Factors such as elevation, aspect and slope can easily be generated from Digital Elevation Models. In this study, using a digital elevation model obtained from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) satellite data and 1/25,000 scale Forest Information System database, horizontal and vertical distribution of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.), which is spatially the most extensively spread needled tree species in Turkey, (to elevation classes) is determined and the generated results (map, table etc.) are presented. PMID:24558804

  9. Using Cell Phones From Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    During the past several years, an interest has grown in using commercial telecommunications techniques to supply Telemetry and Command (T&C) services. Recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) has outlined plans to utilize satellite-based telecommunications services to support space operations in space missions over the next several decades. NASA currently obtains the bulk of its telecommunications services for earth-orbiting satellites via the existing government-owned and controlled Space Network (SN) system. This system consists of the constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and the associated ground terminals and communications intrastructure. This system is valuable and effective for scientific satellites costing over one million dollars. However, for smaller satellites, this system becomes problematic due to the cost of transponders and support infrastructure. The nominal transponders for using the TDRS cannot be obtained for a cost in dollars, and size, weight, or power that the 3 Corner Satellite project can afford. For these types of nanosatellite missions, alternatives that fit the mission cost and satellite profiles are needed. In particular, low-cost access using existing commercial infrastructure would be useful to mission planners. In particular, the ability to obtain low data rate T&C services would be especially valuable. The nanosatellites generally have low T&C requirements and therefore would benefit from using commercial services that could operate in the 2400 bps - 9600 bps range, especially if contact times longer than the 5 - 10 minute ground station passes could be found.

  10. REGENERATIVE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR SATELLITES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asbjørn Strand; Helge Weydahl

    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand increasingly more power. Power levels of 30 kW or more are foreseen for the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30 kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with new Li-ion battery technologies. Regenerative fuel cell systems

  11. Isolation and cell culture propagation of rotaviruses from turkeys and chickens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. McNulty; G. M. Allan; D. Todd; J. B. McFerran

    1979-01-01

    Summary Rotaviruses were detected by electron microscopy in the faeces of turkey poults and broiler chickens with diarrhoea. Apparently symptomless infection was also observed in broilers. The avian rotaviruses could not be isolated in cell cultures by conventional techniques, but were adapted to serial growth in chick cell cultures following trypsin treatment of the virus and the cells. Immunofluorescence studies

  12. Isolation, culture, and transplantation of muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Yoko; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells are a stem cell population required for postnatal skeletal muscle development and regeneration, accounting for 2–5% of sublaminal nuclei in muscle fibers. In adult muscle, satellite cells are normally mitotically quiescent. Following injury, however, satellite cells initiate cellular proliferation to produce myoblasts, their progenies, to mediate the regeneration of muscle. Transplantation of satellite cell-derived myoblasts has been widely studied as a possible therapy for several regenerative diseases including muscular dystrophy, heart failure, and urological dysfunction. Myoblast transplantation into dystrophic skeletal muscle, infarcted heart, and dysfunctioning urinary ducts has shown that engrafted myoblasts can differentiate into muscle fibers in the host tissues and display partial functional improvement in these diseases. Therefore, the development of efficient purification methods of quiescent satellite cells from skeletal muscle, as well as the establishment of satellite cell-derived myoblast cultures and transplantation methods for myoblasts, are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind satellite cell self-renewal, activation, and differentiation. Additionally, the development of cell-based therapies for muscular dystrophy and other regenerative diseases are also dependent upon these factors. However, current prospective purification methods of quiescent satellite cells require the use of expensive fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) machines. Here, we present a new method for the rapid, economical, and reliable purification of quiescent satellite cells from adult mouse skeletal muscle by enzymatic dissociation followed by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Following isolation of pure quiescent satellite cells, these cells can be cultured to obtain large numbers of myoblasts after several passages. These freshly isolated quiescent satellite cells or ex vivo expanded myoblasts can be transplanted into cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced regenerating mouse skeletal muscle to examine the contribution of donor-derived cells to regenerating muscle fibers, as well as to satellite cell compartments for the examination of self-renewal activities. PMID:24747722

  13. Activation of muscle satellite cells in single-fiber cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Anderson; Orest Pilipowicz

    2002-01-01

    Satellite stem cell activation is the process by which quiescent precursor cells resident on muscle fibers are recruited to cycle and move. Two processes are reported to affect satellite cell activation. In vivo, nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase in fibers (NOS-I?) promotes activation. In cell cultures, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is the major activating factor isolated from crushed

  14. Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection Simona Ozden1 , Michel antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells), and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed

  15. Advanced solar cells for satellite power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-11-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  16. Culturing satellite cells from living single muscle fiber explants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. David Rosenblatt; Alison I. Lunt; David J. Parry; Terence A. Partridge

    1995-01-01

    Summary  Conventional methods for isolating myogenic (satellite) cells are inadequate when only small quantities of muscle, the tissue\\u000a in which satellite cells reside, are available. We have developed a tissue culture system that reliably permits isolation\\u000a of intact, living, single muscle fibers with associated satellite cells from predominantly fast and slow muscles of rat and\\u000a mouse; maintenance of the isolated fibers

  17. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo-Jiang; Li, Ping-Hua; Huang, Rui-Hua; Sun, Wen-Xing; Wang, Han; Li, Qi-Fa; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wang-Jun; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse) have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells. PMID:26104526

  18. Human satellite cells have regenerative capacity and are genetically manipulable.

    PubMed

    Marg, Andreas; Escobar, Helena; Gloy, Sina; Kufeld, Markus; Zacher, Joseph; Spuler, Andreas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Spuler, Simone

    2014-10-01

    Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. Human satellite cells are scarce; therefore, clinical investigation has been limited. We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were activated and proliferated efficiently in culture. Independent of donor age, as few as 2 to 4 PAX7+ satellite cells gave rise to several thousand myoblasts. Transplantation of human muscle fiber fragments into irradiated muscle of immunodeficient mice resulted in robust engraftment, muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that subjecting the human muscle fiber fragments to hypothermic treatment successfully enriches the cultures for PAX7+ cells and improves the efficacy of the transplantation and muscle regeneration. Finally, we successfully altered gene expression in cultured human PAX7+ satellite cells with Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated nonviral gene transfer, highlighting the potential of this system for use in gene therapy. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to culture and manipulate a rare population of human tissue-specific stem cells and suggest that these PAX7+ satellite cells have potential to restore gene function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:25157816

  19. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  20. A home away from home: Challenges and opportunities in engineering in vitro muscle satellite cell niches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin D. Cosgrove; Alessandra Sacco; Penney M. Gilbert; Helen M. Blau

    2009-01-01

    Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells with a principal role in postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration. Satellite cells, like many tissue-specific adult stem cells, reside in a quiescent state in an instructive, anatomically defined niche. The satellite cell niche constitutes a distinct membrane-enclosed compartment within the muscle fiber, containing a diversity of biochemical and biophysical signals that influence satellite cell

  1. M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions activate satellite cell division.

    PubMed

    Marti, Merce; Montserrat, Núria; Pardo, Cristina; Mulero, Lola; Miquel-Serra, Laia; Rodrigues, Alexandre Miguel Cavaco; Andrés Vaquero, José; Kuebler, Bernd; Morera, Cristina; Barrero, María José; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-15

    Adult muscle stem cells and their committed myogenic precursors, commonly referred to as the satellite cell population, are involved in both muscle growth after birth and regeneration after damage. It has been previously proposed that, under these circumstances, satellite cells first become activated, divide and differentiate, and only later fuse to the existing myofiber through M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions. Our data show that satellite cells fuse with the myofiber concomitantly to cell division, and only when the nuclei of the daughter cells are inside the myofiber, do they complete the process of differentiation. Here we demonstrate that M-cadherin plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition and fusion, and is crucial for cell division activation. Treatment of satellite cells with M-cadherin in vitro stimulates cell division, whereas addition of anti-M-cadherin antibodies reduces the cell division rate. Our results suggest an alternative model for the contribution of satellite cells to muscle development, which might be useful in understanding muscle regeneration, as well as muscle-related dystrophies. PMID:24046443

  2. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Molnar; Nancy A. Schroedl; Steve R. Gonda; Charles R. Hartzell

    1997-01-01

    Summary  Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells.\\u000a Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and, therefore, provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal\\u000a muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation

  3. The skeletal muscle satellite cell: stem cell or son of stem cell?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter S. Zammit; Jonathan R. Beauchamp

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the adult tissue stem cell is fundamental to models of persistent renewal in functionally post-mitotic tissues. Although relatively ignored by stem cell biology, skeletal muscle is a prime example of an adult tissue that can generate terminally differentiated cells uniquely specialized to carry out tissue-specific functions. This capacity is attributed to satellite cells, a population of undifferentiated,

  4. Muscle satellite cells and endothelial cells: close neighbours and privileged partners.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Muscle satellite cells and endothelial cells: close neighbours and privileged partners. Christo5GFP-P/+ ) allowing direct muscle satellite cell (SC) visualization indicate that, in addition-myogenesis. Muscle tissue repair is a complex biological process that crucially involves activation of stem cells

  5. The activation of satellite cells by nanofibrous poly ?-caprolacton constructs.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Soleimani, Masoud; Rezayat, Sayed Mahdi; Ai, Jafar; Vasei, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    Nanoscale patterning of scaffolds provides broad surface for adhesion and differentiation of stem cells. As we know, the combination of tissue engineering with stem cells technology hold the key for regeneration of damaged tissues for example skeletal muscle tissues. On the other hand, the mechanical assessments of poly ?-caprolacton nanofibers determined the required features of biomedical scaffold for skeletal muscle tissue. In this study, skeletal muscle satellite cells as the main group of stem cells were cultivated on the electrospun poly ?-caprolacton nanofibers. Our results indicated that in comparison with tissue culture polystyrene, the nanoscale of scaffolds provided more induction to matured cells of skeletal muscle. Moreover, the immobilization of cells by collagen on poly ?-caprolacton nanofibers significantly improved the differential potency of satellite cells. PMID:23520361

  6. The Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell: The Stem Cell That Came in From the Cold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter S. Zammit; Terence A. Partridge; Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni

    2006-01-01

    The muscle satellite cell was first described and actually named on the basis of its anatomic location under the basement membrane surrounding each myofiber. For many years following its discovery, electron microscopy provided the only definitive method of identification. More recently, several molecular markers have been described that can be used to detect satellite cells, making them more accessible for

  7. Crayfish mechanoreceptor neuron prevents photoinduced apoptosis of satellite glial cells.

    PubMed

    Kolosov, Mikhail; Uzdensky, Anatoly

    2006-05-15

    Interactions between neurons and glia play a key role in the development, functioning and survival of the nervous system. However, the influence of neurons on glial cells has received less attention than the role of glia in supporting neural functions. We here investigated the role of isolated crayfish stretch receptor neuron in the death of satellite glial cells under photodynamic impact. After staining with aluminum phthalocyanine photosens, the neuronal cell body was locally irradiated with a focused beam of He-Ne (633 nm, 200 W/cm2) or semiconductor laser (650 nm, 50 W/cm2). This rapidly abolished neuronal activity. The whole preparation was then subjected to total laser irradiation with lower intensity (633 nm, 0.3 W/cm2), which induced death of glial cells. Double staining of the preparation with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 in the following 6-7h allowed the visualization of necrotic, apoptotic and alive cells. Previous neuron inactivation with the focused laser beam was found to increase photodynamically-induced apoptosis but not necrosis of satellite glial cells enwrapping the axon. Therefore, the intact neuronal cell body protected satellite glial cells against photoinduced apoptosis. Altogether the data indicate that mechanoreceptor neurons release some signaling molecules involved in the prevention of glial apoptosis. This may provide integrity of the stretch receptor organ and its resistance to injurious factors. PMID:16647578

  8. Substrate elasticity affects bovine satellite cell activation kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lapin, M R; Gonzalez, J M; Johnson, S E

    2013-05-01

    Satellite cells support efficient postnatal skeletal muscle hypertrophy through fusion into the adjacent muscle fiber. Nuclear contribution allows for maintenance of the fiber myonuclear domain and proficient transcription of myogenic genes. Niche growth factors affect satellite cell biology; however, the interplay between fiber elasticity and microenvironment proteins remains largely unknown. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and surface elasticity on bovine satellite cell (BSC) activation kinetics in vitro. Young's elastic modulus was calculated for the semimembranosus (SM) and LM muscles of young bulls (5 d; n = 8) and adult cows (27 mo; n = 4) cattle. Results indicate that LM elasticity decreased (P < 0.05) with age; no difference in Young's modulus for the SM was noted. Bovine satellite cells were seeded atop polyacrylamide bioscaffolds with surface elasticities that mimic young bull and adult cow LM or traditional cultureware. Cells were maintained in low-serum media supplemented with 5 ng/mL HGF or vehicle only for 24 or 48 h. Activation was evaluated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunocytochemistry. Results indicate that BSC maintained on rigid surfaces were activated at 24 h and refractive to HGF supplementation. By contrast, fewer (P < 0.05) BSC had exited quiescence after 24 h of culture on surfaces reflective of either young bull (8.1 ± 1.7 kPa) or adult cow (14.6 ± 1.6 kPa) LM. Supplementation with HGF promoted activation of BSC cultured on bioscaffolds as measured by an increase (P < 0.05) in PCNA immunopositive cells. Culture on pliant surfaces affected neither activation kinetics nor numbers of Paired box 7 (Pax7) immunopositive muscle stem cells (P > 0.05). However, with increasing surface elasticity, an increase (P < 0.05) in the numbers of muscle progenitors was observed. These results confirm that biophysical and biochemical signals regulate BSC activation. PMID:23463548

  9. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Levy; Leslie L. Vandine; James K. Stedman

    1987-01-01

    Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr\\/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the

  10. PPAR? regulates satellite cell proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a class of nuclear receptors that play important roles in development and energy metabolism. Whereas PPAR? has been shown to regulate mitochondrial biosynthesis and slow-muscle fiber types, its function in skeletal muscle progenitors (satellite cells) is unknown. Since constitutive mutation of Ppar? leads to embryonic lethality, we sought to address this question by conditional knockout (cKO) of Ppar? using Myf5-Cre/Ppar?flox/flox alleles to ablate PPAR? in myogenic progenitor cells. Although Ppar?-cKO mice were born normally and initially displayed no difference in body weight, muscle size or muscle composition, they later developed metabolic syndrome, which manifested as increased body weight and reduced response to glucose challenge at age nine months. Ppar?-cKO mice had 40% fewer satellite cells than their wild-type littermates, and these satellite cells exhibited reduced growth kinetics and proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, regeneration of Ppar?-cKO muscles was impaired after cardiotoxin-induced injury. Gene expression analysis showed reduced expression of the Forkhead box class O transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) gene in Ppar?-cKO muscles under both quiescent and regenerating conditions, suggesting that PPAR? acts through FoxO1 in regulating muscle progenitor cells. These results support a function of PPAR? in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and they establish a novel role of PPAR? in muscle progenitor cells and postnatal muscle regeneration. PMID:22040534

  11. Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron satellite glial cell communication in dorsal

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron­ satellite glial cell communication in dorsal root activates P2X7 receptors in satellite cells that enwrap each DRG neuron and triggers the communication neuronal somata and thus triggers bidirectional communication between neurons and satellite cells. Results

  12. Pico Satellite Solar Cell Testbed (PSSC Testbed)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Simburger; Simon Liu; John Halpine; David Hinkley; Joseph R. Srour; Daniel Rumsey

    2006-01-01

    The proposed PSSC Testbed flight experiment is designed to obtain space environmental degradation data for advanced solar cells. The purpose of the first flight (International Space Station orbit) is to develop and operationally test the picosatellite and associated ground station. Subsequent flights will be in a GEO transfer orbit, which will provide accelerated radiation degradation data for missions to geosynchronous

  13. Notch signaling deficiency underlies age-dependent depletion of satellite cells in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunhui; Wen, Yefei; Kuroda, Kazuki; Hannon, Kevin; Rudnicki, Michael A; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease characterized by muscle wasting, loss of mobility and death in early adulthood. Satellite cells are muscle-resident stem cells responsible for the repair and regeneration of damaged muscles. One pathological feature of DMD is the progressive depletion of satellite cells, leading to the failure of muscle repair. Here, we attempted to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying satellite cell ablation in the dystrophin mutant mdx mouse, a well-established model for DMD. Initial muscle degeneration activates satellite cells, resulting in increased satellite cell number in young mdx mice. This is followed by rapid loss of satellite cells with age due to the reduced self-renewal ability of mdx satellite cells. In addition, satellite cell composition is altered even in young mdx mice, with significant reductions in the abundance of non-committed (Pax7+ and Myf5-) satellite cells. Using a Notch-reporter mouse, we found that the mdx satellite cells have reduced activation of Notch signaling, which has been shown to be necessary to maintain satellite cell quiescence and self-renewal. Concomitantly, the expression of Notch1, Notch3, Jag1, Hey1 and HeyL are reduced in the mdx primary myoblast. Finally, we established a mouse model to constitutively activate Notch signaling in satellite cells, and show that Notch activation is sufficient to rescue the self-renewal deficiencies of mdx satellite cells. These results demonstrate that Notch signaling is essential for maintaining the satellite cell pool and that its deficiency leads to depletion of satellite cells in DMD. PMID:24906372

  14. Notch signaling deficiency underlies age-dependent depletion of satellite cells in muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunhui; Wen, Yefei; Kuroda, Kazuki; Hannon, Kevin; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease characterized by muscle wasting, loss of mobility and death in early adulthood. Satellite cells are muscle-resident stem cells responsible for the repair and regeneration of damaged muscles. One pathological feature of DMD is the progressive depletion of satellite cells, leading to the failure of muscle repair. Here, we attempted to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying satellite cell ablation in the dystrophin mutant mdx mouse, a well-established model for DMD. Initial muscle degeneration activates satellite cells, resulting in increased satellite cell number in young mdx mice. This is followed by rapid loss of satellite cells with age due to the reduced self-renewal ability of mdx satellite cells. In addition, satellite cell composition is altered even in young mdx mice, with significant reductions in the abundance of non-committed (Pax7+ and Myf5?) satellite cells. Using a Notch-reporter mouse, we found that the mdx satellite cells have reduced activation of Notch signaling, which has been shown to be necessary to maintain satellite cell quiescence and self-renewal. Concomitantly, the expression of Notch1, Notch3, Jag1, Hey1 and HeyL are reduced in the mdx primary myoblast. Finally, we established a mouse model to constitutively activate Notch signaling in satellite cells, and show that Notch activation is sufficient to rescue the self-renewal deficiencies of mdx satellite cells. These results demonstrate that Notch signaling is essential for maintaining the satellite cell pool and that its deficiency leads to depletion of satellite cells in DMD. PMID:24906372

  15. Ethical and legal aspects of stem cell practices in Turkey: where are we?

    PubMed

    Ozturk Turkmen, H; Arda, B

    2008-12-01

    Advances in medical technology and information have facilitated clinical practices that favourably affect the success rates of treatment for diseases. Regenerative medicine has been the focus of the recent medical agenda, to the extent of fundamentally changing treatment paradigms. Stem cell practices, their efficacy, and associated ethical concerns have been debated intensively in many countries. Stem cell research is carried out along with the treatment of patients. Thus, various groups affected by the practices inevitably participate in the discussions. In addition to discussions based on avoiding any harm, providing benefits and respecting personal autonomy and justice, problems arise owing to the lack of legal regulations for stem cell research and practice. The dimensions of the problems vary in the developing countries, with widespread use of advanced medical technology but with lack of sources allocated for healthcare, dominance of paternalistic physician-patient relationships and failure to achieve a sufficient level of awareness of patients' rights. This article discusses the current situation of stem cell practices within the context of regenerative medicine in Turkey and ethical concerns about some of the legal regulations, such as the Regulation for Umblical Cord Blood Banking and Guidelines for Non-embryonic Stem Cell Study for Non-clinical Purposes directing the research on this issue. PMID:19043103

  16. A New Look at the Origin, Function, and “Stem-Cell” Status of Muscle Satellite Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Seale; Michael A. Rudnicki

    2000-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells have long been considered a distinct myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth, repair, and maintenance of skeletal muscle. Recent studies in mice, however, have revealed the potential for highly purified hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow to participate in muscle regeneration. Perhaps more significantly, a population of putative stem cells isolated directly from skeletal muscle efficiently reconstitutes

  17. Monitoring the changing position of coastlines using aerial and satellite image data: an example from the eastern coast of Trabzon, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sesli, Faik Ahmet; Karsli, Fevzi; Colkesen, Ismail; Akyol, Nihat

    2009-06-01

    Coastline mapping and coastline change detection are critical issues for safe navigation, coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and sustainable coastal development and planning. Changes in the shape of coastline may fundamentally affect the environment of the coastal zone. This may be caused by natural processes and/or human activities. Over the past 30 years, the coastal sites in Turkey have been under an intensive restraint associated with a population press due to the internal and external touristic demand. In addition, urbanization on the filled up areas, settlements, and the highways constructed to overcome the traffic problems and the other applications in the coastal region clearly confirm an intensive restraint. Aerial photos with medium spatial resolution and high resolution satellite imagery are ideal data sources for mapping coastal land use and monitoring their changes for a large area. This study introduces an efficient method to monitor coastline and coastal land use changes using time series aerial photos (1973 and 2002) and satellite imagery (2005) covering the same geographical area. Results show the effectiveness of the use of digital photogrammetry and remote sensing data on monitoring large area of coastal land use status. This study also showed that over 161 ha areas were filled up in the research area and along the coastal land 12.2 ha of coastal erosion is determined for the period of 1973 to 2005. Consequently, monitoring of coastal land use is thus necessary for coastal area planning in order to protecting the coastal areas from climate changes and other coastal processes. PMID:18560986

  18. Genomes & Developmental Control Myf5 expression in satellite cells and spindles in adult muscle is controlled

    E-print Network

    Golding, Jon

    Genomes & Developmental Control Myf5 expression in satellite cells and spindles in adult muscle. Beauchampa a Muscle Cell Biology Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty is expressed in satellite cells, stem cells of mature muscle, but not in the myonuclei that sustain

  19. Analysis of Land Use Change and Urbanization in the Kucukcekmece Water Basin (Istanbul, Turkey) with Temporal Satellite Data using Remote Sensing and GIS

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, H. Gonca; Alganci, Ugur; Usta, Gokce

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and timely information about land use and land cover (LULC) and its changes in urban areas are crucial for urban land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. Also, monitoring and representation of urban sprawl and its effects on the LULC patterns and hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed is an essential part of water resource planning and management. This paper presents an image analysis study using multi temporal digital satellite imagery of LULC and changes in the Kucukcekmece Watershed (Metropolitan Istanbul, Turkey) from 1992 to 2006. The Kucukcekmece Basin includes portions of the Kucukcekmece District within the municipality of Istanbul so it faces a dramatic urbanization. An urban monitoring analysis approach was first used to implement a land cover classification. A change detection method controlled with ground truth information was then used to determine changes in land cover. During the study period, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on land-use patterns were cumulatively influenced by urban sprawl in the watershed. The proposed approach, which uses a combination of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, is an effective tool that enhances land-use monitoring, planning, and management of urbanized watersheds.

  20. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Alexander; Vandine, Leslie L.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-07-01

    Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. The first, the integrated design, utilized a configuration in which the fuel cell and electrolysis cells are alternately stacked inside a pressure vessel. Product water is transferred by diffusion during electrolysis and waste heat is conducted through the pressure wall, thus using completely passive means for transfer and control. The second alkaline system, the dedicated design, uses a separate fuel cell and electrolysis stack so that each unit can be optimized in size and weight based on its orbital operating period. The third design was a dual function stack configuration, in which each cell can operate in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode, thus eliminating the need for two separate stacks and associated equipment. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 W-hr/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. System densities of 115 W-hr/lb are contemplated.

  1. Real time of earthquakes prone areas by RST analysis of satellite TIR radiances: results of continuous monitoring over Italy and Turkey regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological satellites offering global coverage, continuity of observations and long term time series (starting even 30 years ago) offer a unique possibility not only to learn from the past but also to guarantee continuous monitoring whereas other observation technologies are lacking because too expensive or (like in the case of earthquake precursor studies) or considered useless by decision-makers. Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed (since 2001) in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transient possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. Since then several earthquakes occurred in Europe, Africa and America have been studied by analyzing decades of satellite observations always using a validation/confutation approach in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in presence/absence of significant seismic activity. In the framework of PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project (www.pre-earthquakes.org) , starting from October 2010 (still continuing) RST approach has been applied to MSG/SEVIRI data to generate TIR anomaly maps over Italian peninsula, continuously for all the midnight slots. Since September 2011 the same monitoring activity (still continuing) started for Turkey region. For the first time a similar analysis has been performed in real-time, systematically analyzing TIR anomaly maps in order to identify day by day possible significant (e.g. persistent in the space-time domain) thermal anomalies. During 2011 only in very few cases (1 in Italy in July and 2 in the Turkish region in September and November) the day by day analysis enhanced significant anomalies that in two cases were communicated to the other PRE-EARTHQUAKES partners asking for their attention. In this paper results of such analysis will be presented which seem to confirm results independently achieved (unfortunately without their knowledge) by other authors applying a similar approach to EOS/MODIS data over California region.

  2. Muscle satellite cells are multipotential stem cells that exhibit myogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Asakura; Michael A. Rudnicki; Motohiro Komaki

    2001-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells are believed to represent a committed stem cell population that is responsible for the postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, the observation that cultured myoblasts differentiate into osteocytes or adipocytes following treatment with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) or adipogenic inducers, respectively, suggests some degree of plasticity within the mesenchymal lineage. To further investigate this phenomenon,

  3. Extracellular matrix regulation in the muscle satellite cell niche.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kelsey; Engler, Adam J; Meyer, Gretchen A

    2015-02-01

    Increasing evidence points to extracellular matrix (ECM) components playing integral roles in regulating the muscle satellite cell (SC) niche. Even small alterations to the niche ECM can have profound effects on SC localization, activation, self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. This review will focus on the ECM components that comprise the niche, how they are modulated in health and disease and how these changes are thought to affect SC function. Particular emphasis will be placed on the pathological niche and interventions that aim to restore healthy structure and function, as a better understanding of the interplay between the SC and its environment will drive more targeted and effective therapies. PMID:25047058

  4. EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX REGULATION IN THE MUSCLE SATELLITE CELL NICHE

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kelsey; Engler, Adam J.; Meyer, Gretchen A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to extracellular matrix (ECM) components playing integral roles in regulating the muscle satellite cell (SC) niche. Even small alterations to the niche ECM can have profound effects on SC localization, activation, self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. This review will focus on the ECM components that comprise the niche, how they are modulated in health and disease and how these changes are thought to affect SC function. Particular emphasis will be placed on the pathological niche and interventions that aim to restore healthy structure and function, as a better understanding of the interplay between the SC and its environment will drive more targeted and effective therapies. PMID:25047058

  5. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells: Background and Methods for Isolation and Analysis in a Primary Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Danoviz, Maria Elena; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-01-01

    Summary Repair of adult skeletal muscle depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. Standardized protocols for the isolation and culture of satellite cells are key tools for understanding cell autonomous and extrinsic factors that regulate their performance. Knowledge gained from such studies can contribute important insights to developing strategies for the improvement of muscle repair following trauma and in muscle wasting disorders. This chapter provides an introduction to satellite cell biology and further describes the basic protocol used in our laboratory to isolate and culture satellite cells from adult skeletal muscle. The cell culture conditions detailed herein support proliferation and differentiation of satellite cell progeny and the development of reserve cells, which are thought to reflect the in vivo self-renewal ability of satellite cells. Additionally, this chapter describes our standard immunostaining protocol that allows the characterization of satellite cell progeny by the temporal expression of characteristic transcription factors and structural proteins associated with different stages of myogenic progression. While emphasis is given here to the isolation and characterization of satellite cells from mouse hindlimb muscles, the protocols are suitable for other muscle types (such as diaphragm and extraocular muscles) and for muscles from other species, including chicken and rat. Altogether, the basic protocols described are straightforward and facilitate the study of diverse aspects of skeletal muscle stem cells. PMID:22130829

  6. Notch1-mediated signaling regulates proliferation of porcine satellite cells (PSCs).

    PubMed

    Qin, Lili; Xu, Jian; Wu, Zhenfang; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Chong; Long, Qiaoming

    2013-02-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and fate decisions of mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the possible requirement for Notch signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of porcine satellite cells. We show that Notch1, 2 and 3 are expressed in cultured porcine satellite cells. Knock-down of NOTCH1, but not NOTCH2 and NOTCH3, decreases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. In contrast, enhancement of NOTCH1 expression via treatment of porcine satellite cells with recombinant NF-?B increases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. The alteration of porcine satellite cell proliferation is associated with significant changes in the expression of cell cycle related genes (cyclin B1, D1, D2, E1 and p21), myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) and the Notch effector Hes5. In addition, alteration of Notch1 expression in porcine satellite cells causes changes in the expression of GSK3?-3. Taken together, these findings suggest that of the four notch-related genes, Notch1is likely to be required for regulating the proliferation and therefore the maintenance of porcine satellite cells in vivo, and do so through activation of the Notch effector gene Hes5. PMID:23160004

  7. Differences between cystic fibrosis and normal cells in the degree of satellite association

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehoshua Ravia; Lydia Avivi; Boleslaw Goldman

    1985-01-01

    The degree of satellite association was found to be significantly higher in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients than from those of control individuals. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes from obligatory heterozygotes for the CF mutant allele showed an intermediate degree of satellite association. The degree of satellite association was estimated by the frequency of cells exhibiting associations, by the number

  8. Invited Review: Extrinsic regulation of domestic animal-derived myogenic satellite cells II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The existence of myogenic satellite cells was reported some forty-seven years ago, and, since that time, satellite cell research has flourished. So much new information is generated (daily) on these cells that it can be difficult for individuals to keep abreast of important issues related to the act...

  9. Complications of central venous catheters in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Medine C; Aksoylar, Serap; Erdogan, Durdane; Demirag, Bengu

    2012-01-01

    Although central venous catheters (CVCs) have become an integral element of the care of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the associated complications can lead to treatment delays and negatively affect the child and family's quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify the types, rate of, and risk factors for the complications relating to CVCs used in children undergoing HSCT in Turkey. One hundred children were followed prospectively to track catheter-related complications in the transplantation unit. Overall, 186 complications were documented. The most frequent complications were catheter-related infections and malfunctions. Children who had nonhematological disease had a higher rate of complications than those with hematological disease. HSCT nurses should follow and apply evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to support the management of catheters. Nurse staffing ratios and workload may be an issue in developing countries. The authors believe that proper maintenance of CVCs contributes to the reduction of catheter-related complications despite these issues and that problems can be overcome by hiring experienced staff, appropriate nursing education, and by organizing and improving home care programs for HSCT patients. PMID:22797681

  10. Single-Cell Analysis of Regulatory Gene Expression in Quiescent and Activated Mouse Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. W. Cornelison; Barbara J. Wold

    1997-01-01

    Repair and regeneration of adult skeletal muscle are mediated by satellite cells. In healthy muscle these rare mononucleate muscle precursor cells are mitotically quiescent. Upon muscle injury or degeneration, members of this self-renewing pool are activated to proliferate and then differentiate. Here we analyzed in single satellite cells the expression of a set of regulatory genes that are candidates for

  11. FGF2 activates TRPC and Ca2+ signaling leading to satellite cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yewei; Schneider, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cells, as stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, are tightly associated with the differentiated muscle fibers and remain quiescent in the absence of muscle damage. In response to an injury, the quiescent satellite cell is activated by soluble factors, including FGFs released from injured myofibers. Using immunostaining, we here first show that TRPC1 channels are highly expressed in satellite cells attached to muscle fibers. Since CD34, a traditional stem cell marker, was recently found to be expressed in skeletal muscle satellite cells we labeled living satellite cells in their physiological niche associated with host FDB fibers using anti-CD34-FITC antibody. We then monitored intra-cellular calcium in anti-CD34-FITC labeled satellite cells attached to muscle fibers using the calcium sensitive dye X rhod-1 which has little fluorescence cross talk with FITC. FGF2 increased intracellular calcium in satellite cells, which was antagonized by the TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365. Immunostaining showed that NFATc3 is highly expressed in satellite cells, but not in host FDB fibers. Elevation of intracellular calcium by FGF2 is accompanied by nuclear translocation of NFATc3 and NFATc2 and by an increase in the number of MyoD positive cells per muscle fiber, both of which were attenuated by TRPC blocker SKF 96365. Our results suggest a novel pathway of satellite cell activation where FGF2 enhances calcium influx through a TRPC channel, and the increased cytosolic calcium leads to both NFATc3 and NFATc2 nuclear translocation and enhanced number of MyoD positive satellite cells per muscle fiber. PMID:24575047

  12. Post-transcriptional regulation of satellite cell quiescence by TTP-mediated mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Hausburg, Melissa A; Doles, Jason D; Clement, Sandra L; Cadwallader, Adam B; Hall, Monica N; Blackshear, Perry J; Lykke-Andersen, Jens; Olwin, Bradley B

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells in their niche are quiescent and upon muscle injury, exit quiescence, proliferate to repair muscle tissue, and self-renew to replenish the satellite cell population. To understand the mechanisms involved in maintaining satellite cell quiescence, we identified gene transcripts that were differentially expressed during satellite cell activation following muscle injury. Transcripts encoding RNA binding proteins were among the most significantly changed and included the mRNA decay factor Tristetraprolin. Tristetraprolin promotes the decay of MyoD mRNA, which encodes a transcriptional regulator of myogenic commitment, via binding to the MyoD mRNA 3' untranslated region. Upon satellite cell activation, p38?/? MAPK phosphorylates MAPKAP2 and inactivates Tristetraprolin, stabilizing MyoD mRNA. Satellite cell specific knockdown of Tristetraprolin precociously activates satellite cells in vivo, enabling MyoD accumulation, differentiation and cell fusion into myofibers. Regulation of mRNAs by Tristetraprolin appears to function as one of several critical post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms controlling satellite cell homeostasis. PMID:25815583

  13. Globular Adiponectin Activates Motility and Regenerative Traits of Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi, Tania; Giannoni, Elisa; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Regeneration of adult injured skeletal muscle is due to activation of satellite cells, a population of stem cells resident beneath the basal lamina. Thus, information on soluble factors affecting satellite cell activation, as well as migration towards injury and fusion into new myofibers are essential. Here, we show that globular adiponectin (gAd), positively affects several features of muscle satellite cells. gAd activates satellite cells to exit quiescence and increases their recruitment towards myotubes. gAd elicits in satellite cells a specific motility program, involving activation of the small GTPase Rac1, as well as expression of Snail and Twist transcription factors driving a proteolytic motility, useful to reach the site of injury. We show that satellite cells produce autocrine full length adiponectin (fAd), which is converted to gAd by activated macrophages. In turns, gAd concurs to attract to the site of injury both satellite cells and macrophages and induces myogenesis in muscle satellite cells. Thus, these findings add a further role for gAd in skeletal muscle, including the hormone among factors participating in muscle regeneration. PMID:22629295

  14. Enhanced progesterone and testosterone secretion and depressed estradiol secretion in vitro from small white follicle cells of incubating turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Porter, T E; Hargis, B M; Silsby, J L; el Halawani, M E

    1989-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine if lower steroid secretion by the small white follicles in incubating turkey hens contributes to lower circulating steroid concentrations during this time. Turkey hens were grouped as either laying or incubating. Serum samples and the ovarian small white follicles (SWF; 2-7 mm diameter) were collected from each hen. The SWF were pooled for each group and their cells were dispersed by trypsin digestion. Serum-luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E) concentrations were lower and serum prolactin concentration was higher during incubation than during egg laying. SWF cells from incubating hens secreted more P and T and less E in response to ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH) than did similar cell suspensions from laying hens. The incubating hens' SWF cells' capacity to secrete E but not their capacity to secrete P or T in vitro is consistent with the observed circulating levels. It is hypothesized that lower levels of circulating LH and/or higher levels of prolactin found in incubating hens may have a depressing effect on aromatase activity and/or an up-regulating effect on LH-induced P and T secretion by the SWF cells. PMID:2744409

  15. The effects of low frequency electrical stimulation on satellite cell activity in rat skeletal muscle during hindlimb suspension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Ting Zhang; Simon S Yeung; Yue Liu; Hong-Hui Wang; Yu-Min Wan; Shu-Kuan Ling; Hong-Yu Zhang; Ying-Hui Li; Ella W Yeung

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability of skeletal muscle to grow and regenerate is dependent on resident stem cells called satellite cells. It has been shown that chronic hindlimb unloading downregulates the satellite cell activity. This study investigated the role of low-frequency electrical stimulation on satellite cell activity during a 28 d hindlimb suspension in rats. RESULTS: Mechanical unloading resulted in a 44%

  16. The Solar Cell Experiment of the first Brazilian satellite: 500 days of data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Nubile; Nelson Veissid; Antonio F. Beloto

    1994-01-01

    The experiments conducted aboard satellites show the importance of the study of joint effects of thermal cycles, ionizing radiation damage, UV light and vacuum degradation on solar cells. The first satellite of the Brazilian Complete Space Mission, launched on February 9, 1993, hosts the Solar Cell Experiment (SCE). The objective of this experiment is to qualify in mission and real-time

  17. Low-energy laser irradiation affects satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadav Ben-Dov; Gavriella Shefer; Andrey Irinitchev; Anton Wernig; Uri Oron; Orna Halevy

    1999-01-01

    Low-energy laser (He–Ne) irradiation was found to promote skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo. In this study, its effect on the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in vitro was evaluated. Primary rat satellite cells were irradiated for various time periods immediately after preparation, and thymidine incorporation was determined after 2 days in culture. Laser irradiation affected thymidine incorporation in a

  18. Myostatin signals through Pax7 to regulate satellite cell self-renewal

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Craig [AgResearch, Functional Muscle Genomics, Hamilton (New Zealand); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Hennebry, Alex; Thomas, Mark; Plummer, Erin [AgResearch, Functional Muscle Genomics, Hamilton (New Zealand); Ling, Nicholas [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Sharma, Mridula [AgResearch, Functional Muscle Genomics, Hamilton (New Zealand); Kambadur, Ravi [AgResearch, Functional Muscle Genomics, Hamilton (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)], E-mail: KRavi@ntu.edu.sg

    2008-01-15

    Myostatin, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-{beta}) super-family member, has previously been shown to negatively regulate satellite cell activation and self-renewal. However, to date the mechanism behind Myostatin function in satellite cell biology is not known. Here we show that Myostatin signals via a Pax7-dependent mechanism to regulate satellite cell self-renewal. While excess Myostatin inhibited Pax7 expression via ERK1/2 signaling, an increase in Pax7 expression was observed following both genetic inactivation and functional antagonism of Myostatin. As a result, we show that either blocking or inactivating Myostatin enhances the partitioning of the fusion-incompetent self-renewed satellite cell lineage (high Pax7 expression, low MyoD expression) from the pool of actively proliferating myogenic precursor cells. Consistent with this result, over-expression of Pax7 in C2C12 myogenic cells resulted in increased self-renewal through a mechanism which slowed both myogenic proliferation and differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that increased expression of Pax7 promotes satellite cell self-renewal, and furthermore Myostatin may control the process of satellite cell self-renewal through regulation of Pax7. Thus we speculate that, in addition to the intrinsic factors (such as Pax7), extrinsic factors both positive and negative in nature, will play a major role in determining the stemness of skeletal muscle satellite cells.

  19. Pericytes of human skeletal muscle are myogenic precursors distinct from satellite cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arianna Dellavalle; Maurilio Sampaolesi; Rossana Tonlorenzi; Enrico Tagliafico; Benedetto Sacchetti; Laura Perani; Anna Innocenzi; Beatriz G. Galvez; Graziella Messina; Roberta Morosetti; Sheng Li; Marzia Belicchi; Giuseppe Peretti; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain; Woodring E. Wright; Yvan Torrente; Stefano Ferrari; Paolo Bianco; Giulio Cossu

    2007-01-01

    Cells derived from blood vessels of human skeletal muscle can regenerate skeletal muscle, similarly to embryonic mesoangioblasts. However, adult cells do not express endothelial markers, but instead express markers of pericytes, such as NG2 proteoglycan and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and can be prospectively isolated from freshly dissociated ALP+ cells. Unlike canonical myogenic precursors (satellite cells), pericyte-derived cells express myogenic markers

  20. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Christopher S.; Lee, Jonah D.; Jackson, Janna R.; Kirby, Tyler J.; Stasko, Shawn A.; Liu, Honglu; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; McCarthy, John J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the current study was to determine the necessity of satellite cells for long-term muscle growth and maintenance. We utilized a transgenic Pax7-DTA mouse model, allowing for the conditional depletion of > 90% of satellite cells with tamoxifen treatment. Synergist ablation surgery, where removal of synergist muscles places functional overload on the plantaris, was used to stimulate robust hypertrophy. Following 8 wk of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle demonstrated an accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibroblast expansion that resulted in reduced specific force of the plantaris. Although the early growth response was normal, an attenuation of hypertrophy measured by both muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area occurred in satellite cell-depleted muscle. Isolated primary myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) negatively regulated fibroblast ECM mRNA expression in vitro, suggesting a novel role for activated satellite cells/MPCs in muscle adaptation. These results provide evidence that satellite cells regulate the muscle environment during growth.—Fry, C. S., Lee, J. D., Jackson, J. R., Kirby, T. J., Stasko, S. A., Liu, H., Dupont-Versteegden, E. E., McCarthy, J. J., Peterson, C. A. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy. PMID:24376025

  1. Pax7 is required for muscle satellite cell specification and regenerative myogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Seale

    2003-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells are a distinct population of myogenic progenitors that mediate the postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. To gain insight into the genetic regulation of satellite cell function during muscle regeneration, genes expressed specifically in these cells were identified by representational difference analysis of cDNAs. Notably, the paired-box transcription factor Pax7 was isolated as a gene specifically

  2. Pax7 is Required for Muscle Satellite Cell Specification and Regenerative Myogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Seale

    2003-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells are a distinct population of myogenic progenitors that mediate the postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. To gain insight into the genetic regulation of satellite cell function during muscle regeneration, genes expressed specifically in these cells were identified by representational difference analysis of cDNAs. Notably, the paired-box transcription factor Pax7 was isolated as a gene specifically

  3. Theoretical Investigation of Laser-Radiation Effects on Satellite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Hadi, Yasser; El-Hameed, Afaf; Hamdy, Ola

    This research concerns with the studying of laser-powered solar panels for space applications. A model describing the laser effects on satellite solar cell has been developed. These effects are studied theoretically in order to determine the performance limits of the solar cells when they are powered by laser radiation during the satellite eclipse. A comparison between some different common types of the solar cells used for these purpose is considered in this study. The obtained results are reported to optimize the use of laser-powered satellites.

  4. STAT3 signaling controls satellite cell expansion and skeletal muscle repair

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Matthew Timothy; Aydogdu, Tufan; Sala, David; Malecova, Barbora; Gatto, Sole; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Latella, Lucia; Sacco, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The progression of disease- and age-dependent skeletal muscle wasting results in part from a decline in the number and function of satellite cells, the direct cellular contributors to muscle repair1–10. However, little is known about the molecular effectors underlying satellite cell impairment and depletion. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with both age-related and muscle-wasting conditions11–13. The levels of STAT3, a downstream effector of IL-6, are also elevated with muscle wasting14,15, and STAT3 has been implicated in the regulation of self-renewal and stem cell fate in several tissues16–19. Here we show that IL-6–activated Stat3 signaling regulates satellite cell behavior, promoting myogenic lineage progression through myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) regulation. Conditional ablation of Stat3 in Pax7-expressing satellite cells resulted in their increased expansion during regeneration, but compromised myogenic differentiation prevented the contribution of these cells to regenerating myofibers. In contrast, transient Stat3 inhibition promoted satellite cell expansion and enhanced tissue repair in both aged and dystrophic muscle. The effects of STAT3 inhibition were conserved in human myoblasts. The results of this study indicate that pharmacological manipulation of STAT3 activity can be used to counteract the functional exhaustion of satellite cells, thereby maintaining the endogenous regenerative response and ameliorating muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25194572

  5. Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-16

    Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Koike, Taro; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-08-14

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. PMID:26116536

  7. Importance of satellite cells in recovery from eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury 

    E-print Network

    Rathbone, Christopher Ronald

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the elimination of satellite cell proliferation with []-irradiation would inhibit normal force recovery following eccentric contraction-induced injury. Adult female ICR mice ...

  8. Skeletal muscle satellite cells can spontaneously enter an alternative mesenchymal pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabi Shefer; Monika Wleklinski-Lee; Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni

    2004-01-01

    We show that muscle satellite cells, traditionally considered as committed myogenic precursors, are comprised of Pax7- expressing progenitors that preserve a mesenchymal repertoire extending beyond a mere myogenic potential. Mouse satellite cells from freshly isolated single myofibers, cultured individually in serum-rich growth medium, produced myogenic and non-myogenic clones. Only the myogenic clones expressed muscle-specific transcription factors and formed myotubes. Pax7

  9. Results of the solar cell experiment of the first Brazilian satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Veissid; P. Nubile; A. F. Beloto

    1997-01-01

    The first satellite of the Brazilian Complete Space Mission, launched on 9 February 1993, hosts a solar cell experiment (SCE). The objective of the SCE is to qualify in mission and real time the silicon solar cells for space use developed and manufactured in Brazil. The solar cells have the following characteristics: 4 cm2 of area, base resistivity of 10

  10. Fractalkine mediates inflammatory pain through activation of satellite glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Guilherme R.; Talbot, Jhimmy; Lotufo, Celina M.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Cunha, Thiago M.; Ferreira, Sérgio H.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of the satellite glial cells (SGCs) surrounding the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons appears to play a role in pathological pain. We tested the hypothesis that fractalkine, which is constitutively expressed by primary nociceptive neurons, is the link between peripheral inflammation and the activation of SGCs and is thus responsible for the genesis of the inflammatory pain. The injection of carrageenin into the rat hind paw induced a decrease in the mechanical nociceptive threshold (hypernociception), which was associated with an increase in mRNA and GFAP protein expression in the DRG. Both events were inhibited by anti-fractalkine antibody administered directly into the DRG (L5) [intraganglionar (i.gl.)]. The administration of fractalkine into the DRG (L5) produced mechanical hypernociception in a dose-, time-, and CX3C receptor-1 (CX3CR1)–dependent manner. Fractalkine’s hypernociceptive effect appears to be indirect, as it was reduced by local treatment with anti–TNF-? antibody, IL-1–receptor antagonist, or indomethacin. Accordingly, the in vitro incubation of isolated and cultured SGC with fractalkine induced the production/release of TNF-?, IL-1?, and prostaglandin E2. Finally, treatment with i.gl. fluorocitrate blocked fractalkine (i.gl.)- and carrageenin (paw)-induced hypernociception. Overall, these results suggest that, during peripheral inflammation, fractalkine is released in the DRG and contributes to the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception. Fractalkine’s effect appears to be dependent on the activation of the SGCs, leading to the production of TNF?, IL-1?, and prostanoids, which are likely responsible for the maintenance of inflammatory pain. Thus, these results indicate that the inhibition of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling in SGCs may serve as a target to control inflammatory pain. PMID:23776243

  11. Myf5 expression during fetal myogenesis defines the developmental progenitors of adult satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Biressi, Stefano; Bjornson, Christopher R.R.; Carlig, Poppy M.M.; Nishijo, Koichi; Keller, Charles; Rando, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Myf5 is a member of the muscle-specific determination genes and plays a critical role in skeletal muscle development. Whereas the expression of Myf5 during embryonic and fetal myogenesis has been extensively studied, its expression in progenitors that will ultimately give rise to adult satellite cells, the stem cells responsible for muscle repair, is still largely unexplored. To investigate this aspect, we have generated a mouse strain carrying a CreER coding sequence in the Myf5 locus. In this strain, Tamoxifen-inducible Cre activity parallels endogenous Myf5 expression. Combining Myf5CreER and Cre reporter alleles, we were able to evaluate the contribution of cells expressing Myf5 at distinct developmental stages to the pool of satellite cells in adult hindlimb muscles. Although it was possible to trace back the origin of some rare satellite cells to a subpopulation of Myf5+ve progenitors in the limb buds at the late embryonic stage (~E12), a significant number of satellite cells arise from cells which expressed Myf5 for the first time at the fetal stage (~E15). These studies provide direct evidence that adult satellite cells derive from progenitors that first express the myogenic determination gene Myf5 during fetal stages of myogenesis. PMID:23639729

  12. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRed (loxP/loxP) Cripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury. PMID:26052513

  13. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRedloxP/loxPCripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury.

  14. Super radiation tolerance of CIGS solar cells demonstrated in space by MDS-1 satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kawakita; M. Imaizumi; T. Sumita; K. Kushiya; T. Ohshima; M. Yamaguchi; S. Matsuda; S. Yoda; T. Kamiya

    2003-01-01

    High radiation tolerance of CIGS solar cells is demonstrated in space for the first time by monitoring the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se\\/sub 2\\/ thin-film solar cells on MDS-1 since February 2002. Short-circuit current of the CIGS cells did not degrade and open-circuit voltage of the cells degraded only about 1%. In contrast, the performance of other solar cells on the satellite,

  15. Low-energy laser irradiation affects satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dov, N; Shefer, G; Irintchev, A; Wernig, A; Oron, U; Halevy, O; Irinitchev, A

    1999-01-11

    Low-energy laser (He-Ne) irradiation was found to promote skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo. In this study, its effect on the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in vitro was evaluated. Primary rat satellite cells were irradiated for various time periods immediately after preparation, and thymidine incorporation was determined after 2 days in culture. Laser irradiation affected thymidine incorporation in a bell-shaped manner, with a peak at 3 s of irradiation. Three seconds of irradiation caused an induction of cell-cycle regulatory proteins: cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin A in an established line of mouse satellite cells, pmi28, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in primary rat satellite cells. The induction of cyclins by laser irradiation was compatible with their induction by serum refeeding of the cells. Laser irradiation effect on cell proliferation was dependent on the rat's age. At 3 weeks of age, thymidine incorporation in the irradiated cells was more than twofold higher than that in the controls, while at 6 weeks of age this difference had almost disappeared. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein levels were twofold lower in the irradiated than in the control cells, whereas the proliferation of the irradiated cells was twofold higher. Fusion percentage was lower in the irradiated compared to non-irradiated cells. In light of these data, the promoting effect of laser irradiation on skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo may be due to its effect on the activation of early cell-cycle regulatory genes in satellite cells, leading to increased proliferation and to a delay in cell differentiation. PMID:9990289

  16. Isolation and Culture of Skeletal Muscle Myofibers as a Means to Analyze Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Gabi; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-01-01

    Summary Myofibers are the functional contractile units of skeletal muscle. Mononuclear satellite cells located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber are the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. This chapter describes protocols used in our laboratory for isolation, culturing and immunostaining of single myofibers from mouse skeletal muscle. The isolated myofibers are intact and retain their associated satellite cells underneath the basal lamina. The first protocol discusses myofiber isolation from the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle. Myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with Vitrogen collagen and satellite cells remain associated with the myofibers undergoing proliferation and differentiation on the myofiber surface. The second protocol discusses the isolation of longer myofibers from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Different from the FDB myofibers, the longer EDL myofibers tend to tangle and break if cultured together; therefore, EDL myofibers are cultured individually. These myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with Matrigel. The satellite cells initially remain associated with the myofiber and later migrate away to its vicinity, resulting in extensive cell proliferation and differentiation. These culture protocols allow studies on the interplay between the myofiber and its associated satellite cells. PMID:15361669

  17. Intact satellite cells lead to remarkable protection against Smn gene defect in differentiated skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Nicole, Sophie; Desforges, Benedicte; Millet, Gaelle; Lesbordes, Jeanne; Cifuentes-Diaz, Carmen; Vertes, Dora; Cao, My Linh; De Backer, Fabienne; Languille, Laetitia; Roblot, Natacha; Joshi, Vandana; Gillis, Jean-Marie; Melki, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Deletion of murine Smn exon 7, the most frequent mutation found in spinal muscular atrophy, has been directed to either both satellite cells, the muscle progenitor cells and fused myotubes, or fused myotubes only. When satellite cells were mutated, mutant mice develop severe myopathic process, progressive motor paralysis, and early death at 1 mo of age (severe mutant). Impaired muscle regeneration of severe mutants correlated with defect of myogenic precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, when satellite cells remained intact, mutant mice develop similar myopathic process but exhibit mild phenotype with median survival of 8 mo and motor performance similar to that of controls (mild mutant). High proportion of regenerating myofibers expressing SMN was observed in mild mutants compensating for progressive loss of mature myofibers within the first 6 mo of age. Then, in spite of normal contractile properties of myofibers, mild mutants develop reduction of muscle force and mass. Progressive decline of muscle regeneration process was no more able to counterbalance muscle degeneration leading to dramatic loss of myofibers. These data indicate that intact satellite cells remarkably improve the survival and motor performance of mutant mice suffering from chronic myopathy, and suggest a limited potential of satellite cells to regenerate skeletal muscle. PMID:12743106

  18. Intact satellite cells lead to remarkable protection against Smn gene defect in differentiated skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Nicole, Sophie; Desforges, Benedicte; Millet, Gaelle; Lesbordes, Jeanne; Cifuentes-Diaz, Carmen; Vertes, Dora; Cao, My Linh; De Backer, Fabienne; Languille, Laetitia; Roblot, Natacha; Joshi, Vandana; Gillis, Jean-Marie; Melki, Judith

    2003-05-12

    Deletion of murine Smn exon 7, the most frequent mutation found in spinal muscular atrophy, has been directed to either both satellite cells, the muscle progenitor cells and fused myotubes, or fused myotubes only. When satellite cells were mutated, mutant mice develop severe myopathic process, progressive motor paralysis, and early death at 1 mo of age (severe mutant). Impaired muscle regeneration of severe mutants correlated with defect of myogenic precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, when satellite cells remained intact, mutant mice develop similar myopathic process but exhibit mild phenotype with median survival of 8 mo and motor performance similar to that of controls (mild mutant). High proportion of regenerating myofibers expressing SMN was observed in mild mutants compensating for progressive loss of mature myofibers within the first 6 mo of age. Then, in spite of normal contractile properties of myofibers, mild mutants develop reduction of muscle force and mass. Progressive decline of muscle regeneration process was no more able to counterbalance muscle degeneration leading to dramatic loss of myofibers. These data indicate that intact satellite cells remarkably improve the survival and motor performance of mutant mice suffering from chronic myopathy, and suggest a limited potential of satellite cells to regenerate skeletal muscle. PMID:12743106

  19. Composite SERS-based satellites navigated by optical tweezers for single cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Stetciura, Inna Y; Yashchenok, Alexey; Masic, Admir; Lyubin, Evgeny V; Inozemtseva, Olga A; Drozdova, Maria G; Markvichova, Elena A; Khlebtsov, Boris N; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Gorin, Dmitry A; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2015-07-13

    Herein, we have designed composite SERS-active micro-satellites, which exhibit a dual role: (i) effective probes for determining cellular composition and (ii) optically movable and easily detectable markers. The satellites were synthesized by the layer-by-layer assisted decoration of silica microparticles with metal (gold or silver) nanoparticles and astralen in order to ensure satellite SERS-based microenvironment probing and satellite recognition, respectively. A combination of optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy can be used to navigate the satellites to a certain cellular compartment and probe the intracellular composition following cellular uptake. In the future, this developed approach may serve as a tool for single cell analysis with nanometer precision due to the multilayer surface design, focusing on both extracellular and intracellular studies. PMID:26040199

  20. Eph/ephrin interactions modulate muscle satellite cell motility and patterning

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Danny A.; Karvas, Rowan M.; Siegel, Ashley L.; Cornelison, D. D. W.

    2011-01-01

    During development and regeneration, directed migration of cells, including neural crest cells, endothelial cells, axonal growth cones and many types of adult stem cells, to specific areas distant from their origin is necessary for their function. We have recently shown that adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells), once activated by isolation or injury, are a highly motile population with the potential to respond to multiple guidance cues, based on their expression of classical guidance receptors. We show here that, in vivo, differentiated and regenerating myofibers dynamically express a subset of ephrin guidance ligands, as well as Eph receptors. This expression has previously only been examined in the context of muscle-nerve interactions; however, we propose that it might also play a role in satellite cell-mediated muscle repair. Therefore, we investigated whether Eph-ephrin signaling would produce changes in satellite cell directional motility. Using a classical ephrin ‘stripe’ assay, we found that satellite cells respond to a subset of ephrins with repulsive behavior in vitro; patterning of differentiating myotubes is also parallel to ephrin stripes. This behavior can be replicated in a heterologous in vivo system, the hindbrain of the developing quail, in which neural crest cells are directed in streams to the branchial arches and to the forelimb of the developing quail, where presumptive limb myoblasts emigrate from the somite. We hypothesize that guidance signaling might impact multiple steps in muscle regeneration, including escape from the niche, directed migration to sites of injury, cell-cell interactions among satellite cell progeny, and differentiation and patterning of regenerated muscle. PMID:22071104

  1. Hypoxia promotes satellite cell self-renewal and enhances the efficiency of myoblast transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiyi; Wen, Yefei; Bi, Pengpeng; Lai, Xinsheng; Liu, X. Shawn; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

    2012-01-01

    Microenvironmental oxygen (O2) regulates stem cell activity, and a hypoxic niche with low oxygen levels has been reported in multiple stem cell types. Satellite cells are muscle-resident stem cells that maintain the homeostasis and mediate the regeneration of skeletal muscles. We demonstrate here that hypoxic culture conditions favor the quiescence of satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts by upregulating Pax7, a key regulator of satellite cell self-renewal, and downregulating MyoD and myogenin. During myoblast division, hypoxia promotes asymmetric self-renewal divisions and inhibits asymmetric differentiation divisions without affecting the overall rate of proliferation. Mechanistic studies reveal that hypoxia activates the Notch signaling pathway, which subsequently represses the expression of miR-1 and miR-206 through canonical Hes/Hey proteins, leading to increased levels of Pax7. More importantly, hypoxia conditioning enhances the efficiency of myoblast transplantation and the self-renewal of implanted cells. Given the robust effects of hypoxia on maintaining the quiescence and promoting the self-renewal of cultured myoblasts, we predict that oxygen levels in the satellite cell niche play a central role in precisely balancing quiescence versus activation, and self-renewal versus differentiation, in muscle stem cells in vivo. PMID:22764051

  2. Regulation and reversibility of muscle satellite cell function in tissue homeostasis and aging

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Alessandra; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Age-related muscle decline is associated with functional impairment of satellite cells (SC), although conflicting data suggest dysregulation of cell-extrinsic or –intrinsic factors can independently contribute to such impairment. Here, we emphasize the importance of identifying nodes that integrate these factors into feed-forward circuits, which could provide targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26046757

  3. Regulation of Muscle Satellite Cell Function in Tissue Homeostasis and Aging.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Alessandra; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Age-related muscle decline is associated with functional impairment of satellite cells (SCs). Conflicting data suggest dysregulation of cell-extrinsic or -intrinsic factors can independently contribute to such impairment. Here, we emphasize the importance of identifying nodes that integrate these factors into feed-forward circuits, which could provide targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26046757

  4. Expression of Cd34 and Myf5 Defines the Majority of Quiescent Adult Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R. Beauchamp; Louise Heslop; David S. W. Yu; Shahragim Tajbakhsh; Robert G. Kelly; Anton Wernig; Margaret E. Buckingham; Terence A. Partridge; Peter S. Zammit

    2000-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of a several adult post- mitotic tissues that retain the capacity to regenerate. This relies on a population of quiescent precursors, termed satellite cells. Here we describe two novel markers of quiescent satellite cells: CD34, an established marker of hematopoietic stem cells, and Myf5, the earliest marker of myogenic commitment. CD34 1 ve myoblasts can be

  5. Characteristics of the Localization of Connexin 43 in Satellite Cells during Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ishido, Minenori; Kasuga, Norikatsu

    2015-04-28

    For myogenesis, new myotubes are formed by the fusion of differentiated myoblasts. In the sequence of events for myotube formation, intercellular communication through gap junctions composed of connexin 43 (Cx43) plays critical roles in regulating the alignment and fusion of myoblasts in advances of myotube formation in vitro. On the other hand, the relationship between the expression patterns of Cx43 and the process of myotube formation in satellite cells during muscle regeneration in vivo remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the relationship between Cx43 and satellite cells in muscle regeneration in vivo. The expression of Cx43 was detected in skeletal muscles on day 1 post-muscle injury, but not in control muscles. Interestingly, the expression of Cx43 was not localized on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in the regenerating muscles. Moreover, although the clusters of differentiated satellite cells, which represent a more advanced stage of myotube formation, were observed on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in regenerating muscles, the expression of Cx43 was not localized in the clusters of these satellite cells. Therefore, in the present study, it was suggested that Cx43 may not directly contribute to muscle regeneration via satellite cells. PMID:26019374

  6. The effect of strength training volume on satellite cells, myogenic regulatory factors, and growth factors.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, K E; Kvamme, N H; Nilsen, T S; Rønnestad, B; Ambjørnsen, I K; Norheim, F; Kadi, F; Hallèn, J; Drevon, C A; Raastad, T

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of training volume on activation of satellite cells. Healthy untrained men were randomly assigned into two groups. The 3L-1UB group (n = 10) performed three-set leg exercises and single-set upper body exercises, and the 1L-3UB group (n = 11) performed single-set leg exercises and three-set upper body exercises. Both groups performed three sessions (80-90 min) per week for 11 weeks. Biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis and m. trapezius. The number of satellite cells, satellite cells positive for myogenin and MyoD, and the number of myonuclei were counted. Homogenized muscle was analyzed for myogenin and MyoD, and extracted ribonucleic acid (RNA) was monitored for selected growth factor transcripts. Knee extensor strength increased more in the 3L-1UB group than in the 1L-3UB group (48 ± 4% vs 29 ± 4%), whereas the strength gain in shoulder press was similar in both training groups. The number of satellite cells in m. vastus lateralis increased more in the 3L-1UB group than in the 1L-3UB group. The number of myonuclei increased similarly in both groups. The messenger RNA expression of growth factors peaked after 2 weeks of training. In conclusion, increasing training volume enhanced satellite cell numbers in the leg muscle, but not in the upper body muscle. PMID:22417199

  7. Characteristics of the Localization of Connexin 43 in Satellite Cells during Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ishido, Minenori; Kasuga, Norikatsu

    2015-01-01

    For myogenesis, new myotubes are formed by the fusion of differentiated myoblasts. In the sequence of events for myotube formation, intercellular communication through gap junctions composed of connexin 43 (Cx43) plays critical roles in regulating the alignment and fusion of myoblasts in advances of myotube formation in vitro. On the other hand, the relationship between the expression patterns of Cx43 and the process of myotube formation in satellite cells during muscle regeneration in vivo remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the relationship between Cx43 and satellite cells in muscle regeneration in vivo. The expression of Cx43 was detected in skeletal muscles on day 1 post-muscle injury, but not in control muscles. Interestingly, the expression of Cx43 was not localized on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in the regenerating muscles. Moreover, although the clusters of differentiated satellite cells, which represent a more advanced stage of myotube formation, were observed on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in regenerating muscles, the expression of Cx43 was not localized in the clusters of these satellite cells. Therefore, in the present study, it was suggested that Cx43 may not directly contribute to muscle regeneration via satellite cells. PMID:26019374

  8. Temporal expression of calcium channel subunits in satellite cells and bone marrow mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Grajales, Liliana; Lach, Lawrence E; Janisch, Patrick; Geenen, David L; García, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be differentiated into myocytes, as well as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes in culture. Calcium channels mediate excitation-contraction coupling and are essential for the function of muscle. However, little is known about the expression of calcium channel subunits and calcium handling in stem cells. We examined whether the expression of calcium channel subunits in MSC is similar to that of skeletal muscle satellite cells and if their levels of expression are modified after treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). We found that during myogenic differentiation, MSC first express the ?2?1 subunit and the cardiac channel subunit Cav1.2. In contrast to the ?2?1 subunit levels, the Cav1.2 subunit decreases rapidly with time. The skeletal channel subunit Cav1.1 is detected at day 3 but its expression increases considerably, resembling more closely the expression of the subunits in satellite cells. Treatment of MSC with BMP4 caused a significant increase in expression of Cav1.2, a delay in expression of Cav1.1, and a reduction in the duration of calcium transients when extracellular calcium was removed. Calcium currents and transients followed a pattern related to the expression of the cardiac (Cav1.2) or skeletal (Cav1.1) ?1subunits. These results indicate that differentiation of untreated MSC resembles differentiation of skeletal muscle and that BMP4 reduces skeletal muscle calcium channel expression and promotes the expression of cardiac calcium channels during myogenic differentiation. PMID:25277766

  9. Electrical Stimulation Influences Satellite Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Unloading-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bao-Sheng; Cheung, Kwok-Kuen; Yeung, Simon S.; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Yeung, Ella W.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle atrophy caused by disuse is accompanied by adverse physiological and functional consequences. Satellite cells are the primary source of skeletal muscle regeneration. Satellite cell dysfunction, as a result of impaired proliferative potential and/or increased apoptosis, is thought to be one of the causes contributing to the decreased muscle regeneration capacity in atrophy. We have previously shown that electrical stimulation improved satellite cell dysfunction. Here we test whether electrical stimulation can also enhance satellite cell proliferative potential as well as suppress apoptotic cell death in disuse-induced muscle atrophy. Eight-week-old male BALB/c mice were subjected to a 14-day hindlimb unloading procedure. During that period, one limb (HU-ES) received electrical stimulation (frequency: 20 Hz; duration: 3 h, twice daily) while the contralateral limb served as control (HU). Immunohistochemistry and western blotting techniques were used to characterize specific proteins in cell proliferation and apoptosis. The HU-ES soleus muscles showed significant improvement in muscle mass, cross-sectional area, and peak tetanic force relative to the HU limb (p<0.05). The satellite cell proliferative activity as detected within the BrdU+/Pax7+ population was significantly higher (p<0.05). The apoptotic myonuclei (detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) and the apoptotic satellite cells (detected by cleaved Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase co-labeled with Pax7) were reduced (p<0.05) in the HU-ES limb. Furthermore the apoptosis-inducing factor and cleaved caspase-3 were down-regulated while the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was up-regulated (p<0.05), in the HU-ES limb. These findings suggest that the electrical stimulation paradigm provides an effective stimulus to rescue the loss of myonuclei and satellite cells in disuse muscle atrophy, thus maintaining a viable satellite cell pool for subsequent muscle regeneration. Optimization of stimulation parameters may enhance the outcome of the intervention. PMID:22253929

  10. Turkey Lentil Chili Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Turkey Lentil Chili Ingredients: 1/2 pound ground turkey 1 small onion 2 cups lentils, cooked ground turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break turkey into small pieces as it browns. Keep on stirring and breaking into small pieces until it is no longer pink. Once it is done, put browned turkey

  11. Turkey Goulash Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Turkey Goulash Ingredients: 8 ounces macaroni, whole-wheat 1 pound ground turkey 1 onion 1/2 green skillet to medium. Place ground turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break turkey into small pieces browned turkey on a plate covered with several layers of paper towels to absorb fat. Drain fat from

  12. Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

    2015-04-01

    The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells. PMID:25742797

  13. Turkey Trouble

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Ross

    2011-09-11

    Limiting factors are things that can limit the size of a population such as food, water, shelter, disease, nesting sites, predation, and parasitism. In this activity students will play a game to simulate changes in a turkey population and will learn about limiting factors.

  14. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong; Jiang, Qinyang; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-07-17

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7(CreER) and Mtor(flox/flox) mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. PMID:25998386

  15. Reduced myotube diameter, atrophic signalling and elevated oxidative stress in cultured satellite cells from COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Pomiès, Pascal; Rodriguez, Julie; Blaquière, Marine; Sedraoui, Sami; Gouzi, Fares; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to skeletal limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been fully elucidated. Exhausted muscle regenerative capacity of satellite cells has been evocated, but the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and differentiate properly remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of satellite cells derived from COPD patients and healthy individuals, in terms of proliferative and differentiation capacities, morphological phenotype and atrophy/hypertrophy signalling, and oxidative stress status. Therefore, we purified and cultivated satellite cells from progressively frozen vastus lateralis biopsies of eight COPD patients and eight healthy individuals. We examined proliferation parameters, differentiation capacities, myotube diameter, expression of atrophy/hypertrophy markers, oxidative stress damages, antioxidant enzyme expression and cell susceptibility to H2 O2 in cultured myoblasts and/or myotubes. Proliferation characteristics and commitment to terminal differentiation were similar in COPD patients and healthy individuals, despite impaired fusion capacities of COPD myotubes. Myotube diameter was smaller in COPD patients (P = 0.015), and was associated with a higher expression of myostatin (myoblasts: P = 0.083; myotubes: P = 0.050) and atrogin-1 (myoblasts: P = 0.050), and a decreased phospho-AKT/AKT ratio (myoblasts: P = 0.022). Protein carbonylation (myoblasts: P = 0.028; myotubes: P = 0.002) and lipid peroxidation (myotubes: P = 0.065) were higher in COPD cells, and COPD myoblasts were significantly more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, cultured satellite cells from COPD patients display characteristics of morphology, atrophic signalling and oxidative stress similar to those described in in vivo COPD skeletal limb muscles. We have therefore demonstrated that muscle alteration in COPD can be studied by classical in vitro cellular models. PMID:25339614

  16. Various light source treatments affect body and skeletal muscle growth by affecting skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation in broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orna Halevy; Issac Biran; Israel Rozenboim

    1998-01-01

    In this study we addressed the effect of various monochromatic light treatments on muscle growth and satellite cell proliferation in broilers (Gallus domesticus). Broilers were reared under green (560 nm), blue (480 nm) and red (660 nm) monochromatic lights and white light as a control from day one until 35 days of age. At five days of age, satellite cells

  17. Isolation and Culture of Skeletal Muscle Myofibers as a Means to Analyze Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keire, Paul; Shearer, Andrew; Shefer, Gabi; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-01-01

    Multinucleated myofibers are the functional contractile units of skeletal muscle. In adult muscle, mononuclear satellite cells, located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber, are the primary myogenic stem cells. This chapter describes protocols for isolation, culturing and immunostaining of myofibers from mouse skeletal muscle. Myofibers are isolated intact and retain their associated satellite cells. The first protocol discusses myofiber isolation from the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle. These short myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with PureCol collagen (formerly known as Vitrogen) using a serum replacement medium. Employing such culture conditions, satellite cells remain associated with the myofibers, undergoing proliferation and differentiation on the myofiber surface. The second protocol discusses the isolation of longer myofibers from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Different from the FDB preparation, where multiple myofibers are processed together, the longer EDL myofibers are typically processed and cultured individually in dishes coated with Matrigel using a growth factor rich medium. Under these conditions, satellite cells initially remain associated with the parent myofiber and later migrate away, giving rise to proliferating and differentiating progeny. Myofibers from other types of muscles, such as diaphragm, masseter, and extraocular muscles can also be isolated and analyzed using protocols described herein. Overall, cultures of isolated myofibers provide essential tools for studying the interplay between the parent myofiber and its associated satellite cells. The current chapter provides background, procedural, and reagent updates, and step-by-step images of FDB and EDL muscle isolations, not included in our 2005 publication in this series. PMID:23179849

  18. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Nam, Deokhwa; Li, Yong; Ma, Ke

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1(-/-) mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25218946

  19. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit. Final contractor report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Levy; L. L. Vandine; J. K. Stedman

    1987-01-01

    Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr\\/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the

  20. Adeno-associated viral vectors do not efficiently target muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Andrea LH; Konieczny, Patryk; Ramos, Julian N; Hall, John; Odom, Guy; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Chamberlain, Joel R; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are becoming an important tool for gene therapy of numerous genetic and other disorders. Several recombinant AAV vectors (rAAV) have the ability to transduce striated muscles in a variety of animals following intramuscular and intravascular administration, and have attracted widespread interest for therapy of muscle disorders such as the muscular dystrophies. However, most studies have focused on the ability to transduce mature muscle cells, and have not examined the ability to target myogenic stem cells such as skeletal muscle satellite cells. Here we examined the relative ability of rAAV vectors derived from AAV6 to target myoblasts, myocytes, and myotubes in culture and satellite cells and myofibers in vivo. AAV vectors are able to transduce proliferating myoblasts in culture, albeit with reduced efficiency relative to postmitotic myocytes and myotubes. In contrast, quiescent satellite cells are refractory to transduction in adult mice. These results suggest that while muscle disorders characterized by myofiber regeneration can be slowed or halted by AAV transduction, little if any vector transduction can be obtained in myogenic stems cells that might other wise support ongoing muscle regeneration. PMID:25580445

  1. Ground Turkey Stroganoff Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Ground Turkey Stroganoff Ingredients: 8 ounces egg noodles, uncooked 1 pound ground turkey 1 onion. Meanwhile, brown ground turkey and onions in non stick skillet until meat is no longer pink and onions cup of egg noodles on plate, top with 1/2 cup of turkey mixture. Equipment: Knife Cutting board

  2. Regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers from autologous satellite cells multiplied in vitro. An experimental model for testing cultured cell myogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Alameddine, H.S.; Dehaupas, M.; Fardeau, M. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Paris (France))

    1989-07-01

    An experimental model used to test in vivo myogenicity of autologous satellite cells multiplied in vitro is described. Free muscle autotransplantation served as the basis and was combined with x-irradiation. Administration of 1500, 2500, and 3500 rad doses 24 hours before or after ischemia showed that inhibition of spontaneous regeneration is dose dependent and more efficient when irradiation was applied before injury. A single dose of 2500 rad before injury resulted in the formation of a cystic structure ideal for cell implantation. FITC-latex beads and/or carbocyanine dyes were internalized by mononucleated satellite cells in vitro. Labeling did not affect survival or development of these cells. No sign of marker release or spreading from labeled to unlabeled cells was detectable unless by the fusion process. These labels were retained for several weeks. Grafting of labeled dense cellular suspensions into x-irradiated ischemic muscles indicated that satellite cells retain their myogenic characteristic and are able to reform fully differentiated muscle fibers. 55 references.

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates cell migration of satellite cells. A role for the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate axis.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, Francesca; Bruno, Gennaro; Blescia, Sabrina; Bernacchioni, Caterina; Bruni, Paola; Donati, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Regulation of the motility of skeletal muscle precursor cells, such as satellite cells, is critically important for their proper recruitment at the site of tissue damage, and ultimately for its correct repair. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is well-recognized as a powerful bioactive agent, strongly stimulates cell migration of activated murine satellite cells. The biological effect exerted by LPA was found to be induced via activation of LPA1 and LPA3 , being abolished by cell treatment with the antagonist Ki16425, and severely impaired by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of the two receptor isoforms. In contrast, silencing of LPA2 potentiated the stimulation of cell motility by LPA, suggesting that it is negatively coupled to cell migration. Pharmacological inhibition of both sphingosine kinase (SK) isoforms using VPC96047, or the selective blocking of SK1 using VPC96091, abolished cell responsiveness to LPA; in agreement, gene silencing of SK1 or SK2 significantly reduced the biological effect of LPA. Moreover, the LPA-dependent stimulation of cell chemotaxis was found to be impaired by down-regulation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1P1 or S1P4 by specific siRNAs. In summary, the results obtained support the notion that the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SK/S1P) axis is critically involved in the mechanism by which LPA elicits its pro-migratory action. This study provides compelling new information on the regulatory mechanisms of satellite cell motility, and reinforces the view that the SK/S1P signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the control of skeletal muscle precursor cell biology. PMID:25131845

  4. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, G.P.; Walters, R.J.; Messenger, S.R.; Burke, E.A. [SFA, Inc., Landover, MD (United States); [Burke, Edward A., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth`s radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch costs.

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia inhibits satellite cell regenerative capacity through p38 alpha/beta MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Lominadze, David; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-07-15

    Chronic failure in maintenance and regeneration of skeletal muscles leads to lower muscle mass (sarcopenia), muscle weakness, and poor response to injury. Evidence suggests that aberrant p38 MAPK signaling undermines the repair process after injury in aged mice. Previous studies have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been associated with muscle weakness and lower than normal body weights. However, whether or not HHcy condition also compromises skeletal muscle regenerative capabilities is not clear. In the current study, we show that CBS-/+ mice, a model for HHcy condition, exhibited compromised regenerative function and cell proliferation upon injury. However, there was no significant difference in Pax7 expression levels in the satellite cells from CBS-/+ mouse skeletal muscles. Interestingly, the satellite cells from CBS-/+ mice not only exhibited diminished in vitro proliferative capabilities, but also there was heightened oxidative stress. In addition, there was enhanced p38 MAPK activation as well as p16 and p21 expression in the CBS-/+ mouse satellite cells. Moreover, the C2C12 myoblasts also exhibited higher p38 MAPK activation and p16 expression upon treatment with homocysteine in addition to enhanced ROS presence. Tissue engraftment potential and regeneration after injury were restored to some extent upon treatment with the p38-MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, in the CBS-/+ mice. These results together suggest that HHcy-induced diminished satellite cell proliferation involves excessive oxidative stress and p38 MAPK signaling. Our study further proposes that HHcy is a potential risk factor for elderly frailty, and need to be considered as a therapeutic target while designing the alleviation interventions/postinjury rehabilitation measures for adults with HHcy. PMID:25980021

  6. Inactivation of PPAR?/? adversely affects satellite cells and reduces postnatal myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Preeti; Manickam, Ravikumar; Ge, Xiaojia; Bonala, Sabeera; McFarlane, Craig; Sharma, Mridula; Wahli, Walter; Kambadur, Ravi

    2015-07-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?) is a ubiquitously expressed gene with higher levels observed in skeletal muscle. Recently, our laboratory showed (Bonala S, Lokireddy S, Arigela H, Teng S, Wahli W, Sharma M, McFarlane C, Kambadur R. J Biol Chem 287: 12935-12951, 2012) that PPAR?/? modulates myostatin activity to induce myogenesis in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we show that PPAR?/?-null mice display reduced body weight, skeletal muscle weight, and myofiber atrophy during postnatal development. In addition, a significant reduction in satellite cell number was observed in PPAR?/?-null mice, suggesting a role for PPAR?/? in muscle regeneration. To investigate this, tibialis anterior muscles were injured with notexin, and muscle regeneration was monitored on days 3, 5, 7, and 28 postinjury. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an increased inflammatory response and reduced myoblast proliferation in regenerating muscle from PPAR?/?-null mice. Histological analysis confirmed that the regenerated muscle fibers of PPAR?/?-null mice maintained an atrophy phenotype with reduced numbers of centrally placed nuclei. Even though satellite cell numbers were reduced before injury, satellite cell self-renewal was found to be unaffected in PPAR?/?-null mice after regeneration. Previously, our laboratory had showed (Bonala S, Lokireddy S, Arigela H, Teng S, Wahli W, Sharma M, McFarlane C, Kambadur R. J Biol Chem 287: 12935-12951, 2012) that inactivation of PPAR?/? increases myostatin signaling and inhibits myogenesis. Our results here indeed confirm that inactivation of myostatin signaling rescues the atrophy phenotype and improves muscle fiber cross-sectional area in both uninjured and regenerated tibialis anterior muscle from PPAR?/?-null mice. Taken together, these data suggest that absence of PPAR?/? leads to loss of satellite cells, impaired skeletal muscle regeneration, and postnatal myogenesis. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that functional antagonism of myostatin has utility in rescuing these effects. PMID:25921579

  7. High-Content Screening of Human Primary Muscle Satellite Cells for New Therapies for Muscular Atrophy/Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nierobisz, Lidia S; Cheatham, Bentley; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Sexton, Jonathan Z

    2013-01-01

    Myoblast proliferation and differentiation are essential for normal skeletal muscle growth and repair. Muscle recovery is dependent on the quiescent population of muscle stem cells - satellite cells. During muscle injury, satellite cells become mitotically active and begin the repair process by fusing with each other and/or with myofibers. Aging, prolonged inactivity, obesity, cachexia and other muscle wasting diseases are associated with a decreased number of quiescent and proliferating satellite cells, which impedes the repair process. A high-content/high-throughput platform was developed and utilized for robust phenotypic evaluation of human primary satellite cells in vitro for the discovery of chemical probes that may improve muscle recovery. A 1600 compound pilot screen was developed using two highly annotated small molecule libraries. This screen yielded 15 dose responsive compounds that increased proliferation rate in satellite cells derived from a single obese human donor. Two of these compounds remained dose responsive when counter-screened in 3-donor obese superlot. The Alk-5 inhibitor LY364947, was used as a positive control for assessing satellite cell proliferation/delayed differentiation. A multivariate approach was utilized for exploratory data analysis to discover proliferation vs. differentiation-dependent changes in cellular phenotype. Initial screening efforts successfully identified a number of phenotypic outcomes that are associated with desired effect of stimulation of proliferation and delayed differentiation. PMID:24396732

  8. High-content screening of human primary muscle satellite cells for new therapies for muscular atrophy/dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Nierobisz, Lidia S; Cheatham, Bentley; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Sexton, Jonathan Z

    2013-01-01

    Myoblast proliferation and differentiation are essential for normal skeletal muscle growth and repair. Muscle recovery is dependent on the quiescent population of muscle stem cells - satellite cells. During muscle injury, satellite cells become mitotically active and begin the repair process by fusing with each other and/or with myofibers. Aging, prolonged inactivity, obesity, cachexia and other muscle wasting diseases are associated with a decreased number of quiescent and proliferating satellite cells, which impedes the repair process. A high-content/high-throughput platform was developed and utilized for robust phenotypic evaluation of human primary satellite cells in vitro for the discovery of chemical probes that may improve muscle recovery. A 1600 compound pilot screen was developed using two highly annotated small molecule libraries. This screen yielded 15 dose responsive compounds that increased proliferation rate in satellite cells derived from a single obese human donor. Two of these compounds remained dose responsive when counter-screened in 3-donor obese superlot. The Alk-5 inhibitor LY364947, was used as a positive control for assessing satellite cell proliferation/delayed differentiation. A multivariate approach was utilized for exploratory data analysis to discover proliferation vs. differentiation-dependent changes in cellular phenotype. Initial screening efforts successfully identified a number of phenotypic outcomes that are associated with desired effect of stimulation of proliferation and delayed differentiation. PMID:24396732

  9. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

  10. CD13 Regulates Anchorage and Differentiation of the Skeletal Muscle Satellite Stem Cell Population in Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Mamunur; Ghosh, Mallika; Subramani, Jaganathan; Fong, Guo-Hua; Carlson, Morgan E.; Shapiro, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    CD13 is a multifunctional cell surface molecule that regulates inflammatory and angiogenic mechanisms in vitro, but its contribution to these processes in vivo or potential roles in stem cell biology remains unexplored. We investigated the impact of loss of CD13 on a model of ischemic skeletal muscle injury that involves angiogenesis, inflammation and stem cell mobilization. Consistent with its role as an inflammatory adhesion molecule, lack of CD13 altered myeloid trafficking in the injured muscle, resulting in cytokine profiles skewed toward a pro-healing environment. Despite this healing-favorable context, CD13KO animals showed significantly impaired limb perfusion with increased necrosis, fibrosis and lipid accumulation. Capillary density was correspondingly decreased, implicating CD13 in skeletal muscle angiogenesis. The number of CD45?/Sca1?/?7-integrin+/?1-integrin+ satellite cells was markedly diminished in injured CD13KO muscles and adhesion of isolated CD13KO satellite cells was impaired while their differentiation was accelerated. Bone marrow transplantation studies showed contributions from both host and donor cells to wound healing. Importantly, CD13 was co-expressed with Pax7 on isolated muscle-resident satellite cells. Finally, phosphorylated-FAK and ERK levels were reduced in injured CD13KO muscles, consistent with CD13 regulating satellite cell adhesion, potentially contributing to the maintenance and renewal of the satellite stem cell pool and facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:24307555

  11. Leucine Promotes Proliferation and Differentiation of Primary Preterm Rat Satellite Cells in Part through mTORC1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie-Min; Yu, Mu-Xue; Shen, Zhen-Yu; Guo, Chu-Yi; Zhuang, Si-Qi; Qiu, Xiao-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to leucine modulates many cellular and developmental processes. However, in the context of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, the role of leucine and mTORC1 is less known. This study investigates the role of leucine in the process of proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells, and the relationship with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. Dissociation of primary satellite cells occurred with type I collagenase and trypsin, and purification, via different speed adherence methods. Satellite cells with positive expression of Desmin were treated with leucine and rapamycin. We observed that leucine promoted proliferation and differentiation of primary satellite cells and increased the phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin inhibited proliferation and differentiation, as well as decreased the phosphorylation level of mTOR. Furthermore, leucine increased the expression of MyoD and myogenin while the protein level of MyoD decreased due to rapamycin. However, myogenin expressed no affect by rapamycin. In conclusion, leucine may up-regulate the activation of mTORC1 to promote proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells. We have shown that leucine promoted the differentiation of myotubes in part through the mTORC1-MyoD signal pathway. PMID:26007333

  12. Leucine Promotes Proliferation and Differentiation of Primary Preterm Rat Satellite Cells in Part through mTORC1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie-Min; Yu, Mu-Xue; Shen, Zhen-Yu; Guo, Chu-Yi; Zhuang, Si-Qi; Qiu, Xiao-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to leucine modulates many cellular and developmental processes. However, in the context of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, the role of leucine and mTORC1 is less known. This study investigates the role of leucine in the process of proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells, and the relationship with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. Dissociation of primary satellite cells occurred with type I collagenase and trypsin, and purification, via different speed adherence methods. Satellite cells with positive expression of Desmin were treated with leucine and rapamycin. We observed that leucine promoted proliferation and differentiation of primary satellite cells and increased the phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin inhibited proliferation and differentiation, as well as decreased the phosphorylation level of mTOR. Furthermore, leucine increased the expression of MyoD and myogenin while the protein level of MyoD decreased due to rapamycin. However, myogenin expressed no affect by rapamycin. In conclusion, leucine may up-regulate the activation of mTORC1 to promote proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells. We have shown that leucine promoted the differentiation of myotubes in part through the mTORC1-MyoD signal pathway. PMID:26007333

  13. Efficient Marek's disease virus (MDV) and herpesvirus of turkey infection of the QM7 cell line that does not contain latent MDV genome.

    PubMed

    Rong, Sing; Wheeler, David; Weber, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV; also known as Gallid herpesvirus 2, MDV-1) causes oncogenic disease in chickens producing clinical signs that include lymphomas, visceral tumours, nerve lesions, and immunosuppression. MDV vaccines are widely used and mostly produced using primary cells: chicken embryo fibroblast cells, duck embryo fibroblast cells, chicken embryo kidney cells or chicken kidney cells. An immortalized cell line that can be used to manufacture the virus has long been desired. In this report, we demonstrate that QM7 cells were susceptible to infection with either MDV or herpesvirus of turkey (HVT; also known as Meleagrid herpesvirus 1, MDV-3). Polymerase chain reaction analysis with primers amplifying selected MDV genes revealed that QM7 cells did not contain these sequences. However, MDV genes were detected in QT35 cells, which have been reported to harbour latent MDV virus. Transfection of naked MDV DNA initiated efficient infection of QM7 cells. In addition, QM7 cell lysate, clarified supernatant, and QM7 cell pellet infected with MDV were negative for reverse transcriptase activity, indicating absence of endogenous retrovirus. QM7 cells were also found to be free of other avian pathogens in a chick embryo inoculation test. In vivo studies of MDV growing in QM7 cells showed the virus retained its pathogenicity and virulence. In ovo experiments demonstrated that both HVT and MDV propagated in QM7 cells did not interfere with hatchability of injected eggs, and viruses could be re-isolated from hatched chicks. The results suggest that QM7 could be a good host cell line for growing both MDV and HVT. PMID:25204414

  14. Skeletal muscle satellite cells: mediators of muscle growth during development and implications for developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L

    2014-11-01

    Satellite cells (SCs) are the muscle stem cells responsible for longitudinal and cross-sectional postnatal growth and repair after injury and which provide new myonuclei when needed. We review their morphology and contribution to development and their role in sarcomere and myonuclear addition. SCs, similar to other tissue stem cells, cycle through different states, such as quiescence, activation, and self-renewal, and thus we consider the signaling mechanisms involved in maintenance of these states. The role of the SC niche and their interactions with other cells, such as fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, are all emerging as major factors that affect aging and disease. Interestingly, children with cerebral palsy appear to have a reduced SC number, which could play a role in their reduced muscular development and even in muscular contracture formation. Finally, we review the current information on SC dysfunction in children with muscular dystrophy and emerging therapies that target promotion of myogenesis and reduction of fibrosis. PMID:25186345

  15. Flight degradation data of GaAs-on-Si solar cells mounted on highly irradiated ETS-VI [satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Imaizumi; O. Anzawa; S. Matsuda; M. Yamaguchi; T. Ohara

    2000-01-01

    Flight data of GaAs space solar cells fabricated on Si substrates (GaAs\\/Si) are analyzed by comparing with the data of GaAs cells on GaAs substrates (GaAs\\/GaAs). The initial performance of the GaAs\\/Si cells is comparable to the GaAs\\/GaAs cells. Both types of cells are mounted on the body of the ETS-VI satellite, which has been highly irradiated due to its

  16. Release of Hepatocyte Growth Factor from Mechanically Stretched Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells and Role of pH and Nitric Oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuichi Tatsumi; Akihito Hattori; Yoshihide Ikeuchi; Judy E. Anderson; Ronald E. Allen

    2002-01-01

    Application of mechanical stretch to cultured adult rat muscle satellite cells results in release of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and accelerated entry into the cell cycle. Stretch activation of cultured rat muscle satellite cells was observed only when medium pH was between 7.1 and 7.5, even though activation of satellite cells was accelerated by exogenous HGF over a pH range

  17. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    PubMed

    Scimeca, Manuel; Bonanno, Elena; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Baldi, Jacopo; Mauriello, Alessandro; Orlandi, Augusto; Tancredi, Virginia; Gasbarra, Elena; Tarantino, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem cells activity. In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology. PMID:26101529

  18. Satellite Cells CD44 Positive Drive Muscle Regeneration in Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scimeca, Manuel; Bonanno, Elena; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Baldi, Jacopo; Mauriello, Alessandro; Orlandi, Augusto; Tancredi, Virginia; Gasbarra, Elena; Tarantino, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Age-related bone diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis, are strongly associated with sarcopenia and muscle fiber atrophy. In this study, we analyzed muscle biopsies in order to demonstrate that, in osteoarthritis patients, both osteophytes formation and regenerative properties of muscle stem cells are related to the same factors. In particular, thanks to immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and immunogold labeling we investigated the role of BMP-2 in muscle stem cells activity. In patients with osteoarthritis both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to note a higher number of CD44 positive satellite muscle cells forming syncytium. Moreover, the perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression of BMP-2 assessed by in situ molecular characterization of satellite cells syncytia suggest a very strict correlation between BMP-2 expression and muscle regeneration capability. Summing up, the higher BMP-2 expression in osteoarthritic patients could explain the increased bone mineral density as well as decreased muscle atrophy in osteoarthrosic patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that the control of physiological BMP-2 balance between bone and muscle tissues may be considered as a potential pharmacological target in bone-muscle related pathology.

  19. Effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma on development of immunity to coccidia in neonatal turkeys 

    E-print Network

    Beltran, Ruben

    2002-01-01

    Our interest in gut immunity in commercial poultry led to investigation of the effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma (rtIFN?) on parameters of immunity to avian coccidia. In vitro experiments consisted of exposing baby hamster kidney cells...

  20. Expressed Sequence Tags for Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells, Myotube Formed-Cells and Adipocyte-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Smritee; Malik, Adeel; Tareq, K. M. A.; Roouf Bhat, Abdul; Park, Hee-Bok; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, SangHoon; Yang, Bohsuk; Young Chung, Ki; Choi, Inho

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle satellite cells (MSCs) represent a devoted stem cell population that is responsible for postnatal muscle growth and skeletal muscle regeneration. An important characteristic of MSCs is that they encompass multi potential mesenchymal stem cell activity and are able to differentiate into myocytes and adipocytes. To achieve a global view of the genes differentially expressed in MSCs, myotube formed-cells (MFCs) and adipocyte-like cells (ALCs), we performed large-scale EST sequencing of normalized cDNA libraries developed from bovine MSCs. Results A total of 24,192 clones were assembled into 3,333 clusters, 5,517 singletons and 3,842contigs. Functional annotation of these unigenes revealed that a large portion of the differentially expressed genes are involved in cellular and signaling processes. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) functional analysis of three subsets of highly expressed gene lists (MSC233, MFC258, and ALC248) highlighted some common and unique biological processes among MSC, MFC and ALC. Additionally, genes that may be specific to MSC, MFC and ALC are reported here, and the role of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase2 (DDAH2) during myogenesis and hemoglobin subunit alpha2 (HBA2) during transdifferentiation in C2C12 were assayed as a case study. DDAH2 was up-regulated during myognesis and knockdown of DDAH2 by siRNA significantly decreased myogenin (MYOG) expression corresponding with the slight change in cell morphology. In contrast, HBA2 was up-regulated during ALC formation and resulted in decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and CD36 mRNA expression upon knockdown assay. Conclusion In this study, a large number of EST sequences were generated from the MSC, MFC and ALC. Overall, the collection of ESTs generated in this study provides a starting point for the identification of novel genes involved in MFC and ALC formation, which in turn offers a fundamental resource to enable better understanding of the mechanism of muscle differentiation and transdifferentiation. PMID:24224006

  1. Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit. Final contractor report

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.; Vandine, L.L.; Stedman, J.K.

    1987-07-01

    Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. The first, the integrated design, utilized a configuration in which the fuel cell and electrolysis cells are alternately stacked inside a pressure vessel. Product water is transferred by diffusion during electrolysis and waste heat is conducted through the pressure wall, thus using completely passive means for transfer and control. The second alkaline system, the dedicated design, uses a separate fuel cell and electrolysis stack so that each unit can be optimized in size and weight based on its orbital operating period. The third design was a dual function stack configuration, in which each cell can operate in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode, thus eliminating the need for two separate stacks and associated equipment. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 W-hr/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. System densities of 115 W-hr/lb are contemplated.

  2. Spiral ganglion degeneration and hearing loss as a consequence of satellite cell death in saposin B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Akil, Omar; Sun, Ying; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Zhang, Wujuan; Ku, Tiffany; Lee, Chi-Kyou; Jones, Sherri; Grabowski, Gregory A; Lustig, Lawrence R

    2015-02-18

    Saposin B (Sap B) is an essential activator protein for arylsulfatase A in the hydrolysis of sulfatide, a lipid component of myelin. To study Sap B's role in hearing and balance, a Sap B-deficient (B(-/-)) mouse was evaluated. At both light and electron microscopy (EM) levels, inclusion body accumulation was seen in satellite cells surrounding spiral ganglion (SG) neurons from postnatal month 1 onward, progressing into large vacuoles preceding satellite cell degeneration, and followed by SG degeneration. EM also revealed reduced or absent myelin sheaths in SG neurons from postnatal month 8 onwards. Hearing loss was initially seen at postnatal month 6 and progressed thereafter for frequency-specific stimuli, whereas click responses became abnormal from postnatal month 13 onward. The progressive hearing loss correlated with the accumulation of inclusion bodies in the satellite cells and their subsequent degeneration. Outer hair cell numbers and efferent function measures (distortion product otoacoustic emissions and contralateral suppression) were normal in the B(-/-) mice throughout this period. Alcian blue staining of SGs demonstrated that these inclusion bodies corresponded to sulfatide accumulation. In contrast, changes in the vestibular system were much milder, but caused severe physiologic deficits. These results demonstrate that loss of Sap B function leads to progressive sulfatide accumulation in satellite cells surrounding the SG neurons, leading to satellite cell degeneration and subsequent SG degeneration with a resultant loss of hearing. Relative sparing of the efferent auditory and vestibular neurons suggests that alternate glycosphingolipid metabolic pathways predominate in these other systems. PMID:25698761

  3. Analyses of the differentiation potential of satellite cells from myoD-/-, mdx, and PMP22 C22 mice

    PubMed Central

    Schuierer, Marion M; Mann, Christopher J; Bildsoe, Heidi; Huxley, Clare; Hughes, Simon M

    2005-01-01

    Background Sporadic and sometimes contradictory studies have indicated changes in satellite cell behaviour associated with the progressive nature of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Satellite cell proliferation and number are reportedly altered in DMD and the mdx mouse model. We recently found that satellite cells in MSVski transgenic mice, a muscle hypertrophy model showing progressive muscle degeneration, display a severe ageing-related differentiation defect in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that similar changes contribute to the gradual loss of muscle function with age in mdx and PMP22 mice, a model of human motor and sensory neuropathy type 1A (HMSN1A). Methods Single extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres were cultured from mdx and PMP22 mice and age- and genetic background-matched controls. Mice at several ages were compared with regard to the differentiation of satellite cells, assayed as the proportion of desmin-expressing cells that accumulated sarcomeric myosin heavy chain. Results Satellite cells of 2 month, 6 month, and 12 month old mdx mice were capable of differentiating to a similar extent to age-matched wild type control animals in an in vitro proliferation/differentiation model. Strikingly, differentiation efficiency in individual 6 month and 12 month old mdx animals varies to a much higher extent than in age-matched controls, younger mdx animals, or PMP22 mice. In contrast, differentiation of myoblasts from all myoD null mice assayed was severely impaired in this assay system. The defect in satellite cell differentiation that occurs in some mdx animals arises from a delay in differentiation that is not overcome by IGF-1 treatment at any phase of cultivation. Conclusion Overall, a defect in satellite cell differentiation above that arising through normal ageing does not occur in mdx or PMP22 mouse models of human disease. Nonetheless, the impaired differentiation of satellite cells from some mdx animals suggests that additional factors, environmental or epigenetic, may lead to deteriorating muscle repair through poor differentiation of satellite cells in genetically predisposed individuals. PMID:15762989

  4. Rat soleus muscle satellite cells during the recovery after gravitational unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtikova, Olga; Shenkman, Boris; Altaeva, Erzhena; Leinsoo, Toomas

    In this study the attempt was made to assess alterations of rat soleus satellite cell (SC) population during muscle regrowth after 14-day gravitational unloading (using the hindlimb suspension model). Myofiber size increases during the recovery period. SCs are supposed to participate in muscle growth by fusion with myofibers and supplying them with new myonuclei [Mitchell PO, Pavlath GK, 2001; Oishi Y., 2008]. Other points of view are known about SC participation in the recovery of atrophied muscle mass during the readaptation period [Bruusgaard J.C. et al., 2011; Jackson JR et al., 2012]. After 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension mki67 expression was fivefold lower as compared to control animals and increased gradually up to 28 times by the day 7 of reloading. Cdh15 was decreased after hindlimb unloading and rose from the 1st day of reloading. The expression reached control level to the day 7th of reloading. Cellular response was going on concurrently with the spike of IGF-1 blood level and the increase in muscle IGF-1 concentration. It is possible that in the early days of reloading period differentiation and fusion of satellite cells which were active by the end of hindlimb suspension occurred. Satellite cell incorporation was assessed by counting the amount of BrdU+ myonuclei under myofiber dystrophin layer. It came more intensively in the 1st day of readaptation. It is in accordance with the 4,5 time increase in myogenin expression as compared to hindlimb suspended animals detected at the same time point. Myogenin expression 3 fold decreased by 3rd day of readaptation. We observed only the tendency of resizing but no significant changes in in myonuclear domain size. The number of myonuclei per myofiber cross section was decreased after hindlimb suspension and was not restored by the day 14th of readaptation. Cdh15 and myogenin expression at some extent stabilized after 7 days of readaptation, but high mki67 level pointed to intensive proliferation, which could cause the increase of myonuclei and satellite cell number and enhancing protein synthesis in the late readaptation period. Supported by RFBR grant 13-04-01891

  5. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) Earthquake -1

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey, 2012, 5:45pm D R A F T #12;X - 2 ELLIOTT ET AL.: 2011 VAN EARTHQUAKE, EASTERN TURKEY moment and source.: 2011 VAN EARTHQUAKE, EASTERN TURKEY X - 3 Interferograms from the ENVISAT satellite were derived from

  6. Low-pH preparation of skeletal muscle satellite cells can be used to study activation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuichi Tatsumi; Michiko Yamada; Yoshitaka Katsuki; Shinpei Okamoto; Junji Ishizaki; Wataru Mizunoya; Yoshihide Ikeuchi; Akihito Hattori; Hiroaki Shimokawa; Ronald E. Allen

    2006-01-01

    When skeletal muscle is stretched or injured, satellite cells are activated to enter the cell cycle, and this process could be mediated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and nitric oxide (NO) as revealed by primary culture technique. In this system, which was originally developed by Allen et al. [Allen, R. E., Temm-Grove, C. J., Sheehan, S. M., & Rice, G.

  7. Reduced satellite cell number in situ in muscular contractures from children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Dykstra, Peter B; Lyubasyuk, Vera; McKay, Bryon R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are quiescent adult muscle stem cells critical for postnatal development. Children with cerebral palsy have impaired muscular growth and develop contractures. While flow cytometry previously demonstrated a reduced SC population, extracellular matrix abnormalities may influence the cell isolation methods used, systematically isolating fewer cells from CP muscle and creating a biased result. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to use immunohistochemistry on serial muscle sections to quantify SC in situ. Serial cross-sections from human gracilis muscle biopsies (n?=?11) were labeled with fluorescent antibodies for Pax7 (SC transcriptional marker), laminin (basal lamina), and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (nuclei). Fluorescence microscopy under high magnification was used to identify SC based on labeling and location. Mean SC/100 myofibers was reduced by ?70% (p?cells (p?cell loss may, in part, explain impaired muscle growth and apparent decreased responsiveness of CP muscle to exercise. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1039-1045, 2015. PMID:25732238

  8. Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain. PMID:24665354

  9. Evaluation of the effect of static magnetic fields combined with human hepatocyte growth factor on human satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Birk, Richard; Sommer, Ulrich; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schulz, Johannes D; Hörmann, Karl; Goessler, Ulrich Reinhart; Stern-Straeter, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising research field, which aims to create new functional muscle tissue in vitro, by utilizing the myogenic differentiation potential of human stem cells. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of static magnetic fields (SMF), combined with the use of the myogenic differentiation enhancing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), on human satellite cell cultures, which are one of the preferred stem cell sources in skeletal muscle tissue engineering. We performed almarBlue® proliferation assays and semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the following myogenic markers: desmin (DES), myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen 1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and ?1 actin (ACTA1) to detect the effects on myogenic maturation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining (ICC) and fusion index (FI) determination as independent markers of differentiation were performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with HGF and HGF + SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. ICC verified the muscle phenotype at all time points. SMF enhanced the proliferation of satellite cell cultures treated with HGF. RT-PCR analysis, ICC and FI calculation revealed the effects of HGF/SMF on the investigated differentiation markers and stimulation with HGF and SMF verified the continuing maturation, however no significant increase in analysed markers could be detected when compared with control cultures treated with serum cessation. In conclusion, HGF or HGF + SMF stimulation of human satellite cell cultures did not lead to the desired enhancement of myogenic maturation of human satellite cell cultures compared with cell cultures stimulated with growth factor reduction. PMID:24682107

  10. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. PMID:25571987

  11. Micro space power system using MEMS fuel cell for nano-satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkwang; Kim, Taegyu

    2014-08-01

    A micro space power system using micro fuel cell was developed for nano-satellites. The power system was fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technologies. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell was selected in consideration of space environment. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was selected as a hydrogen source while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was selected as an oxygen source. The power system consists of a micro fuel cell, micro-reactor, micro-pump, and fuel cartridges. The micro fuel cell was fabricated on a light-weight and corrosion-resistant glass plates. The micro-reactor was used to generate hydrogen from NaBH4 alkaline solution via a catalytic hydrolysis reaction. All components such as micro-pump, fuel cartridges, and auxiliary battery were integrated for a complete power system. The storability of NaBH4 solution was evaluated at -25 °C and the performance of the micro power system was measured at various operating conditions. The power output of micro power system reasonably followed up the given electric load conditions.

  12. Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis. PMID:23990328

  13. Multi-Grid-Cell Validation of Satellite Aerosol Property Retrievals in INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, Jens; Schmid, Beat; Ramirez, Samuel; Eilers, J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Chu, D. A.; Remer, L. A.; Quinn, P. K.; Rood, M. J.; Wang, W.

    2007-05-08

    Aerosol transport off the US Northeast coast in Summer 2004 produced a wide range of aerosol types and aerosol optical depth (AOD) values, often with strong horizontal AOD gradients. In these conditions we flew the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft. Legs flown at low altitude (usually ?100 m ASL) provided comparisons of AATS AOD spectra to retrievals for 90 grid cells of the satellite radiometers MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR, all over the ocean. Characterization of the retrieval environment was aided by using vertical profiles by the J31 (showing aerosol vertical structure) and, on occasion, shipboard measurements of light scattering and absorption. AATS provides AOD at 13 wavelengths ? from 354 to 2138 nm, spanning the range of aerosol retrieval wavelengths for MODIS over ocean (466-2119 nm) and MISR (446-866 nm). Midvisible AOD on low-altitude J31 legs in satellite grid cells ranged from 0.05 to 0.9, with horizontal gradients often in the range 0.05 to 0.13 per 10 km. When possible, we used ship measurements of humidified aerosol scattering and absorption to estimate AOD below the J31. In these cases, which had J31 altitudes 60-110 m ASL (typical of J31 low-altitude transects), estimated midvisible AOD below the J31 ranged from 0.003 to 0.013, with mean 0.009 and standard deviation 0.003. These values averaged 6% of AOD above the J31. MISR-AATS comparisons on 29 July 2004 in 8 grid cells (each ~17.6 km x 17.6 km) show that MISR versions 15 and 16 captured the AATS-measured AOD gradient (correlation coefficient R2=0.87 to 0.92), but the MISR gradient was somewhat weaker than the AATS gradient. The large AOD (midvisible values up to ~0.9) and differing gradients in this case produced rootmean-square (RMS) MISR-AATS AOD differences of 0.03 to 0.21 (9 to 31%). MISR V15 Ångstrom exponent ? (=-dlnAOD/dln?) was closer to AATS than was MISR V16. MODIS-AATS AOD comparisons on 8 overpasses using 61 grid cells (each nominally 10 km x 10 km) had R2 ~0.97, with RMS AOD difference ~0.03 (~20%). About 87% of the MODIS AOD retrievals differed from AATS values by less than the predicted MODIS over-ocean uncertainty, ?? = ±0.03 ± 0.05? . In contrast to the small MODIS-AATS differences in AOD, 2006jd007606 Page 3 of 50 2:41 PM, 1/19/07 RUSSELL ET AL.: MULTI-GRID-CELL SATELLITE VALIDATION MODIS-AATS differences in Ångstrom exponent ? were large: RMS differences for ?(553, 855 nm) were 0.28 for MODIS-Terra and 0.64 for MODIS-Aqua; RMS differences for ?(855, 2119 nm) were larger still: 0.61 for MODIS-Terra and 1.14 for MODIS-Aqua. The largest MODISAATS Ångstrom exponent differences were associated with small AOD values, for which MODIS AOD relative uncertainty is large. Excluding cases with AOD(855 nm)<0.1 reduced MODIS-AATS ? differences substantially. In one grid cell on 21 July 2004, smoke over cloud appeared to impair the MODIS-Aqua cloud mask, resulting in retrieved AODs that significantly exceeded AATS values. Experiments with extending MODIS retrievals into the glint mask yielded MODIS AODs consistently less than AATS AODs, especially at long wavelength, indicating that the current MODIS glint mask limits should not be reduced to the extent tried here. The sign of the AOD differences within the glint mask (MODIS AOD < AATS AOD) is consistent with ship-measured wind speeds there.

  14. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  15. Hydropower potential in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Kaygusuz

    1999-01-01

    Turkey has a total hydropower potential of 433 GW that is equal to 1.2% of the total hydropower potential of the world and to 14% of European hydropower potential. Only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 34% of the economically usable potential

  16. Modifications in major satellite methylation in the nucleus of a two-cell mouse embryo with respect to developmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Kuznetsova; E. M. Noniashvili; E. V. Gavrilova; A. P. Dyban

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted of the degree of DNA methylation in the nucleus, in particular, of the major satellite in two-cell mouse\\u000a embryos developing in the maternal organism, in standard culture medium M16, used for cultivating mouse embryos; and M2 media\\u000a used for manipulating embryos in air. Two-cell embryo nuclei at 44–46 h after injections of chorionic hormone were investigated.

  17. Centriolar Satellites

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Akiharu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Yuba-Kubo, Akiko; Tsukita, Shoichiro; Shiina, Nobuyuki

    1999-01-01

    We identified Xenopus pericentriolar material-1 (PCM-1), which had been reported to constitute pericentriolar material, cloned its cDNA, and generated a specific pAb against this molecule. Immunolabeling revealed that PCM-1 was not a pericentriolar material protein, but a specific component of centriolar satellites, morphologically characterized as electron-dense granules, ?70–100 nm in diameter, scattered around centrosomes. Using a GFP fusion protein with PCM-1, we found that PCM-1–containing centriolar satellites moved along microtubules toward their minus ends, i.e., toward centrosomes, in live cells, as well as in vitro reconstituted asters. These findings defined centriolar satellites at the molecular level, and explained their pericentriolar localization. Next, to understand the relationship between centriolar satellites and centriolar replication, we examined the expression and subcellular localization of PCM-1 in ciliated epithelial cells during ciliogenesis. When ciliogenesis was induced in mouse nasal respiratory epithelial cells, PCM-1 immunofluorescence was markedly elevated at the apical cytoplasm. At the electron microscopic level, anti–PCM-1 pAb exclusively labeled fibrous granules, but not deuterosomes, both of which have been suggested to play central roles in centriolar replication in ciliogenesis. These findings suggested that centriolar satellites and fibrous granules are identical novel nonmembranous organelles containing PCM-1, which may play some important role(s) in centriolar replication. PMID:10579718

  18. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  19. Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

  20. Solar cell calibration for the Pico Satellite solar cell testbed (PSSC Testbed) space flight experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Simburger; Simon Liu; John Halpine; David Hinkley; Daniel Rumsey; James Swenson; Jennifer Granata; Henry Yoo

    2008-01-01

    The results of this preflight calibration of the measurement electronics and the individual solar arrays will allow corrections to be made to flight data for determining the actual degradation of the test solar cells as a result of exposure to the space environment.

  1. Identification and bioinformatics analysis of miRNAs involved in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi Min; Ding, Xiang Bin; Dai, Yang; Liu, Xin Feng; Guo, Hong; Zhang, Yong

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules that perform post-transcriptional repression of target genes by binding to 3' untranslated regions, and involved in the regulation of many biological processes. Some studies indicate that miRNAs are mechanistically involved in the muscle growth and differentiation. However, little is known about miRNAs expression patterns during the process of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenic differentiated into myotubes. To investigate the mechanisms of miRNAs-mediated regulation during this process, we performed a miRNAs microarray to detect 783 bovine miRNAs in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenic differentiation, and the results were further confirmed by a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. We observed that the expression of 15 miRNAs was significantly different between bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells and differentiated myotubes, in which twelve were significantly up-regulated and three were down-regulated in myotubes. Furthermore, using bioinformatics methods, the targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted, and were further subjected to gene ontology (GO) and KEGG analysis. A total of 3077 potential target genes were produced, and the highly enriched GOs and KEGG pathways showed that these genes together formed a regulatory network that involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and multiple biological molecular signaling processes. Taken together, the results of the current study suggested the potential regulating roles of these differentially expressed miRNAs in bovine myogenic differentiation. PMID:25732542

  2. Pathogenic and immunosuppressive effects of avian pneumovirus in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Chary, Parag; Rautenschlein, Silke; Njenga, M K; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2002-01-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes a respiratory disease in turkeys. The virus has been associated with morbidity and mortality due to secondary infections. Our objective was to determine if APV caused immunosuppression in the T-cell or B-cell compartments and to study the pathogenesis of the disease in APV maternal antibody-lacking 2-wk-old commercial turkeys. APV was administered by the eyedrop/intranasal route. Observations were made for gross lesions, viral genome, and T-cell mitogenesis and cytokine secretion at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days postinoculation (DPI). During the acute phase of the disease that lasted for about 1 wk, the turkeys exposed to APV showed clinical signs characterized by nasal discharge and sinus swelling. Virus genome was detected by in situ hybridization in cells of turbinates and trachea at 3 and 5 DPI. At 3 and 5 DPI, spleen cells of the birds infected with APV markedly decreased proliferative response to concanavalin A (Con A). Con A and lipopolysaccharide stimulation of spleen cells from virus-exposed turkeys resulted in accumulation of nitric oxide-inducing factors (NOIF) in the culture fluid. NOIF were not detected in culture fluids of Con A-stimulated spleen cells of virus-free turkeys. APV did not compromise the antibody-producing ability of turkeys against several extraneous antigens such as Brucella abortus and tetanus toxoid. PMID:11922327

  3. Repetitive centromeric satellite RNA is essential for kinetochore formation and cell division

    PubMed Central

    Roši?, Silvana; Köhler, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome segregation requires centromeres on every sister chromatid to correctly form and attach the microtubule spindle during cell division. Even though centromeres are essential for genome stability, the underlying centromeric DNA is highly variable in sequence and evolves quickly. Epigenetic mechanisms are therefore thought to regulate centromeres. Here, we show that the 359-bp repeat satellite III (SAT III), which spans megabases on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, produces a long noncoding RNA that localizes to centromeric regions of all major chromosomes. Depletion of SAT III RNA causes mitotic defects, not only of the sex chromosome but also in trans of all autosomes. We furthermore find that SAT III RNA binds to the kinetochore component CENP-C, and is required for correct localization of the centromere-defining proteins CENP-A and CENP-C, as well as outer kinetochore proteins. In conclusion, our data reveal that SAT III RNA is an integral part of centromere identity, adding RNA to the complex epigenetic mark at centromeres in flies. PMID:25365994

  4. Turkey Blood Donor 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    To determine possible causes of declining Rio Grande wild turkey (RGWT; Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) abundance in the southern Edwards Plateau, research was conducted on 4 sites, 2 with stable (S [SA and SB]; Kerr and Real counties) and 2...

  5. A Solar Cell Based Coarse Sun Sensor for a Small LEO Satellite Attitude Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Zahran; Mohamed Aly

    2009-01-01

    The sun is a useful reference direction because of its brightness relative to other astronomical objects and its relatively small apparent radius as viewed by spacecrafts near the Earth. Most satellites use solar power as a source of energy, and so need to make sure that solar panels are oriented correctly with respect to the sun. Also, some satellites have

  6. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  7. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- ?-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  8. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Corna, Gianfranca; Rigamonti, Elena; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J; Manfredi, Angelo A; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- ?-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor is required for estradiol-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Reiter, B C; Kamanga-Sollo, E; Pampusch, M S; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in estradiol-17? (E2)-stimulated proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells (BSCs). Treatment of BSC cultures with AG1478 (a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity) suppresses E2-stimulated BSC proliferation (P < 0.05). In addition, E2-stimulated proliferation is completely suppressed (P < 0.05) in BSCs in which EGFR expression is silenced by treatment with EGFR small interfering RNA (siRNA). These results indicate that EGFR is required for E2 to stimulate proliferation in BSC cultures. Both AG1478 treatment and EGFR silencing also suppress proliferation stimulated by LR3-IGF-1 (an IGF1 analogue that binds normally to the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR)-1 but has little or no affinity for IGF binding proteins) in cultured BSCs (P < 0.05). Even though EGFR siRNA treatment has no effect on IGFR-1? mRNA expression in cultured BSCs, IGFR-1? protein level is substantially reduced in BSCs treated with EGFR siRNA. These data suggest that EGFR silencing results in post-transcriptional modifications that result in decreased IGFR-1? protein levels. Although it is clear that functional EGFR is necessary for E2-stimulated proliferation of BSCs, the role of EGFR is not clear. Transactivation of EGFR may directly stimulate proliferation, or EGFR may function to maintain the level of IGFR-1? which is necessary for E2-stimulated proliferation. It also is possible that the role of EGFR in E2-stimulated BSC proliferation may involve both of these mechanisms. PMID:24906928

  10. Ground Turkey Stir Fry Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Ground Turkey Stir Fry Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups brown rice, medium- grain, making 3 cups cooked 1 pound ground turkey 4 zucchini 1 onion 1 green pepper 1/4 teaspoon pepper Directions 1. Cook brown rice turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break beef into small pieces as it browns. Keep on stirring

  11. Multi-Grid-Cell Validation of Satellite Aerosol Property Retrievals in INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Ramirez, S. A.; Eilers, J.; Kahn, R.; Chu, D. A.; Remer, L.; Quinn, P. K.; Rood, M. J.; Wang, W.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol transport off the US Northeast coast during the Summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX) and Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiments produced a wide range of aerosol types and aerosol optical depth (AOD) values, often with strong horizontal AOD gradients. In these conditions we flew the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun photometer (AATS) on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft. Legs flown at low altitude (usually less than 100 m ASL) provided comparisons of AATS AOD spectra to retrievals for 90 grid cells of the satellite radiometers MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR, all over the ocean. Characterization of the retrieval environment was aided by using vertical profiles by the J31 (showing aerosol vertical structure) and, on occasion, shipboard measurements of light scattering and absorption. AATS provides AOD at 13 wavelengths lambda from 354 to 2138 nm, spanning the range of aerosol retrieval wavelengths for MODIS over ocean (466-2119 nm) and MISR (446-866 nm). Midvisible AOD on low-altitude J31 legs in satellite grid cells ranged from 0.05 to 0.9, with horizontal gradients often in the range 0.05 to 0.13 per 10 km. When possible, we used ship measurements of humidified aerosol scattering and absorption to estimate AOD below the J31. In these cases, which had J31 altitudes 60-110 m ASL (typical of J31 low-altitude transects), estimated midvisible AOD below the J31 ranged from 0.003 to 0.013, with mean 0.009 and standard deviation 0.003. These values averaged 6 percent of AOD above the 53 1. MISR-AATS comparisons on 29 July 2004 in 8 grid cells (each -17.6 km x 17.6 km) show that MISR versions 15 and 16 captured the AATS-measured AOD gradient (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.87 to 0.92), but the MISR gradient was somewhat weaker than the AATS gradient. The large AOD (midvisible values up to -0.9) and differing gradients in this case produced root-mean-square (RMS) MISR-AATS AOD differences of 0.03 to 0.21 (9 to 31%). MISR V15 Angstrom exponent alpha (= -dlnAOD/dln lambda) was closer to AATS than was MISR V16. MODIS-AATS AOD comparisons on 8 overpasses using 61 grid cells (each nominally 10 km x 10 km) had R2 approximately 0.97, with RMS AOD difference approximately 0.03 (approximately 20%). About 87% of the MODIS AOD retrievals differed from AATS values by less than the predicted MODIS over-ocean uncertainty, Delta tau = plus/minus 0.03 plus/minus 0.05 tau. In contrast to the small MODIS-AATS differences in AOD, MODIS-AATS differences in Angstrom exponent alpha were large: RMS differences for alpha (553, 855 nm) were 0.28 for MODIS-Terra and 0.64 for MODIS-Aqua; RMS differences for alpha (855, 2119 nm) were larger still, 0.61 for MODIS-Terra and 1.14 for MODIS-Aqua. The largest MODIS-AATS Angstrom exponent differences were associated with small AOD values, for which MODIS AOD relative uncertainty is large. Excluding cases with AOD(855 nm) less than 0.1 reduced MODIS-AATS alpha differences substantially. In one grid cell on 21 July 2004, smoke over cloud appeared to impair the MODIS-Aqua cloud mask, resulting in retrieved AODs that significantly exceeded AATS values. Experiments with extending MODIS retrievals into the glint mask yielded MODIS AODs consistently less than AATS AODs, especially at long wavelength, indicating that the current MODIS glint mask limits should not be reduced to the extent tried here. The sign of the AOD differences within the glint mask (MODIS AOD less than AATS AOD) is consistent with ship-measured wind speeds there.

  12. Expression of cassini, a murine gamma-satellite sequence conserved in evolution, is regulated in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells treated with drugs can become drug-tolerant if co-cultured with protective stromal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Results We performed transcriptional profiling on these stromal fibroblasts to investigate if they were affected by the presence of drug-treated ALL cells. These mitotically inactivated MEFs showed few changes in gene expression, but a family of sequences of which transcription is significantly increased was identified. A sequence related to this family, which we named cassini, was selected for further characterization. We found that cassini was highly upregulated in drug-treated ALL cells. Analysis of RNAs from different normal mouse tissues showed that cassini expression is highest in spleen and thymus, and can be further enhanced in these organs by exposure of mice to bacterial endotoxin. Heat shock, but not other types of stress, significantly induced the transcription of this locus in ALL cells. Transient overexpression of cassini in human 293 embryonic kidney cells did not increase the cytotoxic or cytostatic effects of chemotherapeutic drugs but provided some protection. Database searches revealed that sequences highly homologous to cassini are present in rodents, apicomplexans, flatworms and primates, indicating that they are conserved in evolution. Moreover, CASSINI RNA was induced in human ALL cells treated with vincristine. Surprisingly, cassini belongs to the previously reported murine family of ?-satellite/major satellite DNA sequences, which were not known to be present in other species. Conclusions Our results show that the transcription of at least one member of these sequences is regulated, suggesting that this has a function in normal and transformed immune cells. Expression of these sequences may protect cells when they are exposed to specific stress stimuli. PMID:22916712

  13. Network Analysis for the Identification of Differentially Expressed Hub Genes Using Myogenin Knock-down Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Arif Tasleem; Ahmad, Sarafraz; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho

    2015-01-01

    Muscle, a multinucleate syncytium formed by the fusion of mononuclear myoblasts, arises from quiescent progenitors (satellite cells) via activation of muscle-specific transcription factors (MyoD, Myf5, myogenin: MYOG, and MRF4). Subsequent to a decline in Pax7, induction in the expression of MYOG is a hallmark of myoblasts that have entered the differentiation phase following cell cycle withdrawal. It is evident that MYOG function cannot be compensated by any other myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). Despite a plethora of information available regarding MYOG, the mechanism by which MYOG regulates muscle cell differentiation has not yet been identified. Using an RNA-Seq approach, analysis of MYOG knock-down muscle satellite cells (MSCs) have shown that genes associated with cell cycle and division, DNA replication, and phosphate metabolism are differentially expressed. By constructing an interaction network of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using GeneMANIA, cadherin-associated protein (CTNNA2) was identified as the main hub gene in the network with highest node degree. Four functional clusters (modules or communities) were identified in the network and the functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes included in these clusters significantly contribute to skeletal muscle development. To confirm this finding, in vitro studies revealed increased expression of CTNNA2 in MSCs on day 12 compared to day 10. Expression of CTNNA2 was decreased in MYOG knock-down cells. However, knocking down CTNNA2, which leads to increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes (type I collagen ?1 and type I collagen ?2) along with myostatin (MSTN), was not found significantly affecting the expression of MYOG in C2C12 cells. We therefore propose that MYOG exerts its regulatory effects by acting upstream of CTNNA2, which in turn regulates the differentiation of C2C12 cells via interaction with ECM genes. Taken together, these findings highlight a new mechanism by which MYOG interacts with CTNNA2 in order to promote myoblast differentiation. PMID:26200109

  14. Juxtacrine and paracrine interactions of rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, muscle-derived satellite cells, and neonatal cardiomyocytes with endothelial cells in angiogenesis dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Khazraiinia, Parvaneh; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Mohammadi, Elham; Molazem, Mohammad; Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad

    2013-03-15

    Research into angiogenesis has contributed to progress in the fast-moving field of regenerative medicine. Designing coculture systems is deemed a helpful method to understand the dynamic interaction of various cells involved in the angiogenesis process. We investigated the juxtacrine and paracrine interaction between 3 different cells, namely rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs), rat muscle-derived satellite cells (rSCs), and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (rCMs), and endothelial cells (ECs) during angiogenesis process. In vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assay was performed whereby ECs were monocultured or cocultured with rMSCs, rSCs, and rCMs or their conditioned media (CM). In addition, in vivo Matrigel plug assay for angiogenesis was conducted to assess the angiogenic potential of the rCM-, rMSC-, and rSC-derived CM. Our results demonstrated that the rMSCs, rSCs, and rCMs elongated along the EC tubules, whereas the rMSCs formed tube-like structures with sprouting tip cells, leading to improved angiogenesis in the coculture system. Moreover, the rMSC- and rSC-derived CM significantly improved angiogenesis tube formation on Matrigel, accelerated EC chemotaxis, and increased the arteriolar density, vascularization index, and vascularization flow index in the Matrigel plug in vivo. Western blotting showed that rMSCs secreted a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and stromal-derived factor-1-alpha. Tie2 is also shed from rMSCs. This study demonstrated that stem cells interact with ECs in the juxtacrine and paracrine manner during angiogenesis, and marrow MSCs have superior angiogenic properties. PMID:23072248

  15. Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle-Derived Satellite Cells for Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Mediated Transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere Goats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

  16. Influence of static magnetic fields combined with human insulin-like growth factor 1 on human satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Birk, Richard; Sommer, J Ulrich; Haas, Dominik; Faber, Anne; Aderhold, Christoph; Schultz, Johannes D; Hoermann, Karl; Stern-Straeter, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering represents a promising research field, targeting the creation of new functional muscle tissue in vitro. The aim of the present study was to show the influence of static magnetic fields (SMF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), as enhancing stimuli on human satellite cell cultures, which are preferred sources of stem cells in engineering skeletal muscle tissue. To detect effects on myogenic maturation and proliferation, AlamarBlue® proliferation, assay and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of following markers was performed: desmin (DES), myogenic factor-5 (MYF5), myogenic differentiation antigen-1 (MYOD1), myogenin (MYOG), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and ?1 actin (ACTA1). As a distinct marker of differentiation, immunohistochemical staining and fusion index determination was performed on satellite cell cultures stimulated with IGF1 and IGF1-plus-SMF with an intensity of 80 mT. Proliferation was increased by additional SMF application to IGF1-stimulated cell cultures on the first day of myogenesis. Relative gene expression of measured markers was increased by IGF1 application in the first days of myogenesis except for ACTA1. Additional SMF application enhanced this effect. Nevertheless we were unable to demonstrate the formation of contractile muscle tissue. Immunhistochemical staining verified muscle origin and all markers were displayed. PMID:25189891

  17. Comparison of ANN and MLR models for estimating solar radiation in Turkey using NOAA/AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ahin, Mehmet; Kaya, Y?lmaz; Uyar, Murat

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the estimation capacities of MLR and ANN are investigated to estimate monthly-average daily SR over Turkey. The satellite data are used for 73 different locations over Turkey. Land surface temperature, altitude, latitude, longitude and month are offered as the input variables for modeling ANN and MLR to get SR. Estimations of SR are evaluated with the meteorological values by using the statistical bases. The obtained results indicated that the ANN model could achieve a satisfactory performance when compared to the MLR model. Moreover, it is understood that more accurate results in estimation of SR are obtained in the use of satellite data, rather than the use of meteorological station data. Finally, the built ANN model is used to estimate the yearly average of daily SR over Turkey. As a result, satellite-based SR map for Turkey is generated.

  18. Elevated In Vivo Levels of a Single Transcription Factor Directly Convert Satellite Glia into Oligodendrocyte-like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weider, Matthias; Wegener, Amélie; Schmitt, Christian; Küspert, Melanie; Hillgärtner, Simone; Bösl, Michael R.; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Wegner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system and ensure rapid saltatory conduction. Shortage or loss of these cells leads to severe malfunctions as observed in human leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis, and their replenishment by reprogramming or cell conversion strategies is an important research aim. Using a transgenic approach we increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression. These rarely studied and poorly characterized satellite glia did not go through a classic oligodendrocyte precursor cell stage. Instead, Sox10 directly induced key elements of the regulatory network of differentiating oligodendrocytes, including Olig2, Olig1, Nkx2.2 and Myrf. An upstream enhancer mediated the direct induction of the Olig2 gene. Unlike Sox10, Olig2 was not capable of generating oligodendrocyte-like cells in dorsal root ganglia. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that Sox10 can convert conducive cells into oligodendrocyte-like cells in vivo and delineates options for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25680202

  19. Elevated in vivo levels of a single transcription factor directly convert satellite glia into oligodendrocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Weider, Matthias; Wegener, Amélie; Schmitt, Christian; Küspert, Melanie; Hillgärtner, Simone; Bösl, Michael R; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Wegner, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system and ensure rapid saltatory conduction. Shortage or loss of these cells leads to severe malfunctions as observed in human leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis, and their replenishment by reprogramming or cell conversion strategies is an important research aim. Using a transgenic approach we increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression. These rarely studied and poorly characterized satellite glia did not go through a classic oligodendrocyte precursor cell stage. Instead, Sox10 directly induced key elements of the regulatory network of differentiating oligodendrocytes, including Olig2, Olig1, Nkx2.2 and Myrf. An upstream enhancer mediated the direct induction of the Olig2 gene. Unlike Sox10, Olig2 was not capable of generating oligodendrocyte-like cells in dorsal root ganglia. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that Sox10 can convert conducive cells into oligodendrocyte-like cells in vivo and delineates options for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25680202

  20. Apical blebs on sperm-storage tubule epithelial cell microvilli: their release and interaction with resident sperm in the turkey hen oviduct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Located at the anterior end of the turkey hen vagina are numerous discrete tubular invaginations of the surface epithelium, collectively referred to as the sperm-storage tubules (SSTs). Following mating or artificial insemination, sperm ascend the vagina, enter the SSTs, and ove...

  1. Flight Data of a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cell Module without a Coverglass by a Nano Satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirou Kawakita; Mitsuru Imaizumi; Koichi Kibe; Yuya Nakamura; Shinichi Nakasuka

    2009-01-01

    A CIGS solar cell module without a coverglass was demonstrated by a small satellite since October 2005. A coverglass is normally used to protect the cell performance from low-energy (<3MeV) protons in space. This mission evaluates the model to assess the cell performance of CIGS solar cells, which thus far exhibited no degradation by thermal annealing effect in space. Flight

  2. Leftover Turkey Soup Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    onions 1/2 green pepper 3 carrots 2 stalks celery 10 ounces corn, frozen 15 ounces low sodium tomatoes for 1/2 hour. 3. While turkey and rice are cooking, cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat

  3. The "Turkey Buzzard" glider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G; Brown, D T

    1923-01-01

    The "Turkey Buzzard" is a semi-internally braced monoplane (Fig. 1). The wing is placed above the fuselage for two important aerodynamical reasons: first, because this position minimizes the mutual interference between the wing and the fuselage, and, second, useful lifting surface is utilized with the wing passing over the fuselage instead of through it.

  4. Let's Talk Turkey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This site will help users plan and enjoy their Thanksgiving feasts. This Thanksgiving site from the Food Network contains a host of resources, including recipes; turkey, pie, and stuffing guides; wine and leftover tips; and just in case, Kitchen Disaster 911.

  5. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  6. Expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in regenerated muscle spindle fibres after muscle grafting in young and adult rats – plasticity of intrafusal satellite cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomáš Soukup; Lars-Eric Thornell

    1998-01-01

    Satellite cells are the myogenic precursor cells of postnatal skeletal muscles. After muscle injury they can proliferate, differentiate, fuse and form myofibres. We have analysed regeneration of distinctly different types of intrafusal fibres in rat muscle spindles. We have introduced the new technique of heterochronous allotransplantation and compared it with the previously used standard autografting method. The allotransplantation method enables

  7. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  8. Dual Oxidase Maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) overexpression increases reactive oxygen species production and inhibits murine muscle satellite cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dual oxidase maturation factor 1 (DUOXA1) has been associated with the maturation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing enzyme, dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) in the adult thyroid. However, ROS have also been implicated in the development of several tissues. We found that activated muscle satellite cells and primary myoblasts isolated from mice express robust levels of DUOXA1 and that its levels are altered as cells differentiate. Results To determine whether DUOXA1 levels affect muscle differentiation, we used an adenoviral construct (pCMV5-DUOXA1-GFP) to drive constitutive overexpression of this protein in primary myoblasts. High levels of DUOXA1 throughout myogenesis resulted in enhanced H2O2 production, fusion defects, reduced expression of early (myogenin) and late (myosin heavy chain) markers of differentiation, and elevated levels of apoptosis compared to control cells infected with an empty adenoviral vector (pCMV5-GFP). DUOXA1 knockdown (using a DUOXA1 shRNA construct) resulted in enhanced differentiation compared to cells subjected to a control shRNA, and subjecting DUOXA1 overexpressing cells to siRNAs targeting DUOX1 or apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) rescued the phenotype. Conclusions This study represents the first to demonstrate the importance of DUOXA1 in skeletal muscle myoblasts and that DUOXA1 overexpression in muscle stem cells induces apoptosis and inhibits differentiation through DUOX1 and ASK1. PMID:24410844

  9. Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through inversely modulating Notch and NF-?B signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Mishra, Vivek; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kuang, Shihuan; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-12-01

    Satellite cell self-renewal is an essential process to maintaining the robustness of skeletal muscle regenerative capacity. However, extrinsic factors that regulate self-renewal of satellite cells are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that TWEAK cytokine reduces the proportion of Pax7(+)/MyoD(-) cells (an index of self-renewal) on myofiber explants and represses multiple components of Notch signaling in satellite cell cultures. The number of Pax7(+) cells is significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK knock-out (KO) mice compared with wild-type in response to injury. Furthermore, Notch signaling is significantly elevated in cultured satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers of TWEAK-KO mice. Forced activation of Notch signaling through overexpression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) rescued the TWEAK-mediated inhibition of satellite cell self-renewal. TWEAK also activates the NF-?B transcription factor in satellite cells and inhibition of NF-?B significantly improved the number of Pax7(+) cells in TWEAK-treated cultures. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that a reciprocal interaction between NF-?B and Notch signaling governs the inhibitory effect of TWEAK on satellite cell self-renewal. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through activating NF-?B and repressing Notch signaling. PMID:24151074

  10. Extraocular muscle satellite cells are high performance myo-engines retaining efficient regenerative capacity in dystrophin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stuelsatz, Pascal; Shearer, Andrew; Li, Yunfei; Muir, Lindsey A; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Shen, Qingwu W; Kirillova, Irina; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are highly specialized skeletal muscles that originate from the head mesoderm and control eye movements. EOMs are uniquely spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and animal models of dystrophin deficiency. Specific traits of myogenic progenitors may be determinants of this preferential sparing, but very little is known about the myogenic cells in this muscle group. While satellite cells (SCs) have long been recognized as the main source of myogenic cells in adult muscle, most of the knowledge about these cells comes from the prototypic limb muscles. In this study, we show that EOMs, regardless of their distinctive Pax3-negative lineage origin, harbor SCs that share a common signature (Pax7(+), Ki67(-), Nestin-GFP(+), Myf5(nLacZ+), MyoD-positive lineage origin) with their limb and diaphragm somite-derived counterparts, but are remarkably endowed with a high proliferative potential as revealed in cell culture assays. Specifically, we demonstrate that in adult as well as in aging mice, EOM SCs possess a superior expansion capacity, contributing significantly more proliferating, differentiating and renewal progeny than their limb and diaphragm counterparts. These robust growth and renewal properties are maintained by EOM SCs isolated from dystrophin-null (mdx) mice, while SCs from muscles affected by dystrophin deficiency (i.e., limb and diaphragm) expand poorly in vitro. EOM SCs also retain higher performance in cell transplantation assays in which donor cells were engrafted into host mdx limb muscle. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive picture of EOM myogenic progenitors, showing that while these cells share common hallmarks with the prototypic SCs in somite-derived muscles, they distinctively feature robust growth and renewal capacities that warrant the title of high performance myo-engines and promote consideration of their properties for developing new approaches in cell-based therapy to combat skeletal muscle wasting. PMID:25236433

  11. Extrachromosomal circles of satellite repeats and 5S ribosomal DNA in human cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarit Cohen; Neta Agmon; Olga Sobol; Daniel Segal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extrachomosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) is ubiquitous in eukaryotic organisms and was detected in every organism tested, including in humans. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis facilitates the detection of eccDNA in preparations of genomic DNA. Using this technique we have previously demonstrated that most of eccDNA consists of exact multiples of chromosomal tandemly repeated DNA, including both coding genes and satellite

  12. A new immuno- dystrophin-deficient model, the NSG-mdx4Cv mouse, provides evidence for functional improvement following allogeneic satellite cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Arpke, Robert W.; Darabi, Radbod; Mader, Tara L.; Zhang, Yu; Toyama, Akira; Lonetree, Cara-lin; Nash, Nardina; Lowe, Dawn A.; Perlingeiro, Rita C.R.; Kyba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of a myogenic cell population into an immunodeficient recipient is an excellent way of assessing the in vivo muscle-generating capacity of that cell population. To facilitate both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantations of muscle-forming cells in mice we have developed a novel immunodeficient muscular dystrophy model, the NSG-mdx4Cv mouse. The IL2Rg mutation, which is linked to the Dmd gene on the X chromosome, simultaneously depletes NK cells and suppresses thymic lymphomas, issues that limit the utility of the SCID/mdx model. The NSG-mdx4Cv mouse presents a muscular dystrophy of similar severity to the conventional mdx mouse. We show that this animal supports robust engraftment of both pig and dog muscle mononuclear cells. The question of whether satellite cells prospectively isolated by flow cytometry can confer a functional benefit upon transplantation has been controversial. Using allogeneic Pax7-ZsGreen donors and NSG-mdx4Cv recipients, we demonstrate definitively that as few as 900 FACS-isolated satellite cells can provide functional regeneration in vivo, in the form of an increased mean maximal force-generation capacity in cell-transplanted muscles, compared to a sham-injected control group. These studies highlight the potency of satellite cells to improve muscle function, and the utility of the NSG-mdx4Cv model for studies on muscle regeneration and Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy. PMID:23606600

  13. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. The space performance of silicon vertical junction solar cells on the LIPS III satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Statler; Delores H. Walker

    1988-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and results are presented of a space experiment to evaluate the performance of a new generation of silicon vertical junction solar cells and three adhesives for attaching coverglass to the solar cells. Two of the adhesives are used for the first time in coverglass applications in the space environment. The Solarex vertical junction solar cells, which are

  15. The space performance of silicon vertical junction solar cells on the LIPS-III satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Statler; Delores H. Walker

    1989-01-01

    The authors present the preliminary analysis and results of a space experiment to evaluate the performance of a new generation of silicon vertical junction solar cells and three adhesives for attaching coverglass to the solar cells. Two of the adhesives are used for the first time in coverglass applications in the space environment. The SOLAREX vertical junction solar cells, which

  16. Transcriptional profiling of bovine muscle-derived satellite cells during differentiation in vitro by high throughput RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hui Li; Yin, Hong Yan; Zhang, Wei Wei; Hu, Qian; Li, Shu Feng; Yan, Yun Qin; Li, Guang Peng

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we utilized high throughput RNA sequencing to obtain a comprehensive gene expression profile of muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) upon induction of differentiation. MDSCs were cultured in vitro and RNA was extracted for sequencing prior to differentiation (MDSC-P), and again during the early and late differentiation (MDSC-D1, and MDSC-D3, respectively) stages. Sequence tags were assembled and analyzed by digital gene expression profile to screen for differentially expressed genes, Gene Ontology annotation, and pathway enrichment analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the results of RNA sequencing. Our results indicate that certain of genes were changed during skeletal muscle cell development, cell cycle progression, and cell metabolism during differentiation of bovine MDSCs. Furthermore, we identified certain genes that could be used as novel candidates for future research of muscle development. Additionally, the sequencing results indicated that lipid metabolism might be the predominant cellular process that occurs during MDSC differentiation. PMID:26208385

  17. Neotectonics of Turkey – a synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdin Bozkurt

    2001-01-01

    Turkey forms one of the most actively deforming regions in the world and has a long history of devastating earthquakes. The better understanding of its neotectonic features and active tectonics would provide insight, not only for the country but also for the entire Eastern Mediterranean region. Active tectonics of Turkey is the manifestation of collisional intracontinental convergence- and tectonic escape-related

  18. English Language Teaching Profile: Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English in Turkey is discussed, with attention directed to: (1) education within the educational system, (2) English teachers, (3) teaching materials, (4) English outside the educational system, and (5) British and American support for the teaching of English. Although English is not used as a means of social communication in Turkey,…

  19. Modeling life expectancy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2011-01-01

    This study is concerned with understanding the factors of life expectancy in Turkey for the period 1965–2005. The determinants of life expectancy in Turkey are related to selected social, economical and environmental factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to compute the long-run elasticities of longevity with respect to the selected economic, social and environmental factors. There exists no

  20. Modelling life expectancy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2010-01-01

    This study is concerned with understanding the factors of life expectancy in Turkey for the period 1965-2005. The determinants of life expectancy in Turkey are related to selected social, economical and environmental factors. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is employed to compute the long-run elasticities of longevity with respect to the selected economic, social and environmental factors. There exists no

  1. Heat stress inhibits proliferation, promotes growth, and induces apoptosis in cultured Lantang swine skeletal muscle satellite cells*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chun-qi; Zhao, Yin-ling; Li, Hai-chang; Sui, Wei-guo; Yan, Hui-chao; Wang, Xiu-qi

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation suppression and apoptosis are the prominent characteristics induced by heat stress (HS) in cells, whereas the effects of HS on cell growth (mass accumulation) are unknown. In this study, Lantang swine (an indigenous breed of China) skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) were pre-cultured at 37 °C for 24 h. The HS group was subjected to HS at 41 °C, while the control group was maintained at 37 °C. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and SC size are significantly increased (P<0.05) by HS, but cell proliferation is suppressed (P<0.05) and apoptosis is induced (P<0.05). HS led to a lower percentage of SCs in the G0/G1 phase (P<0.05) together with a higher percentage of SCs in the S phase (P<0.05). However, the percentage of SCs in the G2/M phase was decreased (P<0.05) at 48 h but then increased (P<0.05) at 72 h with HS. In addition, the phosphorylation ratios of protein kinase b (Akt), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), and ribosomal protein S6 were increased (P<0.05) by HS. Nevertheless, the phosphorylation ratios of the 4E binding protein 1 and the eukaryotic initiation factor-4E were indistinguishable (P>0.05) from those of the control group. The phosphorylation ratio of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (Ser2448) increased (P<0.05) within 48 h, and apparent differences were abrogated at 72 h (P>0.05). Moreover, cleaved caspase-3 expression was increased at 72 h (P<0.05). These findings indicate that HS induces apoptosis and disrupts cell cycle distribution to decrease the number of cells. Additionally, HS can promote SC growth via an activated Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. PMID:26055917

  2. Heat stress inhibits proliferation, promotes growth, and induces apoptosis in cultured Lantang swine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chun-Qi; Zhao, Yin-Ling; Li, Hai-Chang; Sui, Wei-Guo; Yan, Hui-Chao; Wang, Xiu-Qi

    2015-06-01

    Proliferation suppression and apoptosis are the prominent characteristics induced by heat stress (HS) in cells, whereas the effects of HS on cell growth (mass accumulation) are unknown. In this study, Lantang swine (an indigenous breed of China) skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) were pre-cultured at 37 °C for 24 h. The HS group was subjected to HS at 41 °C, while the control group was maintained at 37 °C. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and SC size are significantly increased (P<0.05) by HS, but cell proliferation is suppressed (P<0.05) and apoptosis is induced (P<0.05). HS led to a lower percentage of SCs in the G0/G1 phase (P<0.05) together with a higher percentage of SCs in the S phase (P<0.05). However, the percentage of SCs in the G2/M phase was decreased (P<0.05) at 48 h but then increased (P<0.05) at 72 h with HS. In addition, the phosphorylation ratios of protein kinase b (Akt), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K), and ribosomal protein S6 were increased (P<0.05) by HS. Nevertheless, the phosphorylation ratios of the 4E binding protein 1 and the eukaryotic initiation factor-4E were indistinguishable (P>0.05) from those of the control group. The phosphorylation ratio of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (Ser(2448)) increased (P<0.05) within 48 h, and apparent differences were abrogated at 72 h (P>0.05). Moreover, cleaved caspase-3 expression was increased at 72 h (P<0.05). These findings indicate that HS induces apoptosis and disrupts cell cycle distribution to decrease the number of cells. Additionally, HS can promote SC growth via an activated Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. PMID:26055917

  3. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

    2008-12-01

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

  4. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K. L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

  5. Flight of the pico satellite solar cell testbed (PSSC Testbed) space experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Simburger; S. H. Liu; D. Hinkley; D. Rumsey; J. Swenson

    2009-01-01

    The primary mission of the PSSC Testbed is to provide space flight data on two types of advanced solar cells, XTJ and ZTJ, produced by the two U.S. solar cell manufacturers, Spectrolab and Emcore, respectively. The PSSC Testbed flight data confirmed that the picosatellite can be used for measuring l-V characteristics of solar cells. Continuing monitoring of the l-V measurement

  6. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Safeguards Genomic Integrity of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kollu, Swapna; Abou-Khalil, Rana; Shen, Carl; Brack, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To ensure accurate genomic segregation, cells evolved the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), whose role in adult stem cells remains unknown. Inducible perturbation of a SAC kinase, Mps1, and its downstream effector, Mad2, in skeletal muscle stem cells shows the SAC to be critical for normal muscle growth, repair, and self-renewal of the stem cell pool. SAC-deficient muscle stem cells arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle with elevated aneuploidy, resisting differentiation even under inductive conditions. p21CIP1 is responsible for these SAC-deficient phenotypes. Despite aneuploidy’s correlation with aging, we find that aged proliferating muscle stem cells display robust SAC activity without elevated aneuploidy. Thus, muscle stem cells have a two-step mechanism to safeguard their genomic integrity. The SAC prevents chromosome missegregation and, if it fails, p21CIP1-dependent G1 arrest limits cellular propagation and tissue integration. These mechanisms ensure that muscle stem cells with compromised genomes do not contribute to tissue homeostasis. PMID:25960061

  7. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Safeguards Genomic Integrity of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells.

    PubMed

    Kollu, Swapna; Abou-Khalil, Rana; Shen, Carl; Brack, Andrew S

    2015-06-01

    To ensure accurate genomic segregation, cells evolved the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), whose role in adult stem cells remains unknown. Inducible perturbation of a SAC kinase, Mps1, and its downstream effector, Mad2, in skeletal muscle stem cells shows the SAC to be critical for normal muscle growth, repair, and self-renewal of the stem cell pool. SAC-deficient muscle stem cells arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle with elevated aneuploidy, resisting differentiation even under inductive conditions. p21(CIP1) is responsible for these SAC-deficient phenotypes. Despite aneuploidy's correlation with aging, we find that aged proliferating muscle stem cells display robust SAC activity without elevated aneuploidy. Thus, muscle stem cells have a two-step mechanism to safeguard their genomic integrity. The SAC prevents chromosome missegregation and, if it fails, p21(CIP1)-dependent G1 arrest limits cellular propagation and tissue integration. These mechanisms ensure that muscle stem cells with compromised genomes do not contribute to tissue homeostasis. PMID:25960061

  8. The kinase inhibitor iso-H7 stimulates rat satellite cell differentiation through a non-protein kinase C pathway by increasing myogenin expression level.

    PubMed

    Lagord, C; Leibovitch, M P; Carpentier, G; Leibovitch, S A; Martelly, I

    1996-06-01

    We analysed the signaling pathways involved in myogenic differentiation of primary cultures of rat satellite cells using substances targeting the protein kinase C (PKC) and the cAMP protein kinase (PKA) pathways. We have previously shown that iso-H7, which putatively inhibits both PKC and PKA, strongly stimulates satellite cell differentiation, as well as the PKA inhibitor HA1004. In the study reported here, the effects of iso-H7 on satellite cell differentiation were compared to those observed in the presence of agents which reduce PKC activity. It was shown that treatments with the highly specific PKC inhibitor GF109203X or with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) which induced a partial PKC downregulation, did not significantly alter myogenic differentiation. Northern blot analyses showed that iso-H7 activated the expression of myogenin but not that of MyoD mRNA. Concurrently, iso-H7 increased myosin light-chain mRNA expression. In contrast, TPA had no effect on these syntheses. Taken together, these results showed that iso-H7 did not act intracellularly as a PKC inhibitor but rather as a PKA inhibitor as previously suggested. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduction in PKA activity controls satellite cell myogenesis through an increased myogenin mRNA expression. PMID:8817063

  9. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  10. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P

    2002-05-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus. PMID:12014494

  11. The effects of space environment on silicon vertical junction solar cells on the LIPS III satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Statler

    1989-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and results of a space experiment to evaluate the performance of a new generation of silicon vertical junction solar cells and three adhesives for attaching coverglass to the solar cells are presented. Two of the adhesives are used for the first time in coverglass applications where they are subjected to the space environment. SOLAREX vertical junction solar

  12. Development works on nickel/hydrogen cells. [for satellite energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to reduce the costs for NI/H2 cells by using nickel oxide electrodes with high capacity per unit area. No maintenance requirements, long cycle life, insensitivity to overcharge and cell reversal, and high power capability were revealed.

  13. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa, Michiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan) [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Aging Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)] [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Song, Si-Yong [Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan)] [Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro, E-mail: nao@ncgg.go.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)] [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  14. Turkey takes initiative.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    The Turkish Family Health and Planning Foundation, the first private sector, nonprofit, nongovernmental organization to be founded in Turkey, was awarded the 1994 UN Population Award. When the founder of the foundation began thinking about population issues in 1974, Turkey's population size was growing at the annual rate of 2.5%, the total fertility rate (TFR) was 4.1, and 85 infants died for every 1000 live births. The foundation was established about 10 years later. The level of contraceptive prevalence was then approximately 27%, even though about 90% were aware of family planning (FP). With the help of the Johns Hopkins University, the foundation carried out a nationwide FP campaign in 1988. The campaign succeeded in boosting clinic attendance, but clinic services were inadequate to meet demand. In 1992, prior to another campaign, the foundation collaborated with the Ministry of Health to have directives sent to all FP units countrywide to prepare for an increased demand. The population growth rate has since declined to 1.7%, the TFR to 2.2, and the infant mortality rate to 42/1000. The organization would like to share their achievements with other Central Asian Republics. Finally, the foundation recently held an international conference on family planning in Islam, built upon the view that Islam does not forbid FP. PMID:12347569

  15. Telaprevir Experience From Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Komur, Suheyla; Kurtaran, Behice; Inal, Ayse Seza; Pullukcu, Husnu; Ulu, Aslihan; Kuscu, Ferit; Yamazhan, Tansu; Tasova, Yesim; Aksu, Hasan Salih Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Background: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, triple drug regimens containing a protease inhibitor, peginterferon and ribavirin were found to significantly increase sustained virologic response rates compared to dual drug regimen containing pegylated interferon and ribavirin, especially in genotype 1. Objectives: In Turkey, telaprevir has been used since March 2013. We aimed to evaluate results of patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with telaprevir, peginterferon and ribavirin. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 28 patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection treated with triple drug regimen containing telaprevir, in three medical centers in Turkey, retrospectively. Demographic data of patients, treatment indications, adverse events and outcomes were recorded. Results: Of 28 patients intended to treat, 25 (89.2%) patients completed the treatment. Overall, 21 (82.1%) patients had relapse and five patients were non-responder. Regarding the treatment outcomes of Telaprevir based regimen, 20/26 patients achieved sustained virological response. Pruritus, rash, dysgeusia, anorectal discomfort and anemia were main adverse effects. Blood transfusion and ribavirin dose reduction required for 7 and 11 patients, respectively. Due to several adverse effects, 10 patients were hospitalized. Conclusions: Although more frequent and severe adverse effects, telaprevir has been promising for patients with treatment-experienced hepatitis C. PMID:25788959

  16. Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed in Myogenin Knock-Down Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells during Differentiation through RNA Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Smritee; Ahmad, Sarafraz; Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Cho, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jihoe; Kong, Joon Chan; Lee, Dong-Mok; Chung, Ki Yong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Choi, Inho

    2014-01-01

    Background The expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) consisting of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin (MyoG) and MRF4 characterizes various phases of skeletal muscle development including myoblast proliferation, cell-cycle exit, cell fusion and the maturation of myotubes to form myofibers. Although it is well known that the function of MyoG cannot be compensated for other MRFs, the molecular mechanism by which MyoG controls muscle cell differentiation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to profile changes in gene expression in response to MyoG knock-down (MyoGkd) in primary bovine muscle satellite cells (MSCs). Results About 61–64% of the reads of over 42 million total reads were mapped to more than 13,000 genes in the reference bovine genome. RNA-Seq analysis identified 8,469 unique genes that were differentially expressed in MyoGkd. Among these genes, 230 were up-regulated and 224 were down-regulated by at least four-fold. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) and pathway analysis of all up- and down-regulated genes identified overrepresentation for cell cycle and division, DNA replication, mitosis, organelle lumen, nucleoplasm and cytosol, phosphate metabolic process, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, cytoskeleton and cell morphogenesis, signifying the functional implication of these processes and pathways during skeletal muscle development. The RNA-Seq data was validated by real time RT-PCR analysis for eight out of ten genes as well as five marker genes investigated. Conclusions This study is the first RNA-Seq based gene expression analysis of MyoGkd undertaken in primary bovine MSCs. Computational analysis of the differentially expressed genes has identified the significance of genes such as SAP30-like (SAP30L), Protein lyl-1 (LYL1), various matrix metalloproteinases, and several glycogenes in myogenesis. The results of the present study widen our knowledge of the molecular basis of skeletal muscle development and reveal the vital regulatory role of MyoG in retaining muscle cell differentiation. PMID:24647404

  17. COMPARISON OF ERK 1/2, P38 MAPK, AND PTK KINASE ACTIVITY IN HETEROPHILS FROM WILD-TYPE TURKEYS TO ACTIVITY IN HETEROPHILS FROM A COMMERCIAL TURKEY LINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterophils isolated from wild-type Rio Grande turkeys and a commercial line of turkeys (Line A) on days 4 and 7 post-hatch were stimulated for 1 hr with either nonopsonized Salmonella enteritidis (SE) or opsonized SE (OPSE). After stimulation, cell supernatants were tested for erk 1/2, p38 MAPK...

  18. Istanbul Technical University Istanbul, Turkey

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty Of Computer and Informatics Faculty of naval architecture Engineering Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Food Engineering Naval Architecture and Marine distinguished in Turkey with its engineering and architecture education. Istanbul Technical University

  19. Turkey's foreign dependence on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Turkey becomes more dependent on the external countries in energy production every year. As an average of the period 1994-2002 the total primary energy production has been 27.9 Mtoe, and consumption has been 73.06 Mtoe, so Turkey is dependent on external countries in petroleum, natural gas, and hard coal consumption. The external dependency rate of these fuels has been at levels of 89.3%, 96.6%, and 82%, respectively. In the projections of Turkey for 2020, the primary energy consumption is estimated to be 298 Mtoe, production is estimated to be 70 Mtoe, the ratio of production to consumption will be reduced to 23.5%, and this situation will cause serious risks for sustainable development. In other words, Turkey will have to import 76.5% of the energy that it consumes in the 2020s.

  20. Isolation and serological studies with infectious bursal disease viruses from fowl, turkeys and ducks: Demonstration of a second serotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. McFerran; M. S. McNulty; E. R. McKillop; T. J. Connor; R. M. McCracken; D. S. Collins; G. M. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The isolation of a number of strains of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus from fowl, turkeys and ducks is described. These isolates could be grouped into two serotypes using the neutralisation test. It is proposed that the cell culture adapted vaccine strain from fowl should be the prototype virus for serotype 1 and that the TY89 isolate from a turkey

  1. Influence of Pasteurella multocida and high and low environmental temperatures on adrenals and bursa of Fabricius in turkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The morphologic changes in the adrenals and bursa of Fabricius were evaluated from turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. There was a slight hyperplasia of the adrenal cortical cells and a hypertrophy of the nuclei in the uninoculated turkeys maintained at both high and low temperatures, but these changes were more marked in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. Regardless of the temperature to which the turkeys were exposed, there was an increase in adrenal weight, hyperplasia of the cortical cells, hypertrophy of the nuclei of the cortical cells, and depletion of lipid in the cortical cells in the turkeys that became depressed after inoculation with P. multocida. In the uninoculated turkeys exposed to high temperatures there was a reduction in the weight of the bursa of Fabricius, atrophy of the follicles, and a reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicle, which did not occur in the bursae from uninoculated turkeys maintained at low temperatures. In the turkeys inoculated with P. multocida, there was a marked reduction in bursal weight, atrophy of the follicles, and reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicles.

  2. Characteristics of wild turkey hunters in Texas: comparing turkey stamp buyers to members of the National Wild Turkey Federation 

    E-print Network

    Harmel-Garza, Karen D

    2001-01-01

    This thesis examined wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) hunters in Texas. It also examined the differences between people who are members of the Texas Chapter of the National Wild Turkey Federation, and people who are not ...

  3. Alphoid satellite DNA is tightly associated with centromere antigens in human chromosomes throughout the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Masumoto, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Kenji; Okazaki, Tuneko (Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1989-03-01

    In this study, the authors have examined a DNA element specific to the centromere domain of human chromosomes. Purified HeLa chromosomes were digested with the restriction enzyme Sau3AI and fractionated by sedimentation through a sucrose gradient. Fractions showing antigenicity to anticentromere (kinetochore) serum obtained from a scleroderma CREST patient were used to construct a DNA library. From this library they found one clone which has specifically hybridized to the centromere domain of metaphase chromosomes using a biotinylated probe DNA and FITC-conjugated avidin. The clone contained a stretch of alphoid DNA dimer. To determine precisely the relative location of the alphoid DNA stretch and the centromere antigen, a method was developed to carry out in situ hybridization of DNA and indirect immunofluorescent staining of antigen on the same cell preparation. Using this method, they have found perfect overlapping of the alphoid DNA sites with the centromere antigen in both metaphase chromosomes and nuclei at various stages in the cell cycle. They have also observed this exact correlation at the attachment sites of artificially extended sister chromatids. These results suggest the possibility that alphoid DNA repeats are a key component of kinetochore structure.

  4. Investigation of Earthquakes in Turkey Using GIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Garagon Dogru; H. Ozener

    2005-01-01

    There are three main active faults in Turkey: the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), the Northeast Anatolian Fault (NEAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF). NAF is one of the most active seismic regions over the world, runs along the northern part of Turkey about 1500 km, from the Aegean to the Karliova triple junction in the eastern Turkey. It has

  5. Tumorous diseases of turkeys - an update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update is primarily focused on addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  6. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  7. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  8. B: Pancakes, Turkey Baked Apples, Milk

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    B: Pancakes, Turkey Sausage, Baked Apples, Milk L: Hamburger, Potato Wedges, Mixed Fruit, Milk S: Oranges B: Toast, Turkey Sausage, Pears, Milk L: Turkey Breast, Iceberg Lettuce, Tomato, Baked Apples, Bread, Milk S: Cheese Crackers B: Cereal, Toast, Bananas, Milk L: Chicken Tomato Bake, Broccoli, Mixed

  9. Forskolin-induced differentiation of BeWo cells stimulates increased tumor growth in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) egg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Schneider; Marcus Borges; Mamed Kadyrov

    2011-01-01

    Invasiveness of BeWo cells has been assessed in a variety of assay systems including matrigel and mouse. At the same time BeWo cells are mostly used as model system for trophoblast fusion. Here we aimed to test the properties of BeWo cells in a combined approach. We forced BeWo cells to differentiate by culturing the cells in the presence of

  10. ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) enhances the proliferation of satellite cells in fast muscles of aged rats during recovery from disuse atrophy.

    PubMed

    Alway, Stephen E; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K; Hao, Yanlei; Bennett, Brian T

    2013-09-01

    Loss of myonuclei by apoptosis is thought to contribute to sarcopenia. We have previously shown, that the leucine metabolite, ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) suppresses apoptotic signaling and the apoptotic index (the ratio of apoptotic positive to apoptotic negative myonuclei) during muscle disuse and during reloading periods after disuse in aged rats. However, it was not clear if the apoptotic signaling indexes were due only to preservation of myonuclei or if perhaps the total myogenic pool increased as a result of HMB-mediated satellite cell proliferation as this would have also reduced the apoptotic index. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HMB would augment myogenic cells (satellite cells) proliferation during muscle recovery (growth) after a period of disuse in senescent animals. The hindlimb muscles of 34 month old Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats were unloaded for 14 days by hindlimb suspension (HLS), and then reloaded for 14 days. The rats received either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body weight; n = 16), or the vehicle (n = 10) by gavage throughout the experimental period. HMB prevented the functional decline in maximal plantar flexion isometric force production during the reloading period, but not during HLS. HMB-treatment enhanced the proliferation of muscle stem cells as shown by a greater percentage of satellite cells that had proliferated (more BrdU positive, Pax-7 positive, and more Pax7/Ki67 positive nuclei) and as a result, more differentiated stem cells were present (more MyoD/myogenin positive myonuclei), relative to total myonuclei, in reloaded plantaris muscles as compared to reloaded muscles from vehicle-treated animals. Furthermore HMB increased the nuclear protein abundance of proliferation markers, inhibitor of differentiation-2 and cyclin A, as compared to vehicle treatment in reloaded muscles. Although HMB increased phosphorylated Akt during reloading, other mTOR related proteins were not altered by HMB treatment. These data show that HMB improved the proliferation of muscle stem cells in fast twitch plantaris muscles. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation leading to increased differentiated myonuclei should increase the transcriptional potential to support muscle hypertrophic changes and functional changes in sarcopenic muscles, and this could partly explain the reduced apoptotic index in HMB treated muscles. Indeed, muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area were significantly greater in plantaris muscles from HMB-treated animal muscles after reloading as compared to vehicle-treated animals. PMID:23832076

  11. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Meryem

    2004-10-01

    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education. PMID:15465171

  12. Stand-up exercise training facilitates muscle recovery from disuse atrophy by stimulating myogenic satellite cell proliferation in mice.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuta; Hayakawa, Kimihide; Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Inoue-Miyazu, Masumi; Murakami, Taro; Sokabe, Masahiro; Kawakami, Keisuke

    2014-11-01

    Determining the cellular and molecular recovery processes in inactivity - or unloading -induced atrophied muscles should improve rehabilitation strategies. We assessed the effects of stand-up exercise (SE) training on the recovery of atrophied skeletal muscles in male mice. Mice were trained to stand up and press an elevated lever in response to a light-tone cue preceding an electric foot shock and then subjected to tail suspension (TS) for 2 weeks to induce disuse atrophy in hind limb muscles. After release from TS, mice were divided into SE-trained (SE cues: 25 times per set, two sets per day) and non-SE-trained groups. Seven days after the training, average myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of the soleus muscle was significantly greater in the SE-trained group than in the non-SE-trained group (1843 ± 194 ?m(2) vs. 1315 ± 153 ?m(2)). Mean soleus muscle CSA in the SE trained group was not different from that in the CON group subjected to neither TS nor SE training (2005 ± 196 ?m(2)), indicating that SE training caused nearly complete recovery from muscle atrophy. The number of myonuclei per myofiber was increased by ~60% in the SE-trained group compared with the non-SE-trained and CON groups (0.92 ± 0.03 vs. 0.57 ± 0.03 and 0.56 ± 0.11, respectively). The number of proliferating myonuclei, identified by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine staining, increased within the first few days of SE training. Thus, it is highly likely that myogenic satellite cells proliferated rapidly in atrophied muscles in response to SE training and fused with existing myofibers to reestablish muscle mass. PMID:25367692

  13. Performance analysis for a guaranteed handover service in an LEO constellation with a “satellite-fixed cell” system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maral; J. Restrepo; E. del Re; R. Fantacci; G. Giambene

    1998-01-01

    It is anticipated that the satellite component of the future universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) will be based (partly or totally) on non-geostationary (nonGEO) constellations of satellites to serve mixed populations of users, each category being treated through different contracts stipulating different quality of service (QoS). In particular, we envisage a high-quality premium service which guarantees the success of each

  14. Navigation satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiffenbach, George C.

    The evolution, capabilities and uses of satellite-based navigation systems are explored, with emphasis on the accompanying space- and earth-based technologies. Early measurements of the Doppler shifts of Sputnik signals spurred development of the Transit satellite system as a precision navigation aid for Polaris submarines. The development of gravimetric programs to project the actual position of the satellites and the use of high frequency signals to offset ionospheric interference are noted. The design features, performances, and numerous launch and operational failures, of successive Transit spacecraft, i.e., the 5BN, 5C1 and Oscar satellites, are summarized. Details of the operational parameters and design features of the prototype and planned NAVSTAR GPS system are outlined, and plans for a SARSAT search and rescue satellite and the commercial GEOSTAR radionavigation and positioning system are described.

  15. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  16. DETERMINATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF FAULT SYSTEMS AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES BY RS AND GIS TECHNIQUES IN THE WSW PART OF TURKEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ünal Akman; Kenan Tüfekçi

    This article is aimed to give the first results of the project studying the faults and tectonic style of the southwestern part of Turkey based on remote sensing techniques. LANDSAT-TM and ASTER satellite data have been used in visual interpretation. The several techniques based on DEM have been applying to interpret in the determining of the tectonic features. The anaglyph

  17. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  18. Survey report: Turkey.

    PubMed

    Shane, B C

    1990-12-01

    The 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey revealed small but significant shifts in attitudes toward marriage and family size ideals. The survey collected information from 5257 ever-married women of reproductive age and 2264 husbands of these women. The average age at marriage in Turkey has risen from 17.6 years in 1983 to 18.2 years in 1988; the proportion of single women under 25 years of age increased by 17% in this same period. Analysis of fertility data indicate a decline from 4.1 children in 1983 to 3.4 in 1988. Ideal family size was 2.1 children in the 1988 survey. 94% of female respondents were aware of the pill and IUD while only 76% had knowledge of the condom and 65% were familiar with female sterilization. 63% of the married women surveyed were current contraceptive users--an increase of 15% since 1983. Withdrawal constitutes the most widely used (26%) method, followed by the IUD (14%), condoms (7%), and the pill (6%). 24% of respondents reported at least 1 induced abortion, and 38% of women who gave birth in the year preceding the survey indicated the pregnancy was unplanned or unwanted. Major reasons cited for nonuse of contraception were concerns about side-effects, opposition from husbands, and a lack of knowledge. The small ideal family size cited by survey respondents and the high percentage of unwanted pregnancies indicate a need for more aggressive family planning campaigns so that Turkish women can achieve their fertility goals. PMID:12342940

  19. CHINA KYRGYZSTAN UZBEKISTAN TURKMENISTAN TURKEY

    E-print Network

    Dorf, Martin E.

    CHINA · KYRGYZSTAN · UZBEKISTAN TURKMENISTAN · TURKEY The Ultimate Silk Road Journey: From Xian.HARVARD.EDU/HAA/TRAVEL The Ultimate Silk Road Journey: From Xian to Istanbul May 19­June 8, 2014 · 20 NIGHTS / 21 DAYS · GROUP SIZE: 12-30 SET OUT ON A MODERN-DAY CARAVAN OVER THE OLD SILK ROAD from its origins in the middle of China

  20. Roman Mosaics Roman, Turkey, Antioch

    E-print Network

    Roman Mosaics SMART KIDS Roman, Turkey, Antioch on the Orontes. Mosaic pavement from Antioch of tiny pieces of stone or glass that are put together, like a puzzle, to create a picture or design as well as everyday life. always free and open to the public artmuseum.princeton.edu #12;SMART KIDS Use

  1. Biomass energy potential in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kaygusuz; M. F. Türker

    2002-01-01

    Biomass energy includes fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal wastes, charcoal and other fuels derived from biological sources. It currently accounts for about 14% of world energy consumption. Biomass is the main source of energy for many developed and developing countries. In Turkey energy wood is available in the form of forest chips, fuelwood, wood waste, wood pellets, and it is also

  2. Women in physics in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Zuhal; U?ur, ?aziye; Akta?, Demet Kaya

    2013-03-01

    This study tries to tackle improving women's participation in physics in Turkey, and at the same time gather statistical data that could be evaluated against other nations' progress on this issue. The most important aim of this discussion is to prevent the underutilization of potentially qualified women in science.

  3. Satellite Images

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about the three types of satellite images (visible, infrared, and water vapor); how to identify basic cloud types and storm systems in satellite images; and demonstrate the basic knowledge necessary to interpret satellite observations. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  4. Satellite Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Nielsen-Gammon

    1996-01-01

    This undergraduate meteorology tutorial focuses on the use of satellite imagery by forecasters. Different types of imagery are discussed, followed by training on the identification of particular types of weather systems.

  5. Satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.; Watkins, Michael M.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in satellite positioning techniques and their applications are reviewed on the basis of the theoretical and practical work published by U.S. researchers in 1987-1990. Current techniques are classified into two main categories: satellite laser tracking and radio tracking. Particular attention is given to the Geoscience Laser Ranging System, the Lunar Laser Ranging concept; GPS ephemerides determination, fiducial networks, and reference frame; static GPS positioning; and kinematic GPS positioning.

  6. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  7. Diminished satellite cells and elevated adipogenic gene expression in muscle as caused by ovariectomy are averted by low-magnitude mechanical signals.

    PubMed

    Frechette, Danielle M; Krishnamoorthy, Divya; Adler, Benjamin J; Chan, M Ete; Rubin, Clinton T

    2015-07-01

    Age-related degeneration of the musculoskeletal system, accelerated by menopause, is further complicated by increased systemic and muscular adiposity. The purpose of this study was to identify at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels the impact of ovariectomy on adiposity and satellite cell populations in mice and whether mechanical signals could influence any outcomes. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized, with one half subjected to low-intensity vibration (LIV; 0.3 g/90 Hz, 15 min/day, 5 day/wk; n = 10) for 6 wk and the others sham vibrated (OVX; n = 10). Data are compared with age-matched, intact controls (AC; n = 10). In vivo ?CT analysis showed that OVX mice gained 43% total (P < 0.001) and 125% visceral adiposity (P < 0.001) compared with their baseline after 6 wk, whereas LIV gained only 21% total (P = 0.01) and 70% visceral adiposity (P < 0.01). Relative to AC, expression of adipogenic genes (PPAR?, FABP4, PPAR?, and FoxO1) was upregulated in OVX muscle (P < 0.05), whereas LIV reduced these levels (P < 0.05). Adipogenic gene expression was inversely related to the percentage of total and reserve satellite cell populations in the muscle, with both declining in OVX compared with AC (-21 and -28%, respectively, P < 0.01). LIV mitigated these declines (-11 and -17%, respectively). These results provide further evidence of the negative consequences of estrogen depletion and demonstrate that mechanical signals have the potential to interrupt subsequent adipogenic gene expression and satellite cell suppression, emphasizing the importance of physical signals in protecting musculoskeletal integrity and slowing the fat phenotype. PMID:25930028

  8. Monitoring changes in irrigated lands in Southeastern Turkey with remote sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mutlu Ozdogan; Curtis E. Woodcock; Guido D. Salvucci

    2003-01-01

    Satellite based remotely-sensed data were used to document changes in irrigated lands over a period of ten years (1993 - 2002) in Southeastern Turkey. While MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) derived temporal information was used to identify the time of year in which irrigated lands could be most easily differentiated from natural vegetation and rain-fed agriculture, seven near-yearly Landsat data

  9. Landslide susceptibility mapping for Ayvalik (Western Turkey) and its vicinity by multicriteria decision analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aykut Akgun; Necdet Türk

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of geographical information system (GIS)-based landslide susceptibility mapping in Ayval?k,\\u000a western Turkey using multi-criteria decision analysis. The methodology followed in the study includes data production, standardization,\\u000a and analysis stages. A landslide inventory of the study area was compiled from aerial photographs, satellite image interpretations,\\u000a and detailed field surveys. In total, 45 landslides were recorded and

  10. Dynamic organization of DNA replication in mammalian cell nuclei: spatially and temporally defined replication of chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Five distinct patterns of DNA replication have been identified during S- phase in asynchronous and synchronous cultures of mammalian cells by conventional fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. During early S-phase, replicating DNA (as identified by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) appears to be distributed at sites throughout the nucleoplasm, excluding the nucleolus. In CHO cells, this pattern of replication peaks at 30 min into S-phase and is consistent with the localization of euchromatin. As S-phase continues, replication of euchromatin decreases and the peripheral regions of heterochromatin begin to replicate. This pattern of replication peaks at 2 h into S-phase. At 5 h, perinucleolar chromatin as well as peripheral areas of heterochromatin peak in replication. 7 h into S-phase interconnecting patches of electron-dense chromatin replicate. At the end of S-phase (9 h), replication occurs at a few large regions of electron-dense chromatin. Similar or identical patterns have been identified in a variety of mammalian cell types. The replication of specific chromosomal regions within the context of the BrdU-labeling patterns has been examined on an hourly basis in synchronized HeLa cells. Double labeling of DNA replication sites and chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences indicates that the alpha-satellite DNA replicates during mid S-phase (characterized by the third pattern of replication) in a variety of human cell types. Our data demonstrates that specific DNA sequences replicate at spatially and temporally defined points during the cell cycle and supports a spatially dynamic model of DNA replication. PMID:1740468

  11. Injectable thermosensitive chitosan/?-glycerophosphate/collagen hydrogel maintains the plasticity of skeletal muscle satellite cells and supports their in vivo viability.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ke; Yang, Zhong; Zhang, Yu-Long; Xu, Jian-Zhong

    2013-09-01

    A cell carrier plays an important role in the maintenance, growth and engraftment of specific cells aimed for defined therapeutic uses in many tissue engineering strategies. A suitable microenvironment for the cells allows for the maximum efficacy of the hybrid device. We have prepared an injectable thermosensitive chitosan/?-glycerophosphate/collagen (C/GP/Co) gel and investigated its potential application as a support for the culture of skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs). A cell viability assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytocompatibility of the gel. Cell growth was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and histological analysis. The influence of the C/GP/Co gel on the plasticity of SMSCs seeded at the surface of the gel was assessed by induction of the myogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. C/GP/Co gel provided the appropriate environment for the culture of SMSCs in vitro. In addition, the C/GP/Co gel supported SMSC plasticity. In vivo testing of the SMSC-seeded gel was investigated by subcutaneous injection into the dorsum of nude mice. Cell viability was assessed both by in vivo imaging and histological examination of the explants. In conclusion, C/GP/Co hydrogel is a cytocompatible carrier for the in vivo delivery of SMSCs and supportive for SMSC plasticity. Thus, this gel has potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:23620126

  12. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps. PMID:18644708

  13. Theca cell cytochrome P450 17-hydroxylase and aromatase messenger ribonucleic acid abundance and serum steroid levels during follicular atresia associated with incubation behavior in the domestic turkey hen.

    PubMed

    Tabibzadeh, C; Silsby, J L; Rozenboim, I; Pitts, G R; Foster, D N; el Halawani, M E

    1994-10-01

    This study was designed to examine changes in cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (C17) and aromatase (ARO) mRNA contents in the theca layer of preovulatory follicles (POF) as turkey hens transit from egg laying to incubation. Hens were grouped into the following categories: 1) laying hens--laid one egg per day and nested 1-2 times per day; 2) transitional hens--laid one egg per day and nested > 4 times per day; and 3) Day 1, Day 3, and Day 5 incubating hens--laid no eggs for 2, 4, or 6 days, respectively, and nested > 4 times per day. Small white follicles (SWF) and the theca layer from the largest (F1) and the third (F3), fifth (F5), and seventh (F7) largest POF were dispersed and challenged with testosterone (T) for 5 h. Relative levels of C17 and ARO mRNA were examined from the theca layers of F1, F3, F5, F7, and SWF. The number of atretic follicles increased from 0 (layers) to 8 (Day 5 incubating hens). Serum LH, progesterone (P), and estradiol (E), but not T, declined on Day 1 of incubation. Basal levels of P, T, and E from theca and SWF cells declined in incubating hens. Both basal and T-stimulated theca and SWF production of E decreased in incubating hens. C17 and ARO mRNA declined in SWF, F7, and F5 during follicular atresia. It is suggested that reduced gene expression of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes may be a partial determinant of reduced circulating sex steroid levels in incubating hens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7819456

  14. Genetic improvement of cotton in Turkey 

    E-print Network

    Eksi, Ismail

    1990-01-01

    . ), plant bugs (Lygus spp. , fleahopper), spider mites (Tetranychus spp. ), Thrips spp. , whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and Aphids (Aphis gossypii). The wide spread adoption of synthetic organic chemicals, have resulted in outbreaks of secondary pests... management strategies are needed for cotton production in Turkey. The cotton bollworm-tobacco budworm complex (Heliothis spp. ) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) are serious insect pests in certain areas of Turkey. especially in Cukurova and SE Turkey where...

  15. Serologic tests for ornithosis in turkeys 

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Clyde Irwin

    1959-01-01

    !;. . . ) ~ ) . ~ ) ) ) ) ~ ) ) ) 15 Turkey Sara . . . . . , . . . . . ~ A11 t i 2 en s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 15 ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 5 he ndirse t Campier!ent . "isation Tee t. . . . . . 16 The Benedict Direct (' or plement t ixatien Tost. . . 16 The Brumfield Direct... Complement Fixation ". est . . 17 The Capillary Tube: 8 lut'nation Tes t, ~, . ~ ~ 17 Serum Dilutions )nd Readin)) of Tests ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 19 -. . I lS ~ ~ ~ ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 Non-inoculated Control Turkeys . ~ Inooulated Turkeys...

  16. SURFACE WAVE PHASE VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION OF TURKEY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunori YOSHIZAWA

    The crustal and upper mantle structure beneath Turkey is investgated by using phase velocity of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves working with a two-station method. We used vertical component seismograms of 72 broad-band seismic stations in Turkey and surrounding areas from 172 teleseismic events from April 2005 to June 2007. The average dispersion curve of the entire region of Turkey is estimated

  17. 2, 169190, 2007 Turkey-Arabia and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    eED 2, 169­190, 2007 Turkey-Arabia and Africa-Arabia plate boundaries R. Westaway et al. Title PageEarth Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of eEarth Geometry of the Turkey-Arabia and Africa in eastern Turkey R. Westaway1,2 , T. Demir3 , and A. Seyrek4 1 Faculty of Mathematics and Computing

  18. Vasectomy project launched in Turkey. Turkey's first VSC clinic.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    One third of young married couples are currently using modern methods of contraception. Recent studies indicate that more than 30% of Turkey's married couples use withdrawal as their means of fertility control and only slightly more than 1% of Turkish families have opted for female sterilization. There is certainly an higher proportion of reproductive age married couples in Turkey which have completed their family size and could enjoy the advantages of permanent contraceptive methods. There has been little effort, however, on the part of the Turkish government to provide men with information and education on male voluntary surgical contraception (VSC), and the appropriate counseling and surgical services. As in many Asian, Islamic societies, the idea of males learning about and practicing family planning has long been culturally unacceptable. The Human Resource Development Foundation, with the assistance of Pathfinder International, opened the first VSC clinic for men in May 1989 in Ankara. This initiative makes Pathfinder the first private voluntary organization to establish a project offering VSC methods to Turkey's male population through hospital clinics. The urology department of the Ankara Social Security Hospital serves as the site for the project's counseling and training network. From that department, the project director and supervisor coordinate the development and establishment of male family planning clinics in surrounding hospitals. In just over two years, 19 urologists have been trained in VSC procedures and counseling, and more than 700 men have had vasectomies using the no-scalpel technique. An additional 6000 clients, both men and women, have received counseling on VSC procedures and the project's popularity continues to grow. The project expanded in 1991 into Istanbul and Izmir in response to growing demand for services. It is possible that even more expansion of VSC services is on the horizon in Turkey. PMID:12179681

  19. Serotonin Localization in the Turkey Vaginal but not Sperm Storage Tubule Epithelia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our knowledge regarding the mechanism of sperm selection and transport in the hen’s vagina is meager. Preliminary observations indicate the presence of non-neuron endocrine cells in the epithelia lining the lumina of the turkey hen vagina and uterovaginal junction. While no cells in the vagina or U...

  20. Antimuscle atrophy effect of nicotine targets muscle satellite cells partly through an ?7 nicotinic receptor in a murine hindlimb ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Okazaki, Kayo; Oikawa, Shino; Iketani, Mitsue; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Kurabayashi, Mutsumi; Furihata, Mutsuo; Sato, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    We have recently identified that donepezil, an anti-Alzheimer drug, accelerates angiogenesis in a murine hindlimb ischemia (HLI) model. However, the precise mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated, particularly whether the effects are derived from endothelial cells alone or from other nonvascular cells. Further investigation of the HLI model revealed that nicotine accelerated angiogenesis by activation of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) synthesis through nicotinic receptors in myogenic cells, that is, satellite cells, in vivo and upregulated the expression of angiogenic factors, for example, VEGF and fibroblast growth factor 2, in vitro. As a result, nicotine prevented skeletal muscle from ischemia-induced muscle atrophy and upregulated myosin heavy chain expression in vitro. The in vivo anti-atrophy effect of nicotine on muscle was also observed in galantamine, another anti-Alzheimer drug, playing as an allosteric potentiating ligand. Such effects of nicotine were attenuated in ?7 nicotinic receptor knockout mice. In contrast, PNU282987, an ?7 nicotinic receptor agonist, comparably salvaged skeletal muscle, which was affected by HLI. These results suggest that cholinergic signals also target myogenic cells and have inhibiting roles in muscle loss by ischemia-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:24811002

  1. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection. PMID:9876849

  2. Satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.

    1983-01-01

    Three satellite SST data sets were analyzed, all derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite. The SMMR is a ten-channel instrument flown also on the SEASAT satellite (now defunct) and was designed to measure SST in addition to other oceanographic and meteorological parameters. The three SMMR data sets were referred to as SMMR-I, -II, and -III. SMMR-I and -II were produced by T. Wilheit and A. Milman, SMMR-II being an updated and refined version of SMMR-I. A description of the algorithms used is provided. SMMR-III was provided by C. Prabhakara and was obtained by a different retrieval approach from the others. For consistency with the file code conventions and to avoid confusion, SMMRs I, II, and III were renamed SMMR-A, SMMR-D, and SMMR-C, respectively.

  3. Satellite Winds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this online, interactive module, students learn about the using successive satellite observations of clouds to determine wind direction and speed. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  4. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

  5. Cerebral encephalomalacia in commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Cummings, T S; Wages, D P

    1993-01-01

    A flock of 9 1/2-week-old commercial tom turkeys experienced high mortality after consuming a complete feed containing an unidentified toxic substance. Initially, turkeys were found dead. Clinically, the birds were calm and still but became hyperexcitable with noise. A small percentage of birds exhibited torticollis, opisthotonos, circling, ataxia, and blindness. Findings at necropsy and upon microscopic examination were bilaterally symmetrical areas of necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres in the area of the neostriatum that were well demarcated from the surrounding normal neuropil. A feeding trial with the suspect feed in twelve 4-week-old turkey hens induced clinical disease and gross and microscopic brain changes similar to those observed in the field case. Analyses for the following substances in the suspect feed were either negative or within acceptable limits: salt, selenium, furazolidone, monensin, amprolium, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and carbamates. The toxic component of the feed remains unidentified. PMID:8257395

  6. Satellite launchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sillard

    1976-01-01

    Problems in the selection or development of a suitable launcher for West European (ESRO) satellite projects are examined. Selection of the number of stages and of solid or liquid propellant are weighed. Test and vibration stands, the Pogo effect, and advantages of inertial navigation over radio guidance techniques are discussed. The importance of reliability and backup redundancy systems is emphasized.

  7. Considerations for NATO satellite communications in the post-2000 era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1993-02-01

    The National Delegates Board of AGARD, upon recommendation by the Avionics Panel of AGARD, approved in March 1986 the establishment of WG-13 to study satellite communications for NATO under the direction of Prof. Dr. Nejat Ince of Turkey. Some 14 scientists/engineers, from research and industrial establishments of Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Norway, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States of America as well as from International Military Staff of NATO and SHAPE Technical Centre, participated in the work of WG-13. This paper is a brief summary of the studies carried out by the group in the period 1988-1990 on the type of satellite communication systems which NATO can have in the post-2000 era including the critical techniques and technologies that need to be developed for this purpose.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the elderly-experience of a single center from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozsan, Nazan; Cagirgan, Seckin; Saydam, Guray; Gunes, Ajda; Hekimgil, Mine

    2013-08-01

    In the 2008 WHO lymphoma classification, 'EBV-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is included as a new provisional entity. We aimed to evaluate the morphological, immunophenotypic, and clinical characteristics of the cases diagnosed as 'EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly' in our center and compared them with the 'EBV-negative DLBCL' patients older than 50 years of age. EBV status was detected by Epstein-Barr early RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization analysis. By immunohistochemistry, a panel of antibodies for CD10, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, IRF4/MUM1, CD30, and Ki67 was performed. Out of 149 DLBCL patients older than 50 years, without any known history of immunodeficiency or prior lymphoma, eight patients who fulfill the criteria were re-evaluated. Five patients were male and three were female, with a median age of 67.6 years. Four patients presented with nodal involvement; others presented with bone and soft tissue, bone marrow, and spleen infiltrations. Five cases revealed predominantly monomorphic morphology, one also contained focal areas consistent with polymorphous subtype; and three patients revealed a polymorphous infiltrate. When classified according to 'Hans criteria', five were non-GCB, and three were of the GCB cell phenotype. All cases with polymorphous morphology were revealed to be of the non-GCB cell phenotype, and all expressed IRF4/MUM1. Two patients died with disease, four patients are alive and in complete remission following R-CHOP therapy, and two patients have just recently been diagnosed. When compared with the EBV-negative group, there are no reliable morphological and immunohistochemical features indicating EBV positivity. Therefore, EBER in situ hybridization analysis is necessary to identify 'EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly'. Further studies are needed to fully understand the details of this disease, which can lead to new treatment modalities. PMID:23726928

  9. Gobbleing Over the Web With Semantic Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donato Griesi; Maria Teresa Pazienza; Armando Stellato

    2006-01-01

    In this work we introduce Semantic Turkey, a Semantic Extension for the popular web browser Mozilla Firefox. Semantic Turkey can be used to annotate information from visited web sites and organize this information according to a personally defined ontology. Clear separation between knowledge data (the WHAT) and web links (the WHERE) is established into the knowledge model of the system,

  10. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Müjgan Çetin; Nilüfer E?rican

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which

  11. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  12. Primary Education Curriculum Reforms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and evaluate the basic structure of changes in primary educational curricula in Turkey since the establishment of Republic. The study is mainly qualitative and is based on literature and document analyses and teaching curricular reviews. The research findings indicate that primary educational reforms in Turkey

  13. New Records of Aphid Fauna in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kaygin, Azize Toper; Gorur, Gazi; Cota, Figen

    2010-01-01

    Three aphid species were identified as new records for Turkey aphid fauna from Bartin province. These species are Ceruraphis viburnicola (Gillette) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Dysaphis apiifolia (Theobald) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Macrosiphum mordvilkoi Miyazaki (Hemiptera: Aphididae). These records increase the recorded aphid-fauna of Turkey to 433 species. PMID:20569127

  14. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  15. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  16. Spatial Patterns of Marriage Migration in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Murat Özgür; Olgu Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Even though recent societal phenomena such as a heightened sense of individualism, economic well-being, and institutionalization have caused a shift in people's life course and made their lives less standard in developed societies, marriage still remains an important life course event in Turkey. Between the years 1995 and 2000 marriage migration comprised 7.4% of the interprovincial migration in Turkey, and

  17. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  18. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

  19. Role of the mTORC1 Complex in Satellite Cell Activation by RNA-Induced Mitochondrial Restoration: Dual Control of Cyclin D1 through MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Jash, Sukanta; Dhar, Gunjan; Ghosh, Utpalendu

    2014-01-01

    During myogenesis, satellite stem cells (SCs) are induced to proliferate and differentiate to myogenic precursors. The role of energy sensors such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in SC activation is unclear. We previously observed that upregulation of ATP through RNA-mediated mitochondrial restoration (MR) accelerates SC activation following skeletal muscle injury. We show here that during regeneration, the AMPK-CRTC2-CREB and Raptor-mTORC-4EBP1 pathways were rapidly activated. The phosho-CRTC2-CREB complex was essential for myogenesis and activated transcription of the critical cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 (Ccnd1). Knockdown (KD) of either mTORC or its subunit Raptor delayed SC activation without influencing the differentiation program. KD of 4EBP1 had no effect on SC activation but enhanced myofiber size. mTORC1 positively regulated Ccnd1 translation but destabilized Ccnd1 mRNA. These antithetical effects of mTORC1 were mediated by two microRNAs (miRs) targeted to the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of Ccnd1 mRNA: miR-1 was downregulated in mTORC-KD muscle, and depletion of miR-1 resulted in increased levels of mRNA without any effect on Ccnd1 protein. In contrast, miR-26a was upregulated upon mTORC depletion, while anti-miR-26a oligonucleotide specifically stimulated Ccnd1 protein expression. Thus, mTORC may act as a timer of satellite cell proliferation during myogenesis. PMID:25047835

  20. TDRS satellite over African Rift Valley, Kenya, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This post deploy view of a TDRS satellite shows a segment of the African Rift Valley near Lake Baringo, Kenya, Africa (3.0S, 36.0E). The African Rift Valley system is a geologic fault having its origins in southern Turkey, through the near east forming the bed of the Jordan River, Gulf of Aqaba, the Red Sea and down through east Africa. The line of lakes and valleys of east Africa are the result of the faulting activity.

  1. Male Rio Grande Turkey Survival and Movements in the

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Texas Panhandle

    Wildlife managers depend on accurate information regarding wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survival patterns to properly manage turkey populations. Survival patterns of male Rio Grande wild turkeys (M. g. intermedia) have not been studied intensively. Wildlife managers in the Texas Panhandle, USA, and southwestern Kansas, USA, suspected that turkey populations were declining. From January 2000 through August 2002, we studied survival

  2. Astronomical site selection for Turkey using GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksaker, N.; Yerli, S. K.; Erdo?an, M. A.; Erdi, E.; Kaba, K.; Ak, T.; Aslan, Z.; Bak??, V.; Demircan, O.; Evren, S.; Keskin, V.; Küçük, ?.; Özdemir, T.; Öz???k, T.; Selam, S. O.

    2015-06-01

    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for the best, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national funding has been awarded to produce a prototype of an on-site test unit (to measure both astronomical and meteorological parameters) which might be used in this list of locations.

  3. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation. PMID:24635786

  4. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  5. Centromere detection in vinblastine- and radiation-induced micronuclei of cytokinesis-blocked mouse cells by using in situ hybridization with a mouse gamma (major) satellite DNA probe

    SciTech Connect

    Salassidis, K.; Huber, R.; Zitzelsberger, H.; Bauchinger, M. (Inst. fuer Strahlenbiologie, Neuherberg (West Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Non-isotopic in situ hybridization using a mouse gamma (major) satellite probe DNA was applied to detect centromeres in micronuclei, which were induced in vitro mouse liver cells by ionizing radiation and by vinblastine sulfate. In a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay a dose-dependent induction of micronuclei was found for both agents. After vinblastine exposure the observed micronuclei showed centromere-positive hybridization signals in an order of magnitude of 70-91%, but after radiation exposure the magnitude was only 10-20%. Since the in situ hybridization technique detects centromeric DNA directly, it can be used in a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay for a rapid and reliable discrimination between aneuploidy-inducing and clastogenic agents.

  6. Satellite-to-satellite tracking orbit determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. T. Fang

    1978-01-01

    In the 1980's, low-earth-satellite orbits will be determined from one-way or relayed range and range-rate measurements to high-altitude orbiting spacecraft such as the two geo-synchronous satellites in the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and the 24 twelve-hour period, 63 deg inclination spacecraft in the DOD Global Positioning System (GPS). In this study, error analysis methods for satellite-to-satellite

  7. LONG-TERM INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I EXPRESSION IN SKELETAL MUSCLES ATTENUATES THE ENHANCED IN VITRO PROLIFERATION ABILITY OF THE RESIDENT SATELLITE CELLS IN TRANSGENIC MICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue...

  8. Reduction of exposure to blood donors in preterm infants submitted to red blood cell transfusions using pediatric satellite packs

    PubMed Central

    Uezima, Cristina Lika; Barreto, Ariane Moreira; Guinsburg, Ruth; Chiba, Akemi Kuroda; Bordin, José Orlando; Barros, Melca Maria O.; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In preterm newborn infants transfused with erythrocytes stored up to 28 days, to compare the reduction of blood donor exposure in two groups of infants classified according to birth weight. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with preterm infants with birth weight <1000g (Group 1) and 1000-1499g (Group 2), born between April, 2008 and December, 2009. Neonates submitted to exchange transfusions, emergency erythrocyte transfusion, or those who died in the first 24 hours of life were excluded. Transfusions were indicated according to the local guideline using pediatric transfusion satellite bags. Demographic and clinical data, besides number of transfusions and donors were assessed. . Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with multiple transfusions. RESULTS: 30 and 48 neonates were included in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The percentage of newborns with more than one erythrocyte transfusion (90 versus 11%), the median number of transfusions (3 versus 1) and the median of blood donors (2 versus 1) were higher in Group 1 (p<0.001), compared to Group 2. Among those with multiple transfusions, 14 (82%) and one (50%) presented 50% reduction in the number of blood donors, respectively in Groups 1 and 2. Factors associated with multiple transfusions were: birth weight <1000g (OR 11.91; 95%CI 2.14-66.27) and presence of arterial umbilical catheter (OR 8.59; 95%CI 1.94-38.13), adjusted for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of pediatrics satellites bags on blood donor reduction was higher in preterm infants with birth weight <1000g. PMID:24142309

  9. Ground based laser triggered discharges on satellite solar arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Solin

    2005-01-01

    Apparently ground based lasers (GBLs) can be used to induce short circuits between solar cells on some satellite arrays. The vulnerability does not exist in the arrays used on U.S. Milsats (military satellites).

  10. Neuronal Subtype and Satellite Cell Tropism Are Determinants of Varicella-Zoster Virus Virulence in Human Dorsal Root Ganglia Xenografts In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella during primary infection. VZV reactivation from neuronal latency may cause herpes zoster, post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and other neurologic syndromes. To investigate VZV neuropathogenesis, we developed a model using human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) xenografts in immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The SCID DRG model provides an opportunity to examine characteristics of VZV infection that occur in the context of the specialized architecture of DRG, in which nerve cell bodies are ensheathed by satellite glial cells (SGC) which support neuronal homeostasis. We hypothesized that VZV exhibits neuron-subtype specific tropism and that VZV tropism for SGC contributes to VZV-related ganglionopathy. Based on quantitative analyses of viral and cell protein expression in DRG tissue sections, we demonstrated that, whereas DRG neurons had an immature neuronal phenotype prior to implantation, subtype heterogeneity was observed within 20 weeks and SGC retained the capacity to maintain neuronal homeostasis longterm. Profiling VZV protein expression in DRG neurons showed that VZV enters peripherin+ nociceptive and RT97+ mechanoreceptive neurons by both axonal transport and contiguous spread from SGC, but replication in RT97+ neurons is blocked. Restriction occurs even when the SGC surrounding the neuronal cell body were infected and after entry and ORF61 expression, but before IE62 or IE63 protein expression. Notably, although contiguous VZV spread with loss of SGC support would be predicted to affect survival of both nociceptive and mechanoreceptive neurons, RT97+ neurons showed selective loss relative to peripherin+ neurons at later times in DRG infection. Profiling cell factors that were upregulated in VZV-infected DRG indicated that VZV infection induced marked pro-inflammatory responses, as well as proteins of the interferon pathway and neuroprotective responses. These neuropathologic changes observed in sensory ganglia infected with VZV may help to explain the neurologic sequelae often associated with zoster and PHN. PMID:26090802

  11. Neuronal Subtype and Satellite Cell Tropism Are Determinants of Varicella-Zoster Virus Virulence in Human Dorsal Root Ganglia Xenografts In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella during primary infection. VZV reactivation from neuronal latency may cause herpes zoster, post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and other neurologic syndromes. To investigate VZV neuropathogenesis, we developed a model using human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) xenografts in immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The SCID DRG model provides an opportunity to examine characteristics of VZV infection that occur in the context of the specialized architecture of DRG, in which nerve cell bodies are ensheathed by satellite glial cells (SGC) which support neuronal homeostasis. We hypothesized that VZV exhibits neuron-subtype specific tropism and that VZV tropism for SGC contributes to VZV-related ganglionopathy. Based on quantitative analyses of viral and cell protein expression in DRG tissue sections, we demonstrated that, whereas DRG neurons had an immature neuronal phenotype prior to implantation, subtype heterogeneity was observed within 20 weeks and SGC retained the capacity to maintain neuronal homeostasis longterm. Profiling VZV protein expression in DRG neurons showed that VZV enters peripherin+ nociceptive and RT97+ mechanoreceptive neurons by both axonal transport and contiguous spread from SGC, but replication in RT97+ neurons is blocked. Restriction occurs even when the SGC surrounding the neuronal cell body were infected and after entry and ORF61 expression, but before IE62 or IE63 protein expression. Notably, although contiguous VZV spread with loss of SGC support would be predicted to affect survival of both nociceptive and mechanoreceptive neurons, RT97+ neurons showed selective loss relative to peripherin+ neurons at later times in DRG infection. Profiling cell factors that were upregulated in VZV-infected DRG indicated that VZV infection induced marked pro-inflammatory responses, as well as proteins of the interferon pathway and neuroprotective responses. These neuropathologic changes observed in sensory ganglia infected with VZV may help to explain the neurologic sequelae often associated with zoster and PHN. PMID:26090802

  12. Evaluation of biotin supplementation on the performance of turkey breeder hens and turkey poults 

    E-print Network

    Krueger, Kenneth Kay

    1972-01-01

    , and high mortality. Patrick's findings closely paralleled those reported by Hegsted et al. (1940). Hobbles and Clandinin (1953) reported a disorder in turkey poults characterized by poor growth, high mortality, broken feathers, dermatitis, perosis...EVALUATION OF BIOTIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF TURKEY BREEDER HENS AND TURKEY POULTS A Thesis by KENNETH K. KRUEGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  13. Parthenogenesis, its frequency and relationship to fecundity in a Broad Breasted White turkey flock

    E-print Network

    Schom, Charles Benjamin

    1971-01-01

    , -isola nucleus was 60 or more: presuwably, diploid. Kosin ard Haga (1956) reported hat 806 of un:scuba co turkey ecgs laic'. bv virqin ' urkeys showed signs o percher ogcnetic development, usually only a cluster of cells, occasionally more than one...

  14. A single subtype of avian pneumovirus circulates among Minnesota turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Dar, Arshud M; Munir, Shirin; Goyal, Sagar M; Kapur, Vivek

    2002-09-01

    The recent emergence of avian pneumovirus (APV) infection among US turkey flocks has resulted in a major economic threat to the turkey industry. In order to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of APV, comparative sequence analysis of the fusion (F) protein gene of APV was performed for 3 cell culture-adapted isolates and 10 APV positive clinical samples recovered from US turkey flocks. Relatively modest levels of nucleotide and amino acid sequence divergence were identified, suggesting the prevalence of a single lineage of APV among US turkey flocks. Additionally, numerous polymorphisms were identified that were only represented in the clinical samples but not in the in vitro propagated isolates of APV. Phylogenetic analyses confirm that the subtype of APV circulating in the upper Midwestern United States is evolutionarily related to, but distinct from, European APV subgroups A and B. Overall, the results of the present investigation suggest that there has been only a single recent introduction of APV into US turkey populations in the upper Midwestern United States. PMID:12296387

  15. Pathogenic and immunogenic responses in turkeys following in ovo exposure to avian metapneumovirus subtype C.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Mutnal, Manohar; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2011-03-15

    Commercial turkey eggs, free of antibodies to avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C), were inoculated with aMPV/C at embryonation day (ED) 24. There was no detectable effect of virus inoculation on the hatchability of eggs. At 4 days post inoculation (DPI) (the day of hatch (ED 28)) and 9 DPI (5 days after hatch), virus replication was detected by quantitative RT-PCR in the turbinate, trachea and lung but not in the thymus or spleen. Mild histological lesions characterized by lymphoid cell infiltration were evident in the turbinate mucosa. Virus exposure inhibited the mitogenic response of splenocytes and thymocytes and upregulated gene expression of IFN-? and IL-10 in the turbinate tissue. Turkeys hatching from virus-exposed eggs had aMPV/C-specific IgG in the serum and the lachrymal fluid. At 3 week of age, in ovo immunized turkeys were protected against a challenge with pathogenic aMPV/C. PMID:21146877

  16. Satellite Glial Cells Surrounding Primary Afferent Neurons Are Activated and Proliferate during Monoarthritis in Rats: Is There a Role for ATF3?

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Diana Sofia Marques; Castro-Lopes, José Manuel; Neto, Fani Lourença Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Joint inflammatory diseases are debilitating and very painful conditions that still lack effective treatments. Recently, glial cells were shown to be crucial for the development and maintenance of chronic pain, constituting novel targets for therapeutic approaches. At the periphery, the satellite glial cells (SGCs) that surround the cell bodies of primary afferents neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) display hypertrophy, proliferation, and activation following injury and/or inflammation. It has been suggested that the expression of neuronal injury factors might initially trigger these SGCs-related events. We then aimed at evaluating if SGCs are involved in the establishment/maintenance of articular inflammatory pain, by using the monoarthritis (MA) model, and if the neuronal injury marker activating transcriptional factor 3 (ATF3) is associated with these SGCs' reactive changes. Western Blot (WB) analysis of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was performed in L4-L5 DRGs from control non-inflamed rats and MA animals at different time-points of disease (4, 7, and 14d, induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection into the left hind paw ankle joint). Data indicate that SGCs activation is occurring in MA animals, particularly after day 7 of disease evolution. Additionally, double-immunostaining for ATF3 and GFAP in L5 DRG sections shows that SGCs's activation significantly increases around stressed neurons at 7d of disease, when compared with control animals. The specific labelling of GFAP in SGCs rather than in other cell types was also confirmed by immunohistochemical labeling. Finally, BrdU incorporation indicates that proliferation of SGCs is also significantly increased after 7 days of MA. Data indicate that SGCs play an important role in the mechanisms of articular inflammation, with 7 days of disease being a critical time-point in the MA model, and suggest that ATF3 might be involved in SGCs' reactive changes such as activation. PMID:25247596

  17. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  18. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Ozluoglu, N.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  20. Effect of whole wheat feeding on selected immune parameters in growing male turkeys.

    PubMed

    Tyka?owski, B; Smia?ek, M; Pestka, D; Stenzel, T; Jankowski, J; Mikulski, D; Koncicki, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of whole wheat feeding on selected parameters of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in growing turkeys. A total of 210 one-day-old heavy-type Hybrid Converter male turkeys were randomly divided into three different dietary treatment groups, each consisting of 7 replicate pens of 10 birds per pen. Until 4 wk of age, all birds were fed a commercial diet formulated to meet nutrient requirements. From 5 to 12 wk of age, diets were composed of wheat (ground-pelleted or whole grain) and protein-fat-mineral-vitamin concentrate. The total wheat concentration in diets was 500 or 600 g/kg in the feeding periods of 5-8 and 9-12 wk of birds' age, respectively. Whole grain wheat had a 0, 50 or 100% share of the total wheat amount in the daily ration in treatment groups W0, W50 or W100, respectively. Commercial vaccines against ND (Newcastle disease) and TRT (Turkey rhinotracheitis) were administered to turkeys via the drinking water on days 20 and 30, respectively. Over the entire experiment, a significant linear decrease was observed in body weight gains (BWG) with increasing dietary levels of whole grain wheat. As a result the BWG of control turkeys (W0) were significantly higher than the BWG of group W100 birds (P = 0.002). A significant linear increase in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with increasing dietary levels of whole grain wheat (P < 0.001). The levels of antibodies against TRT and ND viruses after immunization were significantly higher in both the W50 and W100 group, in comparison to group W0 (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively). Turkeys from group W50, in comparison to those from groups W0 and W100, had a significantly higher percentage of CD4+ T cell subpopulation within the lymphocytes isolated from blood and ileal mucosa, as well as CD4+ CD8+ and CD8+ T cell subpopulations within the blood immunocompetent cells (P = 0.022, P = 0.029, P = 0.009 and P = 0.011, respectively). In the cecal tonsils, the percentage of CD8+ T cell subpopulation was significantly lower in group W50 than in groups W0 and W100 (P = 0.014). The results of our study indicate that diluting diets with whole grain wheat stimulates the non-specific cell-mediated defense mechanisms of the gastrointestinal immune system in turkeys, thus positively affecting humoral response after vaccination. PMID:24988851

  1. Dieldrin 14 C elimination from turkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Davison; J. L. Sell

    1978-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to find ways of removing dieldrin residues from tissues of broiler-type turkeys(Meleagris gallopavo). The turkeys were contaminated with dieldrin and dieldrin-14C by oral dosing. Elimination was measured by assaying for14C in the droppings. Carcass retention was measured by assaying the tissue for14C, and in one experiment, dieldrin residues were measured by electron capture gas-liquid

  2. Seasonal demand and supply analysis of turkeys 

    E-print Network

    Blomo, Vito James

    1972-01-01

    SEASONAL DEMAND AND SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF TURKEYS A Thesis by VITO JAMES BLOMO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Ma)or Sub...)ect: Agricultural Economics SEASONAL DEMAND AND SUPPLY ANALYSIS OF TURKEYS A Thesis by VITO JAMES BLOMO Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of C mmittee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) ( ber) (Memb er) May 1972 ABSTRACT Seasonal...

  3. Integrating Deer, Quail and Turkey Habitat

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Robert K.; Ginnett, Tim F.

    2001-09-10

    popular management activity in Texas. There is a potential problem if your goal is to encourage bobwhites and turkeys also. Open-choice deer feeders attract raccoons and other potential predators of ground-nesting birds. There is evidence that placing... feeders in nesting habitats can increase the rate of predation on quail and turkey nests because of the Hiding cover is especially important during fawning season. greater number of raccoons and other nest predators. Bobwhite quail Habitat Like all...

  4. Flood Disasters' Inventory in Turkey in 2009

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim Gürer; Ibrahim Uçar

    Turkey is a country both on Europe and Asia and located between 36o-42o N latitudes and 26o-45o E longitudes with covering an area of 780 580 km2 including the lakes. The arithmetical average of the annual precipitation is 642.6 mm and it corresponds to 501.6 km3 of total water volume. The figures for the surface water potential of Turkey can

  5. Dressing the Thanksgiving Turkey: Using Measurement?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Myrna Mitchell

    2013-11-15

    This blog post presents a Thanksgiving activity that engages learners as they practice measuring with nonstandard units and comparing lengths. Learners use unifix cubes to measure the heights of four turkeys then compare and arrange them in order from shortest to tallest. The last part of the activity has students measuring Tom Turkey to determine which clothing he should be dressed in for dinner. The lesson plan and all student worksheets can be downloaded to a PDF.

  6. Satellites in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    1988-01-01

    Describes the methods and materials used to obtain satellite pictures from weather satellites. Discusses possible physics lessons which can be done using this equipment including orbital mechanics, and how the satellite works. (CW)

  7. The role of rain in satellite communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Hogg; Ta-Shing Chu

    1975-01-01

    The most fundamental obstacle encountered in design of satellite communication systems at frequencies above 10 GHz is attenuation by rain. The microwave power radiated toward an earth station, being limited by factors such as available primary power and size of antenna on the satellite, is insufficient, with present technology, to overcome the large attenuation produced by intense rain cells on

  8. IMAGE Satellite Scaling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about satellite size. Learners will calculate the volume of the IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite, the first satellite mission to image the Earth's magnetosphere. They will then determine the effect of doubling and tripling the satellite dimensions on the satellite's mass and cost. This is the first activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring Satellite Design educator guide.

  9. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  10. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  11. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  12. STRESS INDUCED COLIBACILLOSIS AND TURKEY OSTEOMYELITIS COMPLEX IN TURKEYS SELECTED FOR INCREASED BODY WEIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two stress models were used to induce colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC): Escherichia coli challenge following dexamethasone injection (DEX) and E. coli challenge preceding transport stress (TRANSPORT). A total of 160 birds from 3 lines of turkeys: a slow growing line selected for...

  13. Myogenic-specific ablation of Fgfr1 impairs FGF2-mediated proliferation of satellite cells at the myofiber niche but does not abolish the capacity for muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Danoviz, Maria E.; Phelps, Michael; Stuelsatz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are Pax7+ myogenic stem cells that reside between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. In mature muscles, SCs are typically quiescent, but can be activated in response to muscle injury. Depending on the magnitude of tissue trauma, SCs may divide minimally to repair subtle damage within individual myofibers or produce a larger progeny pool that forms new myofibers in cases of overt muscle injury. SC transition through proliferation, differentiation and renewal is governed by the molecular blueprint of the cells as well as by the extracellular milieu at the SC niche. In particular, the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in regulating SCs during growth and aging is well recognized. Of the several FGFs shown to affect SCs, FGF1, FGF2, and FGF6 proteins have been documented in adult skeletal muscle. These prototypic paracrine FGFs transmit their mitogenic effect through the FGFRs, which are transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors. Using the mouse model, we show here that of the four Fgfr genes, only Fgfr1 and Fgfr4 are expressed at relatively high levels in quiescent SCs and their proliferating progeny. To further investigate the role of FGFR1 in adult myogenesis, we have employed a genetic (Cre/loxP) approach for myogenic-specific (MyoDCre-driven) ablation of Fgfr1. Neither muscle histology nor muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced injury were overtly affected in Fgfr1-ablated mice. This suggests that FGFR1 is not obligatory for SC performance in this acute muscle trauma model, where compensatory growth factor/cytokine regulatory cascades may exist. However, the SC mitogenic response to FGF2 is drastically repressed in isolated myofibers prepared from Fgfr1-ablated mice. Collectively, our study indicates that FGFR1 is important for FGF-mediated proliferation of SCs and its mitogenic role is not compensated by FGFR4 that is also highly expressed in SCs. PMID:26074812

  14. Identification of miR-2400 gene as a novel regulator in skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation by targeting MYOG gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei Wei; Tong, Hui Li; Sun, Xiao Feng; Hu, Qian; Yang, Yu; Li, Shu Feng; Yan, Yun Qin; Li, Guang Peng

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in skeletal muscle development as well as in regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study in our laboratory showed that the expression level of miR-2400, a novel and unique miRNA from bovine, had significantly changed in skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) during differentiation, however, the function and expression pattern for miR-2400 in MDSCs has not been fully understood. In this report, we firstly identified that the expression levels of miR-2400 were down-regulated during MDSCs differentiation by stem-loop RT-PCR. Over-expression and inhibition studies demonstrated that miR-2400 promoted MDSCs proliferation by EdU (5-ethynyl-2' deoxyuridine) incorporation assay and immunofluorescence staining of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-2400 directly targeted the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of myogenin (MYOG) mRNA. These data suggested that miR-2400 could promote MDSCs proliferation through targeting MYOG. Furthermore, we found that miR-2400, which was located within the eighth intron of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) gene, was down-regulated in MDSCs in a direct correlation with the WHSC1L1 transcript by Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi). In addition, these observations not only provided supporting evidence for the codependent expression of intronic miRNAs and their host genes in vitro, but also gave insight into the role of miR-2400 in MDSCs proliferation. PMID:26047700

  15. Myogenic-specific ablation of Fgfr1 impairs FGF2-mediated proliferation of satellite cells at the myofiber niche but does not abolish the capacity for muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Danoviz, Maria E; Phelps, Michael; Stuelsatz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are Pax7(+) myogenic stem cells that reside between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. In mature muscles, SCs are typically quiescent, but can be activated in response to muscle injury. Depending on the magnitude of tissue trauma, SCs may divide minimally to repair subtle damage within individual myofibers or produce a larger progeny pool that forms new myofibers in cases of overt muscle injury. SC transition through proliferation, differentiation and renewal is governed by the molecular blueprint of the cells as well as by the extracellular milieu at the SC niche. In particular, the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in regulating SCs during growth and aging is well recognized. Of the several FGFs shown to affect SCs, FGF1, FGF2, and FGF6 proteins have been documented in adult skeletal muscle. These prototypic paracrine FGFs transmit their mitogenic effect through the FGFRs, which are transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors. Using the mouse model, we show here that of the four Fgfr genes, only Fgfr1 and Fgfr4 are expressed at relatively high levels in quiescent SCs and their proliferating progeny. To further investigate the role of FGFR1 in adult myogenesis, we have employed a genetic (Cre/loxP) approach for myogenic-specific (MyoD(Cre)-driven) ablation of Fgfr1. Neither muscle histology nor muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced injury were overtly affected in Fgfr1-ablated mice. This suggests that FGFR1 is not obligatory for SC performance in this acute muscle trauma model, where compensatory growth factor/cytokine regulatory cascades may exist. However, the SC mitogenic response to FGF2 is drastically repressed in isolated myofibers prepared from Fgfr1-ablated mice. Collectively, our study indicates that FGFR1 is important for FGF-mediated proliferation of SCs and its mitogenic role is not compensated by FGFR4 that is also highly expressed in SCs. PMID:26074812

  16. Turkeys 

    E-print Network

    Sloan

    2009-01-01

    . This study seeks to characterize filter cakes. By measuring its thickness and with the leak off volume, the concentration and yield stress of the filter cake can be estimated. The thickness of the filter cake was measured with a precise laser profilometer...

  17. Electric power for space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The development of electric power systems for satellites is discussed as an evolutionary process requiring the integration of power generation, power storage, and power control and distribution. The growth of space electric power systems is traced. The capabilities and limitations of the various elements (i.e. silicon solar cells) are discussed together with their impact on future technological growth.

  18. RioGrande Wild Turkey Life History and Management Calendar 

    E-print Network

    Locke, Shawn; Cathey, James; Collier, Bret; Hardin, Jason

    2008-05-08

    This calendar is for landowners and managers who want to manage and improve their wild turkey habitat. The calendar is in easy-to-follow chart form and shows important annual events pertaining to wild turkey life history, habitat management...

  19. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...Review)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record...orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to continuation...respect to imports of certain pasta from...

  20. Effect of an immunomodulator on the efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against avian pneumovirus in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Rautenschlein, Silke; Sheikh, Anwar M; Patnayak, Devi P; Miller, Richard L; Sharma, Jagdev M; Goyal, Sagar M

    2002-01-01

    Since 1997, avian pneumovirus (APV) has caused estimated annual losses of $15 million to the Minnesota turkey industry. In order to develop an attenuated live vaccine against APV, we serially passaged a Minnesota isolate of APV (APV/MN/turkey/1-a/97) in vitro in cell cultures for 41 passages. Laboratory experiments with this high-passage virus (P41) indicated that the attenuated virus provided immunogenic protection to turkeys against challenge with virulent APV, although some birds showed mild to moderate dinical signs after inoculation. To reduce the residual pathogenicity of P41, while maintaining its immunogenicity, we decided to vaccinate turkeys with P41 in the presence of an immunomodulator, S-28828 (1-n-butyl-2-ethoxymethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine-hydrochloride), which is a potent cytokine inducer. The combined inoculation of S-28828 (5 mg/kg body weight) and P41 resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of virus-induced clinical signs in comparison with birds that received P41 without immunomodulator (P < 0.05). Only 17% of birds inoculated with S-28828 + APV P41 showed mild respiratory symptoms at 5 days postinoculation as compared with 46% of the vaccinated turkeys that did not receive S-28828. Vaccination with either P41 or with P41 + S-28828 protected turkeys against dinical signs and viral replication after challenge with virulent APV. These results indicate that immunomodulators, such as S-28828, may act as good vaccine adjuvants that can reduce the pathogenicity but maintain the immunogenicity of partially attenuated vaccines. PMID:12243518

  1. Thunderstorm solar power satellite-issues dealing with weather modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard J. Eastlund; Lyle M. Jenkins

    2006-01-01

    Tornadoes represent the most dangerous and destructive of storms. A revolutionary concept for disrupting the formation of tornadoes in a thunderstorm is proposed for evaluation. Beamed microwave energy from a satellite could heat cold rainy downdrafts to alter convective forces in the storm cell. Such a satellite is termed a thunderstorm solar power satellite (TSPS). The TSPS is based on

  2. Satellite Cloud Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamen Kanev; Nikolay N. Mirenkov

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a novel concept for satellite based cloud computing integrating virtualized information resources from satellites and from the Internet. We first discuss the role of satellites in the infrastructure of cloud computing. Second we focus on some practical aspects of cloud computing, considering different configurations for access to satellite channels. We follow with reporting on our

  3. Overview of the photovoltaic technology status and perspective in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Furkan Dinçer

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Turkey, located in Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe). Nowadays, Turkey with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing electrical energy markets of the world for the last

  4. TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION 1 TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION by Teri Murphy & Onur Sazak #12;Turkey's Civilian Capacity in post-Conflict Reconstruction By Teri so far in the five fundamental clusters of post-conflict reconstruction (basic services, government

  5. Wind energy and assessment of wind energy potential in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the potential of wind energy and assessment of wind energy systems in Turkey were studied. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the wind energy potential and future wind conversion systems project in Turkey. The wind energy potential of various regions was investigated; and the exploitation of the wind energy in Turkey was discussed. Various

  6. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  7. Turkeys prefer fluorescent light with supplementary ultraviolet radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Moinard; C. M. Sherwin

    1999-01-01

    Turkeys are usually reared under incandescent or fluorescent lamps which emit minimal radiation in the ultraviolet region. Because turkeys have the capacity to be visually sensitive to ultraviolet radiation (UV), this possibly makes such light sources unsuited to the visual ecology of turkeys. Previous work showed that providing UV in conjunction with straw and visual barriers significantly decreased injuries due

  8. THE KOCAELI, TURKEY EARTHQUAKE OF 17 AUGUST 1999

    E-print Network

    Bilham, Roger

    I THE KOCAELI, TURKEY EARTHQUAKE OF 17 AUGUST 1999 A FIELD REPORT BY EEFIT Dina D'Ayala (editor of useful Internet links IX 1. THE EARTHQUAKE AFFECTED REGION 1 Introduction 1 Seismic hazard of Turkey ASPECTS AND SEISMOLOGY 15 Basic seismological data 15 Tectonic setting of Turkey 15 Historic earthquakes

  9. August 2013 ICLP2013, Istanbul, Turkey Pascal Hitzler Recent Advances

    E-print Network

    Hitzler, Pascal

    August 2013 ­ ICLP2013, Istanbul, Turkey ­ Pascal Hitzler Recent Advances Concerning OWL and Rules;August 2013 ­ ICLP2013, Istanbul, Turkey ­ Pascal Hitzler 2 Textbook Pascal Hitzler, Markus Krötzsch://www.semantic-web-book.org #12;August 2013 ­ ICLP2013, Istanbul, Turkey ­ Pascal Hitzler 3 Textbook ­ Chinese translation Pascal

  10. European Journal of Turkish Being a MP in contemporary Turkey

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    European Journal of Turkish Studies 3 (2005) Being a MP in contemporary Turkey Studies, Thematic Issue N°3 , Being a MP in contemporary Turkey, URL : http://www.ejts.org/document499 Massicard Abstract. Like in many countries, MPs in Turkey are confronted with contradictory role

  11. LATE QUATERNARY GLACIATION OF THE ERCIYES VOLCANO, CENTRAL TURKEY

    E-print Network

    Zreda, Marek

    LATE QUATERNARY GLACIATION OF THE ERCIYES VOLCANO, CENTRAL TURKEY SARIKAYA, M. Akif1, ÇINER, Attila, Turkey, aciner@hun.edu.tr, (2) Hydrology and Water Resources, Univ of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 Mount Erciyes (3917 m), highest stratovolcano of Central Turkey, is located in the northeastern part

  12. SABANCI UNIVERSITY Orhanli-Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    SABANCI UNIVERSITY Orhanli-Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey Phone: +90 (216) 483-9500 Fax: +90 (216 of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey. htekiner@su.sabanciuniv.edu S Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey. sibirbil@sabanciuniv.edu Kerem B¨ulb¨ul Manufacturing

  13. Determinants of a Quality Wild Turkey Hunting Season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Wynveen; Drew A. Cavin; Brett A. Wright; William E. Hammitt

    2005-01-01

    According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, there has been a 450% increase in the number of licensed wild turkey hunters since 1973. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research articles focusing specifically on turkey hunting. Most human dimensions of wildlife research have focused on either deer or waterfowl hunting. In this study, dimensions of hunting quality, days afield, and

  14. Weather satellite launched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    NASA launched on 24 May the weather satellite GOES-N, the first of the new N series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. The satellite, which becomes GOES-13 once it reaches its final orbit, joins the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration collection of weather satellites that provide the agency with data for weather forecasts and warnings. The GOES-N series has several improvements over previous GOES satellites. A highly stable pointing platform will allow improved performance from the satellite's sounder-which gathers atmospheric data- and its imager. In addition, the satellite will enable NOAA to improve forecasts and warnings of solar disturbances.

  15. Investigation of Earthquakes in Turkey Using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garagon Dogru, A.; Ozener, H.

    2005-05-01

    There are three main active faults in Turkey: the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), the Northeast Anatolian Fault (NEAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF). NAF is one of the most active seismic regions over the world, runs along the northern part of Turkey about 1500 km, from the Aegean to the Karliova triple junction in the eastern Turkey. It has been the source of numerous large earthquakes throughout the history. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are increasingly used to visualize elements associated with seismicity. It enables an efficient interactive exploration and spatial analysis of attributed geographical data. The database of this study consists of the earthquakes that occurred in Turkey since 1970 and the active faults in Turkey, which may cause the huge earthquakes in the future. Seismicity data were obtained from National Earthquake Monitoring Center of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute of Bogazici University. These data were in a text file format with each epicenter identified by latitude and longitude coordinates. This file also includes date, time, depth, magnitude and location information of the earthquakes. These data were then projected onto the map of the faults using GIS software and knowing the projection of the fault data set. The databases and analysis results are visualized by using the GIS software.

  16. Turkey liver - a chromium enriched food source

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, M.M.; Bryden, N.A.; Richards, M.; Anderson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    There are presently no known foods for humans that are particularly good sources of chromium. As a means of obtaining Cr enriched foods, turkeys were fed diets containing various levels of supplemental chromium. Four groups of 6-month old turkey hens were fed either the basal diet for laying hens or this diet supplemented with 25, 100 or 200 ..mu..g of chromium as chromium chloride per g of diet. Liver Cr concentration of the turkeys sacrificed after 1 week increased from 7 ng/g (wet wt) while consuming the basal diet to 15, 48 and 68 ng/g, respectively, while consuming the diets with supplemental chromium. Comparable values for the turkeys sacrificed after 5 weeks were 2, 43, 170 and 325 ng/g. Similar trends but higher chromium values were observed for kidney samples. The chromium contents of the dark and white meat and eggs were not altered significantly. Chromium concentrations of the pancreas, gizzard and heart increased marginally; final chromium concentrations were less than 23 ng/g even after 5 weeks on the highest level of supplemental chromium. Chromium content of spleen and lungs was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the pancreas, gizzard or heart. Therefore, turkey liver is a food source suitable for Cr enrichment while the eggs, dark and white meat and other edible parts do not appear to be enriched following chromium supplementation.

  17. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  18. Experimentally induced lameness in turkeys inoculated with a newly emergent turkey reovirus.

    PubMed

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Mor, Sunil K; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Verma, Harsha; Noll, Sally L; Goyal, Sagar M; Porter, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) have been isolated from cases of lameness in male turkeys over 10 weeks of age. In a previous study, experimental inoculation of TARV in one-week-old turkey poults produced lymphocytic tenosynovitis at four weeks post inoculation but without causing clinical lameness. This study was undertaken to determine if TARV infection at an early age can lead to clinical lameness in birds as they age. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with a TARV (strain TARV-O'Neil) and monitored for the development of gait defects until 16 weeks of age. At 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, a subset of birds was euthanized followed by the collection of gastrocnemius tendon, digital flexor tendon, and intestines for virus detection by rRT-PCR and for histologic inflammation scoring. Clinical lameness was first displayed in TARV-infected turkeys at 8 weeks of age and ruptured gastrocnemius tendons with progressive lameness were also seen at 12-16 weeks of age. The virus was detected in gastrocnemius tendon of 4- 8- and 12-week-old turkeys but not in 16-week-old turkeys. Histologic inflammation scores of tendons at each of the four time points were significantly higher in the virus-inoculated group than in the control group (p < 0.01). Lesions began as lymphocytic tenosynovitis with mild synoviocyte hyperplasia at four weeks of age and progressed to fibrosis as the birds aged. These results demonstrate the potential of TARV to infect young turkeys and to produce subclinical tenosynovitis that becomes clinically demonstrable as the turkeys age. PMID:25828424

  19. The Mexican national satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

    1983-10-01

    The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

  20. Seroprevalence of avian pneumovirus in Minnesota turkeys.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Sagar M; Lauer, Dale; Friendshuh, Keith; Halvorson, David A

    2003-01-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes respiratory tract infection in turkeys and was first seen in the United States in Colorado in late 1996. In early 1997, the disease was recognized in Minnesota and caused estimated losses of up to 15 million dollars per year. This virus has not been reported in the other turkey producing states. We here report the seroprevalence of APV in Minnesota from August 1998 to July 2002. The average rate of seroprevalence has been 36.3% (range = 14.2%-64.8%). A seasonal bias was observed, with peak incidences in the fall and spring. A higher rate of seropositivity was observed in counties with the highest concentration of turkeys. PMID:14562899

  1. Integrated Satellite Control in REIMEI (INDEX) Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Seisuke; Mizuno, Takahide; Sakai, Shin-Ichiro; Fukushima, Yousuke; Saito, Hirobumi

    REIMEI/INDEX (INnovative-technology Demonstration EXperiment) is a 70kg class small satellite which the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Exploration Agency, ISAS/JAXA, has developed for observation of auroral small-scale dynamics as well as demonstration of advanced satellite technologies. An important engineering mission of REIMEI is integrated satellite control using commercial RISC CPUs with a triple voting system in order to ensure fault-tolerance against radiation hazards. Software modules concerning every satellite function, such as attitude control, data handling, and mission applications, work cooperatively so that highly sophisticated satellite control can be performed. In this paper, after a concept of the integrated satellite control is introduced, the Integrated Controller Unit (ICU) is described in detail. Also unique topics in developing the integrated control system are shown.

  2. Solar power satellite, system definition study. Part 2, volume 3: SPS satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The differences in approach to solar energy conversion by solar cells and thermal engine systems are examined. Systems requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS) are given along with a description of the primary subsystems. Trades leading to exact configuration selection, for example, selection of the Rankine cycle operating temperatures are explained, and two satellite configurations are discussed.

  3. Differential gene expression between normal and pale, soft, and exudative turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Malila, Y; Tempelman, R J; Sporer, K R B; Ernst, C W; Velleman, S G; Reed, K M; Strasburg, G M

    2013-06-01

    In response to high consumer demand, turkeys have been intensively selected for rapid growth rate and breast muscle mass and conformation. The success in breeding selection has coincided with an increasing incidence of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) meat defect, especially in response to heat stress. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism responsible for the development of PSE meat arises from differences in expression of several critical genes. The objective of this study was to determine differential gene expression between normal and PSE turkey meat using a 6K turkey skeletal muscle long oligonucleotide microarray. Breast meat samples were collected from Randombred Control Line 2 turkeys at 22 wk of age, and classified as normal or PSE primarily based on marinade uptake (high = normal, low = PSE). Total RNA was isolated from meat samples with the highest (normal, n = 6) and the lowest (PSE, n = 6) marinade uptake. Microarray data confirmation was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR. Selection of differentially expressed genes for pathway analysis was performed using a combination of fold change (FC) ranking (FC < -1.66, FC >1.66) and false discovery rate (<0.35) as criteria. The calcium signaling pathway was highlighted as the top canonical pathway associated with differential gene expression between normal and PSE turkey. Dramatic downregulation of fast-twitch myosin heavy chain coupled with upregulation of slow-twitch myosin and troponin C suggested a switch of skeletal muscle isoforms, which may alter muscle fiber arrangement and formation of actin-myosin complexes. Changes in expression of genes in the actin cytoskeleton signaling pathway also suggest altered structures of actin filaments that may affect cell motility as well as strength and flexibility of muscle cells. Substantial downregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 was observed in PSE samples, suggesting altered regulation of the aerobic metabolic pathway in the birds that developed PSE meat defect. PMID:23687159

  4. a Survey of Landnet Sites Focusing on Tuz GÖLÜ Salt Lake, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürbüz, S. Z.; Özen, H.; Chander, G.

    2012-07-01

    Radiometric calibration is critical to ensure the accuracy, veracity, continuity and reliability of satellite data measured from multiple sensors and platforms, and is thus recognized as a key activity by all satellite operators. For imaging sensors, vicarious methods using natural targets (such as salt lakes, deserts, or flatlands that are well-characterized and preferably temporally and spatially stable) as a reference are similarly well established. However, while selecting a target site, it is important that its quality and location are selected to minimize sources of uncertainty for any given sensor. To maximize the benefit from limited resources and minimize the impact on satellite operators, the Infrared Visible Optical Sensor (IVOS) sub-group of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) has selected a few, well-characterized, regularly instrumented target sites, which have since become known as LANDNET sites. Currently, there are eight LANDNET sites: 1) Dome C, Antarctica; 2) Dunhuang, China, Asia; 3) Lspec Frenchman Flat, NV, USA, North America; 4) Ivanpah, NV/CA, USA, North America; 5) La Crau, France, Europe; 6) Negev, Southern Israel, Asia; 7) Railroad Valley Playa, NV, USA, North America; 8) Tuz Gölü, Central Anatolia, Turkey, Asia. This work summarizes the key characteristics, and areas of application of each of the LANDNET sites, especially that of Tuz Gölü, to guide and inform researchers on site selection, and increase international awareness and collaboration in this field. Additionally, detailed information about the Tuz Gölü, Turkey test site is provided, including geographical characteristics, spatial uniformity qualities, and opportunities for international researchers to conduct experiments and measurements. Practical, technical, and logistical experience gained through the international field campaigns organized over the last few years at Tuz Gölü is also shared in detail.

  5. Cochlosoma Infection in a Turkey in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dezfoulian, Omid

    2009-01-01

    Cochlosoma sp. infection was identified in a single case among 60 stunted diarrheic native turkey poults, Meleagris galopavo. A large number of the flagellated parasites was found free or within the intervillous spaces of the jejunum, ileum and cecum. Moderate enteritis was associated with the parasites. In TEM studies of the parasagittal sections of the parasite, a prominent ventral sucker like disc and flagella emerging from an opening on the ventrodorsal surface of the pyriform uninuclear parasite were found. The morphological characteristics of this protozoan match with those described for Cochlosoma anatis. The parasite could be considered as an intestinal pathogenic protozoan causing stunting and diarrhea in turkeys in Iran. PMID:19967088

  6. A case of salinomycin intoxication in turkeys

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A flock of 4287 heavy hybrid turkey hens were accidentally fed broiler premix containing salinomycin sodium and suffered a 34.5% death loss. Measures taken to ensure food safety for the remaining flock and consumer food safety included feed record studies, on-farm veterinary consultation, diagnostic laboratory studies, and CgFARAD and CFIA consultation. The remaining turkeys were processed 3 weeks after the initial toxicosis with no evidence of lesions that would render the product unfit for human consumption. PMID:16604983

  7. Solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) concept, under evaluation by NASA since 1974, is discussed. A typical system providing a total of 10,000 MW of electrical power to the ground receiving stations is considered. Energy conversion systems, including the photovoltaic device category using single-crystal silicon cells, are taken into account, as are the 2.45-GHz microwave power-transmission link and the ground receiver (or rectenna). Concepts involving space construction of the satellite's large structures (5 x 25 km) are described, noting that a process similar to the familiar roll-forming of light sheet metal parts has been adapted to the space environment. Transportation vehicles are discussed, including the Space Shuttle planned to reach 60 flights per year by the mid 1980's. Electrical power forecasts and advanced systems cost projections are analyzed, together with a description of costs estimates. The indirect economics of energy research and development, and the present NASA/DOE SPS program are noted.

  8. Platelet satellitism in infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Laskaj, Renata; Sikiric, Dubravka; Skerk, Visnja

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet satellitism is a phenomenon of unknown etiology of aggregating platelets around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other blood cells which causes pseudothrombocytopenia, visible by microscopic examination of blood smears. It has been observed so far in about a hundred cases in the world. Case subject and methods Our case involves a 73-year-old female patient with a urinary infection. Biochemical serum analysis (CRP, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine) and blood cell count were performed with standard methods on autoanalyzers. Serum protein fractions were examined by electrophoresis and urinalysis with standard methods on autoanalyzer together with microscopic examination of urine sediment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood culture and urine culture tests were performed with standard methods. Results Due to typical pathological values for bacterial urinary infection, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Blood smear examination revealed phenomenon, which has persisted for three weeks after the disease has been cured. Blood smears with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (Na, Li-heparin) and capillary blood. Discussion We hypothesize that satellitism was induced by some immunological mechanism through formation of antibodies which have mediated platelets binding to neutrophil membranes and vice versa. Unfortunately we were unable to determine the putative trigger for this phenomenon. To our knowledge this is the second case of platelet satellitism ever described in Croatia. PMID:26110042

  9. Differential Muscle Hypertrophy Is Associated with Satellite Cell Numbers and Akt Pathway Activation Following Activin Type IIB Receptor Inhibition in Mtm1 p.R69C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Michael W.; Viola, Marissa G.; Meng, Hui; Edelstein, Rachel V.; Liu, Fujun; Yan, Ke; Luna, Elizabeth J.; Lerch-Gaggl, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Pierson, Christopher R.; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L.; Pearsall, Scott; Yang, Lin; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy is a congenital myopathy caused by deficiency of myotubularin. Patients often present with severe perinatal weakness, requiring mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. We recently reported that an activin receptor type IIB inhibitor produced hypertrophy of type 2b myofibers and modest increases of strength and life span in the severely myopathic Mtm1?4 mouse model of X-linked myotubular myopathy. We have now performed a similar study in the less severely symptomatic Mtm1 p.R69C mouse in hopes of finding greater treatment efficacy. Activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment of Mtm1 p.R69C animals produced behavioral and histological evidence of hypertrophy in gastrocnemius muscles but not in quadriceps or triceps. The ability of the muscles to respond to activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment correlated with treatment-induced increases in satellite cell number and several muscle-specific abnormalities of hypertrophic signaling. Treatment-responsive Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscles displayed lower levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 and higher levels of phosphorylated eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase than were observed in Mtm1 p.R69C quadriceps muscle or in muscles from wild-type littermates. Hypertrophy in the Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscle was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6. Our findings indicate that muscle-, fiber type-, and mutation-specific factors affect the response to hypertrophic therapies that will be important to assess in future therapeutic trials. PMID:24726641

  10. Effects of high-orbit spaceflight on signaling cascades and apoptosis in immune cells from mice flied on board the BION-M1 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselova, Elena; Shenkman, Boris; Lunin, Sergey; Parfenyuk, Svetlana; Novoselova, Tatyana; Fesenko, Eugeny

    The study was designed to evaluate immune cell activity in male C57bl mice after a 30-day high-orbit spaceflight (550 km, higher than conventional manned spaceflights) on board the BION-M1 satellite (Roskosmos Program, Russia). For the present study, thymus, spleens and plasma samples were collected from mice 12 h after landing and, additionally, 7 days subsequently. Assessing the activity of NF-kappaB signaling cascade by measuring Rel A (p65) protein phosphorylation in splenic lymphocytes, we showed that the NF-kappaB activity was significantly increased at 12 h after landing. Contrariwise, one week after landing, the NF-kappaB activity was markedly decreased, even below to the control values. Interestingly, after landing there were no significant changes in SAPK/JNK cascade activity in splenic lymphocytes as well as in the expression of transcription factor IRF3 in thymus cells. To assess the apoptosis status in thymus lymphocytes, levels of p53 protein and its phosphorylated form were measured in thymic lymphocytes. It is known that p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage, genomic aberrations, and other characteristic of apoptosis. The results showed that the high-orbit spaceflight environment caused some increase in level of p53 protein, but most notably, activated phosphorylated form of p53 protein. Calculated ratio of active and inactive forms of the protein (ph-p53/p53) 12 h after landing increased by more than 2-fold, indicating the apparent induction of apoptosis in thymus cells. Interestingly, 7 days after the landing, this ratio was not restored, but rather increased: the specified ratio was 4 times higher as compared to the ground-based control. We can conclude that response to the prolonged high-orbit spaceflight is not like the classic "stress response", which is usually observed under various stressful factors. It is known that the stress response is surely accompanied by increased SAPK/JNK cascade activity as well as the expression of the IRF3; in fact, we did not observed any changes in the SAPK/JNK phosphorylation or in the IRF3 production. Furthermore, stressful factors usually result in the fast, but reversible, thymus involution. But our measurements showed that the thymus depletion at 7th day after landing was expressed even more than 12 h after the spaceflight. This is consistent with the results of the level of apoptosis in thymus cells; indeed, the apoptosis in thymus lymphocytes 7 days after was higher than 12 h after landing. Collectively, these results indicate that the changes of immune cell homeostasis may be a result of exposure to damaging factors of not very high intensity. In any case, similar effects are caused, to our knowledge, by low doses of ionizing radiation. As spaceflight is not accompanied only with the gravitational changes, but also with other factors, such as radiation, it is possible that immune disbalance after spaceflight was caused by a combined action of several factors. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 12-04-00113-a.The authors express their gratitude to unified team involved in preparation and implementation of the spaceflight of BION-M #1.

  11. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  12. Limited transmission of turkey coronavirus in young turkeys by adult Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Watson, D W; Guy, J S; Stringham, S M

    2000-05-01

    We examined the role of lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), in the transmission of an enteric disease of turkeys caused by a coronavirus. Turkey coronavirus (TCV) from two sources was studied, one isolate (NC95) was embryo propagated, the second was TCV infected material from turkeys diagnosed with poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS). Beetles were fed virus-infected feces mixed with chicken feed. Transmission of virus was effectively halted by surface sterilization of the beetles. Turkey poults administered beetle homogenates infected with TCV+ PEMS that had not been surface sterilized had reduced weight gains and 50% mortality. Mortality and weight gains were not effected in the NC95 group. Virus isolation procedures were performed to determine NC95 viability at varying time intervals. Beetles were dissected and the guts removed 1, 12, and 24 h after the initial viral feeding. Whole beetles were also examined for comparison. Whole beetles and beetle guts were homogenized and injected into turkey eggs for embryo propagation. Direct immunofluorescence was used to determine the presence of TCV. A. diaperinus were capable of mechanical transmission of TCV. However, only turkey embryos receiving whole beetle and beetle gut homogenates within 1 h of feeding on the virus were positive for TCV. Laboratory studies demonstrating PEMS transmission by A. diaperinus are continuing. PMID:15535597

  13. Satellite Home Tutorials vs. Satellite Classroom Tutorials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Yafe, Edna; Privman, Meira; Harpaz, Hamutal Razy

    In this study, students who registered for a course at the Open University of Israel could choose the tutorial method they preferred: group face-to-face tutorials with a local tutor in their residential vicinity; tutorials via satellite broadcasting to groups of students around the country; or getting the same satellite tutorial at home on the…

  14. Satellite Imaging Corporation: IKONOS Satellite Images

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Satellite Imaging Corporation

    Satellite Imaging Corporation (SIC) acquires and processes imagery from the IKONOS satellite as well as others and makes the products available through their website. The images in the gallery are arranged in several categories based on what applications the images might be useful for, such as Agriculture, Coastal Management, or Sports and Tourism.

  15. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites. PMID:21994595

  16. Satellite broadcasting in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1984-05-01

    Three main communications services are recognized by the International Telecommunications Union: the Fixed Service, the Mobile Service and the Broadcasting Service. In Europe, EUTELSAT has just begun to exploit the first ECS satellite. The ESA-launched satellite was originally designed to provide an international public telecommunication service, however, the satellite will be used now almost exclusively for TV program distribution, while a second ECS satellite will be used for telephony. Despite plans for the launch of a third, countries in Europe are looking to other organizations such as INTELSAT for greater satellite capacity. Other organizations include Unisat, DFS/Copernicus, GDL, and Videosat. Both satellite and cable networks will increase the program-viewing audience, thus encouraging plans for a pan-European television service intended for an international audience. Although the combination of cable networks and distribution satellites looks promising, high-power broadcasting satellites will play an important role because of flexibility and additional program distribution.

  17. Din din! The (Semantic) Turkey is served

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Pazienza; Noemi Scarpato; Armando Stellato; Andrea Turbati

    2008-01-01

    From its first introduction in this same conference, the original prototype of the Semantic Bookmarking tool Semantic Turkey has undergone a deep and extensive revision process, breaking the boundaries of its original intents and going more and more towards an extensible platform for Knowledge Management and Acquisition based on Semantic Web technologies. Following its recent official release, we discuss here

  18. Preschool Education System in Turkey: Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Sevda

    1993-01-01

    Describes Turkey's preschool system and discusses the outcomes of (1) an investigation of the effects of social class and preschool center type on child and staff behaviors; and (2) a project to develop an intervention model for disadvantaged environments, while comparing the impact of educational preschools, custodial preschools, and home care on…

  19. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  20. Measuring Exchange Rate Misalignment in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ümit Özlale; Erinç Yeldan

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new methodology to measure exchange rate misalign- ment for Turkey, which has already undergone a severe economic cri- sis. We estimate the real exchange rate within a time varying parameter model, where a return-to-normality assumption about the parameters are assumed. Contrary to common belief, it is found that, except the initial four months of the stabilization program,

  1. Early Childhood Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…

  2. The First ETV Project of Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskisehir Academy of Economic and Commercial Sciences (Turkey). Inst. of Educational Television.

    The success of a small-scale, closed circuit educational television project run at the Academy of Economic and Commercial Sciences in Eskisehir, Turkey has led to the expansion of the experiment. The expanded project will offer services to other academies, demonstrate the effective use of educational television, and serve as an integral part of…

  3. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  4. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  5. ARSLANTEPE, MALATYA (TURKEY): TEXTILES, TOOLS AND IMPRINTS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ARSLANTEPE, MALATYA (TURKEY): TEXTILES, TOOLS AND IMPRINTS OF FABRICS FROM THE 4th TO THE 2nd-EICHER and A. WISTI LASSEN Abstract: Textile production is one of the oldest crafts and has played a crucial role in societies. Yet, very few archaeological textiles are preserved and we must therefore rely

  6. Fuel supply chain analysis of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahu Gümrah Dumanli; Ibrahim Gulyurtlu; Yuda Yürüm

    2007-01-01

    In spite of its natural sources, Turkey depends on other countries in terms of energy production, and a transfer from conventional fossil sources to sustainable energy sources is strongly necessary. Among the sustainable energy sources, biomass is the subject of this study. The characteristics, logistic aspects, environmental aspects, economical, legal and technical aspects are investigated in order to show that

  7. PREVALENCE OF ARCOBACTER IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Arcobacter in live turkeys was determined for six Midwestern commercial flocks. In the first study (summer 2003), cloacal (n = 298) and feather swabs (n = 75), cecal (n = 70), and crop (n = 50) contents, drinker water (n = 46), and environmental (n = 25) samples were monitored. I...

  8. Financial reporting transformation: the experience of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Alp; Saim Ustundag

    2009-01-01

    From the viewpoint of a developing country which is in need of foreign capital and foreign investments to finance its economic growth, the need for high quality financial information has vital importance. The need for IFRS in Turkey was brought up by the same reasons as a developing country and as an emerging market. With the internationalization of capital markets

  9. IMAGE Satellite Scale Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about scale model building. Learners will use mathematics to determine the scale model size, construct a pattern, and build a paper scale model of the IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite, the first satellite mission to image the Earth's magnetosphere. This is the second activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring Satellite Design educator guide.

  10. Early satellite program developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, W. W.

    1982-01-01

    A historical overview of the pioneer projects for the development of meteorological satellites is given. In addition, the parallel development of the responsible space agencies and panels is addressed. The Vanguard 2 satellite, the first Earth radiation experiment, and the vidicon equipped TIROS-1 satellite are discussed.

  11. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  12. Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three pioneering NASA scientific satellites, launched 1970-75. SAS-1, also known as UHURU (Freedom), was the first dedicated x-ray astronomy satellite. SAS-2 was the first satellite to detect gamma rays, and it discovered the enigmatic Geminga source. SAS-3 also carried x-ray experiments....

  13. Neptune's small inner satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Thomas; Joseph Veverka

    1991-01-01

    The six small inner satellites of Neptune discovered by Voyager 2 are described. Proteus (1989N1), the largest of these sattelites, has a mean radius of 208 +\\/-8 km, while the radius of the smallest, Naiad (1989N6), is 29 +\\/-6 km. The inner satellite system of Neptune is similar to that of Uranus in that the albedos of the satellites are

  14. NORAD satellite tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. F. Liu

    1987-01-01

    NORAD routinely tracks about 6000 orbiting objects. During the last 30 days of orbital time, prior to reentry, special perturbations are used in the orbital update procedure. Besides routine orbit determination, NORAD does special tasks such as predicting satellite orbit conjunctions within 20 km, ephimerides of weather satellites, satellite decay predictions and other studies. Since their mission is operational, they

  15. Changes in Summer Irrigated Crop Area and Water Use in Southeastern Turkey from 1993 to 2002: Implications for Current and Future Water Resources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mutlu Ozdogan; Curtis E. Woodcock; Guido D. Salvucci; Hüseyin Demir

    2006-01-01

    Changes in summer irrigated cropland acreage and related water use are estimated from satellite remote sensing and ancillary\\u000a data in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey where traditionally dry agricultural lands are being rapidly transformed into irrigated\\u000a fields with the help of water from the Euphrates-Tigris Rivers. An image classification methodology based on thresholding\\u000a of Landsat NDVI images from the peak summer period

  16. Landslide identification and classification by object-based image analysis and fuzzy logic: An example from the Azdavay region (Kastamonu, Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beliz Aksoy; Murat Ercanoglu

    This study presents a data-driven and semiautomatic classification system carried out by object-based image analysis and fuzzy logic in a selected landslide-prone area in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. In the first stage, a multiresolution segmentation process was performed using Landsat ETM+ satellite images of the study area. The model was established on 5235 image objects obtained by

  17. Vanguard I Satellite Structure and Separation Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, John T.; Baumann, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    A reevaluation of the Vanguard program objectives in January 1957 resulted in the production of the Vanguard I Satellite, a 6.44-inch-diameter, 3.25-pound sphere with six equally spaced solar cell clusters and six equally spaced antennas mounted on its surface. Experiment requirements necessitated the development of a mechanism to separate the satellite from the third-stage rocket. On the basis of the existing standard separation mechanism, a strap pull-pin girth-ring arrangement was developed. Both the satellite and the separation mechanism were fully tested prior to flight. Successful orbiting and flight operation proved the adequacy of the design.

  18. Survey: National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The national Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) receives data at periodic intervals from satellites of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series and from the Improved TIROS (Television Infrared Observational Satellite) Operational Satellite. Within the conterminous United States, direct readout and processed products are distributed to users over facsimile networks from a central processing and data distribution facility. In addition, the NESS Satellite Field Stations analyze, interpret, and distribute processed geostationary satellite products to regional weather service activities.

  19. 75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the January 1, 2008, through December...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

  20. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination...certain oil tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1,...

  1. 76 FR 802 - Florida Power and Light Company, Turkey Point, Units 3 and 4; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...Lessons Learned The effects of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point site were...NUREG-1474, ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear...Notice 93-53, ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on Turkey Point Nuclear...

  2. Weather Satellite and Orbits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this interactive, online module, students learn about satellite orbits (geostationary and polar), remote-sensing satellite instruments (radiometers and sounders), satellite images, and the math and physics behind satellite technology. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

  3. Satellite Feature Identification: Cyclogenesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2012-08-17

    This module, Satellite Feature Identification: Cyclogenesis, uses water vapor satellite imagery to present a satellite perspective of basic features associated with the formation and development of extratropical cyclones. First, through an initial case study, the precursor elements leading to cyclogenesis are identified. Then three conceptual views of different ways cyclogenesis can evolve are presented along with additional examples to illustrate the concepts. Finally a series of exercises, again using real case studies, are used to emphasize the important points and provide realistic scenarios describing some of the many ways cyclogenesis reveals itself on satellite imagery. This module is part of the series: 'Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette'.

  4. Skynet satellite electron precharging experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanlint, V. A. J.; Fromme, D. A.; Stettner, R.

    1979-01-01

    Large surface areas (approximately 1 sq m) of the Skynet I qualification model satellite were exposed to the environments of a flux of monoenergetic electrons and pulsed high-intensity X-ray photons from an exploding-wire-radiator source, separately and simultaneously. Experiments were performed with both the cylindrical solar cell panels and the end thermal blanket exposed to these environments. The satellite was instrumented with fiber-optics isolated fast-response sensors capable of sensing and recording the time-varying electric fields and surface currents on the satellite. Spontaneous discharges of the two surfaces were characterized prior to measurements of the interaction of the system-generated electromagnetic pulse from the X-ray photon burst with the electron precharged surfaces. A two-dimensional self-consistent finite difference computer code was used to predict the currents on the Skynet both with and without precharging of the thermal-blanket. These calculations, which used an thermal-blanket voltage profile, predicted a factor of 2 increase in satellite exterior axial currents.

  5. Swedish small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj; Von Schéele, Fredrik

    In 1986 the first Swedish small satellite VIKING was launched on the Ariane I rocket together with the French remote sensing satellite SPOT. This paper describes the development of the Swedish Small Satellite Program. The satellites have delivered excellent scientific data at a low cost by using streamlined project organisations, competitive procurement programs and piggy-back launch opportunities. The first micro satellite Astrid-1 was launched in January 1995 and will be followed by the launch of Astrid-2 in December 1998. The capable Odin small satellite will be launched in September 1999. SSC has completed a design study for ESA's SMART-1 probe destined to the Moon — and possibly beyond. SMART-1, planned for launch in 2001, will be used for both research and as a technology demonstrator for future projects. Future projects include micro and small satellites for ESA as Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions and for the Swedish National Space Board as galactic sky surveyors and atmospheric ozone deplition observers.

  6. Analysis of the changes in the tarcrete layer on the desert surface of Kuwait using satellite imagery and cell-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Doasari, Ahmad E.

    The 1991 Gulf War caused massive environmental damage in Kuwait. Deposition of oil and soot droplets from hundreds of burning oil-wells created a layer of tarcrete on the desert surface covering over 900 km2. This research investigates the spatial change in the tarcrete extent from 1991 to 1998 using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery and statistical modeling techniques. The pixel structure of TM data allows the spatial analysis of the change in tarcrete extent to be conducted at the pixel (cell) level within a geographical information system (GIS). There are two components to this research. The first is a comparison of three remote sensing classification techniques used to map the tarcrete layer. The second is a spatial-temporal analysis and simulation of tarcrete changes through time. The analysis focuses on an area of 389 km2 located south of the Al-Burgan oil field. Five TM images acquired in 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1998 were geometrically and atmospherically corrected. These images were classified into six classes: oil lakes; heavy, intermediate, light, and traces of tarcrete; and sand. The classification methods tested were unsupervised, supervised, and neural network supervised (fuzzy ARTMAP). Field data of tarcrete characteristics were collected to support the classification process and to evaluate the classification accuracies. Overall, the neural network method is more accurate (60 percent) than the other two methods; both the unsupervised and the supervised classification accuracy assessments resulted in 46 percent accuracy. The five classifications were used in a lagged autologistic model to analyze the spatial changes of the tarcrete through time. The autologistic model correctly identified overall tarcrete contraction between 1991--1993 and 1995--1998. However, tarcrete contraction between 1993--1994 and 1994--1995 was less well marked, in part because of classification errors in the maps from these time periods. Initial simulations of tarcrete contraction with a cellular automaton model were not very successful. However, more accurate classifications could improve the simulations. This study illustrates how an empirical investigation using satellite images, field data, GIS, and spatial statistics can simulate dynamic land-cover change through the use of a discrete statistical and cellular automaton model.

  7. Predictors of Informal Health Payments: The Example from Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hacer Özgen; Bayram Sahin; Paolo Belli; Mehtap Tatar; Peter Berman

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that can affect informal health payments in Turkey, which is pertinent given that Turkey\\u000a has been undergoing and considering a series of reforms in the health sector. This paper aims to examine the predictors of\\u000a informal payments in Turkey. The study surveyed a random sample of 3,727 people in a medium-sized city, of whom

  8. Kemalist Eurasianism: An Emerging Geopolitical Discourse in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emel Akçali; Mehmet Perinçek

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, there has been a convergence between the Eurasianist and Kemalist ideologies in Turkey. A number of Kemalist and Socialist intellectual and political actors together with sections of the military have started to articulate Eurasianism (Avrasyac?l?k in Turkish) as a new geopolitical discourse for Turkey and as an alternative to Turkey's pro-Western foreign policy orientation.

  9. Factors Influencing the Prices Received for Texas Turkeys

    E-print Network

    Halpin, R. B.; Parnell, E. D.; Mountney, G. J.

    1954-01-01

    feed or general store areas. To protect themselves from loss on the may pick up turkeys at the farm when delivering range turkeys which they expected to find, many feed, or purchase them at the store door. Each I buyers purchased Texas turkeys at a...Factors Influencing the Prices Received for Texas Turkeys TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION. TEXAS DIGEST A study was conducted during 1950-53 of the factors influencing the market quality a1 received...

  10. Serum proteins of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura).

    PubMed

    Apanius, V; Temple, S A; Bale, M

    1983-01-01

    We separated and identified the major serum proteins of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura): albumin, HDL, LDL, IgG and M, transferrin, alpha 2M and putatively, IgA, ceruloplasmin and fibronectin. Turkey vulture HDL and LDL had similar electrophorectic mobility and solution properties as those from gallinaceous birds. Turkey vulture IgG and M, and their subunits, had molecular weights comparable to other birds. Serum IgG and M levels in wild turkey vultures were within the range of values reported for domestic avian species. PMID:6661906

  11. Determinants of a quality wild turkey hunting season.

    PubMed

    Wynveen, Christopher J; Cavin, Drew A; Wright, Brett A; Hammitt, William E

    2005-07-01

    According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, there has been a 450% increase in the number of licensed wild turkey hunters since 1973. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research articles focusing specifically on turkey hunting. Most human dimensions of wildlife research have focused on either deer or waterfowl hunting. In this study, dimensions of hunting quality, days a field, and harvest were examined among a sample of 739 Virginia fall turkey hunters. Quality of a hunting season, rather than a specific hunt, was examined. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed five domains of attributes of a high-quality turkey-hunting season: wildlife interaction, education, being away, social interaction, and hunting skills. The domains of hunting quality revealed by the PCA are similar to domains found previously for spring turkey hunters as well as other types of hunters. Also examined were hunter perceptions of overall hunting quality, the number of days spent hunting turkeys during the fall season, and harvest success. For comparative purposes and agency needs, hunters were segmented into three categories based on days spent hunting: low frequency (1 to 2 days), medium frequency (3 to 4 days), and high frequency (> or =5 days). The influence of these variables to respondents' perceptions of overall quality was examined using a series of regression models. Variables found to be significant predictors of quality were wildlife interaction and harvest success. Hunters who killed a turkey reported a significantly higher quality season than those who did not kill a turkey. PMID:16132453

  12. Immunological and biochemical indicators in turkeys fed diets with a different Methionine content.

    PubMed

    Kubi?ska, M; Tyka?owski, B; Jankowski, J; Koncicki, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of dietary methionine on selected immune parameters of young turkeys. A total of 357 one-day-old female Hybrid Converter turkeys were randomly divided into three groups with low, medium and high level of dietary me- thionine (LM, MM, HM) of seven replicates each. Methionine was added to the basal diet (LM) at 0.16% (MM) and 0.32% (HM). At 17 days of age, seven birds per group were vaccinated against Ornithobacterium rhinotraheale (ORT) infection, with ORNITIN (ABIC) vaccine. At 28 days of age, blood was sampled and the birds were euthanized. The serum concentrations and activity of selected biochemical parameters, total IgY and IgM, and vaccine-induced antibody titers (IgY) against ORT were determined. The percentages of CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ T cell subpopulations and IgM+ B cell subpopulation were determined in blood and organs by flow cytometry. Different supplementary levels of methionine had no significant effect on vaccine-induced anti- body titers against ORT or total serum IgM and IgY levels, as well as on the percentages of periph- eral blood T and B cell subsets. Increasing dietary methionine rates decreased the percentage of CD4+ T cell subpopulation, however it has increased the percentage of IgM+ B cell subpopulation in the spleen. Vaccination against ORT resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of CD4+ T cell subset and an increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cell subset in the spleen. It could be concluded that MM turkeys have developed the most desirable values of immune parameters. PMID:25638983

  13. The Plant Cell, Vol. 9, 2051-2063, November 1997 O 1997American Society of Plant Physiologists Satellite RNA-Mediated Resistanceto Turnip CrinkleVirus in

    E-print Network

    Simon, Anne

    Satellite RNA-Mediated Resistanceto Turnip CrinkleVirus in Arabidopsis lnvolvesa ReductioninVirus Movement previously showedthat a sat-RNA (sat-RNAC) of turnip crinklevirus (TCV),which normally intensifiessymptoms (Harrison et al., 1987), indicat- ing the possible involvement of more than one mechanism. Turnip crinkle

  14. The Plant Cell, Vol. 14, 28252836, November 2002, www.plantcell.org 2002 American Society of Plant Biologists Centromeric Retroelements and Satellites Interact with Maize

    E-print Network

    of Plant Biologists Centromeric Retroelements and Satellites Interact with Maize Kinetochore Protein CENH3 Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 Maize centromeres are composed of CentC tandem repeat arrays, centromeric retrotransposons (CRs), and a variety of other repeats. One

  15. Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

  16. High Specific Energy NiH2 Batteries for GEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Fabre, M.

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the SAFT qualification status history, cell and battery modifications, overall battery characteristics, satellite programs and battery types delivered, and battery performances for selected satellite missions.

  17. Conception of Jersey cattle in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Soydan; N. Ocak; H. Onder

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effects of insemination season (IS; dry: May through October and rainy: November through April), lactation\\u000a number (LN; heifers, primiparous or multiparous) and their interaction on non-return rate (NRR), conception rate (CR) to first-service\\u000a and pregnancy loss (PL) of Jersey cattle in Turkey, over 1468 lactation records from 510 Jersey dairy cows were used. There\\u000a was an interaction

  18. Pollen morphology of Agropyron Gaertner in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hülya Özler; Evren Cabi; Ebru Us; Musa Do?an; Sevil Pehlivan

    2009-01-01

    Pollen morphology of Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertner. s.s. (subsp. incanum (Náb?lek) Melderis and subsp. pectinatum (M. Bieb.) Tzvelev, latter including var. pectinatum and var. imbricatum (Roemer & Schultes) G. Beck) in Turkey has been studied by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The above-mentioned taxa are homogenous in both aperture type and exine ornamentation. Pollen grains are monoporate (rarely

  19. Biogerontology in Turkey: a brief report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yesim Kutsal; Ceyda Kabaroglu; Dilek Aslan

    2011-01-01

    In this brief report, aging in biogerontology science perspective has been discussed based on the Turkish literature review\\u000a with major key recommendations for future studies. Biogerontology in Turkey has focused on general retardation of the aging\\u000a process giving priority to caloric restriction and oxidative stress mechanisms. The most popular investigation area for the\\u000a scientists has been the oxidant and anti-oxidant

  20. Healthcare Information Technology Infrastructures in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, M.; Ertürkmen, G. L.; Kabak, Y.; Namli, T.; Y?ld?z, M. H.; Ay, Y.; Ceyhan, B.; Hülür, Ü.; Öztürk, H.; Atbakan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sa?l?k-Net (Turkish for “Health-Net”), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sa?l?k-Net are also briefly summarized. Methods The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Results Sa?l?k-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients’ Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sa?l?k-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. Conclusion With the introduction of the “Health Transformation Program” in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality. PMID:24853036

  1. Privatization as a Hegemonic Process in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sevgi Balkan ?ahin

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the privatization of state owned enterprises in Turkey as a function of an alliance of diverse social forces composed of market-oriented capital groups, mainstream media, national bureaucracies, and government officials. It highlights that these actors emerged in the post-1980 period because of dramatic transformations in Turkish society and the economy initiated by the process of neo-liberal globalization.

  2. Seasonal demand and supply analysis of turkeys

    E-print Network

    Blomo, Vito James

    1972-01-01

    increase in industry income may be gained. Using quarterly data from 1960-66, Soliman relates price to three variables in his analysis of the national turkey industry. The variables, whose structural parameters were estimated, were per capita.... For the quarterly supply function, only the intercepts (the level of supply) differed significantly [25, p. 16]. Soliman and Burbee hypothesized that increases in producer income were due to supply shifting (and increasing) over time rather than the annual...

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  4. Erysipelas in turkeys, sheep and pigs.

    PubMed

    2015-03-21

    Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs. Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms. Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit. First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years. Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014. PMID:25792678

  5. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Sule; Erdem, Yunus; Batuman, Vecihi; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide, both hypertension and chronic kidney disease are major public health problems, due to their epidemic proportions and their association with high cardiovascular mortality. In 2003, the first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (the PatenT) study was conducted in a nationally representative population (n=4910) by the Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases, and showed that overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in Turkey was 31.8%. The PatenT study also reported that overall awareness (40.7%), treatment (31.1%), and control rates (8.1%) of hypertension were strikingly low. Only 20.7% of the patients who were aware of their hypertension and receiving treatment had their blood pressure controlled to <140/90?mm?Hg. In the Chronic Renal Disease in Turkey (CREDIT) study (n=10,748), the overall prevalence of chronic kidney (including all stages) disease was 15.7% and increased with advancing age. In the same population, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome were reported as 32.7%, 12.7%, 76.3%, 20.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. The prevalence and awareness of hypertension in CREDIT population was 32.7% and 48.6%, respectively. According to the data obtained from national surveys, the prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey is alarmingly high. To improve prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of these major public health problems, appropriate health strategies should be implemented by the government, together with medical societies, non-governmental organizations, industry, health-care providers, and academia. PMID:25019009

  6. Role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in estradiol-17?-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kamanga-Sollo, E; Thornton, K J; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2014-10-01

    In feedlot steers, estradiol-17? (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters. Although the positive effects of E2 on rate and efficiency of bovine muscle growth are well established, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Combined E2 and trenbolone acetate implants result in significantly increased muscle satellite cell number in feedlot steers. Additionally, E2 treatment stimulates proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells (BSC). Studies in nonmuscle cells have shown that binding of E2 to G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 results in activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9) resulting in proteolytic release of heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF) from the cell surface. Released hbEGF binds to and activates the epidermal growth factor receptor resulting in increased proliferation. To assess if GPER-1, MMP2/9, and/or hbEGF are involved in the mechanism of E2-stimulated BSC proliferation, we have examined the effects of G36 (a specific inhibitor of GPER-1), CRM197 (a specific inhibitor of hbEGF), and MMP-2/MMP-9 Inhibitor II (an inhibitor of MMP2/9 activity) on E2-stimulated BSC proliferation. Inhibition of GPER-1, MMP2/9, or hbEGF suppresses E2-stimulated BSC proliferation (P < 0.001) suggesting that all these are required in order for E2 to stimulate BSC proliferation. These results strongly suggest that E2 may stimulate BSC proliferation by binding to GPER-1 resulting in MMP2/9-catalyzed release of cell membrane-bound hbEGF and subsequent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by binding of released hbEGF. PMID:25010024

  7. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%. PMID:24192673

  8. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  9. Determination of air quality zones in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Ferhat

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter <10 microm; PM10) profile of Turkey with data from the air quality monitoring stations located throughout the country was used. The number of stations (119) was reduced to 55 after a missing data treatment for statistical analyses. First, a classification method was developed based on ongoing national and international (European Commission directives) legislations to categorize air zones into six groups, from a "Very Clear Air Zone" to a "Polluted Air Zone". Then, a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based interpolation technique and statistical analyses (correlation analysis and factor analysis) were used to generate PM10 pollution profiles of the annual heating time and nonheating time periods. Finally, the coherent air pollution management zones of Turkey, based on air quality criteria and measured data using a GIS-based model supported by statistical analyses, were suggested. Based on the analysis, four hot spots were identified: (i) the eastern part of the Black Sea region; (ii) the northeastern part of inland Anatolia; (iii) the western part of Northeastern Anatolia; and (vi) the eastern part of Turkey. The possible reasons for the elevated PM10 levels are discussed using topographic, climatologic, land use, and energy utilization parameters. Finally, the suggested air zones were compared with the administrative air zones, which were newly developed by the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry, to evaluate the level of agreement between the two. PMID:22616283

  10. Satellite broadcasting in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgy, Jean

    1988-12-01

    A review is presented of the role to be played by direct broadcast satellite (DBS) in changing TV and radio broadcasting in France. In addition, the status of the TDF1 and TDF2 satellite program is assessed. Satellite design is discussed along with a description of the propulsion, service, solar array, communication and antenna modules. Services offered by the TDF1 and TDF2 system are presented. Finally, trends that DBS follow-on systems must cope with are given.

  11. GSM\\/Satellite Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikki Einola

    In this presentation, the mobile satellite service (MSS) is regarded as complementary to the corresponding terrestrial systems.\\u000a The MSS may offer an outdoor service extension to the terrestrial mobile systems. This can be achieved with appropriate integration\\u000a of the satellites with the terrestrial system. This chapter considers the integration of mobile satellites into the GSM system.\\u000a On one hand, the

  12. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1975-01-01

    Meteorological satellites include experimental satellites operated by NASA and operational satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The operational system currently provides pictures of the entire globe, temperature measurements throughout the world, and wind measurements in selected parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Aspects of vertical sounding are discussed along with questions of parameter extraction technique development, macroscale phenomena, the heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system and the climate, and studies of ocean surface and hydrology.

  13. Commercial communications satellite survivability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, F. E.; Porter, R. L.

    The Government is considering the use of commercial communications satellite systems to support its national security and emergency preparedness needs. However, the vulnerabilities to hostile action inherent in commercial satellite systems could dramatically reduce their ability to provide essential services in emergency situations. Consequently, concern for the survivability of satellite, as well as other commercial telecommunications systems, has led to the establishment of the National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC). Working in concert with the Government, the NSTAC, a Presidential Advisory Committee, has recommended a program to enhance the survivability of commercial communications satellite systems.

  14. Satellite system survivability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, F. H.

    Present U.S. military capability relies heavily on Earth satellites to maintain connectivity. The essential nature of these satellite systems has made them tempting targets to nuclear attack in wartime. The author reviews U.S. history in high-altitude nuclear device testing and nuclear effects testing on satellies, events in which he directly participated. Physics of the production of nuclear enhanced high-altitude electron belts are reviewed. The author discusses primary affects of the enhanced environment on satellite components. A glimpse into future satellite hardening reveals measures against developing directed energy weapons.

  15. Methods of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  16. Equalizers for communications satellites

    E-print Network

    Fay, Leon

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates equalization for advanced protected satellite communications systems in development at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Equalizers facilitate high data rate communication by correcting dispersion in the ...

  17. Weather satellite deactivated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    NOAA 8, the polar-orbiting weather satellite that was revived last May after tumbling in its orbit for 11 months (Eos, July 2, 1985, p. 527), recently suffered additional setbacks and has been “deactivated” by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The satellite's only working oscillator faltered and caused episodes of tumbling in September, November, and December 1985, according to Gary K. Davis, manager of NOAA's satellite operations control center in Suitland, Md. In addition, the episode that began December 30 apparently was accompanied by the rupture of a damaged battery, sending what seem to be pieces of the battery's thermal blankets and shields into orbits near the satellite.

  18. Diode laser satellite systems for beamed power transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Williams; J. H. Kwon; G. H. Walker; D. H. Humes

    1990-01-01

    A power system composed of an orbiting laser satellite and a surface-based receiver\\/converter is described. Power is transmitted from the satellite to the receiver\\/converter by laser beam. The satellite components are: (1) solar collector; (2) blackbody; (3) photovoltaic cells; (4) heat radiators; (5) laser system; and (6) transmission optics. The receiver\\/converter components are: receiver dish; lenticular lens; photocells; and heat

  19. Satellite multibeam allocation and congestion control with delay constraints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Choi; V. W. S. Chan

    2004-01-01

    A data satellite network would have to support a broad spectrum of bursty unscheduled users with different delay constraints over time-varying atmospheric satellite channels. Since onboard resources are expensive and a broadband satellite will have many spotbeam-coverage cells within its service area, it is desirable to use agile scanning beam systems, adaptive to service requirements and channel conditions, and time-share

  20. MIMO over Satellite: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pantelis-Daniel Arapoglou; Konstantinos Liolis; Massimo Bertinelli; Athanasios Panagopoulos; Panayotis Cottis; Riccardo De Gaudenzi

    2011-01-01

    The present article carries out a review of MIMO- based techniques that have been recently proposed for satellite communications. Due to the plethora of MIMO interpretations in terrestrial systems and the particularities of satellite communica- tions, this review is built on two pillars, namely fixed satellite and mobile satellite. Special attention is given to the characteristics of the satellite channel,

  1. Hill stability of satellite orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Markellos; A. E. Roy

    1981-01-01

    Szebehely's criterion for Hill stability of satellites is derived from Hill's problem and a more exact result is obtained. Direct, Hill stable, circular satellites can exist almost twice as far from the planet as retrograde satellites. For direct satellites the new result agrees with Kuiper's empirical estimate that such satellites are stable up to a distance of half the “radius

  2. Semantic Turkey : A Semantic Bookmarking Tool (System Description)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donato Griesi; Maria Teresa Pazienza; Armando Stellato

    2007-01-01

    In this work we introduce Semantic Turkey, a Semantic Extension for the popular web browser Mozilla Firefox. Semantic Turkey can be used to keep track of relevant information from visited web sites and organize collected content according to a personally defined ontology. Clear separation between knowledge data (the WHAT) and web links (the WHERE) is established into the knowledge model

  3. The Republican People's Party and Turkey's EU Membership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ödül Celep

    2011-01-01

    As the founder of the Turkish secular state, the Republican People's Party (CHP) has defended the Westernisation of Turkish society, supported Turkey's acceptance to the EU as a full member, and played crucial roles in Turkey–EU relations. Nevertheless, the CHP's language towards the EU started to sound critical during the 2000s. This study argues that the CHP's seeming scepticism towards

  4. Curriculum Assessment: Constructivist Primary Mathematics Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    Many national and international studies put forward the idea that primary education in Turkey is questionable in many aspects. As a result, the Ministry of National Education changed primary curriculums in 2004 in Turkey. The curriculum for primary mathematics was redeveloped taking into consideration constructivist theory of education. The…

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A brief history of mathematics education in Turkey

    E-print Network

    Bardsley, John

    Turkey Á Mathematics education Á Curriculum Á History 1 Introduction Every country has its own historyORIGINAL ARTICLE A brief history of mathematics education in Turkey: K-12 mathematics curricula for K-12 schools. We consider the factors and reasons affecting curriculum developments, changes

  6. Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Boran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

  7. Urban planning in Turkey as a process of translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nihal Ekin Erkan

    2010-01-01

    There are several ways to define urban planning and to describe the diffusion of modern urban planning throughout the world. This article proposes a further way of describing this phenomenon by discussing the development of modern urban planning in Turkey as a process of translation. Modernization in Turkey has been experienced as a process of transfer of Western European models,

  8. Local economic development, decentralisation and consensus building in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gül Berna Özcan

    2000-01-01

    This study explores the prospects of decentralisation and consensus building within the context of local economic development in Turkey. The broad theoretical concern of this research is the tension between the centre and periphery in the governance structure of Turkey. Over 80 interviews from three rapidly growing medium-sized cities, Denizli, Gaziantep and Kayseri, indicate that considerable decentralisation in recent decades

  9. Socioscientific Issues in Science Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Mugaloglu, Ebru Zeynep; Guven, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the foci and results of studies on socioscientific issues (SSI) conducted in Turkey. Additionally, the study aimed to compare the results of this study with ones conducted internationally. For this aim, a literary review of empirical studies related to SSI conducted in Turkey was carried out. Four criteria…

  10. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekerol, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  11. International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

  12. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  13. Turkey: Human Rights And The European Union Accession Partnership

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Turkey: Human Rights And The European Union Accession Partnership is a 31-page report detailing Human Rights Watch's recommendations for the EU's Accession Partnership Document laying out the human rights criteria Turkey will have to meet to be granted EU membership.

  14. Climate Change And Agriculture In Turkey: A Cge Modeling Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erol H. Cakmak; Hasan Dudu; Sirin Saracoglu

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture remains an important source of income and employment in Turkey. Agricultural production is heavily dependent on water availability for increasing productivity and decreasing volatility in production. Half of the crop production in Turkey relies on irrigation. Irrigated agriculture currently consumes about 75 percent of total water consumption which is about 30 percent of renewable water availability. However climate change

  15. Republic of Turkey, State Institute of Statistics (SIS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    The State Institute of Statistics (SIS) produces, collects, and compiles national social, economic, cultural, and demographic data for the Republic of Turkey. The SIS, a division of the Prime Ministry, provides the latest figures, indicators, and statistical reports on Turkey published by the Turkish government and other international statistical agencies.

  16. Prevalence and distribution of tropical theileriosis in eastern Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Dumanli; M. Aktas; B. Cetinkaya; A. Cakmak; E. Koroglu; C. E. Saki; Z. Erdogmus; S. Nalbantoglu; H. Ongor; S. Sim?ek; M. Karahan; K. Altay

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and distribution of tropical theileriosis in cattle in eastern Turkey by microscopical, serological and molecular methods. A total of 1561 whole blood, 1505 serum and 1483 blood smear samples were collected from cattle of various breeds and ages in 11 towns of Eastern Turkey. Theileria annulata piroplasm DNA extracted from cattle

  17. Variations in the crustal structure beneath westernTurkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Saunders; Keith Priestley

    1998-01-01

    SUMMARY We use teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the crustal structure at two locations in westernTurkey using seismic data recorded on small arrays of temporary broad-band seismographs. The results from these analyses are compared with receiver function results from the GDSN station ANTO on the Anatolian Plateau in central Turkey. The crust is *30 km thick in the region of

  18. Sustainable development of hydropower and biomass energy in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Kaygusuz

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing energy demand for electricity and domestic heating in Turkey. Air pollutant emissions due to power generation and their harmful effects on the environment are also presented. We also argue in favor of small scale dams for sustainable development. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125

  19. The Use of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oczelik, Durmus Ali; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (TEO) (B. S. Bloom, 1956) in Turkey is reviewed, highlighting curriculum development, teaching and teacher education, and measurement and evaluation of learning. Developments in TEO use in the United States are followed in Turkey with a gap of 5 to 10 years. (SLD)

  20. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  1. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  2. INTESTINAL BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES OF DOMESTIC AND WILD TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

  3. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  4. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  5. General View of Teacher Education Policies of Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursimsek, Isik; And Others

    This paper describes the teacher education system in Turkey. It includes an overview of the history of modern teacher education in the country and outlines the current system. The present system actually began in 1924 with the Law on Unification of Education when all schools in Turkey were brought under a Ministry of National Education. Pre-school…

  6. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  7. RioGrande Wild Turkey Life History and Management Calendar

    E-print Network

    Locke, Shawn; Cathey, James; Collier, Bret; Hardin, Jason

    2008-05-08

    ResearchScientist/DepartmentofWildlifeandFisheriesSciences,allof TheTexasA&MSystem;andTurkeyProgramCoordinator,TexasParksand WildlifeDepartment. Rio Grande Wild Turkey Life History and Management Calendar Shawn Locke, James C. Cathey, Bret Collier and Jason Hardin* SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG...

  8. Energy production, consumption, policies, and recent developments in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Çanka Kiliç; Durmu? Kaya

    2007-01-01

    Turkey is geographically in the middle of the world, which means it is surrounded by the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. This area is not only geographically, but also economically, very important. Turkey has a very young and increasing population. In addition to the increase in population, a growing number of city dwellers and rapid economic development are causing

  9. Accidental finding of Hashimoto-like thyroiditis in male B.U.T. 6 turkeys at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Plesch, P; Schade, B; Breithaupt, A; Bellof, G; Kienzle, E

    2014-10-01

    In the context of a study on the tolerance of rapeseed meal in B.U.T. 6 turkeys, thyroid glands were histologically and immunohistochemically examined because of potential thyreostatic effects. In all groups including the controls with no rapeseed meal in their food, there was a high incidence of lymphocytic infiltration and thyroiditis (14% of thyroids with moderate to severe lymphocytic thyroiditis). Thirty per cent of mononuclear inflammatory cells were immunohistochemically identified as T cells. There were occasional accumulations of PAX-5 labelled cells, indicating germinal centre development. These lesions resemble Hashimoto's disease in humans. The effect on thyroid function is unknown. Mild hypothyreosis might enhance productivity but also explain dispositions towards diseases seen in context with thyroid dysfunction such as skin diseases (foot pad disease?) and cardiovascular problems. Further studies on thyroid function in these turkeys are needed. PMID:24313909

  10. Use of Landsat land surface temperature and vegetation indices for monitoring drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Osman; Ekercin, Semih; Dadaser-Celik, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST) changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation condition index (VCI), and temperature vegetation index (TVX) were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2°C) in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984-2011). Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5-2°C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin. PMID:24587709

  11. Web-Based Mass Transit Guide* Melihcan Trk, Computer Engineering Department, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

    E-print Network

    Akcan, Huseyin

    , Ankara, Turkey Gözde Kantarci, Department of Economics, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey and Hüseyin Akcan, Department of Software Engineering, Izmir University of Economics, Izmir, Turkey Abstract- Finding the best, especially in Turkey, can be very complex and hard to understand for a newcomer to the city. Therefore

  12. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    View Size: 124 kilometers (77 miles) wide, 148 kilometers (92 miles) distance Location: 39.7 degrees North latitude, 44.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: Looking South, 2 degrees down from horizontal, 1.25X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), August 31, 1989 (Landsat)

  13. French by Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Russell G.

    Satellite television is proposed as a useful source of authentic materials for French language instruction at the college level. It is argued that this medium illustrates to students that the language is used in a wide variety of everyday situations and contexts. The discussion begins with a brief description of common satellite technology,…

  14. Signals from Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect for relative motion between a source of waves and an observer and the orbital dynamics of communications satellites. Presents preliminary calculations of the satellite's altitude and linear velocity using only the concepts of the Doppler shift and the mechanics of motion in a circular path. (JRH)

  15. Satellite Teleconference Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin Community Coll., IL.

    The vocational education satellite teleconference project accomplished two goals: (1) identified, acquired, copied, and distributed to the Illinois Vocational Curriculum Center 100 marketing or training videotapes for staff development and classroom use; and (2) provided from 15-25 variable time (1- to 3-hour) satellite teleconferences in four…

  16. Interkosmos laser satellite rangefinder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Yegorov

    1978-01-01

    A laser satellite rangefinder, with the capability of measuring distances up to 3,000 km with an accuracy to plus or minus 5 m was developed. The instrument includes: a pointing mechanism, photoelectric detector, time interval counter and a standard time service system. Five copies of this instrument have already been fabricated and are now operating at the artificial earth satellite

  17. Mobile satellite communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. Wu; E. F. Miller; W. L. Pritchard; R. L. Pickholtz

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents an up-to-date overview as well as new results on mobile satellite communications. Specifically, the following subjects are addressed: worldwide activities; satellite orbits; multiple access techniques; Novstar global positioning system; economic and regulatory issues; future trends. Some of these technical and nontechnical subjects appeal disjoint, but they are unique and significant among the many facets, which effect the

  18. Amateur Radio Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David P.

    The Amateur Radio Satellite Communications project had, as its goal, the assembly of an amateur radio satellite station in a high school physics classroom. Specific objectives were to provide: (1) a special source of interest as a motivator for attracting students and building public relations; (2) a center of interest as a motivator for the study…

  19. Efficient Packet Satellite Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH K. DEROSA; LAWRENCE H. OZAROW; LESLIE N. WEINER

    1979-01-01

    This paper gives an extensive analysis of a Packet satellite (PACSAT) communications system that uses a digital processing satellite in a packet data network. It is shown that multiple uplinks coupled with on-board switching and storage can provide significant gains in throughput, efficiency, and margin against instability. Design tradeoffs are presented and the theoretical results are verified by extensive computer

  20. Audio direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite sound broadcasting is, as the name implies, the use of satellite techniques and technology to broadcast directly from space to low-cost, consumer-quality receivers the types of sound programs commonly received in the AM and FM broadcast bands. It would be a ubiquitous service available to the general public in the home, in the car, and out in the open.

  1. ASTER's Satellite Image Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    This site provides access to satellite images acquired by NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer satellite. The images are sorted into eight categories: Archeology, Cities, Geology, Hydrology, Land Use, Natural Hazards, and Volcanoes. Users can also view the most popular images and the most recent additions to the gallery.

  2. Disk-satellite interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Goldreich; S. Tremaine

    1980-01-01

    The rate at which angular momentum and energy are transferred between a disk and a satellite which orbit a central mass is calculated. It is shown that the angular momentum and energy transfer at Lindblad resonances tends to increase the satellite's orbit to lowest order in eccentricity, whereas the transfer at corotation resonances tends to decrease it. The results are

  3. Liver pathology associated with increased mortality in turkey breeder and meat turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Popp, Christina; Hauck, Rüdiger; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Lüschow, Dörte; Kershaw, B Olivia; Hoferer, Marc; Hafez, Hafez M

    2014-09-01

    Between 2006 and 2011 a series of disease conditions characterized by raised mortality and liver disorders occurred in turkey breeder flocks and in meat turkey flocks in Germany. The flocks were between 12 and 23 wk of age, and mostly hens were affected. Clinical signs were nonspecific and accompanied by mortality varying between 1% and 7%. Affected birds displayed swollen livers that were marbled with black and red spots and yellowish areas. The pericardium was filled with an amber fluid, and the coronary groove was extensively filled with fat. Spleens were swollen, and a serous fluid that seemed to leak from the liver was present in the body cavity. Histopathological findings in all but one case included fatty degeneration of hepatocytes with parenchymal collapse and associated hemorrhages. Some animals showed cholangitis and hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. In three cases with breeders, electron microscopy detected virus particles that were between 23 and 30 nm and similar to parvo- or picornavirus. In addition, picornavirus RNA was detected in the livers of one meat turkey flock. Investigations by PCR for circovirus, polyomavirus parvovirus, and aviadenovirus yielded negative results in all cases, but an aviadenovirus was isolated from livers twice and a reovirus from the intestines once. Supplementation with vitamin E and selenium seemed to improve the situation. The most likely diagnosis is lipidosis, a metabolic disorder with complex etiology, which has rarely been described in turkeys. PMID:25518445

  4. Optimization of Satellite Constellation Reconfiguration

    E-print Network

    Optimization of Satellite Constellation Reconfiguration by Uriel Scialom Submitted Students #12;2 #12;Optimization of Satellite Constellation Reconfiguration by Uriel Scialom Submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics Abstract Traditional satellite constellation

  5. Satellite networks for education.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of satellite-based educational networking. The characteristics and structure of networks are reviewed, and pressures within the educational establishment that are providing motivation for various types of networks are discussed. A number of studies are cited in which networking needs for educational sectors and services are defined. The current status of educational networking for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intrastate educational communication networks, computer networks, cable television for education, and continuing and proposed educational experiments using NASA's Applications Technology Satellites is reviewed. Possible satellite-based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems are described. Some remarks are made concerning public policy aspects of future educational satellite system development.

  6. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications

    E-print Network

    Giuseppe Vallone; Davide Bacco; Daniele Dequal; Simone Gaiarin; Vincenza Luceri; Giuseppe Bianco; Paolo Villoresi

    2014-06-16

    Quantum Communications on planetary scale require complementary channels including ground and satellite links. The former have progressed up to commercial stage using fiber-cables, while for satellite links, the absence of terminals in orbit has impaired theirs development. However, the demonstration of the feasibility of such links is crucial for designing space payloads and to eventually enable the realization of protocols such as quantum-key-distribution (QKD) and quantum teleportation along satellite-to-ground or intersatellite links. We demonstrated the faithful transmission of qubits from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors acting as transmitter in orbit, obtaining a low error rate suitable for QKD. We also propose a two-way QKD protocol exploiting modulated retroreflectors that necessitates a minimal payload on satellite, thus facilitating the expansion of Space Quantum Communications.

  7. The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliot, John R.; Copley, Alex C.; Holley, R.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Parsons, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), body wave seismology, satellite imagery, and field observations to constrain the fault parameters of the Mw?7.1?2011?Van (Eastern Turkey) reverse-slip earthquake, in the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Distributed slip models from elastic dislocation modeling of the InSAR surface displacements from ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed interferograms indicate up to 9?m of reverse and oblique slip on a pair of en echelon NW?40 °–54 ° dipping fault planes which have surface extensions projecting to just 10?km north of the city of Van. The slip remained buried and is relatively deep, with a centroid depth of 14?km, and the rupture reaching only within 8–9?km of the surface, consistent with the lack of significant ground rupture. The up-dip extension of this modeled WSW striking fault plane coincides with field observations of weak ground deformation seen on the western of the two fault segments and has a dip consistent with that seen at the surface in fault gouge exposed in Quaternary sediments. No significant coseismic slip is found in the upper 8?km of the crust above the main slip patches, except for a small region on the eastern segment potentially resulting from the Mw?5.9 aftershock on the same day. We perform extensive resolution tests on the data to confirm the robustness of the observed slip deficit in the shallow crust. We resolve a steep gradient in displacement at the point where the planes of the two fault segments ends are inferred to abut at depth, possibly exerting some structural control on rupture extent.

  8. Cold adapted avian pneumovirus for use as live, attenuated vaccine in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Patnayak, Devi P; Gulati, Baldev R; Sheikh, Anwar M; Goyal, Sagar M

    2003-03-28

    We report the development of a cold adapted strain of avian pneumovirus (APV) and its evaluation as a live vaccine candidate in 2-week-old turkey poults. A US isolate of APV (APV/MN/turkey/1-a/97) was serially passaged in Vero cells for 41 passages and then adapted to grow at sub-optimal temperatures by growing successively at 35, 33 and 31 degrees C for eight passages at each temperature. The virus thus adapted to grow at 31 degrees C was used as a candidate vaccine. The birds were vaccinated with two different doses of cold adapted virus and challenged with virulent virus 2 weeks after vaccination. No clinical signs were observed post-vaccination. Upon challenge, no clinical signs were seen in vaccinated birds but severe clinical signs were seen in non-vaccinated, challenged birds. The signs included unilateral or bilateral mucoid nasal discharge, watery eyes and swelling of infraorbital sinuses. The antibody levels in vaccinated birds were not very high. None of the vaccinated birds were found to shed virus after challenge in their choanal secretions whereas all of the non-vaccinated, challenged birds shed the virus. The absence of clinical signs and virus shedding in vaccinated birds as compared to that in non-vaccinated birds suggests that the cold adapted strain of APV is a viable candidate for use as a live, attenuated vaccine in turkeys. PMID:12615432

  9. The October 23, 2011, Van (Turkey) earthquake and its relationship with neighbouring structures.

    PubMed

    Moro M; Cannelli V; Chini M; Bignami C; Melini D; Stramondo S; Saroli M; Picchiani M; Kyriakopoulos C; Brunori C A

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports the analysis of a possible relationship due to stress transfer between the two earthquakes that hit the province of Van, Eastern Turkey, on October 23, 2011 (Mw = 7.2) and on November 9, 2011 (Mw = 5.6). The surface displacement field of the mainshock has been obtained through a combined data set made up of differential interferograms from COSMO-SkyMed and ENVISAT satellites, integrated with continuous GPS recordings from the Turkish TUSAGA-AKTIF network. This allowed us to retrieve the geometry and the slip distribution of the seismic source and to compute the Coulomb Failure Function (CFF) variation on the aftershock plane, in order to assess a possible causal relationship between the two events. Our results show that the November 9 earthquake could have been triggered by the October 23 shock, with transferred stress values largely exceeding 1 bar. PMID:24618651

  10. Quality control of station-based soil moisture observations over Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugrul Yilmaz, M.; Bulut, Burak; Cosh, Michael H.; Mladenova, Iliana

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is an essential variable in many hydrological applications like climate, drought, water and energy balance, weather prediction through its critical role in water and energy balance estimation. Soil moisture can be obtained using several different methods, like remote sensing-, station observation-, direct sampling-based. Station-based observations are widely used to validate satellite-based soil moisture products, making these observations to have very critical role in soil moisture estimation studies. Soil moisture observations are collected every 10 minutes since 2007 at 149 stations located over Turkey between 25.9°E - 41.8°E and 25.9°N - 41.8°N. These observation time-series are analyzed for the first time in this study for their consistency and reliability by classifying as "not reliable" and "reliable" after performing initially temperature correction and then quality control of the data.

  11. Hierarchical structures of correlations networks among Turkey’s exports and imports by currencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    We have examined the hierarchical structures of correlations networks among Turkey’s exports and imports by currencies for the 1996-2010 periods, using the concept of a minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT) which depend on the concept of ultrametricity. These trees are useful tools for understanding and detecting the global structure, taxonomy and hierarchy in financial markets. We derived a hierarchical organization and build the MSTs and HTs during the 1996-2001 and 2002-2010 periods. The reason for studying two different sub-periods, namely 1996-2001 and 2002-2010, is that the Euro (EUR) came into use in 2001, and some countries have made their exports and imports with Turkey via the EUR since 2002, and in order to test various time-windows and observe temporal evolution. We have carried out bootstrap analysis to associate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We have also used the average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) to observe the cluster structure more clearly. Moreover, we have obtained the bidimensional minimal spanning tree (BMST) due to economic trade being a bidimensional problem. From the structural topologies of these trees, we have identified different clusters of currencies according to their proximity and economic ties. Our results show that some currencies are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other currencies. We have also found that the obtained currencies play a key role for Turkey’s exports and imports and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  12. Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a potential target proteinase for Kazal-type inhibitor in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    S?owi?ska, Mariola; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bili?ska, Barbara; Koz?owski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A peculiar characteristic of turkey seminal plasma is the increased activity of serine proteinases. It is of interest if the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor controls the activity of turkey seminal plasma proteinases. Pure preparations of the Kazal-type inhibitor and anti-Kazal-type inhibitor monospecific immunoglobulin Gs were used as ligands in affinity chromatography for proteinase isolation from turkey seminal plasma. Gene expression and the immunohistochemical detection of the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor in the reproductive tract of turkey toms are described. The hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) was identified in the binding fraction in affinity chromatography. Hepatocyte growth factor activator activity was inhibited by the Kazal-type inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. This protease was a primary physiological target for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. Numerous proteoforms of HGFA were present in turkey seminal plasma, and phosphorylation was the primary posttranslational modification of HGFA. In addition to HGFA, acrosin was a target proteinase for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. In seminal plasma, acrosin was present only in complexes with the Kazal-type inhibitor and was not present as a free enzyme. The single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor was specific for the reproductive tract. The germ cell-specific expression of Kazal-type inhibitors in the testis indicated an important function in spermatogenesis; secretion by the epithelial cells of the epididymis and the ductus deferens indicated that the Kazal-type inhibitor was an important factor involved in the changes in sperm membranes during maturation and in the maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurred and sperm was stored. The role of HGFA in these processes remains to be established. PMID:25930730

  13. The Van Fault, Eastern Turkey: A Preliminary Geological Slip Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Kurban, Y.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a preliminary quaternary slip-rate study on the Van fault, the source of the 2011 Mw7.1 reverse-slip earthquake which caused heavy damage to the cities of Van and Ercis, eastern Turkey. From the InSAR solution, we see a strong depth cut-off at 10km depth, above which there was no slip on the fault. We have carried out an investigation of the geomorphological expression of the fault in quaternary material, to determine whether the fault reaches the surface and, if so, whether this upper section could fail in an earthquake. On the western segment of the Van fault, we observe quaternary scarps coincident with the surface projection of the fault segment identified by InSAR, which displace quaternary alluvial fan and lake-bed deposits. These are coincident with the observation of fault gouge in quaternary deposits at a road cutting, providing evidence for a fault reaching the surface and suggesting that the upper section is capable of rupturing seismically. We use structure-from-motion photogrammetry, differential GPS and terrestrial LiDAR to determine offsets on two generations of fault scarps, and the creep offsets from the period following the earthquake. Preliminary radiocarbon and OSL dates from two uplifted terrace surfaces allow us to estimate a late quaternary geological slip-rate for the fault. Following the GPS and InSAR solution of Dogan et al. 2014 (GRL v41,i7), we also present field evidence and satellite image observations confirming the presence of a splay fault within the northern suburbs of Van city, which experienced creep following the 2011 earthquake. This fault is observed to be particularly evident in the early high resolution satellite imagery from the declassified CORONA missions, highlighting the potential for these datasets in identifying faults in areas now covered by urban sprawl. It remains unclear whether this fault could fail seismically. The fault which failed in 2011 is a north dipping reverse fault, unmapped prior to the earthquake. We identify similar geomorphological structures in the surrounding region, highlighting the need for further detailed tectonic mapping of the region.

  14. Satellite Services Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Key issues associated with the orbital servicing of satellites are examined including servicing spacecraft and equipment, servicing operations, economics, satellite design, docking and berthing, and fluid management.

  15. AMPK?, C/EBP?, CPT1?, GPR43, PPAR?, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Choi, S H; Park, S K; Johnson, B J; Chung, K Y; Choi, C W; Kim, K H; Kim, W Y; Smith, B

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 ?g/mL insulin and 10 ?g/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 ?M palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1?) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1? gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPK? gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:25656188

  16. The perspective of immunoprophylaxis and selected immunological issues in the course of the turkey rhinotracheitis.

    PubMed

    Smia?ek, M; Tyka?owski, B; Stenzel, T; Koncicki, A

    2012-01-01

    This review article presents immunological issues in the course of the turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) emphasizing local immunity mechanisms, both humoral and cell-mediated, in the upper respiratory system. Studies on the influence of the humoral immunity in the course of infection and vaccinations against TRT have revealed many times the absence of correlation between the titre of specific IgY anti-aMPV (avian Metapneumovirus) antibodies in the serum and in the upper respiratory washings and the immunity against the occurrence of the clinical form of the TRT. Considering the above, T cells are increasingly often regarded as the main factor involved in the upper respiratory immunity against the TRT. However, there have been just a few reports on the role of the T cells in the local immunity processes in the infection with aMPV in turkeys. Additionally, studies of the T-cell-associated immunity against the TRT have given ambiguous results. Immunoprophylaxis issues against the aMPV infections are a significant part of the work where the authors confront current vaccination programmes against the perspectives of use of the future vaccines against the TRT. Future vaccines should face the following criteria: absence of the risk of immunosuppressive effect and reversion of vaccine strains virulence, ease-of-use combined with the possibility of administration of the vaccine to the large numbers of turkeys. The leading role in future vaccination programs for birds against the TRT is likely to be played by the in ovo technique and the recombinant vaccines. Great hopes are also linked with the development of subunit vaccines against the aMPV. PMID:22708375

  17. Enterococci with Glycopeptide Resistance in Turkeys, Turkey Farmers, Turkey Slaughterers, and (Sub)Urban Residents in the South of The Netherlands: Evidence for Transmission of Vancomycin Resistance from Animals to Humans?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELLEN STOBBERINGH; ANTHONY VAN DEN BOGAARD; NANCY LONDON; CHRISTEL DRIESSEN; JANETTA TOP; ROB WILLEMS

    1999-01-01

    The number of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) relative to the total number of enterococci was determined in fecal samples from turkeys and three human populations in 1996, each with a different level of contact with turkeys, i.e., turkey farmers, turkey slaughterers, and (sub)urban residents. The percentage of VRE relative to the total enterococcal population (i.e., the degree of resistance) was low

  18. Smoking habits and cadmium intake in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar El-Agha; ?nci G. Gökmen

    2002-01-01

    Tobacco was estimated to account over 4 million annual deaths in 1998 and deaths attributable to tobacco usage will rise to\\u000a 8.4 million in 2020 (http:\\/\\/tobacco.who.int\\/en\\/advocacy\\/wntdzoola.html.) In Turkey, 74% of the males and 29% of the females\\u000a are smoking, and each year, 150,000 deaths are associated with cigaret smoking. There are 4700 chemical compounds in cigaret\\u000a smoke, including 43 carcinogens.

  19. Influenza A and paramyxoviruses in turkeys 

    E-print Network

    Ranck, Floyd Merrill

    1968-01-01

    ' * b serious threat to the animal's survival. Chronic respiratory d' (GRD) ' '1d d' ' b' k* d by ~b( 1 ~tt' tt (btG). E p ' t )' 1 t' ' gb(Gi chickens and turkeys have produced gross lesions in the air sacs as well as other changes (16, 29). When... and stored in a freezer. The individual groups of poults were designated A, B, C, D, E, and F. Inoculations were made via the posterior thoracic air sacs by using a plastic tuberculin syringe and inserting a 5/gu 25 guage needle between the last two ribs...

  20. First steps to the Solar Power Satellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Glaser; G. M. Hanley; R. H. Nansen; R. L. Kline

    1979-01-01

    The Solar Power Satellite (SPS) concept is described in the light of the so-called reference system, developed by the Department of Energy and NASA as a guideline for evaluating the SPS's technical, environmental, economic, and societal problems. The silicon solar-array design is considered, and it is noted that in order to extend the life of the cells the reference design

  1. Development of the satellite solar power station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Glaser

    1976-01-01

    An overview is given of the proposed course of development of a satellite solar power station (SSPS). The technologies under consideration for solar energy conversion, power transmission to earth, and transportation of the system or system components to orbit are discussed. A preliminary design for an SSPS based on single-crystal silicon solar cell arrays has been evolved. Two solar collector

  2. Swedish small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, K.; von Scheele, F.

    2004-11-01

    In 1986 the first Swedish small satellite VIKING was launched on the Ariane 1 rocket together with the French remote sensing satellite SPOT-1. This paper describes the development of Swedish small satellites in an international framework. The satellites have delivered excellent scientific data to a low cost by using e.g. streamlined project organisations, competitive procurement programs and piggy-back launch opportunities. The first micro satellite Astrid-1 was launched in January 1995 and was followed by the launch of Astrid-2 in December 1998. The capable Odin small satellite was launched in February 2001. SSC was also contracted for ESA's SMART-1 probe destined to the Moon. SMART-1, launched in September 2003, is used for both research and as a technology demonstrator for future projects. Future proposed projects include micro and small satellites for climate research as the Atmosphere and Climate Explorer Plus (ACE+), the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange And climate Monitor (STEAM) and PRISMA, a technology demonstrator for formation flying, new propulsion system and commercial development methods.

  3. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C.; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J.; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing. PMID:24733950

  4. Evaluating climate change effects on water and salt resources in Salt Lake, Turkey using multitemporal SPOT imagery.

    PubMed

    Ekercin, Semih; Ormeci, Cankut

    2010-04-01

    The main goal of this study is to investigate the dimension of climate change effects in Salt Lake and its vicinity in Turkey using satellite remote sensing data. The first stage of the study includes evaluation of the multitemporal climatic data on the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey for a period of 35 years (1970-2005). The changes in mean temperature and precipitation are evaluated for the study area by comparing two periods, 1970-1992 and 1993-2005. In the second stage, the effects of climate changes in the Salt Lake are investigated by evaluating water and salt reserve changes through seasonal and multitemporal SPOT imagery collected in 1987 and 2005. The climatic data and remotely sensed and treated satellite images show that water and salt reserve in Salt Lake has decreased between 1987 and 2005 due to drought and uncontrolled water usage. It is suggested that the use of water supplies, especially underground waters, around the Salt Lake should be controlled and the lake should regularly be monitored by current remote sensing data for an effective management of water and salt resources in the region. PMID:19267206

  5. The Role of Domestic Factors in the Formation of Trade Unions: A Look at Turkey/EU Relations 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, Kristina Lynne

    2008-08-19

    studied Turkey and the European Union (EU). Turkey was officially admitted as a candidate country to the EU in 1997. Despite efforts to meet EU demands, Turkey’s admittance has been blocked. As recently as 2007 Turkey was denied membership, while...

  6. Satellite selection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klosko, S. M.; Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Colombo, O. L.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt is made to give relative weight to the factors which influence the selection of satellites for inclusion in the gravity modeling problem associated with TOPEX. This scheme gives both credits and demerits in this process and does so in a relative sense stressing characteristics which are most important while factoring in the major problems associated with some satellites. Selection factors include a data value assessment, uniqueness of orbital characteristics, satellite similarity to TOPEX sensitivities, apsidal coverage, nonconservative force influences, and sensitivity to the anomalous field.

  7. Remote Sensing Using Satellites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathryn Ginger

    1998-06-30

    This website was developed for undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory earth or atmospheric science course. It is designed to supplement lecture and textbooks. Its goal is to make you a better consumer of weather information by providing dynamic graphics, animations, and science content about remote sensing, visible and infrared satellite imagery, and hurricanes. As part of the module, you will apply what you've learned by exploring recent hurricanes through satellite imagery. When you have completed this module, you should be able to view satellite imagery in a typical weather forecast on TV or the Web and recognize the importance of some features.

  8. Satellite Tracking Threatened Species

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have combined forces to produce this Website on the use of satellite tracking to monitor migration routes of endangered birds. Targeting the general public, the site introduces readers to satellite tracking (using Direct Readout technology), offers animations of bird flight paths (see the section entitled Birdtracks), and gives additional information on birds (in the Bird Data Archives, select a bird and watch its flight path through time). While bird information is limited to several larger species (due to the size/weight of attached transmitters), the resource serves as a useful information base for anyone wishing to learn more about satellite tracking.

  9. FUSE satellite electrical power subsystem

    SciTech Connect

    Roufberg, L.; Noah, K.

    1998-07-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite will be placed into a low earth orbit to investigate astrophysical processes related to the formation and development of the early universe. The FUSE satellite is considered a pathfinder for NASA's Mid-Class Explorers (MIDEX). To reduce mission cost and development time while delivering quality science, NASA has enforced strict cost caps with a clear definition of high-level science objectives. As a result, a significant design driver for the electrical power subsystem (EPS) was to minimize cost. The FUSE EPS is a direct energy transfer, unregulated bus architecture, with batteries directly on the bus and solar array power limted by pulse-width-modulated shunt regulators. The power subsystem electronics (PSE) contains circuitry to control battery charging, provide power to the loads, and provide fault protection. The electronics is based on the PSE which Orbital (formerly, Fairchild Space) designed and built for NASA/GSFC's XTE spacecraft. However, the FUSE PSE design incorporates a number of unique features to meet the mission requirements. To minimize size of the solar panels due to stowed attachment constraints, GaAs/Ge solar cells were selected. This is the first time this type of large area, thinned solar cell with integral bypass diodes are being used for a NASA LEO mission. The solar panels support a satellite load power of 520W. Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries are used which are identical to the RADARSAT-I design, except for different temperature sensors. This is the first mission for which Orbital is using SAFT NiCd batteries. The spacecraft bus, including the EPS, has successfully completed environmental testing and has been delivered for instrument integration. Tradeoffs involved in designing the EPS and selecting components based on the requirements are discussed. Analyses including solar array and battery sizing and energy balance are presented in addition to results from testing the flight hardware.

  10. Orbit determination accuracies using satellite-to-satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Argentiero, P. D.; Schmid, P. E.

    1977-01-01

    The uncertainty in relay satellite sate is a significant error source which cannot be ignored in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data. Based on simulations and real data reductions, it is numerically impractical to use simultaneous unconstrained solutions to determine both relay and user satellite epoch states. A Bayesian or least squares estimation technique with an a priori procedure is presented which permits the adjustment of relay satellite epoch state in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data without the numerical difficulties introduced by an ill-conditioned normal matrix.

  11. Synthetic Aperture Characterization of Radar Satellite Constellations Nathan A. Goodman and James M. Stiles

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    Synthetic Aperture Characterization of Radar Satellite Constellations Nathan A. Goodman and James M- The concept of radar satellite constellations, or clusters, for SAR and other radar modes has been proposed cell can change dramatically, however, depending on the number of satellites in the constellation

  12. Mapping the Tobacco Retailers in Edirne, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karl?kaya, Celal; ?nce, Hüseyin; Özkan, Nurcan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. Material and Methods: In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. Results: There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. Conclusion: We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment. PMID:25207039

  13. Neonatal avian pneumovirus infection in commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Shin, H J; Jirjis, F F; Kumar, M C; Njenga, M K; Shaw, D P; Noll, S L; Nagaraja, K V; Halvorson, D A

    2002-01-01

    Eleven market turkey flocks developed a respiratory disease characterized by coughing, swollen sinuses and nasal discharge. These symptoms first appeared between 3 and 16 days of age. Avian pneumovirus (APV) RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in six of six flocks tested. APV was detected by immunohistochemistry in turbinates of three of three affected flocks tested. Virus isolation attempts were negative. Ten of 11 flocks became seropositive on the APV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Five weeks prior to hatch of these affected market turkeys, several breeder flocks in one geographic area had developed clinical signs and experienced decline in egg production typical of APV infection. In two breeder flocks, acute and convalescent sera indicated APV infection during the period of declining egg production. Attempts to detect APV RNA by RT-PCR from choanal cleft swabs of newly hatched poults were successful. Attempts to isolate the virus from these PCR-positive samples were negative. PMID:11922343

  14. Characteristic and Non-characteristic Pathological Findings in Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) of Sheep in the Ege District of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Toplu

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the pathological and immunohistochemical findings in naturally infected lambs from three outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Mugla and Aydin provinces of the Ege district of Turkey. At necropsy, ulcerative stomatitis, catarrhal or fibrinous bronchopneumonia, and acute catarrhal enteritis were observed. Histopathologically, syncytial cells containing inclusion bodies were seen in the tongue and in the buccal,

  15. Small Satellite Propulsion Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Curran, Francis M.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced chemical and low power electric propulsion offer attractive options for small satellite propulsion. Applications include orbit raising, orbit maintenance, attitude control, repositioning, and deorbit of both Earth-space and planetary spacecraft. Potential propulsion technologies for these functions include high pressure Ir/Re bipropellant engines, very low power arcjets, Hall thrusters, and pulsed plasma thrusters, all of which have been shown to operate in manners consistent with currently planned small satellites. Mission analyses show that insertion of advanced propulsion technologies enables and/or greatly enhances many planned small satellite missions. Examples of commercial, DoD, and NASA missions are provided to illustrate the potential benefits of using advanced propulsion options on small satellites.

  16. Civil satellite navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Walter F.

    1991-07-01

    The use of satellite navigation for civil purposes is examined critically to compare the merits and costs of existing and practical satellite systems. Accuracy and range considerations are reviewed, and the basic requirements of radionavigation systems are set forth. Specific data are given regarding coverage area, integration with ground-based systems, monitoring and control, and accuracy. Systems reviewed include 'Starfix,' Inmarsat, EVA Vavsat, and Geostar/Locstar/Omnitracs, and extensive illustrations are provided to demonstrate constellation geometries. When in view, two or three geosynchronous satellites can provide acceptable fixing, and 9 satellites can provide global coverage. It is argued that systems such as 'Starfix' are commercially viable with less than 100 users, and Inmarsat is identified as an effective European civil system.

  17. Domestic Communication Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  18. Communication satellite antennas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEON J. RICARDI

    1977-01-01

    During the previous two decades, communication satellites have developed from the pioneering Telstar to the highly sophisticated ATS-6. Concurrrently, the spacecraft antennas have developed from a low-gain \\

  19. Disaster warning satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Disaster Warning Satellite System is described. It will provide NOAA with an independent, mass communication system for the purpose of warning the public of impending disaster and issuing bulletins for corrective action to protect lives and property. The system consists of three major segments. The first segment is the network of state or regional offices that communicate with the central ground station; the second segment is the satellite that relays information from ground stations to home receivers; the third segment is composed of the home receivers that receive information from the satellite and provide an audio output to the public. The ground stations required in this system are linked together by two, separate, voice bandwidth communication channels on the Disaster Warning Satellites so that a communications link would be available in the event of disruption of land line service.

  20. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  1. Satellite Research Group

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOAA's Ocean Remote Sensing Division runs the Satellite Research Group, which uses data from environmental satellites to study seasonal and interannual climate variability. Research areas include air-sea interaction (and transfers of heat, momentum, and water); the global hydrological cycle (including water vapor and precipitation); the Earth's radiation budget; and real-time monitoring of the El Nino/La Nina oscillation. Each research area is described in detail at the Website, and links connect users to the latest real-time geostationary satellite data images, as well as to the absolutely spectacular climate image archives. For researchers interested in regional or global scale climate patterns or the use of satellite technology for research purposes, this is an excellent resource.

  2. Microbiological and nutritional aspects of pendulous crop in turkey poults 

    E-print Network

    Wheeler, Harry Ogden

    1959-01-01

    reported, by Ladder (19.52), and it w?s possible to ascertain the genus and species of the organisms present in the crop contents of the turkeys? Blv>od alcohol determinations on turkeys and bacterial medium. The findings from this preceding experiment...LI HR A R Y U M o-LLbiit OF TEXAS MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF PENDULOUS CROP IN TURKEY' POULTS A JBtssertation By HARRT 0. WHEELER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanics,! College of Texas...

  3. United States relations with Turkey, 1939-1945 

    E-print Network

    Simper, Calvin Charles

    1971-01-01

    with France and England. Almost iw. ediateiy after the Turkish shift in policy, Europe plunged into the second !world Mar and Turkey found herself formally tied to one of the alliances. This became an uncomfortable posi- tion after the fal'I of France...!jce ov r Turkish affairs, except on the matter of Turkey's chrone exports. To the United States the importance of th se exports lay not, in tlleir intrinsic worth, but rather they served as an indication of Turkey's 1eanings torjard the be11'rgorents...

  4. Handset antennas using satellite pack for mobile satellite telephone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Arai; H. Hoshino; T. Sato; Y. Otsu

    1997-01-01

    The Engineering Test Satellite-N (ETS-N) planned to be launched about 2002 in Japan will test S-band satellite mobile commnunications and broadcasting systems by using geostationary satellite. To realize the satellite handy phone service and CD quality radio, it is required to develop a high-performance multi-beam satellite antenna of more than ten meters deployable reflector and innovative feed system, a high

  5. Launching a Satellite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Isaac Newton?s famous thought experiment about what would happen if you launched a cannon from a mountaintop at a high velocity comes to life with an interactive computer model. You are charged with the task of launching a satellite into space. Control the angle and speed at which the satellite is launched, and see the results to gain a basic understanding of escape velocity.

  6. Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Near real-time tool for collecting, managing and sharing marine life satellite tracking data. Over 30 projects in US, Caribbean, Mediterranean, Indo-Pacific, and Australian waters. Provides links to background information for each project, the animals they are tracking, and maps that are updated regularly. Teaching resources include maps for tracking, suggestions for using data in lessons on geography, biology, earth science, math. Good introduction to satellite telemetry methodology and applications.

  7. G-MG Satellite

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A satellite orbiting the earth uses radar to communicate with two control stations on the earth's surface. The satellite is in a geostationary orbit. T...

  8. Sequence Analysis of the Matrix (M2) Protein Gene of Avian Pneumovirus Recovered from Turkey Flocks in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arshud M. Dar; Shirin Munir; Sagar M. Goyal; Vivek Kapur

    2003-01-01

    Pneumoviruses are associated with respiratory tract infec- tions in humans and animals (5, 9). Avian pneumovirus (APV) established itself in U.S. turkeys as an acute respiratory tract infection in late 1996 (4, 12). Comparative sequence analysis of the N, P, M, and F genes from cell culture-adapted viruses has shown that the U.S. virus is distinct from previously described members

  9. Let's Talk Turkey -Facts for Food Safety It is important to be careful when you handle, store, cook, and serve turkey.

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Let's Talk Turkey - Facts for Food Safety It is important to be careful when you handle, store onto other foods. Place the turkey on a shelf below fresh fruits or vegetables or cooked food. It takes.....................5 to 6 days A thawed turkey can remain in the refrigerator for 1 or 2 days before cooking. Foods

  10. Efficacy of turkey herpesvirus vaccine when administered simultaneously with fowl pox vaccine.

    PubMed

    Eidson, C S; Villegas, P; Kleven, S H

    1975-11-01

    The efficacy of the turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine in protecting chickens challenged with virulent Marek's disease (MD) virus was unaffected by the presence of either the chick embryo fowl pox vaccine or fowl pox vaccine derived from cell culture. Conversely the HVT vaccine did not affect the efficacy of the fowl pox vaccine in chickens challenged with pathogenic fowl pox virus. A combination of spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate and lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate as well as spectinomycin sulfate tetrahydrate were found to be compatible with the HVT and fowl pox vaccines as demonstrated by resistance after challenge with virulent MD virus or fowl pox virus. PMID:180502

  11. Silencing the Kir4.1 potassium channel subunit in satellite glial cells of the rat trigeminal ganglion results in pain-like behavior in the absence of nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Vit, Jean-Philippe; Ohara, Peter T.; Bhargava, Aditi; Kelley, Kanwar; Jasmin, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that changes in the ion buffering capacity of glial cells can give rise to neuropathic pain. In the CNS, potassium ion (K+) buffering is dependent on the glia-specific inward rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1. We recently reported that the satellite glial cells (SGCs) that surround primary sensory neurons located in sensory ganglia of the peripheral nervous system also express Kir4.1 while the neurons do not. In the present study we show that in the rat trigeminal ganglion, the location of the primary sensory neurons for face sensation, specific silencing of Kir4.1 using RNA interference leads to spontaneous and evoked facial pain-like behavior in freely moving rats. We also show that Kir4.1 in the trigeminal ganglion is reduced following chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve. These findings suggests that neuropathic pain can result from a change in expression of a single K+ channel in peripheral glial cells, raising the possibility of targeting Kir4.1 to treat pain in general, and particularly neuropathic pain that occurs in the absence of nerve injury. PMID:18417695

  12. Evaluation of biotin supplementation on the performance of turkey breeder hens and turkey poults

    E-print Network

    Krueger, Kenneth Kay

    1972-01-01

    supplementation on egg weight in Beltsville Small White turkey hens 53 INTRODUCTION Biotin, a water soluble vitamin associated with carbon dioxide fixation and decarboxylation, occurs in small amounts in the tissues of all mammals and birds. Kogl and Hasselt... factor for many vertebrates. It is probably required by all rapidly growing tissues and is believed to affect carbon dioxide fixation, carboxylation and decarboxylation in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as the synthesis of long-chain fatty...

  13. Sodium-sulfur batteries for satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanczyk, Stephan M.; Vukson, Stephen P.

    1990-04-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the USAF's various efforts to advance sodium-sulfur battery technology as a basis for GEO and LEO satellite energy storage systems. These efforts encompass the High Energy Density Rechargeable Battery program, the LEO Sodium-Sulfur Cell Development program, the Improved Sodium-Sulfur Electrolyte program, and the Lightweight Aerospace Battery (LAB) program. An especially taxing requirement for batteries of this type is the substantial number of charge/discharge cycles typical of LEO satellite applications. The LAB program, which will extend to 1993, is intended to develop a bipolar, flat-plate sodium-sulfur satellite battery with 7-10 year service life in LEO and 15 years in GEO.

  14. Generic satellite monitoring expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Loretta A.

    1994-12-01

    Air Force Satellite Operations is undergoing major changes. Operators no longer receive detailed satellite training, instead they are taught basic fundamentals of satellite operations and expected to control multiple multimillion dollar satellites. The need is clear. An efficient and economical automated system is necessary to assist the satellite operator in the daily tasks of maintaining these DOD priority resources. Satellite intelligent controllers have been under R&D since the early 1980's to meet this need. These systems, however, have focused on the control of one constellation of satellites. In a military striving for efficiency and lower costs, developing a unique intelligent controller for each satellite constellation is unaffordable. This research provided support for the concept of a generic satellite intelligent controller, through the development of a prototype expert system. This capability would allow a generic rule-base to operate and maintain multiple satellite systems. The initial prototype detected anomalies on one subsystem of two different satellites. After the third satellite prototype was created, a third satellite was analyzed to show support for the viability of the satellite prototype. More research is necessary, but this thesis has created support for the concept of generic satellite controller and has laid the foundation for future extensions.

  15. Habitat Appraisal Guide for Rio Grande Wild Turkey 

    E-print Network

    Cathey, James; Locke, Shawn; Ransom, Dean; DeMaso, Stephen; Schwertner, T. Wayne; Collier, Bret

    2007-09-04

    The Rio Grande wild turkey habitat appraisal guide gives landowners and managers a standardized, systematic way to evaluate current habitat conditions. It can be used to identify limiting factors. It also contains suggestions for improving...

  16. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J.A.; Smith, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  17. Experimental transmission of Chlamydia psittaci to turkeys from wild birds.

    PubMed

    Grimes, J E; Owens, K J; Singer, J R

    1979-01-01

    Wild birds were inoculated with Chlamydia psittaci to determine species that could be potential hosts and vectors in transmitting the agent to domestic turkeys. Infection occurred in turkeys exposed to starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), and Inca doves (Cardafella inca). Mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) shed the agent sparingly, but turkeys exposed to them did not become infected, These findings and knowledge of the habits of these various species are discussed. It was concluded that the Inca dove should be considered a potential source of turkey chlamydiosis in Texas. The species studied and other species not studied should be included in serologic surveys and surveillance studies attempting isolation of chlamydiae. PMID:546413

  18. The Moss Flora of Akda? Mountain (Amasya, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akda? Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey. PMID:25587573

  19. Microstructures of the Kirsehir Complex, Central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ISIK, V.; Caglayan, A.; Uysal, T.; Bolhar, R.

    2011-12-01

    Turkey is positioned on the boundary between the Eurasian and African/Arabian plates, providing an ideal natural laboratory for learning passive and active earth processes such as deformation, metamorphism, earthquakes and volcanism. Central Turkey historically has played an important role in evolution of the Alpine orogeny. The Kirsehir Complex is one of three Mesozoic-Early Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic mid-crustal basement units exposed in central Turkey. The most common lithology of the metamorphites are the banded gneisses, which are intercalated with layers of schists, amphibolites and quartzite, and marbles representing the structurally the highest metamorphites of the study area. The metamorphites are characterized by multiple folding episodes and overprinting faults (thrust, normal and strike-slip). These metamorphites reached peak metamorphic conditions of upper amphibolite facies, as indicated by local presence of clinopyroxene, sillimanite, hornblende, andalusite and garnet. Later, retrograde greenschist facies conditions were attained characterized by the alteration of feldspar and mafic minerals to muscovite and chlorite/actinolite, respectively. The microstructures of selected minerals can be used to bracket the metamorphic grade during which microstructure formed. Quartz displays undulose extinction, deformation bands, subgrains and deformation lamellae, and recrystallisation. The presence of lobate grain boundaries of quartz indicates that GBM recrystallisation occurred. Undulose extinction and recrystallisation are common in micas. Recrystallisation, core-mantle structures in feldspar, myrmekites in K-feldspars within the gneisses suggest that deformation occurred within the amphibolite facies. Garnet occurs as slightly elliptical porphroclats. Sillimanite is present as fibrolite growing near biotite and microboudinaged. Andalusite porphyroblast/porphroclats are elongate and microboudinaged. Kinematic indicators (asymmetric mantled grains, S-C fabrics and mineral fish) suggest top-to-the-southwest shear sense. Our preliminary field observations and microstructure studies suggest the following deformation history in the study area: (1) S-directed thrusting, folding of bedding and forming of S1 foliation, (2) the forming of S2 foliation/mineral stretching lineation/kinematic indicators, emplacement of plutons and exhumation of metamorphites during regional extension, (3) folding of metamorphites, plutons and Paleogene sedimentary units, NNE-directed thrusting and local S3 foliation.

  20. Weather Satellite Thermal IR Responses Prior to Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Daniel P.

    2005-01-01

    A number of observers claim to have seen thermal anomalies prior to earthquakes, but subsequent analysis by others has failed to produce similar findings. What exactly are these anomalies? Might they be useful for earthquake prediction? It is the purpose of this study to determine if thermal anomalies can be found in association with known earthquakes by systematically co-registering weather satellite images at the sub-pixel level and then determining if statistically significant responses occurred prior to the earthquake event. A new set of automatic co-registration procedures was developed for this task to accommodate all properties particular to weather satellite observations taken at night, and it relies on the general condition that the ground cools after sunset. Using these procedures, we can produce a set of temperature-sensitive satellite images for each of five selected earthquakes (Algeria 2003; Bhuj, India 2001; Izmit, Turkey 2001; Kunlun Shan, Tibet 2001; Turkmenistan 2000) and thus more effectively investigate heating trends close to the epicenters a few hours prior to the earthquake events. This study will lay tracks for further work in earthquake prediction and provoke the question of the exact nature of the thermal anomalies.