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Sample records for turkey satellite cell

  1. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form of control is to determine which of the many growth factors that can alter satellite cell behavior in vitro are at work in vivo. Little work has been done to determine what controls are at work after a regeneration response has been initiated. It seems likely that, after injury, growth factors are liberated through proteolytic activity and initiate an activation process whereby cells enter into a proliferative phase. After myofibers are formed, it also seems likely that satellite cell behavior is regulated through diffusible factors arising from the fibers rather than continuous control by circulating factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  2. The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation (25 Gy) on the subsequent in vitro growth of satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Schultz, E.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation on subsequent satellite cell growth, in vitro, was investigated to ascertain the ability of a 25 Gy dose to inhibit satellite cell proliferation. Satellite cells were isolated from the left (irradiated) and right (non-irradiated) Pectoralis thoracicus of two-week-old tom turkeys 16 h (n=3) and seven weeks (n=2) after the left Pectoralis thoracicus had been irradiated (25 Gy). Satellite cells isolated from the irradiated and non-irradiated muscles exhibited similar (P>0.10) in vitro proliferation indicating that a population of satellite cells survived an in vivo dose of 25 Gy. In additional experiments, satellite cell cultures derived from tom turkey Pectoralis thoracicus were irradiated (25 Gy) in vitro. The number of satellite cells did not (P>0.05) increase in irradiated cultures for 134 h following irradiation, while satellite cells in non-irradiated cultures proliferated (P<0.05) over this time. At later time periods, satellite cell number increased (P<0.05) in irradiated cultures indicating that a population of satellite cells survived irradiation. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that a 25 Gy dose of irradiation does not abolish satellite cell divisions in the turkey Pectoralis thoracicus.

  3. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  4. Old high resolution satellite images for landscape archaeology: case studies from Turkey and Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    The paper concerns the contribution for Landscape Archaeology from satellite images of 1960s and 1970s, very useful when old aerial photographs are scarce. Particularly, the study concerns the panchromatic photos taken by USA reconnaissance satellites from 1963 to 1972, declassified for civil use in 1995 and 2002, that in the last years are very used in the archaeological research; in fact, a lot of these images have an high geometric resolution, about between 2.74 and 1.83 m (Corona KH-4A and KH-4B), and some have a ground resolution about between 1.20 and 0.60 m (Gambit KH-7). These satellite images allow to examine very in detail ancient urban areas and territories that later are changed or partially destroyed; so, it is possible to detect and examine ancient structures, palaeo-environmental elements and archaeological traces of buried features now not visible. The paper presents some exemplificative cases study in Turkey and Iraq, in which the analysis of these images has made a fundamental contribution to the archaeological researches: particularly, for the reconstruction of the urban layout of the ancient city of Hierapolis of Phrygia and for the surveys in its territory, and for the study of the ancient topography of some archaeological sites of Iraq. In this second case, the research is gained in the context of the Iraq Virtual Museum Project; the comparison with recent high resolution satellite images (Ikonos-2, QuickBird-2, WorldView-1) also provide a fundamental tool for monitoring archaeological areas and for an evaluation of the situation after the first and the second Gulf War.

  5. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P.; McKay, Bryon R.; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  6. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  7. A webgis supported snow information system with long time satellite data for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surer, S.; Bolat, K.; Akyurek, Z.

    2012-04-01

    KARBILSIS is an online platform which is developed in order to provide end-users with daily remote sensing snow products for Turkey (www.karbilsis.com). The project has been started as a research activity after an award by Ministry of Science and Technology has been granted to our company. At the first stage of our project MODIS atmospherically corrected reflectance data has been downloaded covering the period of 2000-2011 which makes more than ten years of satellite imagery for Turkey. The archived MODIS data that have been obtained from National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is mainly MOD09GA product that includes seven spectral bands. Only the tiles which are covering Turkey have been archived namely 19&20 horizontal and 4&5 vertical ones. In order to provide scientists with a website giving the availability of analysis of snow covered area for long terms based on their area of interests, a fractional snow extent (FSE) product has been generated. For FSE product a normalized difference snow index (NDSI) based algorithm has been developed using daily land surface reflectance values (MOD09GA). In addition to MODIS data, four different Landsat images belonging to different days of snowy period (January, March, and May) have been used during algorithm development taking into account a better representation of different reflectance values of snow which highly varies depending on the accumulation and melting periods. Landsat images were used as reference images. First the Landsat images were orthorectified and mapped to a cartographic projection. Then image segmentation was applied to obtain homogeneous tiles, where the homogeneity is defined as similarity in pixel values. The mean-shift segmentation approach, where each pixel was associated with a significant mode of the joint domain density located in its neighborhood, was applied. After segmentation, the image was classified into snow and no-snow classes with Maximum Likelihood Classification Method. FSE products have been produced for around 12 years from 2000 to 2012 and it is being produced daily as the data is available. 72% overall accuracy was obtained from the validation analysis. Our website will be available to give service to our users to make analysis on snow extent with a long time series database for free. By the help of WEBGIS interface it is going to be possible to produce time series of snow cover areas, and produce graphs and summary statistics for a better management of information on snow cover in various fields from flood forecast integration, energy production planning of hydropower plants which are fed from snow melting, and producing input for climate models.

  8. Analysing Regional Land Surface Temperature Changes by Satellite Data, a Case Study of Zonguldak, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, S.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, climate change is one of the most important problems that the ecological system of the world has been encountering. Global warming and climate change have been studied frequently by all disciplines all over the world and Geomatics Engineering also contributes to such studies by means of remote sensing, global positioning system etc. Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing satellites is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and there are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. Generally three algorithms are used to obtain LST by using Landsat 5 TM data. These algorithms are radiative transfer equation method, single channel method and mono-window algorithm. Radiative transfer equation method is not applicable because during the satellite pass, atmospheric parameters must be measured in-situ. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Acquisition date of the image is 28.08.2011 and our study area is Zonguldak, Turkey. High resolution images are used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of these analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperature than the city center and arid land. Because different surface properties like reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank are all together in city center, LST differs about 10 ºC in the city center. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region Çatala?z?, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature because of land cover structure. Thanks to this research, LST has been obtained by remote sensing technique. Satellite imagery is an effective method to retrieve LST maps for large areas. LST maps can be generated periodically by means of satellite images. So, it can not only be useful for agricultural activities but also for preparing a substructure especially for regional climate change researches.

  9. Using Cell Phones From Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    During the past several years, an interest has grown in using commercial telecommunications techniques to supply Telemetry and Command (T&C) services. Recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) has outlined plans to utilize satellite-based telecommunications services to support space operations in space missions over the next several decades. NASA currently obtains the bulk of its telecommunications services for earth-orbiting satellites via the existing government-owned and controlled Space Network (SN) system. This system consists of the constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and the associated ground terminals and communications intrastructure. This system is valuable and effective for scientific satellites costing over one million dollars. However, for smaller satellites, this system becomes problematic due to the cost of transponders and support infrastructure. The nominal transponders for using the TDRS cannot be obtained for a cost in dollars, and size, weight, or power that the 3 Corner Satellite project can afford. For these types of nanosatellite missions, alternatives that fit the mission cost and satellite profiles are needed. In particular, low-cost access using existing commercial infrastructure would be useful to mission planners. In particular, the ability to obtain low data rate T&C services would be especially valuable. The nanosatellites generally have low T&C requirements and therefore would benefit from using commercial services that could operate in the 2400 bps - 9600 bps range, especially if contact times longer than the 5 - 10 minute ground station passes could be found.

  10. Determination of horizontal and vertical distribution of Calabrian pine stands in Turkey using SRTM satellite data and GIS.

    PubMed

    Yener, Hakan

    2013-09-01

    Forest areas in Turkey are generally spread on rugged terrain and different elevations. Site factors such as location, elevation from sea level, aspect and slope are effective on an ecosystem's climate, soil characteristics, and hence vegetation. Description of such characteristics will allow for the description of forest ecosystems living on these sites and comparison of such ecosystems to each other. Factors such as elevation, aspect and slope can easily be generated from Digital Elevation Models. In this study, using a digital elevation model obtained from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) satellite data and 1/25,000 scale Forest Information System database, horizontal and vertical distribution of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.), which is spatially the most extensively spread needled tree species in Turkey, (to elevation classes) is determined and the generated results (map, table etc.) are presented. PMID:24558804

  11. Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD. PMID:25364710

  12. Solar cells for solar power satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, H.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of a solar-cell array for a solar power satellite is developed to permit evaluation of its economic feasibility for generating power for delivery to public utilities on earth. Gallium arsenide solar cells were considered but it could not be assured that the world gallium resources could support constructions of two solar power satellites per year. Therefore, for preliminary design an array blanket made from 5 by 10 cm silicon solar cells, 50 microns thick, and electrostatically bonded between borosilicate glass sheets was adopted. In annealing experiments, a radiated 50 microns thick cell was restored to its initial performance in a 500 C. Solar-cell efficiency effects significantly the solar power satellite mass, which varies from 90,000 metric tons for 20 percent cells to 120,000 metric tons for 12 percent cells. The anticipated cost of delivered power, based on 1977 dollars, varies from 4 cents per kWh with 18 percent cells, to 5 cents per kWh for 12 percent efficient cells.

  13. Ultrastructural studies of semen abnormalities and Herpesvirus associated with cultured testicular cells from domestic turkeys.

    PubMed

    Thurston, R J; Hess, R A; Biellier, H V; Adldinger, H K; Solorzano, R F

    1975-11-01

    Abnormal cells and macrophages found in white and yellow turkey semen were studied by electron microscopy. Yellow semen contained many abnormal cells, most of which were large and round or smaller and ellipsoidal. It was concluded that they were aberrant spermatids, with differentiation being more complete in the smaller cells. Only a few cells of the smaller type were detected in normal white semen. Macrophages were occasionally seen in white semen but were numerous in yellow semen. Phagocytic vacuoles of these cells contained structural elements of spermatozoa and abnormal spermatids. Virus particles were not detected in any of the seminal cells observed. Ultrastructure studies of cultured testicular cells obtained from several of the turkeys examined showed the presence of intranuclear Herpesvirus particles in germinal cells. Macrophages from the testicular cultures seldom were seen with intranuclear Herpesvirus, although these cells commonly were found with Herpesvirus particles and cellular debris contained within phagocytic vacuoles. PMID:1206622

  14. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  15. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo-jiang; Li, Ping-hua; Huang, Rui-hua; Sun, Wen-xing; Wang, Han; Li, Qi-fa; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wang-jun; Liu, Hong-lin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse) have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells. PMID:26104526

  16. POST-EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT USING SATELLITE AND AIRBORNE DATA IN THE CASE OF THE 1999 KOCAELI EARTHQUAKE, TURKEY

    E-print Network

    EARTHQUAKE, TURKEY D. Ozisika , N. Kerleb a General Directorate of Bank of Provinces, Ataturk Bulvari, No:21 Opera/Ankara/TURKEY (dozisik@ilbank.gov.tr) b Dept. of Earth Observation Sciences, International to improve damage assessment in the case of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake, Turkey. Pre and post-earthquake Spot

  17. Satellite cells from dystrophic muscle retain regenerative capacity

    PubMed Central

    Boldrin, Luisa; Zammit, Peter S.; Morgan, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, with a failure of muscle maintenance/repair mediated by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). The function of skeletal muscle stem cells resident in dystrophic muscle may be perturbed by being in an increasing pathogenic environment, coupled with constant demands for repairing muscle. To investigate the contribution of satellite cell exhaustion to this process, we tested the functionality of satellite cells isolated from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that satellite cells derived from young mdx mice contributed efficiently to muscle regeneration within our in vivo mouse model. To then test the effects of long-term residence in a dystrophic environment, satellite cells were isolated from aged mdx muscle. Surprisingly, they were as functional as those derived from young or aged wild type donors. Removing satellite cells from a dystrophic milieu reveals that their regenerative capacity remains both intact and similar to satellite cells derived from healthy muscle, indicating that the host environment is critical for controlling satellite cell function. PMID:25460248

  18. Satellite cells from dystrophic muscle retain regenerative capacity.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Luisa; Zammit, Peter S; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, with a failure of muscle maintenance/repair mediated by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). The function of skeletal muscle stem cells resident in dystrophic muscle may be perturbed by being in an increasing pathogenic environment, coupled with constant demands for repairing muscle. To investigate the contribution of satellite cell exhaustion to this process, we tested the functionality of satellite cells isolated from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that satellite cells derived from young mdx mice contributed efficiently to muscle regeneration within our in vivo mouse model. To then test the effects of long-term residence in a dystrophic environment, satellite cells were isolated from aged mdx muscle. Surprisingly, they were as functional as those derived from young or aged wild type donors. Removing satellite cells from a dystrophic milieu reveals that their regenerative capacity remains both intact and similar to satellite cells derived from healthy muscle, indicating that the host environment is critical for controlling satellite cell function. PMID:25460248

  19. Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a three dimensional level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development.

  20. Intraganglionic interactions between satellite cells and adult sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Christie, Kimberly; Koshy, Dilip; Cheng, Chu; Guo, GuiFang; Martinez, Jose A; Duraikannu, Arul; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2015-07-01

    Perineuronal satellite cells have an intimate anatomical relationship with sensory neurons that suggests close functional collaboration and mutual support. We examined several facets of this relationship in adult sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Collaboration included the support of process outgrowth by clustering of satellite cells, induction of distal branching behavior by soma signaling, the capacity of satellite cells to respond to distal axon injury of its neighboring neurons, and evidence of direct neuron-satellite cell exchange. In vitro, closely adherent coharvested satellite cells routinely clustered around new outgrowing processes and groups of satellite cells attracted neurite processes. Similar clustering was encountered in the pseudounipolar processes of intact sensory neurons within intact DRG in vivo. While short term exposure of distal growth cones of unselected adult sensory neurons to transient gradients of a PTEN inhibitor had negligible impacts on their behavior, exposure of the soma induced early and substantial growth of their distant neurites and branches, an example of local soma signaling. In turn, satellite cells sensed when distal neuronal axons were injured by enlarging and proliferating. We also observed that satellite cells were capable of internalizing and expressing a neuron fluorochrome label, diamidino yellow, applied remotely to distal injured axons of the neuron and retrogradely transported to dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons. The findings illustrate a robust interaction between intranganglionic neurons and glial cells that involve two way signals, features that may be critical for both regenerative responses and ongoing maintenance. PMID:25979201

  1. Human satellite cells have regenerative capacity and are genetically manipulable

    PubMed Central

    Marg, Andreas; Escobar, Helena; Gloy, Sina; Kufeld, Markus; Zacher, Joseph; Spuler, Andreas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Spuler, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. Human satellite cells are scarce; therefore, clinical investigation has been limited. We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were activated and proliferated efficiently in culture. Independent of donor age, as few as 2 to 4 PAX7+ satellite cells gave rise to several thousand myoblasts. Transplantation of human muscle fiber fragments into irradiated muscle of immunodeficient mice resulted in robust engraftment, muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that subjecting the human muscle fiber fragments to hypothermic treatment successfully enriches the cultures for PAX7+ cells and improves the efficacy of the transplantation and muscle regeneration. Finally, we successfully altered gene expression in cultured human PAX7+ satellite cells with Sleeping Beauty transposon–mediated nonviral gene transfer, highlighting the potential of this system for use in gene therapy. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to culture and manipulate a rare population of human tissue-specific stem cells and suggest that these PAX7+ satellite cells have potential to restore gene function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:25157816

  2. Myogenic potential of canine craniofacial satellite cells.

    PubMed

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  3. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  4. The effect of syndecan-4 and glypican-1 expression on age-related changes in myogenic satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and fibroblast growth factor 2 responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Harthan, Laura B; McFarland, Douglas C; Velleman, Sandra G

    2013-12-01

    Satellite cells are multipotential stem cells responsible for muscle growth and regeneration. Satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and responsiveness to fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is, in part, regulated by the heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1. Syndecan-4 and glypican-1 expression declines with satellite cell age and may be associated with decreased satellite cell activity. The objective of the current study was to determine if overexpression of syndecan-4 and glypican-1 would increase proliferation, differentiation and FGF2 responsiveness in satellite cells isolated from pectoralis major muscle from 16-wk-old turkeys. Overexpression of syndecan-4 and glypican-1 did not have a significant effect on proliferation and differentiation in 1d, 7 wk, and 16 wk satellite cells, and did not affect FGF2 responsiveness during proliferation. Expression of syndecan-4 and glypican-1 increased differentiation at 48 h in 1d, 7 wk, and 16 wk cells treated with FGF2. Expression of myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4 was affected by the overexpression of syndecan-4 and glypican-1. However, changes in myogenic regulatory factor expression did not have a significant effect on proliferation or differentiation. These data demonstrate that syndecan-4 and glypican-1 are likely not directly associated with the age related decrease in satellite cell activity. PMID:24036479

  5. Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

  6. The Maras triple junction (southern Turkey) based on digital elevation model and satellite imagery interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowicz, Jean; Luxey, Pascal; Lyberis, Nikos; Cavalho, Jose; Parrot, Jean-Francois; Yurur, Tekin; Gundogdu, Niyazi

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes major structures in the area of the triple junction of the African, Anatolian and Arabian plates near Maras (southern Turkey). A review of the literature on the paleogeographic evolution since mid-Cretaceous time leads to the idea of the southern Tethys (Mesogea) persisting between Anatolia and Africa-Arabia until middle-late Miocene. Consequently, collision may have started later and northward subducting lithosphere may still exist under Anatolia. The Dead Sea fault may have initiated near the first collision between the Anatolian continent and the western corner of the African/Arabian continent at which point it may have propagated southward. A digital elevation model, SPOT and Landsat-Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images, and field work suggest relief is mainly related to finite deformation resulting from on going collision that begun at around 13 Ma. The images show that the East Anatolian fault does not crosscut the central Taurus belt. Field data argue that this belt is a left-lateral oblique-slip fault zone. The southern contact of Anatolia passes north of the Amanos range (continental part of the African plate) and connects with the Misis range. To the southwest, the Adana low plain may be regarded as a basin formed at a releasing bend. The Karasu fault zone, which belong to the Dead Sea fault zone, seems to be transpressive, and in this case the Karasu basin is not a graben. North of the Amanos range, the Guerun arc is thrust to the north and may be considered the result of local collision of the uplifting Amanos range into Anatolia. The Maras triple junction is accompanied by deformations affecting all plates at the regional scale.

  7. M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions activate satellite cell division.

    PubMed

    Marti, Merce; Montserrat, Núria; Pardo, Cristina; Mulero, Lola; Miquel-Serra, Laia; Rodrigues, Alexandre Miguel Cavaco; Andrés Vaquero, José; Kuebler, Bernd; Morera, Cristina; Barrero, María José; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-11-15

    Adult muscle stem cells and their committed myogenic precursors, commonly referred to as the satellite cell population, are involved in both muscle growth after birth and regeneration after damage. It has been previously proposed that, under these circumstances, satellite cells first become activated, divide and differentiate, and only later fuse to the existing myofiber through M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions. Our data show that satellite cells fuse with the myofiber concomitantly to cell division, and only when the nuclei of the daughter cells are inside the myofiber, do they complete the process of differentiation. Here we demonstrate that M-cadherin plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition and fusion, and is crucial for cell division activation. Treatment of satellite cells with M-cadherin in vitro stimulates cell division, whereas addition of anti-M-cadherin antibodies reduces the cell division rate. Our results suggest an alternative model for the contribution of satellite cells to muscle development, which might be useful in understanding muscle regeneration, as well as muscle-related dystrophies. PMID:24046443

  8. The muscle satellite cell at 50: the formative years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In February 1961, Alexander Mauro described a cell 'wedged' between the plasma membrane of the muscle fibre and the surrounding basement membrane. He postulated that it could be a dormant myoblast, poised to repair muscle when needed. In the same month, Bernard Katz also reported a cell in a similar location on muscle spindles, suggesting that it was associated with development and growth of intrafusal muscle fibres. Both Mauro and Katz used the term 'satellite cell' in relation to their discoveries. Today, the muscle satellite cell is widely accepted as the resident stem cell of skeletal muscle, supplying myoblasts for growth, homeostasis and repair. Since 2011 marks both the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the satellite cell, and the launch of Skeletal Muscle, it seems an opportune moment to summarise the seminal events in the history of research into muscle regeneration. We start with the 19th-century pioneers who showed that muscle had a regenerative capacity, through to the descriptions from the mid-20th century of the underlying cellular mechanisms. The journey of the satellite cell from electron microscope curio, to its gradual acceptance as a bona fide myoblast precursor, is then charted: work that provided the foundations for our understanding of the role of the satellite cell. Finally, the rapid progress in the age of molecular biology is briefly discussed, and some ongoing debates on satellite cell function highlighted. PMID:21849021

  9. Use of advanced solar cells for commerical communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1995-01-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar- and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because of the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from Low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  10. Use of advanced solar cells for commercial communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-03-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  11. Human Satellite Cell Transplantation and Regeneration from Diverse Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoti; Wilschut, Karlijn J; Kouklis, Gayle; Tian, Hua; Hesse, Robert; Garland, Catharine; Sbitany, Hani; Hansen, Scott; Seth, Rahul; Knott, P Daniel; Hoffman, William Y; Pomerantz, Jason H

    2015-09-01

    Identification of human satellite cells that fulfill muscle stem cell criteria is an unmet need in regenerative medicine. This hurdle limits understanding how closely muscle stem cell properties are conserved among mice and humans and hampers translational efforts in muscle regeneration. Here, we report that PAX7 satellite cells exist at a consistent frequency of 2-4 cells/mm of fiber in muscles of the human trunk, limbs, and head. Xenotransplantation into mice of 50-70 fiber-associated, or 1,000-5,000 FACS-enriched CD56(+)/CD29(+) human satellite cells led to stable engraftment and formation of human-derived myofibers. Human cells with characteristic PAX7, CD56, and CD29 expression patterns populated the satellite cell niche beneath the basal lamina on the periphery of regenerated fibers. After additional injury, transplanted satellite cells robustly regenerated to form hundreds of human-derived fibers. Together, these findings conclusively delineate a source of bona-fide endogenous human muscle stem cells that will aid development of clinical applications. PMID:26352798

  12. Human Satellite Cell Transplantation and Regeneration from Diverse Skeletal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoti; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Kouklis, Gayle; Tian, Hua; Hesse, Robert; Garland, Catharine; Sbitany, Hani; Hansen, Scott; Seth, Rahul; Knott, P. Daniel; Hoffman, William Y.; Pomerantz, Jason H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Identification of human satellite cells that fulfill muscle stem cell criteria is an unmet need in regenerative medicine. This hurdle limits understanding how closely muscle stem cell properties are conserved among mice and humans and hampers translational efforts in muscle regeneration. Here, we report that PAX7 satellite cells exist at a consistent frequency of 2–4 cells/mm of fiber in muscles of the human trunk, limbs, and head. Xenotransplantation into mice of 50–70 fiber-associated, or 1,000–5,000 FACS-enriched CD56+/CD29+ human satellite cells led to stable engraftment and formation of human-derived myofibers. Human cells with characteristic PAX7, CD56, and CD29 expression patterns populated the satellite cell niche beneath the basal lamina on the periphery of regenerated fibers. After additional injury, transplanted satellite cells robustly regenerated to form hundreds of human-derived fibers. Together, these findings conclusively delineate a source of bona-fide endogenous human muscle stem cells that will aid development of clinical applications. PMID:26352798

  13. Evaluation of solar cell materials for a Solar Power Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K. I.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative solar cell materials being considered for the solar power satellite are described and price, production, and availability projections through the year 2000 are presented. The chief materials considered are silicon and gallium arsenide.

  14. Determination of seasonal changes in wetlands using CHRIS/Proba Hyperspectral satellite images: A case study from Acigöl (Denizli), Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat; Avci, Damla Uca; Ozelkan, Emre; Bulbul, Ali; Civas, Melda; Tasdelen, Suat

    2015-01-01

    The changes in wetlands that occur through natural processes, as well as through industrialization and agricultural activities, are decreasing and even annihilating the living spaces of endemic species. Acigöl (Denizli, Turkey), which is a suitable habitat for flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), is a lake that is affected by seasonal anomalies as a result of being shallow. Acigöl, which is fed by precipitation, groundwater and the springs that occur along tectonic faults, has no water output other than evaporation and industrial activities. In addition to natural factors, it is important to determine the changes in the wetlands of Acig6l, where industrial salt is produced, in order to reveal the micro-ecological equilibrium, the relationship between climate and natural life, and regulation of industrial activities. Remote sensing tools are frequently used in determination of changes in wetlands. Changes in coastlines, water level and area covered by water are parameters that can be examined by remote sensing while investigating wetlands. In this study, the water-covered area was examined using remote sensing. Within the scope of this study, CHRIS/Proba Mode 2 (water bandset) hyperspectral satellite images, acquired on 9/17/2011 for the season and on 6/18/2012 - 6/19/2012 forwet season, were used in orderto present the seasonal changes in Acigöl, during one hydrogeological period. The processes of noise reduction, cloud screening, atmospheric correction, geometric correction, and identification of wetlands have been implemented on the CHRIS/Proba images. In determining the water-covered areas, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used. It was determined that W6 (560 nm) and W18 (1015 nm) and W2 (447 nm) and W18 (1015 nm) band combinations were most appropriate to be used in NDWI to demonstrate the water-land separation. Using Proba-NDWI image, it was established that an area of 27.4 km2 was covered with water during dry season, and 61.2 km2 was covered during wet season. The results indicated that; since the lake water area is directly affected by seasonal and annual climatic anomalies, water used by industrial facilities has to be drawn out of the lake in reasonable amount. PMID:26591885

  15. Solar power satellites - Heat engine or solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, H.; Gregory, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A solar power satellite is the energy-converting element of a system that can deliver some 10 GW of power to utilities on the earth's surface. We evaluated heat engines and solar cells for converting sunshine to electric power at the satellite. A potassium Rankine cycle was the best of the heat engines, and 50 microns thick single-crystal silicon cells were the best of the photovoltaic converters. Neither solar cells nor heat engines had a clear advantage when all factors were considered. The potassium-turbine power plant, however, was more difficult to assemble and required a more expensive orbital assembly base. We therefore based our cost analyses on solar-cell energy conversion, concluding that satellite-generated power could be delivered to utilities for around 4 to 5 cents a kWh.

  16. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  17. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 influences cell cycle progression in muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Mathieu; Figeac, Nicolas; White, Robert B.; Knopp, Paul; Zammit, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle retains a resident stem cell population called satellite cells, which are mitotically quiescent in mature muscle, but can be activated to produce myoblast progeny for muscle homeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. We have previously shown that satellite cell activation is partially controlled by the bioactive phospholipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and that S1P biosynthesis is required for muscle regeneration. Here we investigate the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) in regulating murine satellite cell function. S1PR3 levels were high in quiescent myogenic cells before falling during entry into cell cycle. Retrovirally-mediated constitutive expression of S1PR3 led to suppressed cell cycle progression in satellite cells, but did not overtly affect the myogenic program. Conversely, satellite cells isolated from S1PR3-null mice exhibited enhanced proliferation ex-vivo. In vivo, acute cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration was enhanced in S1PR3-null mice, with bigger muscle fibres compared to control mice. Importantly, genetically deleting S1PR3 in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy produced a less severe muscle dystrophic phenotype, than when signalling though S1PR3 was operational. In conclusion, signalling though S1PR3 suppresses cell cycle progression to regulate function in muscle satellite cells. PMID:23911934

  18. Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

  19. Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron satellite glial cell communication in dorsal

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron­ satellite glial cell communication in dorsal root activates P2X7 receptors in satellite cells that enwrap each DRG neuron and triggers the communication neuronal somata and thus triggers bidirectional communication between neurons and satellite cells. Results

  20. Does an NSAID a day keep satellite cells at bay?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Abigail L

    2013-09-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely consumed by athletes worldwide, despite growing evidence for a negative influence on the adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise, at least in young healthy individuals. This review focuses on the potential of NSAIDs to alter the activity of satellite cells, the muscle stem cell responsible for repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. The signaling pathways that are potentially modified by NSAID exposure are also considered. Growth factors as well as inflammatory cells and connective tissue appear to be key factors in the response of muscle under conditions where cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin activity are blocked through NSAID ingestion or infusion. Discrepancies in the literature regarding the response of young and old individuals are addressed, where it appears that the elderly may benefit from NSAID ingestion, although this clearly requires further study. The long-term implications for the muscle of the apparent inhibitory effect of NSAIDs on satellite cells in younger individuals are not clear, and it is possible these may first become apparent with chronic use in athletes training at a high level or with advancing age. Reports of the potential for NSAIDs to alter prostaglandin and growth factor signaling provide a basis for further study of the mechanism of NSAID action on satellite cells. PMID:23681908

  1. 17?-Estradiol and testosterone in sarcopenia: Role of satellite cells.

    PubMed

    La Colla, Anabela; Pronsato, Lucía; Milanesi, Lorena; Vasconsuelo, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    The loss of muscle mass and strength with aging, referred to as sarcopenia, is a prevalent condition among the elderly. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are unclear, evidence suggests that an age-related acceleration of myocyte loss via apoptosis might be responsible for muscle perfomance decline. Interestingly, sarcopenia has been associated to a deficit of sex hormones which decrease upon aging. The skeletal muscle ability to repair and regenerate itself would not be possible without satellite cells, a subpopulation of cells that remain quiescent throughout life. They are activated in response to stress, enabling them to guide skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, these cells could be a key factor to overcome sarcopenia. Of importance, satellite cells are 17?-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) targets. In this review, we summarize potential mechanisms through which these hormones regulate satellite cells activation during skeletal muscle regeneration in the elderly. The advance in its understanding will help to the development of potential therapeutic agents to alleviate and treat sarcopenia and other related myophaties. PMID:26247846

  2. Halofuginone promotes satellite cell activation and survival in muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Barzilai-Tutsch, Hila; Bodanovsky, Anna; Maimon, Hadar; Pines, Mark; Halevy, Orna

    2016-01-01

    Halofuginone is a leading agent in preventing fibrosis and inflammation in various muscular dystrophies. We hypothesized that in addition to these actions, halofuginone directly promotes the cell-cycle events of satellite cells in the mdx and dysf(-/-) mouse models of early-onset Duchenne muscular dystrophy and late-onset dysferlinopathy, respectively. In both models, addition of halofuginone to freshly prepared single gastrocnemius myofibers derived from 6-week-old mice increased BrdU incorporation at as early as 18h of incubation, as well as phospho-histone H3 (PHH3) and MyoD protein expression in the attached satellite cells, while having no apparent effect on myofibers derived from wild-type mice. BrdU incorporation was abolished by an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, suggesting involvement of this pathway in mediating halofuginone's effects on cell-cycle events. In cultures of myofibers and myoblasts isolated from dysf(-/-) mice, halofuginone reduced Bax and induced Bcl2 expression levels and induced Akt phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Addition of an inhibitor of the phosphinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway reversed the halofuginone-induced cell survival, suggesting this pathway's involvement in mediating halofuginone's effects on survival. Thus, in addition to its known role in inhibiting fibrosis and inflammation, halofuginone plays a direct role in satellite cell activity and survival in muscular dystrophies, regardless of the mutation. These actions are of the utmost importance for improving muscle pathology and function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:26454207

  3. TAK1 modulates satellite stem cell homeostasis and skeletal muscle repair.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Hindi, Sajedah M; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Akira, Shizuo; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are resident adult stem cells that are required for regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, signalling mechanisms that regulate satellite cell function are less understood. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is important in satellite stem cell homeostasis and function. Inactivation of TAK1 in satellite cells inhibits muscle regeneration in adult mice. TAK1 is essential for satellite cell proliferation and its inactivation causes precocious differentiation. Moreover, TAK1-deficient satellite cells exhibit increased oxidative stress and undergo spontaneous cell death, primarily through necroptosis. TAK1 is required for the activation of NF-?B and JNK in satellite cells. Forced activation of NF-?B improves survival and proliferation of TAK1-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, TAK1-mediated activation of JNK is essential to prevent oxidative stress and precocious differentiation of satellite cells. Collectively, our study suggests that TAK1 is required for maintaining the pool of satellite stem cells and for regenerative myogenesis. PMID:26648529

  4. TAK1 modulates satellite stem cell homeostasis and skeletal muscle repair

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yuji; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Akira, Shizuo; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are resident adult stem cells that are required for regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, signalling mechanisms that regulate satellite cell function are less understood. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is important in satellite stem cell homeostasis and function. Inactivation of TAK1 in satellite cells inhibits muscle regeneration in adult mice. TAK1 is essential for satellite cell proliferation and its inactivation causes precocious differentiation. Moreover, TAK1-deficient satellite cells exhibit increased oxidative stress and undergo spontaneous cell death, primarily through necroptosis. TAK1 is required for the activation of NF-?B and JNK in satellite cells. Forced activation of NF-?B improves survival and proliferation of TAK1-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, TAK1-mediated activation of JNK is essential to prevent oxidative stress and precocious differentiation of satellite cells. Collectively, our study suggests that TAK1 is required for maintaining the pool of satellite stem cells and for regenerative myogenesis. PMID:26648529

  5. Cell Therapy and Satellite Centers: The Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network Experience

    PubMed Central

    Moyé, Lemuel; Henry, Timothy D.; Baran, Kenneth W.; Bettencourt, Judy; Bruhn-Ding, Barb; Caldwell, Emily; Chambers, Jeffrey; Flood, Kelly; Francescon, Judy; Bowman, Sherry; Kappenman, Casey; Kar, Biswajit; Lambert, Charles; LaRock, Jody; Lerman, Amir; Mazzurco, Stacey; Prashad, Rakesh; Raveendran, Ganesh; Simon, Daniel; Westbrook, Lynette; Simari, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the changing population in patients with myocardial infarction, recruiting patients in clinical trials continues to challenge clinical investigators. The Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) chose to expand the reach and power of its recruitment effort by incorporating both referral and treatment satellite centers. Eight treatment satellites were successfully identified and they screened patients over a two year period. The result of this effort was an increase in recruitment, with these treatment satellites contributing 30 percent of the patients to two of the three Network studies. The hurdles these satellite treatment centers faced and how they surmounted them provide instruction to clinical research groups eager to expand to satellite systems and to health care practitioners who are interested in taking part in multicenter clinical trials. PMID:21767663

  6. Aging increases the susceptibility of skeletal muscle derived satellite cells to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jejurikar, Sameer S; Henkelman, Erika A; Cederna, Paul S; Marcelo, Cynthia L; Urbanchek, Melanie G; Kuzon, William M

    2006-09-01

    The mechanisms causing the impaired regenerative response to injury observed in skeletal muscle of old animals are unknown. Satellite cells, stem cell descendants within adult skeletal muscle, are the primary source of regenerating muscle fibers. Apoptosis may be a mechanism responsible for the depletion of satellite cells in old animals. This work tested the hypothesis that aging increases the susceptibility of satellite cells to apoptosis. Satellite cells were cultured from the extensor digitorum longus muscles of young (3-month-old), adult (9-month-old), and old (31-month-old) Brown Norway rats. Satellite cells were treated for 24h with the pro-apoptotic agents TNF-alpha (20 ng/mL) and Actinomycin D (250 ng/mL). Immunostaining for activated caspases and terminal deoxynucleotydil transferase-mediated dutp nick-end labeling (TUNEL) was performed to identify apoptotic satellite cells. Quantity of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 was determined by Western blot analysis. Satellite cells from old animals demonstrated significantly higher percentages of cells with activated caspases and TUNEL-positive cells, and significantly lower amounts of bcl-2 compared to young and adult animals. These data support the hypothesis that aging increases satellite cell susceptibility to apoptosis. In old muscle, apoptosis may play a causative role in the depletion of satellite cells, impairing the regenerative response to injury. PMID:16942852

  7. A role for RNA post-transcriptional regulation in satellite cell activation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Satellite cells are resident skeletal muscle stem cells responsible for muscle maintenance and repair. In resting muscle, satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state. Satellite cell activation induces the myogenic commitment factor, MyoD, and cell cycle entry to facilitate transition to a population of proliferating myoblasts that eventually exit the cycle and regenerate muscle tissue. The molecular mechanism involved in the transition of a quiescent satellite cell to a transit-amplifying myoblast is poorly understood. Methods Satellite cells isolated by FACS from uninjured skeletal muscle and 12 h post-muscle injury from wild type and Syndecan-4 null mice were probed using Affymetrix 430v2 gene chips and analyzed by Spotfiretm and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to identify gene expression changes and networks associated with satellite cell activation, respectively. Additional analyses of target genes identify miRNAs exhibiting dynamic changes in expression during satellite cell activation. The function of the miRNAs was assessed using miRIDIAN hairpin inhibitors. Results An unbiased gene expression screen identified over 4,000 genes differentially expressed in satellite cells in vivo within 12 h following muscle damage and more than 50% of these decrease dramatically. RNA binding proteins and genes involved in post-transcriptional regulation were significantly over-represented whereas splicing factors were preferentially downregulated and mRNA stability genes preferentially upregulated. Furthermore, six computationally identified miRNAs demonstrated novel expression through muscle regeneration and in satellite cells. Three of the six miRNAs were found to regulate satellite cell fate. Conclusions The quiescent satellite cell is actively maintained in a state poised to activate in response to external signals. Satellite cell activation appears to be regulated by post-transcriptional gene regulation. PMID:23046558

  8. Identification and characterization of a non-satellite cell muscle resident progenitor during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kathryn J; Pannérec, Alice; Cadot, Bruno; Parlakian, Ara; Besson, Vanessa; Gomes, Edgar R; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A

    2010-03-01

    Satellite cells are resident myogenic progenitors in postnatal skeletal muscle involved in muscle postnatal growth and adult regenerative capacity. Here, we identify and describe a population of muscle-resident stem cells, which are located in the interstitium, that express the cell stress mediator PW1 but do not express other markers of muscle stem cells such as Pax7. PW1(+)/Pax7(-) interstitial cells (PICs) are myogenic in vitro and efficiently contribute to skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo as well as generating satellite cells and PICs. Whereas Pax7 mutant satellite cells show robust myogenic potential, Pax7 mutant PICs are unable to participate in myogenesis and accumulate during postnatal growth. Furthermore, we found that PICs are not derived from a satellite cell lineage. Taken together, our findings uncover a new and anatomically identifiable population of muscle progenitors and define a key role for Pax7 in a non-satellite cell population during postnatal muscle growth. PMID:20118923

  9. EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX REGULATION IN THE MUSCLE SATELLITE CELL NICHE

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kelsey; Engler, Adam J.; Meyer, Gretchen A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to extracellular matrix (ECM) components playing integral roles in regulating the muscle satellite cell (SC) niche. Even small alterations to the niche ECM can have profound effects on SC localization, activation, self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. This review will focus on the ECM components that comprise the niche, how they are modulated in health and disease and how these changes are thought to affect SC function. Particular emphasis will be placed on the pathological niche and interventions that aim to restore healthy structure and function, as a better understanding of the interplay between the SC and its environment will drive more targeted and effective therapies. PMID:25047058

  10. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells: Background and Methods for Isolation and Analysis in a Primary Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Danoviz, Maria Elena; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-01-01

    Summary Repair of adult skeletal muscle depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. Standardized protocols for the isolation and culture of satellite cells are key tools for understanding cell autonomous and extrinsic factors that regulate their performance. Knowledge gained from such studies can contribute important insights to developing strategies for the improvement of muscle repair following trauma and in muscle wasting disorders. This chapter provides an introduction to satellite cell biology and further describes the basic protocol used in our laboratory to isolate and culture satellite cells from adult skeletal muscle. The cell culture conditions detailed herein support proliferation and differentiation of satellite cell progeny and the development of reserve cells, which are thought to reflect the in vivo self-renewal ability of satellite cells. Additionally, this chapter describes our standard immunostaining protocol that allows the characterization of satellite cell progeny by the temporal expression of characteristic transcription factors and structural proteins associated with different stages of myogenic progression. While emphasis is given here to the isolation and characterization of satellite cells from mouse hindlimb muscles, the protocols are suitable for other muscle types (such as diaphragm and extraocular muscles) and for muscles from other species, including chicken and rat. Altogether, the basic protocols described are straightforward and facilitate the study of diverse aspects of skeletal muscle stem cells. PMID:22130829

  11. Invited Review: Extrinsic regulation of domestic animal-derived myogenic satellite cells II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The existence of myogenic satellite cells was reported some forty-seven years ago, and, since that time, satellite cell research has flourished. So much new information is generated (daily) on these cells that it can be difficult for individuals to keep abreast of important issues related to the act...

  12. Real time of earthquakes prone areas by RST analysis of satellite TIR radiances: results of continuous monitoring over Italy and Turkey regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological satellites offering global coverage, continuity of observations and long term time series (starting even 30 years ago) offer a unique possibility not only to learn from the past but also to guarantee continuous monitoring whereas other observation technologies are lacking because too expensive or (like in the case of earthquake precursor studies) or considered useless by decision-makers. Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed (since 2001) in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transient possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. Since then several earthquakes occurred in Europe, Africa and America have been studied by analyzing decades of satellite observations always using a validation/confutation approach in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in presence/absence of significant seismic activity. In the framework of PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project (www.pre-earthquakes.org) , starting from October 2010 (still continuing) RST approach has been applied to MSG/SEVIRI data to generate TIR anomaly maps over Italian peninsula, continuously for all the midnight slots. Since September 2011 the same monitoring activity (still continuing) started for Turkey region. For the first time a similar analysis has been performed in real-time, systematically analyzing TIR anomaly maps in order to identify day by day possible significant (e.g. persistent in the space-time domain) thermal anomalies. During 2011 only in very few cases (1 in Italy in July and 2 in the Turkish region in September and November) the day by day analysis enhanced significant anomalies that in two cases were communicated to the other PRE-EARTHQUAKES partners asking for their attention. In this paper results of such analysis will be presented which seem to confirm results independently achieved (unfortunately without their knowledge) by other authors applying a similar approach to EOS/MODIS data over California region.

  13. FGF2 activates TRPC and Ca(2+) signaling leading to satellite cell activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yewei; Schneider, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Satellite cells, as stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, are tightly associated with the differentiated muscle fibers and remain quiescent in the absence of muscle damage. In response to an injury, the quiescent satellite cell is activated by soluble factors, including FGFs released from injured myofibers. Using immunostaining, we here first show that TRPC1 channels are highly expressed in satellite cells attached to muscle fibers. Since CD34, a traditional stem cell marker, was recently found to be expressed in skeletal muscle satellite cells we labeled living satellite cells in their physiological niche associated with host FDB fibers using anti-CD34-FITC antibody. We then monitored intra-cellular calcium in anti-CD34-FITC labeled satellite cells attached to muscle fibers using the calcium sensitive dye X rhod-1 which has little fluorescence cross talk with FITC. FGF2 increased intracellular calcium in satellite cells, which was antagonized by the TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365. Immunostaining showed that NFATc3 is highly expressed in satellite cells, but not in host FDB fibers. Elevation of intracellular calcium by FGF2 is accompanied by nuclear translocation of NFATc3 and NFATc2 and by an increase in the number of MyoD positive cells per muscle fiber, both of which were attenuated by TRPC blocker SKF 96365. Our results suggest a novel pathway of satellite cell activation where FGF2 enhances calcium influx through a TRPC channel, and the increased cytosolic calcium leads to both NFATc3 and NFATc2 nuclear translocation and enhanced number of MyoD positive satellite cells per muscle fiber. PMID:24575047

  14. FGF2 activates TRPC and Ca2+ signaling leading to satellite cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yewei; Schneider, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cells, as stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, are tightly associated with the differentiated muscle fibers and remain quiescent in the absence of muscle damage. In response to an injury, the quiescent satellite cell is activated by soluble factors, including FGFs released from injured myofibers. Using immunostaining, we here first show that TRPC1 channels are highly expressed in satellite cells attached to muscle fibers. Since CD34, a traditional stem cell marker, was recently found to be expressed in skeletal muscle satellite cells we labeled living satellite cells in their physiological niche associated with host FDB fibers using anti-CD34-FITC antibody. We then monitored intra-cellular calcium in anti-CD34-FITC labeled satellite cells attached to muscle fibers using the calcium sensitive dye X rhod-1 which has little fluorescence cross talk with FITC. FGF2 increased intracellular calcium in satellite cells, which was antagonized by the TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365. Immunostaining showed that NFATc3 is highly expressed in satellite cells, but not in host FDB fibers. Elevation of intracellular calcium by FGF2 is accompanied by nuclear translocation of NFATc3 and NFATc2 and by an increase in the number of MyoD positive cells per muscle fiber, both of which were attenuated by TRPC blocker SKF 96365. Our results suggest a novel pathway of satellite cell activation where FGF2 enhances calcium influx through a TRPC channel, and the increased cytosolic calcium leads to both NFATc3 and NFATc2 nuclear translocation and enhanced number of MyoD positive satellite cells per muscle fiber. PMID:24575047

  15. Satellite cell depletion does not inhibit adult skeletal muscle regrowth following unloading-induced atrophy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Janna R; Mula, Jyothi; Kirby, Tyler J; Fry, Christopher S; Lee, Jonah D; Ubele, Margo F; Campbell, Kenneth S; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

    2012-10-15

    Resident muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells, are thought to be the main mediators of skeletal muscle plasticity. Satellite cells are activated, replicate, and fuse into existing muscle fibers in response to both muscle injury and mechanical load. It is generally well-accepted that satellite cells participate in postnatal growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration following injury; however, their role in muscle regrowth following an atrophic stimulus remains equivocal. The current study employed a genetic mouse model (Pax7-DTA) that allowed for the effective depletion of >90% of satellite cells in adult muscle upon the administration of tamoxifen. Vehicle and tamoxifen-treated young adult female mice were either hindlimb suspended for 14 days to induce muscle atrophy or hindlimb suspended for 14 days followed by 14 days of reloading to allow regrowth, or they remained ambulatory for the duration of the experimental protocol. Additionally, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was added to the drinking water to track cell proliferation. Soleus muscle atrophy, as measured by whole muscle wet weight, fiber cross-sectional area, and single-fiber width, occurred in response to suspension and did not differ between satellite cell-depleted and control muscles. Furthermore, the depletion of satellite cells did not attenuate muscle mass or force recovery during the 14-day reloading period, suggesting that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth. Myonuclear number was not altered during either the suspension or the reloading period in soleus muscle fibers from vehicle-treated or satellite cell-depleted animals. Thus, myonuclear domain size was reduced following suspension due to decreased cytoplasmic volume and was completely restored following reloading, independent of the presence of satellite cells. These results provide convincing evidence that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth following atrophy and that, instead, the myonuclear domain size changes as myofibers adapt. PMID:22895262

  16. Isolation and Purification of Satellite Cells for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Syverud, Brian C; Lee, Jonah D; VanDusen, Keith W; Larkin, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Engineered skeletal muscle holds promise as a source of graft tissue for the repair of traumatic injuries such as volumetric muscle loss. The resident skeletal muscle stem cell, the satellite cell, has been identified as an ideal progenitor for tissue engineering due to its role as an essential player in the potent skeletal muscle regeneration mechanism. A significant challenge facing tissue engineers, however, is the isolation of sufficiently large satellite cell populations with high purity. The two common isolation techniques, single fiber explant culture and enzymatic dissociation, can yield either a highly pure satellite cell population or a suitably large number or cells but fail to do both simultaneously. As a result, it is often necessary to use a purification technique such as pre-plating or cell sorting to enrich the satellite cell population post-isolation. Furthermore, the absence of complex chemical and biophysical cues influencing the in vivo satellite cell “niche” complicates the culture of isolated satellite cells. Techniques under investigation to maximize myogenic proliferation and differentiation in vitro are described in this article, along with current methods for isolating and purifying satellite cells. PMID:26413555

  17. Myostatin signals through Pax7 to regulate satellite cell self-renewal

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Craig; Hennebry, Alex; Thomas, Mark; Plummer, Erin; Ling, Nicholas; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2008-01-15

    Myostatin, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-{beta}) super-family member, has previously been shown to negatively regulate satellite cell activation and self-renewal. However, to date the mechanism behind Myostatin function in satellite cell biology is not known. Here we show that Myostatin signals via a Pax7-dependent mechanism to regulate satellite cell self-renewal. While excess Myostatin inhibited Pax7 expression via ERK1/2 signaling, an increase in Pax7 expression was observed following both genetic inactivation and functional antagonism of Myostatin. As a result, we show that either blocking or inactivating Myostatin enhances the partitioning of the fusion-incompetent self-renewed satellite cell lineage (high Pax7 expression, low MyoD expression) from the pool of actively proliferating myogenic precursor cells. Consistent with this result, over-expression of Pax7 in C2C12 myogenic cells resulted in increased self-renewal through a mechanism which slowed both myogenic proliferation and differentiation. Taken together, these results suggest that increased expression of Pax7 promotes satellite cell self-renewal, and furthermore Myostatin may control the process of satellite cell self-renewal through regulation of Pax7. Thus we speculate that, in addition to the intrinsic factors (such as Pax7), extrinsic factors both positive and negative in nature, will play a major role in determining the stemness of skeletal muscle satellite cells.

  18. Extrinsic regulation of domestic animal-derived myogenic satellite cells II.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, R P; Fernyhough, M E; Liu, X; McFarland, D C; Velleman, S G; Hausman, G J; Dodson, M V

    2009-04-01

    The existence of myogenic satellite cells was reported some 47 years ago, and, since that time, satellite cell research has flourished. So much new information is generated (daily) on these cells that it can be difficult for individuals to keep abreast of important issues related to their activation and proliferation, the modulation of the activity of other cell types, the differentiation of the cells to facilitate normal skeletal muscle growth and development, or to the repair of damaged myofibers. The intent of this review is to summarize new information about the extrinsic regulation of myogenic satellite cells and to provide specific mechanisms involved in altering satellite cell physiology. Where possible, examples from agriculturally important animals are used for illustrative purposes. PMID:19261429

  19. The altered fate of aging satellite cells is determined by signaling and epigenetic changes

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Maura H.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a striated tissue composed of multinucleated fibers that contract under the control of the somatic nervous system to direct movement. The stem cells of skeletal muscle, known as satellite cells, are responsible for muscle fiber growth, turnover, and regeneration. Satellite cells are activated and proliferate in response to stimuli, and simplistically, have two main fates—to repopulate the satellite cell niche, or differentiate to regenerate or repair muscle fibers. However, the ability to regenerate muscle and replace lost myofibers declines with age. This loss of function may be a result of extrinsic changes in the niche, such as alterations in signaling or modifications to the extracellular matrix. However, intrinsic epigenetic changes within satellite cells may also affect cell fate and cause a decline in regenerative capacity. This review will describe the mechanisms that regulate cell fate decisions in adult skeletal muscle, and how changes during aging affect muscle fiber turnover and regeneration. PMID:25750654

  20. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yosuke Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor. - Highlights: • EGF in combination with insulin induces proliferation of quiescent C2C12 cells. • Sphingosine kinase activity increases when reserve cells are stimulated with EGF. • EGF-induced activation of reserve cells is dependent on sphingosine kinase and ERK. • The S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. • EGF-induced reserve cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor.

  1. CELL SIGNALING AND HOST INNATE IMMUNE DEFENSES IN WILD-TYPE AND COMMERCIAL TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to measure any functional differences in heterophils isolated from a commercial line (A) to wild-type Rio Grande turkeys and to observe differences in intracellular signaling. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK 1/2 and total protein tyrosine ki...

  2. Six family genes control the proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yajima, Hiroshi; Motohashi, Norio; Ono, Yusuke; Sato, Shigeru; Ikeda, Keiko; Masuda, Satoru; Yada, Erica; Kanesaki, Hironori; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    2010-10-15

    Muscle satellite cells are essential for muscle growth and regeneration and their morphology, behavior and gene expression have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms involved in their proliferation and differentiation remain elusive. Six1 and Six4 proteins were expressed in the nuclei of myofibers of adult mice and the numbers of myoblasts positive for Six1 and Six4 increased during regeneration of skeletal muscles. Six1 and Six4 were expressed in quiescent, activated and differentiated muscle satellite cells isolated from adult skeletal muscle. Overexpression of Six4 and Six5 repressed the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. Conversely, knockdown of Six5 resulted in augmented proliferation, and that of Six4 inhibited differentiation. Muscle satellite cells isolated from Six4{sup +/-}Six5{sup -/-} mice proliferated to higher cell density though their differentiation was not altered. Meanwhile, overproduction of Six1 repressed proliferation and promoted differentiation of satellite cells. In addition, Six4 and Six5 repressed, while Six1 activated myogenin expression, suggesting that the differential regulation of myogenin expression is responsible for the differential effects of Six genes. The results indicated the involvement of Six genes in the behavior of satellite cells and identified Six genes as potential target for manipulation of proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells for therapeutic applications.

  3. New insights into the epigenetic control of satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Moresi, Viviana; Marroncelli, Nicoletta; Adamo, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics finely tunes gene expression at a functional level without modifying the DNA sequence, thereby contributing to the complexity of genomic regulation. Satellite cells (SCs) are adult muscle stem cells that are important for skeletal post-natal muscle growth, homeostasis and repair. The understanding of the epigenome of SCs at different stages and of the multiple layers of the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is constantly expanding. Dynamic interactions between different epigenetic mechanisms regulate the appropriate timing of muscle-specific gene expression and influence the lineage fate of SCs. In this review, we report and discuss the recent literature about the epigenetic control of SCs during the myogenic process from activation to proliferation and from their commitment to a muscle cell fate to their differentiation and fusion to myotubes. We describe how the coordinated activities of the histone methyltransferase families Polycomb group (PcG), which represses the expression of developmentally regulated genes, and Trithorax group, which antagonizes the repressive activity of the PcG, regulate myogenesis by restricting gene expression in a time-dependent manner during each step of the process. We discuss how histone acetylation and deacetylation occurs in specific loci throughout SC differentiation to enable the time-dependent transcription of specific genes. Moreover, we describe the multiple roles of microRNA, an additional epigenetic mechanism, in regulating gene expression in SCs, by repressing or enhancing gene transcription or translation during each step of myogenesis. The importance of these epigenetic pathways in modulating SC activation and differentiation renders them as promising targets for disease interventions. Understanding the most recent findings regarding the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate SC behavior is useful from the perspective of pharmacological manipulation for improving muscle regeneration and for promoting muscle homeostasis under pathological conditions. PMID:26240681

  4. New insights into the epigenetic control of satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Moresi, Viviana; Marroncelli, Nicoletta; Adamo, Sergio

    2015-07-26

    Epigenetics finely tunes gene expression at a functional level without modifying the DNA sequence, thereby contributing to the complexity of genomic regulation. Satellite cells (SCs) are adult muscle stem cells that are important for skeletal post-natal muscle growth, homeostasis and repair. The understanding of the epigenome of SCs at different stages and of the multiple layers of the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is constantly expanding. Dynamic interactions between different epigenetic mechanisms regulate the appropriate timing of muscle-specific gene expression and influence the lineage fate of SCs. In this review, we report and discuss the recent literature about the epigenetic control of SCs during the myogenic process from activation to proliferation and from their commitment to a muscle cell fate to their differentiation and fusion to myotubes. We describe how the coordinated activities of the histone methyltransferase families Polycomb group (PcG), which represses the expression of developmentally regulated genes, and Trithorax group, which antagonizes the repressive activity of the PcG, regulate myogenesis by restricting gene expression in a time-dependent manner during each step of the process. We discuss how histone acetylation and deacetylation occurs in specific loci throughout SC differentiation to enable the time-dependent transcription of specific genes. Moreover, we describe the multiple roles of microRNA, an additional epigenetic mechanism, in regulating gene expression in SCs, by repressing or enhancing gene transcription or translation during each step of myogenesis. The importance of these epigenetic pathways in modulating SC activation and differentiation renders them as promising targets for disease interventions. Understanding the most recent findings regarding the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate SC behavior is useful from the perspective of pharmacological manipulation for improving muscle regeneration and for promoting muscle homeostasis under pathological conditions. PMID:26240681

  5. Role of satellite glial cells in gastrointestinal pain

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Menachem

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) pain is a common clinical problem, for which effective therapy is quite limited. Sensations from the GI tract, including pain, are mediated largely by neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and to a smaller extent by vagal afferents emerging from neurons in the nodose/jugular ganglia. Neurons in rodent DRG become hyperexcitable in models of GI pain (e.g., gastric or colonic inflammation), and can serve as a source for chronic pain. Glial cells are another element in the pain signaling pathways, and there is evidence that spinal glial cells (microglia and astrocytes) undergo activation (gliosis) in various pain models and contribute to pain. Recently it was found that satellite glial cells (SGCs), the main type of glial cells in sensory ganglia, might also contribute to chronic pain in rodent models. Most of that work focused on somatic pain, but in several studies GI pain was also investigated, and these are discussed in the present review. We have shown that colonic inflammation induced by dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) in mice leads to the activation of SGCs in DRG and increases gap junction-mediated coupling among these cells. This coupling appears to contribute to the hyperexcitability of DRG neurons that innervate the colon. Blocking gap junctions (GJ) in vitro reduced neuronal hyperexcitability induced by inflammation, suggesting that glial GJ participate in SGC-neuron interactions. Moreover, blocking GJ by carbenoxolone and other agents reduces pain behavior. Similar changes in SGCs were also found in the mouse nodose ganglia (NG), which provide sensory innervation to most of the GI tract. Following systemic inflammation, SGCs in these ganglia were activated, and displayed augmented coupling and greater sensitivity to the pain mediator ATP. The contribution of these changes to visceral pain remains to be determined. These results indicate that although visceral pain is unique, it shares basic mechanisms with somatic pain, suggesting that therapeutic approaches to both pain types may be similar. Future research in this field should include additional types of GI injury and also other types of visceral pain. PMID:26528140

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Satellite Cells from Rat Head Branchiomeric Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal Monroy, Paola L.; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Wagener, Frank A.D.T.G.; Von den Hoff, Johannes W.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis and defective muscle regeneration can hamper the functional recovery of the soft palate muscles after cleft palate repair. This causes persistent problems in speech, swallowing, and sucking. In vitro culture systems that allow the study of satellite cells (myogenic stem cells) from head muscles are crucial to develop new therapies based on tissue engineering to promote muscle regeneration after surgery. These systems will offer new perspectives for the treatment of cleft palate patients. A protocol for the isolation, culture and differentiation of satellite cells from head muscles is presented. The isolation is based on enzymatic digestion and trituration to release the satellite cells. In addition, this protocol comprises an innovative method using extracellular matrix gel coatings of millimeter size, which requires only low numbers of satellite cells for differentiation assays. PMID:26274878

  7. Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G.

    1995-01-16

    Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Satellite cell activity, without expansion, after nonhypertrophic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Joanisse, Sophie; McKay, Bryon R; Nederveen, Joshua P; Scribbans, Trisha D; Gurd, Brendon J; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Parise, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to determine the effect of various nonhypertrophic exercise stimuli on satellite cell (SC) pool activity in human skeletal muscle. Previously untrained men and women (men: 29 ± 9 yr and women: 29 ± 2 yr, n = 7 each) completed 6 wk of very low-volume high-intensity sprint interval training. In a separate study, recreationally active men (n = 16) and women (n = 3) completed 6 wk of either traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (n = 9, 21 ± 4 yr) or low-volume sprint interval training (n = 10, 21 ± 2 yr). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after training. The fiber type-specific SC response to training was determined, as was the activity of the SC pool using immunofluorescent microscopy of muscle cross sections. Training did not induce hypertrophy, as assessed by muscle cross-sectional area, nor did the SC pool expand in any group. However, there was an increase in the number of active SCs after each intervention. Specifically, the number of activated (Pax7(+)/MyoD(+), P ? 0.05) and differentiating (Pax7(-)/MyoD(+), P ? 0.05) SCs increased after each training intervention. Here, we report evidence of activated and cycling SCs that may or may not contribute to exercise-induced adaptations while the SC pool remains constant after three nonhypertrophic exercise training protocols. PMID:26333785

  9. TRAF6 regulates satellite stem cell self-renewal and function during regenerative myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hindi, Sajedah M; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Satellite cells are a stem cell population within adult muscle and are responsible for myofiber regeneration upon injury. Satellite cell dysfunction has been shown to underlie the loss of skeletal muscle mass in many acquired and genetic muscle disorders. The transcription factor paired box-protein-7 (PAX7) is indispensable for supplementing the reservoir of satellite cells and driving regeneration in normal and diseased muscle. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an adaptor protein and an E3 ubiquitin ligase that mediates the activation of multiple cell signaling pathways in a context-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrated that TRAF6-mediated signaling is critical for homeostasis of satellite cells and their function during regenerative myogenesis. Selective deletion of Traf6 in satellite cells of adult mice led to profound muscle regeneration defects and dramatically reduced levels of PAX7 and late myogenesis markers. TRAF6 was required for the activation of MAPKs ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, which in turn activated the transcription factor c-JUN, which binds the Pax7 promoter and augments Pax7 expression. Moreover, TRAF6/c-JUN signaling repressed the levels of the microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206, which promote differentiation, to maintain PAX7 levels in satellite cells. We also determined that satellite cell-specific deletion of Traf6 exaggerates the dystrophic phenotype in the mdx (a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy) mouse by blunting the regeneration of injured myofibers. Collectively, our study reveals an essential role for TRAF6 in satellite stem cell function. PMID:26619121

  10. Reduced satellite cell population may lead to contractures in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, LUCAS R; CHAMBERS, HENRY G; LIEBER, RICHARD L

    2014-01-01

    AIM Satellite cells are the stem cells residing in muscle responsible for skeletal muscle growth and repair. Skeletal muscle in cerebral palsy (CP) has impaired longitudinal growth that results in muscle contractures. We hypothesized that the satellite cell population would be reduced in contractured muscle. METHOD We compared the satellite cell populations in hamstring muscles from participants with CP contracture (n=8; six males, two females; age range 6–15y; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels II–V; 4 with hemiplegia, 4 with diplegia) and from typically developing participants (n=8; six males, two females, age range 15–18y). Muscle biopsies were extracted from the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles and mononuclear cells were isolated. Cell surface markers were stained with fluorescently conjugated antibodies to label satellite cells (neural cell adhesion molecule) and inflammatory and endothelial cells (CD34 and CD4 respectively). Cells were analyzed using flow cytometry to determine cell populations. RESULTS After gating for intact cells a mean of 12.8% (SD 2.8%) were determined to be satellite cells in typically developing children, but only 5.3% (SD 2.3%;p<0.05) in children with CP. Hematopoietic and endothelial cell types were equivalent in typically developing children and children with CP (p>0.05) suggesting the isolation procedure was valid. INTERPRETATION A reduced satellite cell population may account for the decreased longitudinal growth of muscles in CP that develop into fixed contractures or the decreased ability to strengthen muscle in CP. This suggests a unique musculoskeletal disease mechanism and provides a potential therapeutic target for debilitating muscle contractures. PMID:23210987

  11. Importance of satellite cells in recovery from eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury 

    E-print Network

    Rathbone, Christopher Ronald

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the elimination of satellite cell proliferation with []-irradiation would inhibit normal force recovery following eccentric contraction-induced injury. Adult female ICR mice were implanted with a...

  12. Acute effects of hindlimb unweighting on satellite cells of growing skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Edward; Darr, Kevin C.; Macius, Allison

    1994-01-01

    The proliferative behavior of satellite cells in growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles was examined at short periods after initiation of hindlimb unweighting. Mitotic activity of satellite cells in both muscles decreased below weight-bearing control levels within 24 h of initiation of hindlimb unweighting. This satellite cell response was equal to or greater than 48 h before any atrophic morphological changes that take place in the muscles. Suppression of mitotic activity was most severe in the soleus muscle where continuous infusion of label demonstrated that virtually all mitotic activity was abolished between 3 and 5 days. The results of this study suggest that satellite cell mitotic activity is a sensitive indicator of primary atrophic changes occurring in growing myofibers and may be a predictor of future morphological changes.

  13. Human Skeletal Muscle–derived CD133+ Cells Form Functional Satellite Cells After Intramuscular Transplantation in Immunodeficient Host Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jinhong; Chun, Soyon; Asfahani, Rowan; Lochmüller, Hanns; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of muscular dystrophies. In addition to muscle fiber formation, reconstitution of functional stem cell pool by donor cells is vital for long-term treatment. We show here that some CD133+ cells within human muscle are located underneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers, in the position of the muscle satellite cell. Cultured hCD133+ cells are heterogeneous and multipotent, capable of forming myotubes and reserve satellite cells in vitro. They contribute to extensive muscle regeneration and satellite cell formation following intramuscular transplantation into irradiated and cryodamaged tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient Rag2-/? chain-/C5-mice. Some donor-derived satellite cells expressed the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, indicating that they were activated. In addition, when transplanted host muscles were reinjured, there was significantly more newly-regenerated muscle fibers of donor origin in treated than in control, nonreinjured muscles, indicating that hCD133+ cells had given rise to functional muscle stem cells, which were able to activate in response to injury and contribute to a further round of muscle regeneration. Our findings provide new evidence for the location and characterization of hCD133+ cells, and highlight that these cells are highly suitable for future clinical application. PMID:24569833

  14. Fractalkine mediates inflammatory pain through activation of satellite glial cells.

    PubMed

    Souza, Guilherme R; Talbot, Jhimmy; Lotufo, Celina M; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cunha, Thiago M; Ferreira, Sérgio H

    2013-07-01

    The activation of the satellite glial cells (SGCs) surrounding the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons appears to play a role in pathological pain. We tested the hypothesis that fractalkine, which is constitutively expressed by primary nociceptive neurons, is the link between peripheral inflammation and the activation of SGCs and is thus responsible for the genesis of the inflammatory pain. The injection of carrageenin into the rat hind paw induced a decrease in the mechanical nociceptive threshold (hypernociception), which was associated with an increase in mRNA and GFAP protein expression in the DRG. Both events were inhibited by anti-fractalkine antibody administered directly into the DRG (L5) [intraganglionar (i.gl.)]. The administration of fractalkine into the DRG (L5) produced mechanical hypernociception in a dose-, time-, and CX3C receptor-1 (CX3CR1)-dependent manner. Fractalkine's hypernociceptive effect appears to be indirect, as it was reduced by local treatment with anti-TNF-? antibody, IL-1-receptor antagonist, or indomethacin. Accordingly, the in vitro incubation of isolated and cultured SGC with fractalkine induced the production/release of TNF-?, IL-1?, and prostaglandin E2. Finally, treatment with i.gl. fluorocitrate blocked fractalkine (i.gl.)- and carrageenin (paw)-induced hypernociception. Overall, these results suggest that, during peripheral inflammation, fractalkine is released in the DRG and contributes to the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception. Fractalkine's effect appears to be dependent on the activation of the SGCs, leading to the production of TNF?, IL-1?, and prostanoids, which are likely responsible for the maintenance of inflammatory pain. Thus, these results indicate that the inhibition of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling in SGCs may serve as a target to control inflammatory pain. PMID:23776243

  15. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Stimulates Warburg-like Glycolysis and Activation of Satellite Cells during Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xing; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Dodson, Mike V; Du, Min

    2015-10-30

    Satellite cells are the major myogenic stem cells residing inside skeletal muscle and are indispensable for muscle regeneration. Satellite cells remain largely quiescent but are rapidly activated in response to muscle injury, and the derived myogenic cells then fuse to repair damaged muscle fibers or form new muscle fibers. However, mechanisms eliciting metabolic activation, an inseparable step for satellite cell activation following muscle injury, have not been defined. We found that a noncanonical Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway is rapidly activated in response to muscle injury, which activates AMPK and induces a Warburg-like glycolysis in satellite cells. AMPK?1 is the dominant AMPK? isoform expressed in satellite cells, and AMPK?1 deficiency in satellite cells impairs their activation and myogenic differentiation during muscle regeneration. Drugs activating noncanonical Shh promote proliferation of satellite cells, which is abolished because of satellite cell-specific AMPK?1 knock-out. Taken together, AMPK?1 is a critical mediator linking noncanonical Shh pathway to Warburg-like glycolysis in satellite cells, which is required for satellite activation and muscle regeneration. PMID:26370082

  16. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRedloxP/loxPCripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury. PMID:26052513

  17. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  18. Isolation and Culture of Skeletal Muscle Myofibers as a Means to Analyze Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Gabi; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-01-01

    Summary Myofibers are the functional contractile units of skeletal muscle. Mononuclear satellite cells located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber are the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. This chapter describes protocols used in our laboratory for isolation, culturing and immunostaining of single myofibers from mouse skeletal muscle. The isolated myofibers are intact and retain their associated satellite cells underneath the basal lamina. The first protocol discusses myofiber isolation from the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle. Myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with Vitrogen collagen and satellite cells remain associated with the myofibers undergoing proliferation and differentiation on the myofiber surface. The second protocol discusses the isolation of longer myofibers from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Different from the FDB myofibers, the longer EDL myofibers tend to tangle and break if cultured together; therefore, EDL myofibers are cultured individually. These myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with Matrigel. The satellite cells initially remain associated with the myofiber and later migrate away to its vicinity, resulting in extensive cell proliferation and differentiation. These culture protocols allow studies on the interplay between the myofiber and its associated satellite cells. PMID:15361669

  19. Cytokine Gene Expression in Lung Mononuclear Cells of Chickens Vaccinated with Herpesvirus of Turkeys and Infected with Marek's Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Parvizi, Payvand; Brisbin, Jennifer T; Read, Leah R; Sharif, Shayan

    2015-11-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) enters the chicken host through the respiratory system. However, little is known about the host immune responses induced by MDV in the lungs. To characterize these responses, chickens were vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) and challenged with the RB1B strain of MDV via the respiratory route. Lung mononuclear cells of vaccinated only, challenged only, vaccinated and challenged, as well as age-matched controls were isolated at 4, 10, and 21 days post-infection. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression of various cytokines. There was significant upregulation of interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-10 in lung mononuclear cells of HVT-vaccinated and RB1B challenged and unvaccinated and RB1B challenged chickens. However, in lung mononuclear cells isolated from chickens that were vaccinated with HVT but remained uninfected, there was an upregulation of IL-4 and IL-13. This study indicates that MDV- and HVT-associated cytokines expressed by lung mononuclear cells are temporally regulated and that these cytokines may be involved in immunity against the virus. PMID:26447971

  20. Composite SERS-based satellites navigated by optical tweezers for single cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Stetciura, Inna Y; Yashchenok, Alexey; Masic, Admir; Lyubin, Evgeny V; Inozemtseva, Olga A; Drozdova, Maria G; Markvichova, Elena A; Khlebtsov, Boris N; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Sukhorukov, Gleb B; Gorin, Dmitry A; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we have designed composite SERS-active micro-satellites, which exhibit a dual role: (i) effective probes for determining cellular composition and (ii) optically movable and easily detectable markers. The satellites were synthesized by the layer-by-layer assisted decoration of silica microparticles with metal (gold or silver) nanoparticles and astralen in order to ensure satellite SERS-based microenvironment probing and satellite recognition, respectively. A combination of optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy can be used to navigate the satellites to a certain cellular compartment and probe the intracellular composition following cellular uptake. In the future, this developed approach may serve as a tool for single cell analysis with nanometer precision due to the multilayer surface design, focusing on both extracellular and intracellular studies. PMID:26040199

  1. Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that a two-cell structure is likely to be the unique property, and potentially satellite-accessible observable, of the exceptionally severe tornado. Analysis elucidating the dynamic, thermodynamic, and geometric properties of this two-cell structure is described. The analysis ultimately will furnish instrumentation requirements.

  2. Characteristics of the Localization of Connexin 43 in Satellite Cells during Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ishido, Minenori; Kasuga, Norikatsu

    2015-04-28

    For myogenesis, new myotubes are formed by the fusion of differentiated myoblasts. In the sequence of events for myotube formation, intercellular communication through gap junctions composed of connexin 43 (Cx43) plays critical roles in regulating the alignment and fusion of myoblasts in advances of myotube formation in vitro. On the other hand, the relationship between the expression patterns of Cx43 and the process of myotube formation in satellite cells during muscle regeneration in vivo remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the relationship between Cx43 and satellite cells in muscle regeneration in vivo. The expression of Cx43 was detected in skeletal muscles on day 1 post-muscle injury, but not in control muscles. Interestingly, the expression of Cx43 was not localized on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in the regenerating muscles. Moreover, although the clusters of differentiated satellite cells, which represent a more advanced stage of myotube formation, were observed on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in regenerating muscles, the expression of Cx43 was not localized in the clusters of these satellite cells. Therefore, in the present study, it was suggested that Cx43 may not directly contribute to muscle regeneration via satellite cells. PMID:26019374

  3. Isolation and culture of individual myofibers and their satellite cells from adult skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pasut, Alessandra; Jones, Andrew E; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Muscle regeneration in the adult is performed by resident stem cells called satellite cells. Satellite cells are defined by their position between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of each myofiber. Current knowledge of their behavior heavily relies on the use of the single myofiber isolation protocol. In 1985, Bischoff described a protocol to isolate single live fibers from the Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) of adult rats with the goal to create an in vitro system in which the physical association between the myofiber and its stem cells is preserved (1). In 1995, Rosenblattmodified the Bischoff protocol such that myofibers are singly picked and handled separately after collagenase digestion instead of being isolated by gravity sedimentation (2, 3). The Rosenblatt or Bischoff protocol has since been adapted to different muscles, age or conditions (3-6). The single myofiber isolation technique is an indispensable tool due its unique advantages. First, in the single myofiber protocol, satellite cells are maintained beneath the basal lamina. This is a unique feature of the protocol as other techniques such as Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting require chemical and mechanical tissue dissociation (7). Although the myofiber culture system cannot substitute for in vivo studies, it does offer an excellent platform to address relevant biological properties of muscle stem cells. Single myofibers can be cultured in standard plating conditions or in floating conditions. Satellite cells on floating myofibers are subjected to virtually no other influence than the myofiber environment. Substrate stiffness and coating have been shown to influence satellite cells' ability to regenerate muscles (8, 9) so being able to control each of these factors independently allows discrimination between niche-dependent and -independent responses. Different concentrations of serum have also been shown to have an effect on the transition from quiescence to activation. To preserve the quiescence state of its associated satellite cells, fibers should be kept in low serum medium (1-3). This is particularly useful when studying genes involved in the quiescence state. In serum rich medium, satellite cells quickly activate, proliferate, migrate and differentiate, thus mimicking the in vivo regenerative process (1-3). The system can be used to perform a variety of assays such as the testing of chemical inhibitors; ectopic expression of genes by virus delivery; oligonucleotide based gene knock-down or live imaging. This video article describes the protocol currently used in our laboratory to isolate single myofibers from the Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscle of adult mice (6-8 weeks old). PMID:23542587

  4. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is expressed in satellite cells and controls myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, François; Lala, Neena; Li, Grace; St-Louis, Catherine; Lamothe, Daniel; Keller, Charles; Wiper-Bergeron, Nadine

    2012-12-01

    Upon injury, muscle satellite cells become activated and produce skeletal muscle precursors that engage in myogenesis. We demonstrate that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP?) is expressed in the satellite cells of healthy muscle. C/EBP? expression is regulated during myogenesis such that C/EBP? is rapidly and massively downregulated upon induction to differentiate. Furthermore, persistent expression of C/EBP? in myoblasts potently inhibits differentiation at least in part through the inhibition of MyoD protein function and stability. As a consequence, myogenic factor expression, myosin heavy chain expression, and fusogenic activity were reduced in C/EBP?-overexpressing cells. Using knockout models, we demonstrate that loss of Cebpb expression in satellite cells results in precocious differentiation of myoblasts in growth conditions and greater cell fusion upon differentiation. In vivo, loss of Cebpb expression in satellite cells resulted in larger muscle fiber cross-sectional area and improved repair after muscle injury. Our results support the notion that C/EBP? inhibits myogenic differentiation and that its levels must be reduced to allow for activation of MyoD target genes and the progression of differentiation. PMID:23034923

  5. An adult tissue-specific stem cell in its niche: a gene profiling analysis of in vivo quiescent and activated muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Pallafacchina, Giorgia; François, Stéphanie; Regnault, Béatrice; Czarny, Bertrand; Dive, Vincent; Cumano, Ana; Montarras, Didier; Buckingham, Margaret

    2010-03-01

    The satellite cell of skeletal muscle provides a paradigm for quiescent and activated tissue stem cell states. We have carried out transcriptome analyses on satellite cells purified by flow cytometry from Pax3(GFP/+) mice. We compared samples from adult skeletal muscles where satellite cells are mainly quiescent, with samples from growing muscles or regenerating (mdx) muscles, where they are activated. Analysis of regulation that is shared by both activated states avoids other effects due to immature or pathological conditions. This in vivo profile differs from that of previously analyzed satellite cells activated after cell culture. It reveals how the satellite cell protects itself from damage and maintains quiescence, while being primed for activation on receipt of the appropriate signal. This is illustrated by manipulation of the corepressor Dach1, and by the demonstration that quiescent satellite cells are better protected from oxidative stress than those from mdx or 1-week-old muscles. The quiescent versus in vivo activated comparison also gives new insights into how the satellite cell controls its niche on the muscle fiber through cell adhesion and matrix remodeling. The latter also potentiates growth factor activity through proteoglycan modification. Dismantling the extracellular matrix is important for satellite cell activation when the expression of proteinases is up-regulated, whereas transcripts for their inhibitors are high in quiescent cells. In keeping with this, we demonstrate that metalloproteinase function is required for efficient regeneration in vivo. PMID:19962952

  6. Evaluation of solar cells for potential space satellite power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation focused on the following subjects: (1) the relative merits of alternative solar cell materials, based on performance and availability, (2) the best manufacturing methods for various solar cell options and the effects of extremely large production volumes on their ultimate costs and operational characteristics, (3) the areas of uncertainty in achieving large solar cell production volumes, (4) the effects of concentration ratios on solar array mass and system performance, (5) the factors influencing solar cell life in the radiation environment during transport to and in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) the merits of conducting solar cell manufacturing operations in space.

  7. Reduced myotube diameter, atrophic signalling and elevated oxidative stress in cultured satellite cells from COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Pomiès, Pascal; Rodriguez, Julie; Blaquière, Marine; Sedraoui, Sami; Gouzi, Fares; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to skeletal limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been fully elucidated. Exhausted muscle regenerative capacity of satellite cells has been evocated, but the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and differentiate properly remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of satellite cells derived from COPD patients and healthy individuals, in terms of proliferative and differentiation capacities, morphological phenotype and atrophy/hypertrophy signalling, and oxidative stress status. Therefore, we purified and cultivated satellite cells from progressively frozen vastus lateralis biopsies of eight COPD patients and eight healthy individuals. We examined proliferation parameters, differentiation capacities, myotube diameter, expression of atrophy/hypertrophy markers, oxidative stress damages, antioxidant enzyme expression and cell susceptibility to H2 O2 in cultured myoblasts and/or myotubes. Proliferation characteristics and commitment to terminal differentiation were similar in COPD patients and healthy individuals, despite impaired fusion capacities of COPD myotubes. Myotube diameter was smaller in COPD patients (P = 0.015), and was associated with a higher expression of myostatin (myoblasts: P = 0.083; myotubes: P = 0.050) and atrogin-1 (myoblasts: P = 0.050), and a decreased phospho-AKT/AKT ratio (myoblasts: P = 0.022). Protein carbonylation (myoblasts: P = 0.028; myotubes: P = 0.002) and lipid peroxidation (myotubes: P = 0.065) were higher in COPD cells, and COPD myoblasts were significantly more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, cultured satellite cells from COPD patients display characteristics of morphology, atrophic signalling and oxidative stress similar to those described in in vivo COPD skeletal limb muscles. We have therefore demonstrated that muscle alteration in COPD can be studied by classical in vitro cellular models. PMID:25339614

  8. Isolation and Culture of Skeletal Muscle Myofibers as a Means to Analyze Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keire, Paul; Shearer, Andrew; Shefer, Gabi; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2012-01-01

    Multinucleated myofibers are the functional contractile units of skeletal muscle. In adult muscle, mononuclear satellite cells, located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber, are the primary myogenic stem cells. This chapter describes protocols for isolation, culturing and immunostaining of myofibers from mouse skeletal muscle. Myofibers are isolated intact and retain their associated satellite cells. The first protocol discusses myofiber isolation from the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle. These short myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with PureCol collagen (formerly known as Vitrogen) using a serum replacement medium. Employing such culture conditions, satellite cells remain associated with the myofibers, undergoing proliferation and differentiation on the myofiber surface. The second protocol discusses the isolation of longer myofibers from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Different from the FDB preparation, where multiple myofibers are processed together, the longer EDL myofibers are typically processed and cultured individually in dishes coated with Matrigel using a growth factor rich medium. Under these conditions, satellite cells initially remain associated with the parent myofiber and later migrate away, giving rise to proliferating and differentiating progeny. Myofibers from other types of muscles, such as diaphragm, masseter, and extraocular muscles can also be isolated and analyzed using protocols described herein. Overall, cultures of isolated myofibers provide essential tools for studying the interplay between the parent myofiber and its associated satellite cells. The current chapter provides background, procedural, and reagent updates, and step-by-step images of FDB and EDL muscle isolations, not included in our 2005 publication in this series. PMID:23179849

  9. Inadequate satellite cell replication compromises muscle regrowth following postnatal nutrient restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perinatal growth impairment permanently compromises skeletal muscle mass. The present study assessed the contribution of muscle satellite cell replicative capacity to this deficit. Mouse dams were fed either a low protein (LP, n=7) or control (C, n=6) diet during lactation. Pups were weaned at 21 d ...

  10. Satellite observations of ship emission induced transitions from broken to closed cell marine stratocumulus

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Satellite observations of ship emission induced transitions from broken to closed cell marine; accepted 3 August 2012; published 12 September 2012. [1] Documentation of the evolution of ship tracks during 42 h demonstrated that ship emissions are able to convert a marine stratocumulus regime of open

  11. Muscle Atrophy Reversed by Growth Factor Activation of Satellite Cells in a Mouse Muscle Atrophy Model

    PubMed Central

    Hauerslev, Simon; Vissing, John; Krag, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies comprise a large group of inherited disorders that lead to progressive muscle wasting. We wanted to investigate if targeting satellite cells can enhance muscle regeneration and thus increase muscle mass. We treated mice with hepatocyte growth factor and leukemia inhibitory factor under three conditions: normoxia, hypoxia and during myostatin deficiency. We found that hepatocyte growth factor treatment led to activation of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K protein synthesis pathway, up-regulation of the myognic transcription factors MyoD and myogenin, and subsequently the negative growth control factor, myostatin and atrophy markers MAFbx and MuRF1. Hypoxia-induced atrophy was partially restored by hepatocyte growth factor combined with leukemia inhibitory factor treatment. Dividing satellite cells were three-fold increased in the treatment group compared to control. Finally, we demonstrated that myostatin regulates satellite cell activation and myogenesis in vivo following treatment, consistent with previous findings in vitro. Our results suggest, not only a novel in vivo pharmacological treatment directed specifically at activating the satellite cells, but also a myostatin dependent mechanism that may contribute to the progressive muscle wasting seen in severely affected patients with muscular dystrophy and significant on-going regeneration. This treatment could potentially be applied to many conditions that feature muscle wasting to increase muscle bulk and strength. PMID:24963862

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIAL AND LEYDIG CELLS OF THE TURKEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike mammals, there is little fundamental information about spermatogenesis in birds. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphology, histochemistry, and lectin affinity of the seminiferous epithelial cells and Leydig cells in the pre-pubertal (8- to I5-wk old) and adult (40-to 44-wk old) do...

  13. Signal-dependent fra-2 regulation in skeletal muscle reserve and satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Alli, N S; Yang, E C; Miyake, T; Aziz, A; Collins-Hooper, H; Patel, K; McDermott, J C

    2013-01-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that paradoxically also has some tissue-specific functions. In skeletal muscle cells, we document that the AP-1 subunit, Fra-2, is expressed in the resident stem cells (Pax7-positive satellite cells) and also in the analogous undifferentiated ‘reserve' cell population in myogenic cultures, but not in differentiated myofiber nuclei. Silencing of Fra-2 expression enhances the expression of differentiation markers such as muscle creatine kinase and myosin heavy chain, indicating a possible role of Fra-2 in undifferentiated myogenic progenitor cells. We observed that Fra-2 is a target of cytokine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 signaling in cultured muscle cells, and extensive mass spectrometry and mutational analysis identified S320 and T322 as regulators of Fra-2 protein stability. Interestingly, Fra-2 S320 phosphorylation occurs transiently in activated satellite cells and is extinguished in myogenin-positive differentiating cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated Fra-2 expression and stabilization is linked to regulation of myogenic progenitor cells having implications for the molecular regulation of adult muscle stem cells and skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23807221

  14. Adeno-associated viral vectors do not efficiently target muscle satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Andrea LH; Konieczny, Patryk; Ramos, Julian N; Hall, John; Odom, Guy; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Chamberlain, Joel R; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are becoming an important tool for gene therapy of numerous genetic and other disorders. Several recombinant AAV vectors (rAAV) have the ability to transduce striated muscles in a variety of animals following intramuscular and intravascular administration, and have attracted widespread interest for therapy of muscle disorders such as the muscular dystrophies. However, most studies have focused on the ability to transduce mature muscle cells, and have not examined the ability to target myogenic stem cells such as skeletal muscle satellite cells. Here we examined the relative ability of rAAV vectors derived from AAV6 to target myoblasts, myocytes, and myotubes in culture and satellite cells and myofibers in vivo. AAV vectors are able to transduce proliferating myoblasts in culture, albeit with reduced efficiency relative to postmitotic myocytes and myotubes. In contrast, quiescent satellite cells are refractory to transduction in adult mice. These results suggest that while muscle disorders characterized by myofiber regeneration can be slowed or halted by AAV transduction, little if any vector transduction can be obtained in myogenic stems cells that might other wise support ongoing muscle regeneration. PMID:25580445

  15. Early-age heat exposure affects skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in chicks.

    PubMed

    Halevy, O; Krispin, A; Leshem, Y; McMurtry, J P; Yahav, S

    2001-07-01

    Exposure of young chicks to thermal conditioning (TC; i.e., 37 degrees C for 24 h) resulted in significantly improved body and muscle growth at a later age. We hypothesized that TC causes an increase in satellite cell proliferation, necessary for further muscle hypertrophy. An immediate increase was observed in satellite cell DNA synthesis in culture and in vivo in response to TC of 3-day-old chicks to levels that were significantly higher than those of control chicks. This was accompanied by a marked induction of insulin-like growth factor-I (IFG-I), but not hepatocyte growth factor in the breast muscle. No significant difference between treatments in plasma IGF-I levels was observed. A marked elevation in muscle regulatory factors on day 5, followed by a decline in cell proliferation on day 6 together with continuous high levels of IGF-I in the TC chick muscle may indicate accelerated cell differentiation. These data suggest a central role for IGF-I in the immediate stimulation of satellite cell myogenic processes in response to heat exposure. PMID:11404306

  16. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  17. Roles of Adherent Myogenic Cells and Dynamic Culture in Engineered Muscle Function and Maintenance of Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Highly functional engineered skeletal muscle constructs could serve as physiological models of muscle function and regeneration and have utility in therapeutic replacement of damaged or diseased muscle tissue. In this study, we examined the roles of different myogenic cell fractions and culturing conditions in the generation of highly functional engineered muscle. Fibrin-based muscle bundles were fabricated using either freshly-isolated myogenic cells or their adherent fraction pre-cultured for 36 hours. Muscle bundles made of these cells were cultured in both static and dynamic conditions and systematically characterized with respect to early myogenic events and contractile function. Following 2 weeks of culture, we observed both individual and synergistic benefits of using the adherent cell fraction and dynamic culture on muscle formation and function. In particular, optimal culture conditions resulted in significant increase in the total cross-sectional muscle area (~3-fold), myofiber size (~1.6-fold), myonuclei density (~1.2-fold), and force generation (~9-fold) compared to traditional use of freshly isolated cells and static culture. Curiously, we observed that only a simultaneous use of the adherent cell fraction and dynamic culture resulted in accelerated formation of differentiated myofibers which were critical for providing a niche-like environment for maintenance of a satellite cell pool early during culture. Our study identifies key parameters for engineering large-size, highly functional skeletal muscle tissues with improved ability for retention of functional satellite cells. PMID:25154662

  18. Infrared and visible satellite rain estimation. I - A grid cell approach. II - A cloud definition approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between satellite-viewed cloudy grid cells and the variability of the precipitation contained therein, together with the relationships between the satellite-IR clouds and rainfall and the IR-thresholded visible clouds and rainfall. In the grid cell approach, IR, visible, and radar data for five days of the Florida Area Cumulus Experiment were examined using a 32-km grid and 30-min interval; the results of this experiment indicated that useful, accurate rainfall estimates beyond rain/no rain discrimination are unlikely. In the cloud definition approach, it was found that the cloud IR area was highly correlated with the rain area and with the volume rain rate across the entire spectrum of cloud sizes. It was poorly correlated with mean cloud rain rate.

  19. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Biacchesi, Stéphane; Jouvion, Grégory; Mérour, Emilie; Boukadiri, Abdelhak; Desdouits, Marion; Ozden, Simona; Huerre, Michel; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brémont, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis and atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are global causes of debilitating musculoskeletal diseases. The mechanisms by which the virus causes these pathologies are poorly understood due to the restrictive availability of animal models capable of reproducing the full spectrum of the disease. Nevertheless, it has been shown that CHIKV exhibits a particular tropism for muscle stem cells also known as satellite cells. Thus, SDV and its host constitute a relevant model to study in details the virus-induced muscle atrophy, the pathophysiological consequences of the infection of a particular cell-type in the skeletal muscle, and the regeneration of the muscle tissue in survivors together with the possible virus persistence. To study a putative SDV tropism for that particular cell type, we established an in vivo and ex vivo rainbow trout model of SDV-induced atrophy of the skeletal muscle. This experimental model allows reproducing the full panel of clinical signs observed during a natural infection since the transmission of the virus is arthropod-borne independent. The virus tropism in the muscle tissue was studied by immunohistochemistry together with the kinetics of the muscle atrophy, and the muscle regeneration post-infection was observed. In parallel, an ex vivo model of SDV infection of rainbow trout satellite cells was developed and virus replication and persistence in that particular cell type was followed up to 73 days post-infection. These results constitute the first observation of a specific SDV tropism for the muscle satellite cells. PMID:26743565

  20. The effect of temperature on apoptosis and adipogenesis on skeletal muscle satellite cells derived from different muscle types

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Rachel L; Clark, Daniel L; Halevy, Orna; Coy, Cynthia S; Yahav, Shlomo; Velleman, Sandra G

    2015-01-01

    Satellite cells are multipotential stem cells that mediate postnatal muscle growth and respond differently to temperature based upon aerobic versus anaerobic fiber-type origin. The objective of this study was to determine how temperatures below and above the control, 38°C, affect the fate of satellite cells isolated from the anaerobic pectoralis major (p. major) or mixed fiber biceps femoris (b. femoris). At all sampling times, p. major and b. femoris cells accumulated less lipid when incubated at low temperatures and more lipid at elevated temperatures compared to the control. Satellite cells isolated from the p. major were more sensitive to temperature as they accumulated more lipid at elevated temperatures compared to b. femoris cells. Expression of adipogenic genes, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) were different within satellite cells isolated from the p. major or b. femoris. At 72 h of proliferation, C/EBP? expression increased with increasing temperature in both cell types, while PPAR? expression decreased with increasing temperature in p. major satellite cells. At 48 h of differentiation, both C/EBP? and PPAR? expression increased in the p. major and decreased in the b. femoris, with increasing temperature. Flow cytometry measured apoptotic markers for early apoptosis (Annexin-V-PE) or late apoptosis (7-AAD), showing less than 1% of apoptotic satellite cells throughout all experimental conditions, therefore, apoptosis was considered biologically not significant. The results support that anaerobic p. major satellite cells are more predisposed to adipogenic conversion than aerobic b. femoris cells when thermally challenged. PMID:26341996

  1. Essential role of satellite cells in the growth of rat soleus muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Fuminori; Takeno, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Naoya; Higo, Yoko; Terada, Masahiro; Ohira, Takashi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2008-08-01

    Effects of gravitational loading or unloading on the growth-associated increase in the cross-sectional area and length of fibers, as well as the total fiber number, in soleus muscle were studied in rats. Furthermore, the roles of satellite cells and myonuclei in growth of these properties were also investigated. The hindlimb unloading by tail suspension was performed in newborn rats from postnatal day 4 to month 3 with or without 3-mo reloading. The morphological properties were measured in whole muscle and/or single fibers sampled from tendon to tendon. Growth-associated increases of soleus weight and fiber cross-sectional area in the unloaded group were approximately 68% and 69% less than the age-matched controls. However, the increases of number and length of fibers were not influenced by unloading. Growth-related increases of the number of quiescent satellite cells and myonuclei were inhibited by unloading. And the growth-related decrease of mitotically active satellite cells, seen even in controls (20%, P > 0.05), was also stimulated (80%). The increase of myonuclei during 3-mo unloading was only 40 times vs. 92 times in controls. Inhibited increase of myonuclear number was not related to apoptosis. The size of myonuclear domain in the unloaded group was less and that of single nuclei, which was decreased by growth, was larger than controls. However, all of these parameters, inhibited by unloading, were increased toward the control levels generally by reloading. It is suggested that the satellite cell-related stimulation in response to gravitational loading plays an essential role in the cross-sectional growth of soleus muscle fibers. PMID:18524941

  2. High-Content Screening of Human Primary Muscle Satellite Cells for New Therapies for Muscular Atrophy/Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nierobisz, Lidia S; Cheatham, Bentley; Buehrer, Benjamin M; Sexton, Jonathan Z

    2013-01-01

    Myoblast proliferation and differentiation are essential for normal skeletal muscle growth and repair. Muscle recovery is dependent on the quiescent population of muscle stem cells - satellite cells. During muscle injury, satellite cells become mitotically active and begin the repair process by fusing with each other and/or with myofibers. Aging, prolonged inactivity, obesity, cachexia and other muscle wasting diseases are associated with a decreased number of quiescent and proliferating satellite cells, which impedes the repair process. A high-content/high-throughput platform was developed and utilized for robust phenotypic evaluation of human primary satellite cells in vitro for the discovery of chemical probes that may improve muscle recovery. A 1600 compound pilot screen was developed using two highly annotated small molecule libraries. This screen yielded 15 dose responsive compounds that increased proliferation rate in satellite cells derived from a single obese human donor. Two of these compounds remained dose responsive when counter-screened in 3-donor obese superlot. The Alk-5 inhibitor LY364947, was used as a positive control for assessing satellite cell proliferation/delayed differentiation. A multivariate approach was utilized for exploratory data analysis to discover proliferation vs. differentiation-dependent changes in cellular phenotype. Initial screening efforts successfully identified a number of phenotypic outcomes that are associated with desired effect of stimulation of proliferation and delayed differentiation. PMID:24396732

  3. CD13 Regulates Anchorage and Differentiation of the Skeletal Muscle Satellite Stem Cell Population in Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Mamunur; Ghosh, Mallika; Subramani, Jaganathan; Fong, Guo-Hua; Carlson, Morgan E.; Shapiro, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    CD13 is a multifunctional cell surface molecule that regulates inflammatory and angiogenic mechanisms in vitro, but its contribution to these processes in vivo or potential roles in stem cell biology remains unexplored. We investigated the impact of loss of CD13 on a model of ischemic skeletal muscle injury that involves angiogenesis, inflammation and stem cell mobilization. Consistent with its role as an inflammatory adhesion molecule, lack of CD13 altered myeloid trafficking in the injured muscle, resulting in cytokine profiles skewed toward a pro-healing environment. Despite this healing-favorable context, CD13KO animals showed significantly impaired limb perfusion with increased necrosis, fibrosis and lipid accumulation. Capillary density was correspondingly decreased, implicating CD13 in skeletal muscle angiogenesis. The number of CD45?/Sca1?/?7-integrin+/?1-integrin+ satellite cells was markedly diminished in injured CD13KO muscles and adhesion of isolated CD13KO satellite cells was impaired while their differentiation was accelerated. Bone marrow transplantation studies showed contributions from both host and donor cells to wound healing. Importantly, CD13 was co-expressed with Pax7 on isolated muscle-resident satellite cells. Finally, phosphorylated-FAK and ERK levels were reduced in injured CD13KO muscles, consistent with CD13 regulating satellite cell adhesion, potentially contributing to the maintenance and renewal of the satellite stem cell pool and facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:24307555

  4. Fabrication of glass gas cells for the HALOE and MAPS satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, E. M.; Walthall, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment are satellite-borne experiments which measure trace constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. The instruments which obtain the data for these experiments are based on the gas filter correlation radiometer measurement technique. In this technique, small samples of the gases of interest are encapsulated in glass cylinders, called gas cells, which act as very selective optical filters. This report describes the techniques employed in the fabrication of the gas cells for the HALOE and MAPS instruments. Details of the method used to fuse the sapphire windows (required for IR transmission) to the glass cell bodies are presented along with detailed descriptions of the jigs and fixtures used during the assembly process. The techniques and equipment used for window inspection and for pairing the HALOE windows are discussed. Cell body materials and the steps involved in preparing the cell bodies for the glass-to-sapphire fusion process are given.

  5. Leucine Promotes Proliferation and Differentiation of Primary Preterm Rat Satellite Cells in Part through mTORC1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie-Min; Yu, Mu-Xue; Shen, Zhen-Yu; Guo, Chu-Yi; Zhuang, Si-Qi; Qiu, Xiao-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to leucine modulates many cellular and developmental processes. However, in the context of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, the role of leucine and mTORC1 is less known. This study investigates the role of leucine in the process of proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells, and the relationship with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. Dissociation of primary satellite cells occurred with type I collagenase and trypsin, and purification, via different speed adherence methods. Satellite cells with positive expression of Desmin were treated with leucine and rapamycin. We observed that leucine promoted proliferation and differentiation of primary satellite cells and increased the phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin inhibited proliferation and differentiation, as well as decreased the phosphorylation level of mTOR. Furthermore, leucine increased the expression of MyoD and myogenin while the protein level of MyoD decreased due to rapamycin. However, myogenin expressed no affect by rapamycin. In conclusion, leucine may up-regulate the activation of mTORC1 to promote proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells. We have shown that leucine promoted the differentiation of myotubes in part through the mTORC1-MyoD signal pathway. PMID:26007333

  6. The biology of satellite cells and telomeres in human skeletal muscle: effects of aging and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kadi, F; Ponsot, E

    2010-02-01

    The decline in the neuromuscular function affects the physical performance and is a threat for independent living in later life. The age-related decrease in muscle satellite cells observed by the age of 70 can be specific to type II fibers in some muscles. Several studies have shown that different forms of exercise induce the expansion of satellite cell pool in human skeletal muscle of young and elderly. Exercise is a powerful non-pharmacological tool inducing the renewal of the satellite cell pool in skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is not a stable tissue as satellite cells are constantly recruited during normal daily activities. Satellite cells and the length of telomeres are important in the context of muscle regeneration. It is likely that the regulation of telomeres in vitro cannot fully mimic the behavior of telomeres in human tissues. New insights suggest that telomeres in skeletal muscle are dynamic structures under the influence of their environment. When satellite cells are heavily recruited for regenerative events as in the skeletal muscle of athletes, telomere length has been found to be either dramatically shortened or maintained and even longer than in non-trained individuals. This suggests the existence of mechanisms allowing the control of telomere length in vivo. PMID:19765243

  7. Skeletal muscle satellite cells: Mediators of muscle growth during development and implications for developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite cells (SCs) are the muscle stem cells responsible for longitudinal and cross-sectional postnatal growth, repair after injury and which provide new myonuclei when needed. Here we review their morphology, contribution to development, and their role in sarcomere and myonuclear addition. SCs, similar to other tissue stem cells, cycle through different states such as quiescence, activation, and self-renewal and thus we consider the signaling mechanisms involved in maintenance of these states. The role of the SC niche, their interactions with other cells such as fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix are all emerging as important factors that affect aging and disease. Interestingly, children with cerebral palsy appear to have a reduced SC number, which could play a role in their reduced muscular development and even in muscular contracture formation. Finally we review the current information on SC dysfunction in children with muscular dystrophy and emerging therapies that target promotion of myogenesis and reduction of fibrosis. PMID:25186345

  8. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global coverage systems range from $1 Billion to $9 Billion, the availability of radiation hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  9. Expressed Sequence Tags for Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells, Myotube Formed-Cells and Adipocyte-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Smritee; Malik, Adeel; Tareq, K. M. A.; Roouf Bhat, Abdul; Park, Hee-Bok; Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, SangHoon; Yang, Bohsuk; Young Chung, Ki; Choi, Inho

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle satellite cells (MSCs) represent a devoted stem cell population that is responsible for postnatal muscle growth and skeletal muscle regeneration. An important characteristic of MSCs is that they encompass multi potential mesenchymal stem cell activity and are able to differentiate into myocytes and adipocytes. To achieve a global view of the genes differentially expressed in MSCs, myotube formed-cells (MFCs) and adipocyte-like cells (ALCs), we performed large-scale EST sequencing of normalized cDNA libraries developed from bovine MSCs. Results A total of 24,192 clones were assembled into 3,333 clusters, 5,517 singletons and 3,842contigs. Functional annotation of these unigenes revealed that a large portion of the differentially expressed genes are involved in cellular and signaling processes. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) functional analysis of three subsets of highly expressed gene lists (MSC233, MFC258, and ALC248) highlighted some common and unique biological processes among MSC, MFC and ALC. Additionally, genes that may be specific to MSC, MFC and ALC are reported here, and the role of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase2 (DDAH2) during myogenesis and hemoglobin subunit alpha2 (HBA2) during transdifferentiation in C2C12 were assayed as a case study. DDAH2 was up-regulated during myognesis and knockdown of DDAH2 by siRNA significantly decreased myogenin (MYOG) expression corresponding with the slight change in cell morphology. In contrast, HBA2 was up-regulated during ALC formation and resulted in decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and CD36 mRNA expression upon knockdown assay. Conclusion In this study, a large number of EST sequences were generated from the MSC, MFC and ALC. Overall, the collection of ESTs generated in this study provides a starting point for the identification of novel genes involved in MFC and ALC formation, which in turn offers a fundamental resource to enable better understanding of the mechanism of muscle differentiation and transdifferentiation. PMID:24224006

  10. Inflammatory sensitization of nociceptors depends on activation of NMDA receptors in DRG satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro; Araldi, Dionéia; Rodrigues, Marcos A.; Macedo, Larissa P.; Ferreira, Sérgio H.; Parada, Carlos Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in the inflammatory sensitization of peripheral nociceptor terminals to mechanical stimulation. Injection of NMDA into the fifth lumbar (L5)-DRG induced hyperalgesia in the rat hind paw with a profile similar to that of intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which was significantly attenuated by injection of the NMDAR antagonist d(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP-5) in the L5-DRG. Moreover, blockade of DRG AMPA receptors by the antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione had no effect in the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in thepaw, showing specific involvement of NMDARs in this modulatory effect and suggesting that activation of NMDAR in the DRG plays an important role in the peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia. In following experiments we observed attenuation of PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw by the knockdown of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2B, NR2D, and NR3A with antisense-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment in the DRG. Also, in vitro experiments showed that the NMDA-induced sensitization of cultured DRG neurons depends on satellite cell activation and on those same NMDAR subunits, suggesting their importance for the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia. In addition, fluorescent calcium imaging experiments in cultures of DRG cells showed induction of calcium transients by glutamate or NMDA only in satellite cells, but not in neurons. Together, the present results suggest that the mechanical inflammatory nociceptor sensitization is dependent on glutamate release at the DRG and subsequent NMDAR activation in satellite glial cells, supporting the idea that the peripheral hyperalgesia is an event modulated by a glutamatergic system in the DRG. PMID:25489099

  11. Ankara, Turkey Exchange Program

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Ankara, Turkey Exchange Program Bilkent University Bilkent University (BU) was founded in 1984 as Turkey's first private, non-profit institution of higher education. BU is recognized and ranked internationally as the premier institution of higher education in Turkey. Its lively campus with its cultural

  12. Spiral ganglion degeneration and hearing loss as a consequence of satellite cell death in saposin B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Akil, Omar; Sun, Ying; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Zhang, Wujuan; Ku, Tiffany; Lee, Chi-Kyou; Jones, Sherri; Grabowski, Gregory A; Lustig, Lawrence R

    2015-02-18

    Saposin B (Sap B) is an essential activator protein for arylsulfatase A in the hydrolysis of sulfatide, a lipid component of myelin. To study Sap B's role in hearing and balance, a Sap B-deficient (B(-/-)) mouse was evaluated. At both light and electron microscopy (EM) levels, inclusion body accumulation was seen in satellite cells surrounding spiral ganglion (SG) neurons from postnatal month 1 onward, progressing into large vacuoles preceding satellite cell degeneration, and followed by SG degeneration. EM also revealed reduced or absent myelin sheaths in SG neurons from postnatal month 8 onwards. Hearing loss was initially seen at postnatal month 6 and progressed thereafter for frequency-specific stimuli, whereas click responses became abnormal from postnatal month 13 onward. The progressive hearing loss correlated with the accumulation of inclusion bodies in the satellite cells and their subsequent degeneration. Outer hair cell numbers and efferent function measures (distortion product otoacoustic emissions and contralateral suppression) were normal in the B(-/-) mice throughout this period. Alcian blue staining of SGs demonstrated that these inclusion bodies corresponded to sulfatide accumulation. In contrast, changes in the vestibular system were much milder, but caused severe physiologic deficits. These results demonstrate that loss of Sap B function leads to progressive sulfatide accumulation in satellite cells surrounding the SG neurons, leading to satellite cell degeneration and subsequent SG degeneration with a resultant loss of hearing. Relative sparing of the efferent auditory and vestibular neurons suggests that alternate glycosphingolipid metabolic pathways predominate in these other systems. PMID:25698761

  13. Higher-order unfolding of satellite heterochromatin is a consistent and early event in cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Eric C; Manning, Benjamin; Zhang, Hong; Lawrence, Jeanne B

    2013-12-23

    Epigenetic changes to chromatin are thought to be essential to cell senescence, which is key to tumorigenesis and aging. Although many studies focus on heterochromatin gain, this work demonstrates large-scale unraveling of peri/centromeric satellites, which occurs in all models of human and mouse senescence examined. This was not seen in cancer cells, except in a benign senescent tumor in vivo. Senescence-associated distension of satellites (SADS) occurs earlier and more consistently than heterochromatin foci formation, and SADS is not exclusive to either the p16 or p21 pathways. Because Hutchinson Guilford progeria syndrome patient cells do not form excess heterochromatin, the question remained whether or not proliferative arrest in this aging syndrome involved distinct epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we show that SADS provides a unifying event in both progeria and normal senescence. Additionally, SADS represents a novel, cytological-scale unfolding of chromatin, which is not concomitant with change to several canonical histone marks nor a result of DNA hypomethylation. Rather, SADS is likely mediated by changes to higher-order nuclear structural proteins, such as LaminB1. PMID:24344186

  14. Effects of Transient Hypoxia versus Prolonged Hypoxia on Satellite Cell Proliferation and Differentiation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jash, Sukanta; Adhya, Samit

    2015-01-01

    The microenvironment of the injury site can have profound effects on wound healing. Muscle injury results in ischemia leading to short-term local hypoxia, but there are conflicting reports on the role of hypoxia on the myogenic program in vivo and in vitro. In our rat model of mitochondrial restoration (MR), temporary upregulation of mitochondrial activity by a cocktail of organelle-encoded RNAs results in satellite cell proliferation and initiation of myogenesis. We now report that MR leads to a transient hypoxic response in situ. Inhibition of hypoxia by lowering mitochondrial O2 consumption, either by respiratory electron transport inhibitors, or by NO-mediated inhibition of O2 binding to cytochrome c oxidase, resulted in exacerbation of inflammation. Lentivirus-mediated knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) or of Notch signaling components had a similar effect, and pharmacologic inhibition of HIF or Notch reduced the number of proliferating Pax7(+) cells. In contrast, a prolonged hypoxic response induced either by uncoupling of respiration from oxidative phosphorylation or through HIF stabilization by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) had an immediate anti-inflammatory effect. Although significant satellite cell proliferation occurred in presence of DMOG, expression of differentiation markers was affected. These results emphasize the importance of transient hypoxia as opposed to prolonged hypoxia for myogenesis. PMID:25788948

  15. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  16. Rat soleus muscle satellite cells during the recovery after gravitational unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtikova, Olga; Shenkman, Boris; Altaeva, Erzhena; Leinsoo, Toomas

    In this study the attempt was made to assess alterations of rat soleus satellite cell (SC) population during muscle regrowth after 14-day gravitational unloading (using the hindlimb suspension model). Myofiber size increases during the recovery period. SCs are supposed to participate in muscle growth by fusion with myofibers and supplying them with new myonuclei [Mitchell PO, Pavlath GK, 2001; Oishi Y., 2008]. Other points of view are known about SC participation in the recovery of atrophied muscle mass during the readaptation period [Bruusgaard J.C. et al., 2011; Jackson JR et al., 2012]. After 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension mki67 expression was fivefold lower as compared to control animals and increased gradually up to 28 times by the day 7 of reloading. Cdh15 was decreased after hindlimb unloading and rose from the 1st day of reloading. The expression reached control level to the day 7th of reloading. Cellular response was going on concurrently with the spike of IGF-1 blood level and the increase in muscle IGF-1 concentration. It is possible that in the early days of reloading period differentiation and fusion of satellite cells which were active by the end of hindlimb suspension occurred. Satellite cell incorporation was assessed by counting the amount of BrdU+ myonuclei under myofiber dystrophin layer. It came more intensively in the 1st day of readaptation. It is in accordance with the 4,5 time increase in myogenin expression as compared to hindlimb suspended animals detected at the same time point. Myogenin expression 3 fold decreased by 3rd day of readaptation. We observed only the tendency of resizing but no significant changes in in myonuclear domain size. The number of myonuclei per myofiber cross section was decreased after hindlimb suspension and was not restored by the day 14th of readaptation. Cdh15 and myogenin expression at some extent stabilized after 7 days of readaptation, but high mki67 level pointed to intensive proliferation, which could cause the increase of myonuclei and satellite cell number and enhancing protein synthesis in the late readaptation period. Supported by RFBR grant 13-04-01891

  17. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  18. New Insights into the Relationship between mIGF-1-Induced Hypertrophy and Ca2+ Handling in Differentiated Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belia, Silvia; Barberi, Laura; Musarò, Antonio; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Mariggiò, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle regeneration involves the activation of satellite cells, is regulated at the genetic and epigenetic levels, and is strongly influenced by gene activation and environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine whether the overexpression of mIGF-1 can modify functional features of satellite cells during the differentiation process, particularly in relation to modifications of intracellular Ca2+ handling. Satellite cells were isolated from wild-type and MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic mice. The cells were differentiated in vitro, and morphological analyses, intracellular Ca2+ measurements, and ionic current recordings were performed. mIGF-1 overexpression accelerates satellite cell differentiation and promotes myotube hypertrophy. In addition, mIGF-1 overexpression-induced potentiation of myogenesis triggers both quantitative and qualitative changes to the control of intracellular Ca2+ handling. In particular, the differentiated MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic myotubes have reduced velocity and amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ increases after stimulation with caffeine, KCl and acetylcholine. This appears to be due, at least in part, to changes in the physico-chemical state of the sarcolemma (increased membrane lipid oxidation, increased output currents) and to increased expression of dihydropyridine voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, extracellular ATP and GTP evoke intracellular Ca2+ mobilization to greater extents in the MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic satellite cells, compared to the wild-type cells. These data suggest that these MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic satellite cells are more sensitive to trophic stimuli, which can potentiate the effects of mIGF-1 on the myogenic programme. PMID:25229238

  19. Role of microRNA-101a in the regulation of goat skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Dandan; Zhan, Siyuan; Wang, Yilin; Wang, Linjie; Zhong, Tao; Li, Li; Fan, Jingsheng; Xiong, Chaorui; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hongping

    2015-11-10

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that participate in the regulation of diverse biological processes including skeletal muscle development. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, particularly in goat. Here, we identified goat miR-101a as a novel myogenic microRNA mediating myogenic differentiation. The expression of miR-101a was enriched in goat skeletal muscles and up-regulated during satellite cell differentiation. After transfection with a miR-101a mimic and culturing in differentiation medium, satellite cell differentiation was promoted, accompanied by a significant increase in mRNA expression of the myogenic marker, MyoG, and decreased expression of MyoD. In contrast, blocking the function of miR-101a with a 2'-O-methylated antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor repressed satellite cell differentiation. However, both gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that miR-101a had no significant influence on satellite cell proliferation. Therefore, our results provide a new insight on miR-101a in the regulation of goat skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:26160440

  20. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented, which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can help minimize the cost of a global satellite communications system. An important distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium, Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation at orbital altitudes within the earth's radiation belts (10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4)km) can reduce the total cost of a system by several hundred percent, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells can be used. A detailed evaluation of the predicted performance of photovoltaic arrays using several different planar solar cell technologies is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge, and InP/Si which is currently under development. Several examples of applying the program are given, which show that the end of life (EOL) power density of different technologies can vary by a factor of ten for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation-soft technology can usually provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact upon the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate, these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global-coverage systems range from $1B to $9B, the availability of radiation-hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  1. Dual role of the caspase enzymes in satellite cells from aged and young subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fulle, S; Sancilio, S; Mancinelli, R; Gatta, V; Di Pietro, R

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cell (SC) proliferation and differentiation have critical roles in skeletal muscle recovery after injury and adaptation in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Normal ageing hinders SC proliferation and differentiation, and is associated with increased expression of a number of pro-apoptotic factors in skeletal muscle. In light of previous studies that have demonstrated age-related altered expression of genes involved in SC antioxidant and repair activity, this investigation was aimed at evaluating the incidence of apoptotic features in human SCs. Primary cells were obtained from vastus lateralis of nine young (27.3±2.0 years old) and nine old (71.1±1.8 years old) subjects, and cultured in complete medium for analyses at 4, 24, 48, and 72?h. Apoptosis was assessed using AnnexinV/propidium iodide staining, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling technique, RT-PCR, DNA microarrays, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence analysis. There was an increased rate of apoptotic cells in aged subjects at all of the experimental time points, with no direct correlation between AnnexinV-positive cells and caspase-8 activity. On the other hand, CASP2, CASP6, CASP7, and CASP9 and a number of cell death genes were upregulated in the aged SCs. Altogether, our data show age-related enhanced susceptibility of human SCs to apoptosis, which might be responsible for their reduced response to muscle damage. PMID:24336075

  2. Satellite cell activity is differentially affected by contraction mode in human muscle following a work-matched bout of exercise

    PubMed Central

    Hyldahl, Robert D.; Olson, Ty; Welling, Tyson; Groscost, Logan; Parcell, Allen C.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal repair and adaptation of skeletal muscle is facilitated by resident stem cells (satellite cells). To understand how different exercise modes influence satellite cell dynamics, we measured satellite cell activity in conjunction with markers of muscle damage and inflammation in human skeletal muscle following a single work- and intensity-matched bout of eccentric (ECC) or concentric contractions (CON). Participants completed a single bout of ECC (n = 7) or CON (n = 7) of the knee extensors. A muscle biopsy was obtained before and 24 h after exercise. Functional measures and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine the extent of muscle damage and indices of satellite cell activity. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a multiplexed magnetic bead assay. Isokinetic peak torque decreased following ECC (p < 0.05) but not CON. Greater histological staining of the damage marker Xin was observed in muscle samples of ECC vs. CON. Tenasin C immunoreactivity increased 15 fold (p < 0.01) following ECC and was unchanged following CON. The inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) increased pre- to post-ECC (4.26 ± 1.4 vs. 10.49 ± 5.8 pg/ml, and 3.06 ± 0.7 vs. 6.25 ± 4.6 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in any cytokine post-CON. Satellite cell content increased 27% pre- to post-ECC (0.10 ± 0.031 vs. 0.127 ± 0.041, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in satellite cell number in CON (0.099 ± 0.027 vs. 0.102 ± 0.029, respectively). There was no fiber type-specific satellite cell response following either exercise mode. ECC but not CON resulted in an increase in MyoD positive nuclei per myofiber pre- to post-exercise (p < 0.05), but there was no change in MyoD DNA binding activity in either condition. In conclusion, ECC but not CON results in functional and histological evidence of muscle damage that is accompanied by increased satellite cell activity 24 h post-exercise. PMID:25566087

  3. Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain. PMID:24665354

  4. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) Earthquake -1

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey, 2012, 5:45pm D R A F T #12;X - 2 ELLIOTT ET AL.: 2011 VAN EARTHQUAKE, EASTERN TURKEY moment and source.: 2011 VAN EARTHQUAKE, EASTERN TURKEY X - 3 Interferograms from the ENVISAT satellite were derived from

  5. Natural infection of turkeys by infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Portz, Cristiana; Beltrão, Nilzane; Furian, Thales Quedi; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; Macagnan, Marisa; Griebeler, Josiane; Lima Rosa, Carlos André Veiga; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Back, Alberto; Barth Schatzmayr, Ortrud Monika; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2008-09-18

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an important respiratory pathogen of chickens that also infects pheasants and peafowl. Epidemiologically non-related commercial turkey flocks with clinical signs such as tracheitis, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis and expectoration of bloody mucus were examined for the presence of the virus. Laboratory ILTV detection was performed by virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell cultures, PCR and sequencing of amplification products, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. One ILTV turkey isolate was also experimentally inoculated into susceptible chickens and turkeys, reproducing a mild respiratory disease. This is the first description of natural infections with ILTV in turkeys. PMID:18436397

  6. Mixed lactate and caffeine compound increases satellite cell activity and anabolic signals for muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshimi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Yokokawa, Takumi; Hirotsu, Keisuke; Shimazu, Mariko; Uchida, Kenji; Tomi, Hironori; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2015-03-15

    We examined whether a mixed lactate and caffeine compound (LC) could effectively elicit proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells or activate anabolic signals in skeletal muscles. We cultured C2C12 cells with either lactate or LC for 6 h. We found that lactate significantly increased myogenin and follistatin protein levels and phosphorylation of P70S6K while decreasing the levels of myostatin relative to the control. LC significantly increased protein levels of Pax7, MyoD, and Ki67 in addition to myogenin, relative to control. LC also significantly increased follistatin expression relative to control and stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and P70S6K. In an in vivo study, male F344/DuCrlCrlj rats were assigned to control (Sed, n = 10), exercise (Ex, n = 12), and LC supplementation (LCEx, n = 13) groups. LC was orally administered daily. The LCEx and Ex groups were exercised on a treadmill, running for 30 min at low intensity every other day for 4 wk. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in the mass of the gastrocnemius (GA) and tibialis anterior (TA) relative to both the Sed and Ex groups. Furthermore, the LCEx group showed a significant increase in the total DNA content of TA compared with the Sed group. The LCEx group experienced a significant increase in myogenin and follistatin expression of GA relative to the Ex group. These results suggest that administration of LC can effectively increase muscle mass concomitant with elevated numbers of myonuclei, even with low-intensity exercise training, via activated satellite cells and anabolic signals. PMID:25571987

  7. Follistatin induces muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell proliferation and inhibition of both myostatin and activin.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Hélène; Schakman, Olivier; Kalista, Stéphanie; Lause, Pascale; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Thissen, Jean-Paul

    2009-07-01

    Follistatin (FS) inhibits several members of the TGF-beta superfamily, including myostatin (Mstn), a negative regulator of muscle growth. Mstn inhibition by FS represents a potential therapeutic approach of muscle atrophy. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanisms of the FS-induced muscle hypertrophy. To test the role of satellite cells in the FS effect, we used irradiation to destroy their proliferative capacity. FS overexpression increased the muscle weight by about 37% in control animals, but the increase reached only 20% in irradiated muscle, supporting the role of cell proliferation in the FS-induced hypertrophy. Surprisingly, the muscle hypertrophy caused by FS reached the same magnitude in Mstn-KO as in WT mice, suggesting that Mstn might not be the only ligand of FS involved in the regulation of muscle mass. To assess the role of activin (Act), another FS ligand, in the FS-induced hypertrophy, we electroporated FSI-I, a FS mutant that does not bind Act with high affinity. Whereas FS electroporation increased muscle weight by 32%, the muscle weight gain induced by FSI-I reached only 14%. Furthermore, in Mstn-KO mice, FSI-I overexpression failed to induce hypertrophy, in contrast to FS. Therefore, these results suggest that Act inhibition may contribute to FS-induced hypertrophy. Finally, the role of Act as a regulator of muscle mass was supported by the observation that ActA overexpression induced muscle weight loss (-15%). In conclusion, our results show that satellite cell proliferation and both Mstn and Act inhibition are involved in the FS-induced muscle hypertrophy. PMID:19435857

  8. Micro space power system using MEMS fuel cell for nano-satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkwang; Kim, Taegyu

    2014-08-01

    A micro space power system using micro fuel cell was developed for nano-satellites. The power system was fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technologies. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell was selected in consideration of space environment. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was selected as a hydrogen source while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was selected as an oxygen source. The power system consists of a micro fuel cell, micro-reactor, micro-pump, and fuel cartridges. The micro fuel cell was fabricated on a light-weight and corrosion-resistant glass plates. The micro-reactor was used to generate hydrogen from NaBH4 alkaline solution via a catalytic hydrolysis reaction. All components such as micro-pump, fuel cartridges, and auxiliary battery were integrated for a complete power system. The storability of NaBH4 solution was evaluated at -25 °C and the performance of the micro power system was measured at various operating conditions. The power output of micro power system reasonably followed up the given electric load conditions.

  9. Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis. PMID:23990328

  10. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  11. The quasi-parallel lives of satellite cells and atrophying muscle

    PubMed Central

    Biressi, Stefano; Gopinath, Suchitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy or wasting accompanies various chronic illnesses and the aging process, thereby reducing muscle function. One of the most important components contributing to effective muscle repair in postnatal organisms, the satellite cells (SCs), have recently become the focus of several studies examining factors participating in the atrophic process. We critically examine here the experimental evidence linking SC function with muscle loss in connection with various diseases as well as aging, and in the subsequent recovery process. Several recent reports have investigated the changes in SCs in terms of their differentiation and proliferative capacity in response to various atrophic stimuli. In this regard, we review the molecular changes within SCs that contribute to their dysfunctional status in atrophy, with the intention of shedding light on novel potential pharmacological targets to counteract the loss of muscle mass. PMID:26257645

  12. Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    From funnel-cloud-length interpretation, the severe tornado is characterized by peak swirl speed relative to the axis of rotation of about 90 m/s. Thermohydrodynamic achievement of the pressure deficit from ambient necessary to sustain such swirls requires that a dry, compressionally heated, non-rotating downdraft of initially tropopause-level air lie within an annulus of rapidly swirling, originally low-level air ascending on a near-moist-adiabatic locus of thermodynamic states. The two-cell structure furnishes an observable parameter possibly accessible to a passively instrumented, geosynchronous meteorological satellite with mesoscale resolution, for early detection of a severe tornado. Accordingly, the low-level turnaround region, in which the surface inflow layer separates to become a free ascending layer and for which inviscid modeling suffices, is examined quantitatively. Preliminary results indicate that swirl overshoot, i.e., swirl speeds in the turnaround region in excess of the maximum achieved in the potential vortex, is modest.

  13. Delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negates estrogen-induced augmentation of post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Gary; Iqbal, Sobia; Hubbard, Andrew; Hamilton, Victoria; Bombardier, Eric; Tiidus, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of a delay in post-ovariectomy replacement of 17?-estradiol (estrogen) on the post-exercise proliferation of muscle satellite cells. Nine-week-old, ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64) were distributed among 8 groups based on estrogen status (0.25 mg estrogen pellet or sham), exercise status (90 min run at 17 m·min(-1) and a grade of -13.5° or unexercised), and estrogen replacement ("proximal", estrogen replacement within 2 weeks; or "delayed", estrogen replacement at 11 weeks following ovariectomy). Significant increases in satellite cells were found in the soleus and white gastrocnemius muscle (immunofluorescent colocalization of nuclei with Pax7) 72 h following eccentric exercise (p < 0.05) in all exercised groups. Proximal E2 replacement resulted in a further augmentation of muscle satellite cells in exercised rats (p < 0.05) relative to the delayed estrogen replacement group. Expression of PI3K was unaltered and phosphorylation of Akt relative to total Akt increased following estrogen supplementation and exercise. Exercise alone did not alter the expression levels of Akt. An 11 week delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negated the augmenting influence seen with proximal (2 week delay) post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement on post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation. This effect appears to be independent of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26406298

  14. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) in Turkey: special emphasis on 'EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly'.

    PubMed

    Uner, Aysegul; Akyurek, Nalan; Saglam, Arzu; Abdullazade, Samir; Uzum, Nuket; Onder, Sevgen; Barista, Ibrahim; Benekli, Mustafa

    2011-04-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown the importance of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of various lymphomas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus expression and its effect on survival amongst diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases from two large tertiary care centres in Turkey with a particular interest in identifying cases of 'Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL of the elderly'. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cases diagnosed between 1999 and 2009 were retrieved and 340 cases were used to construct tissue microarrays. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus small ribonucleic acids was examined by in situ hybridization using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA (EBER) oligonucleotides. A total of 18 cases (5.3%) showed Epstein-Barr virus expression. Twelve cases were classified as Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL of the elderly. Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL cases showed a significantly inferior overall survival as compared with Epstein-Barr virus-negative cases (p < 0.001). In our study group Epstein-Barr virus expression is not prevalent in DLBCLs. Epstein-Barr virus-positive DLBCL of the elderly is also rare in the Turkish population. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus, however, is associated with poor prognosis. PMID:21492232

  15. Istanbul,Turkey & Atlanta, GA Istanbul,Turkey

    E-print Network

    Frantz, Kyle J.

    Istanbul,Turkey & Atlanta, GA Istanbul,Turkey & Atlanta, GA 2012 Media, Journalism and Business for departure to Istanbul,Turkey Day 9 Depart for Istanbul; guided cultural visit upon arrival; group dinner Day business leaders; site visits to local universities Day 18 UPS and the value of logistics inTurkey Day 19

  16. Preparing Turkey Safely Turkey provides protein along with other key

    E-print Network

    protein; iron--8% daily value Right Size Turkey Use this chart as a helpful guide: Whole bird ­ 1 poundPreparing Turkey Safely Nutrition Turkey provides protein along with other key nutrients. A servingF when the turkey is done, further cooking will be required. Therefore, the meat may be overcooked. #12

  17. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  18. Distance Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzgar, Nursel Selver

    2004-01-01

    Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by INTERNET, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural…

  19. GOBBLING OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS

    E-print Network

    343 GOBBLING OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN RELATION TO NESTING AND OCCURRENCE OF HUNTING IN THE BLACK in setting spring hunting season dates. The relationship between gobbling activity, hunting pressure, and nesting chronology has not been studied using hunted and nonhunted turkey populations. We tabulated

  20. Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

  1. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  2. Botulinum neurotoxin type A modulates vesicular release of glutamate from satellite glial cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Larissa Bittencourt; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of cell membrane docking proteins synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 and 23 kD (SNAP-25 and SNAP-23) in satellite glial cells (SGCs) of rat trigeminal ganglion; whether cultured SGCs would release glutamate in a time- and calcium-dependent manner following calcium-ionophore ionomycin stimulation; and if botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA), in a dose-dependent manner, could block or decrease vesicular release of glutamate. SGCs were isolated from the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of adult Wistar rats and cultured for 7 days. The presence of SNAPs in TG sections and isolated SGCs were investigated using immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. SGCs were stimulated with ionomycin (5 ?M for 4, 8, 12 and 30 min.) to release glutamate. SGCs were then pre-incubated with BoNTA (24 hrs with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 pM) to investigate if BoNTA could potentially block ionomycin-stimulated glutamate release. Glutamate concentrations were measured by ELISA. SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 were present in SGCs in TG sections and in cultured SGCs. Ionomycin significantly increased glutamate release from cultured SGCs 30 min. following the treatment (P < 0.001). BoNTA (100 pM) significantly decreased glutamate release (P < 0.01). Results from this study demonstrated that SGCs, when stimulated with ionomycin, released glutamate that was inhibited by BoNTA, possibly through cleavage of SNAP-25 and/or SNAP-23. These novel findings demonstrate the existence of vesicular glutamate release from SGCs, which could potentially play a role in the trigeminal sensory transmission. In addition, interaction of BoNTA with non-neuronal cells at the level of TG suggests a potential analgesic mechanism of action of BoNTA. PMID:25754332

  3. Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Satellite Cells and Soccer Performance in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Metaxas, Thomas I.; Mandroukas, Athanasios; Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Kotoglou, Kostas; Ekblom, Björn; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to examine the muscle fiber type, composition and satellite cells in young male soccer players and to correlate them to cardiorespiratory indices and muscle strength. The participants formed three Groups: Group A (n = 13), 11.2 ± 0.4yrs, Group B (n=10), 13.1 ± 0.5yrs and Group C (n = 9), 15.2 ± 0.6yrs. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded and VO2max was measured on the treadmill. Group C had lower type I percentage distribution compared to A by 21.3% (p < 0.01), while the type IIA relative percentage was higher by 18.1% and 18.4% than in Groups A and B (p < 0.05). Groups B and C had higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values in all fiber types than in Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). The number of satellite cells did not differ between the groups. Groups B and C had higher peak torque at all angular velocities and absolute VO2max in terms of ml·min-1 than Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). It is concluded that the increased percentage of type IIA muscle fibers noticed in Group C in comparison to the Groups A and B should be mainly attributed to the different workload exercise and training programs. The alteration of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms composition even in children is an important mechanism for skeletal muscle characteristics. Finally, CSA, isokinetic muscle strength and VO2max values seems to be expressed according to age. Key Points Fifteen years old soccer players have higher IIA percentage distribution than the younger players by approximately 18%. The age and the training status play a crucial role in muscle fibers co-expression. Specific training in young athletes seems to alter significantly the muscular metabolic profile. PMID:25177173

  4. Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

  5. The molecular responses of skeletal muscle satellite cells to continuous expression of IGF-1: implications for the rescue of induced muscular atrophy in aged rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Booth, F. W.; Spangenburg, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 50% of humans older than 85 years have physical frailty due to weak skeletal muscles. This indicates a need for determining mechanisms to combat this problem. A critical cellular factor for postnatal muscle growth is a population of myogenic precursor cells called satellite cells. Given the complex process of sarcopenia, it has been postulated that, at some point in this process, a limited satellite cell proliferation potential could become rate-limiting to the regrowth of old muscles. It is conceivable that if satellite cell proliferative capacity can be maintained or enhanced with advanced age, sarcopenia could potentially be delayed or prevented. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are to describe whether IGF-I can prevent muscular atrophy induced by repeated cycles of hindlimb immobilization, increase the in vitro proliferation in satellite cells from these muscles and, if so, the molecular mechanisms by which IGF-I mediates this increased proliferation. Our results provide evidence that IGF-I can enhance aged muscle regrowth possibly through increased satellite cell proliferation. The results also suggest that IGF-I enhances satellite cell proliferation by decreasing the cell cycle inhibitor, p27Kip1, through the PI3'-K/Akt pathway. These data provide molecular evidence for IGF-I's rescue effect upon aging-associated skeletal muscle atrophy.

  6. Satellite cell activation and populations on single muscle-fiber cultures from adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Helia; Anderson, Judy E

    2014-06-01

    Satellite cells (SCs), stem cells in skeletal muscle, are mitotically quiescent in adult mammals until activated for growth or regeneration. In mouse muscle, SCs are activated by nitric oxide (NO), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the mechanically induced NO-HGF signaling cascade. Here, the SC population on fibers from the adult, ectothermic zebrafish and SC responsiveness to activating stimuli were assessed using the model system of isolated fibers cultured at 27 and 21°C. SCs were identified by immunostaining for the HGF receptor, c-met, and activation was determined using bromodeoxyuridine uptake in culture or in vivo. In dose-response studies, SC activation was increased by treatment with the NO-donor drug isosorbide dinitrate (1 mmol l(-1)) or HGF (10 ng ml(-1)) to maximum activation at lower concentrations of both than in previous studies of mouse fibers. HGF-induced activation was blocked by anti-c-met antibody, and reduced by culture at 21°C. The effect of cyclical stretch (3 h at 4 cycles per minute) increased activation and was blocked by nitric oxide synthase inhibition and reduced by culture at 21°C. The number of c-met+ SCs per fiber increased rapidly (by 3 h) after stretching. The character of signaling in SC activation on zebrafish fibers, in particular temperature-dependent responses to HGF and stretch, gives new insights into the influence of ectothermy on regulation of muscle growth in teleosts and suggests the use of the single-fiber model system to explore the basis of fiber hyperplasia and the conservation of regulatory pathways between species. PMID:24577448

  7. Charge efficiency of Ni/H2 cells during transfer orbit of Telstar 4 satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, W. C.; Maurer, Dean W.; Vyas, B.; Thomas, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    The TELSTAR 4 communication satellites being manufactured by Martin Marietta Astro Space (Astro Space) for AT&T are three axis stabilized spacecraft scheduled to be launched on expendable vehicles such as the Atlas or Ariane rockets. Typically, these spacecraft consist of a box that holds the electronics and supports the antenna reflectors and the solar array wings. The wings and reflectors are folded against the sides of the box during launch and the spacecraft is spun for attitude control in that phase; they are then deployed after achieving the final orbit. The launch phase and transfer orbits required to achieve the final geosynchronous orbit typically take 4 to 5 days during which time the power required for command, telemetry, attitude control, heaters, etc., is provided by two 50 AH nickel hydrogen batteries augmented by the exposed outboard solar panels. In the past, this situation has presented no problem since there was a considerable excess of power available from the array. In the case of large high powered spacecraft such as TELSTAR 4, however, the design power levels in transfer orbit approach the time-averaged power available from the exposed surface area of the solar arrays, resulting in a very tight power margin. To compound the difficulty, the array output of the spinning spacecraft in transfer orbit is shaped like a full wave rectified sine function and provides very low charging rates to the batteries during portions of the rotation. In view of the typically low charging efficiency of alkaline nickel batteries at low rates, it was decided to measure the efficiency during a simulation of the TELSTAR 4 conditions at the expected power levels and temperatures on three nickel hydrogen cells of similar design. The unique feature of nickel hydrogen cells that makes the continuous measurement of efficiency possible is that hydrogen is one of the active materials and thus, cell pressure is a direct measure of the state of charge or available capacity. The pressure is measured with a calibrated strain gage mounted on the outside of the pressurized cell.

  8. Turkey Blood Donor 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    I investigated the effect of precipitation and predator abundance on Rio Grande wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo; RGWT) in Texas. My results suggested that RGWT production was strongly correlated with cumulative winter precipitation over the range...

  9. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  10. UGA Connections in Turkey September 2015

    E-print Network

    UGA Connections in Turkey September 2015 UGA Students in Turkey: Turkey has hosted well over 100 program which often includes a stay in Turkey. These and other programs resulted in Turkey's hosting and management in Turkey. Duzce University plays an important role in the modernization of Turkish forestry

  11. FOXP3+ T Cells Recruited to Sites of Sterile Skeletal Muscle Injury Regulate the Fate of Satellite Cells and Guide Effective Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Castiglioni, Alessandra; Basso, Veronica; Vezzoli, Michela; Monno, Antonella; Almada, Albert E.; Mondino, Anna; Wagers, Amy J.; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injury induces a classical inflammatory response in which cells of the innate immune system rapidly invade the tissue. Macrophages are prominently involved in this response and required for proper healing, as they are known to be important for clearing cellular debris and supporting satellite cell differentiation. Here, we sought to assess the role of the adaptive immune system in muscle regeneration after acute damage. We show that T lymphocytes are transiently recruited into the muscle after damage and appear to exert a pro-myogenic effect on muscle repair. We observed a decrease in the cross-sectional area of regenerating myofibers after injury in Rag2-/- ?-chain-/- mice, as compared to WT controls, suggesting that T cell recruitment promotes muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle infiltrating T lymphocytes were enriched in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ cells. Direct exposure of muscle satellite cells to in vitro induced Treg cells effectively enhanced their expansion, and concurrently inhibited their myogenic differentiation. In vivo, the recruitment of Tregs to acutely injured muscle was limited to the time period of satellite expansion, with possibly important implications for situations in which inflammatory conditions persist, such as muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies. We conclude that the adaptive immune system, in particular T regulatory cells, is critically involved in effective skeletal muscle regeneration. Thus, in addition to their well-established role as regulators of the immune/inflammatory response, T regulatory cells also regulate the activity of skeletal muscle precursor cells, and are instrumental for the proper regeneration of this tissue. PMID:26039259

  12. Enobosarm (GTx-024) Modulates Adult Skeletal Muscle Mass Independently of the Androgen Receptor in the Satellite Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vanessa; Simitsidellis, Ioannis; Laurent, Michaël R; Jardi, Ferran; Saunders, Philippa T K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Androgens increase skeletal muscle mass, but their clinical use is hampered by a lack of tissue selectivity and subsequent side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators elicit muscle-anabolic effects while only sparingly affecting reproductive tissues. The selective androgen receptor modulator, GTx-024 (enobosarm), is being investigated for cancer cachexia, sarcopenia, and muscle wasting diseases. Here we investigate the role of muscle androgen receptor (AR) in the anabolic effect of GTx-024. In mice lacking AR in the satellite cell lineage (satARKO), the weight of the androgen-sensitive levator ani muscle was lower but was decreased further upon orchidectomy. GTx-024 was as effective as DHT in restoring levator ani weights to sham levels. Expression of the muscle-specific, androgen-responsive genes S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and myostatin was decreased by orchidectomy and restored by GTx-024 and DHT in control mice, whereas the expression was low and unaffected by androgen status in satARKO. In contrast, insulin-like growth factor 1Ea expression was not different between satARKO and control muscle, decreased upon castration, and was restored by DHT and GTx-024 in both genotypes. These data indicate that GTx-024 does not selectively modulate AR in the satellite cell lineage and that cells outside this lineage remain androgen responsive in satARKO muscle. Indeed, residual AR-positive cells were present in satARKO muscle, coexpressing the fibroblast-lineage marker vimentin. AR positive, muscle-resident fibroblasts could therefore be involved in the indirect effects of androgens on muscle. In conclusion, both DHT and GTx-024 target AR pathways in the satellite cell lineage, but cells outside this lineage also contribute to the anabolic effects of androgens. PMID:26393303

  13. Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle-Derived Satellite Cells for Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Mediated Transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere Goats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

  14. Reduced masticatory function is related to lower satellite cell numbers in masseter muscle.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, M A R; Grefte, S; Bronkhorst, E M; Carels, C E L; Kiliaridis, S; Von den Hoff, J W

    2014-06-01

    The physiology of masseter muscles is known to change in response to functional demands, but the effect on the satellite cell (SC) population is not known. In this study, the hypothesis is tested that a decreased functional demand of the masseter muscle causes a reduction of SCs. To this end, twelve 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were put on a soft diet (SD, n = 6) or a hard diet (HD, n = 6) and sacrificed after 14 days. Paraffin sections of the superficial masseter and the m. digastricus (control muscle) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for tissue survey and with anti-myosin heavy chain (MHC) for slow and fast fibres. Frozen sections of both muscles were double-stained for collagen type IV and Pax7. Slow MHC fibres were equally distributed in the m. digastricus but only localized in a small area of the m. masseter. No differences between HD or SD for the m. digastricus were found. The m. masseter had more SCs per fibre in HD than in SD (0.093 ± 0.007 and 0.081 ± 0.008, respectively; P = 0.027). The m. masseter had more fibres per surface area than the m. digastricus in rats with an SD group (758.1 ± 101.6 and 568.4 ± 85.6, P = 0.047) and a HD group (737.7 ± 32.6 and 592.2 ± 82.2; P = 0.007). The m. digastricus had more SCs per fibre than the m. masseter in the SD group (0.094 ± 0.01 and 0.081 ± 0.008; P = 0.039). These results suggest that reduced masseter muscle function is related to a lower number of SCs. Reduced muscle function might decrease microdamage and hence the requirement of SCs in the muscle fibres. PMID:22828080

  15. The effect of nutritional status on myogenic gene expression of satellite cells derived from different muscle types.

    PubMed

    Powell, D J; McFarland, D C; Cowieson, A J; Muir, W I; Velleman, S G

    2014-09-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are a multipotential stem cell population responsible for facilitating posthatch muscle fiber hypertrophy. The proliferation and differentiation of SC is sensitive to nutritional regimen, and the SC response to nutrition varies depending upon their muscle type of origin. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of altering protein synthesis on the expression of several key genes regulating SC activity and the effect of muscle type. Satellite cells isolated from the fast glycolytic pectoralis major and the fast oxidative and glycolytic biceps femoris were studied. These genes included the myogenic regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1 (MyoD) and myogenin, the cell-membrane associated proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1, the extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin, and the transcription factor paired box 7. Protein synthesis potential varied by the concentration of the sulfur amino acids Met and Cys during SC proliferation and differentiation. The SC were cultured and treated with 1 of 6 Met/Cys concentrations: 60/192, 30/96 (control), 7.5/24, 3.0/9.6, 1.0/3.2, or 0/0 mg/L. A consistent pattern of gene expression emerged following Met/Cys manipulation as increasing reductions in mRNA expression for all genes were observed as Met/Cys concentration decreased, whereas increased Met/Cys concentration caused either no change or had a small negative effect on mRNA expression. Reduced paired box 7 expression would limit myogenic specification of SC, whereas decreased myogenic regulatory factor expression would affect subsequent myogenic development of the SC. Decreased levels of decorin affect SC response to growth factors like myostatin and transforming growth factor ?, and extracellular matrix organization. These data highlight the importance of nutrition on the expression of genes critical for satellite cell activation, proliferation and differentiation, and growth factor signal transduction. PMID:25037825

  16. High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemci, Emrah

    2011-09-21

    This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

  17. Network Analysis for the Identification of Differentially Expressed Hub Genes Using Myogenin Knock-down Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Arif Tasleem; Ahmad, Sarafraz; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho

    2015-01-01

    Muscle, a multinucleate syncytium formed by the fusion of mononuclear myoblasts, arises from quiescent progenitors (satellite cells) via activation of muscle-specific transcription factors (MyoD, Myf5, myogenin: MYOG, and MRF4). Subsequent to a decline in Pax7, induction in the expression of MYOG is a hallmark of myoblasts that have entered the differentiation phase following cell cycle withdrawal. It is evident that MYOG function cannot be compensated by any other myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). Despite a plethora of information available regarding MYOG, the mechanism by which MYOG regulates muscle cell differentiation has not yet been identified. Using an RNA-Seq approach, analysis of MYOG knock-down muscle satellite cells (MSCs) have shown that genes associated with cell cycle and division, DNA replication, and phosphate metabolism are differentially expressed. By constructing an interaction network of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using GeneMANIA, cadherin-associated protein (CTNNA2) was identified as the main hub gene in the network with highest node degree. Four functional clusters (modules or communities) were identified in the network and the functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes included in these clusters significantly contribute to skeletal muscle development. To confirm this finding, in vitro studies revealed increased expression of CTNNA2 in MSCs on day 12 compared to day 10. Expression of CTNNA2 was decreased in MYOG knock-down cells. However, knocking down CTNNA2, which leads to increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes (type I collagen ?1 and type I collagen ?2) along with myostatin (MSTN), was not found significantly affecting the expression of MYOG in C2C12 cells. We therefore propose that MYOG exerts its regulatory effects by acting upstream of CTNNA2, which in turn regulates the differentiation of C2C12 cells via interaction with ECM genes. Taken together, these findings highlight a new mechanism by which MYOG interacts with CTNNA2 in order to promote myoblast differentiation. PMID:26200109

  18. Expression of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta in Muscle Satellite Cells Inhibits Myogenesis in Cancer Cachexia.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, François; Lamarche, Émilie; Lala-Tabbert, Neena; St-Louis, Catherine; Wiper-Bergeron, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that causes profound weight loss and muscle mass atrophy and is estimated to be the cause of up to 30% of cancer deaths. Though the exact cause is unknown, patients with cancer cachexia have increased muscle protein catabolism. In healthy muscle, injury activates skeletal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, to differentiate and promote regeneration. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanism is inhibited in cancer cachexia due to persistent expression of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein beta (C/EBP?) in muscle myoblasts. C/EBP? is a bzip transcription factor that is expressed in muscle satellite cells and is normally downregulated upon differentiation. However, in myoblasts exposed to a cachectic milieu, C/EBP? expression remains elevated, despite activation to differentiate, resulting in the inhibition of myogenin expression and myogenesis. In vivo, cancer cachexia results in increased number of Pax7+ cells that also express C/EBP? and the inhibition of normal repair mechanisms. Loss of C/EBP? expression in primary myoblasts rescues differentiation under cachectic conditions without restoring myotube size, indicating that C/EBP? is an important inhibitor of myogenesis in cancer cachexia. PMID:26709824

  19. Elevated In Vivo Levels of a Single Transcription Factor Directly Convert Satellite Glia into Oligodendrocyte-like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weider, Matthias; Wegener, Amélie; Schmitt, Christian; Küspert, Melanie; Hillgärtner, Simone; Bösl, Michael R.; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Wegner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system and ensure rapid saltatory conduction. Shortage or loss of these cells leads to severe malfunctions as observed in human leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis, and their replenishment by reprogramming or cell conversion strategies is an important research aim. Using a transgenic approach we increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression. These rarely studied and poorly characterized satellite glia did not go through a classic oligodendrocyte precursor cell stage. Instead, Sox10 directly induced key elements of the regulatory network of differentiating oligodendrocytes, including Olig2, Olig1, Nkx2.2 and Myrf. An upstream enhancer mediated the direct induction of the Olig2 gene. Unlike Sox10, Olig2 was not capable of generating oligodendrocyte-like cells in dorsal root ganglia. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that Sox10 can convert conducive cells into oligodendrocyte-like cells in vivo and delineates options for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25680202

  20. Apical blebs on sperm-storage tubule epithelial cell microvilli: their release and interaction with resident sperm in the turkey hen oviduct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Located at the anterior end of the turkey hen vagina are numerous discrete tubular invaginations of the surface epithelium, collectively referred to as the sperm-storage tubules (SSTs). Following mating or artificial insemination, sperm ascend the vagina, enter the SSTs, and ove...

  1. Turkey Raising in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Kazmeier, F. W.

    1916-01-01

    of Texas is well adapted to the growing of turkeys. In some parts of the State they are kept in large flocks and herded like sheep. In order to do well they should be raised on fresh ground each year with plenty of land to roam over. VARIETIES.-The most... the best of your early hatched specimens for breeders, and sell the late hatched ~pecimens. Many turkey raisers make the serious mistake of doing ju~t the reverse. Select birds whose breastbone is long and straight. Allow your breeding stock free range...

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  3. Wild Turkeys in California:Wild Turkeys in California: Introduced or Reintroduced?Introduced or Reintroduced?

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    11/6/2008 1 Wild Turkeys in California:Wild Turkeys in California: Introduced or Reintroduced turkeyturkey History of wild turkeysHistory of wild turkeys in Californiain California Restoration efforts OcellatedOcellated (Meleagris ocellata)(Meleagris ocellata) Wild turkeyWild turkey (Meleagris gallapavo

  4. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  5. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  6. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  7. Feather the Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents a cut-and-paste turkey puzzle for students to use that combines the use of card or automated catalog records with the Thanksgiving theme. Students are given Thanksgiving topics and asked to find subjects, titles, authors, or keywords in order to assemble the puzzle. (LRW)

  8. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eres, Figen

    2010-01-01

    The quality and the prevalence of education are the major indicators of the development of a society. It is a kind of human right to every person living in the society to be educated in a sufficient way. The education of the disabled people, a social reality in Turkey, is not sufficiently carried out. This paper aims at the education of the…

  9. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  10. Characteristics of wild turkey hunters in Texas: comparing turkey stamp buyers to members of the National Wild Turkey Federation 

    E-print Network

    Harmel-Garza, Karen D

    2001-01-01

    This thesis examined wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) hunters in Texas. It also examined the differences between people who are members of the Texas Chapter of the National Wild Turkey Federation, and people who are not members, but bought turkey...

  11. Atrophy, inducible satellite cell activation, and possible denervation of supraspinatus muscle in injured human rotator-cuff muscle.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Deanna; Leiter, Jeff R S; Macek, Bryce; Davidson, Michael J; MacDonald, Peter B; Anderson, Judy E

    2015-09-15

    The high frequency of poor outcome and chronic pain after surgical repair of shoulder rotator-cuff injury (RCI) prompted this study to explore the potential to amplify muscle regeneration using nitric oxide (NO)-based treatment. After preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biopsies of supraspinatus and ipsilateral deltoid (as a control) were collected during reparative surgery for RCI. Muscle fiber diameter, the pattern of neuromuscular junctions observed with alpha-bungarotoxin staining, and the ?:? subunit ratio of acetylcholine receptors in Western blots were examined in tandem with experiments to determine the in vitro responsiveness of muscle satellite cells to activation (indicated by uptake of bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU) by the NO-donor drug, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). Consistent with MRI findings of supraspinatus atrophy (reduced occupation ratio and tangent sign), fiber diameter was lower in supraspinatus than in deltoid. ISDN induced a significant increase over baseline (up to 1.8-fold), in the proportion of BrdU+ (activated) Pax7+ satellite cells in supraspinatus, but not in deltoid, after 40 h in culture. The novel application of denervation indices revealed a trend for supraspinatus muscle to have a higher ?:? subunit ratio than deltoid (P = 0.13); this ratio inversely with both occupancy ratio (P < 0.05) and the proportion of clusters at neuromuscular junctions (P = 0.05). Results implicate possible supraspinatus denervation in RCI and suggest NO-donor treatment has potential to promote growth in atrophic supraspinatus muscle after RCI and improve functional outcome. PMID:26135801

  12. Histopathology of hemorrhagic enteritis in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, H; Tanaami, S; Yamaguchi, M; Yoshino, T

    1975-01-01

    In the summer of 1972, a disease of turkeys manifesting hemorrhagic diarrhea as a main clinical symptom and hemorrhagic enteritis as a necropsy finding broke out on a turkey farm in Japan. Seven-week-old Large White turkeys suffering from this disease were studied histopathologically and electron microscopically. Clinically, affected birds showed bloody diarrhea. Death occurred to them after an acute course. In the blood film, immature monocytes were higher in count in them than in healthy birds. Necropsy revealed a number of dark red bloody clots in the intestinal tract, many petechiae in the mucous membrane of small intestine and ceca, and atrophy of the spleen. The histopathological changes characteristic of this disease were acute hemorrhagic enteritis, degenerative changes of lymphatic tissue, proliferation of reticuloendothelial cells all over the body, and formation of intranuclear inclusion bodies in these cells. By electron microscopy, viral particles showing a crystalline array were found in the nuclei of reticuloendothelial cells. Viral particles which had electron-dense nucleoids and a naked hexagonal shape were about 80 nm in average diameter. The ultrastructural features of those inclusion bodies were identical with those of avian adenovirus. PMID:170543

  13. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 4: Silicon solar cell annealing test, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, F.

    1979-01-01

    Laser annealing tests were conducted on ten 50 micron cells. Two were control cells that were not irradiated. These showed no loss in output due to exposure to the laser. Two cells were broken in handling. Six cells were successfully tested. All cells tested without breakage showed some recovery. One cell was subjected to two cycles and showed recovery on both cycles. Cells that were moderately degraded appeared to recover more completely than those more severly degraded. Exposure times ranged from two to ten seconds at 500 degrees centigrade. There was some indication that longer exposure was beneficial.

  14. The role of microRNA-1 and microRNA-206 in the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yang; Wang, Yi Min; Zhang, Wei Ran; Liu, Xin Feng; Li, Xin; Ding, Xiang Bin; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play essential roles in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. MicroRNA-1 (miR-1) and microRNA-206 (miR-206), which are similar and have the same seed sequence, have specific roles in modulating skeletal muscle proliferation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. However, there is no information about their function during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, the profiles of miR-1 and miR-206 and their biological functions in bovine skeletal muscle cell development was investigated. The target genes were predicted, and we used a dual-luciferase reporter assay to demonstrate that miR-1 and miR-206 directly targeted the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of paired-box transcription factor Pax7 and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). We showed that miR-1 and miR-206 facilitate bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenic differentiation by restricting the expression of their target gene and that inhibition of miR-1 and miR-206 increased the Pax7 and HDAC4 protein levels and substantially enhanced satellite cell proliferation. Therefore, our results revealed the mechanism in which miR-1 and miR-206 positively regulate bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenic differentiation via Pax7 and HDAC4 downregulation. PMID:26424132

  15. Bmi1 Is Expressed in Postnatal Myogenic Satellite Cells, Controls Their Maintenance and Plays an Essential Role in Repeated Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Radunovic, Aleksandar; Bird, Katy; Zhang, Xinyu; Marino, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Satellite cells are the resident stem cell population of the adult mammalian skeletal muscle and they play a crucial role in its homeostasis and in its regenerative capacity after injury. We show here that the Polycomb group (PcG) gene Bmi1 is expressed in both the Pax7 positive (+)/Myf5 negative (?) stem cell population as well as the Pax7+/Myf5+ committed myogenic progenitor population. Depletion of Pax7+/Myf5? satellite cells with reciprocal increase in Pax7+/Myf5+ as well as MyoD positive (+) cells is seen in Bmi1?/? mice leading to reduced postnatal muscle fiber size and impaired regeneration upon injury. Bmi1?/? satellite cells have a reduced proliferative capacity and fail to re-enter the cell cycle when stimulated by high serum conditions in vitro, in keeping with a cell intrinsic defect. Thus, both the in vivo and in vitro results suggest that Bmi1 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the stem cell pool in postnatal skeletal muscle and is essential for efficient muscle regeneration after injury especially after repeated muscle injury. PMID:22096526

  16. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  17. Transcriptional profiling of bovine muscle-derived satellite cells during differentiation in vitro by high throughput RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hui Li; Yin, Hong Yan; Zhang, Wei Wei; Hu, Qian; Li, Shu Feng; Yan, Yun Qin; Li, Guang Peng

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we utilized high throughput RNA sequencing to obtain a comprehensive gene expression profile of muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs) upon induction of differentiation. MDSCs were cultured in vitro and RNA was extracted for sequencing prior to differentiation (MDSC-P), and again during the early and late differentiation (MDSC-D1, and MDSC-D3, respectively) stages. Sequence tags were assembled and analyzed by digital gene expression profile to screen for differentially expressed genes, Gene Ontology annotation, and pathway enrichment analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the results of RNA sequencing. Our results indicate that certain of genes were changed during skeletal muscle cell development, cell cycle progression, and cell metabolism during differentiation of bovine MDSCs. Furthermore, we identified certain genes that could be used as novel candidates for future research of muscle development. Additionally, the sequencing results indicated that lipid metabolism might be the predominant cellular process that occurs during MDSC differentiation. PMID:26208385

  18. Protein tyrosine and mitogen activated kinase activities in turkey heterophils isolated from commercial and wild-type turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein tyrosine and mitogen activated kinases are crucial mediators of the host innate immune response, conferring signals from surface receptors on the host cell to the nucleus of the cell where gene expression occurs. Heterophils were isolated from wild-type Rio Grande turkeys and a commercial li...

  19. Nursing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada. PMID:16982724

  20. Terrorism in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced < 10 casualties per event. From 1984 to 2003, 15 terrorist attacks produced > or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support. PMID:15074499

  1. Early-Phase Satellite Cell and Myonuclear Domain Adaptations to Slow-Speed vs. Traditional Resistance Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Herman-Montemayor, Jennifer R; Hikida, Robert S; Staron, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Herman-Montemayor, JR, Hikida, RS, and Staron, RS. Early-phase satellite cell and myonuclear domain adaptations to slow-speed vs. traditional resistance training programs. J Strength Cond Res 29(11): 3105-3114, 2015-The purpose of this investigation was to identify adaptations in satellite cell (SC) content and myonuclear domain (MND) after 6-week slow-speed vs. "normal-speed" resistance training programs. Thirty-four untrained females were divided into slow speed (SS), traditional strength (TS), traditional muscular endurance (TE), and nontraining control (C) groups. Three sets each of leg press, squat, and knee extension were performed 2 days per week for the first week and 3 days per week for the following 5 weeks. The SS group performed 6-10 repetition maximum (6-10RM) for each set with 10-second concentric (con) and 4-second eccentric (ecc) contractions for each repetition. Traditional strength and TE performed 6-10RM and 20-30RM, respectively, at "normal" speed (1-2 seconds per con and ecc contractions). Traditional muscular endurance and SS trained at the same intensity (40-60% 1RM), whereas TS trained at 80-85% 1RM. Pretraining and posttraining muscle biopsies were analyzed for fiber cross-sectional area, fiber type, SC content, myonuclear number, and MND. Satellite cell content of type I, IIA, IIAX, and IIX fibers significantly increased in TS. However, SC content of only type IIAX and IIX fibers increased in SS, and there was no change in TE or C. Myonuclear number did not change in any group. Myonuclear domain of type I, IIA, IIAX, and IIX fibers increased in TS, whereas MND of only type IIA fibers increased in SS, and there was no change in TE or C. In conclusion, slow-speed resistance training increased SC content and MND more than training with a similar resistance at normal speed. However, high-intensity normal-speed training produced the greatest degree of fiber adaptation for each variable. PMID:25756321

  2. Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Felipe S.; Hunt, Gavin R.; Gray, Russell D.; Wild, J. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system. Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs). The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species. PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes), one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes) and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes). Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen), one Strigiform (barn owl), one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown), one Falconiform (chimango caracara), one Columbiform (pigeon) and one Galliform (chick). Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The discovery of PGCs in the zebra finch is of great importance because this species has the potential to become a robust animal model in which to study the function of neuron-glia interactions in healthy and diseased adult brains. PMID:23904989

  3. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human rights. Europe in return has tightened legislation and procedures to differentiate economically motivated refugees from authentic political asylum seekers. Further research is needed to investigate refugee problems. Further refugees may come due to the promotion of a Black Sea Cooperation Region and easier crossings of borders to the former Soviet Republics. Ethnic Turks in Moldavia or Romania or Bulgaria may leave due to unrest. Factors affecting asylum seekers are improvements in Turkey's human rights record, repeal of bans of the Kurdish language, completion of the South Eastern Development Project, and the European government policy on asylum. PMID:12285110

  4. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Safeguards Genomic Integrity of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kollu, Swapna; Abou-Khalil, Rana; Shen, Carl; Brack, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To ensure accurate genomic segregation, cells evolved the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), whose role in adult stem cells remains unknown. Inducible perturbation of a SAC kinase, Mps1, and its downstream effector, Mad2, in skeletal muscle stem cells shows the SAC to be critical for normal muscle growth, repair, and self-renewal of the stem cell pool. SAC-deficient muscle stem cells arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle with elevated aneuploidy, resisting differentiation even under inductive conditions. p21CIP1 is responsible for these SAC-deficient phenotypes. Despite aneuploidy’s correlation with aging, we find that aged proliferating muscle stem cells display robust SAC activity without elevated aneuploidy. Thus, muscle stem cells have a two-step mechanism to safeguard their genomic integrity. The SAC prevents chromosome missegregation and, if it fails, p21CIP1-dependent G1 arrest limits cellular propagation and tissue integration. These mechanisms ensure that muscle stem cells with compromised genomes do not contribute to tissue homeostasis. PMID:25960061

  5. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth

    PubMed Central

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Riis, Simon; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; de Paoli, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P < 0.01) and exhibited a group difference from Ecc (P < 0.05), which did not increase. Myonuclei content in type I fibers increased in all groups (P < 0.01), while a specific accretion of myonuclei in type II fibers was observed in the Whey-Conc (P < 0.01) and Placebo-Ecc (P < 0.01) groups. Similarly, whereas type I fiber CSA increased independently of intervention (P < 0.001), type II fiber CSA increased exclusively with Whey-Conc (P < 0.01) and type II fiber hypertrophy correlated with whole muscle hypertrophy exclusively following Conc training (P < 0.01). In conclusion, isolated concentric knee extensor resistance training appears to constitute a stronger driver of SC content than eccentric resistance training while type II fiber hypertrophy was accentuated when combining concentric resistance training with whey protein supplementation. PMID:25103976

  6. Development works on nickel/hydrogen cells. [for satellite energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to reduce the costs for NI/H2 cells by using nickel oxide electrodes with high capacity per unit area. No maintenance requirements, long cycle life, insensitivity to overcharge and cell reversal, and high power capability were revealed.

  7. The Turkey Transcription Factor Pit-1/GHF-1 Can Activate the Turkey Prolactin and Growth Hormone

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Ramesh

    The Turkey Transcription Factor Pit-1/GHF-1 Can Activate the Turkey Prolactin and Growth Hormone by cotransfection assays and immunofluorescence staining of pituitary sec- tions. In cotransfection assays, turkey Pit-1 activated the turkey Prl, turkey GH, and rat Prl promoters 3.8-, 3.7-, and 12.5-fold

  8. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  9. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  10. Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa, Michiko; Aging Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 ; Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke; Song, Si-Yong; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2011-01-15

    A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

  11. Evaluation of solar cells and arrays for potential solar power satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K.; Gaudet, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Proposed solar array designs and manufacturing methods are evaluated to identify options which show the greatest promise of leading up to the develpment of a cost-effective SPS solar cell array design. The key program elements which have to be accomplished as part of an SPS solar cell array development program are defined. The issues focussed on are: (1) definition of one or more designs of a candidate SPS solar array module, using results from current system studies; (2) development of the necessary manufacturing requirements for the candidate SPS solar cell arrays and an assessment of the market size, timing, and industry infrastructure needed to produce the arrays for the SPS program; (3) evaluation of current DOE, NASA and DOD photovoltaic programs to determine the impacts of recent advances in solar cell materials, array designs and manufacturing technology on the candidate SPS solar cell arrays; and (4) definition of key program elements for the development of the most promising solar cell arrays for the SPS program.

  12. Bioethics regulations in Turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, E

    1999-01-01

    Although modern technical and scientific developments in medicine are followed closely in Turkey, it cannot be claimed that the same is true in the field of bioethics. Yet, more and more attention is now being paid to bioethics and ethics training in health sciences. In addition, there are also legal regulations in bioethics, some of which are not so new. The objective of these regulations is to provide technical and administrative control. Ethical concerns are rather few. What attracts our attention most in these regulations is the presence of the idea of "consent". PMID:10536766

  13. Producing Turkeys for Show 

    E-print Network

    Thornberry, Fredrick D.

    2005-12-14

    feed consumption and growth. Small amounts of feed moistened with milk and cooking oil and fed several times during the day may stimulate older birds to eat more and increase growth. This practice can be particularly helpful in hot weather with turkeys... on the label and do not over-medicate. Vaccinate poults for fowl pox at 8 to 10 weeks of age. In areas with high mosquito populations, poults should be vaccinated ini- tially at 3 to 4 weeks followed by a second vaccination at 12 weeks of age to ensure last...

  14. A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) Is Indispensable for Maintenance of the Muscle Satellite Cell Pool.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Sakiko; Yoda, Masaki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Tohmonda, Takahide; Okada, Yasunori; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2015-11-20

    Satellite cells (SCs) are muscle-specific stem cells that are essential for the regeneration of damaged muscles. Although SCs have a robust capacity to regenerate myofibers, the number of SCs decreases with aging, leading to insufficient recovery after muscle injury. We herein show that ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10), a membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme with a critical role in Notch processing (S2 cleavage), is essential for the maintenance of SC quiescence. We generated mutant mice in which ADAM10 in SCs can be conditionally abrogated by tamoxifen injection. Tamoxifen-treated mutant mice did not show any apparent defects and grew normally under unchallenged conditions. However, these mice showed a nearly complete loss of muscle regeneration after chemically induced muscle injury. In situ hybridization and flow cytometric analyses revealed that the mutant mice had significantly less SCs compared with wild type controls. Of note, we found that inactivation of ADAM10 in SCs severely compromised Notch signaling and led to dysregulated myogenic differentiation, ultimately resulting in deprivation of the SC pool in vivo. Taken together, the present findings underscore the role of ADAM10 as an indispensable component of Notch signaling in SCs and for maintaining the SC pool. PMID:26453297

  15. Immune and physiological responses of turkeys with green-liver osteomyelitis complex.

    PubMed

    Bayyari, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Balog, J M; Newberry, L A; Villines, J D; Skeeles, J K

    1997-02-01

    A study of field turkeys was undertaken in order to determine the involvement of relative immunological differences in the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC). Lame and normal turkeys were sampled from commercial flocks just prior to processing in two separate trials. After testing for functions of both humoral and cellular immunity, the turkeys were necropsied and examined for lesions of TOC. There were significantly higher relative spleen and over weights and significantly lower body weights and relative bursal weights in birds with TOC. The birds with TOC had lower response to phytohemagglutinin-P in both in vivo and in vitro tests as well as lower circulating lymphocyte counts and higher monocyte, heterophil, and total white blood cell counts. There was a significantly higher antibody response to sheep red blood cells in turkeys with TOC, whereas antibody response to Salmonella pullorum antigen was not different. There were no significant differences in the percentages of mononuclear cells or heterophils able to phagocytize bacteria or latex particles, or kill bacteria; however, the heterophils from turkeys with TOC lesions did phagocytize significantly fewer latex particles per cell than did those of the healthy turkeys. Total serum protein, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen levels were higher in birds with TOC, whereas hemoglobin, iron, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl-transferase levels were lower. Although many of the differences in birds with TOC could be caused by the normal host reaction to infection, further study may reveal innate differences that contribute to susceptibility to TOC. PMID:9057207

  16. Low dose of IGF-I increases cell size of skeletal muscle satellite cells via Akt/S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chun-qi; Zhi, Rui; Yang, Zhou; Li, Hai-chang; Yan, Hui-chao; Wang, Xiu-qi

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the size of pig skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs). Using microarray, real-time RT-PCR, radioimmunoassay analysis and western blot, we first showed that supplementation of low-dose of IGF-I in culture medium resulted in enlarged cell size of Lantang SCs, only Akt and S6K were up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels among almost all of the mTOR pathway key genes, but had no effect on cell number. To elucidate the signaling mechanisms responsible for regulating cell size under low-dose of IGF-I treatment, we blocked Akt and S6K activity with the specific inhibitors MK2206 and PF4708671, respectively. Both inhibitors caused a decrease in cell size. In addition, MK2206 lowered the protein level of p-Akt (Ser473), p-S6K (Thr389), and p-rpS6 (Ser235/236), whereas PF4708671 lowered the protein level of p-S6K (Thr389) and p-rpS6 (Ser235/236). However, low dose of IGF-I didn't affect the protein level of p-mTOR (Ser2448) and p-mTOR (Ser2481). When both inhibitors were applied simultaneously, the effect was the same as that of the Akt inhibition alone. Taken together, we report for the first time that low-dose of IGF-I treatment increases cell size via Akt/S6K signaling pathway. PMID:25923195

  17. Telaprevir Experience From Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Komur, Suheyla; Kurtaran, Behice; Inal, Ayse Seza; Pullukcu, Husnu; Ulu, Aslihan; Kuscu, Ferit; Yamazhan, Tansu; Tasova, Yesim; Aksu, Hasan Salih Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Background: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, triple drug regimens containing a protease inhibitor, peginterferon and ribavirin were found to significantly increase sustained virologic response rates compared to dual drug regimen containing pegylated interferon and ribavirin, especially in genotype 1. Objectives: In Turkey, telaprevir has been used since March 2013. We aimed to evaluate results of patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with telaprevir, peginterferon and ribavirin. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 28 patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection treated with triple drug regimen containing telaprevir, in three medical centers in Turkey, retrospectively. Demographic data of patients, treatment indications, adverse events and outcomes were recorded. Results: Of 28 patients intended to treat, 25 (89.2%) patients completed the treatment. Overall, 21 (82.1%) patients had relapse and five patients were non-responder. Regarding the treatment outcomes of Telaprevir based regimen, 20/26 patients achieved sustained virological response. Pruritus, rash, dysgeusia, anorectal discomfort and anemia were main adverse effects. Blood transfusion and ribavirin dose reduction required for 7 and 11 patients, respectively. Due to several adverse effects, 10 patients were hospitalized. Conclusions: Although more frequent and severe adverse effects, telaprevir has been promising for patients with treatment-experienced hepatitis C. PMID:25788959

  18. Skeletal muscle wasting with disuse atrophy is multi-dimensional: the response and interaction of myonuclei, satellite cells and signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Naomi E.; Myburgh, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle is essential for health and survival. There are marked losses of skeletal muscle mass as well as strength and physiological function under conditions of low mechanical load, such as space flight, as well as ground based models such as bed rest, immobilization, disuse, and various animal models. Disuse atrophy is caused by mechanical unloading of muscle and this leads to reduced muscle mass without fiber attrition. Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and myonuclei are integrally involved in skeletal muscle responses to environmental changes that induce atrophy. Myonuclear domain size is influenced differently in fast and slow twitch muscle, but also by different models of muscle wasting, a factor that is not yet understood. Although the myonuclear domain is 3-dimensional this is rarely considered. Apoptosis as a mechanism for myonuclear loss with atrophy is controversial, whereas cell death of satellite cells has not been considered. Molecular signals such as myostatin/SMAD pathway, MAFbx, and MuRF1 E3 ligases of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and IGF1-AKT-mTOR pathway are 3 distinctly different contributors to skeletal muscle protein adaptation to disuse. Molecular signaling pathways activated in muscle fibers by disuse are rarely considered within satellite cells themselves despite similar exposure to unloading or low mechanical load. These molecular pathways interact with each other during atrophy and also when various interventions are applied that could alleviate atrophy. Re-applying mechanical load is an obvious method to restore muscle mass, however how nutrient supplementation (e.g., amino acids) may further enhance recovery (or reduce atrophy despite unloading or ageing) is currently of great interest. Satellite cells are particularly responsive to myostatin and to growth factors. Recently, the hibernating squirrel has been identified as an innovative model to study resistance to atrophy. PMID:24672488

  19. Optimal macroculture method for studying mitogenic stimulation of turkey lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tessler, J; Page, L A

    1978-01-01

    This report describes a method for culturing turkey lymphocytes in disposable, unwashed glass test tubes with Morton closures and for recovering lymphocytes on fiber glass filters with a cell harvester made of common laboratory equipment for assay of mitogenic stimulation. Optimal conditions for culture were established. PMID:352493

  20. P2Y1 Receptor Activation of the TRPV4 Ion Channel Enhances Purinergic Signaling in Satellite Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Rajasekhar, Pradeep; Poole, Daniel P; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Bunnett, Nigel W; Veldhuis, Nicholas A

    2015-11-27

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels of peripheral sensory pathways are important mediators of pain, itch, and neurogenic inflammation. They are expressed by primary sensory neurons and by glial cells in the central nervous system, but their expression and function in satellite glial cells (SGCs) of sensory ganglia have not been explored. SGCs tightly ensheath neurons of sensory ganglia and can regulate neuronal excitability in pain and inflammatory states. Using a modified dissociation protocol, we isolated neurons with attached SGCs from dorsal root ganglia of mice. SGCs, which were identified by expression of immunoreactive Kir4.1 and glutamine synthetase, were closely associated with neurons, identified using the pan-neuronal marker NeuN. A subpopulation of SGCs expressed immunoreactive TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) and responded to the TRPV4-selective agonist GSK1016790A by an influx of Ca(2+) ions. SGCs did not express functional TRPV1, TRPV3, or TRP ankyrin 1 channels. Responses to GSK1016790A were abolished by the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 and were absent in SGCs from Trpv4(-/-) mice. The P2Y1-selective agonist 2-methylthio-ADP increased [Ca(2+)]i in SGCs, and responses were prevented by the P2Y1-selective antagonist MRS2500. P2Y1 receptor-mediated responses were enhanced in TRPV4-expressing SGCs and HEK293 cells, suggesting that P2Y1 couples to and activates TRPV4. PKC inhibitors prevented P2Y1 receptor activation of TRPV4. Our results provide the first evidence for expression of TRPV4 in SGCs and demonstrate that TRPV4 is a purinergic receptor-operated channel in SGCs of sensory ganglia. PMID:26475857

  1. Satellite reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloor, G. P.

    1984-06-01

    The potential of the observation equipment in remote sensing satellites is described. United States meteorology, land use and oceanography satellites and the major US Earth observation programs are listed. Imaging satellite systems are described such as: visible light and near infrared, thermal IR window, and microwave window. It is concluded that a geometrical resolution between 10 and 40 m can be expected. In order to reduce the data flow from the satellite system the input side of the system (the object-sensor interaction) has to be known. Satellites with synthetic aperture radar are increasingly important, but satellites can never fully replace observations with aircraft and drones.

  2. Heat shock factor 1 binds to and transcribes satellite II and III sequences at several pericentromeric regions in heat-shocked cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eymery, Angeline; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Souchier, Catherine; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Vourc'h, Claire; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 ; Jolly, Caroline; INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700

    2010-07-01

    Cells respond to stress by activating the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which protect the cells against the deleterious effects of stress. This mechanism is controlled by the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). In parallel to HSP gene transcription, in human cells, HSF1 also binds to and transcribes satellite III repeated sequences present in numerous copies in the 9q12 pericentromeric region of chromosome 9. These HSF1 accumulation sites are termed nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). In tumor cells, however, the number of nSBs is higher than the number of 9q12 copies, suggesting the existence of other HSF1 targets. In this paper, we were interested in characterizing these other HSF1 binding sites. We show that HSF1 indeed binds to the pericentromeric region of 14 chromosomes, thereby directing the formation of 'secondary nSBs'. The appearance of secondary nSBs depends on the number of satellite sequences present in the target locus, and on the cellular amount of HSF1 protein. Moreover, secondary nSBs also correspond to transcription sites, thus demonstrating that heat shock induces a genome-wide transcription of satellite sequences. Finally, by analyzing published transcriptomic data, we show that the derepression of these large heterochromatic blocks does not significantly affect the transcription of neighboring genes.

  3. Turkey's foreign dependence on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, T.

    2008-07-01

    Turkey becomes more dependent on the external countries in energy production every year. As an average of the period 1994-2002 the total primary energy production has been 27.9 Mtoe, and consumption has been 73.06 Mtoe, so Turkey is dependent on external countries in petroleum, natural gas, and hard coal consumption. The external dependency rate of these fuels has been at levels of 89.3%, 96.6%, and 82%, respectively. In the projections of Turkey for 2020, the primary energy consumption is estimated to be 298 Mtoe, production is estimated to be 70 Mtoe, the ratio of production to consumption will be reduced to 23.5%, and this situation will cause serious risks for sustainable development. In other words, Turkey will have to import 76.5% of the energy that it consumes in the 2020s.

  4. Permian foraminifera from Turkey

    E-print Network

    Skinner, J. W.

    1969-01-30

    Tut-25 Tur-24 Tut-23 Ter-22 Tur-21 Tut 20 lut -l9 TUT-18 Tur-17 lut-6 10' Tut 5 5' Skinner—Permian Foraminifera from Turkey 3 Tur-27. Permian limestone, 11.25 feet above base of sec- tion. C011. DALLY 2-1789 A. Tur-28. Permian limestone, 12.25 feet... by KOCHANSKY-DEVIDÉ & RAMOVg. Occurrence.—This species is common in colis. Tur-19, 20, 21, and 22, and rare in colis. Tur-23, 24, 25, 27, and 28. Illustrations.—Plate 2, figures 1-6; 1-2, axial sec., X20, X40; 3-4, axial secs., X40; 5-6, sagittal secs., X40. 1...

  5. Alphoid satellite DNA is tightly associated with centromere antigens in human chromosomes throughout the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Masumoto, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Kenji; Okazaki, Tuneko )

    1989-03-01

    In this study, the authors have examined a DNA element specific to the centromere domain of human chromosomes. Purified HeLa chromosomes were digested with the restriction enzyme Sau3AI and fractionated by sedimentation through a sucrose gradient. Fractions showing antigenicity to anticentromere (kinetochore) serum obtained from a scleroderma CREST patient were used to construct a DNA library. From this library they found one clone which has specifically hybridized to the centromere domain of metaphase chromosomes using a biotinylated probe DNA and FITC-conjugated avidin. The clone contained a stretch of alphoid DNA dimer. To determine precisely the relative location of the alphoid DNA stretch and the centromere antigen, a method was developed to carry out in situ hybridization of DNA and indirect immunofluorescent staining of antigen on the same cell preparation. Using this method, they have found perfect overlapping of the alphoid DNA sites with the centromere antigen in both metaphase chromosomes and nuclei at various stages in the cell cycle. They have also observed this exact correlation at the attachment sites of artificially extended sister chromatids. These results suggest the possibility that alphoid DNA repeats are a key component of kinetochore structure.

  6. Diet-induced obesity impairs muscle satellite cell activation and muscle repair through alterations in hepatocyte growth factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Donna M; Trajcevski, Karin E; Al-Sajee, Dhuha; Wang, David C; Thomas, Melissa; Anderson, Judy E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    A healthy skeletal muscle mass is essential in attenuating the complications of obesity. Importantly, healthy muscle function is maintained through adequate repair following overuse and injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on skeletal muscle repair and the functionality of the muscle satellite cell (SC) population. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard chow or high-fat diet (60% kcal fat; DIO) for 8 weeks. Muscles from DIO mice subjected to cardiotoxin injury displayed attenuated muscle regeneration, as indicated by prolonged necrosis, delayed expression of MyoD and Myogenin, elevated collagen content, and persistent embryonic myosin heavy chain expression. While no significant differences in SC content were observed, SCs from DIO muscles did not activate normally nor did they respond to exogenous hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) despite similar receptor (cMet) density. Furthermore, HGF release from crushed muscle was significantly less than that from muscles of chow fed mice. This study demonstrates that deficits in muscle repair are present in DIO, and the impairments in the functionality of the muscle SC population as a result of altered HGF/c-met signaling are contributors to the delayed regeneration. PMID:26296771

  7. Angiogenesis as a novel therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy through decreased ischemia and increased satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Asakura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary muscular dystrophy caused by mutation in dystrophin, and there is no curative therapy. Dystrophin is a protein which forms the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the sarcolemma linking the muscle cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. When dystrophin is absent, muscle fibers become vulnerable to mechanical stretch. In addition to this, accumulating evidence indicates DMD muscle having vascular abnormalities and that the muscles are under an ischemic condition. More recent studies demonstrate decreased vascular densities and impaired angiogenesis in the muscles of murine model of DMD. Therefore, generation of new vasculature can be considered a potentially effective strategy for DMD therapy. The pro-angiogenic approaches also seem to be pro-myogenic and could induce muscle regeneration capacity through expansion of the satellite cell juxtavascular niche in the mouse model. Here, we will focus on angiogenesis, reviewing the background, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor-pathway, effect, and concerns of this strategy in DMD. PMID:24600399

  8. An empirical modeling of spatial distribution of trapped protons from solar cell degradation of the Akebono satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, W.; Miyoshi, Y.; Matsuoka, A.

    2015-12-01

    Output current of silicon solar cells of Akebono satellite orbiting in the inner magnetosphere decreased from 13 A in 1989 to about 7 A in 2009, due to accumulated damage by energetic particles. Annual decrease from the same month in the previous year shows a clear oscillation due to orbit precession correlated with trapped energetic proton flux up to 1996. Although phase of the oscillation in annual variation shows a clear correlation, the amplitude tends to be larger than that expected from a degradation model based on energetic proton distribution of the NASA's AP8 model. We have worked on modeling of the L-shell distribution of trapped energetic protons which provides best-fit for the degradation of solar cells. The results by assuming Gaussian distribution of proton flux for L value are as follows. (1) If we assume a steady state before 1996, the best-fitted distribution has a peak around L = 1.6 and a width of dL = 0.1 (i.e., half width of 1/e decrease from the peak). (2) If we employ a dynamic model with temporal variation and introduce a different distribution between April 1991 and June 1992, RMSE is further improved from the static model. Modeled distributions have its center around L = 1.9, suggesting outward shift or expansion of the proton radiation belt during the interval. Our modeling gives more confined distribution than given by the AP8 and AP9 models, but is more consistent with the CRRESPRO model based on the observation before November 1991.

  9. Influence of Pasteurella multocida and high and low environmental temperatures on adrenals and bursa of Fabricius in turkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The morphologic changes in the adrenals and bursa of Fabricius were evaluated from turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. There was a slight hyperplasia of the adrenal cortical cells and a hypertrophy of the nuclei in the uninoculated turkeys maintained at both high and low temperatures, but these changes were more marked in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. Regardless of the temperature to which the turkeys were exposed, there was an increase in adrenal weight, hyperplasia of the cortical cells, hypertrophy of the nuclei of the cortical cells, and depletion of lipid in the cortical cells in the turkeys that became depressed after inoculation with P. multocida. In the uninoculated turkeys exposed to high temperatures there was a reduction in the weight of the bursa of Fabricius, atrophy of the follicles, and a reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicle, which did not occur in the bursae from uninoculated turkeys maintained at low temperatures. In the turkeys inoculated with P. multocida, there was a marked reduction in bursal weight, atrophy of the follicles, and reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicles.

  10. Solar power satellite system. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Sarver, G.L. III

    1980-09-01

    A solar power satellite system is provided which includes a power satellite and at least one reflector satellite. The power satellite, which constitutes the great mass of the system, has a geosynchronous, gravity gradient stabilized orbit. The power satellite comprises a planar array of solar cells, with the plane of the satellite being oriented so as to be parallel with the plane of its orbit. An antenna or antennas mounted on the power satellite are powered by the solar cells and serve to transmit microwave energy back to earth. The shape and orbit of the reflector satellite are controlled so that solar radiation is focused by the reflector satellite onto the solar array of the power satellite. NASA

  11. Academics in Turkey Science, Technology and Innovation System in Turkey and

    E-print Network

    Moeller, Ralf

    Academics in Turkey Science, Technology and Innovation System in Turkey and some funding issuessome;Science, Technology and Innovation System in Turkey 3 Main actors: · Supreme Council for Science and Technology (MSIT) Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (T�BTAK) Small and Medium

  12. ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) enhances the proliferation of satellite cells in fast muscles of aged rats during recovery from disuse atrophy.

    PubMed

    Alway, Stephen E; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K; Hao, Yanlei; Bennett, Brian T

    2013-09-01

    Loss of myonuclei by apoptosis is thought to contribute to sarcopenia. We have previously shown, that the leucine metabolite, ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) suppresses apoptotic signaling and the apoptotic index (the ratio of apoptotic positive to apoptotic negative myonuclei) during muscle disuse and during reloading periods after disuse in aged rats. However, it was not clear if the apoptotic signaling indexes were due only to preservation of myonuclei or if perhaps the total myogenic pool increased as a result of HMB-mediated satellite cell proliferation as this would have also reduced the apoptotic index. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HMB would augment myogenic cells (satellite cells) proliferation during muscle recovery (growth) after a period of disuse in senescent animals. The hindlimb muscles of 34 month old Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats were unloaded for 14 days by hindlimb suspension (HLS), and then reloaded for 14 days. The rats received either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body weight; n = 16), or the vehicle (n = 10) by gavage throughout the experimental period. HMB prevented the functional decline in maximal plantar flexion isometric force production during the reloading period, but not during HLS. HMB-treatment enhanced the proliferation of muscle stem cells as shown by a greater percentage of satellite cells that had proliferated (more BrdU positive, Pax-7 positive, and more Pax7/Ki67 positive nuclei) and as a result, more differentiated stem cells were present (more MyoD/myogenin positive myonuclei), relative to total myonuclei, in reloaded plantaris muscles as compared to reloaded muscles from vehicle-treated animals. Furthermore HMB increased the nuclear protein abundance of proliferation markers, inhibitor of differentiation-2 and cyclin A, as compared to vehicle treatment in reloaded muscles. Although HMB increased phosphorylated Akt during reloading, other mTOR related proteins were not altered by HMB treatment. These data show that HMB improved the proliferation of muscle stem cells in fast twitch plantaris muscles. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation leading to increased differentiated myonuclei should increase the transcriptional potential to support muscle hypertrophic changes and functional changes in sarcopenic muscles, and this could partly explain the reduced apoptotic index in HMB treated muscles. Indeed, muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area were significantly greater in plantaris muscles from HMB-treated animal muscles after reloading as compared to vehicle-treated animals. PMID:23832076

  13. Turkey. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahalilo?lu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since 2003 have been improvements in citizens health status, the introduction of the GHIS, the instigation of a purchaser provider split in the health care system, the introduction of a family practitioner scheme nationwide, the introduction of a performance-based payment system in Ministry of Health hospitals, and transferring the ownership of the majority of public hospitals to the Ministry of Health. Future challenges for the Turkish health care system include, reorganizing and enforcing a referral system from primary to higher levels of care, improving the supply of health care staff, introducing and extending public hospital governance structures that aim to grant autonomous status to public hospitals, and further improving patient rights. PMID:22455830

  14. Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT) Deficiency Promotes Differentiation of Satellite Cells to Brown Adipocytes in a Cholesterol-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Nesan, Dinushan; Tavallaee, Ghazaleh; Koh, Deborah; Bashiri, Amir; Abdin, Rawand; Ng, Dominic S

    2015-12-18

    Our laboratory previously reported that lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and LDL receptor double knock-out mice (Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(-/-) or DKO) spontaneously develop functioning ectopic brown adipose tissue (BAT) in skeletal muscle, putatively contributing to protection from the diet-induced obesity phenotype. Here we further investigated their developmental origin and the mechanistic role of LCAT deficiency. Gene profiling of skeletal muscle in DKO newborns and adults revealed a classical lineage. Primary quiescent satellite cells (SC) from chow-fed DKO mice, not in Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(+/+) single-knock-out (SKO) or C57BL/6 wild type, were found to (i) express exclusively classical BAT-selective genes, (ii) be primed to express key functional BAT genes, and (iii) exhibit markedly increased ex vivo adipogenic differentiation into brown adipocytes. This gene priming effect was abrogated upon feeding the mice a 2% high cholesterol diet in association with accumulation of excess intracellular cholesterol. Ex vivo cholesterol loading of chow-fed DKO SC recapitulated the effect, indicating that cellular cholesterol is a key regulator of SC-to-BAT differentiation. Comparing adipogenicity of Ldlr(+/+)xLcat(-/-) (LCAT-KO) SC with DKO SC identified a role for LCAT deficiency in priming SC to express BAT genes. Additionally, we found that reduced cellular cholesterol is important for adipogenic differentiation, evidenced by increased induction of adipogenesis in cholesterol-depleted SC from both LCAT-KO and SKO mice. Taken together, we conclude that ectopic BAT in DKO mice is classical in origin, and its development begins in utero. We further showed complementary roles of LCAT deficiency and cellular cholesterol reduction in the SC-to-BAT adipogenesis. PMID:26494623

  15. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  16. Turkey's Quest for Influence in International Governance

    E-print Network

    Robeson, Scott M.

    Turkey's Quest for Influence in International Governance Professor Kemal Kirici Director of the Center on the United States and Europe's Turkey Project, Brookings Institution csme@indiana.edu www.iub.edu/~csme In the Arab world, Turkey is now seen as a source of chaos in the region and often

  17. TURKEY CREEK BASIN Kansas and Missouri

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    TURKEY CREEK BASIN Kansas and Missouri MODIFICATION REQUEST Modification to the authorized total the Turkey Creek channel and runoff from the adjacent hillsides, and the current depth of flooding along in the past decade. Additionally, the Turkey Creek tunnel constructed in 1919 to divert the channel away from

  18. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  19. Tumorous diseases of turkeys - an update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This update is primarily focused on addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  20. CDP Water Program 2015 Turkey Results

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    CDP Water Program 2015 Turkey Results #12;Sponsor Foreword As Garanti Bank, we are proud to be a part of CDP Water Program, launched by Sabanci University Corporate Governance Forum, that marks a new era for water issues in Turkey. The results of 2015 CDP Global Water Report and results of Turkey hold

  1. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Meryem

    2004-10-01

    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education. PMID:15465171

  2. Space radiation environment impacts on high power amplifiers and solar cells on-board geostationary communications satellites

    E-print Network

    Lohmeyer, Whitney Quinne

    2015-01-01

    Communications satellite operators maintain archives of component telemetry to monitor system function. Operators generally do not typically use the telemetry data for scientific analysis of the space radiation environment ...

  3. A comparison of virulence of influenza A virus isolates from mallards in experimentally inoculated turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shankar; Xing, Zheng; Cardona, Carol

    2013-12-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) from wild waterfowl can and do cross species barriers, infecting and sometimes becoming established in domestic poultry. Turkeys are naturally highly susceptible to LPAIV infections, especially with viruses from ducks. In this study, we describe clinical signs and lesions in experimentally inoculated commercial turkeys produced by a LPAIV, A/mallard/MN/1714/09 (H7N1), isolated from a mallard duck. Our results demonstrate that this H7N1 isolate produced clinical signs, including severe edema of the head and face because of an early inflammatory response in both inoculated and contact turkeys. In comparison, an isolate, A/mallard/MN/2749/09 (H6N8) from the same mallard population, infected and was transmitted between naive turkeys but did not cause clinical disease or lesions. Our data indicate that proinflammatory (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) and antiviral (IFN-gamma and IL-2) cytokines are expressed at different levels in H7N1- and H6N8-infected turkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These differences correlate inversely with clinical lesions, suggesting that differences in host responses result in variances in viral pathogenesis and in virulence of LPAIV in commercial turkeys. Based on these results, we can conclude that turkeys may exhibit variable immunologic responses to infection with different AIV strains. PMID:24597123

  4. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  5. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  6. IL-6 Induced STAT3 Signalling Is Associated with the Proliferation of Human Muscle Satellite Cells Following Acute Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Kyle G.; McKay, Bryon R.; De Lisio, Michael; Little, Jonathon P.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Parise, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the satellite cell (SC) is a key regulator of muscle growth during development and muscle adaptation following exercise, the regulation of human muscle SC function remains largely unexplored. STAT3 signalling mediated via interleukin-6 (IL-6) has recently come to the forefront as a potential regulator of SC proliferation. The early response of the SC population in human muscle to muscle-lengthening contractions (MLC) as mediated by STAT3 has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve male subjects (21±2 y; 83±12 kg) performed 300 maximal MLC of the quadriceps femoris at 180°•s?1 over a 55° range of motion with muscle samples (vastus lateralis) and blood samples (antecubital vein) taken prior to exercise (PRE), 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3) and 24 hours (T24) post-exercise. Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of muscle biopsies were purified and analyzed for total and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) by western blot. p-STAT3 was detected in cytoplasmic fractions across the time course peaking at T24 (p<0.01 vs. PRE). Nuclear total and p-STAT3 were not detected at appreciable levels. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a progressive increase in the proportion of SCs expressing p-STAT3 with ?60% of all SCs positive for p-STAT3 at T24 (p<0.001 vs. PRE). Additionally, cMyc, a STAT3 downstream gene, was significantly up-regulated in SCs at T24 versus PRE (p<0.05). Whole muscle mRNA analysis revealed induction of the STAT3 target genes IL-6, SOCS3, cMyc (peaking at T3, p<0.05), IL-6R? and GP130 (peaking at T24, p<0.05). In addition, Myf5 mRNA was up-regulated at T24 (p<0.05) with no appreciable change in MRF4 mRNA. Conclusions/Significant Findings We demonstrate that IL-6 induction of STAT3 signaling occurred exclusively in the nuclei of SCs in response to MLC. An increase in the number of cMyc+ SCs indicated that human SCs were induced to proliferate under the control of STAT3 signaling. PMID:21408055

  7. Dynamic organization of DNA replication in mammalian cell nuclei: spatially and temporally defined replication of chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Five distinct patterns of DNA replication have been identified during S- phase in asynchronous and synchronous cultures of mammalian cells by conventional fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. During early S-phase, replicating DNA (as identified by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) appears to be distributed at sites throughout the nucleoplasm, excluding the nucleolus. In CHO cells, this pattern of replication peaks at 30 min into S-phase and is consistent with the localization of euchromatin. As S-phase continues, replication of euchromatin decreases and the peripheral regions of heterochromatin begin to replicate. This pattern of replication peaks at 2 h into S-phase. At 5 h, perinucleolar chromatin as well as peripheral areas of heterochromatin peak in replication. 7 h into S-phase interconnecting patches of electron-dense chromatin replicate. At the end of S-phase (9 h), replication occurs at a few large regions of electron-dense chromatin. Similar or identical patterns have been identified in a variety of mammalian cell types. The replication of specific chromosomal regions within the context of the BrdU-labeling patterns has been examined on an hourly basis in synchronized HeLa cells. Double labeling of DNA replication sites and chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences indicates that the alpha-satellite DNA replicates during mid S-phase (characterized by the third pattern of replication) in a variety of human cell types. Our data demonstrates that specific DNA sequences replicate at spatially and temporally defined points during the cell cycle and supports a spatially dynamic model of DNA replication. PMID:1740468

  8. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  9. Diminished satellite cells and elevated adipogenic gene expression in muscle as caused by ovariectomy are averted by low-magnitude mechanical signals.

    PubMed

    Frechette, Danielle M; Krishnamoorthy, Divya; Adler, Benjamin J; Chan, M Ete; Rubin, Clinton T

    2015-07-01

    Age-related degeneration of the musculoskeletal system, accelerated by menopause, is further complicated by increased systemic and muscular adiposity. The purpose of this study was to identify at the molecular, cellular, and tissue levels the impact of ovariectomy on adiposity and satellite cell populations in mice and whether mechanical signals could influence any outcomes. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized, with one half subjected to low-intensity vibration (LIV; 0.3 g/90 Hz, 15 min/day, 5 day/wk; n = 10) for 6 wk and the others sham vibrated (OVX; n = 10). Data are compared with age-matched, intact controls (AC; n = 10). In vivo ?CT analysis showed that OVX mice gained 43% total (P < 0.001) and 125% visceral adiposity (P < 0.001) compared with their baseline after 6 wk, whereas LIV gained only 21% total (P = 0.01) and 70% visceral adiposity (P < 0.01). Relative to AC, expression of adipogenic genes (PPAR?, FABP4, PPAR?, and FoxO1) was upregulated in OVX muscle (P < 0.05), whereas LIV reduced these levels (P < 0.05). Adipogenic gene expression was inversely related to the percentage of total and reserve satellite cell populations in the muscle, with both declining in OVX compared with AC (-21 and -28%, respectively, P < 0.01). LIV mitigated these declines (-11 and -17%, respectively). These results provide further evidence of the negative consequences of estrogen depletion and demonstrate that mechanical signals have the potential to interrupt subsequent adipogenic gene expression and satellite cell suppression, emphasizing the importance of physical signals in protecting musculoskeletal integrity and slowing the fat phenotype. PMID:25930028

  10. Alcohol fuel research in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

    1998-12-01

    Turkey, like most of the developing countries of the world, has vast agricultural potential, yet the country is highly dependent on oil imports, which satisfy 90% of its crude oil demand. Since Turkey had an economy based on agriculture, the usage of national resources in the energy field is extremely important. In the first years of the Turkish Republic, in 1931, the usage of national resources as an alternative to conventional fuels became a subject of increasing interest. Since then a lot of research has been conducted, but only a limited amount of application has been realized. Alcohol has always occupied an important place among the alternative fuel studies. The subject has been the scope of some research institute projects and university and government development planning studies. In Turkey, one of the most important studies in this area has been undertaken by the authors` research group in their university. This study is a general review of alcohol usage as an alternative automotive fuel in Turkey. This review includes a short history of the subject, the approach of the government, the research results, possible developments on the subject in the near future, and finally, it concludes with proposals.

  11. Pathogenesis of rotavirus infection in various age groups of chickens and turkeys: clinical signs and virology.

    PubMed

    Yason, C V; Schat, K A

    1987-06-01

    Age-related susceptibility patterns of turkeys, broilers, and specific pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorn chickens to experimentally induced infection with turkey or chicken rotavirus isolates were compared. The following determinants were evaluated: clinical signs, onset and duration of virus production, viral titers, involvement of intestinal villi in the replication of the virus, and the development of antibodies against the virus. Older turkeys and chickens were more susceptible than were their younger counterparts, turkeys were more susceptible than were broiler and White Leghorn chickens (regardless of age), and broiler chickens were slightly more susceptible than were age-matched White Leghorn chickens. Turkeys developed diarrhea, accompanied by high viral titers within 1 day after inoculation with virus. Viral antigen was found in the epithelial cells of the intestinal villi throughout the intestinal tract and some cells of the cecal tonsils. Antibodies could be detected as early as 4 to 5 days after inoculation. These findings were more pronounced in turkeys inoculated at 112 days of age than in birds inoculated at a younger age. Age-related susceptibility patterns were similar in White Leghorn and broiler chickens. Infection was subclinical in birds less than 56 days old, whereas older birds developed soft feces. Egg production in the White Leghorn chickens decreased after being inoculated with virus at 350 days of age. PMID:3037952

  12. Morphology of the epididymal region of turkeys producing abnormal yellow semen.

    PubMed

    Hess, R A; Thurston, R J; Biellier, H V

    1982-03-01

    Male turkeys producing abnormal yellow-colored semen (YS) had hypertrophied epithelial cells in the ductuli efferentes. The cells were engorged with cytoplasmic, lipid-like (lipoid) droplets, a morphological abnormality found exclusively in this area of the epididymal region. The testes, epididymal region, ductus deferens, and abdominal fat were relatively yellow compared to turkeys producing normal white semen (WS). Adipose tissue within the abdominal cavity and lining the ductus deferens was more abundant in the YS producers. In addition to increased lipoid droplets, nonciliated cells of the ductuli epithelia contained larger and more numerous electron-dense lysosomal bodies than similar nonciliated cells in WS males. Resorption of morphologically normal and abnormal spermatozoa by the epithelia of the ductuli efferentes was prevalent in the YS males but was not observed in the WS turkeys. The seminal fluids in the epididymal region of the YS males contained abnormal spermatids, cellular debris, and increased amounts of electron-dense proteinaceous material. PMID:7088803

  13. Proteomic analysis of purified turkey adenovirus 3 virions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; van den Hurk, Jan; Ayalew, Lisanework E; Gaba, Amit; Tikoo, Suresh K

    2015-01-01

    Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3) causes high mortality and significant economic losses to the turkey industry. However, little is known about the molecular determinants required for viral replication and pathogenesis. Moreover, TAdV-3 does not grow well in cell culture, thus detailed structural studies of the infectious particle is particularly challenging. To develop a better understanding of virus-host interactions, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of proteinase K treated purified TAdV-3 virions isolated from spleens of infected turkeys, by utilizing one-dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 13 viral proteins associated with TAdV-3 virions including a novel uncharacterized TaV3gp04 protein. Further, we detected 18 host proteins in purified virions, many of which are involved in cell-to cell spread, cytoskeleton dynamics and virus replication. Notably, seven of these host proteins have not yet been reported to be present in any other purified virus. In addition, five of these proteins are known antiviral host restriction factors. The availability of reagents allowed us to identify two cellular proteins (collagen alpha-1 (VI) chain and haemoglobin) in the purified TAdV-3 preparations. These results represent the first comprehensive proteomic profile of TAdV-3 and may provide information for illustrating TAdV-3 replication and pathogenesis. PMID:26159706

  14. Can cable TV network boost broadband competition in Turkey? : developing policy implications for Turkey

    E-print Network

    Ozcan, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is one of the most important emerging markets in the world. Considering its young educated population prone to use computer technologies, Turkey can make more benefit from broadband services. Compared with OECD ...

  15. Antimuscle atrophy effect of nicotine targets muscle satellite cells partly through an ?7 nicotinic receptor in a murine hindlimb ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Yoshihiko; Noguchi, Tatsuya; Okazaki, Kayo; Oikawa, Shino; Iketani, Mitsue; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Kurabayashi, Mutsumi; Furihata, Mutsuo; Sato, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    We have recently identified that donepezil, an anti-Alzheimer drug, accelerates angiogenesis in a murine hindlimb ischemia (HLI) model. However, the precise mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated, particularly whether the effects are derived from endothelial cells alone or from other nonvascular cells. Further investigation of the HLI model revealed that nicotine accelerated angiogenesis by activation of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) synthesis through nicotinic receptors in myogenic cells, that is, satellite cells, in vivo and upregulated the expression of angiogenic factors, for example, VEGF and fibroblast growth factor 2, in vitro. As a result, nicotine prevented skeletal muscle from ischemia-induced muscle atrophy and upregulated myosin heavy chain expression in vitro. The in vivo anti-atrophy effect of nicotine on muscle was also observed in galantamine, another anti-Alzheimer drug, playing as an allosteric potentiating ligand. Such effects of nicotine were attenuated in ?7 nicotinic receptor knockout mice. In contrast, PNU282987, an ?7 nicotinic receptor agonist, comparably salvaged skeletal muscle, which was affected by HLI. These results suggest that cholinergic signals also target myogenic cells and have inhibiting roles in muscle loss by ischemia-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:24811002

  16. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps. PMID:18644708

  17. Turkey Flat Site Effects Test Area The Turkey-Flat strong motion "blind"

    E-print Network

    Oprsal, Ivo

    Turkey Flat Site Effects Test Area B B' A A' C C' The Turkey-Flat strong motion "blind" prediction experiment "Blind" Test Approach · Conduct high quality field and laboratory tests to characterize Geological Survey Turkey Flat, USA Site Effects Test Area: "Blind" Test of Predicted Ground Response

  18. Serotonin Localization in the Turkey Vaginal but not Sperm Storage Tubule Epithelia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our knowledge regarding the mechanism of sperm selection and transport in the hen’s vagina is meager. Preliminary observations indicate the presence of non-neuron endocrine cells in the epithelia lining the lumina of the turkey hen vagina and uterovaginal junction. While no cells in the vagina or U...

  19. Turkey: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on a marked oil production increase, an exploration program in the Black Sea and the planned development of an offshore gas field in the Sea of Mamara in Turkey. The production increase stems from development of new fields in southeastern Turkey by Turkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortakligi (TPAO), the national oil company. Discovered in 1989, development of Kahta, Karakus, Cendere and several other nearby finds have pushed Turkish crude output to the highest level in 14 years. Last May, BP entered into a three-year joint venture with TPAO to explore a 29,344 sq mi area in the Black Sea in waters to 6,500+ ft deep. The three-year program calls for BP to run seismic this year followed by its Airborne Laser Fluorosensor survey technique. Drilling will depend on survey results.

  20. Small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Dermott, S.

    1986-01-01

    Satellites smaller than Mimas (r = 195 km) are distinguished by irregular overall shapes and by rough limb topography. Material properties and impact cratering dominate the shaping of these objects. Long fragmentation histories can produce a variety of internal structures, but so far there is no direct evidence that any small satellite is an equilibrium ellipsoid made up of noncohesive gravitationally bound rubble. One many bodies that orbit close to their primary the tidal and rotational components of surface gravity strongly affect the directions of local g and thereby affect the redistribution of regolith by mass wasting. Downslope movement of regolith is extensive on Deimos, and is probably effective on many other small satellites. It is shown that in some cases observed patterns of downslope mass wasting cold produce useful constraints on the satellite's mean density. The diversity of features seen in the few high-resolution images of small satellites currently available suggests that these objects have undergone complex histories of cratering, fragmentation, and regolith evolution.

  1. Dynamic expression of tgf-?2, tgf-?3 and inhibin ?A during muscle growth resumption and satellite cell differentiation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    de Mello, Fernanda; Streit, Danilo Pedro; Sabin, Nathalie; Gabillard, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    Members of the TGF-? superfamily are involved in numerous cell functions; however, except for myostatin, their roles in the regulation of muscle growth in fish are completely unknown. We measured tgf-?1, tgf-?2, tgf-?3, inhibin ?A (inh) and follistatin (fst) gene expression during muscle growth recovery following a fasting period. We observed that tgf-?1a and tgf-?2 expression were quickly down-regulated after refeeding and that tgf-?3 reached its highest level of expression 7days post-refeeding, mirroring myogenin expression. Inh ?A1 mRNA levels decreased sharply after refeeding, in contrast to fst b2 expression, which peaked at day 2. No significant modification of expression was observed for tgf-?1a, tgf-?1b, tgf-?1c and tgf-?6 during refeeding. In vitro, tgf-?2 and inh ?A1 expression decreased during the differentiation of satellite cells, whereas tgf-?3 expression increased following the same pattern as myogenin. Surprisingly, fst b1 and fst b2 expression decreased during differentiation, whereas no variation was observed in fst a1 and fst a2 expression levels. In vitro analyses also indicated that IGF1 treatment up-regulated tgf-?3, inh ?A1 and myogenin expression, and that MSTN treatment increased fst b1 and fst b2 expression. In conclusion, we showed that the expression of tgf-?2, tgf-?3 and inh ?A1 is dynamically regulated during muscle growth resumption and satellite cell differentiation, strongly suggesting that these genes have a role in the regulation of muscle growth. PMID:25449661

  2. Role of the mTORC1 complex in satellite cell activation by RNA-induced mitochondrial restoration: dual control of cyclin D1 through microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Jash, Sukanta; Dhar, Gunjan; Ghosh, Utpalendu; Adhya, Samit

    2014-10-01

    During myogenesis, satellite stem cells (SCs) are induced to proliferate and differentiate to myogenic precursors. The role of energy sensors such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in SC activation is unclear. We previously observed that upregulation of ATP through RNA-mediated mitochondrial restoration (MR) accelerates SC activation following skeletal muscle injury. We show here that during regeneration, the AMPK-CRTC2-CREB and Raptor-mTORC-4EBP1 pathways were rapidly activated. The phosho-CRTC2-CREB complex was essential for myogenesis and activated transcription of the critical cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 (Ccnd1). Knockdown (KD) of either mTORC or its subunit Raptor delayed SC activation without influencing the differentiation program. KD of 4EBP1 had no effect on SC activation but enhanced myofiber size. mTORC1 positively regulated Ccnd1 translation but destabilized Ccnd1 mRNA. These antithetical effects of mTORC1 were mediated by two microRNAs (miRs) targeted to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Ccnd1 mRNA: miR-1 was downregulated in mTORC-KD muscle, and depletion of miR-1 resulted in increased levels of mRNA without any effect on Ccnd1 protein. In contrast, miR-26a was upregulated upon mTORC depletion, while anti-miR-26a oligonucleotide specifically stimulated Ccnd1 protein expression. Thus, mTORC may act as a timer of satellite cell proliferation during myogenesis. PMID:25047835

  3. A fine structural study of the turkey harderian gland.

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, M H; Rothwell, B; Burns, R B

    1986-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the turkey Harderian gland is described and the findings support previous histological descriptions of the gland. The gland is a compound tubulo-acinar structure composed of characteristic bipolar epithelial cells providing a predominantly merocrine secretion to the lumina. In the basal aspect of the cell, aggregations of non-secretory lipid-like droplets were evident and apically, the secretion was mucoid. The cells had abundant mitochondria, granular endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and a complex network of Golgi elements. In the subepithelial regions, myoepithelial cells and large numbers of plasma cells were seen. Within the granular endoplasmic reticulum cisternae of the epithelial cells, fibrillary or crystalline rods in some instances measuring up to 10 micron in length, with a 7.0 nm repeat pattern, were frequently seen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693084

  4. Salmonella Levels in Turkey Neck Skins, Drumstick Bones, and Spleens in Relation to Ground Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Guran, Husnu S; Harrison, Mark A; Hofacre, Charles L; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella levels (presence and numbers) in turkey drumstick bone, spleen, and neck skin samples in relation to Salmonella contamination levels in ground turkey at the flock level. Over a 10-month period, a total of 300 samples of each turkey part (i.e., neck skin, spleen, and drumstick) from 20 flocks were collected at a commercial turkey processing plant after the evisceration step. Turkey flocks included in this study were classified as "targeted" and "nontargeted" based on the company's historical ground turkey contamination data. A flock that originated from a turkey farm that had previously produced one or more flocks with ?20% Salmonella prevalence in ground turkey was labeled as a targeted flock (n = 13). The remaining seven flocks with <20% prevalence were labeled as nontargeted. All samples collected were tested for Salmonella presence and numbers by using most-probable-number and selective enrichment methods. Further genotypic analysis (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of the isolates was performed. Ground turkey samples were collected and analyzed for Salmonella levels by the cooperating turkey company. The outside surface of bone and spleen were sterilized prior to Salmonella analysis. The overall Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, drumstick bone, spleen, and ground turkey samples was 42.0, 9.3, 6.7, and 14.5%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, spleen, drumstick bone, and ground turkey from the targeted flocks was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those from nontargeted flocks. There was a significant relationship between Salmonella presence in neck skin (when most probable numbers were ?2 log) and Salmonella-positive ground turkey lot. Based on our findings, Salmonella was detected internally in drumstick bones and spleens at low levels, whereas Salmonella presence at higher levels in neck skin may indicate a flock with greater potential for Salmonella contamination of ground turkey. PMID:26555516

  5. Timation 3 satellite. [artificial satellite for navigation, space radiation, and time transfer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartholomew, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the Timation 3 satellite are discussed. A diagram of the basic structure is provide to show the solar panels, navigation and telemetry antennas, gravity gradient booms, and solar cell experiments. The specific application of the satellite for time management or time transfer for navigation purposes is reported. Various measurements and experiments conducted by the satellite are described.

  6. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

  7. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  8. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  9. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  10. Prevalence of parvoviruses in commercial turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Murgia, M V; Rauf, A; Tang, Y; Gingerich, E; Lee, C-W; Saif, Y M

    2012-12-01

    Turkey parvovirus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae, Genus parvovirus. Since the initial report on turkey parvovirus in the United States appeared in 1983, there had been no further reports of parvovirus in turkeys until 2008. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of parvovirus in commercial turkey flocks using PCR; to determine their genetic relationship to previous strains identified in North America and Europe; and to test samples for enteric viruses by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A total of 169 fecal samples collected from 42 turkey farms in four different states within the United States between 2000 and 2010 were examined. We found that the most frequently detected viruses by TEM were small round viruses, accounting for 52% of the examined samples; however, the PCR detected parvoviruses in 71% of the samples. The phylogenetic analysis of partial nonstructural gene sequences showed a certain degree of variability among the turkey samples tested in the study. Moreover, there was a clear dichotomy in the phylogenetic tree between chicken and turkey samples, with the exception of one turkey isolate from 2000, which clustered together with the chicken group. PMID:23397849

  11. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  12. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  13. Jupiter: Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, P.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    As befitting the king of the planets, JUPITER is orbited by an entourage of at least 39 natural satellites in addition to its faint rings, intense radiation belts and occasional temporary visitors from Earth and the outer solar system. Named after Zeus' lovers and other mythological companions, Jupiter's moons can be divided into four groups on the basis of their sizes and orbits (t...

  14. Satellite Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forum, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication of the Council of Europe covers aspects of the history, technology, policies, and impact of telecommunications in Europe, with an emphasis on European television. The following articles are included: (1) "Man and the World of Telecommunications" (Piet Stoffelen); (2) "The European Communications Satellite

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters for wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations has been limited. We surveyed Rio Grande wild turkey (M and examine power to detect trends in population change. We observed that wild turkey flock detectability

  16. Astronomical site selection for Turkey using GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksaker, N.; Yerli, S. K.; Erdo?an, M. A.; Erdi, E.; Kaba, K.; Ak, T.; Aslan, Z.; Bak??, V.; Demircan, O.; Evren, S.; Keskin, V.; Küçük, ?.; Özdemir, T.; Öz???k, T.; Selam, S. O.

    2015-10-01

    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for the best, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national funding has been awarded to produce a prototype of an on-site test unit (to measure both astronomical and meteorological parameters) which might be used in this list of locations.

  17. Astronomical Site Selection for Turkey Using GIS Techniques

    E-print Network

    Aksaker, Nazim; Erdogan, M Akif; Erdi, Erdem; Kaba, Kazim; Ak, Tansel; Aslan, Zeki; Bakis, Volkan; Demircan, Osman; Evren, Serdar; Keskin, Varol; Kucuk, Ibrahim; Ozdemir, Tuncay; Ozisik, Tuncay; Selam, Selim O

    2015-01-01

    A site selection of potential observatory locations in Turkey have been carried out by using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and satellite imagery which in turn reduced cost and time and increased the accuracy of the final outcome. The layers of cloud cover, digital elevation model, artificial lights, precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical thickness and wind speed were studied in the GIS system. In conclusion of MCDA, the most suitable regions were found to be located in a strip crossing from southwest to northeast including also a diverted region in southeast of Turkey. These regions are thus our prime candidate locations for future on-site testing. In addition to this major outcome, this study has also been applied to locations of major observatories sites. Since no goal is set for \\textit{the best}, the results of this study is limited with a list of positions. Therefore, the list has to be further confirmed with on-site tests. A national fundi...

  18. Survival after cryogenic freezing of Campylobacter species in ground Turkey patties treated with polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Gunther Iv, Nereus W; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Campylobacter species within a ground turkey product subjected to cryogenic freezing. Ground turkey patties with two different polyphosphate formulations added in two different concentrations were artificially contaminated with known concentrations of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The patties were cryogenically frozen at -80°F (-62.2°C) with liquid nitrogen vapor and held at -20°C for 7 or 33 days, after which the number of Campylobacter surviving in the patties was determined. On average the cryogenic freezing resulted in a 2.5-log decrease in the survival of C. jejuni cells and a 2.9-log decrease in C. coli cells present in the turkey patties. Additionally, the presence of polyphosphates in the turkey patties had no effect on Campylobacter survival up to the maximum allowed concentration (0.5%) for polyphosphates in poultry marinades. Finally, it was determined that the added polyphosphates had little effect on the pH of the ground turkey meat; an effect which previously had been implicated in the enhancement of Campylobacter survival due to the presence of polyphosphates. PMID:25710161

  19. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--role of satellite cells in anabolic steroid-induced muscle growth in feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Dayton, W R; White, M E

    2014-01-01

    Both androgenic and estrogenic steroids are widely used as growth promoters in feedlot steers because they significantly enhance feed efficiency, rate of gain, and muscle growth. However, despite their widespread use relatively little is known about the biological mechanism by which androgenic and estrogenic steroids enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth in cattle. Treatment of feedlot steers with a combined estradiol (E2) and trenbolone acetate (TBA) implant results in an increased number of muscle satellite cells, increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA in muscle tissue, and increased levels of circulating IGF-1. Similarly, treatment of bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures with either TBA or E2 results in increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA, increased rates of proliferation and protein synthesis, and decreased rates of protein degradation. Effects of E2 on BSC are mediated at least in part through the classical E2 receptor, estrogen receptor-? (ESR1), the IGF-1 receptor (IGFR1), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR30). The effects of TBA appear to be primarily mediated through the androgen receptor. Based on current research results, it is becoming clear that anabolic steroid-enhanced bovine muscle growth involves a complex interaction of numerous pathways and receptors. Consequently, additional in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms involved in this complex process. The fundamental information generated by this research will help in developing future, safe, and effective strategies to increase rate and efficiency of muscle growth in beef cattle. PMID:24166993

  20. Isolation and characterization of a turkey arthritis reovirus.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Ziegler, Andre; Patnayak, Devi P; Goyal, Sagar M

    2013-03-01

    During the spring and summer of 2011, the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Minnesota received 14 submissions of 15-to-18-week-old tom turkeys that were recumbent with wing tip bruises ("wing walkers") and uni- or bilateral swelling of the hock (tibiotarsal) joints. Gastrocnemius or digital flexor tendons were occasionally ruptured. A total of five turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV-MN1 through TARV-MN5) were isolated in specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs and QT-35 cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by electron microscopy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and gene sequence analysis. BLAST analysis on the basis of a 880 bp nucleotide sequence of the S4 gene confirmed all isolates as a reovirus. Phylogenetic analysis divided the five isolates into two subgroups: subgroup I containing TARV-MN1, -2, -3, and -5, and the other subgroup containing TARV-MN4. Isolates in subgroup I had a similarity of 97%-100% with each other, while subgroup II (TARV-MN4) had a similarity of only 89.2% with subgroup I viruses. This isolate showed 90%-93% similarity with turkey enteric reoviruses in the United States, while the other four isolates in subgroup I had 89%-97.6% similarity. These results indicate divergence within TARVs as well as from enteric viruses, which needs to be confirmed by complete genome sequence analysis. Further experimental studies are planned to determine the role of these isolates in turkey arthritis and to compare them with classical chicken reovirus. PMID:23678736

  1. The mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulates myocyte enhancer factor-2C phosphorylation levels through integrin-linked kinase in goat skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiqing; Ren, Yu; Pan, Wei; Dong, Zhenguo; Cang, Ming; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-11-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays a key role in muscle development and is involved in multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) regulates muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, how the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2 activity remains unclear. We isolated goat skeletal muscle satellite cells (gSSCs) as model cells to explore mTOR signaling pathway regulation of MEF2C. We inhibited mTOR activity in gSSCs with PP242 and found that MEF2C phosphorylation was decreased and that muscle creatine kinase (MCK) expression was suppressed. Subsequently, we detected integrin-linked kinase (ILK) using MEF2C coimmunoprecipitation; ILK and MEF2C were colocalized in the gSSCs. We found that inhibiting mTOR activity increased ILK phosphorylation levels and that inhibiting ILK activity with Cpd 22 and knocking down ILK with small interfering RNA increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK expression. In the presence of Cpd 22, mTOR activity inhibition did not affect MEF2C phosphorylation. Moreover, ILK dephosphorylated MEF2C in vitro. These results suggest that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C positively and regulates ILK negatively and that ILK regulates MEF2C negatively. It appears that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C through ILK, further regulating the expression of muscle-related genes in gSSCs. PMID:26041412

  2. [The urbanization rate in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Widy-kwiatkowska, J

    1994-01-01

    Data from the annual statistical report on Turkey for 1990 and the results of research from 1985 and 1990 were utilized and compared with the trends of urbanization observed in the 1969 work of Z. Siemek on Turkey. In 1990, Turkey had about 56.5 million people with an average annual natural growth rate of 2.6% and an unemployment rate of 16%. The rural population made up 41% of the total populace. Urbanization was on the increase, from 47% in 1980, to 55% in 1985, and 59% in 1990. Urbanization in Ankara, because of its location in the center of Turkey, was particularly active in the regions of Anatolia, although it was still isolated in terms of intensified development. Istanbul's The population of Istanbul numbered 6,754,000 people in 1990. It is the major industrial center of the country with about 20% of industrial plants and 17% of the work force in the manufacturing industry. The largest degree of urbanization was demonstrated by Ankara: in 1927 its population numbered only 74,500 people, in 1965 about 902,000 inhabitants, and in 1990 about 2,837,000 people. During the period 1985-90, only 2 out of 73 provinces experienced a decline of the urban population: Kirikkale from 70.4% to 69.7% (because of the dynamic development of the Central region) and Istanbul from 95.4% to 92.4%. During this same period, Kirikkale's urban population, compared with the nation's total urban population, also declined from 0.9% to 0.7% because of immigration of both urban and rural people to other, more attractive provinces. The growth of urban population in the province of Istanbul varied from 1% to 10% during the period and made up 20.3% of the entire urban population. The Central region underwent a large degree of urbanization characterized by industrial-agricultural development. The city of Sivas became a center of communication. In the Central and Kurd regions, urbanization proceeded fast owing to the development of the Black Sea region and the immigration of Kurds from Iraq and Iran. PMID:12291543

  3. Turkey Watch: EU Member States' Perceptions on Turkey's Accession to ISBN: 978-605-89751-2-5

    E-print Network

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;1 Turkey Watch: EU Member States' Perceptions on Turkey's Accession to the EU Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. SInAN logosu ve Strengthening and Integrating Academic Networks University under the Programme `Promotion of Civil Society Dialogue between the EU and Turkey: Universities

  4. LONG-TERM INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I EXPRESSION IN SKELETAL MUSCLES ATTENUATES THE ENHANCED IN VITRO PROLIFERATION ABILITY OF THE RESIDENT SATELLITE CELLS IN TRANSGENIC MICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue...

  5. Neuronal Subtype and Satellite Cell Tropism Are Determinants of Varicella-Zoster Virus Virulence in Human Dorsal Root Ganglia Xenografts In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella during primary infection. VZV reactivation from neuronal latency may cause herpes zoster, post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and other neurologic syndromes. To investigate VZV neuropathogenesis, we developed a model using human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) xenografts in immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The SCID DRG model provides an opportunity to examine characteristics of VZV infection that occur in the context of the specialized architecture of DRG, in which nerve cell bodies are ensheathed by satellite glial cells (SGC) which support neuronal homeostasis. We hypothesized that VZV exhibits neuron-subtype specific tropism and that VZV tropism for SGC contributes to VZV-related ganglionopathy. Based on quantitative analyses of viral and cell protein expression in DRG tissue sections, we demonstrated that, whereas DRG neurons had an immature neuronal phenotype prior to implantation, subtype heterogeneity was observed within 20 weeks and SGC retained the capacity to maintain neuronal homeostasis longterm. Profiling VZV protein expression in DRG neurons showed that VZV enters peripherin+ nociceptive and RT97+ mechanoreceptive neurons by both axonal transport and contiguous spread from SGC, but replication in RT97+ neurons is blocked. Restriction occurs even when the SGC surrounding the neuronal cell body were infected and after entry and ORF61 expression, but before IE62 or IE63 protein expression. Notably, although contiguous VZV spread with loss of SGC support would be predicted to affect survival of both nociceptive and mechanoreceptive neurons, RT97+ neurons showed selective loss relative to peripherin+ neurons at later times in DRG infection. Profiling cell factors that were upregulated in VZV-infected DRG indicated that VZV infection induced marked pro-inflammatory responses, as well as proteins of the interferon pathway and neuroprotective responses. These neuropathologic changes observed in sensory ganglia infected with VZV may help to explain the neurologic sequelae often associated with zoster and PHN. PMID:26090802

  6. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  7. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickle cadmium spacecraft cells for the dynamic explorer satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation tests of 10 nickel cadmium cells are described. Although pressures were greater than what normally was exhibited by General Electric cells in the past, it is recommended that these cells be placed on life test simulating the predicted Dynamic Explorer flight profiles.

  8. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases are important in transmitting the diseases. The districts where malaria cases occur are the places where population moves are rapid, agriculture is the main occupation, the increase in the population is high and the education/cultural level is low. Within years, the districts with high malaria cases also differ. Before 1990 Cucurova and Amikova were the places that showed the highest incidence of malaria. Since 1990, the number of cases from south-eastern Anatolia has started to rise. The main reasons for this change are a comprehensive malaria prevention programme, regional development, developed agricultural systems, and lower population movements. The 1999 statistical data indicate that 83 and 17% of all malaria cases are observed in the GAP and other districts, respectively. The distribution of malaria cases in Turkey differs by months and climatic conditions. The incidence of malaria starts to rise in March, reaching its peak in July, August and September, begins to fall in October. In other words, the number of malaria cases is lowest in winter and reaches its peak in summer and autumn. This is not due to the parasite itself, but a climatic change is a main reason. In the past years the comprehensive malaria prevention programme has started bearing its fruits. Within the WHO Roll Back Malaria strategies, Turkey has started to implement its national malaria control projects, the meeting held on March 22, 2000, coordinated the country's international cooperation for this purpose. The meeting considered the aim of the project to be introduced into other organizations. In this regards, the target for 2002 is to halve the incidence of malaria as compared to 1999. The middle--and long-term incidence of malaria will be lowered to even smaller figures. The objectives of this project are as follows: to integrate malaria services with primary health care services to prove more effective studies; to develop early diagnosis and treatment systems, to provide better diagnostic services, and to develop mobile diagnostic ones; to make radical treatment and monitoring patie

  9. DIFFERENTIAL HETEROPHIL INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND FUNCTIONS IN WILD-TYPE AND COMMERCIAL TURKEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparison of cell signaling and functions in heterophils from a commercial line (A) to wild-type Rio Grande turkeys days 4 and 7 post-hatch was conducted. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK 1/2 and total protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activities were measured. After stimulation...

  10. Propagation and characterization of turkey reoviruses isolated in Germany, 2004-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2004 to 2008, suspected avian reoviruses were isolated from turkey flocks in ten counties in Germany. The age of birds at isolation ranged from 9 to 54 days. The suspected avian reoviruses elicited characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) in chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cell culture. In 2009, CEK ...

  11. Ground-based diffusion experiments on liquid Sn-In systems using the shear cell technique of the satellite mission Foton-M1.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Kraatz, Kurt-Helmut; Frohberg, Günter

    2004-11-01

    This study reported in this paper was aimed at testing the shear cell that was developed for the satellite mission Foton-M1 to measure diffusion coefficients in liquid metals under microgravity (microg)-conditions. Thick Layer diffusion experiments were performed in the system Sn90In10 versus Sn under 1 g-conditions. For this system several microg-diffusion results are available as reference data. This combination provides a low, but sufficiently stable, density layering throughout the entire experiment, which is important to avoid buoyancy-driven convection. The experimental results were corrected for the influences of the shear-induced convection and mixing after the final shearing, both of which are typical for the shear cell technique. As the result, the reproducibility and the reliability of the diffusion coefficients in the ground-based experiments were within the limits of error of microg-data. Based on our results we discuss the necessary conditions to avoid buoyancy-driven convection. PMID:15644355

  12. Cycle life evaluation of 3 Ah Li{subx}Mn{sub2}O{sub4}-based lithium-ion secondary cells for low-earth-orbit satellites. I. Full cell results.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Ogawa, K.; Kumeuchi, Y.; Enomoto, S.; Uno, M.; Saito, H.; Sone, Y.; Abraham, D.; Lindbergh, G.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Royal Inst. of Tech.; Advanced Engineering Services Co., Ltd.; NEC-Tokin Corp.; Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a candidate for the energy storage system onboard low-earth-orbit satellites. Cycle life performance under both orbital and terrestrial conditions must be investigated in order to evaluate any inadvertent effects due to the former and the validity of the latter, with a successful comparison allowing for the extension of terrestrial experimental matrices in order to identify the effects of ageing. The orbital performance of Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based pouch cells onboard the microsatellite REIMEI was monitored and compared with terrestrial experiments, with the cells found to be unaffected by orbital conditions. A lifetime matrix of different cycling depths-of-discharge (DODs: 0, 20, 40%) and temperatures (25, 45 C) was undertaken with periodic reference performance tests. A decrease in both the cell end-of-discharge cycling voltage and capacity was accelerated by both higher temperatures and larger DODs. Impedance spectra measured for all ageing conditions indicated that the increase was small, manifested in a state-of-charge dependent increase of the high-frequency semi-circle and a noticeable increase in the high-frequency real axis intercept. An evaluation of the change of both the resistance and capacity of 3 Ah cells led to the development of a potential prognostic state-of-health indicator. The use of elevated temperatures to accelerate cell ageing was validated.

  13. DIAGNOSING LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE VIRUS IN LIVE WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) USING WHOLE BLOOD.

    PubMed

    Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Jagne, Jarra; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a retrovirus that infects wild and domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ). The first cases of LPDV in the United States were diagnosed in 2009, and subsequent surveillance has revealed the virus to be widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern half of the country. More research is needed to determine whether LPDV is having a negative effect on turkey populations, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a simple method for diagnosing the virus in living birds. Infected animals may appear asymptomatic, and diagnostics currently rely on tissue or bone marrow, which can be difficult to obtain. This study investigated the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect LPDV in whole blood, compared with previous methods using buffy coat (concentrated white blood cells) and bone marrow. Paired samples of whole blood and buffy coat were collected from 137 live turkeys and paired samples of whole blood and bone marrow were collected from 32 turkeys postmortem. Compared with buffy coat, whole blood had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity. When compared with bone marrow, whole blood had 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Both comparisons had a high degree of agreement using Cohen's kappa statistic. Based on these results, PCR of whole blood provides detection of LPDV in living birds that is on par with both buffy coat and bone marrow. PMID:26667537

  14. Passive solar reflector satellite revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, C.; Daly, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Passive light weight reflectors in space which direct the incident solar energy to a specified location on the Earth surface are proposed as an alternative system for the solar power satellite to overcome conversion losses and to avoid the need for photovoltaic cells. On Earth, either photovoltaic cells or a steam turbine alternator on a solar tower, or a similar conventional, relatively high efficiency cycle are used for electricity generation. The constraints which apply to the design of the optical system if a single satellite is placed in geostationary orbit are outlined. A single lens and a two lens system are discussed.

  15. Jovian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Holland

    2002-07-01

    The icy Galilean satellites form an integral but poorly understood component of Jupiter's magnetospheric system. While the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft encounters yielded evidence for the existence of a source of oxygen ions beyond Io's orbit, conclusive evidence that Europa and Ganymede possess thin oxygen atmospheres was only recently provided by HST/GHRS detections of faint far-UV airglow emissions of OI. Moreover, the OI emission on Ganymede is localized to the region of the satellite's poles, consistent with an auroral excitation source that would be expected from the internal magnetic field of Ganymede. More recently, spectrally resolved images of Ganymede obtained with STIS have confirmed this result and demonstrated the variation in location and brightness of the OI emissions with the position of Ganymede relative to Jupiter's plasmasheet. The energy and source of the exciting electrons remain unknown and there is little or no relevant in situ Galileo data that bear directly on this question and thus the determination of the molecular abundance remains highly uncertain. However, the energy can be constrained by the observation of the forbidden OI red line at 6300 Ang, but this requires observation when the satellite is in Jupiter's shadow, to avoid the emissions being swamped by the strong solar reflected light. Europa similarly shows the UV OI emissions, and recent HST/STIS observations show a complex time-dependent variation in the spatial distribution of these emissions. Europa does not have an intrinsic magnetic field, but rather the Jovian field at Europa is modified by a magnetic field induced by Europa's rotation. We will investigate Kivelson's suggested European conducting ocean by timing observations to coincide with different orientations of the induced magnetic field.

  16. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  17. First micro-satellite and new enhanced small satellite series in DFH Satellite Co. Ltd.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Bin; Dai, Shoulun; Zhang, Weiwen; Hu, Gefeng; Lan, Ding

    2007-06-01

    As one important department of CAST (Chinese Academy of Space Technology), with responsibility for small and micro-satellite development, DFH Satellite Co. Ltd. (DFHSat) manufactured and launched six small satellites from 2000 to 2004. Nowadays, DFHSat is developing micro-satellite and new enhanced small satellite series. The first micro-satellite as a basic type is named HummerSat-1. HummerSat-1 is three-axis stabilized with orbit control capability. Information and power control are implemented through an on-board network, GaAs solar cell and Li-ion battery are adopted to obtain and storage power, S-band TT&C and data transmission works are used. The payload of HummerSat-1 has a weight of 60 kg and power consumption of 200 W. The enhanced small satellite series based on technology of HummerSat-1 is planned by DFHSat. It would be aiming to form a continuative product spectrum of 80-200 kg. The enhanced series is focused on satisfying different missions, including earth remote sensing, communication, science exploration, etc.

  18. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  19. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  20. Impacts of anthropogenic factors on land degradation during the anthropocene in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors that effected the beginning of the Anthropogenic Era (human age) in Turkey and formation of biomes. Destruction of vegetation, soil erosion and land degradation are the most important factors in the formation of anthropogenic biomes in Turkey. For this reason, first of all, a literature review about land degradation, which has been going on for past 300 years in Turkey, and about its causes was made. Changes that have occurred over the last 70 years were studied with the help of aerial photos and satellite images. In addition, studies we have conducted in the last 35 years have contributed substantially to the determination of the extent of the destruction of vegetation and land degradation in Turkey. As a result of research based on literature reviews and fieldwork, the impact of humans on the natural habitat were identified, and the current situation was studied. The findings about the current situation that emerged due to human impact were then transferred to an electronic environment, and a map of anthropogenic biomes was produced with the help of ArcGIS Desktop software. Based on the results obtained, one can say that the natural habitat has considerably changed over the last 200 years; vegetation has been damaged, and land degradation has become faster because of human activities. These results indicate that 97% of natural biomes have become anthropogenic biomes, and this change has become more obvious during 20h century in Turkey. The results also show that the change has been more influential after 1950. PMID:26591882

  1. Inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 is responsible for the native inward potassium conductance of satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Schmidt, T M; Perez-Leighton, C E; Kofuji, P

    2010-03-17

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) surround primary afferent neurons in sensory ganglia, and increasing evidence has implicated the K(+) channels of SGCs in affecting or regulating sensory ganglion excitability. The inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel Kir4.1 is highly expressed in several types of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) where it has been implicated in extracellular K(+) concentration buffering. Upon neuronal activity, the extracellular K(+) concentration increases, and if not corrected, causes neuronal depolarization and uncontrolled changes in neuronal excitability. Recently, it has been demonstrated that knockdown of Kir4.1 expression in trigeminal ganglia leads to neuronal hyperexcitability in this ganglia and heightened nociception. Thus, we investigated the contribution of Kir4.1 to the membrane K(+) conductance of SGCs in neonatal and adult mouse trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed in conjunction with immunocytochemistry and quantitative transcript analysis in various mouse lines. We found that in wild-type mice, the inward K(+) conductance of SGCs is blocked almost completely with extracellular barium, cesium and desipramine, consistent with a conductance mediated by Kir channels. We then utilized mouse lines in which genetic ablation led to partial or complete loss of Kir4.1 expression to assess the role of this channel subunit in SGCs. The inward K(+) currents of SGCs in Kir4.1+/- mice were decreased by about half while these currents were almost completely absent in Kir4.1-/- mice. These findings in combination with previous reports support the notion that Kir4.1 is the principal Kir channel type in SGCs. Therefore Kir4.1 emerges as a key regulator of SGC function and possibly neuronal excitability in sensory ganglia. PMID:20074622

  2. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  3. Feasibility and acceptability of a text messaging-based smoking cessation program in ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Holtrop, Jodi S; Ba?ci Bosi, A Tülay; Bilir, Nazmi; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Salih Emri, A K

    2013-08-01

    Data from high-income countries suggest that cell phone-based smoking cessation programs have the potential to affect cessation rates. There is a paucity of research, however, about the feasibility of cell phone-based smoking cessation programs in lower income countries that have higher smoking prevalence rates. A one-arm feasibility and acceptability pilot study of SMS Turkey, a text messaging-based smoking cessation program, was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The authors recruited 75 daily smokers who were seriously thinking about quitting in the subsequent 30 days into the 6-week SMS Turkey program. Recruitment was completed in 4 months. Participant retention was high: Almost all (96%) completed the program, and 84% provided 12-week follow-up data. Most (89%) of the respondents who completed the 4-week follow-up measures (n = 38, 51%) said that the text messages were easy to understand and referred to what they were experiencing and feeling during the quitting process (78%). On the basis of intention to treat, 13% of participants (n = 10) reported, at 12-week follow-up, continuous abstinence since their quit date, confirmed by carbon monoxide readings. The cell phone text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention appears feasible and acceptable in Ankara, Turkey. PMID:23627304

  4. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  5. Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

  6. Turkeys 

    E-print Network

    Sloan

    2009-01-01

    Enteritidis (22%), Newport (14%) and Typhimurium (13%) (CDC, 2011c). 2.1.2 Salmonellosis Salmonella infections can be the cause of several human clinical conditions (D’Aoust and Maurer, 2007), such as enteric (typhoid) fever, and milder and severe... cases of enterocolitis by non-typhoid Salmonella serovars. Non-typhoidal infections represent the most prevalent clinical cases of human salmonellosis, and are characterized by nausea, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, chills and diarrhea. Symptoms...

  7. Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2012-01-01

    Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of < 1 m satellite images have become available at no cost to the research community. In addition, Landsat data are now free of charge from the U.S. Geological Survey, enabling the use of multiple images. We used 174 Landsat and eight high-resolution satellite images to document the areal extent of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2007-2011. Multiple Landsat images, primarily Thematic Mapper (TM) data from 1984 to 2011, enabled us to minimize differentiation problems between snow and glacier ice, a potential source of error. In addition, we used Ikonos, Quickbird, and World View-1 & -2 very high-resolution imagery to evaluate our TM accuracies and determine the area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

  8. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  9. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  10. Turkey origin reovirus-induced immune dysfunction in specific-pathogen free and commercial turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, pathogenesis studies using genetically distinct turkey-origin reoviruses (TRVs) revealed that poults infected with certain TRV isolates had moderate to severe bursal atrophy, suggesting virus-induced immune dysfunction. In order to characterize the effect of TRV infection on the turkey imm...

  11. Satellites in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    1988-01-01

    Describes the methods and materials used to obtain satellite pictures from weather satellites. Discusses possible physics lessons which can be done using this equipment including orbital mechanics, and how the satellite works. (CW)

  12. Satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheney, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Since altimetry data are not really old enough to use the term data archaeology, Mr. Cheney referred to the stewardship of these data. He noted that it is very important to document the basis for an altimetry data set as the algorithms and corrections used to arrive at the Geophysical Data Record (GDR) have been improving and are continuing to improve the precision of sea level data derived from altimetry. He noted that the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data set has recently been reprocessed by his organization in the National Ocean Service of NOAA and made available to the scientific community on CD/ROM disks by the National Oceanographic Data Center of the U.S. (NODC). The new data set contains a satellite orbit more precise by an order of magnitude together with an improved water vapor correction. A new, comprehensive GDR Handbook has also been prepared.

  13. ASPEC: Solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

  14. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  15. Electric power for space satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The development of electric power systems for satellites is discussed as an evolutionary process requiring the integration of power generation, power storage, and power control and distribution. The growth of space electric power systems is traced. The capabilities and limitations of the various elements (i.e. silicon solar cells) are discussed together with their impact on future technological growth.

  16. RioGrande Wild Turkey Life History and Management Calendar 

    E-print Network

    Locke, Shawn; Cathey, James; Collier, Bret; Hardin, Jason

    2008-05-08

    This calendar is for landowners and managers who want to manage and improve their wild turkey habitat. The calendar is in easy-to-follow chart form and shows important annual events pertaining to wild turkey life history, habitat management...

  17. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...Review)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record...orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to continuation...respect to imports of certain pasta from...

  18. Estimating Rio Grande wild turkey densities in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Locke, Shawn Lee

    2009-06-02

    Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) are a highly mobile, wide ranging, and secretive species located throughout the arid regions of Texas. As a result of declines in turkey abundance within the Edwards Plateau and other areas...

  19. Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Chemical Engineering B.S., 2006 Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Chemical Engineering M.S., 2008

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    Education Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Chemical Engineering B.S., 2006 Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Chemical Engineering M.S., 2008 The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio Chemical and Reaction Engineering Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Bogazici University Publications

  20. SABANCI UNIVERSITY Orhanli-Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    SABANCI UNIVERSITY Orhanli-Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey Phone: +90 (216) 483-9500 Fax: +90 (216 of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey. htekiner@su.sabanciuniv.edu S Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey. sibirbil@sabanciuniv.edu Kerem B¨ulb¨ul Manufacturing

  1. THE KOCAELI, TURKEY EARTHQUAKE OF 17 AUGUST 1999

    E-print Network

    Bilham, Roger

    I THE KOCAELI, TURKEY EARTHQUAKE OF 17 AUGUST 1999 A FIELD REPORT BY EEFIT Dina D'Ayala (editor of useful Internet links IX 1. THE EARTHQUAKE AFFECTED REGION 1 Introduction 1 Seismic hazard of Turkey ASPECTS AND SEISMOLOGY 15 Basic seismological data 15 Tectonic setting of Turkey 15 Historic earthquakes

  2. August 2013 ICLP2013, Istanbul, Turkey Pascal Hitzler Recent Advances

    E-print Network

    Hitzler, Pascal

    August 2013 ­ ICLP2013, Istanbul, Turkey ­ Pascal Hitzler Recent Advances Concerning OWL and Rules;August 2013 ­ ICLP2013, Istanbul, Turkey ­ Pascal Hitzler 2 Textbook Pascal Hitzler, Markus Krötzsch://www.semantic-web-book.org #12;August 2013 ­ ICLP2013, Istanbul, Turkey ­ Pascal Hitzler 3 Textbook ­ Chinese translation Pascal

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL PAPER Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) using the string solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), six captive vultures were presented with a string it under foot, and reach down to pull up another length. As scavengers, turkey vultures use their beak

  4. 1 INTRODUCTION Precast construction was first introduced in Turkey

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., Billie F.

    1 INTRODUCTION Precast construction was first introduced in Turkey in the 1960s. Common structural systems used in Turkey today are based on systems developed in Western Europe to carry only gravity loads earthquakes in Turkey S.L. Wood & M. Posada University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA ABSTRACT: Precast frame

  5. A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-print Network

    A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA by Tara L. Wertz A thesis submitted Sciences (Wildlife Option) South Dakota State University 1986 #12;A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY. of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences 11 Date Date #12;A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA

  6. Seismic stratigraphy of Lake Van, eastern Turkey Deniz Cukur a, *

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Seismic stratigraphy of Lake Van, eastern Turkey Deniz Cukur a, * , Sebastian Krastel b , Hans, EMCOL and Department of Geological Engineering, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey d Van Yüzüncü Yil University, Department of Geological Engineering, Van, Turkey e Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic

  7. ROOSTING HABITAT AND POULT SURVIVAL OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE

    E-print Network

    ROOSTING HABITAT AND POULT SURVIVAL OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH AND POULT SURVIVAL OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA This thesis is approved the National Wild Turkey Federation and Bob Hodorff for helping with trapping and fieldwork (many early

  8. Educators Trip to Turkey June 10-21, 2014

    E-print Network

    Bermúdez, José Luis

    Educators Trip to Turkey June 10-21, 2014 Sponsored by Public Partnership & Outreach, Texas A&M University and Raindrop Foundation, Houston & Bryan/College Station Cost of the Turkey Educators Trip Airline Foundation Houston Note: Educators Trip to Turkey (see address below) Mr. Mehmet Okumus, President

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance roads. Our objective was to determine if and when Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo intermedia . Rio Grande wild turkey. Roads . Texas Communicated by H. Kierdorf D. R. Erxleben :M

  10. Research Article Rio Grande Wild Turkey Habitat Selection in the

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    Research Article Rio Grande Wild Turkey Habitat Selection in the Southern Great Plains GALON I, USA ABSTRACT We recorded telemetry locations from 1,129 radiotagged turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo have the highest impact on nesting in riparian zones due to turkey use of grass as nesting cover

  11. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  12. Turkey liver - a chromium enriched food source

    SciTech Connect

    Polansky, M.M.; Bryden, N.A.; Richards, M.; Anderson, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    There are presently no known foods for humans that are particularly good sources of chromium. As a means of obtaining Cr enriched foods, turkeys were fed diets containing various levels of supplemental chromium. Four groups of 6-month old turkey hens were fed either the basal diet for laying hens or this diet supplemented with 25, 100 or 200 ..mu..g of chromium as chromium chloride per g of diet. Liver Cr concentration of the turkeys sacrificed after 1 week increased from 7 ng/g (wet wt) while consuming the basal diet to 15, 48 and 68 ng/g, respectively, while consuming the diets with supplemental chromium. Comparable values for the turkeys sacrificed after 5 weeks were 2, 43, 170 and 325 ng/g. Similar trends but higher chromium values were observed for kidney samples. The chromium contents of the dark and white meat and eggs were not altered significantly. Chromium concentrations of the pancreas, gizzard and heart increased marginally; final chromium concentrations were less than 23 ng/g even after 5 weeks on the highest level of supplemental chromium. Chromium content of spleen and lungs was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the pancreas, gizzard or heart. Therefore, turkey liver is a food source suitable for Cr enrichment while the eggs, dark and white meat and other edible parts do not appear to be enriched following chromium supplementation.

  13. Bordetella avium Causes Induction of Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Turkey Tracheal Explant Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, David M.; Ruff, Kristin; Beach, Nathan M.; Dorsey-Oresto, Angella; Masters, Isaac; Temple, Louise M.

    2011-01-01

    Bordetellosis is an upper respiratory disease of turkeys caused by Bordetella avium in which the bacteria attach specifically to ciliated respiratory epithelial cells. Little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this disease, which has a negative impact in the commercial turkey industry. In this study, we produced a novel explant organ culture system that was able to successfully reproduce pathogenesis of B. avium in vitro, using tracheal tissue derived from 26 day-old turkey embryos. Treatment of the explants with whole cells of B. avium virulent strain 197n and culture supernatant, but not lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), specifically induced apoptosis in ciliated cells, as shown by annexin V and TUNEL staining. LPS and TCT are known virulence factors of B. pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Treatment with whole cells of B. avium and LPS specifically induced NO response in ciliated cells, shown by uNOS staining and diaphorase activity. The explant system is being used as a model to elucidate specific molecules responsible for the symptoms of bordetellosis. PMID:21609777

  14. Navy satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clair, William C.

    1992-03-01

    The history, current status, and future plans of Navy satellite communications are reviewed. Particular attention is given to Fleet Satellites; the Defense Satellite Communications System; the International Maritime Satellite; Core Command and Control (Core C2), General Purpose Communications, and Navy EHF SATCOM program; and the Copernicus architecture.

  15. Medical education in Turkey: past to future.

    PubMed

    Kurdak, Hatice; Altintas, Derya; Doran, Figen

    2008-01-01

    Although medical education in the Republic of Turkey appears to be relatively new, there is almost 500 years of background development within the Anatolian region. Turkey has faced many difficulties in its past and present times, related to its vast and diverse geography, its crowded population, and the many ethnic groups that constitute its population. As in many other countries throughout the world, medical education in Turkey has recently been debated, reviewed and renewed. This article gives a general overview of the history of medical education and the present situation in Turkish medical schools; the quality and professionalism of medical education within the medical system, from the perspectives of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education; and an overview of the challenges and opportunities that presently exist. PMID:18946820

  16. Feasibility of microminiature satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Ryouichi

    1991-07-01

    A conceptual study is conducted on technical problems and system design techniques to accomplish higher performance microminiature satellites by smaller systems. Applications of microminiature satellite technology to practical satellite mission are mentioned. Concepts of microminiature satellites, measures to miniaturize satellites, and micro-miniaturization technologies for communication and data processing, electric solar power paddle, attitude and orbit control, structure, thermal control, propulsion, and instrumentation systems are outlined. Examples of miniaturizing satellite missions such as planet exploration, low-altitude communication networks, space positioning system, low-altitude earth observation mission, clustered satellites, tethered satellites, and timely observation are described. Satellite miniaturizing technology can also be used to launch systems by lasers, and superconductive linear catapults (space escalator). It is pointed out that keys to promote satellite miniaturization are electronics, precision machining, raw material, electric power source technologies, and system design technology to integrate those technologies.

  17. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to include iodine compatible control valves with internal heaters and temperature sensors to coincide with the iodine-compatible thruster. A key advantage to using iodine as a propellant is that it may be stored in the tank as an unpressurized solid on the ground and before flight operations. During operations, the tank is heated to vaporize the propellant. Iodine vapor is then routed through custom flow control valves to control mass flow to the thruster and cathode assembly. The thruster then ionizes the vapor and accelerates it via magnetic and electrostatic fields, resulting in high specific impulse, characteristic of a highly efficient propulsion system. The iSat spacecraft is a 12-unit (12U) CubeSat with dimensions of about 8 inches x 8 inches x 12 inches (20 centimeters x 20 centimeters x 30 centimeters). The spacecraft frame will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSat spacecraft includes full three-axis control and will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system. After the CubeSat has successfully detached from its launch vehicle, it will deploy its solar panels, correct for tip-off and maintain attitude control before ground contact. An initial check-out period of two weeks is planned for testing all subsystems. The spacecraft will charge the power system while in sunlight, using momentum wheels and magnetic torque rods to rotate the vehicle to the required attitude.

  18. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  19. P2Y2 receptor antagonists as anti-allodynic agents in acute and sub-chronic trigeminal sensitization: role of satellite glial cells.

    PubMed

    Magni, Giulia; Merli, Davide; Verderio, Claudia; Abbracchio, Maria P; Ceruti, Stefania

    2015-07-01

    Trigeminal (TG) pain often lacks a satisfactory pharmacological control. A better understanding of the molecular cross-talk between TG neurons and surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) could help identifying innovative targets for the development of more effective analgesics. We have previously demonstrated that neuronal pro-algogenic mediators upregulate G protein-coupled nucleotide P2Y receptors (P2YRs) expressed by TG SGCs in vitro. Here, we have identified the specific P2YR subtypes involved (i.e., the ADP-sensitive P2Y1 R and the UTP-responsive P2Y2 R subtypes), and demonstrated the contribution of neuron-derived prostaglandins to their upregulation. Next, we have translated these data to an in vivo model of TG pain (namely, rats injected with Complete Freund's adjuvant in the temporomandibular joint), by demonstrating activation of SGCs and upregulation of P2Y1 R and P2Y2 R in the ipsi-lateral TG. To unequivocally link P2YRs to the development of facial allodynia, we treated animals with various purinergic antagonists. The selective P2Y2 R antagonist AR-C118925 completely inhibited SGCs activation, exerted a potent anti-allodynic effect that lasted over time, and was still effective when administration was started 6-days post induction of allodynia, i.e. under subchronic pain conditions. Conversely, the selective P2Y1 R antagonist MRS2179 was completely ineffective. Moreover, similarly to the anti-inflammatory drug acetylsalicylic acid and the known anti-migraine agent sumatriptan, the P2X/P2Y nonselective antagonist PPADS was only partially effective, and completely lost its activity under sub-chronic conditions. Taken together, our results highlight glial P2Y2 Rs as potential "druggable" targets for the successful management of TG-related pain. PMID:25779655

  20. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  1. Effects of high-orbit spaceflight on signaling cascades and apoptosis in immune cells from mice flied on board the BION-M1 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselova, Elena; Shenkman, Boris; Lunin, Sergey; Parfenyuk, Svetlana; Novoselova, Tatyana; Fesenko, Eugeny

    The study was designed to evaluate immune cell activity in male C57bl mice after a 30-day high-orbit spaceflight (550 km, higher than conventional manned spaceflights) on board the BION-M1 satellite (Roskosmos Program, Russia). For the present study, thymus, spleens and plasma samples were collected from mice 12 h after landing and, additionally, 7 days subsequently. Assessing the activity of NF-kappaB signaling cascade by measuring Rel A (p65) protein phosphorylation in splenic lymphocytes, we showed that the NF-kappaB activity was significantly increased at 12 h after landing. Contrariwise, one week after landing, the NF-kappaB activity was markedly decreased, even below to the control values. Interestingly, after landing there were no significant changes in SAPK/JNK cascade activity in splenic lymphocytes as well as in the expression of transcription factor IRF3 in thymus cells. To assess the apoptosis status in thymus lymphocytes, levels of p53 protein and its phosphorylated form were measured in thymic lymphocytes. It is known that p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage, genomic aberrations, and other characteristic of apoptosis. The results showed that the high-orbit spaceflight environment caused some increase in level of p53 protein, but most notably, activated phosphorylated form of p53 protein. Calculated ratio of active and inactive forms of the protein (ph-p53/p53) 12 h after landing increased by more than 2-fold, indicating the apparent induction of apoptosis in thymus cells. Interestingly, 7 days after the landing, this ratio was not restored, but rather increased: the specified ratio was 4 times higher as compared to the ground-based control. We can conclude that response to the prolonged high-orbit spaceflight is not like the classic "stress response", which is usually observed under various stressful factors. It is known that the stress response is surely accompanied by increased SAPK/JNK cascade activity as well as the expression of the IRF3; in fact, we did not observed any changes in the SAPK/JNK phosphorylation or in the IRF3 production. Furthermore, stressful factors usually result in the fast, but reversible, thymus involution. But our measurements showed that the thymus depletion at 7th day after landing was expressed even more than 12 h after the spaceflight. This is consistent with the results of the level of apoptosis in thymus cells; indeed, the apoptosis in thymus lymphocytes 7 days after was higher than 12 h after landing. Collectively, these results indicate that the changes of immune cell homeostasis may be a result of exposure to damaging factors of not very high intensity. In any case, similar effects are caused, to our knowledge, by low doses of ionizing radiation. As spaceflight is not accompanied only with the gravitational changes, but also with other factors, such as radiation, it is possible that immune disbalance after spaceflight was caused by a combined action of several factors. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 12-04-00113-a.The authors express their gratitude to unified team involved in preparation and implementation of the spaceflight of BION-M #1.

  2. Solar power satellite, system definition study. Part 2, volume 3: SPS satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The differences in approach to solar energy conversion by solar cells and thermal engine systems are examined. Systems requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS) are given along with a description of the primary subsystems. Trades leading to exact configuration selection, for example, selection of the Rankine cycle operating temperatures are explained, and two satellite configurations are discussed.

  3. Characterization of turkey pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Sayari, A; Mejdoub, H; Gargouri, Y

    2000-02-01

    Turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL) was purified from delipidated pancreases. Pure TPL (glycerol ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) was obtained after ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose) and size exclusion column using high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC). The pure lipase, which is not a glycoprotein, was presented as a monomer having a molecular mass of about 45 kDa. The lipase activity was maximal at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. TPL hydrolyses the long chains triacylglycerols more efficiently than the short ones. A specific activity of 4300 U/mg was measured on triolein as substrate at 37 degrees C and at pH 8.5 in the presence of colipase and 4 mM NaTDC. This enzyme presents the interfacial activation when using tripropionin as substrate. TPL was inactivated when the enzyme was incubated at 65 degrees C or at pH less than 5. Natural detergent (NaTDC), synthetic detergent (Tween-20) or amphipatic protein (beta-lactoglobulin A) act as potent inhibitors of TPL activity. To restore the lipase activity inhibited by NaTDC, colipase should be added to the hydrolysis system. When lipase is inhibited by synthetic detergent or protein, simultaneous addition of colipase and NaTDC was required to restore the TPL activity. The first 22 N-terminal amino acid residues were sequenced. This sequence was similar to those of mammal's pancreatic lipases. The biochemical properties of pancreatic lipase isolated from bird are similar to those of mammals. PMID:10727771

  4. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  5. Effect of dexamethasone on bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2015-08-15

    Stress has been shown to affect the immune system of turkeys making them more susceptible to bacterial infections. Five-week-old male and female turkeys were treated with 3 intra-muscular injections of dexamethasone (Dex) at 0, 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg body weight. Twenty-four hours after the third injection birds were bled and white blood cell (WBC) differentials and bacteriostatic activity of monocytes were measured. Dex at both 0.5 and 2.0mg/kg decreased phagocytic activity in females only. Bacteriostatic activity was decreased at both concentrations of Dex at 8 and 16 h post-infection in both sexes and was lower in males as compared to females. Total WBC counts were increased in females at both concentrations of Dex whereas male total WBC counts were unaffected. Both males and females had an increase in the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Within the same study, replicate pens of turkeys were challenged with intra-air sac inoculation of 100 cfu of Escherichia coli. Isolation of E. coli was significantly increased by both Dex and E. coli challenge, but there were no differences between sexes. These results suggest that stress can compromise the bacteriostatic activity of turkey monocytes and increase bacterial colonization of blood and tissues, potentially affecting food safety. PMID:26099808

  6. Survival of turkey arthritis reovirus in poultry litter and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mor, Sunil K; Verma, Harsha; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Ziegler, Andre F; Noll, Sally L; Goyal, Sagar M

    2015-04-01

    Turkey reoviruses (TRVs) can cause arthritis, tenosynovitis, and enteric diseases in turkeys, leading to huge economic losses. The TRVs are tentatively divided into turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) and turkey enteric reoviruses (TERVs) depending on the type of disease they produce. This study was conducted to determine the survival of these viruses in autoclaved and nonautoclaved poultry litter and drinking water at room temperature (approx. 25°C). Three isolates of TARV (TARV-O'Neil, TARV-MN2, and TARV-MN4) and one each of TERV (TERV-MN1) and chicken arthritis reovirus (CARV) were used in this study. The viruses were propagated and titrated on QT-35 cells. In autoclaved dechlorinated tap water, all 5 viruses were able to survive for 9 to 13?wk. In nonautoclaved water, all 5 viruses survived for at least 2?wk. In autoclaved litter, the viruses survived for 6 to 8?wk, and in nonautoclaved litter, they survived for 6 to 8?d only. The implications of these results are discussed below. PMID:25743416

  7. Volcanic and earthquake hazards at eastern Turkey volcanoes investigated by InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathke, H.; Walter, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoes of eastern Turkey have been historically active and are located in a poorly understood tectonic system with abundant faults and fissures. Mt Ararat and Tendürek, for instance, are located in a pull apart basin, and have been affected by significant tectonic earthquakes reaching magnitudes of 7.4 in 1840 and again in 1976, causing 10,000 and 5,000 fatalities, respectively. Today's tectonic and volcanic deformation processed remained to be elaborated, however. Here we report on a radar interferometric study using SAR images acquired by the satellites ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT in ascending and descending orbits. We create interferograms and combine them into a time series, which now allow us to investigate temporal deformation pattern of the ground at unprecedented spatial detail. Although the volcanoes have not been erupting since 160 years and are considered to be dormant, we find various localized but evident deformation processes. Our investigation suggest both processes, earthquakes as well as volcanic activity, to be responsible for the observed deformation. Thus the presented satellite radar data analysis contributes to process understanding and the associated hazards in eastern Turkey.

  8. No.2014No.2014No.2014No.2014----1111 Labor Productivity: Large vsLabor Productivity: Large vsLabor Productivity: Large vsLabor Productivity: Large vs.... Small, Turkey vs. EUSmall, Turkey vs. EUSmall, Turkey vs. EUSmall, Turkey vs. EU

    E-print Network

    �etin, Müjdat

    Labor Productivity: Large vsLabor Productivity: Large vs.... Small, Turkey vs. EUSmall, Turkey vs. EUSmall, Turkey vs. EUSmall, Turkey vs. EU Ahmed Ezz Eldin MohamedAhmed Ezz Eldin MohamedAhmed Ezz Eldin MohamedAhmed Ezz the labor productivity gap between firms in Turkey and the European Union (EU) by comparing labor

  9. Platelet satellitism in infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Laskaj, Renata; Sikiric, Dubravka; Skerk, Visnja

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet satellitism is a phenomenon of unknown etiology of aggregating platelets around polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other blood cells which causes pseudothrombocytopenia, visible by microscopic examination of blood smears. It has been observed so far in about a hundred cases in the world. Case subject and methods Our case involves a 73-year-old female patient with a urinary infection. Biochemical serum analysis (CRP, glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, bilirubin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine) and blood cell count were performed with standard methods on autoanalyzers. Serum protein fractions were examined by electrophoresis and urinalysis with standard methods on autoanalyzer together with microscopic examination of urine sediment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood culture and urine culture tests were performed with standard methods. Results Due to typical pathological values for bacterial urinary infection, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Blood smear examination revealed phenomenon, which has persisted for three weeks after the disease has been cured. Blood smears with EDTA as an anticoagulant had platelet satellitism whereas the phenomenon was not observed in tubes with different anticoagulants (Na, Li-heparin) and capillary blood. Discussion We hypothesize that satellitism was induced by some immunological mechanism through formation of antibodies which have mediated platelets binding to neutrophil membranes and vice versa. Unfortunately we were unable to determine the putative trigger for this phenomenon. To our knowledge this is the second case of platelet satellitism ever described in Croatia. PMID:26110042

  10. Early Childhood Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…

  11. DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT PORSUK/ULUKISLA, TURKEY

    E-print Network

    Manning, Sturt

    DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT PORSUK/ULUKISLA, TURKEY PRELIMINARY REPORT, 1987-1989 PAR August 1987; 15 August 1983; and 22 August 1989 the Aegean Dendrochronology Project visited the Bronze, at the kind invitation of its excavator, Prof. Olivier Pelon, to take samples for dendrochronological analysis

  12. Cultural Studies in Turkey: Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pultar, Gonul; Kirtunc, Ayse Lahur

    2004-01-01

    In this essay, the authors aim at contributing to the debate on "International Perspectives on Cultural Studies in/and Education" by presenting a perspective from Turkey, and problematizing the issues that are encountered in the country in the instruction and practice of cultural studies. They start with a brief survey of the Ege University…

  13. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  14. MAXIMIZING THE FERTILITY POTENTIAL OF TURKEY SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkeys are the only commercial poultry species completely dependent upon artificial insemination for fertile egg production. Although time and labor-intensive, artificial insemination has proven to be a key strategy for achieving rapid genetic improvements in economically important traits such as g...

  15. Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults H. L. ShivaprasadA, M. S. FrancaA, P. R. WoolcockA, R. NordhausenB, M. DayC and M. Pantin-JackwoodC California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, AFresno and BDavis Branches, University of California, Davis, 2789 South Orange Av...

  16. PREVALENCE OF ARCOBACTER IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Arcobacter in live turkeys was determined for six Midwestern commercial flocks. In the first study (summer 2003), cloacal (n = 298) and feather swabs (n = 75), cecal (n = 70), and crop (n = 50) contents, drinker water (n = 46), and environmental (n = 25) samples were monitored. I...

  17. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  18. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  19. Fundamentalist Bedfellows: Political Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    Defines Islamic creationism and anti-evolutionism in Turkey, provides information about political and cultural changes starting from the 1920s, and discusses Islamic movements at this time. Presents examples of politicians' approaches to this issue and points out the effects of Christian creationism and the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) on…

  20. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  1. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  2. China's satellite communications discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  3. Toward a phenology network in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

  4. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  5. Satellite nanoscope and cellular BioASICs for quantitative biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Luke P

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents satellite nanoscopes and biological application specific integrated circuits (BioASICs). Satellite nanoscope is developed for spectroscopic imaging of living cells, molecular optogenetics (i.e. the remote control of gene regulation and protein expression), and therapeutic applications. Fundamental understanding of living cells via satellite nanoscopes will provide insights of molecular dynamics and signaling pathways in living cells. BioASICs are accomplished to permit precise and repeatable characterizations of cellular activity. These BioASICs are facilitating significant advancements in quantitative cell biology and the foundation for precision biology, cell reprogramming, highspeed biologic microprocessors, drug screening, molecular diagnostics, and personalized medicine. PMID:19963844

  6. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from outside the space arena in which organizations have pursued technological capability. Scholars have analyzed these examples and developed insightful frameworks. The paper draws key concepts from this literature about the nature of development, technology, knowledge and organizational learning. These concepts are relevant to learning in new satellite programs, but the ideas must be applied cautiously because of the nature of satellite technology. The paper draws three major lessons from the international development literature regarding absorptive capacity, tacit knowledge and organizational learning; it synthesizes these lessons into a cohesive, original framework. The closing section proposes future work on a detailed study of technological learning in specific government satellite programs.

  7. The influence of phytoncides on the immune system of broiler chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    ?mia?ek, Marcin; Tyka?owski, Bart?omiej; Pestka, Daria; Stenzel, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of adiSalmoSOL PF dietary supplement, given for 3 days in drinking water, on selected parameters of cell-mediated (Experiment I) and humoral (Experiment II) immunity in chicken and turkey broilers. In Experiment I, birds were randomly divided into two groups of 10 birds each. Group 1 comprised control turkeys or chickens, whereas group 2 birds were administered adiSalmoSOLPF. In Experiment II, a total of 69 chickens were divided into three groups (1-3) of 23 birds each. At the age of 25 days, group 1 was given adiSalmoSOLPF. Birds from groups 1-3 were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Group 2 was given adiSalmoSOLPF after vaccination. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and spleen, CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and ileal mucosa and IgM + B lymphocyte in the ileal mucosa were observed in group 2 chickens. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils and blood, and CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and ileal mucosa was recorded in group 2 turkeys. No differences in percentages of IgM + B lymphocytes were observed between turkey groups. In Experiment II, the highest post-vaccination titers of anti-IB antibodies were observed in group 2, but it was not statistically significant. The results of our study indicate that adiSalmoSOLPF showed immunomodulatory activity in chickens and turkeys. PMID:26648771

  8. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites. PMID:21994595

  9. Upper Turkey Creek, Merriam, Kansas Feasibility Report Flood Risk Management Project Report Summary

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Upper Turkey Creek, Merriam, Kansas Feasibility Report Flood Risk Management Project Report Summary 1 REPORT SUMMARY UPPER TURKEY CREEK BASIN PROJECT FEASIBILITY REPORT AND INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL Study Authority. The Upper Turkey Creek Basin Project, Flood Risk Management Feasibility Study (the

  10. Research Article Male Rio Grande Turkey Survival and Movements in the

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    Research Article Male Rio Grande Turkey Survival and Movements in the Texas Panhandle, USA Abstract Wildlife managers depend on accurate information regarding wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survival patterns to properly manage turkey populations. Survival patterns of male Rio Grande

  11. 76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...Administration [A-489-807] Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice...antidumping duty order on certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey;...

  12. 78 FR 73838 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...Administration [C-489-819] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Postponement...countervailing duty investigation on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Turkey.\\1\\ The...1\\ See Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from Turkey:...

  13. 78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of January...

  14. 75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the January 1, 2008, through December...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

  15. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

  16. 78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ...Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...Shane Subler at (202) 482-0189 (Turkey), AD/CVD Operations, Import Administration...oil country tubular goods from India and Turkey.\\1\\ Currently, the preliminary...

  17. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

  18. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

  19. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

  20. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

  1. 75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ...Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments...Salmonella and Campylobacter for use in young chicken and turkey slaughter establishments...Baseline Data Collection Programs: The Young Chicken Survey and the Young Turkey...

  2. 76 FR 15282 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments...Campylobacter for chilled carcasses in young chicken (broiler) and turkey slaughter...Campylobacter performance standards for young chickens and turkeys will take effect...

  3. Cycle life evaluation of 3Ah Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based lithium-ion secondary cells for low-earth-orbit satellites. II. Harvested electrode examination.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Ogawa, K.; Kumeuchi, Y.; Enomoto, S.; Uno, M.; Saito, H.; Sone, Y.; Abraham, D.; Lindbergh, G.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Royal Inst. of Tech.; Advanced Engineering Services Co.; NEC-Tokin Corp.; Inst .of Space and Astronautical Science

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a candidate for the energy storage system onboard low-earth-orbit satellites. Terrestrial experiments are able to capture the performance degradation of cells in orbit, therefore providing the opportunity for lifetime investigations. The lifetime performance of 3 Ah commercial Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based pouch cells was evaluated in a matrix of different cycling depths-of-discharge (DODs: 0, 20, 40%) and temperatures (25, 45 C). Aged cells were disassembled and the electrochemical performance of harvested electrodes investigated with two- and three-electrode pouch cells. The positive electrode had a larger decrease in capacity than the negative electrode. Both the positive and negative electrode contributed to the increase of cell impedance measured at high states-of-charge (SOCs). The data at low SOCs indicated that the increase of cell impedance was associated with the positive electrode, which showed a significant increase in the magnitude of the high-frequency semi-circle. This SOC-dependence was observed for cells cycled for either extended periods of time or at higher temperatures with a 40% DOD swing. Low-current cycling of positive electrodes revealed a change in the second potential plateau, possibly reflecting a structural change of the Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This could impact on the electrode kinetics and provide a possible explanation for the SOC-dependent change of the impedance.

  4. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  5. Observations of the second Chinese satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, G. E.

    1987-11-01

    Softwave transmissions on two frequencies were received following the launch of the second Chinese satellite. The 20.009 MHz transmission was powered by chemical batteries mounted on the final stage of the launch vehicle and ceased within one month of the launch. The 19.995 MHz transmission was powered by solar cells mounted on the satellie and continued until the satellite decayed after more than eight years in orbit. Analysis of this transmission reveals that active thermal control was employed.

  6. Survey: National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The national Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) receives data at periodic intervals from satellites of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series and from the Improved TIROS (Television Infrared Observational Satellite) Operational Satellite. Within the conterminous United States, direct readout and processed products are distributed to users over facsimile networks from a central processing and data distribution facility. In addition, the NESS Satellite Field Stations analyze, interpret, and distribute processed geostationary satellite products to regional weather service activities.

  7. The Plant Cell, Vol. 7, 1625-1634, October 1995 Q 1995 American Society of Plant Physiologists Symptom Attenuation by a Normally Virulent Satellite RNA

    E-print Network

    Simon, Anne

    Symptom Attenuation by a Normally Virulent Satellite RNA of Turnip Crinkle Virus 1s Associated by their helper virus. Sat-RNA C, as- sociated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), was previously found to intensify), including those as- sociatedwith turnip crinkle virus (TCV)and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), do not encode

  8. The Plant Cell, Vol. 9, 2051-2063, November 1997 O 1997American Society of Plant Physiologists Satellite RNA-Mediated Resistanceto Turnip CrinkleVirus in

    E-print Network

    Simon, Anne

    Satellite RNA-Mediated Resistanceto Turnip CrinkleVirus in Arabidopsis lnvolvesa ReductioninVirus Movement previously showedthat a sat-RNA (sat-RNAC) of turnip crinklevirus (TCV),which normally intensifiessymptoms (Harrison et al., 1987), indicat- ing the possible involvement of more than one mechanism. Turnip crinkle

  9. Research on embryos in Turkey with ethical and legal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vatano?lu-Lutz, Emine Elif

    2012-01-01

    Technically, the term embryo refers to the products of conception after implantation into the wall of the womb, usually nearly two weeks after fertilization, up until the eighth week. Embryos contain stem cells which, according to scientists, could be used to cure a wide range of conditions. Stem cells can be coaxed into growing cells of any other type, which makes them potentially very useful indeed. However, removing stem cells from an embryo will kill the embryo, which some people object to. From the mid 1970s, IVF was being developed and research was carried out on the spare embryos produced. This research helped to improve IVF techniques, as well as to better understand the earliest stages of human development. Research also shed light on a variety of inheritable disorders. In Turkish Law, assisted reproduction treatment (ART) services are regulated with the Regulation of Assisted Reproductive Treatment Centers Act (RAPTCA) The Regulation was issued in 1987, but it has been amended several times since. Also, article 90 of the Turkish Penal Code covers some aspects of research on embryos. At the same time, the Biomedicine Convention (Oviedo Convention), signed by Turkey and which entered into force in 2003, has binding regulations about this issue. Different legal regulations and some ethical guidelines are in conflict with each other, creating much confusion for the researchers. In this paper these conflicts are discussed, giving some practical proposals. PMID:24592037

  10. Dimensioning of Aeronautical Satellite Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbock, M.; Jahn, A.; Werner, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will provide a generalised baseline for a systematic AirCom design process and address in particular the dimensioning of satellite systems for aeronautical services. These services will roll out soon in medium- and long-haul aircraft. The offered services will range from low rate telephony, internet access, and streaming applications for video and audio. The aggregate bit rates on up- and downlink will certainly be statistically time-dependent and asymmetric in forward and backward direction. A tool will be described that is able to model this traffic. Furthermore the dimensioning of satellite constellations can be done. Due to the stochastic nature of the traffic, multi-service models for the traffic generation of different services will be described. Furthermore, the traffic will be affected by the available bit rate and shaping or blocking will equalize the peak loads. If fleets with many aircraft are considered, aeronautical traffic models must be based on actual aircraft routes, flight schedules, location and time of day, as well as seats per aircraft and type of aircraft (charter, business etc.). The regionally distributed traffic has to be served by several satellites and appropriate sharing of the serving satellites may spread the traffic in hot zones and yield a better load distribution. When aeronautical services will spread out, the capacity demand will grow quickly and the capacity of existing Ku-band GEO satellites will soon be exceeded. Changing to higher frequency bands will provide large spectrum portions and smaller spotbeams will allow better frequency reuse. Even constellations with non-geostationary satellites could be re-advent to serve better the higher latitude regions. Then, another mobility component for the fast changing satellite topology need to be addressed, and routing issues of the traffic must be considered. The paper will describe solutions for the mapping of satellites and traffic demand as well as routing algorithms. Numerical values will show the capabilities of the developed tool by calculating the performance of some selected scenarios. The paper will also address wireless cabin services (cell phones and W-LAN access for laptops) of the WirelessCabin project.

  11. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, A. H.

    The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

  12. Sedimentary evolution and environmental history of Lake Van (Turkey) over the past 600 000 years

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Sedimentary evolution and environmental history of Lake Van (Turkey) over the past 600 000 years Associate Editor ­ Daniel Ariztegui ABSTRACT The lithostratigraphic framework of Lake Van, eastern Turkey

  13. Swedish small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj; Von Schéele, Fredrik

    In 1986 the first Swedish small satellite VIKING was launched on the Ariane I rocket together with the French remote sensing satellite SPOT. This paper describes the development of the Swedish Small Satellite Program. The satellites have delivered excellent scientific data at a low cost by using streamlined project organisations, competitive procurement programs and piggy-back launch opportunities. The first micro satellite Astrid-1 was launched in January 1995 and will be followed by the launch of Astrid-2 in December 1998. The capable Odin small satellite will be launched in September 1999. SSC has completed a design study for ESA's SMART-1 probe destined to the Moon — and possibly beyond. SMART-1, planned for launch in 2001, will be used for both research and as a technology demonstrator for future projects. Future projects include micro and small satellites for ESA as Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions and for the Swedish National Space Board as galactic sky surveyors and atmospheric ozone deplition observers.

  14. Satellite altitude determination uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Satellite altitude determination uncertainties are discussed from the standpoint of the GEOS-C satellite. GEOS-C will be tracked by a number of the conventional satellite tracking systems, as well as by two advanced systems; a satellite-to-satellite tracking system and lasers capable of decimeter accuracies which are being developed in connection with the Goddard Earth and Ocean Dynamics Applications program. The discussion is organized in terms of a specific type of GEOS-C orbit which would satisfy a number of scientific objectives including the study of the gravitational field by means of both the altimeter and the satellite-to-satellite tracking system, studies of tides, and the Gulf Stream meanders.

  15. Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

  16. All-time Favorites: Chicken Turkey

    E-print Network

    Miller, Marshall; Reasonover, Frances

    1967-01-01

    CHICKEN Metal Wing Clips All classes of chickens and turkeys may be uti- lized for roasting and stewing. However, difference in required cooking time may be considerable. Generally, the older or heavier the bird, the longer the cooking time required..." F. 10 to 15 minutes or until breasts are golden brown. SPP. es 6. MARINATED CHICKEN WINGS 2 pounds chicken wings 1 teaspoon meat sauce 11, cup melted butter or -. 1 teaspoon grated onion rnorgarine :. 1 haspoon salt I/, cup lemon /vice 2...

  17. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Erysipelas in turkeys, sheep and pigs.

    PubMed

    2015-03-21

    Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs. Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms. Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit. First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years. Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014. PMID:25792678

  20. Hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Sule; Erdem, Yunus; Batuman, Vecihi; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, both hypertension and chronic kidney disease are major public health problems, due to their epidemic proportions and their association with high cardiovascular mortality. In 2003, the first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (the PatenT) study was conducted in a nationally representative population (n=4910) by the Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases, and showed that overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in Turkey was 31.8%. The PatenT study also reported that overall awareness (40.7%), treatment (31.1%), and control rates (8.1%) of hypertension were strikingly low. Only 20.7% of the patients who were aware of their hypertension and receiving treatment had their blood pressure controlled to <140/90?mm?Hg. In the Chronic Renal Disease in Turkey (CREDIT) study (n=10,748), the overall prevalence of chronic kidney (including all stages) disease was 15.7% and increased with advancing age. In the same population, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome were reported as 32.7%, 12.7%, 76.3%, 20.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. The prevalence and awareness of hypertension in CREDIT population was 32.7% and 48.6%, respectively. According to the data obtained from national surveys, the prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey is alarmingly high. To improve prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of these major public health problems, appropriate health strategies should be implemented by the government, together with medical societies, non-governmental organizations, industry, health-care providers, and academia. PMID:25019009

  1. Bolanthusturcicus (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koç, Murat; Hamzao?lu, Ergin

    2015-01-01

    A new species Bolanthusturcicus Koç & Hamzao?lu, sp. nov. was discovered on Hasan Mountain (Turkey, Aksaray province) where it grows on volcanic stony slopes and alpine steppe. its description, images, chorology and ecology, and threat category are provided in this article. It was compared with a closely related species, Bolanthusminuartioides (Jaub. & Spach) Hub.-Mor., Bolanthushuber-morathii C.Simon, Bolanthusspergulifolius (Jaub. & Spach) Hub.-Mor., Bolanthusfrankenioides (Boiss) Bark., Bolanthusmevlanae Aytaç based on its general morphology and seed micromorphology. PMID:26312034

  2. An epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mason, S J; Maiers, J D

    1984-01-01

    A major epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum occurred in the Monroe, North Carolina, area between January and June of 1983. The outbreak involved 304,000 turkeys of various ages, which were slaughtered in the eradication program at a cost of more than $550,000 to growers and poultry companies. An infected peafowl was the likely source of infection on the first farm. Traffic between farms by growers and company personnel was theorized to be the means of further spread. PMID:6487195

  3. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betul Demircioglu, Mine; Sesetyan, Karin; Erdik, Mustafa

    2010-05-01

    Using a GIS-environment to present the results, seismic risk analysis is considered as a helpful tool to support the decision making for planning and prioritizing seismic retrofit intervention programs at large scale. The main ingredients of seismic risk analysis consist of seismic hazard, regional inventory of buildings and vulnerability analysis. In this study, the assessment of the national earthquake hazard based on the NGA ground motion prediction models and the comparisons of the results with the previous models have been considered, respectively. An evaluation of seismic risk based on the probabilistic intensity ground motion prediction for Turkey has been investigated. According to the Macroseismic approach of Giovinazzi and Lagomarsino (2005), two alternative vulnerability models have been used to estimate building damage. The vulnerability and ductility indices for Turkey have been taken from the study of Giovinazzi (2005). These two vulnerability models have been compared with the observed earthquake damage database. A good agreement between curves has been clearly observed. In additional to the building damage, casualty estimations based on three different methods for each return period and for each vulnerability model have been presented to evaluate the earthquake loss. Using three different models of building replacement costs, the average annual loss (AAL) and probable maximum loss ratio (PMLR) due to regional earthquake hazard have been provided to form a basis for the improvement of the parametric insurance model and the determination of premium rates for the compulsory earthquake insurance in Turkey.

  4. General aspect of pneumoconiosis in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Cimrin, Arif; Erdut, Zeki

    2007-01-01

    During the past 20 years number of definitive occupational diseases has not increased above 1500 case/year according to official statistics in Turkey. Although pneumoconiosis is the most diagnosed occupational disease, incidence of pneumoconiosis is very low. The present paper aims at reaching conclusions on the true dimension of the pneumoconiosis problem by evaluating whole the studies and case presentations related to coal mine dust and crystalline silica exposure within occupational environment. Regarding the results of the workplace-based studies it could be predicted that 20,000 out of 220,000 workers in mining sector could have pneumoconiosis and approximately 5,000 new pneumoconiosis cases might have occurred each year. Case presentations show high-level dust exposures present at the work places. These working conditions might cause acute pneumoconiosis. Poor working conditions exist especially at small and micro scale establishments. In Turkey, infrastructural and superstructural problems on workplace supervision and follow-up, legal processes on workers’ health are complicated. Turkey has to provide healthy working conditions to those small-scale workplaces. Providing relevant assistance with activating people of the developed countries should be on top of the global efforts. PMID:21938215

  5. Turkey’s contribution to medicine: Main institutions, fields and publications

    PubMed Central

    Onat, Altan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify and disclose publications from Turkey with the greatest “genuine” contributons to medicine in the past 50 years. Material and Methods: Based on the data of Web of Science, publications originating from Turkey’s institutions that were received by May, 2013, ?72 citations were identified, after excluding papers having more than a minor share by international authors. Results: Primary authors numbering 223 generated 271 medical papers, each receiving ?72 (95% CI 72; 263) citations. The articles cited herein were of a level of top global 8–10% papers. Half of the articles were published in 1997–2004. Compared with about 25–28 papers annually 10 years previously, it is estimated that currently only 20 papers are generated in Turkey annually, representing a global share of only 1.5 per thousand. The rate of rise registered in the period 1995–2004 may be anticipated to attenuate. Internal medicine, led by rheumatology, cardiology and hematology, and neurosciences were represented at 1.8-fold odds higher than the overall average. Led by Behçet’s disease, health issues encountered more widely than in other populations, formed frequent topics of contribution. Led by the Medical Faculties of Istanbul, Hacettepe, Ankara Universities and the Military Medical Academy, only 33 medical faculties and 14 public and private hospitals constituted sources. Conclusion: Since the elicited results are unsatisfactory, compared with Turkey’s potential, much more concerted efforts should be directed to rebuild a milieu favorable to promote research likely to contribute to medicine. PMID:25931859

  6. Satellite-tracked cumulus velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Pearl, E. W.; Shenk, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Basic problems in the interpretation of satellite-tracked low-cloud velocities are reviewed. The METRACOM system of cloud velocity computation is outlined, and caution is urged in converting cloud velocities into wind velocities. The motion of various cumulus cells over Springfield, Mo., Barbados, and Tampa, Fla., is analyzed. It is shown that multiturret cells do not always move with the wind, that addition and deletion of turrets belonging to a specific cell may cause erratic motion in a tracer cell, and that cumulus turrets between 0.3 and 2 miles in size are the best targets for inferring the mean wind velocity within the subcloud layers. It is concluded that the accuracy of wind velocity estimates will be no better than 2 meters/sec unless the physical and dynamic characteristics of cumulus motion are further investigated.

  7. Recession of the ice cap on Mount A?r? (Ararat), Turkey, from 1976 to 2011 and its climatic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sar?kaya, Mehmet Akif

    2012-03-01

    Glacier recession reports in response to sustained climatic warming are widespread. However, little information exists on glacier behaviors from the Middle East where a few ice bodies still exist. Here, an ice cap retreat from Mount A?r? (also known as Ararat, 39.70°N, 44.30°E, 5137 m), Turkey, based on satellite measurements since 1976 were given. The results show that the ice cap has lost 29% of its surface area at a rate of -0.07 km2 a-1. The long-term atmospheric warming trend observed at the nearby meteorological stations is consistent with this shrinking trend.

  8. World atlas of satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansky, D. M.

    Features of the 17 services offered by planned or operational satellites in geostationary earth orbit (GEO) are described. The orbital inclinations, controlling organizations, and frequency bands employed by the 143 spacecraft in GEO as of 1979 are provided, together with the typical operational parameters of the 6/4 GHz transmitters and receivers. The spacecraft have nominal design lifetimes of 10-15 yr and employ FDM-FM, digital, SCPC, and video transmission techniques. Attention is given to the technology developments affecting GEO satellite system characteristics and the capacity of the GEO. Intersatellite service is characterized, as are frequency allocations and applications, and the space operation service involving frequency bands dedicated to the telemetry, tracking, and telecommand of spacecraft. Consideration is given to mobile satellite services, satellite broadcasting services, and satellite navigation, earth exploration, and positioning services. Finally, meteorological, standard frequency and time signal, and space research satellite services are explored, noting that the latter do not usually use GEO positions.

  9. Engineers checkout Early Bird-Communication Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Engineers Stanley R. Peterson (left) and Ray Bowerman (right), checkout the Early Bird, the world's first communication satellite. NASA launched the satellite built by Hughes Aircraft Corporation on April 6, 1955 at 6:48pm E.S.T. from Complex 17a at Cape Kennedy, Florida. Early Bird was built for the Communications Satellite Corporation and weighed about 85 pounds after being placed in a synchronous orbit of 22,300 miles above the earth. It was positioned over the Atlantic to provide 240 two-way telephone channels or 2-way television between Europe and North America. The outer surface of Early Bird was covered with 6,000 silicon-coated solar cells, which absorbed the sun's rays to provide power to the satellite for its intricate transmitting and receiving equipment.

  10. Satellite services system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  11. Climate change and glacier retreat from 1955 to 2006 on Cilo Mountains, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye?ilyurt, Serdar; U?ur, Do?an; K?lar, Hatice

    2013-04-01

    Alpine glaciers are amongst key indicators of global-scale climate changes because of their natural dynamics and quick response to global warming. Although there is vast number of studies on recent glaciers of the world, less attention has been paid to the glaciers of Turkey and the Middle East. In the present study, present glaciers of Cilo Mountains (4135 m) located in Southeast Anatolia, one of the most important recent glacier areas of Turkey, is dealt with within the context of the impacts of climatic changes on glaciers. Based on aerial photographs taken in 1955, 1968 and 1988 together with Quickbird satellite images taken in 2006, four main stages were examined using remote sensing and GIS technologies. The paleo-glacier cover of the Last Glacial age (most likely the Last Glacial Maximum) on the Cilo Range was about 100 km² in area as compared to the actual glaciers found in the three valley system around Uludoruk summit with an area of only 5.6 km². Actual glacier have retreated between 100 and 360 m in the period from 1955 to 2006. According to elevation, thickness-mass characteristics of the glaciers and geomorphic conditions of their cirques, retreat rates were found to be between 2 and 7 m/yr. The ages of young terminal moraines were also calculated on the basis of annual decline rates of these glaciers. Consequently, the oldest moraines should have probably been deposited between 1850 and 1870 matching end of the Little Ice Age. This age is compatible with the glacier retreat of the European Alps. We determined a warming trend both in summer temperatures and annual averages based on data from three meteorological stations located in the vicinity of this mountain area. Keywords: Cilo Mountains, actual glacier, glacier retreat, climate change, Little Ace Age, Turkey

  12. Water as Source of Francisella tularensis Infection in Humans, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Selcuk; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Karagöz, Alper; Çelebi, Bekir; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Arikan, Muzaffer; Sahl, Jason W.; Mitchell, Cedar; Rivera, Andrew; Maltinsky, Sara; Keim, Paul; Üstek, Duran; Durmaz, R?za

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis DNA extractions and isolates from the environment and humans were genetically characterized to elucidate environmental sources that cause human tularemia in Turkey. Extensive genetic diversity consistent with genotypes from human outbreaks was identified in environmental samples and confirmed water as a source of human tularemia in Turkey. PMID:26583383

  13. Pathogenicity of turkey astroviruses Type 2 in poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of five different type 2 turkey astroviruses (TAstV-2) was studied in SPF turkeys. These viruses belong to three different genotypes based on sequence analysis of the capsid gene. Poults were inoculated at one day of age and examined for clinical signs and virus shedding during t...

  14. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  15. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  16. Migration and Psychological Status of Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksel, Seyda; Gun, Zubeyit; Irmak, Turkan Yilmaz; Cengelci, Banu

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of involuntary migration on an adolescent population that had moved with their families to either one of two culturally different locations in Turkey. One of these groups had moved from a village in Eastern Turkey to a nearby town, while the other had moved a considerable distance to a large…

  17. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  18. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekerol, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  19. International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

  20. Socioscientific Issues in Science Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Mugaloglu, Ebru Zeynep; Guven, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the foci and results of studies on socioscientific issues (SSI) conducted in Turkey. Additionally, the study aimed to compare the results of this study with ones conducted internationally. For this aim, a literary review of empirical studies related to SSI conducted in Turkey was carried out. Four criteria…

  1. Regulation of waste and waste management in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gören, Sami; Ozdemir, Feyza

    2011-04-01

    Industrial and technological developments have increased rapidly throughout the world including Turkey. Furthermore, the population of Turkey is also increasing and the ever-increasing consumption creates larger amounts of waste materials and adversely affects the environment and human health. The development of a waste management and disposal system has become necessary in all countries of the world. As part of the process of seeking entry to the European Union, Turkey continues to prepare the necessary legislation to satisfy European Union regulations for the disposal of solid waste, packaging waste, biodegradable waste and medical waste materials within the framework of the strategy. An integrated waste management system is necessary for each town in Turkey that is suitable for the different contents and increasing amounts of waste produced. In the present study, Turkey's geographical regions were examined in terms of population and the total amount of solid waste generated in each province to produce detailed data for the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry. As a result of this study, it is understood that Turkey has drawn up a 'road map' which will be followed by the 2008-2012 Waste Management Action Plan. To achieve this, the Ministry of the Environment and Forestry, Turkey and the municipalities must fulfill the tasks that have been allocated to them. Turkey will attain the European Union standards for waste management if these tasks lead to the achievement of the targets within the action plan. PMID:20686052

  2. Vocational Education in Turkey: The Past, Changes and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbilek, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the present conditions and emerging issues about the future of vocational teacher education in Turkey. The paper discusses the background and historic legacies that have led to the restructuring of Faculties of Teacher Education in Turkey. The influence of the reforms from the foundation of the Turkish Republic are discussed as…

  3. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535

  4. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  5. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  6. Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Boran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

  7. Productivity losses from road traffic deaths in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Naci, Huseyin; Baker, Timothy D

    2008-03-01

    The importance of road traffic injuries in Turkey is not generally appreciated, in part due to lack of knowledge of its economic burden and in part due to major underestimation in official statistics. The total years of potential life lost and potentially productive years of life lost from mortality were calculated in order to estimate the cost of productivity losses from road traffic deaths in Turkey. More years of potentially productive life are lost due to road traffic deaths than to respiratory tract illnesses or diabetes mellitus, two other serious health problems in Turkey. Road traffic deaths cost Turkey an estimated USD 2.6 billion every year in productivity losses alone, more than the World Bank estimate of the indirect costs from the 1999 Marmara earthquake (USD 1.2-2 billion), Turkey's worst earthquake since 1939 (World Bank Turkey Country Office, 1999). This study highlights the importance of accurate information in ameliorating the burden of road traffic safety in Turkey. Turkey has great opportunities to implement cost-effective interventions to reduce the economic burden of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries. PMID:18344092

  8. Water as Source of Francisella tularensis Infection in Humans, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Selcuk; Birdsell, Dawn N; Karagöz, Alper; Çelebi, Bekir; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Arikan, Muzaffer; Sahl, Jason W; Mitchell, Cedar; Rivera, Andrew; Maltinsky, Sara; Keim, Paul; Üstek, Duran; Durmaz, R?za; Wagner, David M

    2015-12-01

    Francisella tularensis DNA extractions and isolates from the environment and humans were genetically characterized to elucidate environmental sources that cause human tularemia in Turkey. Extensive genetic diversity consistent with genotypes from human outbreaks was identified in environmental samples and confirmed water as a source of human tularemia in Turkey. PMID:26583383

  9. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  10. Serologic incidence of some diseases in Kansas wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Veatch, J K; Applegate, R D; Osborne, S J

    1998-01-01

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, n = 1164) were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Salmonella pullorum from 1990 to 1997. Although 3.3% of the turkeys were suspect for one or more diseases, only 0.9% were serologically positive for M. gallisepticum. These 11 positives were all from one country in south-central Kansas. PMID:9645333

  11. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  12. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  13. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  14. Satellite networks for education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite based educational networking is discussed with particular attention given to the potential uses of communications satellites to help meet educational needs in the United states. Four major subject areas were covered; (1) characteristics and structure of networks, (2) definition of pressures within educational establishment that provide motivation for various types of networks, (3) examination of current educational networking status for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intra-state educational communication networks, computer networks, and cable television for education, and (4) identification of possible satellite based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems.

  15. Satellite Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

  16. Communication satellites in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, J. D.

    A brief history of the Canadian involvement with domestic communications satellites is presented. Canada is the first country to deploy, through Telesat Canada, a geostationary domestic satellite system. This system, ANIK-A, operates within the 6/4 GHz band, and provides both telephony and television distribution. The limitations of the 6/4 GHz band prompted the Canadian government to join NASA and ESA in the design and construction of an experimental satellite operating in the 14/12 GHz band. The resulting spacecraft (CTS/HERMES) was used in 36 different Canadian Communications experiments. The experiments included were: telemedicine; teleeducation; community communications; administration; and satellite television broadcasting.

  17. Remote sensing and archaeological survey in the Hierapolis of Phrygia territory, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2007-10-01

    The paper concerns the results of a research project on the application in archaeological survey of high resolution images of the QuickBird 2 satellite. The research is carried out within the activities of the Italian Archaeological Mission at Hierapolis of Phrygia, Turkey). The use of satellite images with high geometric, radiometric and spectral resolutions has constituted an important tool for archaeological research in the city and in the surrounding area, because vertical aerial photographies and recent and detailed cartographies are non-available. In fact the exceptional spatial resolution of the images makes them comparable to aerial photos on a medium scale; this type of documentation has an enormous potential in the study of urban and territorial ancient contexts. The examination of these images has permitted to detect surface anomalies and traces linked to archaeological buried structures or to paleo-environmental elements; moreover, particulary in the territory, the panchromatic images were georeferenced and used as the base field maps for the survey, in integration with GPS systems. The study of the satellite images and the ground truth verify have made fundamental contributions to the reconstruction of the urban layout of Hierapolis. Also much interesting were the results obtained in the territory of the city, with the integration of remote sensing and archaeological survey; the researches recovered numerous and important data on necropolis, aqueducts, roads, farms, quarries and villages dependent from Hierapolis. All the data collected are integrating into a GIS to produce archaeological maps.

  18. Mount Ararat, Turkey, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This perspective view shows Mount Ararat in easternmost Turkey, which has been the site of several searches for the remains of Noah's Ark. The main peak, known as Great Ararat, is the tallest peak in Turkey, rising to 5165 meters (16,945 feet). This southerly, near horizontal view additionally shows the distinctly conically shaped peak known as 'Little Ararat' on the left. Both peaks are volcanoes that are geologically young, but activity during historic times is uncertain.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view uses a 1.25-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Volcanoes pose hazards for people, the most obvious being the threat of eruption. But other hazards are associated with volcanoes too. In 1840 an earthquake shook the Mount Ararat region, causing an unstable part of mountain's north slope to tumble into and destroy a village. Visualizations of satellite imagery when combined with elevation models can be used to reveal such hazards leading to disaster prevention through improved land use planning.

    But the hazards of volcanoes are balanced in part by the benefits they provide. Over geologic time volcanic materials break down to form fertile soils. Cultivation of these soils has fostered and sustained civilizations, as has occurred in the Mount Ararat region. Likewise, tall volcanic peaks often catch precipitation, providing a water supply to those civilizations. Mount Ararat hosts an icefield and set of glaciers, as seen here in this late summer scene, that are part of this beneficial natural process

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    View Size: 124 kilometers (77 miles) wide, 148 kilometers (92 miles) distance Location: 39.7 degrees North latitude, 44.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: Looking South, 2 degrees down from horizontal, 1.25X vertical exaggeration Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), August 31, 1989 (Landsat)

  19. AMPK?, C/EBP?, CPT1?, GPR43, PPAR?, and SCD Gene Expression in Single- and Co-cultured Bovine Satellite Cells and Intramuscular Preadipocytes Treated with Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, and Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Choi, S. H.; Park, S. K.; Johnson, B. J.; Chung, K. Y.; Choi, C. W.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, W. Y.; Smith, B.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that bovine subcutaneous preadipocytes promote adipogenic gene expression in muscle satellite cells in a co-culture system. Herein we hypothesize that saturated fatty acids would promote adipogenic/lipogenic gene expression, whereas mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids would have the opposite effect. Bovine semimembranosus satellite cells (BSC) and intramuscular preadipocytes (IPA) were isolated from crossbred steers and cultured with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and 1% antibiotics during the 3-d proliferation period. After proliferation, cells were treated for 3 d with 3% horse serum/DMEM (BSC) or 5% FBS/DMEM (IPA) with antibiotics. Media also contained 10 ?g/mL insulin and 10 ?g/mL pioglitazone. Subsequently, differentiating BSC and IPA were cultured in their respective media with 40 ?M palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acid for 4 d. Finally, BSC and IPA were single- or co-cultured for an additional 2 h. All fatty acid treatments increased (p = 0.001) carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 beta (CPT1?) gene expression, but the increase in CPT1? gene expression was especially pronounced in IPA incubated with palmitic and stearic acid (6- to 17- fold increases). Oleic and linoleic acid decreased (p = 0.001) stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression over 80% in both BSC and IPA. Conversely, palmitic and stearic acid increased SCD gene expression three fold in co-cultured in IPA, and stearic acid increased AMPK? gene expression in single- and co-cultured BSC and IPA. Consistent with our hypothesis, saturated fatty acids, especially stearic acid, promoted adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, whereas unsaturated fatty acids decreased expression of those genes associated with fatty acid metabolism. PMID:25656188

  20. Use of Landsat land surface temperature and vegetation indices for monitoring drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Osman; Ekercin, Semih; Dadaser-Celik, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST) changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation condition index (VCI), and temperature vegetation index (TVX) were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2°C) in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984-2011). Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5-2°C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin. PMID:24587709

  1. Web-Based Mass Transit Guide* Melihcan Trk, Computer Engineering Department, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

    E-print Network

    Akcan, Huseyin

    , Ankara, Turkey Gözde Kantarci, Department of Economics, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey and Hüseyin Akcan, Department of Software Engineering, Izmir University of Economics, Izmir, Turkey Abstract- Finding the best, especially in Turkey, can be very complex and hard to understand for a newcomer to the city. Therefore

  2. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Order, 78 FR 693 (January 4, 2013); and Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited...

  3. The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliot, John R.; Copley, Alex C.; Holley, R.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Parsons, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), body wave seismology, satellite imagery, and field observations to constrain the fault parameters of the Mw?7.1?2011?Van (Eastern Turkey) reverse-slip earthquake, in the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Distributed slip models from elastic dislocation modeling of the InSAR surface displacements from ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed interferograms indicate up to 9?m of reverse and oblique slip on a pair of en echelon NW?40 °–54 ° dipping fault planes which have surface extensions projecting to just 10?km north of the city of Van. The slip remained buried and is relatively deep, with a centroid depth of 14?km, and the rupture reaching only within 8–9?km of the surface, consistent with the lack of significant ground rupture. The up-dip extension of this modeled WSW striking fault plane coincides with field observations of weak ground deformation seen on the western of the two fault segments and has a dip consistent with that seen at the surface in fault gouge exposed in Quaternary sediments. No significant coseismic slip is found in the upper 8?km of the crust above the main slip patches, except for a small region on the eastern segment potentially resulting from the Mw?5.9 aftershock on the same day. We perform extensive resolution tests on the data to confirm the robustness of the observed slip deficit in the shallow crust. We resolve a steep gradient in displacement at the point where the planes of the two fault segments ends are inferred to abut at depth, possibly exerting some structural control on rupture extent.

  4. Response of the Hepatic Transcriptome to Aflatoxin B1 in Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Melissa S.; Settlage, Robert E.; McMahon, Kevin W.; Mendoza, Kristelle M.; Rawal, Sumit; El-Nezami, Hani S.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. AFB1 is especially hepatotoxic in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), since these birds are unable to detoxify AFB1 by glutathione-conjugation. The impacts of AFB1 on the turkey hepatic transcriptome and the potential protection from pretreatment with a Lactobacillus-based probiotic mixture were investigated through RNA-sequencing. Animals were divided into four treatment groups and RNA was subsequently recovered from liver samples. Four pooled RNA-seq libraries were sequenced to produce over 322 M reads totaling 13.8 Gb of sequence. Approximately 170,000 predicted transcripts were de novo assembled, of which 803 had significant differential expression in at least one pair-wise comparison between treatment groups. Functional analysis linked many of the transcripts significantly affected by AFB1 exposure to cancer, apoptosis, the cell cycle or lipid regulation. Most notable were transcripts from the genes encoding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2, osteopontin, S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2, and lipoprotein lipase. Expression was modulated by the probiotics, but treatment did not completely mitigate the effects of AFB1. Genes identified through transcriptome analysis provide candidates for further study of AFB1 toxicity and targets for efforts to improve the health of domestic turkeys exposed to AFB1. PMID:24979717

  5. Past and Future Drought Regimes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Burak; Topcu, Sevilay; Turkes, Murat; Sen, Baha

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability in the 20th century was characterized by apparent precipitation variability at both temporal and spatial scales. In addition to the well-known characteristic seasonal and year-to-year variability, some marked and long-term changes in precipitation occurred in Turkey, particularly after the early 1970s. Drought, originating from a deficiency of precipitation over an extended time period (which is usually a season or more) has become a recurring phenomenon in Turkey in the past few decades. Spatially coherent with the significant drought events since early 1970s, water stress and shortages for all water user sectors have also reached their critical points in Turkey. Analyzing the historical occurrence of drought provides an understanding of the range of climate possibilities for a country, resulting in more informed management decision-making. However, future projections about spatial and temporal changes in drought characteristics such as frequency, intensity and duration can be challenging for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Hence, the objectives of this study are (i) to analyze the spatial and temporal dimensions of historical droughts in Turkey, (2) to predict potential intensity, frequency and duration of droughts in Turkey for the future (2070-2100). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Percent to Normal Index (PNI) have been used to assess the drought characteristics. Rainfall datasets for the reference period, 1960-1990, were acquired from 52 stations (representative of all kinds of regions with different rainfall regimes in the country) of the Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS). The future rainfall series for the 2070-2100 period were simulated using a regional climate model (RegCM3) for IPCC's SRESS-A2 scenario conditions. For verification of RegCM3 simulations, the model was performed for the reference period and simulated rainfall data were used for computing two drought indices (SPI and PNI) for the 1960-1990 period. Then, to proof the capturing capacity of the RegCM3, these results for the reference period were compared with SPI and PNI values calculated using observed climatic data. The validated climate model was used for performing climatic data for the future 30-year period, and using the projected climate data, the SPI and PNI values were computed for the future conditions, which indicates the drought events within future 30- year period. Furthermore, to determine the likely changes between reference and future periods, the projected future rainfall series was compared with the average rainfall amount derived from the reference period in SPI and PNI calculations. Finally, the maps were drawn to determine the spatial changes of droughts. RegCM3 model could capture the climatic data and also the drought indices well. The study results showed that drought conditions are diverse in the country, and also increasing trends for intensity, frequency and duration were detected. At regional scale, the Eastern part of Marmara, Black Sea Region and northern and eastern parts of the East Anatolia Regions are characterized by wetter conditions. Particularly severe drought conditions are expected in the Western Mediterranean and Aegean Regions, although other regions of the country will also confront with more frequent, intense and long lasting droughts. Both indices SPI and PNI yielded similar results for the reference as well as future period. Most of the rain-fed and irrigated areas as well as the major share of the surface water resources are located in the drought-vulnerable regions of the country. Other water user sectors including urban, industry and touristic places will also be affected from the worsened conditions. Thus, increasing frequency, severity and prolonged duration of drought events may have significant consequences for food production and socio-economic conditions in Turkey.

  6. The October 23, 2011, Van (Turkey) earthquake and its relationship with neighbouring structures.

    PubMed

    Moro M; Cannelli V; Chini M; Bignami C; Melini D; Stramondo S; Saroli M; Picchiani M; Kyriakopoulos C; Brunori C A

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports the analysis of a possible relationship due to stress transfer between the two earthquakes that hit the province of Van, Eastern Turkey, on October 23, 2011 (Mw = 7.2) and on November 9, 2011 (Mw = 5.6). The surface displacement field of the mainshock has been obtained through a combined data set made up of differential interferograms from COSMO-SkyMed and ENVISAT satellites, integrated with continuous GPS recordings from the Turkish TUSAGA-AKTIF network. This allowed us to retrieve the geometry and the slip distribution of the seismic source and to compute the Coulomb Failure Function (CFF) variation on the aftershock plane, in order to assess a possible causal relationship between the two events. Our results show that the November 9 earthquake could have been triggered by the October 23 shock, with transferred stress values largely exceeding 1 bar. PMID:24618651

  7. Quality control of station-based soil moisture observations over Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugrul Yilmaz, M.; Bulut, Burak; Cosh, Michael H.; Mladenova, Iliana

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is an essential variable in many hydrological applications like climate, drought, water and energy balance, weather prediction through its critical role in water and energy balance estimation. Soil moisture can be obtained using several different methods, like remote sensing-, station observation-, direct sampling-based. Station-based observations are widely used to validate satellite-based soil moisture products, making these observations to have very critical role in soil moisture estimation studies. Soil moisture observations are collected every 10 minutes since 2007 at 149 stations located over Turkey between 25.9°E - 41.8°E and 25.9°N - 41.8°N. These observation time-series are analyzed for the first time in this study for their consistency and reliability by classifying as "not reliable" and "reliable" after performing initially temperature correction and then quality control of the data.

  8. The October 23, 2011, Van (Turkey) earthquake and its relationship with neighbouring structures

    PubMed Central

    Moro M., M M; Cannelli V., C V; Chini M., C M; Bignami C., B C; Melini D., M D; Stramondo S., S S; Saroli M., S M; Picchiani M., P M; Kyriakopoulos C., K C; Brunori C. A., B C A

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports the analysis of a possible relationship due to stress transfer between the two earthquakes that hit the province of Van, Eastern Turkey, on October 23, 2011 (Mw = 7.2) and on November 9, 2011 (Mw = 5.6). The surface displacement field of the mainshock has been obtained through a combined data set made up of differential interferograms from COSMO-SkyMed and ENVISAT satellites, integrated with continuous GPS recordings from the Turkish TUSAGA-AKTIF network. This allowed us to retrieve the geometry and the slip distribution of the seismic source and to compute the Coulomb Failure Function (CFF) variation on the aftershock plane, in order to assess a possible causal relationship between the two events. Our results show that the November 9 earthquake could have been triggered by the October 23 shock, with transferred stress values largely exceeding 1?bar. PMID:24618651

  9. The Van Fault, Eastern Turkey: A Preliminary Geological Slip Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, D.; Elliott, J. R.; Altunel, E.; Kurban, Y.; Walker, R. T.; Parsons, B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a preliminary quaternary slip-rate study on the Van fault, the source of the 2011 Mw7.1 reverse-slip earthquake which caused heavy damage to the cities of Van and Ercis, eastern Turkey. From the InSAR solution, we see a strong depth cut-off at 10km depth, above which there was no slip on the fault. We have carried out an investigation of the geomorphological expression of the fault in quaternary material, to determine whether the fault reaches the surface and, if so, whether this upper section could fail in an earthquake. On the western segment of the Van fault, we observe quaternary scarps coincident with the surface projection of the fault segment identified by InSAR, which displace quaternary alluvial fan and lake-bed deposits. These are coincident with the observation of fault gouge in quaternary deposits at a road cutting, providing evidence for a fault reaching the surface and suggesting that the upper section is capable of rupturing seismically. We use structure-from-motion photogrammetry, differential GPS and terrestrial LiDAR to determine offsets on two generations of fault scarps, and the creep offsets from the period following the earthquake. Preliminary radiocarbon and OSL dates from two uplifted terrace surfaces allow us to estimate a late quaternary geological slip-rate for the fault. Following the GPS and InSAR solution of Dogan et al. 2014 (GRL v41,i7), we also present field evidence and satellite image observations confirming the presence of a splay fault within the northern suburbs of Van city, which experienced creep following the 2011 earthquake. This fault is observed to be particularly evident in the early high resolution satellite imagery from the declassified CORONA missions, highlighting the potential for these datasets in identifying faults in areas now covered by urban sprawl. It remains unclear whether this fault could fail seismically. The fault which failed in 2011 is a north dipping reverse fault, unmapped prior to the earthquake. We identify similar geomorphological structures in the surrounding region, highlighting the need for further detailed tectonic mapping of the region.

  10. Communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  11. Audio direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite sound broadcasting is, as the name implies, the use of satellite techniques and technology to broadcast directly from space to low-cost, consumer-quality receivers the types of sound programs commonly received in the AM and FM broadcast bands. It would be a ubiquitous service available to the general public in the home, in the car, and out in the open.

  12. Signals from Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect for relative motion between a source of waves and an observer and the orbital dynamics of communications satellites. Presents preliminary calculations of the satellite's altitude and linear velocity using only the concepts of the Doppler shift and the mechanics of motion in a circular path. (JRH)

  13. Satellite Teleconference Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin Community Coll., IL.

    The vocational education satellite teleconference project accomplished two goals: (1) identified, acquired, copied, and distributed to the Illinois Vocational Curriculum Center 100 marketing or training videotapes for staff development and classroom use; and (2) provided from 15-25 variable time (1- to 3-hour) satellite teleconferences in four…

  14. Solar power satellite cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harron, R. J.; Wadle, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The solar power configuration costed is the 5 GW silicon solar cell reference system. The subsystems identified by work breakdown structure elements to the lowest level for which cost information was generated. This breakdown divides into five sections: the satellite, construction, transportation, the ground receiving station and maintenance. For each work breakdown structure element, a definition, design description and cost estimate were included. An effort was made to include for each element a reference that more thoroughly describes the element and the method of costing used. All costs are in 1977 dollars.

  15. Optimization of Satellite Constellation Reconfiguration

    E-print Network

    Optimization of Satellite Constellation Reconfiguration by Uriel Scialom Submitted Students #12;2 #12;Optimization of Satellite Constellation Reconfiguration by Uriel Scialom Submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics Abstract Traditional satellite constellation

  16. Satellite networks for education.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of satellite-based educational networking. The characteristics and structure of networks are reviewed, and pressures within the educational establishment that are providing motivation for various types of networks are discussed. A number of studies are cited in which networking needs for educational sectors and services are defined. The current status of educational networking for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intrastate educational communication networks, computer networks, cable television for education, and continuing and proposed educational experiments using NASA's Applications Technology Satellites is reviewed. Possible satellite-based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems are described. Some remarks are made concerning public policy aspects of future educational satellite system development.

  17. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications

    E-print Network

    Giuseppe Vallone; Davide Bacco; Daniele Dequal; Simone Gaiarin; Vincenza Luceri; Giuseppe Bianco; Paolo Villoresi

    2014-06-16

    Quantum Communications on planetary scale require complementary channels including ground and satellite links. The former have progressed up to commercial stage using fiber-cables, while for satellite links, the absence of terminals in orbit has impaired theirs development. However, the demonstration of the feasibility of such links is crucial for designing space payloads and to eventually enable the realization of protocols such as quantum-key-distribution (QKD) and quantum teleportation along satellite-to-ground or intersatellite links. We demonstrated the faithful transmission of qubits from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors acting as transmitter in orbit, obtaining a low error rate suitable for QKD. We also propose a two-way QKD protocol exploiting modulated retroreflectors that necessitates a minimal payload on satellite, thus facilitating the expansion of Space Quantum Communications.

  18. Direct television via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeschel, W.

    The characteristics and benefits of high altitude satellite television broadcasts are outlined. Direct broadcasts to well-defined transmission areas allow narrow angle beams of allocated frequencies, reduce atmospheric attenuation of super high frequency signals due to steep angles of penetration, and permit large areas to be covered simultaneously without topographical interference. GEO satellites in three positions could cover the globe, as Intelsat satellites do in frequency ranges of 4-6 and 11-14 GHz with 14-30 m ground-based receiving antennae. Experiments with the ATS-6 and Symphonie satellites are mentioned, as are the cost savings from using satellites instead of cable TV systems. Provisions of the World Administrative Radio Conference are reviewed, along with details of the Franco-German TV-SAT/TDF 1 project, and potential applications in China.

  19. A satellite for Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, John D. R.

    In April 1990, an American satellite will be launched by China on the Long March 3 rocket. This satellite, called AsiaSat 1 will provide domestic telecommunications service to the countries of Asia. AsiaSat 1 is designed to provide satellite communications services to China, Thailand and Pakistan. These services will also be available for the use of neighboring countries such as Korea, Hong Kong, Burma and Nepal. As an independently financed satellite, it will provide services to each of these countries on an equal access basis and will be shared by these countries depending on their needs. The satellite's 24 C-band transponders will be leased or sold to customers in each of these countries. Transponders will be used for many purposes including back-up to national telephone networks, new private network services and the distribution of television programs.

  20. Dynamical Friction on Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Yokoyama, T.; Prado, A. F. B. A.

    2012-10-01

    Deienno et al 2011 (A&A, v.536, A57) investigated the effects of the planetary migration on the satellites of Uranus. We concluded that Uranus might have had more satellites than those observed today. However, due to the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) phenomenon, those satellites beyond Oberon were destabilized mostly by collisions involving themselves or with some regular ones. In this work we apply the same methodology for the Saturnian system. We found that the satellites with orbits inside Titan's orbit are immune to the LHB phenomenon. On the other hand, Hyperion, Iapetus, and even Titan, in some cases are strongly affected by the LHB, and depending on the value of Saturn's obliquity, Iapetus might not have resisted to the LHB event. We also found that, the final orbital elements of the surviving satellites differ from what we see today, mainly in inclination. While eccentricity and orbital semi-major axis can be easily damped by tides, for orbital inclinations, tidal effects are not so efficient. Thus, considering that eccentricity and orbital semi-major axis will still evolve by tides, to study the problem of the orbital inclination we consider that: according to our simulations, during the LHB event, collisions between planetesimals and satellites are a common event, causing in some cases destruction of satellites. So, we hypothesized that the material delivered by these catastrophic events could form a disc of particles around the remaining of satellites' orbits. This disc interacts with the remaining satellites and by dynamical friction phenomenon the orbital inclination can be damped. Some preliminary results have shown that, indeed, this tentative can be a viable way to damp conveniently the inclination of some satellites. Acknowledgement: FAPESP-CNPq

  1. Virus Satellites Drive Viral Evolution and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Frígols, Belén; Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Donderis, Jorge; Elena, Santiago F; Buckling, Angus; Novick, Richard P; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R

    2015-10-01

    Virus satellites are widespread subcellular entities, present both in eukaryotic and in prokaryotic cells. Their modus vivendi involves parasitism of the life cycle of their inducing helper viruses, which assures their transmission to a new host. However, the evolutionary and ecological implications of satellites on helper viruses remain unclear. Here, using staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) as a model of virus satellites, we experimentally show that helper viruses rapidly evolve resistance to their virus satellites, preventing SaPI proliferation, and SaPIs in turn can readily evolve to overcome phage resistance. Genomic analyses of both these experimentally evolved strains as well as naturally occurring bacteriophages suggest that the SaPIs drive the coexistence of multiple alleles of the phage-coded SaPI inducing genes, as well as sometimes selecting for the absence of the SaPI depressing genes. We report similar (accidental) evolution of resistance to SaPIs in laboratory phages used for Staphylococcus aureus typing and also obtain the same qualitative results in both experimental evolution and phylogenetic studies of Enterococcus faecalis phages and their satellites viruses. In summary, our results suggest that helper and satellite viruses undergo rapid coevolution, which is likely to play a key role in the evolution and ecology of the viruses as well as their prokaryotic hosts. PMID:26495848

  2. Virus Satellites Drive Viral Evolution and Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Frígols, Belén; Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Donderis, Jorge; Elena, Santiago F.; Buckling, Angus; Novick, Richard P.; Marina, Alberto; Penadés, José R.

    2015-01-01

    Virus satellites are widespread subcellular entities, present both in eukaryotic and in prokaryotic cells. Their modus vivendi involves parasitism of the life cycle of their inducing helper viruses, which assures their transmission to a new host. However, the evolutionary and ecological implications of satellites on helper viruses remain unclear. Here, using staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) as a model of virus satellites, we experimentally show that helper viruses rapidly evolve resistance to their virus satellites, preventing SaPI proliferation, and SaPIs in turn can readily evolve to overcome phage resistance. Genomic analyses of both these experimentally evolved strains as well as naturally occurring bacteriophages suggest that the SaPIs drive the coexistence of multiple alleles of the phage-coded SaPI inducing genes, as well as sometimes selecting for the absence of the SaPI depressing genes. We report similar (accidental) evolution of resistance to SaPIs in laboratory phages used for Staphylococcus aureus typing and also obtain the same qualitative results in both experimental evolution and phylogenetic studies of Enterococcus faecalis phages and their satellites viruses. In summary, our results suggest that helper and satellite viruses undergo rapid coevolution, which is likely to play a key role in the evolution and ecology of the viruses as well as their prokaryotic hosts. PMID:26495848

  3. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing. PMID:24733950

  4. Environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) in North and South America

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Somayeh; Bohrer, Gil; Bildstein, Keith; Davidson, Sarah C.; Weinzierl, Rolf; Bechard, Marc J.; Barber, David; Kays, Roland; Brandes, David; Han, Jiawei; Wikelski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the Earth's climate and habitats. Plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. We describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, Cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. Using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four distinct populations, we describe an enormous amount of variation in their movement patterns. We related vulture movement to environmental conditions and found important correlations explaining how far they need to move to find food (indexed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and how fast they can move based on the prevalence of thermals and temperature. We conclude that the extensive variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures, facilitated by their energetically efficient thermal soaring, suggests that this species is likely to do well across periods of modest climate change. The large scale and sample sizes needed for such analysis in a widespread migrant emphasizes the need for integrated and collaborative efforts to obtain tracking data and for policies, tools and open datasets to encourage such collaborations and data sharing. PMID:24733950

  5. Satellite Services Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Key issues associated with the orbital servicing of satellites are examined including servicing spacecraft and equipment, servicing operations, economics, satellite design, docking and berthing, and fluid management.

  6. Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpsar, Cengiz

    This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

  7. 5. ANKARA INTERNATIONAL AEROSPACE CONFERENCE AIAC-2009-034 17-19 August 2009 -METU, Ankara TURKEY

    E-print Network

    Yaman, Yavuz

    5. ANKARA INTERNATIONAL AEROSPACE CONFERENCE AIAC-2009-034 17-19 August 2009 - METU, Ankara TURKEY Havelsan Ankara, Turkey Melin ahin2 Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey Volkan Nalbantolu3 Aselsan Ankara, Turkey Yavuz Yaman4 Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey ABSTRACT In this paper

  8. Ectoparasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Senlik, Bayram; Aydin, Levent; Cirak, Veli Y

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal, spiny-coated animals that have been growing in popularity as exotic pets. However, these animals are host to a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, some of which are of zoonotic character. Thus, because hedgehogs have a potential role to transmit zoonoses including arthropod-borne diseases, we examined them for their ectoparasites. The study was carried out on hedgehogs found dead mainly due to road casualties in the Bursa province of Turkey. The ectoparasites were collected by both insecticide spraying of the body and inspection on a white paper carefully. Totally three species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Haemophysalis parvo) and one flea species (Archeopsylla erinacei) were detected. The prevalence of mixed infestation with both ticks and fleas was 45.5%. Haemaphysalis parva was reported for the first time from hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Turkey. The occurrence of ectoparasites and their potential role as vectors of certain zoonotic diseases are briefly discussed. PMID:26281445

  9. Pharmacy in Turkey: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Tekiner, H

    2014-06-01

    Pharmacy in Turkey underwent a radical change within the last decade. Introduction of the Health Transformation Program in 2003 has had a significant impact on Turkey's pharmacy system in accordance with objectives of the program to establish new pricing regulations for pharmaceuticals based on reference prices, and to develop better computer based health information/record systems. In this context, Pharmaceutical Tracking (Track-and-Trace) System using two dimensional matrix barcodes was initiated to prevent not only drug counterfeiting, but also fraud against the medical insurance system and off-record transactions within the pharmaceutical sector; and the process of recording prescriptions in an electronic format was launched. Some other improvements have also been made with respect to pharmacy education, law and practice. In contrast with all these positive outcomes, Turkish pharmacy sector is currently in a deep financial struggle. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of the recent developments in Turkish pharmacy system and to discuss future roles and challenges of the profession. PMID:24974586

  10. Patient doses from CT examinations in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ataç, Gökçe Kaan; Parmaks?z, Ayd?n; ?nal, Tolga; Bulur, Emine; Bulgurlu, Figen; Öncü, Tolga; Gündo?du, Sadi

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to establish the first diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for computed tomography (CT) examinations in adult and pediatric patients in Turkey and compare these with international DRLs. METHODS CT performance information and examination parameters (for head, chest, high-resolution CT of the chest [HRCT-chest], abdominal, and pelvic protocols) from 1607 hospitals were collected via a survey. Dose length products and effective doses for standard patient sizes were calculated from the reported volume CT dose index (CTDIvol). RESULTS The median number of protocols reported from the 167 responding hospitals (10% response rate) was 102 across five different age groups. Third quartile CTDIvol values for adult pelvic and all pediatric body protocols were higher than the European Commission standards but were comparable to studies conducted in other countries. CONCLUSION The radiation dose indicators for adult patients were similar to those reported in the literature, except for those associated with head protocols. CT protocol optimization is necessary for adult head and pediatric chest, HRCT-chest, abdominal, and pelvic protocols. The findings from this study are recommended for use as national DRLs in Turkey. PMID:26133189

  11. Swedish small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, K.; von Scheele, F.

    2004-11-01

    In 1986 the first Swedish small satellite VIKING was launched on the Ariane 1 rocket together with the French remote sensing satellite SPOT-1. This paper describes the development of Swedish small satellites in an international framework. The satellites have delivered excellent scientific data to a low cost by using e.g. streamlined project organisations, competitive procurement programs and piggy-back launch opportunities. The first micro satellite Astrid-1 was launched in January 1995 and was followed by the launch of Astrid-2 in December 1998. The capable Odin small satellite was launched in February 2001. SSC was also contracted for ESA's SMART-1 probe destined to the Moon. SMART-1, launched in September 2003, is used for both research and as a technology demonstrator for future projects. Future proposed projects include micro and small satellites for climate research as the Atmosphere and Climate Explorer Plus (ACE+), the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange And climate Monitor (STEAM) and PRISMA, a technology demonstrator for formation flying, new propulsion system and commercial development methods.

  12. Modelling of environmentally induced discharges in geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    The NASCAP computer code was used to compute the charging and discharging characteristics of a typical communications satellite in geosynchronous orbit. For the case of a severe substorm satellite surface differential charging in sunlight was found to be substantially less than that required to produce discharges in ground simulation studies. A discharge process was postulated involving discharges triggered at edges (or imperfection) followed by discharges to space. The characteristics of such discharges was parametrically varied to evaluate the possible effects on the satellite. Results indicated that discharge characteristics inferred from satellite monitors could be caused by predicted space discharges, that single cell discharges to space can reduce surface potentially over entire satellite, and that low density electron trajectory computations indicate that discharge generated electrons do not return to the satellite by long trajectories. Current transients predicted do not agree with available ground simulation results indicating that additional work must be done both analytically and experimentally to understand and fully explain these discrepancies.

  13. International Conference on Information Technology Based UNESCO Chair on Mechatronics Higher Education and Training, Istanbul, Turkey, July 3-5, 2000 Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey

    E-print Network

    Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

    International Conference on Information Technology Based UNESCO Chair on Mechatronics Higher Education and Training, Istanbul, Turkey, July 3-5, 2000 Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey 343 Compiling systems are available only for specialized companies with large financial resources. The pay

  14. Overview of commercial satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beakley, G. W.

    1984-07-01

    A brief history of communications satellites is presented, taking into account the launching of Sputnik 1 in October 1957, the Explorer 1 in January of 1958, the launch of the Score as the world's first active communications satellite in December 1958, the Communications Satellite Act in 1962, and the launch of 'Early Bird' in 1964. The Intelsat satellites are considered along with maritime satellite communications, the U.S. domestic satellite systems, Alaskan satellite communications, cable television, broadcast TV stations, print media, the hotel/motel industry as a large market for satellite communications terminals, the opening of a minicable and satellite master antenna TV market for TV receive-only systems, and business telecommunications earth terminals. Attention is also given to future directions regarding satellite positions, the concept of 'video-plus', and direct broadcast satellites.

  15. Positions of Uranian satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.

    1994-11-01

    Positions of Uranian satellites from 333 photographic plates obtained at the Cassegrain focus of a 1.6 m reflector are given for the oppositions of 1983 through 1988. These positions were reduced using photometric methods and compared with those calculated theoretically calculated from GUST86. The observed minus calculated residuals referred to Oberon, have standard deviations of the order of 0".04 for the four greatest Uranian satellites and 0".09 for Miranda. These residuals for the four satellites are better than the most precise found in the literature.

  16. Operation Argus. Satellite measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kostoff, P.C.; Stuhlinger, E.; Kampneier, H.W.; Boehm, J.

    1984-08-31

    Following a theory on the trapping of electrons from nuclear explosions by the magnetic field of the earth, DOD initiated Operation Argus in May 1958 to provide an experimental check of the theory. Nuclear devices were detonated at great altitudes, and the ensuing effects were measured by instrumented satellites, rocket probes, and land and sea observation stations in various parts of the world. This report describes the Argus Satellite Project, the broad theory of the Christofilos effect, the measurements of the background radiation, and the measurement of the effect itself. After each Argus nuclear detonation, the instrumented satellite reported a new and well-defined radiation belt that persisted before many hours.

  17. Efficacy of Lytic Bacteriophage Preparation in Reducing Salmonella In Vitro, on Turkey Breast Cutlets, and on Ground Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sharma, C S; Dhakal, J; Nannapaneni, R

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy of the recently approved Salmonella lytic bacteriophage preparation (SalmoFresh) in reducing Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg on turkey breast cutlets and ground turkey was evaluated. In a broth model assay, the phage preparation completely inhibited the growth of four S. enterica serotypes (Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Kentucky, and Salmonella Typhimurium) at 37°C at a multiplicity of infection of 10,000 PFU/CFU. At 4°C in 0.1% peptone water (PW), phage treatment at a multiplicity of infection of 10,000 resulted in ca. 4.0-log CFU/ml reductions of Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Heidelberg, and Salmonella Typhimurium. When raw turkey breast cutlets inoculated with Salmonella Heidelberg (?10(3) CFU/g) were treated with phage preparation (10(7) PFU/g) and stored at 4°C, the phage treatment caused reductions of 0.8, 0.6, and 1.3 log CFU/g (P ? 0.05) of Salmonella Heidelberg on day 0, 1, and 7, respectively, compared with the counts in the control. However, no significant reduction of Salmonella Heidelberg (P > 0.05) was observed in ground turkey when turkey meat pieces inoculated with Salmonella Heidelberg were surface treated with phage preparation (10(7) PFU/g) before grinding. These findings indicate that the bacteriophage preparation was effective in reducing Salmonella on turkey breast cutlets as a surface treatment but did not cause any reduction of Salmonella Heidelberg in ground turkey. PMID:26197288

  18. Satellite Products and Services Review Board ATBD: Satellite-Derived

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    Satellite Products and Services Review Board ATBD: Satellite-Derived Ocean Heat Content Version 1.0 July 2012 ___________________________________ #12;NOAA /RSMAS ATBD : Satellite-Derived Ocean Heat/STAR) #12;NOAA /RSMAS ATBD : Satellite-Derived Ocean Heat Content Product Page 3 of 32 TABLE OF CONTENTS

  19. Satellite Applications for Public Service: Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauffer, Sandra; And Others

    Summaries of 18 different projects involving the use of satellite communications are presented in this report, including PEACESAT Education and Communication Experiments, USP Network Satellite Communication Project, Project Satellite, Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), Appalachian Education Satellite Program, Alaska Education…

  20. aan ekerciolu at a bird-banding station he set up in Aras, a small village near Turkey's closely monitored border with Armenia. letter from turkey

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    Çaan ekerciolu at a bird-banding station he set up in Aras, a small village near Turkey's closely monitored border with Armenia. letter from turkey NAturAl HIStorIeS A journey in the shadow of Ararat. By el as space. In Orhan Pamuk's novel "Snow," a writer called Ka returns to Turkey after twelve years

  1. AUSSAT mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowland, Wayne L.; Wagg, Michael; Simpson, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    An overview of AUSSAT's planned mobile satellite system is given. The development program which is being undertaken to achieve the 1992 service date is described. Both business and technical aspects of the development program are addressed.

  2. Disaster warning satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Disaster Warning Satellite System is described. It will provide NOAA with an independent, mass communication system for the purpose of warning the public of impending disaster and issuing bulletins for corrective action to protect lives and property. The system consists of three major segments. The first segment is the network of state or regional offices that communicate with the central ground station; the second segment is the satellite that relays information from ground stations to home receivers; the third segment is composed of the home receivers that receive information from the satellite and provide an audio output to the public. The ground stations required in this system are linked together by two, separate, voice bandwidth communication channels on the Disaster Warning Satellites so that a communications link would be available in the event of disruption of land line service.

  3. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  4. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The various types of meteorological satellites are enumerated. Vertical sounding, parameter extraction technique, and both macroscale and mesoscale meteorological phenomena are discussed. The heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system is considered, along with ocean surface and hydrology.

  5. Domestic Communication Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  6. Aiming a Satellite Dish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebrowski, Ernest, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Develops a pair of equations for calculating the elevation and azimuth angles for the various satellites. Uses 3-dimensional vector difference calculations. Provides a practical example, figures, and table. (YP)

  7. Cloud Investigation by Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.

    This is a picture book. The pictures are black and white images derived from meteorological satellite data. The primary source of imagery is the Advanced Tiros N (ATN) series of polar orbiter satellites, although there are a number of examples from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) flown on Nimbus 7 and also from the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites (GMS) 1 and 2. Richard Scorer has selected the majority of his examples from the excellent archive at the University of Dundee's Satellite Laboratory, and hence most are local area coverage (i.e., 1.1- km resolution at nadir) data drawn from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR).

  8. Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, C. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A satellite based energy concept is described, including the advantages of the basic concept, system characteristics, cost, and environmental considerations. An outline of a plan for the further evaluation and implementation of the system is given. It is concluded that the satellite concept is competitive with other advanced power generation systems when a variety of factors are considered, including technical feasibility, cost, safety, natural resources, environment, baseload capability, location flexibility, land use, and existing industrial base for implementation.

  9. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  10. Satellite Technologies in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portz, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on ways of using satellite imagery obtained from the Internet, to enhance classroom learning. Discusses satellite deployment; classroom applications, including infrared imagery, high-resolution photography, and global positioning satellites; and use of satellite data for hands-on activities, including cartography, city and community…

  11. A new subtype of type A influenzavirus isolated from turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lang, G.; Tumová, Bela; Schild, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    A new subtype of avian influenzavirus A was isolated in January 1967 from an epizootic in a turkey hatchery in Ontario, Canada. The disease was fatal in 65 of 2 500 hens involved. Virus was isolated from lung and trachea tissue of three dead turkeys. Sera from convalescent birds contained antibody against the viruses isolated from the outbreak but not against other known type A avian influenzaviruses, Newcastle disease virus, Myxovirus Yucaipa, or Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The strain designated A/turkey/Ontario/6118/67 contained the influenza A type ribonucleoprotein. Haemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens of the strain differed antigenically from the envelope antigens of other avian influenzaviruses isolated from birds, horses, pigs, or man. The designation of turkey/Ontario/6118/67 as containing haemagglutinin of avian subtype 8 (Hav 8) and neuraminidase of avian subtype 4 (Nav 4) is proposed. PMID:4541004

  12. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  13. Modernism and dwelling : residential architecture in early republican Turkey

    E-print Network

    Kanipak, Omer, 1972-

    1998-01-01

    The entire cultural and social context of the 1930s' Turkey was heavily influenced by the modernization reforms and the official ideologies of the Republican regime. By these reforms, Kemalist regime aimed to transform the ...

  14. The Moss Flora of Akda? Mountain (Amasya, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Canli, Kerem; Çetin, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    The moss flora of Akda? Mountain (Amasya, Turkey) was investigated. At the result of identifications of 1500 moss specimens, collected from the research area, 178 taxa belonging to 69 genera and 26 families were determined. Among them, 94 taxa are new for A3 grid square according to the Turkey grid system which was adopted by Henderson. The location data of Grimmia crinitoleucophaea Cardot and Barbula enderesii Garov. are the first records for Turkey, and Encalypta spathulata Müll. Hal., Schistidium dupretii (Thér.) W. A. Weber, Weissia condensa var. armata (Thér. & Trab.) M. J. Cano, Ros & J. Guerra, Tortella bambergeri (Schimp.), Barbula enderesii Garov., Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophaea Bruch & Schimp., and Campyliadelphus elodes (Lindb.) Kanda are recorded for the second time to the byroflora of Turkey. PMID:25587573

  15. Poppies for medicine in Afghanistan: lessons from India and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Windle, James

    2011-01-01

    This study examines India and Turkey as case studies relevant to the Senlis Council’s ‘poppies for medicine’ proposal. The proposal is that Afghan farmers are licensed to produce opium for medical and scientific purposes. Here it is posited that the Senlis proposal neglects at least three key lessons from the Turkish and Indian experiences. First, not enough weight has been given to diversion from licit markets, as experienced in India. Second, both India and Turkey had significantly more efficient state institutions with authority over the licensed growing areas. Third, the proposal appears to overlook the fact that Turkey’s successful transition was largely due to the use of the poppy straw method of opium production. It is concluded that, while innovative and creative policy proposals such as that of the Senlis proposal are required if Afghanistan is to move beyond its present problems, ‘poppies for medicine’ does not withstand evidence-based scrutiny. PMID:22213882

  16. Comparative serological evaluation of avian influenza vaccine in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Abraham, A; Sivanandan, V; Karunakaran, D; Halvorson, D A; Newman, J A

    1988-01-01

    Four- and six-week-old turkeys were vaccinated subcutaneously using avian influenza virus (AIV) A/Duck/613/MN/79 (H4N2) killed oil-emulsion vaccine. Sequential serological tests using agar gel precipitin (AGP), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring antibodies to AIV were performed up to 4 weeks postvaccination, when birds were challenged intranasally using A/Turkey/MN/80 (H4N2) live AIV. The ELISA was 25 to 1600 times more sensitive than the HI test and was able to detect antibody production earlier than the HI test. All turkeys with an ELISA titer of greater than or equal to 800 were protected against homologous challenge, as measured by virus recovery 3 days postchallenge. Four turkeys out of 20 serologically negative by AGP and HI tests but ELISA-positive were protected. PMID:3060086

  17. 6. ANKARA INTERNATIONAL AEROSPACE CONFERENCE AIAC-2011-054 14-16 September 2011 -METU, Ankara TURKEY

    E-print Network

    Yaman, Yavuz

    TURKEY OPTIMIZATION OF AN HELICOPTER ROTOR FOR MINIMUM VIBRATORY LOADS Aykut TAMER1 Turkish Aerospace Engineering Ankara, TURKEY Yavuz YAMAN2 Middle East Technical University Ankara, TURKEY ABSTRACT In this study

  18. 75 FR 47260 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...Administration (A-489-807) Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey: Notice...administrative review of certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey...through March 31, 2006. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey;...

  19. 75 FR 7562 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...Administration [A-489-807] Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey: Notice...antidumping duty order on certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey...through March 31, 2004. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey;...

  20. 75 FR 22552 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...Administration [A-489-807] Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey; Notice...administrative review of certain steel concrete of reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey...through March 31, 2004. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey;...

  1. 77 FR 46713 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ...Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the January 1, 2010, through December...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

  2. 76 FR 78886 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To Rescind Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ...Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Intent To Rescind Countervailing Duty...welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey,'' (October 27, 2011). A Type...

  3. 77 FR 43573 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States Section of the United States-Turkey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...United States Section of the United States-Turkey Business Council AGENCY: International Trade...2009, the Governments of the United States and Turkey agreed to establish a U.S.-Turkey Business Council. This notice announces...

  4. The satellites of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Observations and the probable natures of the five known satellites of Uranus are reviewed. Photographic, photoelectric and CCD photometry of the satellites since 1961, although in agreement within experimental error, is not as mutually consistent as may be expected, and broadband JHK photometry falls in a portion of the J-H, H-K color diagram difficult to interpret. Spectrophotometry in the range 0.3-1.1 microns taken on two separate occasions is inconsistent, with only the relatively neutral reflectances of Titania and Oberon regarded as well established. Near-infrared spectrophotometry has revealed the presence of water ice or frost on the satellite surfaces, possibly in a very pure state, with spectra most similar to Ganymede. Estimations of the properties of the satellites from their surface geometric albedos, assumed mean densities and dynamics yield radii in the range 160-520 km, albedos on the order of 0.5 and densities of about 1.3 g/cu cm, similar to the icy Saturn satellites. The satellites are also believed to have formed after the event that caused the planet to tilt to its present obliquity.

  5. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 4.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the AMPTE satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test are addressed. The Active Magnetic Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) cell design was characterized and the effects of specific mission parameters on cell life were demonstrated.

  6. Satellite cell heterogeneity with respect to expression of MyoD, myogenin, Dlk1 and c-Met in human skeletal muscle: application to a cohort of power lifters and sedentary men

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Mona; Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Human satellite cells (SCs) are heterogeneous with respect to markers for their identification in the niche between the muscle fibre plasma membrane and its basal lamina. We have previously shown that, in biopsies from highly competitive power lifters, power lifters with long-term use of anabolic steroids and a population of healthy sedentary men, antibodies against the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and the paired box transcription factor Pax7 together label 94% of the SCs, NCAM alone labels 4% and Pax7 alone labels 1%. In the present study, we have further studied these biopsies with four markers related to SC activation and differentiation. Our study unequivocally shows that staining for MyoD and myogenin are present in nuclei of SCs and of myoblasts and myotubes in areas of muscle fibre regeneration. Staining for c-Met was observed in a proportion of Pax7+ SCs. However, widespread labelling of the sarcolemma precluded the quantification of c-Met+/Pax7+ SCs and the use of c-Met as a reliable SC marker. Pax7+ SCs labelled by anti-Delta like1 (Dlk1) were present in all samples but in variable proportions, whereas muscle progenitor cells related to repair were Dlk1?. Staining for Dlk1 was also observed in Pax7? interstitial cells and in the cytoplasm of some small muscle fibres. Interestingly, the proportion of Dlk1+/Pax7+ SCs was significantly different between the groups of power lifters. Thus, our study confirms that human SCs show marked heterogeneity and this is discussed in terms of SC activation, myonuclei turnover, muscle fibre growth and muscle fibre damage and repair. PMID:20878332

  7. Magmatism and Geodynamics of Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, Mehmet; Oyan, Vural; Sharkov, Evgenii V.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Genç, ?. Can; Ünal, Esin; Aysal, Nam?k; Duru, Olgun; Kavak, Orhan

    2013-04-01

    Eastern Turkey has been an active collision zone for the last 15 My between the Arabian Plate and Eurasian continent. The collision initiated after the closure of the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean by northward subduction beneath E Anatolia at ~15 Ma. The collision-related volcanism started immediately after the closure of the ocean (again at around 15 Ma) in the north of the present day Lake Van with the eruption of mostly intermediate to acid lavas displaying distinct subduction characteristics. Both continental collision and the magmatism are still active, because the Arabian plate still converges to Anatolia with a velocity of ~2.5 cm/y. The overriding Anatolian block experienced a major uplift event around 10 Ma. The region once resided below the sea level merged as a widespread plateau ~2 km above the sea level as part of a regional dome structure with ~1000 km diameter, extending from Central Anatolia in the West to Azerbaijan in the East. The first alkaline lavas derived from a relatively more enriched source erupted to the surface in the N of Lake Van coeval with the initiation of the uplift at around 10 Ma. The underthrusting Arabian platform, on the other hand, was deformed as a result of both crustal-scale east-west folds adjacent to the major thrust zone and extensional deformations perpendicular to the suture zone. Alkaline within-plate lavas with no subduction component erupted through these extension zones. This intraplate volcanism focused on the Karacada? volcanic complex that covers an area of ~10,000 km2. Early Stage volcanism of Karacada? was dominated by magmas derived from a shallower metasomatized (litospheric) mantle source, while magmas of the later stages were derived from deeper (asthenospheric) sources. The Karacada? volcanic area of SE Anatolia was sourced by a garnet bearing, deep asthenospheric mantle which is similar to that of Afar in terms of its Pb isotopic ratios. This brings into question whether the mantle material from the Afar plume reached beneath Eastern Anatolian by a mantle convection cell. We argue that both the uplift and the widespread volcanism across the region share a common reason: a major "slab-steepening and breakoff event beneath the large Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex". We argue that the older intermediate calc-alkaline volcanic products displaying a distinct subduction signature were possibly derived from the mantle wedge that opened out due to the steepening of the slab after the continental collision. Being unsupported by the subduction, the slab started to be steepened beneath the region, possibly resulting in widening, invasion and upwelling of the mantle wedge beneath E Anatolian accretionary complex. This possibly created a sucking effect on the asthenosphere, creating a mantle flow from the Pontides in the north to the south. The inferred asthenospheric flow perhaps pulled a portion of the asthenosphere that once had resided beneath the Pontide arc. Therefore, the subduction component was inherited from the previous Pontide arc magmatism. The widespread decompressional melting generated voluminous magmas with the aforementioned inherited subduction signature in a period from 15 to 10 Ma. The slab broke off beneath the region, creating a slab window at around 10 Ma. This caused the enriched asthenospheric mantle with no subduction component beneath the Arabian continent to flow to the north through a slab-window. As a result, the subduction-modified E Anatolian and the enriched Arabian asthenospheric mantles started to mix into each other. We interpret the eruption of the first alkaline lavas in the region at around 10 Ma (e.g. tephrites and alkaline basalts in the N of Lake Van) as the indication of the formation of the slab-window beneath the region due to tearing of the slab. The volcanism in the collision zone continued till the historical times. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) around the Mediterranean

  8. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hac?bekiro?lu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 ?g/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 ?g/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 ?g/kg), nutmeg (206.1 ?g/kg) and sumac (182.5 ?g/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled. PMID:24779934

  9. Purification of turkey pancreatic phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Riadh; Zouari, Nacim; Reinbolt, Joseph; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2003-10-01

    Turkey pancreatic phospholipase (TPP) has been purified from delipidated pancreases. The purification included ammonium sulfate fractionation, acidic (pH 5) treatment, followed by sequencial column chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to be a monomeric protein with molecular mass of 14 kDa. The optimal activity was measured at pH 8 and 37 degrees C using egg yolk emulsion as substrate. Our results show that the enzyme (TPP) was not stable for 1 h at 60 degrees C, and that bile salt and Ca2+ were required for the expression of the purified enzyme. The sequence of the N-terminal amino acids of the purified enzyme shows a very close similarity between TPP and all other known pancreatic phospholipases. PMID:14586101

  10. Rain water chemistry in Ankara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncel, Semra G.; Ungör, Sevgi

    Samples of rain water were collected in Ankara for the period between September 1989 and May 1990, by using wet-only sampler. Concentrations of major cations (H +, Na + K + Ca 2+ and NH 4+) and major anions (Cl -, NO 3- and SO 42-) were determined for the first time in Turkey. The rain water was not acidic owing to high concentrations of alkaline soil particles in the atmosphere. However, the concentrations of acid forming ions, such as SO 4- and N03, were higher than the concentrations expected in a typical urban atmosphere. Most of the SO 4- in rain water was in the form of CaSO 4. Rain-aerosol coupling were examined by simultaneous sampling of aerosols with rain. The ions most efficiently scavenged from the atmosphere were found to be SO 42- and Ca 2+.

  11. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey, housing, defence and security and urban renewal, and large scale mapping community, NASRDA has embarked on the development of a higher resolution satellite NigeriaSat-2 which carries spatial resolution pay loads of 2.5 and 5 meters in panchromatic and multi-spectral bands respectively. In addition, the satellite has been designed to provide stereo-imaging capability. It also carries a 32m resolution payload to ensure the continuity of NigeriaSat-1 data beyond its 2008 lifespan. The launch of NigeriaSat-2 is being planned for 2009. Furthermore, Nigeria's concern over the incessant cloud cover of a large area of its southern part has informed NASRDA's quest to acquire capacity for SAR-based image interpretation and application to socio-economic development. The programme will eventually lead to the acquisition of a SAR-based micro-satellite (NigeriaSat-3) in the near future.

  12. Satellite Communications for ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new applications that generally will enhance the standard services provided. All of those possibilities were investigated and comments, as well as descriptions of those analyses are put forward, as well as suggestions for future areas of study.

  13. Detection of Antibodies against Turkey Astrovirus in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Andrew; Oshansky, Christine M.; Thomas, Paul G.; Gray, Gregory C.; Beck, Melinda A.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Astroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in mammals and birds worldwide. Although historically thought to be species-specific, increasing evidence suggests that astroviruses may cross species barriers. In this report, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to screen sera from three distinct human cohorts involved in influenza studies in Memphis, TN or Chapel Hill, NC, and Midwestern poultry abattoir workers for antibodies to turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2). Surprisingly, 26% of one cohort’s population was TAstV-2 positive as compared to 0 and 8.9% in the other cohorts. This cohort was composed of people with exposure to turkeys in the Midwestern United States including abattoir workers, turkey growers, and non-occupationally exposed participants. The odds of testing positive for antibodies against turkey astrovirus among abattoir workers were approximately 3 times higher than the other groups. These studies suggest that people with contact to turkeys can develop serological responses to turkey astrovirus. Further work is needed to determine if these exposures result in virus replication and/or clinical disease. PMID:24826893

  14. Salmonellae Associated with Further-processed Turkey Products1

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Frank L.; Ayres, John C.; Kraft, Allen A.

    1968-01-01

    “Further-processed” turkey products, prepared from chilled, eviscerated, and thawed carcasses at two commercial turkey-processing plants, were evaluated, for the presence of salmonellae. These organisms were isolated from swab samples from 12% of chilled, eviscerated turkey carcasses, 27% of finished products, and 24% of processing equipment. The same serotypes as those found throughout a plant on any one visit were recovered from 31% of rinse-samples taken from hands and gloves of processing personnel. Salmonellae were found in samples taken on 37 of 48 visits; a greater number of recoveries were made on days when freshly killed turkeys were processed (87%) than when frozen-defrosted carcasses were processed (59%). The predominant serotype isolated from meat and environment usually changed from visit to visit. Salmonella sandiego and Salmonella anatum were the most frequent among 23 serotypes recovered. Most of the isolated serotypes are commonly associated with turkeys and have been incriminated as causative agents of human salmonellosis. The implication is that further-processed turkey products, if inadequately cooked by the consumer and if improperly refrigerated between the time of manufacture and consumption, could directly transmit salmonellae. These same products might also contaminate other foods by introducing salmonellae into food-preparation areas. PMID:5688832

  15. An evaluation of threonine requirements of young turkeys.

    PubMed

    Waldroup, P W; England, J A; Kidd, M T

    1998-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the Thr requirements of male Large White turkeys from 3 to 6 and 6 to 9 wk of age. One group of turkeys was fed to 3 wk using nutritionally adequate diets and fed test diets from 3 to 6 wk; another group of turkeys was fed to 6 wk using nutritionally adequate diets and fed test diets from 6 to 9 wk. Test diets were composed of peanut meal, soybean meal, corn, and grain sorghum as intact protein sources and were supplemented with amino acids. Peak performance of turkeys fed the test diets was equivalent to that of turkeys fed conventional corn-soybean meal diets formulated to meet NRC (1994) standards. Estimates of Thr requirements for weight gain were 0.92 and 0.86% for 3 to 6 and 6 to 9 wk, respectively. For feed conversion, estimates of Thr requirements were 0.87% and 0.84% for 3 to 6 and 6 to 9 wk, respectively. The results of the two experiments reported herein would suggest that the Thr requirements suggested by NRC (1994) for turkeys up to 9 wk of age are safe estimates; they may slightly overestimate the requirements but not by a large margin. PMID:9657614

  16. Weather Satellite Thermal IR Responses Prior to Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Daniel P.

    2005-01-01

    A number of observers claim to have seen thermal anomalies prior to earthquakes, but subsequent analysis by others has failed to produce similar findings. What exactly are these anomalies? Might they be useful for earthquake prediction? It is the purpose of this study to determine if thermal anomalies can be found in association with known earthquakes by systematically co-registering weather satellite images at the sub-pixel level and then determining if statistically significant responses occurred prior to the earthquake event. A new set of automatic co-registration procedures was developed for this task to accommodate all properties particular to weather satellite observations taken at night, and it relies on the general condition that the ground cools after sunset. Using these procedures, we can produce a set of temperature-sensitive satellite images for each of five selected earthquakes (Algeria 2003; Bhuj, India 2001; Izmit, Turkey 2001; Kunlun Shan, Tibet 2001; Turkmenistan 2000) and thus more effectively investigate heating trends close to the epicenters a few hours prior to the earthquake events. This study will lay tracks for further work in earthquake prediction and provoke the question of the exact nature of the thermal anomalies.

  17. TDRS satellite application to LEO satellite data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hu; Shen, Xue-min; Gong, Wenbin; Yu, Jinpei

    2013-10-01

    With the development of space technologies, satellite-based data link is becoming more and more popular due to its wide coverage. However, it needs tens of LEO satellites, short for Low Earth Orbiting satellites, to cover the whole Earth in real time. Therefore it requires huge investment to fulfill such an engineering. If several TDRS satellites, short for Tracking and Data Relaying Satellites, are included, the engineering investment might as well be acceptable. Herein, simulations of coverage and some particular performances are presented in three cases, i.e., a single LEO satellite plus one TDRS satellite, a single LEO satellite plus two TDRS satellite, a single LEO satellite plus three TDRS satellite. Simulations have shown that in the case of one LEO satellite and one TDRS satellite, the revisiting period is 5726s,which will shorten the revisiting period by 57%;the encounter frequency between one LEO and one TDRS is 11 times daily; the average duration for every encounter is 2128s. The performances of one LEO satellite and two TDRS satellites are presented as followings - the revisiting period is 2819s,which will shorten the revisiting period by 79%;the encounter frequency among one LEO and two TDRS is 23 times daily;the average duration for every encounter is 2049s.The performances of one LEO satellite and two TDRS satellites are presented as followings - the revisiting period is 1780s,which will shorten the revisiting period by 87%;the encounter frequency among one LEO and two TDRS is 34 times daily;the average duration for every encounter is 2067s. The above simulations have indicated TDRS satellites can greatly improve LEO satellite coverage and related performances. For china customers, the space orbits of TDRS are limited by either geographical positions or by orbital space regulation in equator. Such limitations make sparsely-distributed LEO satellites global real-time data link difficult, especially above western hemisphere. LEO satellite data link above some of the western hemisphere has to be retarded. Delayed data link are hardly acceptable for some emergency rescues. Before the constellation of tens of LEO communication satellites is deployed in space, it might be a good choice to realize LEO satellite data link via TDRS satellites for China users.

  18. International communications via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLucas, J. L.

    The evolution of communications satellite systems is traced in terms of technical capabilities and technological advances. The Communications Act of 1962 led to the establishment of INTELSAT on an international basis in 1964. The original 19 signatory nations has grown to over 100, and over 800 ground relay stations have been built. The INTELSAT system comprises spacecraft over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and handles 2/3 of the world's international electronic communications and all transoceanic television. The 1965 Early Bird satellite had a 240 two-way telephone link capacity and weighed 38 kg, while the Intelsat V satellites, of which there will be nine, have increased the capacity to 20,000 voice circuits and Intelsat VI will double the number by 1993. Increasing demand for satellite communications links is driving the design and development of space platforms for multiple missions of communications, meteorological studies, and on-board switching and data processing in excess of current multiple satellite systems.

  19. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the Improved Tiros Operational Satellite (ITOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Quality control measures for Ni-Cd spacecraft cells were analyzed. Cells were examined for electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.50 volts during the internal short test. Test results are given in tabular form.

  20. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of Gulton Industries, Incorporated, 9.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells with auxiliary electrodes for the small astronomy Satellite (SAS-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation test program was conducted to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality by the screening of cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open-circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test. Tests and results are described.