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1

The Effect of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Analogs on Turkey Satellite Cell and Embryonic Myoblast Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of several human and chicken insulin-like growth factor (IGF) analogs on turkey satellite cell and embryonic myoblast proliferation were examined in serum-free medium. Similar rates of proliferation were observed when human or chicken IGF-I or IGF-II (13.1 nM) was administered to satellite cells. The biopotency of two analogs, which were modified to prevent interaction with IGF-binding proteins, was

J. E. Pesall; D. C. McFarland; J. P. McMurtry; J. A. Clapper; G. L. Francis; K. K. Gilkerson

2

The effect of glypican-1 glycosaminoglycan chains on turkey myogenic satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and fibroblast growth factor 2 responsiveness.  

PubMed

The glypicans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans consisting of a core protein covalently attached with glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Only glypican-1 is expressed in skeletal muscle and increases in expression during myoblast differentiation. Previous studies have suggested that glypican-1 influences fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling pathway by its heparan sulfate chains. Fibroblast growth factor 2 is a potent stimulator of muscle cell proliferation and an intense inhibitor of differentiation. To investigate the functional contribution of each GAG chain attachment site, a turkey glypican-1 full length cDNA (1,650 bp, Gen-Bank accession number AY551002) was cloned into the pCMS-EGFP vector and mutated at 2 or all 3 potential GAG attachment sites at Ser(483), Ser(485), and Ser(487) to obtain 1-chain and no-chain mutants, respectively. The unmutated glypican-1, 1-chain, and no-chain mutants, and the pCMS-EGFP vector without an insert were transfected into turkey myogenic satellite cells. The transfected cell cultures were assayed for cell proliferation, differentiation, and FGF2 responsiveness. The overexpression of glypican-1 increased FGF2 responsiveness during proliferation compared with the 1-chain, no-chain mutants, and the pCMS-EGFP vector without an insert, but there was no significant interaction between FGF2 and glypican-1. The overexpression of glypican-1 also increased differentiation but did not affect proliferation when compared with the 1-chain, no-chain mutants, and the pCMS-EGFP vector without an insert. To support the overexpression data, glypican-1 expression was reduced using a small interfering RNA against turkey glypican-1. Inhibition of glypican-1 expression decreased myogenic satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and FGF2 responsiveness during proliferation. These data indicate that glypican-1 function requires the GAG chain attachment sites for myogenic satellite cell FGF2 responsiveness during proliferation and to affect the process of differentiation. PMID:17704393

Zhang, X; Liu, C; Nestor, K E; McFarland, D C; Velleman, S G

2007-09-01

3

The effect of nutritional status and myogenic satellite cell age on turkey satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and expression of myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors and heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1.  

PubMed

Posthatch satellite cell mitotic activity is a critical component of muscle development and growth. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be induced by nutrition to follow other cellular developmental pathways, and whose mitotic activity declines with age. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of restricting protein synthesis on the proliferation and differentiation, expression of myogenic transcriptional regulatory factors myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, and myogenic regulatory factor 4, and expression of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-4 and glypican-1 in satellite cells isolated from 1-d-, 7-wk-, and 16-wk-old turkey pectoralis major muscle (1 d, 7 wk, and 16 wk cells, respectively) by using variable concentrations of Met and Cys. Four Met concentrations-30 (control), 7.5, 3, or 0 mg/L with 3.2 mg/L of Cys per 1 mg/L of Met-were used for culture of satellite cells to determine the effect of nutrition and age on satellite cell behavior during proliferation and differentiation. Proliferation was reduced by lower Met and Cys concentrations in all ages at 96 h of proliferation. Differentiation was increased in the 1 d Met-restricted cells, whereas the 7 wk cells treated with 3 mg/L of Met had decreased differentiation. Reduced Met and Cys levels from the control did not significantly affect the 16 wk cells at 72 h of differentiation. However, medium with no Met or Cys suppressed differentiation at all ages. The expression of myogenic determination factor 1, myogenin, myogenic regulatory factor 4, syndecan-4, and glypican-1 was differentially affected by age and Met or Cys treatment. These data demonstrate the age-specific manner in which turkey pectoralis major muscle satellite cells respond to nutritional availability and the importance of defining optimal nutrition to maximize satellite cell proliferation and differentiation for subsequent muscle mass accretion. PMID:24570437

Harthan, Laura B; McFarland, Douglas C; Velleman, Sandra G

2014-01-01

4

Skeletal muscle satellite cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form of control is to determine which of the many growth factors that can alter satellite cell behavior in vitro are at work in vivo. Little work has been done to determine what controls are at work after a regeneration response has been initiated. It seems likely that, after injury, growth factors are liberated through proteolytic activity and initiate an activation process whereby cells enter into a proliferative phase. After myofibers are formed, it also seems likely that satellite cell behavior is regulated through diffusible factors arising from the fibers rather than continuous control by circulating factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

1994-01-01

5

New perspectives for satellite-based archaeological research in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the use of satellite QuickBird images to find traces of past human activity in the ancient territory of Hierapolis (Turkey). This is one of the most important archaeological sites in Turkey, and in 1988 it was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage list. Although over the years the archaeological site of Hierapolis has been excavated, restored

R. Lasaponara; N. Masini; G. Scardozzi

2008-01-01

6

BILSAT-1: first Earth observation satellite of Turkey - operations and lessons learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

BILSAT-1 is an enhanced micro satellite designed and manufactured in the framework of a KHTT program between SSTL (UK) and TUBITAK-BILTEN (Turkey). The satellite was launched by a COSMOS 3M launch vehicle from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia on September 27, 2003. After being injected in a sun synchronous orbit at a 686 km altitude, it was commissioned successfully via

Gokhan Yuksel; Onder Belce; Hakan Urhan

2005-01-01

7

The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation (25 Gy) on the subsequent in vitro growth of satellite cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation on subsequent satellite cell growth, in vitro, was investigated to ascertain the ability of a 25 Gy dose to inhibit satellite cell proliferation. Satellite cells were isolated from the left (irradiated) and right (non-irradiated) Pectoralis thoracicus of two-week-old tom turkeys 16 h (n=3) and seven weeks (n=2) after the left Pectoralis thoracicus had been irradiated (25 Gy). Satellite cells isolated from the irradiated and non-irradiated muscles exhibited similar (P>0.10) in vitro proliferation indicating that a population of satellite cells survived an in vivo dose of 25 Gy. In additional experiments, satellite cell cultures derived from tom turkey Pectoralis thoracicus were irradiated (25 Gy) in vitro. The number of satellite cells did not (P>0.05) increase in irradiated cultures for 134 h following irradiation, while satellite cells in non-irradiated cultures proliferated (P<0.05) over this time. At later time periods, satellite cell number increased (P<0.05) in irradiated cultures indicating that a population of satellite cells survived irradiation. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that a 25 Gy dose of irradiation does not abolish satellite cell divisions in the turkey Pectoralis thoracicus.

Mozdziak, P. E.; Schultz, E.; Cassens, R. G.

1996-01-01

8

Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity: in vitro and in vivo evidences for populations that fuse differently  

Microsoft Academic Search

During development, muscle growth results from the proliferation of satellite cells (SC) and their fusion with fibers. Several studies revealed heterogeneity of SC population notably based on the proliferation rate. Here, we examined the SC characteristics of turkey skeletal muscles in terms of proliferation and more specifically fusion, to define if the ability of these cells to fuse may represent

Karl Rouger; Mickael Brault; Nathalie Daval; Isabelle Leroux; Lydie Guigand; Julie Lesoeur; Bernard Fernandez; Yan Cherel

2004-01-01

9

Coseismic Horizontal Offsets and Fault-Trace Mapping Using Phase Correlation of IRS Satellite Images: The 1999 Izmit (Turkey) Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

On August 17, 1999, a strong earthquake (Mw ?? 7.4) occurred along the western sector of the North Anatolian Fault system in Turkey. The epicenter was located near the city of Izmit, 50 km east of Istanbul. Previous works determined the coseismic surface displacements by satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) and satellite optical-image correlation. In 1999, the highest

Pablo J. Gonzalez; Marco Chini; Salvatore Stramondo; José Fernandez

2010-01-01

10

Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

2014-01-01

11

Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia.  

PubMed

The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

Alway, Stephen E; Myers, Matthew J; Mohamed, Junaith S

2014-01-01

12

Satellite Cells and the Muscle Stem Cell Niche  

PubMed Central

Adult skeletal muscle in mammals is a stable tissue under normal circumstances but has remarkable ability to repair after injury. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process involving the activation of various cellular and molecular responses. As skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells play an indispensible role in this process. The self-renewing proliferation of satellite cells not only maintains the stem cell population but also provides numerous myogenic cells, which proliferate, differentiate, fuse, and lead to new myofiber formation and reconstitution of a functional contractile apparatus. The complex behavior of satellite cells during skeletal muscle regeneration is tightly regulated through the dynamic interplay between intrinsic factors within satellite cells and extrinsic factors constituting the muscle stem cell niche/microenvironment. For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. Here, we review some recent advances, with focuses on functions of satellite cells and their niche during the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23303905

Yin, Hang; Price, Feodor

2013-01-01

13

The effects of cooling large white turkey embryos on growth and white blood cell development.  

PubMed

In each of two experiments, trays containing 15 developing turkey eggs were cooled for 1 h at 18 C on a specific day of incubation or left within the incubator (controls). Ten embryos from each treatment were bled on Day 23 of incubation, at which time all embryos were killed with CO2 gas, weighed, and sexed. Packed cell volumes and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were performed on all blood samples. A single, brief cooling episode during incubation did not significantly (P greater than .05) affect BW or hematocrit values in 23-day-old turkey embryos. Based on a differential classification of WBC in the blood smears of these turkey embryos, there were 82, 10, 8, less than 1, and less than 1% of heterophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and monocytes, respectively. Circulating heterophils, the most numerous WBC in turkey embryos, were significantly (P less than or equal to .05) reduced in all embryos cooled during the latter half of incubation. This effect was mirrored in the total WBC numbers counted. The effect of cooling on the other classes of turkey embryonic WBC, which represent about 20% of the circulating WBC, were more variable. PMID:1561212

Allsep, T; Wiggins, M; Birrenkott, G

1992-03-01

14

Ultrastructure of Muscle Satellite Cells in Hypersomatotropic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Wistar-Furth rats were injected at one week of age with cells from either the GH1 or GH3 rat pituitary cell lines. Controls were injected with vehicle. Rats were killed at 11 weeks of age and satellite cells in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Satellite cells in both the soleus and

Dennis R. Campion; Robert H. McCusker; Richard L. Richardson

1987-01-01

15

Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

1994-01-01

16

An Evaluation Regarding the Current Situation of Stem Cell Studies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is in a parallel state to that of other countries for developments in stem cell research and practices. Nevertheless,\\u000a Turkish law has no regulations for stem cell practices. To define a legal framework for stem cell research, rules of general\\u000a content should be used as the starting point. In 2005 and 2006, a general regulation and guidelines on stem

Berna Arda; Ahmet Ac?duman

2009-01-01

17

Initiation of satellite cell replication in bupivacaine-induced myonecrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine how and when the satellite cells are stimulated to replicate in muscle regeneration, the rat soleus muscle was examined chronologically after bupivacaine-induced myonecrosis. Bromodeoxyuridine and desmin-positive mononuclear cells, indicating the start of satellite cell replication, were seen 25 h after bupivacaine treatment when macrophages had already invaded the sarcoplasm of necrotic fiber. These findings suggest that muscle regeneration

Y. Saito; I. Nonaka

1994-01-01

18

MOLECULAR MARKERS IN WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

and conservation of wildlife species. In the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), these markers have been used, hybridization, Meleagris gallopavo, micro- satellite, mitochondrial, molecular marker, population, subspecies

Latch, Emily K.

19

The potential for archiving and reconstituting valuable strains of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) using primordial germ cells.  

PubMed

Diseases such as avian in?uenza can destroy turkey ?ocks, potentially resulting in the loss of valuable or rare genetic material. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a means to archive such germplasm. Germline chimeras produced by intravascular transfer of primordial germ cells (PGC) have been reported in other avian species but not turkeys. This study examined the feasibility of both establishing an archive of frozen PGC, and producing germline chimeras by injecting the thawed PGC into host embryos. To meet these aims, the following experiments were performed: (1) PGC identification within turkey embryos; (2) development of an efficient method for isolation of turkey PGC; (3) demonstration that PGC can be cryopreserved, recovered, and retain viability; (4) reinjection into embryos and detection of injected PGC. Primordial germ cells were identified using periodic acid-Schiff reagent and the immunological marker OLP-1. Bloodstream PGC were isolated using Ficoll density gradient centrifugation with PGC recovery peaking at stages 13, 14, and 15 with 32 ± 4.9, 33 ± 6.4, and 26 ± 5.4 PGC recovered, respectively. Primordial germ cells were frozen using Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium, 20% fetal calf serum, and 10% dimethylsulfoxide and demonstrated 90 ± 1.7% viability after 3 mo frozen in liquid nitrogen. Freshly isolated and frozen thawed DiI- and Q-Tracker-labeled PGC repopulated stage 30 gonads after vascular transfer into ex ovo cultured embryos. The DiI-labeled cells repopulated gonads less frequently, with 36 ± 13.2% of gonads containing the DiI-labeled PGC, and 7 ± 3.8% of reinjected PGC reaching the gonads of positive embryos. The Q-tracker-labeled cells were detected more frequently in embryos, with 67 ± 21.1% having positive signals, and 44 ± 4.9% of reinjected Q-tracker-labeled PGC colonized the gonads of positive embryos. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using turkey PGC to archive turkey germplasm from different strains because frozen PGC reintroduced into host embryos can colonize the host gonads, suggesting the possibility of producing turkey germline chimeras. PMID:24706956

Wade, Alexander J; French, Nick A; Ireland, Grenham W

2014-04-01

20

3D timelapse analysis of muscle satellite cell motility.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle repair and regeneration requires the activity of satellite cells, a population of myogenic stem cells scattered throughout the tissue and activated to proliferate and differentiate in response to myotrauma or disease. While it seems likely that satellite cells would need to navigate local muscle tissue to reach damaged areas, relatively little data on such motility exist, and most studies have been with immortalized cell lines. We find that primary satellite cells are significantly more motile than myoblast cell lines, and that adhesion to laminin promotes primary cell motility more than fourfold over other substrates. Using timelapse videomicroscopy to assess satellite cell motility on single living myofibers, we have identified a requirement for the laminin-binding integrin alpha 7 beta 1 in satellite cell motility, as well as a role for hepatocyte growth factor in promoting directional persistence. The extensive migratory behavior of satellite cells resident on muscle fibers suggests caution when determining, based on fixed specimens, whether adjacent cells are daughters from the same mother cell. We also observed more persistent long-term contact between individual satellite cells than has been previously supposed, potential cell-cell attractive and repulsive interactions, and migration between host myofibers. Based on such activity, we assayed for expression of "pathfinding" cues, and found that satellite cells express multiple guidance ligands and receptors. Together, these data suggest that satellite cell migration in vivo may be more extensive than currently thought, and could be regulated by combinations of signals, including adhesive haptotaxis, soluble factors, and guidance cues. PMID:19609936

Siegel, Ashley L; Atchison, Kevin; Fisher, Kevin E; Davis, George E; Cornelison, D D W

2009-10-01

21

Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a three dimensional level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development.

Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

1993-01-01

22

Evidence for Functionally Distinct Subpopulations of Steroidogenic Cells in the Domestic Turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) Adrenal Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A body of histological and functional evidence supports the hypothesis that there are functionally distinct subpopulations of steroidogenic cells comprising the avian adrenal gland. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by evaluating the steroidogenic responses of density-dependent subpopulations of adrenal steroidogenic cells isolated from domestic turkeys fed either a high-normal (control) sodium diet (0.4% Na+) or a Na+-restricted

John F. Kocsis; Ellen T. Lamm; Patrick J. McIlroy; Colin G. Scanes; Rocco V. Carsia

1995-01-01

23

Electrical analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen\\/fuel cell energy system in Denizli, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen\\/fuel cell energy systems have been popular as energy production systems that are clean, environmental-friendly, modular, and independent from fossil fuels. In February 2007, a clean energy research facility consisting of a 5kWp photovoltaic system and a 2.4kWp hydrogen-fuel cell system was built to investigate these energy production technologies at Pamukkale University in Denizli, Turkey. In

Engin Cetin; Ahmet Yilanci; Yusuf Oner; Metin Colak; Ismail Kasikci; Harun K. Ozturk

2009-01-01

24

Satellite cells and myonuclei in neonatally denervated rat muscle.  

PubMed

While it is well know that the percentage of stellite cells in relation to myonuclei rapidly decreases in aneurally regenerating adult muscle, the fate of satellite cells in neonatally denervated muscles has received little attention so far. In the present study, rat tibialis anterior muscles were denervated at birth and analysed after 5, 7 and 10 weeks. At least 400 myonuclei in each muscle were assessed by electron microscopy and the percentage of satellite cell nuclei in relation to the number of myonuclei was calculated. The results indicated that the percentage of satellite cells steeply declines after neonatal denervation and, after 10 weeks, satellite cells were practically lacking in the muscles under analysis. This process of exhaustion of the satellite cell pool appears to be more rapid in developing than in adult muscles. PMID:12043920

Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Geuna, Stefano; Rodrigues, Silvana Perezin de Mattos; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai; Aragon, Flávio Ferrari

2002-01-01

25

Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

26

Human satellite cells have regenerative capacity and are genetically manipulable.  

PubMed

Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. Human satellite cells are scarce; therefore, clinical investigation has been limited. We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were activated and proliferated efficiently in culture. Independent of donor age, as few as 2 to 4 PAX7+ satellite cells gave rise to several thousand myoblasts. Transplantation of human muscle fiber fragments into irradiated muscle of immunodeficient mice resulted in robust engraftment, muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that subjecting the human muscle fiber fragments to hypothermic treatment successfully enriches the cultures for PAX7+ cells and improves the efficacy of the transplantation and muscle regeneration. Finally, we successfully altered gene expression in cultured human PAX7+ satellite cells with Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated nonviral gene transfer, highlighting the potential of this system for use in gene therapy. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to culture and manipulate a rare population of human tissue-specific stem cells and suggest that these PAX7+ satellite cells have potential to restore gene function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:25157816

Marg, Andreas; Escobar, Helena; Gloy, Sina; Kufeld, Markus; Zacher, Joseph; Spuler, Andreas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Spuler, Simone

2014-10-01

27

Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca(2+) sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

McCarthy, John J; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S; Esser, Karyn A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; Peterson, Charlotte A

2011-09-01

28

Effective fiber hypertrophy in satellite cell-depleted skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

An important unresolved question in skeletal muscle plasticity is whether satellite cells are necessary for muscle fiber hypertrophy. To address this issue, a novel mouse strain (Pax7-DTA) was created which enabled the conditional ablation of >90% of satellite cells in mature skeletal muscle following tamoxifen administration. To test the hypothesis that satellite cells are necessary for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, the plantaris muscle of adult Pax7-DTA mice was subjected to mechanical overload by surgical removal of the synergist muscle. Following two weeks of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle showed the same increases in muscle mass (approximately twofold) and fiber cross-sectional area with hypertrophy as observed in the vehicle-treated group. The typical increase in myonuclei with hypertrophy was absent in satellite cell-depleted fibers, resulting in expansion of the myonuclear domain. Consistent with lack of nuclear addition to enlarged fibers, long-term BrdU labeling showed a significant reduction in the number of BrdU-positive myonuclei in satellite cell-depleted muscle compared with vehicle-treated muscle. Single fiber functional analyses showed no difference in specific force, Ca2+ sensitivity, rate of cross-bridge cycling and cooperativity between hypertrophied fibers from vehicle and tamoxifen-treated groups. Although a small component of the hypertrophic response, both fiber hyperplasia and regeneration were significantly blunted following satellite cell depletion, indicating a distinct requirement for satellite cells during these processes. These results provide convincing evidence that skeletal muscle fibers are capable of mounting a robust hypertrophic response to mechanical overload that is not dependent on satellite cells. PMID:21828094

McCarthy, John J.; Mula, Jyothi; Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Erfani, Rod; Garrison, Kelcye; Farooqui, Amreen B.; Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Lawson, Benjamin A.; Grimes, Barry; Keller, Charles; Van Zant, Gary; Campbell, Kenneth S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

2011-01-01

29

The muscle satellite cell at 50: the formative years  

PubMed Central

In February 1961, Alexander Mauro described a cell 'wedged' between the plasma membrane of the muscle fibre and the surrounding basement membrane. He postulated that it could be a dormant myoblast, poised to repair muscle when needed. In the same month, Bernard Katz also reported a cell in a similar location on muscle spindles, suggesting that it was associated with development and growth of intrafusal muscle fibres. Both Mauro and Katz used the term 'satellite cell' in relation to their discoveries. Today, the muscle satellite cell is widely accepted as the resident stem cell of skeletal muscle, supplying myoblasts for growth, homeostasis and repair. Since 2011 marks both the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the satellite cell, and the launch of Skeletal Muscle, it seems an opportune moment to summarise the seminal events in the history of research into muscle regeneration. We start with the 19th-century pioneers who showed that muscle had a regenerative capacity, through to the descriptions from the mid-20th century of the underlying cellular mechanisms. The journey of the satellite cell from electron microscope curio, to its gradual acceptance as a bona fide myoblast precursor, is then charted: work that provided the foundations for our understanding of the role of the satellite cell. Finally, the rapid progress in the age of molecular biology is briefly discussed, and some ongoing debates on satellite cell function highlighted. PMID:21849021

2011-01-01

30

Muscle reconstitution by muscle satellite cell descendants with stem cell-like properties.  

PubMed

Recent studies have demonstrated that a distinct subpopulation with stem cell-like characteristics in myoblast culture is responsible for new muscle fiber formation after intramuscular transplantation. The identification and isolation of stem-like cells would have significant implications for successful myogenic cell transfer therapy in human muscle disorders. Using a clonal culture system for mouse muscle satellite cells, we have identified two cell types, designated 'round cells' and 'thick cells', in clones derived from single muscle satellite cells that have been taken from either slow or fast muscle. Clonal analysis of satellite cells revealed that the round cells are immediate descendants of quiescent satellite cells in adult muscle. In single-myofiber culture, round cells first formed colonies and then generated progeny, thick cells, that underwent both myogenic and osteogenic terminal differentiation under the appropriate culture conditions. Thick cells, but not round cells, responded to terminal differentiation-inducing signals. Round cells express Pax7, a specific marker of satellite cells, at high levels. Myogenic cell transfer experiments showed that round cells reconstitute myofibers more efficiently than thick cells. Furthermore, round cells restored dystrophin in myofibers of mdx nude mice, even when as few as 5000 cells were transferred into the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that round cells are satellite-cell descendants with stem cell-like characteristics and represent a useful source of donor cells to improve muscle regeneration. PMID:15469979

Hashimoto, Naohiro; Murase, Takeshi; Kondo, Syunzo; Okuda, Asuko; Inagawa-Ogashiwa, Masayo

2004-11-01

31

Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity.  

PubMed

Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and, therefore, provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75% satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached divided by cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and nonsatellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability because glucose levels in medium from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARV were joined together by cells into 3-D aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a 3-D level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development than is currently available with standard culture methods. PMID:9196898

Molnar, G; Schroedl, N A; Gonda, S R; Hartzell, C R

1997-05-01

32

Latency of Herpesvirus of Turkey and Marek's Disease Virus Genomes in a Chicken T-Lymphoblastoid Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The properties of latent herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) genomes have been studied in virus-non-producer MDCC-BOI(T) cells, a T-lymphoblastoid cell line derived from spleen cells of an HVT-vaccinated chicken. The numbers of the two virus genomes in BO 1 (T) cells remained stable at 1.6 to 1.8 HVT genome equivalents\\/cell and 3.4 to 3.8 MDV

KANJI HIRAI; KAZUYOSHI IKUTA; NORITOSHI KITAMOTO; SHIRO KATO

1981-01-01

33

The activation of satellite cells by nanofibrous poly ?-caprolacton constructs.  

PubMed

Nanoscale patterning of scaffolds provides broad surface for adhesion and differentiation of stem cells. As we know, the combination of tissue engineering with stem cells technology hold the key for regeneration of damaged tissues for example skeletal muscle tissues. On the other hand, the mechanical assessments of poly ?-caprolacton nanofibers determined the required features of biomedical scaffold for skeletal muscle tissue. In this study, skeletal muscle satellite cells as the main group of stem cells were cultivated on the electrospun poly ?-caprolacton nanofibers. Our results indicated that in comparison with tissue culture polystyrene, the nanoscale of scaffolds provided more induction to matured cells of skeletal muscle. Moreover, the immobilization of cells by collagen on poly ?-caprolacton nanofibers significantly improved the differential potency of satellite cells. PMID:23520361

Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Soleimani, Masoud; Rezayat, Sayed Mahdi; Ai, Jafar; Vasei, Mohammad

2014-02-01

34

Muscle satellite cells and endothelial cells: close neighbours and privileged partners.  

E-print Network

of capillary density, including amyopathic dermatomyositis, a unique condition in which muscle capillary loss1 Muscle satellite cells and endothelial cells: close neighbours and privileged partners. Christo5GFP-P/+ ) allowing direct muscle satellite cell (SC) visualization indicate that, in addition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Epigenetic regulation of satellite cell activation during muscle regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are a population of adult muscle stem cells that play a key role in mediating muscle regeneration. Activation\\u000a of these quiescent stem cells in response to muscle injury involves modulating expression of multiple developmentally regulated\\u000a genes, including mediators of the muscle-specific transcription program: Pax7, Myf5, MyoD and myogenin. Here we present evidence\\u000a suggesting an essential role for the

F Jeffrey Dilworth; Alexandre Blais

2011-01-01

36

Mesenchymal progenitors distinct from satellite cells contribute to ectopic fat cell formation in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Ectopic fat deposition in skeletal muscle is closely associated with several disorders, however, the origin of these adipocytes is not clear, nor is the mechanism of their formation. Satellite cells function as adult muscle stem cells but are proposed to possess multipotency. Here, we prospectively identify PDGFRalpha(+) mesenchymal progenitors as being distinct from satellite cells and located in the muscle interstitium. We show that, of the muscle-derived cell populations, only PDGFRalpha(+) cells show efficient adipogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Reciprocal transplantations between regenerating and degenerating muscles, and co-culture experiments revealed that adipogenesis of PDGFRalpha(+) cells is strongly inhibited by the presence of satellite cell-derived myofibres. These results suggest that PDGFRalpha(+) mesenchymal progenitors are the major contributor to ectopic fat cell formation in skeletal muscle, and emphasize that interaction between muscle cells and PDGFRalpha(+) mesenchymal progenitors, not the fate decision of satellite cells, has a considerable impact on muscle homeostasis. PMID:20081842

Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Fukada, So-ichiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

2010-02-01

37

Extrinsic regulation of satellite cell specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular commitment during vertebrate embryogenesis is controlled by an interplay of intrinsic regulators and morphogenetic\\u000a signals. These mechanisms recruit a subset of cells in the developing organism to become the ancestors of skeletal muscle.\\u000a Signals that control progression through the myogenic lineage converge on a battery of hierarchically organized transcription\\u000a factors which modulate the cells to either remain in a

C Florian Bentzinger; Julia von Maltzahn; Michael A Rudnicki

2010-01-01

38

PPAR? regulates satellite cell proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a class of nuclear receptors that play important roles in development and energy metabolism. Whereas PPAR? has been shown to regulate mitochondrial biosynthesis and slow-muscle fiber types, its function in skeletal muscle progenitors (satellite cells) is unknown. Since constitutive mutation of Ppar? leads to embryonic lethality, we sought to address this question by conditional knockout (cKO) of Ppar? using Myf5-Cre/Ppar?flox/flox alleles to ablate PPAR? in myogenic progenitor cells. Although Ppar?-cKO mice were born normally and initially displayed no difference in body weight, muscle size or muscle composition, they later developed metabolic syndrome, which manifested as increased body weight and reduced response to glucose challenge at age nine months. Ppar?-cKO mice had 40% fewer satellite cells than their wild-type littermates, and these satellite cells exhibited reduced growth kinetics and proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, regeneration of Ppar?-cKO muscles was impaired after cardiotoxin-induced injury. Gene expression analysis showed reduced expression of the Forkhead box class O transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) gene in Ppar?-cKO muscles under both quiescent and regenerating conditions, suggesting that PPAR? acts through FoxO1 in regulating muscle progenitor cells. These results support a function of PPAR? in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and they establish a novel role of PPAR? in muscle progenitor cells and postnatal muscle regeneration. PMID:22040534

2011-01-01

39

No change in skeletal muscle satellite cells in young and aging rat soleus muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are muscle stem cells capable of replenishing or increasing myonuclear number. It is postulated that a reduction\\u000a in satellite cells may contribute to age-related sarcopenia. Studies investigating an age-related decline in satellite cells\\u000a have produced equivocal results. This study compared the satellite cell content of young and aging soleus muscle in rat, using\\u000a four different methods: dystrophin–laminin immunohistochemistry,

Naomi E. Brooks; Mark D. Schuenke; Robert S. Hikida

2009-01-01

40

Ethical and legal aspects of stem cell practices in Turkey: where are we?  

PubMed

Advances in medical technology and information have facilitated clinical practices that favourably affect the success rates of treatment for diseases. Regenerative medicine has been the focus of the recent medical agenda, to the extent of fundamentally changing treatment paradigms. Stem cell practices, their efficacy, and associated ethical concerns have been debated intensively in many countries. Stem cell research is carried out along with the treatment of patients. Thus, various groups affected by the practices inevitably participate in the discussions. In addition to discussions based on avoiding any harm, providing benefits and respecting personal autonomy and justice, problems arise owing to the lack of legal regulations for stem cell research and practice. The dimensions of the problems vary in the developing countries, with widespread use of advanced medical technology but with lack of sources allocated for healthcare, dominance of paternalistic physician-patient relationships and failure to achieve a sufficient level of awareness of patients' rights. This article discusses the current situation of stem cell practices within the context of regenerative medicine in Turkey and ethical concerns about some of the legal regulations, such as the Regulation for Umblical Cord Blood Banking and Guidelines for Non-embryonic Stem Cell Study for Non-clinical Purposes directing the research on this issue. PMID:19043103

Ozturk Turkmen, H; Arda, B

2008-12-01

41

Notch signaling deficiency underlies age-dependent depletion of satellite cells in muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease characterized by muscle wasting, loss of mobility and death in early adulthood. Satellite cells are muscle-resident stem cells responsible for the repair and regeneration of damaged muscles. One pathological feature of DMD is the progressive depletion of satellite cells, leading to the failure of muscle repair. Here, we attempted to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying satellite cell ablation in the dystrophin mutant mdx mouse, a well-established model for DMD. Initial muscle degeneration activates satellite cells, resulting in increased satellite cell number in young mdx mice. This is followed by rapid loss of satellite cells with age due to the reduced self-renewal ability of mdx satellite cells. In addition, satellite cell composition is altered even in young mdx mice, with significant reductions in the abundance of non-committed (Pax7+ and Myf5-) satellite cells. Using a Notch-reporter mouse, we found that the mdx satellite cells have reduced activation of Notch signaling, which has been shown to be necessary to maintain satellite cell quiescence and self-renewal. Concomitantly, the expression of Notch1, Notch3, Jag1, Hey1 and HeyL are reduced in the mdx primary myoblast. Finally, we established a mouse model to constitutively activate Notch signaling in satellite cells, and show that Notch activation is sufficient to rescue the self-renewal deficiencies of mdx satellite cells. These results demonstrate that Notch signaling is essential for maintaining the satellite cell pool and that its deficiency leads to depletion of satellite cells in DMD. PMID:24906372

Jiang, Chunhui; Wen, Yefei; Kuroda, Kazuki; Hannon, Kevin; Rudnicki, Michael A; Kuang, Shihuan

2014-08-01

42

Vaccination against Marek's disease: Immunizing effect of purified turkey herpes virus and cellular membranes from infected cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-day-old chickens susceptible to Marek's disease were vaccinated with experimental vaccines prepared from purified turkey herpes virus (HVT), inactivated HVT preparations or a membrane fraction isolated from HTV-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts, respectively. Purified HVT was found to be as effective in immunization against Marek's disease as cell-associated virus. The specific mortality of chickens twice vaccinated with cellular membranes from HVT-infected

O.-R. Kaaden; B. Dietzschold; S. UeberschÄr

1974-01-01

43

Real time of earthquakes prone areas by RST analysis of satellite TIR radiances: results of continuous monitoring over Italy and Turkey regions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological satellites offering global coverage, continuity of observations and long term time series (starting even 30 years ago) offer a unique possibility not only to learn from the past but also to guarantee continuous monitoring whereas other observation technologies are lacking because too expensive or (like in the case of earthquake precursor studies) or considered useless by decision-makers. Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed (since 2001) in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transient possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. Since then several earthquakes occurred in Europe, Africa and America have been studied by analyzing decades of satellite observations always using a validation/confutation approach in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in presence/absence of significant seismic activity. In the framework of PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project (www.pre-earthquakes.org) , starting from October 2010 (still continuing) RST approach has been applied to MSG/SEVIRI data to generate TIR anomaly maps over Italian peninsula, continuously for all the midnight slots. Since September 2011 the same monitoring activity (still continuing) started for Turkey region. For the first time a similar analysis has been performed in real-time, systematically analyzing TIR anomaly maps in order to identify day by day possible significant (e.g. persistent in the space-time domain) thermal anomalies. During 2011 only in very few cases (1 in Italy in July and 2 in the Turkish region in September and November) the day by day analysis enhanced significant anomalies that in two cases were communicated to the other PRE-EARTHQUAKES partners asking for their attention. In this paper results of such analysis will be presented which seem to confirm results independently achieved (unfortunately without their knowledge) by other authors applying a similar approach to EOS/MODIS data over California region.

Tramutoli, V.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

2012-04-01

44

Effect of yeast cell product (CitriStim) supplementation on turkey performance and intestinal immune cell parameters during an experimental lipopolysaccharide injection.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to identify the effect of whole yeast cell product supplementation in turkeys following an experimental inflammatory challenge. A total of 105 one-day-old turkey tom poults were fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, and 0.2% whole yeast cell product (CitriStim, ADM, Quincy, IL). At 6 wk of age and 16 wk of age, turkeys were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 0 or 0.25 mg/kg of BW in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. BW gain (P = 0.31) and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.53; 3.13, 2.94, and 2.98 for the 0, 0.10, and 0.20% CitriStim treatments, respectively) at 15 wk of age were not significantly affected by the treatment diets. Yeast cell wall product supplementation had no effect on growth in control-injected turkeys but decreased growth in LPS-injected turkeys (yeast × LPS, P < 0.05). Splenic macrophages from birds fed whole yeast cell product and injected with LPS produced higher (P < 0.01) nitric oxide than the control group injected with LPS at both 6 and 16 wk of age. At 6 and 16 wk of age, birds injected with LPS (P < 0.01; P < 0.01) and supplemented with whole yeast cell product (P = 0.05; P = 0.10) showed increased IL-1 mRNA amounts in cecal tonsils. In birds not injected with LPS, whole yeast cell supplementation increased regulatory T cell percentage and IL-10 mRNA amounts, whereas in birds injected with LPS, whole yeast cell supplementation decreased IL-10 mRNA amounts at both 6 (P < 0.01) and 16 wk (P = 0.01) of age in cecal tonsils. Whole yeast cell product supplementation increased Lactobacillus (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01) andBifidobacteria (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01) population at 6 and 16 wk of age. In conclusion, the effect of feeding whole yeast cell product on turkeys was dependent on the inflammatory status of the bird. PMID:25239535

Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Sifri, Mamduh; Jeyabalan, Ramesh; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

2014-11-01

45

BMP signalling permits population expansion by preventing premature myogenic differentiation in muscle satellite cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are the resident stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, supplying myonuclei for homoeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. In this study, we have examined the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling in regulating satellite cell function. Activated satellite cells expressed BMP receptor type 1A (BMPR-1A\\/Alk-3) and contained phosphorylated Smad proteins, indicating that BMP signalling is operating during proliferation. Indeed,

Y Ono; F Calhabeu; J E Morgan; T Katagiri; H Amthor; P S Zammit

2011-01-01

46

Synthesis and secretion of matrix-degrading metalloproteases by human skeletal muscle satellite cells.  

PubMed

The expression of matrix-degrading metalloproteases (MMPs) by human skeletal muscle satellite cells was investigated by zymography of cell culture media and by Northern blot analysis of mRNA prepared from satellite cells. Zymography in gelatin substrate gels revealed that satellite cells constitutively synthesize and secrete 72 kDa gelatinase (MMP-2). In addition, treatment of satellite cell cultures with phorbol ester resulted in an induction of 92 kDa gelatinase (MMP-9) activity. On casein substrate gels, little or no proteolytic activity was detectable in control or phorbol ester treated satellite cell cultures, suggesting that compared to fibroblasts, satellite cells secrete little or no interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) or stromelysin (MMP-3) activity. Northern blotting, however, revealed that there is detectable expression of mRNA transcripts encoding MMP-1 in satellite cell cultures, and that increased accumulation of MMP-1 mRNA transcripts occurs upon treatment of these cells with phorbol ester. In contrast, no constitutive, or induced expression of transcripts encoding MMP-3 was detectable in satellite cells. These findings show that satellite cells can synthesize and secrete selected members of the MMP family and suggest that skeletal muscle cells may participate directly in remodelling of the extracellular matrix during myogenesis and the regeneration of skeletal muscle. PMID:7703524

Guérin, C W; Holland, P C

1995-01-01

47

Satellite cells, connective tissue fibroblasts and their interactions are crucial for muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

Muscle regeneration requires the coordinated interaction of multiple cell types. Satellite cells have been implicated as the primary stem cell responsible for regenerating muscle, yet the necessity of these cells for regeneration has not been tested. Connective tissue fibroblasts also are likely to play a role in regeneration, as connective tissue fibrosis is a hallmark of regenerating muscle. However, the lack of molecular markers for these fibroblasts has precluded an investigation of their role. Using Tcf4, a newly identified fibroblast marker, and Pax7, a satellite cell marker, we found that after injury satellite cells and fibroblasts rapidly proliferate in close proximity to one another. To test the role of satellite cells and fibroblasts in muscle regeneration in vivo, we created Pax7CreERT2 and Tcf4CreERT2 mice and crossed these to R26RDTA mice to genetically ablate satellite cells and fibroblasts. Ablation of satellite cells resulted in a complete loss of regenerated muscle, as well as misregulation of fibroblasts and a dramatic increase in connective tissue. Ablation of fibroblasts altered the dynamics of satellite cells, leading to premature satellite cell differentiation, depletion of the early pool of satellite cells, and smaller regenerated myofibers. Thus, we provide direct, genetic evidence that satellite cells are required for muscle regeneration and also identify resident fibroblasts as a novel and vital component of the niche regulating satellite cell expansion during regeneration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reciprocal interactions between fibroblasts and satellite cells contribute significantly to efficient, effective muscle regeneration. PMID:21828091

Murphy, Malea M.; Lawson, Jennifer A.; Mathew, Sam J.; Hutcheson, David A.; Kardon, Gabrielle

2011-01-01

48

A role for RNA post-transcriptional regulation in satellite cell activation  

PubMed Central

Background Satellite cells are resident skeletal muscle stem cells responsible for muscle maintenance and repair. In resting muscle, satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state. Satellite cell activation induces the myogenic commitment factor, MyoD, and cell cycle entry to facilitate transition to a population of proliferating myoblasts that eventually exit the cycle and regenerate muscle tissue. The molecular mechanism involved in the transition of a quiescent satellite cell to a transit-amplifying myoblast is poorly understood. Methods Satellite cells isolated by FACS from uninjured skeletal muscle and 12 h post-muscle injury from wild type and Syndecan-4 null mice were probed using Affymetrix 430v2 gene chips and analyzed by Spotfiretm and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to identify gene expression changes and networks associated with satellite cell activation, respectively. Additional analyses of target genes identify miRNAs exhibiting dynamic changes in expression during satellite cell activation. The function of the miRNAs was assessed using miRIDIAN hairpin inhibitors. Results An unbiased gene expression screen identified over 4,000 genes differentially expressed in satellite cells in vivo within 12 h following muscle damage and more than 50% of these decrease dramatically. RNA binding proteins and genes involved in post-transcriptional regulation were significantly over-represented whereas splicing factors were preferentially downregulated and mRNA stability genes preferentially upregulated. Furthermore, six computationally identified miRNAs demonstrated novel expression through muscle regeneration and in satellite cells. Three of the six miRNAs were found to regulate satellite cell fate. Conclusions The quiescent satellite cell is actively maintained in a state poised to activate in response to external signals. Satellite cell activation appears to be regulated by post-transcriptional gene regulation. PMID:23046558

2012-01-01

49

Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells: Background and Methods for Isolation and Analysis in a Primary Culture System  

PubMed Central

Summary Repair of adult skeletal muscle depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. Standardized protocols for the isolation and culture of satellite cells are key tools for understanding cell autonomous and extrinsic factors that regulate their performance. Knowledge gained from such studies can contribute important insights to developing strategies for the improvement of muscle repair following trauma and in muscle wasting disorders. This chapter provides an introduction to satellite cell biology and further describes the basic protocol used in our laboratory to isolate and culture satellite cells from adult skeletal muscle. The cell culture conditions detailed herein support proliferation and differentiation of satellite cell progeny and the development of reserve cells, which are thought to reflect the in vivo self-renewal ability of satellite cells. Additionally, this chapter describes our standard immunostaining protocol that allows the characterization of satellite cell progeny by the temporal expression of characteristic transcription factors and structural proteins associated with different stages of myogenic progression. While emphasis is given here to the isolation and characterization of satellite cells from mouse hindlimb muscles, the protocols are suitable for other muscle types (such as diaphragm and extraocular muscles) and for muscles from other species, including chicken and rat. Altogether, the basic protocols described are straightforward and facilitate the study of diverse aspects of skeletal muscle stem cells. PMID:22130829

Danoviz, Maria Elena; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

2012-01-01

50

FGF2 activates TRPC and Ca2+ signaling leading to satellite cell activation  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells, as stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, are tightly associated with the differentiated muscle fibers and remain quiescent in the absence of muscle damage. In response to an injury, the quiescent satellite cell is activated by soluble factors, including FGFs released from injured myofibers. Using immunostaining, we here first show that TRPC1 channels are highly expressed in satellite cells attached to muscle fibers. Since CD34, a traditional stem cell marker, was recently found to be expressed in skeletal muscle satellite cells we labeled living satellite cells in their physiological niche associated with host FDB fibers using anti-CD34-FITC antibody. We then monitored intra-cellular calcium in anti-CD34-FITC labeled satellite cells attached to muscle fibers using the calcium sensitive dye X rhod-1 which has little fluorescence cross talk with FITC. FGF2 increased intracellular calcium in satellite cells, which was antagonized by the TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365. Immunostaining showed that NFATc3 is highly expressed in satellite cells, but not in host FDB fibers. Elevation of intracellular calcium by FGF2 is accompanied by nuclear translocation of NFATc3 and NFATc2 and by an increase in the number of MyoD positive cells per muscle fiber, both of which were attenuated by TRPC blocker SKF 96365. Our results suggest a novel pathway of satellite cell activation where FGF2 enhances calcium influx through a TRPC channel, and the increased cytosolic calcium leads to both NFATc3 and NFATc2 nuclear translocation and enhanced number of MyoD positive satellite cells per muscle fiber. PMID:24575047

Liu, Yewei; Schneider, Martin F.

2013-01-01

51

C-Met expression and mechanical activation of satellite cells on cultured muscle fibers.  

PubMed

Single-fiber cultures can be used to model satellite cell activation in vivo. Although technical deficiencies previously prevented study of stretch-induced events, here we describe a method developed to study satellite cell gene expression by in situ hybridization (ISH) using protocol modifications for fiber adhesion and fixation. The hypothesis that mechanical stretching activates satellite cells was tested. Fiber cultures were established from normal flexor digitorum brevis muscles and plated on FlexCell dishes with a layer of Vitrogen. After 2 hr of stretch in the presence of BrdU, satellite cells on fibers attached to Vitrogen were activated above control levels. In the absence of activating treatments or mechanical stretch, ISH studies showed 0-6 c-Met+ satellite cells per fiber. Time course experiments demonstrated stable quiescence in the absence of stretch and significant peaks in activation after 30 min and 2 hr of stretch. Frequency distributions for unstretched fiber cultures showed a significantly greater number of quiescent c-Met+ satellite cells than were activated by stretching, suggesting that typical activation stimuli did not trigger cycling in the entire c-Met+ population of satellite cells. These methods have a strong potential to further dissect the nature of stretch-induced activation and gene expression among characterized populations of individual quiescent and activated satellite cells. PMID:14566016

Wozniak, Ashley C; Pilipowicz, Orest; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Greenway, Steven; Craven, Shauna; Scott, Elliott; Anderson, Judy E

2003-11-01

52

Satellite cell depletion does not inhibit adult skeletal muscle regrowth following unloading-induced atrophy  

PubMed Central

Resident muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells, are thought to be the main mediators of skeletal muscle plasticity. Satellite cells are activated, replicate, and fuse into existing muscle fibers in response to both muscle injury and mechanical load. It is generally well-accepted that satellite cells participate in postnatal growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration following injury; however, their role in muscle regrowth following an atrophic stimulus remains equivocal. The current study employed a genetic mouse model (Pax7-DTA) that allowed for the effective depletion of >90% of satellite cells in adult muscle upon the administration of tamoxifen. Vehicle and tamoxifen-treated young adult female mice were either hindlimb suspended for 14 days to induce muscle atrophy or hindlimb suspended for 14 days followed by 14 days of reloading to allow regrowth, or they remained ambulatory for the duration of the experimental protocol. Additionally, 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was added to the drinking water to track cell proliferation. Soleus muscle atrophy, as measured by whole muscle wet weight, fiber cross-sectional area, and single-fiber width, occurred in response to suspension and did not differ between satellite cell-depleted and control muscles. Furthermore, the depletion of satellite cells did not attenuate muscle mass or force recovery during the 14-day reloading period, suggesting that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth. Myonuclear number was not altered during either the suspension or the reloading period in soleus muscle fibers from vehicle-treated or satellite cell-depleted animals. Thus, myonuclear domain size was reduced following suspension due to decreased cytoplasmic volume and was completely restored following reloading, independent of the presence of satellite cells. These results provide convincing evidence that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth following atrophy and that, instead, the myonuclear domain size changes as myofibers adapt. PMID:22895262

Jackson, Janna R.; Mula, Jyothi; Kirby, Tyler J.; Fry, Christopher S.; Lee, Jonah D.; Ubele, Margo F.; Campbell, Kenneth S.; McCarthy, John J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

2012-01-01

53

Satellite cell depletion does not inhibit adult skeletal muscle regrowth following unloading-induced atrophy.  

PubMed

Resident muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells, are thought to be the main mediators of skeletal muscle plasticity. Satellite cells are activated, replicate, and fuse into existing muscle fibers in response to both muscle injury and mechanical load. It is generally well-accepted that satellite cells participate in postnatal growth, hypertrophy, and muscle regeneration following injury; however, their role in muscle regrowth following an atrophic stimulus remains equivocal. The current study employed a genetic mouse model (Pax7-DTA) that allowed for the effective depletion of >90% of satellite cells in adult muscle upon the administration of tamoxifen. Vehicle and tamoxifen-treated young adult female mice were either hindlimb suspended for 14 days to induce muscle atrophy or hindlimb suspended for 14 days followed by 14 days of reloading to allow regrowth, or they remained ambulatory for the duration of the experimental protocol. Additionally, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was added to the drinking water to track cell proliferation. Soleus muscle atrophy, as measured by whole muscle wet weight, fiber cross-sectional area, and single-fiber width, occurred in response to suspension and did not differ between satellite cell-depleted and control muscles. Furthermore, the depletion of satellite cells did not attenuate muscle mass or force recovery during the 14-day reloading period, suggesting that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth. Myonuclear number was not altered during either the suspension or the reloading period in soleus muscle fibers from vehicle-treated or satellite cell-depleted animals. Thus, myonuclear domain size was reduced following suspension due to decreased cytoplasmic volume and was completely restored following reloading, independent of the presence of satellite cells. These results provide convincing evidence that satellite cells are not required for muscle regrowth following atrophy and that, instead, the myonuclear domain size changes as myofibers adapt. PMID:22895262

Jackson, Janna R; Mula, Jyothi; Kirby, Tyler J; Fry, Christopher S; Lee, Jonah D; Ubele, Margo F; Campbell, Kenneth S; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E

2012-10-15

54

Satellite observations of ship emission induced transitions from broken to closed cell marine stratocumulus  

E-print Network

Satellite observations of ship emission induced transitions from broken to closed cell marine during 42 h demonstrated that ship emissions are able to convert a marine stratocumulus regime of open (2012), Satellite observations of ship emission induced transitions from broken to closed cell marine

Daniel, Rosenfeld

55

HGF is an autocrine growth factor for skeletal muscle satellite cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Muscle satellite cell activation following injury is essential for muscle repair, and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) was the first growth factor shown to be able to stimulate activation and early division of adult satellite cells in culture and in muscle tissue. In addition, HGF was shown to be present in uninjured and injured skeletal muscle. Experiments in this report demonstrate that cultured satellite cells also synthesize and secrete HGF. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to demonstrate the presence of HGF mRNA in cultured adult satellite cells as early as 12 h from the time of plating. Message content was detectable at early times in culture and appeared to increase between 36 and 48 h. HGF protein expression was demonstrated during this time period by immunofluorescence localization; HGF was localized to mononucleated cells and multinucleated myotubes. HGF message was not detectable in muscle-derived fibroblast clones, and fibroblast-like cells in satellite cell cultures were negative for HGF by immunofluorescence analysis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed the presence of HGF in satellite cell culture conditioned medium, associated with the cell surface and inside cells. Finally, the addition of neutralizing HGF antibodies during the proliferation phase in culture (42-90 h) significantly reduced cell proliferation. These experiments indicate that HGF is expressed by cultured satellite cells and that endogenous HGF from satellite cells can act in an autocrine fashion. Because HGF plays a central role in satellite cell activation, it is likely that direct administration of HGF into damaged muscle may represent a potentially useful approach for stimulating muscle repair. This approach may also be useful in enhancing the efficiency of myoblast transplantation in vivo. PMID:10639617

Sheehan, S M; Tatsumi, R; Temm-Grove, C J; Allen, R E

2000-02-01

56

Ultrastructural localization of concanavalin A-binding sites in satellite cells of human skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-microscopic cytochemical studies on satellite cells of normal human skeletal muscle were carried out using the concanavalin Aperoxidase (Con A-HRP) coupling method. Con A-binding sites, which probably correspond to glycoproteins, were found to be associated with the cell surface, smooth surfaced vesicles, nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum of the satellite cells and were also identified at the cell surface of

Yoshihiro Wakayama; Eduardo Bonilla; Donald L. Schotland

1980-01-01

57

Changes in the ultrastructure of satellite cells of slow loris in tricresylphosphate poisoning.  

PubMed

Toxic reaction of satellite cells from posterior root ganglia of slow loris in TCP poisoning is described. The satellite cells in experimental animals show a marked increase in the rough ER, Golgi complex, microvesicles and filaments. Furthermore there is also an increase in the number of dense bodies and mitochondrial density in these cells. The significance of these changes are discussed and it is concluded that in TCP poisoning not only the neurons but the supporting cells are also affected. PMID:403739

Ahmed, M M

1977-02-28

58

[The influence of satellite cells on meat quality and its differential regulation].  

PubMed

Satellite cell is a kind of myogenic stem cells, which plays an important role in muscle development and injury repair. Through proliferation, differentiation and fusion of muscle fiber can satellite cells make new myonuclear, leading to the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle and fiber type transformation, and this would further affect the meat quality. Here, we review the relationship between muscle fiber development and meat quality attributes as well as the influence of the satellite cell differentiation on muscle fiber character. Besides, we also summarize the classical signaling pathway (i.e., Notch etc.) and influence of epigenetic regulation (i.e. miRNA) on muscle quality. PMID:24400481

Shen, Lin-Yuan; Zhang, Shun-Hua; Wu, Ze-Hui; Zheng, Meng-Yue; Li, Xue-Wei; Zhu, Li

2013-09-01

59

Lkb1 is indispensable for skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and satellite cell homeostasis.  

PubMed

Serine/threonine kinase 11, commonly known as liver kinase b1 (Lkb1), is a tumor suppressor that regulates cellular energy metabolism and stem cell function. Satellite cells are skeletal muscle resident stem cells that maintain postnatal muscle growth and repair. Here, we used MyoD(C) (re) /Lkb1(flox/flox) mice (called MyoD-Lkb1) to delete Lkb1 in embryonic myogenic progenitors and their descendant satellite cells and myofibers. The MyoD-Lkb1 mice exhibit a severe myopathy characterized by central nucleated myofibers, reduced mobility, growth retardation, and premature death. Although tamoxifen-induced postnatal deletion of Lkb1 in satellite cells using Pax7(Cre) (ER) mice bypasses the developmental defects and early death, Lkb1 null satellite cells lose their regenerative capacity cell-autonomously. Strikingly, Lkb1 null satellite cells fail to maintain quiescence in noninjured resting muscles and exhibit accelerated proliferation but reduced differentiation kinetics. At the molecular level, Lkb1 limits satellite cell proliferation through the canonical AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, but facilitates differentiation through phosphorylation of GSK-3?, a key component of the WNT signaling pathway. Together, these results establish a central role of Lkb1 in muscle stem cell homeostasis, muscle development, and regeneration. Stem Cells 2014;32:2893-2907. PMID:25069613

Shan, Tizhong; Zhang, Pengpeng; Liang, Xinrong; Bi, Pengpeng; Yue, Feng; Kuang, Shihuan

2014-11-01

60

Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters in Vivo and in Vitro Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4) deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW) were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P), supra-adequate (1.2% total P) in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P) in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured in vitro for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. In vivo satellite cell proliferation was reduced (P < 0.05) among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered in vitro expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted. PMID:22822445

Alexander, Lindsey S.; Seabolt, Brynn S.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Stahl, Chad H.

2012-01-01

61

Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells  

SciTech Connect

Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-16

62

In situ real-time imaging of the satellite cells in rat intact and injured soleus muscles using quantum dots.  

PubMed

The recruitment of satellite cells, which are located between the basement membrane and the plasma membrane in myofibers, is required for myofiber repair after muscle injury or disease. In particular, satellite cell migration has been focused on as a satellite cell response to muscle injury because satellite cell motility has been revealed in cell culture. On the other hand, in situ, it is poorly understood how satellite cell migration is involved in muscle regeneration after injury because in situ it has been technically very difficult to visualize living satellite cells localized within skeletal muscle. In the present study, using quantum dots conjugated to anti-M-cadherin antibody, we attempted the visualization of satellite cells in both intact and injured skeletal muscle of rat in situ. As a result, the present study is the first to demonstrate in situ real-time imaging of satellite cells localized within the skeletal muscle. Moreover, it was indicated that satellite cell migration toward an injured site was induced in injured muscle while spatiotemporal change in satellite cells did not occur in intact muscle. Thus, it was suggested that the satellite cell migration may play important roles in the regulation of muscle regeneration after injury. Moreover, the new method used in the present study will be a useful tool to develop satellite cell-based therapies for muscle injury or disease. PMID:21132508

Ishido, Minenori; Kasuga, Norikatsu

2011-01-01

63

Istanbul, Turkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

64

Analyses of the differentiation potential of satellite cells from myoD-\\/-, mdx, and PMP22 C22 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sporadic and sometimes contradictory studies have indicated changes in satellite cell behaviour associated with the progressive nature of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Satellite cell proliferation and number are reportedly altered in DMD and the mdx mouse model. We recently found that satellite cells in MSVski transgenic mice, a muscle hypertrophy model showing progressive muscle degeneration, display a severe

Marion M Schuierer; Christopher J Mann; Heidi Bildsoe; Clare Huxley; Simon M Hughes

2005-01-01

65

STAT3 signaling controls satellite cell expansion and skeletal muscle repair.  

PubMed

The progressive loss of muscle regenerative capacity with age or disease results in part from a decline in the number and function of satellite cells, the direct cellular contributors to muscle repair. However, little is known about the molecular effectors underlying satellite cell impairment and depletion. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with both age-related and muscle-wasting conditions. The levels of STAT3, a downstream effector of IL-6, are also elevated with muscle wasting, and STAT3 has been implicated in the regulation of self-renewal and stem cell fate in several tissues. Here we show that IL-6-activated Stat3 signaling regulates satellite cell behavior, promoting myogenic lineage progression through myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) regulation. Conditional ablation of Stat3 in Pax7-expressing satellite cells resulted in their increased expansion during regeneration, but compromised myogenic differentiation prevented the contribution of these cells to regenerating myofibers. In contrast, transient Stat3 inhibition promoted satellite cell expansion and enhanced tissue repair in both aged and dystrophic muscle. The effects of STAT3 inhibition on cell fate and proliferation were conserved in human myoblasts. The results of this study indicate that pharmacological manipulation of STAT3 activity can be used to counteract the functional exhaustion of satellite cells in pathological conditions, thereby maintaining the endogenous regenerative response and ameliorating muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25194572

Tierney, Matthew Timothy; Aydogdu, Tufan; Sala, David; Malecova, Barbora; Gatto, Sole; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Latella, Lucia; Sacco, Alessandra

2014-10-01

66

Theoretical Investigation of Laser-Radiation Effects on Satellite Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research concerns with the studying of laser-powered solar panels for space applications. A model describing the laser effects on satellite solar cell has been developed. These effects are studied theoretically in order to determine the performance limits of the solar cells when they are powered by laser radiation during the satellite eclipse. A comparison between some different common types of the solar cells used for these purpose is considered in this study. The obtained results are reported to optimize the use of laser-powered satellites.

Abdel-Hadi, Yasser; El-Hameed, Afaf; Hamdy, Ola

67

[Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. The effects of exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and satellite cells].  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle has a high degree of plasticity. The mass of skeletal muscle maintains owing to muscle protein synthesis and the regeneration by satellite cells. Skeletal muscle atrophy with aging (sarcopenia) is developed by decline of muscle protein synthesis and dysfunction of satellite cells. It is urgently necessary for today's highly aged society to elucidate the mechanism of sarcopenia and to establish prevention measure. This review shows that the positive effects of "exercise" on muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell function including their main molecular mechanism. PMID:25266091

Fujimaki, Shin; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

2014-10-01

68

A home away from home: challenges and opportunities in engineering in vitro muscle satellite cell niches  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells with a principal role in postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration. Satellite cells, like many tissue-specific adult stem cells, reside in a quiescent state in an instructive, anatomically defined niche. The satellite cell niche constitutes a distinct membrane-enclosed compartment within the muscle fiber, containing a diversity of biochemical and biophysical signals that influence satellite cell function. A major limitation to the study and clinical utility of satellite cells is that upon removal from the muscle fiber and plating in traditional plastic tissue culture platforms, their muscle stem cell properties are rapidly lost. Clearly, the maintenance of stem cell function is critically dependent on in vivo niche signals, highlighting the need to create novel in vitro microenvironments that allow for the maintenance and propagation of satellite cells while retaining their potential to function as muscle stem cells. Here, we discuss how emerging biomaterials technologies offer great promise for engineering in vitro microenvironments to meet these challenges. In engineered biomaterials, signaling molecules can be presented in a manner that more closely mimics cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrices can be fabricated with diverse rigidities that approximate in vivo tissues. The development of in vitro microenvironments in which niche features can be systematically modulated will be instrumental not only to future insights into muscle stem cell biology and therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting with aging, but also will provide a paradigm for the analysis of numerous adult tissue-specific stem cells. PMID:19751902

Cosgrove, Benjamin D.; Sacco, Alessandra; Gilbert, Penney M.; Blau, Helen M.

2009-01-01

69

Preliminary results for a semi-automated quantification of site effects using geomorphometry and ASTER satellite data for Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of the degree of local seismic wave amplification (site effects) requires precise information about the local site\\u000a conditions. In many regions of the world, local geologic information is either sparse or is not readily available. Because\\u000a of this, seismic hazard maps for countries such as Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey are developed without consideration of\\u000a site factors and, therefore, do

Alan Yong; Susan E. Hough; Michael J. Abrams; Christopher J. Wills

2008-01-01

70

Extrinsic Regulation of Satellite Cell Function and Muscle Regeneration Capacity during Aging  

PubMed Central

Optimal regeneration of skeletal muscle in response to injury requires the contribution of tissue resident stem cells termed satellite cells. Normally residing at the interface between the muscle fiber and overlying basal lamina it is generally understood with age the satellite cell pool exhibits decline both in number and function. Over the past decade mechanisms that contribute to these declines have begun to emerge. Implicit in aged-related satellite cell dysfunction and decline is the involvement of signals from the environment. Many of the signals that become deregulated with age have conserved functions during distinct stages of muscle fiber formation both in early development and regeneration. In particular, modulations in Wnt, TGF?, Notch and FGF emanating from aged skeletal muscle fibers or the systemic milieu have emerged as age-related alterations that significantly impact both the maintenance of the satellite cell pool and skeletal muscle regenerative efficacy. In this review we will summarize how the aforementioned pathways contribute to skeletal muscle development and regeneration. We will then discuss deregulation of these cascades with age and how they contribute to satellite cell depletion and dysfunction. The review will also summarize some of the challenges we face in trying to draw parallels between murine and human satellite cell aging. Finally, we will highlight the few examples whereby FDA approved drugs may be exploited to modulate specific signaling cascades in effort to preserve skeletal muscle regenerative function with age. PMID:24678443

Chakkalakal, JV; Brack, AS

2013-01-01

71

Acute effects of hindlimb unweighting on satellite cells of growing skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proliferative behavior of satellite cells in growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles was examined at short periods after initiation of hindlimb unweighting. Mitotic activity of satellite cells in both muscles decreased below weight-bearing control levels within 24 h of initiation of hindlimb unweighting. This satellite cell response was equal to or greater than 48 h before any atrophic morphological changes that take place in the muscles. Suppression of mitotic activity was most severe in the soleus muscle where continuous infusion of label demonstrated that virtually all mitotic activity was abolished between 3 and 5 days. The results of this study suggest that satellite cell mitotic activity is a sensitive indicator of primary atrophic changes occurring in growing myofibers and may be a predictor of future morphological changes.

Schultz, Edward; Darr, Kevin C.; Macius, Allison

1994-01-01

72

Myogenic Satellite Cell Proliferative and Differentiative Responses to Components of Common Oral Ergogenic Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the ability of common ergogenic supplement components to alter satellite cell proliferative activity in vitro. Compounds studied were cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, L-glutathione, ?-hydroxybutyric acid, calcium-?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate monohydrate, DL-thioctic acid (?-lipoic acid), and ornithine ?-ketoglutarate. Satellite cells were exposed to different levels of ergogenic test compound for a specified amount of time and analyzed by counting mononucleated and

MELINDA E. FERNYHOUGH; DERI L. HELTERLINE; JAN L. VIERCK; MICHAEL V. DODSON; LUKE R. BUCCI; JEFF Feliciano

2004-01-01

73

Inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling stimulates adult satellite cell function.  

PubMed

Diminished regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle occurs during adulthood. We identified a reduction in the intrinsic capacity of mouse adult satellite cells to contribute to muscle regeneration and repopulation of the niche. Gene expression analysis identified higher expression of JAK-STAT signaling targets in 18-month-old relative to 3-week-old mice. Knockdown of Jak2 or Stat3 significantly stimulated symmetric satellite stem cell divisions on cultured myofibers. Genetic knockdown of Jak2 or Stat3 expression in prospectively isolated satellite cells markedly enhanced their ability to repopulate the satellite cell niche after transplantation into regenerating tibialis anterior muscle. Pharmacological inhibition of Jak2 and Stat3 activity similarly stimulated symmetric expansion of satellite cells in vitro and their engraftment in vivo. Intramuscular injection of these drugs resulted in a marked enhancement of muscle repair and force generation after cardiotoxin injury. Together these results reveal age-related intrinsic properties that functionally distinguish satellite cells and suggest a promising therapeutic avenue for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25194569

Price, Feodor D; von Maltzahn, Julia; Bentzinger, C Florian; Dumont, Nicolas A; Yin, Hang; Chang, Natasha C; Wilson, David H; Frenette, Jérôme; Rudnicki, Michael A

2014-10-01

74

Eph/ephrin interactions modulate muscle satellite cell motility and patterning  

PubMed Central

During development and regeneration, directed migration of cells, including neural crest cells, endothelial cells, axonal growth cones and many types of adult stem cells, to specific areas distant from their origin is necessary for their function. We have recently shown that adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells), once activated by isolation or injury, are a highly motile population with the potential to respond to multiple guidance cues, based on their expression of classical guidance receptors. We show here that, in vivo, differentiated and regenerating myofibers dynamically express a subset of ephrin guidance ligands, as well as Eph receptors. This expression has previously only been examined in the context of muscle-nerve interactions; however, we propose that it might also play a role in satellite cell-mediated muscle repair. Therefore, we investigated whether Eph-ephrin signaling would produce changes in satellite cell directional motility. Using a classical ephrin ‘stripe’ assay, we found that satellite cells respond to a subset of ephrins with repulsive behavior in vitro; patterning of differentiating myotubes is also parallel to ephrin stripes. This behavior can be replicated in a heterologous in vivo system, the hindbrain of the developing quail, in which neural crest cells are directed in streams to the branchial arches and to the forelimb of the developing quail, where presumptive limb myoblasts emigrate from the somite. We hypothesize that guidance signaling might impact multiple steps in muscle regeneration, including escape from the niche, directed migration to sites of injury, cell-cell interactions among satellite cell progeny, and differentiation and patterning of regenerated muscle. PMID:22071104

Stark, Danny A.; Karvas, Rowan M.; Siegel, Ashley L.; Cornelison, D. D. W.

2011-01-01

75

Clonal Characterization of Rat Muscle Satellite Cells: Proliferation, Metabolism and Differentiation Define an Intrinsic Heterogeneity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells (SCs) represent a distinct lineage of myogenic progenitors responsible for the postnatal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. Distinguished on the basis of their unique position in mature skeletal muscle, SCs were considered unipotent stem cells with the ability of generating a unique specialized phenotype. Subsequently, it was demonstrated in mice that opposite differentiation towards osteogenic and

Carlo A. Rossi; Michela Pozzobon; Andrea Ditadi; Karolina Archacka; Annalisa Gastaldello; Marta Sanna; Chiara Franzin; Alberto Malerba; Gabriella Milan; Mara Cananzi; Stefano Schiaffino; Michelangelo Campanella; Roberto Vettor; Paolo de Coppi; Alejandro Lucia

2010-01-01

76

Cell metabolism sets the differences between subpopulations of satellite cells (SCs)  

PubMed Central

Background We have recently characterized two distinct populations of Satellite Cells (SCs) that differ in proliferation, regenerative potential, and mitochondrial coupling efficiency and classified these in Low Proliferative Clones (LPC) and High Proliferative Clones (HPC). Herewith, we have investigated their cell metabolism and individuated features that remark an intrinsic difference in basal physiology but that are retrievable also at the initial phases of their cloning. Results Indeed, LPC and HPC can be distinguished for mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) just after isolation from the fiber. This is matched by mitochondrial redox state measured via NAD+/NADH analysis and alternative respiratory CO2 production in cloned cells. All these parameters are accountable for metabolic differences reflected indeed by alternative expression of the glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (Pfkfb3). Also Ca2+ handling by mitochondria is different together with the sensitivity to apoptosis triggered via this pathway. Finally, according to the above, we were able to determine which one among the clones represents the suitable stem cell. Conclusions These experimental observations report novel physiological features in the cell biology of SCs and refer to an intrinsic heterogeneity within which their stemness may reside. PMID:23641781

2013-01-01

77

Muscle Satellite Cells and Endothelial Cells: Close Neighbors and Privileged Partners  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered mice (Myf5nLacZ/+, Myf5GFP-P/+) allowing direct muscle satellite cell (SC) visualization indicate that, in addition to being located beneath myofiber basal laminae, SCs are strikingly close to capillaries. After GFP+ bone marrow transplantation, blood-borne cells occupying SC niches previously depleted by irradiation were similarly detected near vessels, thereby corroborating the anatomical stability of juxtavascular SC niches. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments also localize quiescent and less quiescent SCs near vessels. SCs, and to a lesser extent myonuclei, were nonrandomly associated with capillaries in humans. Significantly, they were correlated with capillarization of myofibers, regardless to their type, in normal muscle. They also varied in paradigmatic physiological and pathological situations associated with variations of capillary density, including amyopathic dermatomyositis, a unique condition in which muscle capillary loss occurs without myofiber damage, and in athletes in whom capillaries increase in number. Endothelial cell (EC) cultures specifically enhanced SC growth, through IGF-1, HGF, bFGF, PDGF-BB, and VEGF, and, accordingly, cycling SCs remained mainly juxtavascular. Conversely, differentiating myogenic cells were both proangiogenic in vitro and spatiotemporally associated with neoangiogenesis in muscular dystrophy. Thus, SCs are largely juxtavascular and reciprocally interact with ECs during differentiation to support angio-myogenesis. PMID:17287398

Christov, Christo; Chretien, Fabrice; Abou-Khalil, Rana; Bassez, Guillaume; Vallet, Gregoire; Authier, Francois-Jerome; Bassaglia, Yann; Shinin, Vasily; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Chazaud, Benedicte

2007-01-01

78

Fibre type-specific satellite cell response to aerobic training in sedentary adults.  

PubMed

In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of a traditional, 12 week aerobic training protocol on skeletal muscle fibre type distribution and satellite cell content in sedentary subjects. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis [n = 23 subjects (six male and 17 female); body mass index 30.7 ± 1.2 kg m(-2)] before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training performed on a cycle ergometer. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression, cross-sectional area and satellite cell and myonuclear content. Following training, a decrease in MyHC hybrid type IIa/IIx fibre frequency occurred, with a concomitant increase in pure MyHC type IIa fibres. Pretraining fibre type correlated with body mass index, and the change in fibre type following training was associated with improvements in maximal oxygen consumption. Twelve weeks of aerobic training also induced increases in mean cross-sectional area in both MyHC type I and type IIa fibres. Satellite cell content was also increased following training, specifically in MyHC type I fibres, with no change in the number of satellite cells associated with MyHC type II fibres. With the increased satellite cell content following training, an increase in myonuclear number per fibre also occurred in MyHC type I fibres. Hypertrophy of MyHC type II fibres occurred without detectable myonuclear addition, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying growth in fast and slow fibres differ. These data provide intriguing evidence for a fibre type-specific role of satellite cells in muscle adaptation following aerobic training. PMID:24687582

Fry, Christopher S; Noehren, Brian; Mula, Jyothi; Ubele, Margo F; Westgate, Philip M; Kern, Philip A; Peterson, Charlotte A

2014-06-15

79

Turkey red blood cell passive haemagglutination assay as guideline for specific prevention of tetanus in injured persons  

PubMed Central

Turkey red blood cell passive haemagglutination assays (TRBC-HA) were carried out on serum samples from 873 injured patients in order to compare individual prophylactic treatment against tetanus based on the anti-tetanus antibody levels with interventions based on anamnestic criteria. The results showed a great difference: according to the anamnesis 124 persons (14.2%) were protected, 253 (29%) were partially protected, and 496 (56.8%) were unprotected; according to the TRBC-HA assay, 479 (54.9%) were protected, 279 (32%) partially protected, and 115 (13.2%) unprotected. The efficiency of the prophylactic treatments given on the basis of the two criteria was also compared in a study of 129 injured patients who were divided in two groups: group 1 (50 patients) received 250 IU of human tetanus immunoglobulin (HTI) regardless of their tetanus immunity, and group II (79 patients) received appropriate or no treatment depending on the level of anti-tetanus antibodies determined by TRBC-HA assay. The results showed that prophylactic interventions based on the anti-tetanus antibody levels can give protection in 100% of injured patients at minimum cost and risk. PMID:3912079

Bistoni, F.; Marconi, P.; Perito, S.; Bastianini, L.; Antenucci, R.; Pitzurra, M.

1985-01-01

80

Isolation and culture of individual myofibers and their satellite cells from adult skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Muscle regeneration in the adult is performed by resident stem cells called satellite cells. Satellite cells are defined by their position between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of each myofiber. Current knowledge of their behavior heavily relies on the use of the single myofiber isolation protocol. In 1985, Bischoff described a protocol to isolate single live fibers from the Flexor Digitorum Brevis (FDB) of adult rats with the goal to create an in vitro system in which the physical association between the myofiber and its stem cells is preserved (1). In 1995, Rosenblattmodified the Bischoff protocol such that myofibers are singly picked and handled separately after collagenase digestion instead of being isolated by gravity sedimentation (2, 3). The Rosenblatt or Bischoff protocol has since been adapted to different muscles, age or conditions (3-6). The single myofiber isolation technique is an indispensable tool due its unique advantages. First, in the single myofiber protocol, satellite cells are maintained beneath the basal lamina. This is a unique feature of the protocol as other techniques such as Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting require chemical and mechanical tissue dissociation (7). Although the myofiber culture system cannot substitute for in vivo studies, it does offer an excellent platform to address relevant biological properties of muscle stem cells. Single myofibers can be cultured in standard plating conditions or in floating conditions. Satellite cells on floating myofibers are subjected to virtually no other influence than the myofiber environment. Substrate stiffness and coating have been shown to influence satellite cells' ability to regenerate muscles (8, 9) so being able to control each of these factors independently allows discrimination between niche-dependent and -independent responses. Different concentrations of serum have also been shown to have an effect on the transition from quiescence to activation. To preserve the quiescence state of its associated satellite cells, fibers should be kept in low serum medium (1-3). This is particularly useful when studying genes involved in the quiescence state. In serum rich medium, satellite cells quickly activate, proliferate, migrate and differentiate, thus mimicking the in vivo regenerative process (1-3). The system can be used to perform a variety of assays such as the testing of chemical inhibitors; ectopic expression of genes by virus delivery; oligonucleotide based gene knock-down or live imaging. This video article describes the protocol currently used in our laboratory to isolate single myofibers from the Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscle of adult mice (6-8 weeks old). PMID:23542587

Pasut, Alessandra; Jones, Andrew E; Rudnicki, Michael A

2013-01-01

81

Forskolin-induced differentiation of BeWo cells stimulates increased tumor growth in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) egg.  

PubMed

Invasiveness of BeWo cells has been assessed in a variety of assay systems including matrigel and mouse. At the same time BeWo cells are mostly used as model system for trophoblast fusion. Here we aimed to test the properties of BeWo cells in a combined approach. We forced BeWo cells to differentiate by culturing the cells in the presence of forskolin and then used these cells for invasion assays on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the turkey. The chorioallantoic membranes of turkey eggs were incubated with medium containing forskolin, BeWo cells cultured in medium alone, BeWo cells cultured in forskolin and washed, and BeWo cells cultured in forskolin and used directly for application. Suspensions were applied onto ten CAM per condition. For local tumor formation eggs were checked for tumor development every 24h macroscopically for up to 12 days and immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 18 and Ki-67 were used for further analysis. Forskolin alone did not have any deleterious effect on the CAM. When the CAM was incubated with BeWo cells cultured in medium 40% of the eggs developed a macroscopically visible tumor. BeWo cells stimulated with forskolin and washed induced tumor growth in 50% of the eggs, while forskolin stimulated BeWo cells applied directly onto the CAM induced tumor growth in 70% of the eggs. Forced differentiation of BeWo cells by forskolin may lead to syncytial fusion in a plastic culture dish. Under the conditions used here, i.e. in direct contact to a living tissue, forskolin-induced differentiation of BeWo cells leads to an increase in tumor formation in the CAM. Thus BeWo cells may use signaling pathways to decide for both differentiation pathways similar to primary trophoblast depending on the environment. PMID:21440429

Schneider, Ralf; Borges, Marcus; Kadyrov, Mamed

2011-05-01

82

A channel reservation algorithm for handover issues in LEO satellite systems based on a satellite-fixed cell coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a channel reservation mechanism referred to as time-based channel reservation algorithm (TCRA). The aim of TCRA is to handle the handover issue in low Earth orbit satellite networks. These systems face an important number of handover attempts due to the high satellite velocity when placed in low orbits. The TCRA scheme uses the deterministic satellite

L. Boukhatem; D. Gaiti; G. Pujolle

2001-01-01

83

Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Southern Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of inhibitory and activating receptors expressed by natural\\u000a killer (NK) cells and regulate NK cells’ activity. KIR genes are highly polymorphic markers, characterized by a wide diversity,\\u000a and can therefore be considered as good population genetic markers. The aim of this study was to determine KIR gene frequencies,\\u000a ratios of haplotypes and

Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk; Gurbuz Polat; Ugur Atik

84

Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes F2365 cells to synthetic gastric fluid is greater following growth on ready-to-eat deli turkey meat than in brain heart infusion broth.  

PubMed

Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats have been categorized as high-risk foods for contraction of foodborne listeriosis. Several recent listeriosis outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of RTE deli turkey meat. In this study, we examined whether the growth of Listeria monocytogenes F2365 on commercially prepared RTE deli turkey meat causes listerial cells to become more resistant to inactivation by synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Listerial cells grown on turkey meat to late logarithmic-early stationary phase were significantly more resistant to SGF at pH 7.0, 5.0, or 3.5 than listerial cells grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. The pH was lower in the fluid in packages of turkey meat than in BHI broth (6.5 versus 7.5). However, listerial cells grown in BHI broth adjusted to a lower pH (6.0) did not exhibit enhanced resistance to SGF. The lesser resistance to SGF of listerial cells grown in BHI broth may be due, in part, to the presence of glucose (0.2%). This study indicates the environment presented by the growth of L. monocytogenes on deli turkey meat affects its ability to survive conditions it encounters in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:18044439

Peterson, Luke D; Faith, Nancy G; Czuprynski, Charles J

2007-11-01

85

Satellite cell-mediated angiogenesis in vitro coincides with a functional hypoxia-inducible factor pathway.  

PubMed

Muscle regeneration involves the coordination of myogenesis and revascularization to restore proper muscle function. Myogenesis is driven by resident stem cells termed satellite cells (SC), whereas angiogenesis arises from endothelial cells and perivascular cells of preexisting vascular segments and the collateral vasculature. Communication between myogenic and angiogenic cells seems plausible, especially given the number of growth factors produced by SC. To characterize these interactions, we developed an in vitro coculture model composed of rat skeletal muscle SC and microvascular fragments (MVF). In this system, isolated epididymal MVF suspended in collagen gel are cultured over a rat SC monolayer culture. In the presence of SC, MVF exhibit greater indices of angiogenesis than MVF cultured alone. A positive dose-dependent effect of SC conditioned medium (CM) on MVF growth was observed, suggesting that SC secrete soluble-acting growth factor(s). Next, we specifically blocked VEGF action in SC CM, and this was sufficient to abolish satellite cell-induced angiogenesis. Finally, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a transcriptional regulator of VEGF gene expression, was found to be expressed in cultured SC and in putative SC in sections of in vivo stretch-injured rat muscle. Hypoxic culture conditions increased SC HIF-1alpha activity, which was positively associated with SC VEGF gene expression and protein levels. Collectively, these initial observations suggest that a heretofore unexplored aspect of satellite cell physiology is the initiation of a proangiogenic program. PMID:19386789

Rhoads, R P; Johnson, R M; Rathbone, C R; Liu, X; Temm-Grove, C; Sheehan, S M; Hoying, J B; Allen, R E

2009-06-01

86

The impact of sarcopenia and exercise training on skeletal muscle satellite cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well-established that the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, or sarcopenia, impairs skeletal muscle function and reduces functional performance at a more advanced age. Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SC), as precursors of new myonuclei, have been suggested to be involved in the development of sarcopenia. In accordance with the type II muscle fiber atrophy observed in

Tim Snijders; Lex B. Verdijk; Luc. J. C. van Loon

2009-01-01

87

Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

1982-01-01

88

IGF-1 colocalizes with muscle satellite cells following acute exercise in humans.  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The aim of this study was to quantify the change in satellite cell (SC) specific IGF-1 colocalization following exercise. We observed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the percentage of SC with IGF-1 colocalization from baseline to 72 h after a bout of resistance exercise. This strongly supports a role for IGF-1 in human SC function following exercise. PMID:24669996

Grubb, Amanda; Joanisse, Sophie; Moore, Daniel R; Bellamy, Leeann M; Mitchell, Cameron J; Phillips, Stuart M; Parise, Gianni

2014-04-01

89

Absence of CD34 on Murine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells Marks a Reversible State of Activation during Acute Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal muscle satellite cells are myogenic progenitors that reside on myofiber surface beneath the basal lamina. In recent years satellite cells have been identified and isolated based on their expression of CD34, a sialomucin surface receptor traditionally used as a marker of hematopoietic stem cells. Interestingly, a minority of satellite cells lacking CD34 has been described. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to elucidate the relationship between CD34+ and CD34- satellite cells we utilized fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate each population for molecular analysis, culture and transplantation studies. Here we show that unless used in combination with ?7 integrin, CD34 alone is inadequate for purifying satellite cells. Furthermore, the absence of CD34 marks a reversible state of activation dependent on muscle injury. Conclusions/Significance Following acute injury CD34- cells become the major myogenic population whereas the percentage of CD34+ cells remains constant. In turn activated CD34- cells can reverse their activation to maintain the pool of CD34+ reserve cells. Such activation switching and maintenance of reserve pool suggests the satellite cell compartment is tightly regulated during muscle regeneration. PMID:20532193

Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Rainey, Sabrina; Srirangam, Kiran; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Reyes, Morayma

2010-01-01

90

Tissue macrophages: "satellite cells" for growing collateral vessels? A hypothesis.  

PubMed

It has been demonstrated in several studies that collateral growth is associated with accumulation of macrophages around proliferating vessel. Macrophages are known to secrete vascular growth factors and metalloproteinases. Both are necessary for the development of a proper vasculature. Recent studies suggest that certain subpopulations of macrophages are also capable of transdifferentiating into vascular cells. There are good reasons to assume that shear force rises dramatically in preexisting arteriolar shunts after occlusion of the main supplying vessel. Based upon these two findings it was hypothesized that high shear forces lead to homing of circulating monocytes to the growing collateral artery. The majority of studies, however, indicate that monocytes home under low shear force conditions. Our own observations in monocyte depleted animals suggest that proliferation and transdifferentiation of tissue macrophages occurs locally in growing collateral vessels and is independent of circulating cells. We thus propose that local proliferation and transdifferentiation of tissue macrophages rather than homing of circulating monocytes play a major role in arteriogenesis. PMID:14660083

Ito, Wulf D; Khmelevski, Eugen

2003-01-01

91

Human satellite progenitor cells for use in myofascial repair: isolation and characterization.  

PubMed

Current use of prosthetic meshes and implants for myofascial reconstruction has been associated with infectious complications, long-term failure, and dissatisfying cosmetic results. Our laboratory has developed a small animal model for ventral hernia repair, which uses progenitor cells isolated from a skeletal muscle biopsy. In the model, progenitor cells are expanded in vitro, seeded onto a nonimmunogenic, novel aligned scaffold of bovine collagen and placed into the defect as a living adjuvant to the innate repair mechanism. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the feasibility of translating our current model to humans. As a necessary first step we present our study on the efficacy of isolating satellite cells from 9 human donor biopsies. We were able to successfully translate our progenitor cell isolation and culture protocols to a human model with some modifications. Specifically, we have isolated human satellite muscle cells, expanded them in culture, and manipulated these cells to differentiate into myotubes in vitro. Immunohistochemical analysis allowed the characterization of distinct progenitor cell cycle stages and quantification of approximate cell number. Furthermore, isolated cells were tracked via cytoplasmic nanocrystal labeling and observed using confocal microscopy. PMID:20407365

Logan, Melissa S; Propst, John T; Nottingham, James M; Goodwin, Richard L; Pabon, Diego F; Terracio, Louis; Yost, Michael J; Fann, Stephen A

2010-06-01

92

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Aldosterone Production by Turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) Adrenal Steroidogenic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory action of atrial natriuretic (ANPs) on mammalian aldosterone synthesis is well documented. In addition, other work indicates that ANP and an analogue of its second messenger, 8-Br-cGMP, inhibit aldosterone production by chicken adrenal steroidogenic cells. However, the interaction between angiotensin II (AII) and ANP in the regulation of avian aldosterone production is poorly understood because chicken adrenal steroidogenic

John F. Kocsis; Patrick J. McIlroy; Rocco V. Carsia

1995-01-01

93

The effects of low frequency electrical stimulation on satellite cell activity in rat skeletal muscle during hindlimb suspension  

PubMed Central

Background The ability of skeletal muscle to grow and regenerate is dependent on resident stem cells called satellite cells. It has been shown that chronic hindlimb unloading downregulates the satellite cell activity. This study investigated the role of low-frequency electrical stimulation on satellite cell activity during a 28 d hindlimb suspension in rats. Results Mechanical unloading resulted in a 44% reduction in the myofiber cross-sectional area as well as a 29% and 34% reduction in the number of myonuclei and myonuclear domains, respectively, in the soleus muscles (P < 0.001 vs the weight-bearing control). The number of quiescent (M-cadherin+), proliferating (BrdU+ and myoD+), and differentiated (myogenin+) satellite cells was also reduced by 48-57% compared to the weight-bearing animals (P < 0.01 for all). Daily application of electrical stimulation (2 × 3 h at a 20 Hz frequency) partially attenuated the reduction of the fiber cross-sectional area, satellite cell activity, and myonuclear domain (P < 0.05 for all). Extensor digitorum longus muscles were not significantly altered by hindlimb unloading. Conclusion This study shows that electrical stimulation partially attenuated the decrease in muscle size and satellite cells during hindlimb unloading. The causal relationship between satellite cell activation and electrical stimulation remain to be established. PMID:21087483

2010-01-01

94

Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates cell migration of satellite cells. A role for the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate axis.  

PubMed

Regulation of the motility of skeletal muscle precursor cells, such as satellite cells, is critically important for their proper recruitment at the site of tissue damage, and ultimately for its correct repair. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is well-recognized as a powerful bioactive agent, strongly stimulates cell migration of activated murine satellite cells. The biological effect exerted by LPA was found to be induced via activation of LPA1 and LPA3 , being abolished by cell treatment with the antagonist Ki16425, and severely impaired by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of the two receptor isoforms. In contrast, silencing of LPA2 potentiated the stimulation of cell motility by LPA, suggesting that it is negatively coupled to cell migration. Pharmacological inhibition of both sphingosine kinase (SK) isoforms using VPC96047, or the selective blocking of SK1 using VPC96091, abolished cell responsiveness to LPA; in agreement, gene silencing of SK1 or SK2 significantly reduced the biological effect of LPA. Moreover, the LPA-dependent stimulation of cell chemotaxis was found to be impaired by down-regulation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1P1 or S1P4 by specific siRNAs. In summary, the results obtained support the notion that the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SK/S1P) axis is critically involved in the mechanism by which LPA elicits its pro-migratory action. This study provides compelling new information on the regulatory mechanisms of satellite cell motility, and reinforces the view that the SK/S1P signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the control of skeletal muscle precursor cell biology. PMID:25131845

Cencetti, Francesca; Bruno, Gennaro; Blescia, Sabrina; Bernacchioni, Caterina; Bruni, Paola; Donati, Chiara

2014-10-01

95

Imprinted Genes and Satellite Loci Are Differentially Methylated in Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Clones  

PubMed Central

Abstract In mammals, genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming systems exist in primordial germ cells and zygotes. These reprogramming systems play crucial roles in regulating genome functions during critical stages of embryonic development, and they confer the stability of gene expression during mammalian development. The frequent unexpected loss of progeny from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an ongoing problem. In this study, we used six cloned bovines (named NT-1 to NT-6), which were created by ear fibroblast nuclear transfer and displayed short life spans with multiple organ defects, as an experimental model. We focus here on three imprinted genes (IGF2, H19, and XIST) and four satellite loci (Satellite I, Satellite II, Art2, and VNTR) to investigate their methylation changes. The results revealed that aberrant methylation frequently occurred in the analyzed imprinted genes, but not in the satellite loci, of the cloned bovines. After the bovine fibroblast cells were treated with the 5-aza-2(?)-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc) demethylation agent, the methylation percentages of the XIST and H19 putative differentially methylated region (DMR) were significantly decreased (XIST, p<0.01; H19, p<0.05) followed by an increase in their mRNA expression levels (p<0.01). Furthermore, we found that five short-lived cloned bovines (NT-1 to NT-5) exhibited more severe aberrant methylation changes in the three imprinted genes examined than the little longer-lived clone (NT-6) compared with wild-type (WT) cows. Our data suggest that the reprogramming of the methylation-controlled regions between the imprinted genes and satellite loci are differences and may be involved with additional mechanisms that need further elucidation. PMID:23961768

Shen, Chih-Jie; Lin, Chiao-Chieh; Shen, Perng-Chih; Cheng, Winston T.K.; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Liu, Shyh-Shyan

2013-01-01

96

Imprinted genes and satellite loci are differentially methylated in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer clones.  

PubMed

In mammals, genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming systems exist in primordial germ cells and zygotes. These reprogramming systems play crucial roles in regulating genome functions during critical stages of embryonic development, and they confer the stability of gene expression during mammalian development. The frequent unexpected loss of progeny from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an ongoing problem. In this study, we used six cloned bovines (named NT-1 to NT-6), which were created by ear fibroblast nuclear transfer and displayed short life spans with multiple organ defects, as an experimental model. We focus here on three imprinted genes (IGF2, H19, and XIST) and four satellite loci (Satellite I, Satellite II, Art2, and VNTR) to investigate their methylation changes. The results revealed that aberrant methylation frequently occurred in the analyzed imprinted genes, but not in the satellite loci, of the cloned bovines. After the bovine fibroblast cells were treated with the 5-aza-2(')-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc) demethylation agent, the methylation percentages of the XIST and H19 putative differentially methylated region (DMR) were significantly decreased (XIST, p<0.01; H19, p<0.05) followed by an increase in their mRNA expression levels (p<0.01). Furthermore, we found that five short-lived cloned bovines (NT-1 to NT-5) exhibited more severe aberrant methylation changes in the three imprinted genes examined than the little longer-lived clone (NT-6) compared with wild-type (WT) cows. Our data suggest that the reprogramming of the methylation-controlled regions between the imprinted genes and satellite loci are differences and may be involved with additional mechanisms that need further elucidation. PMID:23961768

Shen, Chih-Jie; Lin, Chiao-Chieh; Shen, Perng-Chih; Cheng, Winston T K; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Chen, Chuan-Mu

2013-10-01

97

Roles of adherent myogenic cells and dynamic culture in engineered muscle function and maintenance of satellite cells.  

PubMed

Highly functional engineered skeletal muscle constructs could serve as physiological models of muscle function and regeneration and have utility in therapeutic replacement of damaged or diseased muscle tissue. In this study, we examined the roles of different myogenic cell fractions and culturing conditions in the generation of highly functional engineered muscle. Fibrin-based muscle bundles were fabricated using either freshly-isolated myogenic cells or their adherent fraction pre-cultured for 36 h. Muscle bundles made of these cells were cultured in both static and dynamic conditions and systematically characterized with respect to early myogenic events and contractile function. Following 2 weeks of culture, we observed both individual and synergistic benefits of using the adherent cell fraction and dynamic culture on muscle formation and function. In particular, optimal culture conditions resulted in significant increase in the total cross-sectional muscle area (- 3-fold), myofiber size (- 1.6-fold), myonuclei density (- 1.2-fold), and force generation (- 9-fold) compared to traditional use of freshly-isolated cells and static culture. Curiously, we observed that only a simultaneous use of the adherent cell fraction and dynamic culture resulted in accelerated formation of differentiated myofibers which were critical for providing a niche-like environment for maintenance of a satellite cell pool early during culture. Our study identifies key parameters for engineering large-size, highly functional skeletal muscle tissues with improved ability for retention of functional satellite cells. PMID:25154662

Juhas, Mark; Bursac, Nenad

2014-11-01

98

Changes in satellite cells in human skeletal muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise.  

PubMed

No studies to date have reported activation of satellite cells in vivo in human muscle after a single bout of high intensity exercise. In this investigation, eight individuals performed a single bout of high intensity exercise with one leg, the contralateral leg being the control. A significant increase in mononuclear cells staining for the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1) were observed within the exercised human vastus lateralis muscle on days 4 and 8 post exercise. In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of the FA1 protein was determined in intramuscular dialysate samples taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of the exercising leg (day 0: 1.89 +/- 0.82 ng ml(-1); day 2: 1.68 +/- 0.37 ng ml(-1); day 4: 3.26 +/- 1.29 ng ml(-1), P < 0.05 versus basal; day 8: 4.68 +/- 2.06 ng ml(-1), P < 0.05 versus basal and control). No change was noted in the control leg. Despite this increase in N-CAM- and FA1-positive mononuclear cells, an increased expression of myogenin and the neonatal isoform of the myosin heavy chain (MHCn) was not observed. Interestingly, myofibre lesions resulting from extensive damage to the proteins within the myofibre, particularly desmin or dystrophin, were not observed, and hence did not appear to induce the expression of either N-CAM or FA1. We therefore propose that satellite cells can be induced to re-enter the cell growth cycle after a single bout of unaccustomed high intensity exercise. However, a single bout of exercise is not sufficient for the satellite cell to undergo terminal differentiation. PMID:15121802

Crameri, Regina M; Langberg, Henning; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Charlotte H; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Olesen, Jens L; Suetta, Charlotte; Teisner, Børge; Kjaer, Michael

2004-07-01

99

Problem Solvers: Talking Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM page allows users to download The "Talking Turkey" problem from Teaching Children Mathematics journal's regular department, "Problem Solvers." The activity provides opportunities for students to reason and communicate their thinking. Learners must help Sam determine how big a turkey his family should buy for this Thanksgivingâs feast. He finds some ârules of thumbâ for buying turkeys but must make decisions based on his family's eating preferences for turkey.

Britton, Barbara

2005-11-01

100

Infrared and Visible Satellite Rain Estimation. Part I: A Grid Cell Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between satellite-viewed cloudy (or partly cloudy) grid cells and the variability of the precipitation contained therein are explored. Using a 32 km grid and 30 min interval visible, infrared and radar data, 5 days of the Florida Area Cumulus Experiment are examined. Cloud is delineated from no-cloud by an infrared threshold of 253 K.While high rainrates are always

Andrew J. Negri; Robert F. Adler

1987-01-01

101

On spatial distribution of proton radiation belt from solar cell degradation of Akebono satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar cells on any satellite degrade gradually due to severe space radiation environment. We found a fair correlation between the decrease rate of solar cell output current of Akebono satellite orbiting in the inner magnetosphere and trapped proton flux from AP8 model between 1989 and 1992. After 1993, presumably as a result of long-term degradation, variation of solar cell output seems more susceptible to other causes such as high temperature effect, and simple monthly averaged data show no significant relation between them. One of possible causes for the temperature variation of the solar cells is terrestrial heat radiation with changing orientation of solar cell panels towards the earth and another is solar radiation varied with eccentric earth's orbit around the sun. In order to remove the possible temperature effect, we sort the data expected to be least affected by the terrestrial heat radiation from the orbit conditions, and also analyze difference of the output current for a month from that for the same month in the previous year. The analysis method leads us to successfully track a continuous correlation between the decease rate of solar cell output and energetic trapped proton flux up to 1996. We also discuss the best-fitted spatial distribution of energetic protons from comparison with model calculations.

Miyake, W.; Miyoshi, Y.; Matsuoka, A.

2013-12-01

102

Efficient Marek's disease virus (MDV) and herpesvirus of turkey infection of the QM7 cell line that does not contain latent MDV genome.  

PubMed

Marek's disease virus (MDV; also known as Gallid herpesvirus 2, MDV-1) causes oncogenic disease in chickens producing clinical signs that include lymphomas, visceral tumours, nerve lesions, and immunosuppression. MDV vaccines are widely used and mostly produced using primary cells: chicken embryo fibroblast cells, duck embryo fibroblast cells, chicken embryo kidney cells or chicken kidney cells. An immortalized cell line that can be used to manufacture the virus has long been desired. In this report, we demonstrate that QM7 cells were susceptible to infection with either MDV or herpesvirus of turkey (HVT; also known as Meleagrid herpesvirus 1, MDV-3). Polymerase chain reaction analysis with primers amplifying selected MDV genes revealed that QM7 cells did not contain these sequences. However, MDV genes were detected in QT35 cells, which have been reported to harbour latent MDV virus. Transfection of naked MDV DNA initiated efficient infection of QM7 cells. In addition, QM7 cell lysate, clarified supernatant, and QM7 cell pellet infected with MDV were negative for reverse transcriptase activity, indicating absence of endogenous retrovirus. QM7 cells were also found to be free of other avian pathogens in a chick embryo inoculation test. In vivo studies of MDV growing in QM7 cells showed the virus retained its pathogenicity and virulence. In ovo experiments demonstrated that both HVT and MDV propagated in QM7 cells did not interfere with hatchability of injected eggs, and viruses could be re-isolated from hatched chicks. The results suggest that QM7 could be a good host cell line for growing both MDV and HVT. PMID:25204414

Rong, Sing; Wheeler, David; Weber, Fred

2014-10-01

103

Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia  

PubMed Central

Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. “What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia” and “how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?” are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

Huang, Li-Yen M.; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

2013-01-01

104

Satellite glial cell proliferation in the trigeminal ganglia after chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve.  

PubMed

We have examined satellite glial cell (SGC) proliferation in trigeminal ganglia following chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve. Using BrdU labeling combined with immunohistochemistry for SGC specific proteins we positively confirmed proliferating cells to be SGCs. Proliferation peaks at approximately 4 days after injury and dividing SGCs are preferentially located around neurons that are immunopositive for ATF-3, a marker of nerve injury. After nerve injury there is an increase GFAP expression in SGCs associated with both ATF-3 immunopositive and immunonegative neurons throughout the ganglia. SGCs also express the non-glial proteins, CD45 and CD163, which label resident macrophages and circulating leukocytes, respectively. In addition to SGCs, we found some Schwann cells, endothelial cells, resident macrophages, and circulating leukocytes were BrdU immunopositive. PMID:24123473

Donegan, Macayla; Kernisant, Melanie; Cua, Criselda; Jasmin, Luc; Ohara, Peter T

2013-12-01

105

The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global coverage systems range from $1 Billion to $9 Billion, the availability of radiation hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

1995-10-01

106

Gene expression patterns of the fibroblast growth factors and their receptors during myogenesis of rat satellite cells.  

PubMed

Satellite cells are the myogenic precursors in postnatal muscle and are situated beneath the myofiber basement membrane. We previously showed that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2, basic FGF) stimulates a greater number of satellite cells to enter the cell cycle but does not modify the overall schedule of a short proliferative phase and a rapid transition to the differentiated state as the satellite cells undergo myogenesis in isolated myofibers. In this study we investigated whether other members of the FGF family can maintain the proliferative state of the satellite cells in rat myofiber cultures. We show that FGF1, FGF4, and FGF6 (as well as hepatocyte growth factor, HGF) enhance satellite cell proliferation to a similar degree as that seen with FGF2, whereas FGF5 and FGF7 are ineffective. None of the growth factors prolongs the proliferative phase or delays the transition of the satellite cells to the differentiating, myogenin(+) state. However, FGF6 retards the rapid exit of the cells from the myogenin(+) state that routinely occurs in myofiber cultures. To determine which of the above growth factors might be involved in regulating satellite cells in vivo, we examined their mRNA expression patterns in cultured rat myofibers using RT-PCR. The expression of all growth factors, excluding FGF4, was confirmed. Only FGF6 was expressed at a higher level in the isolated myofibers and not in the connective tissue cells surrounding the myofibers or in satellite cells dissociated away from the muscle. By Western blot analysis, we also demonstrated the presence of FGF6 protein in the skeletal musle tissue. Our studies therefore suggest that the myofibers serve as the main source for the muscle FGF6 in vivo. We also used RT-PCR to analyze the expression patterns of the four tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFR1-FGFR4) and of the HGF receptor (c-met) in the myofiber cultures. Depending on the time in culture, expression of all receptors was detected, with FGFR2 and FGFR3 expressed only at a low level. Only FGFR4 was expressed at a higher level in the myofibers but not the connective tissue cell cultures. FGFR4 was also expressed at a higher level in satellite cells compared to the nonmyogenic cells when the two cell populations were released from the muscle tissue and fractionated by Percoll density centrifugation. The unique localization patterns of FGF6 and FGFR4 may reflect specific roles for these members of the FGF signaling complex during myogenesis in adult skeletal muscle. PMID:10898801

Kästner, S; Elias, M C; Rivera, A J; Yablonka-Reuveni, Z

2000-08-01

107

Higher-order unfolding of satellite heterochromatin is a consistent and early event in cell senescence.  

PubMed

Epigenetic changes to chromatin are thought to be essential to cell senescence, which is key to tumorigenesis and aging. Although many studies focus on heterochromatin gain, this work demonstrates large-scale unraveling of peri/centromeric satellites, which occurs in all models of human and mouse senescence examined. This was not seen in cancer cells, except in a benign senescent tumor in vivo. Senescence-associated distension of satellites (SADS) occurs earlier and more consistently than heterochromatin foci formation, and SADS is not exclusive to either the p16 or p21 pathways. Because Hutchinson Guilford progeria syndrome patient cells do not form excess heterochromatin, the question remained whether or not proliferative arrest in this aging syndrome involved distinct epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we show that SADS provides a unifying event in both progeria and normal senescence. Additionally, SADS represents a novel, cytological-scale unfolding of chromatin, which is not concomitant with change to several canonical histone marks nor a result of DNA hypomethylation. Rather, SADS is likely mediated by changes to higher-order nuclear structural proteins, such as LaminB1. PMID:24344186

Swanson, Eric C; Manning, Benjamin; Zhang, Hong; Lawrence, Jeanne B

2013-12-23

108

Higher-order unfolding of satellite heterochromatin is a consistent and early event in cell senescence  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic changes to chromatin are thought to be essential to cell senescence, which is key to tumorigenesis and aging. Although many studies focus on heterochromatin gain, this work demonstrates large-scale unraveling of peri/centromeric satellites, which occurs in all models of human and mouse senescence examined. This was not seen in cancer cells, except in a benign senescent tumor in vivo. Senescence-associated distension of satellites (SADS) occurs earlier and more consistently than heterochromatin foci formation, and SADS is not exclusive to either the p16 or p21 pathways. Because Hutchinson Guilford progeria syndrome patient cells do not form excess heterochromatin, the question remained whether or not proliferative arrest in this aging syndrome involved distinct epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we show that SADS provides a unifying event in both progeria and normal senescence. Additionally, SADS represents a novel, cytological-scale unfolding of chromatin, which is not concomitant with change to several canonical histone marks nor a result of DNA hypomethylation. Rather, SADS is likely mediated by changes to higher-order nuclear structural proteins, such as LaminB1. PMID:24344186

Swanson, Eric C.; Manning, Benjamin; Zhang, Hong

2013-01-01

109

Increases in Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein2 Accompany Decreases in Proliferation and Differentiation When Porcine Muscle Satellite Cells Undergo Multiple Passages1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjecting cloned porcine myogenic satellite cells to multiple passages leads to decreased rates of cell division and myotube formation. Because IGF have been implicated in the regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation, the present study was conducted to characterize secretion of IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) in cultures of cloned porcine satellite cells at two stages of multiple passaging.

J. M. Fligger; P. V. Malven; M. E. Doumit; R. A. Merkel; A. L. Grant

2010-01-01

110

Rat soleus muscle satellite cells during the recovery after gravitational unloading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the attempt was made to assess alterations of rat soleus satellite cell (SC) population during muscle regrowth after 14-day gravitational unloading (using the hindlimb suspension model). Myofiber size increases during the recovery period. SCs are supposed to participate in muscle growth by fusion with myofibers and supplying them with new myonuclei [Mitchell PO, Pavlath GK, 2001; Oishi Y., 2008]. Other points of view are known about SC participation in the recovery of atrophied muscle mass during the readaptation period [Bruusgaard J.C. et al., 2011; Jackson JR et al., 2012]. After 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension mki67 expression was fivefold lower as compared to control animals and increased gradually up to 28 times by the day 7 of reloading. Cdh15 was decreased after hindlimb unloading and rose from the 1st day of reloading. The expression reached control level to the day 7th of reloading. Cellular response was going on concurrently with the spike of IGF-1 blood level and the increase in muscle IGF-1 concentration. It is possible that in the early days of reloading period differentiation and fusion of satellite cells which were active by the end of hindlimb suspension occurred. Satellite cell incorporation was assessed by counting the amount of BrdU+ myonuclei under myofiber dystrophin layer. It came more intensively in the 1st day of readaptation. It is in accordance with the 4,5 time increase in myogenin expression as compared to hindlimb suspended animals detected at the same time point. Myogenin expression 3 fold decreased by 3rd day of readaptation. We observed only the tendency of resizing but no significant changes in in myonuclear domain size. The number of myonuclei per myofiber cross section was decreased after hindlimb suspension and was not restored by the day 14th of readaptation. Cdh15 and myogenin expression at some extent stabilized after 7 days of readaptation, but high mki67 level pointed to intensive proliferation, which could cause the increase of myonuclei and satellite cell number and enhancing protein synthesis in the late readaptation period. Supported by RFBR grant 13-04-01891

Turtikova, Olga; Shenkman, Boris; Altaeva, Erzhena; Leinsoo, Toomas

111

Growth characteristics of a herpesvirus of turkeys.  

PubMed

The herpesvirus of turkeys remains associated with cells attached to the culture vessel throughout its growth cycle. The level of infectious centers is essentially constant between 24 and 48 hr when the culture medium is unchanged. Thereafter, the number of infectious centers decreases. The cessation of virus synthesis is not due to insufficient numbers of uninfected cells or interferon production. Herpesvirus of turkeys does not replicate at 22 C and is similar to other herpesviruses in its sensitivity to interferon. The results define conditions to be considered in the preparation of infected cell suspensions commonly used as a vaccine against Marek's disease virus. PMID:4675446

Ash, R J; Ware, J D

1972-12-01

112

Isolation of Nuclei from Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells and Myofibers for Use in Chromatin lmmunoprecipitation Assays  

PubMed Central

Studies investigating mechanisms controlling gene regulation frequently examine specific DNA sequences using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to determine whether specific regulatory factors or modified histones are present. While use of primary cells or cell line models for differentiating or differentiated tissue is widespread, the ability to assess factor binding and histone modification in tissue defines the events that occur in vivo and provides corroboration for studies in cultured cells. Many tissues can be analyzed with minimal modification to existing ChIP protocols that are designed for cultured cells; however, some tissues, such as skeletal muscle, are problematic in that accessibility of the cross-linking agent is limited. We describe a method to isolate skeletal muscle tissue nuclei suitable for use in ChIP protocols. Furthermore, we utilize a simple fractionation of digested skeletal muscle tissue that can separate mature myofibers from satellite cells, which are responsible for postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration, thereby allowing simultaneous preparation of nuclei from both cell types. PMID:22130858

Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Mallappa, Chandrashekara; Dacwag Vallaster, Caroline S.; lmbalzano, Anthony N.

2014-01-01

113

Growth factor regulation of neural chemorepellent Sema3A expression in satellite cell cultures.  

PubMed

Successful regeneration and remodeling of the intramuscular motoneuron network and neuromuscular connections are critical for restoring skeletal muscle function and physiological properties. The regulatory signals of such coordination remain unclear, although axon-guidance molecules may be involved. Recently, satellite cells, resident myogenic stem cells positioned beneath the basal lamina and at high density at the myoneural junction regions of mature fibers, were shown to upregulate a secreted neural chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) in response to in vivo muscle-crush injury. The initial report on that expression centered on the observation that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an essential cue in muscle fiber growth and regeneration, remarkably upregulates Sema3A expression in early differentiated satellite cells in vitro [Tatsumi et al., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 297: C238-C252, 2009]. Here, we address regulatory effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?s on Sema3A expression in satellite cell cultures. When treated with FGF2, Sema3A message and protein were upregulated as revealed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemical studies. Sema3A upregulation by FGF2 was dose dependent with a maximum (8- to 1-fold relative to the control) at 2.5 ng/ml (150 pM) and occurred exclusively at the early differentiation stage. The response was highly comparable in dose response and timing to effects of HGF treatment, without any additive or synergistic effect from treatment with a combination of both potent upregulators. In contrast, TGF-?2 and -?3 potently decreased basal Sema3A expression; the maximum effect was at very low concentrations (40 and 8 pM, respectively) and completely cancelled the activities of FGF2 and HGF to upregulate Sema3A. These results therefore encourage the prospect that a time-coordinated increase in HGF, FGF2, and TGF-? ligands and their receptors promotes a programmed strategy for Sema3A expression that guarantees successful intramuscular motor reinnervation by delaying sprouting and reattachment of motoneuron terminals onto damaged muscle fibers early in regeneration pending restoration of muscle fiber contractile integrity. PMID:21865583

Do, Mai-Khoi Q; Sato, Yusuke; Shimizu, Naomi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shono, Jun-ichi; Mizunoya, Wataru; Nakamura, Mako; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide; Anderson, Judy E; Tatsumi, Ryuichi

2011-11-01

114

S-100 antigen in satellite cells of the adrenal medulla and the superior cervical ganglion of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurable amounts of the nervous-system specific S-100 protein were detected by microcomplement fixation assay both in the superior cervical ganglion and in the adrenal medulla of adult rats, though at a significantly higher concentration in the ganglion. By the unlabeled antibody PAP method, the antigen was localized at: he ultrastructural level in the Schwann cells and in the satellite cells

Domenico Cocchia; Fabrizio Michetti

1981-01-01

115

Dual role of the caspase enzymes in satellite cells from aged and young subjects.  

PubMed

Satellite cell (SC) proliferation and differentiation have critical roles in skeletal muscle recovery after injury and adaptation in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Normal ageing hinders SC proliferation and differentiation, and is associated with increased expression of a number of pro-apoptotic factors in skeletal muscle. In light of previous studies that have demonstrated age-related altered expression of genes involved in SC antioxidant and repair activity, this investigation was aimed at evaluating the incidence of apoptotic features in human SCs. Primary cells were obtained from vastus lateralis of nine young (27.3±2.0 years old) and nine old (71.1±1.8 years old) subjects, and cultured in complete medium for analyses at 4, 24, 48, and 72?h. Apoptosis was assessed using AnnexinV/propidium iodide staining, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling technique, RT-PCR, DNA microarrays, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence analysis. There was an increased rate of apoptotic cells in aged subjects at all of the experimental time points, with no direct correlation between AnnexinV-positive cells and caspase-8 activity. On the other hand, CASP2, CASP6, CASP7, and CASP9 and a number of cell death genes were upregulated in the aged SCs. Altogether, our data show age-related enhanced susceptibility of human SCs to apoptosis, which might be responsible for their reduced response to muscle damage. PMID:24336075

Fulle, S; Sancilio, S; Mancinelli, R; Gatta, V; Di Pietro, R

2013-01-01

116

Development of a nitric oxide-releasing analogue of the muscle relaxant guaifenesin for skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenesis.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) mediates activation of satellite precursor cells to enter the cell cycle. This provides new precursor cells for skeletal muscle growth and muscle repair from injury or disease. Targeting a new drug that specifically delivers NO to muscle has the potential to promote normal function and treat neuromuscular disease, and would also help to avoid side effects of NO from other treatment modalities. In this research, we examined the effectiveness of the NO donor, iosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and a muscle relaxant, methocarbamol, in promoting satellite cell activation assayed by muscle cell DNA synthesis in normal adult mice. The work led to the development of guaifenesin dinitrate (GDN) as a new NO donor for delivering nitric oxide to muscle. The results revealed that there was a strong increase in muscle satellite cell activation and proliferation, demonstrated by a significant 38% rise in DNA synthesis after a single transdermal treatment with the new compound for 24 h. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that the markers of satellite cell myogenesis, expression of myf5, myogenin, and follistatin, were increased after 24 h oral administration of the compound in adult mice. This research extends our understanding of the outcomes of NO-based treatments aimed at promoting muscle regeneration in normal tissue. The potential use of such treatment for conditions such as muscle atrophy in disuse and aging, and for the promotion of muscle tissue repair as required after injury or in neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy, is highlighted. PMID:19317416

Wang, Guqi; Burczynski, Frank J; Hasinoff, Brian B; Zhang, Kaidong; Lu, Qilong; Anderson, Judy E

2009-01-01

117

Adult Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

2013-01-01

118

Satellite cell number and cell cycle kinetics in response to acute myotrauma in humans: immunohistochemistry versus flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

In humans, muscle satellite cell (SC) enumeration is an important measurement used to determine the myogenic response to various stimuli. To date, the standard practice for enumeration is immunohistochemistry (IHC) using antibodies against common SC markers (Pax7, NCAM). Flow cytometry (FC) analysis may provide a more rapid and quantitative determination of changes in the SC pool with potential for additional analysis not easily achievable with standard IHC. In this study, FC analysis revealed that the number of Pax7+ cells per milligram isolated from ?50 mg of fresh tissue increased 36% 24 h after exercise-induced muscle injury (300 unilateral maximal eccentric contractions). IHC analysis of Pax7 and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) appeared to sufficiently and similarly represent the expansion of SCs after injury (28–36% increase). IHC and FC data illustrated that Pax7 was the most widely expressed SC marker in muscle cross-sections and represented the majority of positive cells, while NCAM was expressed to a lesser degree. Moreover, FC and IHC demonstrated a similar percentage change 24 h after injury (36% increase, Pax7; 28% increase, NCAM). FC analysis of isolated SCs revealed that the number of Pax7+ cells per milligram in G2/M phase of the cell cycle increased 202% 24 h after injury. Number of cells per milligram in G0/G1 and cells in S-phase increased 32% and 59% respectively. Here we illustrate the use of FC as a method for enumerating SC number on a per milligram tissue basis, providing a more easily understandable relation to muscle mass (vs. percentage of myonuclei or per myofibre). Although IHC is a powerful tool for SC analysis, FC is a fast, reliable and effective method for SC quantification as well as a more informative method for cell cycle kinetics of the SC population in humans. PMID:20624792

McKay, Bryon R; Toth, Kyle G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Parise, Gianni

2010-01-01

119

Skeletal muscle satellite cells: Mediators of muscle growth during development and implications for developmental disorders.  

PubMed

Satellite cells (SCs) are the muscle stem cells responsible for longitudinal and cross-sectional postnatal growth and repair after injury and which provide new myonuclei when needed. We review their morphology and contribution to development and their role in sarcomere and myonuclear addition. SCs, similar to other tissue stem cells, cycle through different states, such as quiescence, activation, and self-renewal, and thus we consider the signaling mechanisms involved in maintenance of these states. The role of the SC niche and their interactions with other cells, such as fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, are all emerging as major factors that affect aging and disease. Interestingly, children with cerebral palsy appear to have a reduced SC number, which could play a role in their reduced muscular development and even in muscular contracture formation. Finally, we review the current information on SC dysfunction in children with muscular dystrophy and emerging therapies that target promotion of myogenesis and reduction of fibrosis. Muscle Nerve 50: 723-732, 2014. PMID:25186345

Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L

2014-11-01

120

Turkey’s globally important biodiversity in crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey (Türkiye) lies at the nexus of Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. Turkey’s location, mountains, and its encirclement by three seas have resulted in high terrestrial, fresh water, and marine biodiversity. Most of Turkey’s land area is covered by one of three biodiversity hotspots (Caucasus, Irano-Anatolian, and Mediterranean). Of over 9000 known native vascular plant species, one

Ça?an H. ?ekercio?lu; Sean Anderson; Erol Akçay; Ra?it Bilgin; Özgün Emre Can; Gürkan Semiz; Ça?atay Tav?ano?lu; Mehmet Baki Yoke?; An?l Soyumert; Kahraman ?pekdal; ?smail K. Sa?lam; Mustafa Yücel; H. Nüzhet Dalfes

121

HDAC4 promotes Pax7-dependent satellite cell activation and muscle regeneration.  

PubMed

During muscle regeneration, the transcription factor Pax7 stimulates the differentiation of satellite cells (SCs) toward the muscle lineage but restricts adipogenesis. Here, we identify HDAC4 as a regulator of Pax7-dependent muscle regeneration. In HDAC4-deficient SCs, the expression of Pax7 and its target genes is reduced. We identify HDAC4-regulated Lix1 as a Pax7 target gene required for SC proliferation. HDAC4 inactivation leads to defective SC proliferation, muscle regeneration, and aberrant lipid accumulation. Further, expression of the brown adipose master regulator Prdm16 and its inhibitory microRNA-133 are also deregulated. Thus, HDAC4 is a novel regulator of Pax7-dependent SC proliferation and potentially fate determination in regenerating muscle. PMID:25205686

Choi, Moon-Chang; Ryu, Soyoung; Hao, Rui; Wang, Bin; Kapur, Meghan; Fan, Chen-Ming; Yao, Tso-Pang

2014-11-01

122

Sequence-specific microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at satellite repeats in individual cell nuclei and chromosomes.  

PubMed

Methylation-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (MeFISH) was developed for microscopic visualization of DNA methylation status at specific repeat sequences in individual cells. MeFISH is based on the differential reactivity of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine in target DNA for interstrand complex formation with osmium and bipyridine-containing nucleic acids (ICON). Cell nuclei and chromosomes hybridized with fluorescence-labeled ICON probes for mouse major and minor satellite repeats were treated with osmium for crosslinking. After denaturation, fluorescent signals were retained specifically at satellite repeats in wild-type, but not in DNA methyltransferase triple-knockout (negative control) mouse embryonic stem cells. Moreover, using MeFISH, we successfully detected hypomethylated satellite repeats in cells from patients with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome and 5-hydroxymethylated satellite repeats in male germ cells, the latter of which had been considered to be unmethylated based on anti-5-methylcytosine antibody staining. MeFISH will be suitable for a wide range of applications in epigenetics research and medical diagnosis. PMID:23990328

Li, Yufeng; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shirane, Kenjiro; Nitta, Hirohisa; Kubota, Takeo; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

2013-10-01

123

Cell Invasion Is Affected by Differential Expression of the Urokinase Plasminogen Activator\\/Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor System in Muscle Satellite Cells from Normal and Dystrophic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential expression and the function in cell movement and proliferation of the urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) system in muscle satellite cells (MSC) of normal individuals and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). By immunoenzymatic, zymographic, and radioligand binding methods and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the specific mRNA we have

Gabriella Fibbi; Emanuela Barletta; Germana Dini; Angela Del Rosso; Marco Pucci; Massimiliano Cerletti; Mario Del Rosso

2001-01-01

124

Pancreatic Satellite Cells Derived Galectin-1 Increase the Progression and Less Survival of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Galectin-1, a member of carbohydrate-binding proteins with a polyvalent function on tumor progression, was found strongly expressed in pancreatic satellite cells (PSCs), which partner in crime with cancer cells and promote the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We evaluated the effects of PSCs derived Galectin-1 on the progression of PDAC, as well as the tumor establishment and development in mouse xenografts. Methods The relationship between immunohistochemistry staining intensity of Galectin-1 and clinicopathologic variables were assessed in 66 PDAC tissues, 18 chronic pancreatitis tissues and 10 normal controls. The roles of PSCs isolated from PDAC and normal pancreas on the proliferative activity, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and the invasion of CFPAC-1 in the co-cultured system, as well as on the tumor establishment and development in mouse xenografts by mixed implanting with CFPAC-1 subcutaneously were evaluated. Results Galectin-1 expression was gradually increased from normal pancreas (negative), chronic pancreatitis (weak) to PDAC (strong), in which Galectin-1 expression was also increased from well, moderately to poorly differentiated PDAC. Galectin-1 staining intensity of pancreatic cancer tissue was associated with increase in tumor size, lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion and differentiation and UICC stage, and served as the independent prognostic indicator of poor survival of pancreatic cancer. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that TGF-?1 upregulated Galectin-1 expression in PSCs, which could further promotes the proliferative activity, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, as well as the tumor establishment and growth. Conclusion Galectin-1 expression in stromal cells of pancreatic cancer suggests that this protein plays a role in the promotion of cancer cells invasion and metastasis and provides a therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24595374

Gao, Jun; Wang, Sen; Ye, Nianyuan; Li, Ping; Gao, Sujun; Miao, Yi; Wang, Daorong; Jiang, Kuirong

2014-01-01

125

Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

2001-01-01

126

The differential proliferative ability of satellite cells in Lantang and Landrace pigs.  

PubMed

Here, for the first time, we evaluate the hypothesis that the proliferative abilities of satellite cells (SCs) isolated from Lantang (indigenous Chinese pigs) and Landrace pigs, which differ in muscle characteristics, are different. SCs were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of neonatal Lantang and Landrace pigs. Proliferative ability was estimated by the count and proliferative activity of viable cells using a hemocytometer and MTT assay at different time points after seeding, respectively. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. Results showed that there was a greater (P<0.05) number of SCs in Lantang pigs compared with Landrace pigs after 72 h of culture. The percentage of cell population in S phase and G(2)/M phases in Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05), while in G(0)/G(1) phase was lower (P<0.05) in comparison with the Landrace pigs. The mRNA abundances of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin and Pax7 in SCs from Lantang pigs were higher (P<0.05), while those of myostatin, Smad3 and genes in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (with the exception of 4EBP1) were lower (P<0.05) than the Landrace pigs. Protein levels of MyoD, myogenin, myostatin, S6K, phosphorylated mTOR and phosphorylated eIF4E were consistent with the corresponding mRNA abundance. Collectively, these findings suggested that SCs in the two breeds present different proliferative abilities, and the proliferative potential of SCs in Lantang pigs is higher than in Landrace pigs. PMID:22427853

Wang, Xiu-qi; Yang, Wei-jun; Yang, Zhou; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-bo; Jiang, Qing-yan; Yuan, Li; Wu, Tong-shan

2012-01-01

127

High frequency vibration (HFV) induces muscle hypertrophy in newborn mice and enhances primary myoblasts fusion in satellite cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The present study aimed at verifying “in vivo” and “in vitro” the effects of mechanical vibrations on muscle development and\\u000a on differentiation of satellite cells, the “stem cells” of muscle tissue. We realized a bioreactor composed by an eccentric\\u000a motor which produces a displacement of 11 mm at frequencies between 1 and 120 Hz on a plate connected to the

G. Ceccarelli; L. Benedetti; D. Prè; D. Galli; L. Vercesi; G. Magenes; M. G. Cusella Angelis

128

Human muscle satellite cells show age-related differential expression of S100B protein and RAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

During aging, skeletal muscles show reduced mass and functional capacity largely due to loss of the regenerative ability of\\u000a satellite cells (SCs), the quiescent stem cells located beneath the basal lamina surrounding each myofiber. While both the\\u000a external environment and intrinsic properties of SCs appear to contribute to the age-related SC deficiency, the latter ones\\u000a have been poorly investigated especially

Sara Beccafico; Francesca Riuzzi; Cristina Puglielli; Rosa Mancinelli; Stefania Fulle; Guglielmo Sorci; Rosario Donato

129

Modifications in major satellite methylation in the nucleus of a two-cell mouse embryo with respect to developmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted of the degree of DNA methylation in the nucleus, in particular, of the major satellite in two-cell mouse\\u000a embryos developing in the maternal organism, in standard culture medium M16, used for cultivating mouse embryos; and M2 media\\u000a used for manipulating embryos in air. Two-cell embryo nuclei at 44–46 h after injections of chorionic hormone were investigated.

I. S. Kuznetsova; E. M. Noniashvili; E. V. Gavrilova; A. P. Dyban

2009-01-01

130

Satellite cells of sensory neurons after various types of sciatic nerve trauma in the rat.  

PubMed

Sciatic nerve crushing, transection, and ligation models were used in rats to study the reactions of and changes in the numbers of satellite cells (SC) in spinal dorsal root ganglia in the lumbar segment. Nerve transection was followed by the appearance of neurons surrounded by two layers of SC. The thickness of SC processes and the areas of contacts with neurons increased as a result of invaginations into neuron perikarya. After nerve ligation, SC and their processes were located around parts of large and intermediate neurons in several tightly appressed layers; the area of contact between SC and neuron perikarya showed increased development of invaginations such that lamellar structures appeared in the SC cytoplasm, along with contacts with SC processes surrounding neighboring neurons. The greatest increases in SC numbers were seen after ligation of the nerve. Transection was followed by increases in the numbers of small and intermediate neurons surrounded by vimentin-positive SC. The number of large neurons surrounded by these cells decreased. At all time points following ligation of the nerve, all neurons in the study ganglia were surrounded by vimentin-positive SC. Post-traumatic changes in structure and numbers differed in SC associated with sensory neurons of individual size populations and depended on the type of trauma applied to efferent conductors. PMID:20532986

Arkhipova, S S; Raginov, I S; Mukhitov, A R; Chelyshev, Y A

2010-07-01

131

Peripheral inflammation augments gap junction-mediated coupling among satellite glial cells in mouse sympathetic ganglia.  

PubMed

Intercellular coupling by gap junctions is one of the main features of glial cells, but very little is known about this aspect of satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sympathetic ganglia. We used the dye coupling method to address this question in both a prevertebral ganglion (superior mesenteric) and a paravertebral ganglion (superior cervical) of mice. We found that in control ganglia, the incidence of dye coupling among SGCs that form the envelope around a given neuron was 10-20%, and coupling between SGCs around different envelopes was rare (1.5-3%). The dye injections also provided novel information on the structure of SGCs. Following peripheral inflammation, both types of coupling were increased, but most striking was the augmentation of coupling between SGCs forming envelopes around different neurons, which rose by 8-14.6-fold. This effect appeared to be non-systemic, and was blocked by the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone. These changes in SGCs may affect signal transmission and processing in sympathetic ganglia. PMID:20202288

Hanani, Menachem; Caspi, Anna; Belzer, Vitali

2010-02-01

132

Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents.  

PubMed

Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

2014-12-01

133

Muscle Fiber Characteristics, Satellite Cells and Soccer Performance in Young Athletes  

PubMed Central

This study is aimed to examine the muscle fiber type, composition and satellite cells in young male soccer players and to correlate them to cardiorespiratory indices and muscle strength. The participants formed three Groups: Group A (n = 13), 11.2 ± 0.4yrs, Group B (n=10), 13.1 ± 0.5yrs and Group C (n = 9), 15.2 ± 0.6yrs. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. Peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings were recorded and VO2max was measured on the treadmill. Group C had lower type I percentage distribution compared to A by 21.3% (p < 0.01), while the type IIA relative percentage was higher by 18.1% and 18.4% than in Groups A and B (p < 0.05). Groups B and C had higher cross-sectional area (CSA) values in all fiber types than in Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). The number of satellite cells did not differ between the groups. Groups B and C had higher peak torque at all angular velocities and absolute VO2max in terms of ml·min-1 than Group A (0.05 < p < 0.001). It is concluded that the increased percentage of type IIA muscle fibers noticed in Group C in comparison to the Groups A and B should be mainly attributed to the different workload exercise and training programs. The alteration of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms composition even in children is an important mechanism for skeletal muscle characteristics. Finally, CSA, isokinetic muscle strength and VO2max values seems to be expressed according to age. Key Points Fifteen years old soccer players have higher IIA percentage distribution than the younger players by approximately 18%. The age and the training status play a crucial role in muscle fibers co-expression. Specific training in young athletes seems to alter significantly the muscular metabolic profile. PMID:25177173

Metaxas, Thomas I.; Mandroukas, Athanasios; Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Kotoglou, Kostas; Ekblom, Bjorn; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

134

Repetitive centromeric satellite RNA is essential for kinetochore formation and cell division.  

PubMed

Chromosome segregation requires centromeres on every sister chromatid to correctly form and attach the microtubule spindle during cell division. Even though centromeres are essential for genome stability, the underlying centromeric DNA is highly variable in sequence and evolves quickly. Epigenetic mechanisms are therefore thought to regulate centromeres. Here, we show that the 359-bp repeat satellite III (SAT III), which spans megabases on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, produces a long noncoding RNA that localizes to centromeric regions of all major chromosomes. Depletion of SAT III RNA causes mitotic defects, not only of the sex chromosome but also in trans of all autosomes. We furthermore find that SAT III RNA binds to the kinetochore component CENP-C, and is required for correct localization of the centromere-defining proteins CENP-A and CENP-C, as well as outer kinetochore proteins. In conclusion, our data reveal that SAT III RNA is an integral part of centromere identity, adding RNA to the complex epigenetic mark at centromeres in flies. PMID:25365994

Roši?, Silvana; Köhler, Florian; Erhardt, Sylvia

2014-11-10

135

A Solar Cell Based Coarse Sun Sensor for a Small LEO Satellite Attitude Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sun is a useful reference direction because of its brightness relative to other astronomical objects and its relatively small apparent radius as viewed by spacecrafts near the Earth. Most satellites use solar power as a source of energy, and so need to make sure that solar panels are oriented correctly with respect to the sun. Also, some satellites have

Mohamed Zahran; Mohamed Aly

2009-01-01

136

The Acute Satellite Cell Response and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy following Resistance Training  

PubMed Central

The extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is highly variable in humans. The main objective of this study was to explain the nature of this variability. More specifically, we focused on the myogenic stem cell population, the satellite cell (SC) as a potential mediator of hypertrophy. Twenty-three males (aged 18–35 yrs) participated in 16 wk of progressive, whole body resistance training, resulting in changes of 7.9±1.6% (range of ?1.9–24.7%) and 21.0±4.0% (range of ?7.0 to 51.7%) in quadriceps volume and myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA), respectively. The SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise (80% 1RM), analyzed via immunofluorescent staining resulted in an expansion of type II fibre associated SC 72 h following exercise (pre: 11.3±0.9; 72 h: 14.8±1.4 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Training resulted in an expansion of the SC pool associated with type I (pre: 10.7±1.1; post: 12.1±1.2 SC/type I fibre; p<0.05) and type II fibres (pre: 11.3±0.9; post: 13.0±1.2 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Analysis of individual SC responses revealed a correlation between the relative change in type I associated SC 24 to 72 hours following an acute bout of resistance exercise and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2?=?0.566, p?=?0.012) and the relative change in type II associated SC following 16 weeks of resistance training and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2?=?0.493, p?=?0.027). Our results suggest that the SC response to resistance exercise is related to the extent of muscular hypertrophy induced by training. PMID:25313863

Mitchell, Cameron J.; McKay, Bryon R.; Phillips, Stuart M.; Baker, Steven; Parise, Gianni

2014-01-01

137

S1P lyase in skeletal muscle regeneration and satellite cell activation: exposing the hidden lyase.  

PubMed

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid whose actions are essential for many physiological processes including angiogenesis, lymphocyte trafficking and development. In addition, S1P serves as a muscle trophic factor that enables efficient muscle regeneration. This is due in part to S1P's ability to activate quiescent muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) that are needed for muscle repair. However, the molecular mechanism by which S1P activates SCs has not been well understood. Further, strategies for harnessing S1P signaling to recruit SCs for therapeutic benefit have been lacking. S1P is irreversibly catabolized by S1P lyase (SPL), a highly conserved enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of S1P at carbon bond C(2-3), resulting in formation of hexadecenal and ethanolamine-phosphate. SPL enhances apoptosis through substrate- and product-dependent events, thereby regulating cellular responses to chemotherapy, radiation and ischemia. SPL is undetectable in resting murine skeletal muscle. However, we recently found that SPL is dynamically upregulated in skeletal muscle after injury. SPL upregulation occurred in the context of a tightly orchestrated genetic program that resulted in a transient S1P signal in response to muscle injury. S1P activated quiescent SCs via a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, thereby facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), exhibited skeletal muscle SPL upregulation and S1P deficiency. Pharmacological SPL inhibition raised skeletal muscle S1P levels, enhanced SC recruitment and improved mdx skeletal muscle regeneration. These findings reveal how S1P can activate SCs and indicate that SPL suppression may provide a therapeutic strategy for myopathies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research. PMID:22750505

Saba, Julie D; de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S

2013-01-01

138

The Acute Satellite Cell Response and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy following Resistance Training.  

PubMed

The extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is highly variable in humans. The main objective of this study was to explain the nature of this variability. More specifically, we focused on the myogenic stem cell population, the satellite cell (SC) as a potential mediator of hypertrophy. Twenty-three males (aged 18-35 yrs) participated in 16 wk of progressive, whole body resistance training, resulting in changes of 7.9±1.6% (range of -1.9-24.7%) and 21.0±4.0% (range of -7.0 to 51.7%) in quadriceps volume and myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA), respectively. The SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise (80% 1RM), analyzed via immunofluorescent staining resulted in an expansion of type II fibre associated SC 72 h following exercise (pre: 11.3±0.9; 72 h: 14.8±1.4 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Training resulted in an expansion of the SC pool associated with type I (pre: 10.7±1.1; post: 12.1±1.2 SC/type I fibre; p<0.05) and type II fibres (pre: 11.3±0.9; post: 13.0±1.2 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05). Analysis of individual SC responses revealed a correlation between the relative change in type I associated SC 24 to 72 hours following an acute bout of resistance exercise and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2?=?0.566, p?=?0.012) and the relative change in type II associated SC following 16 weeks of resistance training and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2?=?0.493, p?=?0.027). Our results suggest that the SC response to resistance exercise is related to the extent of muscular hypertrophy induced by training. PMID:25313863

Bellamy, Leeann M; Joanisse, Sophie; Grubb, Amanda; Mitchell, Cameron J; McKay, Bryon R; Phillips, Stuart M; Baker, Steven; Parise, Gianni

2014-01-01

139

Satellite cell activation and populations on single muscle-fiber cultures from adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Satellite cells (SCs), stem cells in skeletal muscle, are mitotically quiescent in adult mammals until activated for growth or regeneration. In mouse muscle, SCs are activated by nitric oxide (NO), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the mechanically induced NO-HGF signaling cascade. Here, the SC population on fibers from the adult, ectothermic zebrafish and SC responsiveness to activating stimuli were assessed using the model system of isolated fibers cultured at 27 and 21°C. SCs were identified by immunostaining for the HGF receptor, c-met, and activation was determined using bromodeoxyuridine uptake in culture or in vivo. In dose-response studies, SC activation was increased by treatment with the NO-donor drug isosorbide dinitrate (1 mmol l(-1)) or HGF (10 ng ml(-1)) to maximum activation at lower concentrations of both than in previous studies of mouse fibers. HGF-induced activation was blocked by anti-c-met antibody, and reduced by culture at 21°C. The effect of cyclical stretch (3 h at 4 cycles per minute) increased activation and was blocked by nitric oxide synthase inhibition and reduced by culture at 21°C. The number of c-met+ SCs per fiber increased rapidly (by 3 h) after stretching. The character of signaling in SC activation on zebrafish fibers, in particular temperature-dependent responses to HGF and stretch, gives new insights into the influence of ectothermy on regulation of muscle growth in teleosts and suggests the use of the single-fiber model system to explore the basis of fiber hyperplasia and the conservation of regulatory pathways between species. PMID:24577448

Zhang, Helia; Anderson, Judy E

2014-06-01

140

MicroRNA-133 Controls Brown Adipose Determination in Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells by Targeting Prdm16  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-dispensing thermogenic tissue that plays an important role in balancing energy metabolism. Lineage-tracing experiments indicate that brown adipocytes are derived from myogenic progenitors during embryonic development. However, adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) have long been considered uniformly determined toward the myogenic lineage. Here, we report that adult satellite cells give rise to brown adipocytes and that microRNA-133 regulates the choice between myogenic and brown adipose determination by targeting the 3?UTR of Prdm16. Antagonism of microRNA-133 during muscle regeneration increases uncoupled respiration, glucose uptake, and thermogenesis in local treated muscle and augments whole-body energy expenditure, improves glucose tolerance, and impedes the development of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-133 levels are downregulated in mice exposed to cold, resulting in de novo generation of satellite cell-derived brown adipocytes. Therefore, microRNA-133 represents an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23395168

Yin, Hang; Pasut, Alessandra; Soleimani, Vahab D.; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Antoun, Ghadi; Thorn, Stephanie; Seale, Patrick; Fernando, Pasan; van IJcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Dekemp, Robert A.; Boushel, Robert; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Rudnicki, Michael A.

2013-01-01

141

MicroRNA-133 controls brown adipose determination in skeletal muscle satellite cells by targeting Prdm16.  

PubMed

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-dispensing thermogenic tissue that plays an important role in balancing energy metabolism. Lineage-tracing experiments indicate that brown adipocytes are derived from myogenic progenitors during embryonic development. However, adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) have long been considered uniformly determined toward the myogenic lineage. Here, we report that adult satellite cells give rise to brown adipocytes and that microRNA-133 regulates the choice between myogenic and brown adipose determination by targeting the 3'UTR of Prdm16. Antagonism of microRNA-133 during muscle regeneration increases uncoupled respiration, glucose uptake, and thermogenesis in local treated muscle and augments whole-body energy expenditure, improves glucose tolerance, and impedes the development of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-133 levels are downregulated in mice exposed to cold, resulting in de novo generation of satellite cell-derived brown adipocytes. Therefore, microRNA-133 represents an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. PMID:23395168

Yin, Hang; Pasut, Alessandra; Soleimani, Vahab D; Bentzinger, C Florian; Antoun, Ghadi; Thorn, Stephanie; Seale, Patrick; Fernando, Pasan; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Grosveld, Frank; Dekemp, Robert A; Boushel, Robert; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Rudnicki, Michael A

2013-02-01

142

Transcriptional profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in developing turkey skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal muscle growth and development from embryo to adult consists of a series of carefully regulated changes in gene expression. Understanding these developmental changes in agriculturally important species is essential to the production of high quality meat products. For example, consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the turkey industry to unprecedented production through intensive genetic selection. However, achievements of increased body weight and muscle mass have been countered by an increased incidence of myopathies and meat quality defects. In a previous study, we developed and validated a turkey skeletal muscle-specific microarray as a tool for functional genomics studies. The goals of the current study were to utilize this microarray to elucidate functional pathways of genes responsible for key events in turkey skeletal muscle development and to compare differences in gene expression between two genetic lines of turkeys. To achieve these goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18d embryo (hyperplasia), 1d post-hatch (shift from myoblast-mediated growth to satellite cell-modulated growth by hypertrophy), and 16wk (market age) from two genetic lines: a randombred control line (RBC2) maintained without selection pressure, and a line (F) selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16wk body weight. Array hybridizations were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the developmental stages within genetic line, while Experiment 2 directly compared the two lines within each developmental stage. Results A total of 3474 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate; FDR < 0.001) by overall effect of development, while 16 genes were differentially expressed (FDR < 0.10) by overall effect of genetic line. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis was used to group annotated genes into networks, functions, and canonical pathways. The expression of 28 genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation, cell death/apoptosis, and calcium signaling/muscle function, as well as genes with miscellaneous function was confirmed by qPCR. Conclusions The current study identified gene pathways and uncovered novel genes important in turkey muscle growth and development. Future experiments will focus further on several of these candidate genes and the expression and mechanism of action of their protein products. PMID:21385442

2011-01-01

143

G?i2 Signaling Is Required for Skeletal Muscle Growth, Regeneration, and Satellite Cell Proliferation and Differentiation  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that activation of G?i2, an ? subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myoblast differentiation. To determine whether G?i2 is required for skeletal muscle growth or regeneration, G?i2-null mice were analyzed. G?i2 knockout mice display decreased lean body mass, reduced muscle size, and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin-induced injury. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of G?i2 in satellite cells (SCs) leads to defective satellite cell proliferation, fusion, and differentiation ex vivo. The impaired differentiation is consistent with the observation that the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and Myf5 are downregulated upon knockdown of G?i2. Interestingly, the expression of microRNA 1 (miR-1), miR-27b, and miR-206, three microRNAs that have been shown to regulate SC proliferation and differentiation, is increased by a constitutively active mutant of G?i2 [G?i2(Q205L)] and counterregulated by G?i2 knockdown. As for the mechanism, this study demonstrates that G?i2(Q205L) regulates satellite cell differentiation into myotubes in a protein kinase C (PKC)- and histone deacetylase (HDAC)-dependent manner. PMID:24298018

Minetti, Giulia C.; Feige, Jerome N.; Bombard, Florian; Heier, Annabelle; Morvan, Fredric; Nurnberg, Bernd; Leiss, Veronika; Birnbaumer, Lutz

2014-01-01

144

Satellite cell senescence underlies myopathy in a mouse model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2H  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif-containing 32 (TRIM32) are responsible for the disease limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2H (LGMD2H). Previously, we generated Trim32 knockout mice (Trim32–/– mice) and showed that they display a myopathic phenotype accompanied by neurogenic features. Here, we used these mice to investigate the muscle-specific defects arising from the absence of TRIM32, which underlie the myopathic phenotype. Using 2 models of induced atrophy, we showed that TRIM32 is dispensable for muscle atrophy. Conversely, TRIM32 was necessary for muscle regrowth after atrophy. Furthermore, TRIM32-deficient primary myoblasts underwent premature senescence and impaired myogenesis due to accumulation of PIAS4, an E3 SUMO ligase and TRIM32 substrate that was previously shown to be associated with senescence. Premature senescence of myoblasts was also observed in vivo in an atrophy/regrowth model. Trim32–/– muscles had substantially fewer activated satellite cells, increased PIAS4 levels, and growth failure compared with wild-type muscles. Moreover, Trim32–/– muscles exhibited features of premature sarcopenia, such as selective type II fast fiber atrophy. These results imply that premature senescence of muscle satellite cells is an underlying pathogenic feature of LGMD2H and reveal what we believe to be a new mechanism of muscular dystrophy associated with reductions in available satellite cells and premature sarcopenia. PMID:22505452

Kudryashova, Elena; Kramerova, Irina; Spencer, Melissa J.

2012-01-01

145

The molecular responses of skeletal muscle satellite cells to continuous expression of IGF-1: implications for the rescue of induced muscular atrophy in aged rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 50% of humans older than 85 years have physical frailty due to weak skeletal muscles. This indicates a need for determining mechanisms to combat this problem. A critical cellular factor for postnatal muscle growth is a population of myogenic precursor cells called satellite cells. Given the complex process of sarcopenia, it has been postulated that, at some point in this process, a limited satellite cell proliferation potential could become rate-limiting to the regrowth of old muscles. It is conceivable that if satellite cell proliferative capacity can be maintained or enhanced with advanced age, sarcopenia could potentially be delayed or prevented. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are to describe whether IGF-I can prevent muscular atrophy induced by repeated cycles of hindlimb immobilization, increase the in vitro proliferation in satellite cells from these muscles and, if so, the molecular mechanisms by which IGF-I mediates this increased proliferation. Our results provide evidence that IGF-I can enhance aged muscle regrowth possibly through increased satellite cell proliferation. The results also suggest that IGF-I enhances satellite cell proliferation by decreasing the cell cycle inhibitor, p27Kip1, through the PI3'-K/Akt pathway. These data provide molecular evidence for IGF-I's rescue effect upon aging-associated skeletal muscle atrophy.

Chakravarthy, M. V.; Booth, F. W.; Spangenburg, E. E.

2001-01-01

146

Reduced masticatory function is related to lower satellite cell numbers in masseter muscle.  

PubMed

The physiology of masseter muscles is known to change in response to functional demands, but the effect on the satellite cell (SC) population is not known. In this study, the hypothesis is tested that a decreased functional demand of the masseter muscle causes a reduction of SCs. To this end, twelve 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were put on a soft diet (SD, n = 6) or a hard diet (HD, n = 6) and sacrificed after 14 days. Paraffin sections of the superficial masseter and the m. digastricus (control muscle) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin for tissue survey and with anti-myosin heavy chain (MHC) for slow and fast fibres. Frozen sections of both muscles were double-stained for collagen type IV and Pax7. Slow MHC fibres were equally distributed in the m. digastricus but only localized in a small area of the m. masseter. No differences between HD or SD for the m. digastricus were found. The m. masseter had more SCs per fibre in HD than in SD (0.093 ± 0.007 and 0.081 ± 0.008, respectively; P = 0.027). The m. masseter had more fibres per surface area than the m. digastricus in rats with an SD group (758.1 ± 101.6 and 568.4 ± 85.6, P = 0.047) and a HD group (737.7 ± 32.6 and 592.2 ± 82.2; P = 0.007). The m. digastricus had more SCs per fibre than the m. masseter in the SD group (0.094 ± 0.01 and 0.081 ± 0.008; P = 0.039). These results suggest that reduced masseter muscle function is related to a lower number of SCs. Reduced muscle function might decrease microdamage and hence the requirement of SCs in the muscle fibres. PMID:22828080

Kuijpers, M A R; Grefte, S; Bronkhorst, E M; Carels, C E L; Kiliaridis, S; Von den Hoff, J W

2014-06-01

147

Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during recovery from eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

Human skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are essential for muscle regeneration and remodeling processes in healthy and clinical conditions involving muscle breakdown. However, the potential influence of protein supplementation on post-exercise SC regulation in human skeletal muscle has not been well investigated. In a comparative human study, we investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein supplementation following eccentric exercise on fiber type-specific SC accumulation. Twenty-four young healthy subjects received either hydrolyzed whey protein + carbohydrate (whey, n = 12) or iso-caloric carbohydrate (placebo, n = 12) during post-exercise recovery from 150 maximal unilateral eccentric contractions. Prior to and 24, 48 and 168 h post-exercise, muscle biopsies were obtained from the exercise leg and analyzed for fiber type-specific SC content. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and serum creatine kinase (CK) were evaluated as indices of recovery from muscle damage. In type II fiber-associated SCs, the whey group increased SCs/fiber from 0.05 [0.02; 0.07] to 0.09 [0.06; 0.12] (p < 0.05) and 0.11 [0.06; 0.16] (p < 0.001) at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and exhibited a difference from the placebo group (p < 0.05) at 48 h. The whey group increased SCs/myonuclei from 4?% [2; 5] to 10?% [4; 16] (p?

Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Knudsen, Inge Skovgaard; de Paoli, Frank; Mackey, Abigail L; Vissing, Kristian

2014-11-01

148

Design of solar cell array preventing electrostatic discharge for satellite use  

SciTech Connect

New design of a cover glass which can be used for a solar cell array in a satellite is presented. The substrate of a cover glass used in this experiment is a ceria-doped microsheet glass. To minimize surface reflection and block ultra-violet, AR(anti-reflective) and UVR (ultra-violet reflective) coating are added to the substrate, respectively. The coating materials for AR and UVR are MgF{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}, respectively. ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) coating also is added to substrate for preventing ESD (electrostatic discharge). The thickness of a ITO and coating sequence of AR, UVR, ITO are optimized, respectively. The computer simulation of the cover glasses with MACLEOD program showed that the transmittance of all cover glass were greater than 90%. In the optical test, the transmittance of AR/ITO/substrate and UVR/ITO/substrate are higher than that of ITO/AR/substrate and ITO/UVR/substrate. However, the threshold voltages for the onset of ESD of AR/ITO/substrate and UVR/ITO/substrate exceed 500(V). The cover glass shows a serious degradation when it is exposed to in UV radiation for 500 hours. However, the further degradation didn`t take place more after 500 hours exposition to UV radiation. The electrostatic potential difference of ITO/AR/substrate and ITO/UVR/substrate between the cover glass and the ground are less than 10(V). Therefore this new designed cover glass can prevent ESD in the space. The most effective cover glass for preventing ESD is ITO(60 {angstrom})/AR(10000 {angstrom})/substrate glass.

Choi, Y.; Wang, J. [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-12-31

149

Nitric oxide release from trigeminal satellite glial cells is attenuated by glial modulators and glutamate.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is suggested to play an important role in primary headaches. It has been proposed that release of NO from satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) could contribute to the pathogenesis of these headaches. The principal aim of this study was to investigate if the phosphodiesterase inhibitor Ibudilast (Ibu) and 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit D3) could interfere with NO release from trigeminal SGCs. Since glutamate is released from activated TG neurons, the ability of glutamate to alter NO release from SGCs was also investigated. To study this, we isolated SGCs from the TG of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, provoked NO release from SGCs with forskolin (FSK; 0.1, 1, 10 ?M), and examined the effect of graded concentrations of Ibu (1, 10, 100 ?M), Vit D3 (5, 50, 500 nM), and glutamate (10, 100, 1000 ?M). Our results indicate that both Ibu and Vit D3 are capable of attenuating the FSK-mediated increased NO release from SGCs after 48 hours of incubation. Lower glutamate concentrations (10 and 100 ?M) significantly decreased NO release not only under basal conditions after 24 and 48 hours, but also after SGCs were stimulated with FSK for 48 hours. In conclusion, NO release from SGCs harvested from the TG can be attenuated by glial modulators and glutamate. As NO is thought to increase TG neuron excitability, the findings suggest that targeting SGCs may provide a novel therapeutic approach for management of craniofacial pain conditions such as migraine in the future. PMID:24379907

Laursen, Jens Christian; Cairns, Brian Edwin; Kumar, Ujendra; Somvanshi, Rishi Kumar; Dong, Xu-Dong; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

2013-01-01

150

Producing Turkeys for Show  

E-print Network

be controlled around turkeys. Drench mounds with an approved insecticide, or treat the general area with an approved bait. Do not allow poults access to this material. ? Cannibalism can be controlled by clip- ping one-third of the upper beak. Cauterize the cut... be controlled around turkeys. Drench mounds with an approved insecticide, or treat the general area with an approved bait. Do not allow poults access to this material. ? Cannibalism can be controlled by clip- ping one-third of the upper beak. Cauterize the cut...

Thornberry, Fredrick D.

2005-12-14

151

Hypoxia Increases Mouse Satellite Cell Clone Proliferation Maintaining both In Vitro and In Vivo Heterogeneity and Myogenic Potential  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells (SCs) are essential for postnatal muscle growth and regeneration, however, their expansion potential in vitro is limited. Recently, hypoxia has been used to enhance proliferative abilities in vitro of various primary cultures. Here, by isolating SCs from single mouse hindlimb skeletal myofibers, we were able to distinguish two subpopulations of clonally cultured SCs (Low Proliferative Clones - LPC - and High Proliferative Clones - HPC), which, as shown in rat skeletal muscle, were present at a fixed proportion. In addition, culturing LPC and HPC at a low level of oxygen we observed a two fold increased proliferation both for LPC and HPC. LPC showed higher myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression than HPC, particularly under the hypoxic condition. Notably, a different myogenic potential between LPC and HPC was retained in vivo: green fluorescent protein (GFP)+LPC transplantation in cardiotoxin-injured Tibialis Anterior led to a higher number of new GFP+muscle fibers per transplanted cell than GFP+HPC. Interestingly, the in vivo myogenic potential of a single cell from an LPC is similar if cultured both in normoxia and hypoxia. Therefore, starting from a single satellite cell, hypoxia allows a larger expansion of LPC than normal O2 conditions, obtaining a consistent amount of cells for transplantation, but maintaining their myogenic regeneration potential. PMID:23166781

Urbani, Luca; Piccoli, Martina; Franzin, Chiara

2012-01-01

152

Let's Talk Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site will help users plan and enjoy their Thanksgiving feasts. This Thanksgiving site from the Food Network contains a host of resources, including recipes; turkey, pie, and stuffing guides; wine and leftover tips; and just in case, Kitchen Disaster 911.

2001-01-01

153

Special Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

2009-01-01

154

Educational Reform in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

Aksit, Necmi

2007-01-01

155

Soil microfungi of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the results of four different author's works on soil fungi in Turkey is given. By means of the Soil Dilution Method and Soil Plate Method, 160 fungus species were isolated. In all areas which are investigatedPenicillium had the most species and the fungus number fluctuated in 1 g of soil between 17000 and 436000 and there were

M. Öner

1970-01-01

156

The "Turkey Buzzard" glider  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Turkey Buzzard" is a semi-internally braced monoplane (Fig. 1). The wing is placed above the fuselage for two important aerodynamical reasons: first, because this position minimizes the mutual interference between the wing and the fuselage, and, second, useful lifting surface is utilized with the wing passing over the fuselage instead of through it.

Miller, Roy G; Brown, D T

1923-01-01

157

Special Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality and the prevalence of education are the major indicators of the development of a society. It is a kind of human right to every person living in the society to be educated in a sufficient way. The education of the disabled people, a social reality in Turkey, is not sufficiently carried out. This paper aims at the education of the…

Eres, Figen

2010-01-01

158

Wind energy and Turkey.  

PubMed

The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

2012-03-01

159

Juxtacrine and Paracrine Interactions of Rat Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Muscle-Derived Satellite Cells, and Neonatal Cardiomyocytes with Endothelial Cells in Angiogenesis Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Research into angiogenesis has contributed to progress in the fast-moving field of regenerative medicine. Designing coculture systems is deemed a helpful method to understand the dynamic interaction of various cells involved in the angiogenesis process. We investigated the juxtacrine and paracrine interaction between 3 different cells, namely rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs), rat muscle-derived satellite cells (rSCs), and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (rCMs), and endothelial cells (ECs) during angiogenesis process. In vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assay was performed whereby ECs were monocultured or cocultured with rMSCs, rSCs, and rCMs or their conditioned media (CM). In addition, in vivo Matrigel plug assay for angiogenesis was conducted to assess the angiogenic potential of the rCM-, rMSC-, and rSC-derived CM. Our results demonstrated that the rMSCs, rSCs, and rCMs elongated along the EC tubules, whereas the rMSCs formed tube-like structures with sprouting tip cells, leading to improved angiogenesis in the coculture system. Moreover, the rMSC- and rSC-derived CM significantly improved angiogenesis tube formation on Matrigel, accelerated EC chemotaxis, and increased the arteriolar density, vascularization index, and vascularization flow index in the Matrigel plug in vivo. Western blotting showed that rMSCs secreted a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and stromal-derived factor-1-alpha. Tie2 is also shed from rMSCs. This study demonstrated that stem cells interact with ECs in the juxtacrine and paracrine manner during angiogenesis, and marrow MSCs have superior angiogenic properties. PMID:23072248

Rahbarghazi, Reza; Khazraiinia, Parvaneh; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Mohammadi, Elham; Molazem, Mohammad; Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad

2013-01-01

160

Potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

Ren, Yu; Wu, Haiqing; Ma, Yuzhen; Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

2014-01-01

161

Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle-Derived Satellite Cells for Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Mediated Transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere Goats  

PubMed Central

Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

2014-01-01

162

Comparison of ANN and MLR models for estimating solar radiation in Turkey using NOAA/AVHRR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the estimation capacities of MLR and ANN are investigated to estimate monthly-average daily SR over Turkey. The satellite data are used for 73 different locations over Turkey. Land surface temperature, altitude, latitude, longitude and month are offered as the input variables for modeling ANN and MLR to get SR. Estimations of SR are evaluated with the meteorological values by using the statistical bases. The obtained results indicated that the ANN model could achieve a satisfactory performance when compared to the MLR model. Moreover, it is understood that more accurate results in estimation of SR are obtained in the use of satellite data, rather than the use of meteorological station data. Finally, the built ANN model is used to estimate the yearly average of daily SR over Turkey. As a result, satellite-based SR map for Turkey is generated.

?ahin, Mehmet; Kaya, Y?lmaz; Uyar, Murat

2013-03-01

163

Impaired Macrophage and Satellite Cell Infiltration Occurs in a Muscle-Specific Fashion Following Injury in Diabetic Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic elevations in PAI-1 suppress the fibrinolytic pathway leading to poor collagen remodelling and delayed regeneration of tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in type-1 diabetic Akita mice. However, how impaired collagen remodelling was specifically attenuating regeneration in Akita mice remained unknown. Furthermore, given intrinsic differences between muscle groups, it was unclear if the reparative responses between muscle groups were different. Principal Findings Here we reveal that diabetic Akita muscles display differential regenerative responses with the TA and gastrocnemius muscles exhibiting reduced regenerating myofiber area compared to wild-type mice, while soleus muscles displayed no difference between animal groups following injury. Collagen levels in TA and gastrocnemius, but not soleus, were significantly increased post-injury versus controls. At 5 days post-injury, when degenerating/necrotic regions were present in both animal groups, Akita TA and gastrocnemius muscles displayed reduced macrophage and satellite cell infiltration and poor myofiber formation. By 10 days post-injury, necrotic regions were absent in wild-type TA but persisted in Akita TA. In contrast, Akita soleus exhibited no impairment in any of these measures compared to wild-type soleus. In an effort to define how impaired collagen turnover was attenuating regeneration in Akita TA, a PAI-1 inhibitor (PAI-039) was orally administered to Akita mice following cardiotoxin injury. PAI-039 administration promoted macrophage and satellite cell infiltration into necrotic areas of the TA and gastrocnemius. Importantly, soleus muscles exhibit the highest inducible expression of MMP-9 following injury, providing a mechanism for normative collagen degradation and injury recovery in this muscle despite systemically elevated PAI-1. Conclusions Our findings suggest the mechanism underlying how impaired collagen remodelling in type-1 diabetes results in delayed regeneration is an impairment in macrophage infiltration and satellite cell recruitment to degenerating areas; a phenomena that occurs differentially between muscle groups. PMID:23951058

Krause, Matthew P.; Al-Sajee, Dhuha; D'Souza, Donna M.; Rebalka, Irena A.; Moradi, Jasmin; Riddell, Michael C.; Hawke, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

164

Effects of gender-specific adult bovine serum on myogenic satellite cell proliferation, differentiation and lipid accumulation.  

PubMed

The study was performed to explore the effects of adult bovine male serum (MS), female serum (FS), and castrated male serum (C-MS) on myogenic satellite cells (MSCs) proliferation and differentiation into myotubes or into adipocyte-like cells (ALCs). MSC proliferation and differentiation was highest in the medium supplemented with MS, implying the important role of male steroid hormones. Myogenin and desmin were highly upregulated in cells cultured in MS-supplemented medium. In contrast, lipid accumulation in ALCs was highest in the medium supplemented with FS. Fatty acid transporter (FAT/CD36) was upregulated in FS-supplemented cultures. Detection of higher FAT/CD36 inducing fatty acids (arachidic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) in FS compared with MS and C-MS suggests that these fatty acids may have influenced the enhanced formation of lipid droplets in ALCs. Effect of sex steroids on cell proliferation and cell growth of bovine MSCs and C2C12 cell in C-MS was greater than charcoal-dextran-treated fetal bovine serum (CDFBS). Concluding the above facts, the results indicate that each gender-specific bovine serum constitutes of different component, which leads to unique effects on cell behavior. PMID:21614650

Lee, Dong-Mok; Bajracharya, Prati; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyung-Jeong; Chun, Taehoon; Kim, Jiehoe; Cho, Kyung Hyun; Chang, Jongsoo; Hong, Seongkoo; Choi, Inho

2011-08-01

165

MALE RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) in the northern extent of their native range, displaying, foraging, habitat, Kansas, loafing, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, riparian restoration, roosts

166

Terrorism in Turkey.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced < 10 casualties per event. From 1984 to 2003, 15 terrorist attacks produced > or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support. PMID:15074499

Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan

2003-01-01

167

Turkey and European Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkish membership in the European Union has been and, it is safe to assume, will continue to be an issue hotly debated by\\u000a experts, policymakers and public opinion alike. As argued by EU Commissioner for Internal Market and Services, Frits Bolkenstein\\u000a , in a view shared by many European officials and a majority of European public opinion, because of Turkey's

Thanos Dokos

168

TNF/p38 alpha/Polycomb signalling to Pax7 locus in satellite cells links inflammation to the epigenetic control of muscle regeneration  

PubMed Central

How regeneration cues are converted into the epigenetic information that controls gene expression in adult stem cells is currently unknown. We identified a novel inflammation-activated signalling in muscle stem (satellite) cells, by which the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) represses Pax7 expression during muscle regeneration. TNF-activated p38alpha kinase promotes the interaction between YY1 and PRC2, via threonine 372 phosphorylation of EzH2, the enzymatic sub-unit of the complex, leading to the formation of repressive chromatin on Pax7 promoter. Anti-TNF antibodies stimulate satellite cell proliferation in regenerating muscles of dystrophic or normal mice. Genetic knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of the enzymatic components of the p38/PRC2 signalling – p38alpha and EzH2 - invariably promote Pax7 expression and expansion of satellite cells that retain their differentiation potential upon signalling resumption. Genetic knockdown of Pax7 impaired satellite cell proliferation in response to p38 inhibition, thereby establishing the biological link between p38/PRC2 signalling to Pax7 and satellite cell decision to proliferate or differentiate. PMID:20887952

Palacios, Daniela; Mozzetta, Chiara; Consalvi, Silvia; Caretti, Giuseppina; Saccone, Valentina; Proserpio, Valentina; Marquez, Victor E.; Valente, Sergio; Mai, Antonello; Forcales, Sonia V.; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

2010-01-01

169

Pododermatitis in turkeys.  

PubMed

Severe pododermatitis is a common lesion in turkeys, unlike in broiler chickens. Both dietary factors (soybean meal, biotin, methionine) and poor litter conditions (wet litter) are documented etiologies of footpad lesions. In the United States and United Kingdom both farm managers and processors monitor lesions. The United Kingdom reports an average footpad relative score higher than that of the United States. In both countries, incidence in toms is higher than in hens. There is no significant difference by country. Data support no consistent association with other lesions (i.e., breast blisters or condemnations), breed, or performance parameters (i.e., weight gain or age). The litter type used in the United Kingdom is either straw or wood shavings, whereas in the United States producers predominantly use wood shavings. In the United Kingdom, diets are formulated with a higher protein, which affects the excreta and subsequent litter conditions. British United Turkey is the predominate breed in the United Kingdom. In the United States, three breeds, British United Turkey of America, hybrid, and Nicholas, are common. Recent research has demonstrated the association between biotin levels and pododermatitis. Factors associated with pododermatitis (such as production systems, wet litter, and stocking density) are discussed. There are some indications that increased stocking density is associated with pododermatitis lesions. Further research is needed to identify what management factors are associated with pododermatitis. PMID:12495072

Clark, Steven; Hansen, Greg; McLean, Peter; Bond, Paul; Wakeman, Wendy; Meadows, Roger; Buda, Silke

2002-01-01

170

Greece and Turkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

171

Sea surface salinity under rain cells: SMOS satellite and in situ drifters observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

study the signature of rainfall on S1cm, the sea surface salinity retrieved from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission first by comparing SMOS S1cm with ARGO sea surface salinity measured at about 5 m depth in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and in the Southern Pacific Convergence Zone; second by investigating spatial variability of SMOS S1cm related to rainfall. The resulting estimated S1cm decrease associated with rainfall occurring within less than 1 h from the salinity measurement is close to -0.2 pss (mm h-1) -1. We estimate that rain induced roughness and atmospheric effects are responsible for no more than 20% of this value. We also study the signature of rainfall on sea surface salinity measured by surface drifters at 45 cm depth and find a decrease associated with rainfall of -0.21 (±0.14) pss (mm h-1) -1, consistent with SMOS observations. When averaged over one month, this rain associated salinity decrease is at most -0.2 in monthly 100 × 100 km2 pixels, and at most 40% of the difference between SMOS S1cm and interpolated in situ bulk salinity in pixels near the ITCZ. This suggests that more than half of this difference is related to the in situ products obtained from optimal interpolation and therefore influenced by smoothing and relaxation to climatology. Finally, further studies on the satellite-derived salinities should pay attention to that as well as to other sources of uncertainties in satellite measurements and not interpret fully the observed differences between in situ and satellite mapped products, as rain induced SSS variability.

Boutin, J.; Martin, N.; Reverdin, G.; Morisset, S.; Yin, X.; Centurioni, L.; Reul, N.

2014-08-01

172

Lichen biota of Zonguldak, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey is presented. A total of 222 lichen taxa, of which 2 are subspecies and 5 are varieties, and one lichenicolous fungus, are determined from 80 different localities in Zonguldak. Arthonia pinastri, Aspicilia inornata, Cladonia humilis var. bourgeanica, Opegrapha culmigena, Psorula rufonigra and Strigula ziziphi are new to Turkey and 205 lichen species

KENAN YAZICI; ANDRÉ APTROOT; ALI ASLAN

173

Sustainable Energy Development in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy, and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues

S. Karagoz; K. Bakirci

2009-01-01

174

English Language Teaching Profile: Turkey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of English in Turkey is discussed, with attention directed to: (1) education within the educational system, (2) English teachers, (3) teaching materials, (4) English outside the educational system, and (5) British and American support for the teaching of English. Although English is not used as a means of social communication in Turkey,…

British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

175

Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

2000-01-01

176

Myokine IL-15 regulates the crosstalk of co-cultured porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells and preadipocytes.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to preliminarily reveal the underlying mechanisms of the co-culture system between porcine muscle satellite cells (SCs) and stromal-vascular cells (SVs). The two cell types were co-cultured to assess both proliferation and differentiation. Desmin and Pref-1 immunofluorescence staining technique were taken to identify the two types of isolated cells. The expression of specific marker genes Myogenin was up-regulated in SCs (P < 0.05) and the differentiation of SCs could be promoted when co-cultured with preadipocytes compared with the single-cultured control, while expression of c/EBP? in SVs was down-regulated (P < 0.05) and the differentiation of preadipocytes could be inhibited. Furthermore, secretion of myokine IL-15 was markedly increased, as well as its gene and protein expression levels in co-culture supernatants. However, the secretion of adipokine leptin was significantly decreased. These findings demonstrate that myokines like IL-15 could facilitate the SCs' differentiation while inhibit the SVs differentiation, and act as an important regulator of co-culture between muscle cells and adipocytes. PMID:25098601

Li, Yinghui; Li, Fengna; Lin, Binbin; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tang, Yulong; Yin, Yulong

2014-11-01

177

Turkey's energy demand and supply  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01

178

Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?  

PubMed Central

Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system. Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs). The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species. PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes), one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes) and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes). Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen), one Strigiform (barn owl), one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown), one Falconiform (chimango caracara), one Columbiform (pigeon) and one Galliform (chick). Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The discovery of PGCs in the zebra finch is of great importance because this species has the potential to become a robust animal model in which to study the function of neuron-glia interactions in healthy and diseased adult brains. PMID:23904989

Medina, Felipe S.; Hunt, Gavin R.; Gray, Russell D.; Wild, J. Martin

2013-01-01

179

Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.  

PubMed

We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

2008-12-01

180

Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures  

PubMed Central

We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K. L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D. W.

2008-01-01

181

Deep-fried Turkey  

E-print Network

under the skin because, as the skin cooks, the water- based marinade contacts the hot oil and causes the oil to pop and splatter. Equipment You will need a propane burner (camp burner), a pot large enough to hold the turkey, a lid for the pot and oil. A... the amount of oil needed for cooking. Completely dry the pot, then add cooking oil and place above the flame of the propane burner. Heat the oil to 375 to390 degrees F before lowering the bird into the hot oil. Use a candy/oil thermometer to get...

Birkhold, Sarah

2000-11-09

182

The chromosomal distribution and organization of sheep satellite I and II centromeric DNA using characterized sheep-hamster somatic cell hybrids.  

PubMed

A panel of sheep-hamster somatic cell hybrids containing single sheep chromosomes was used to study the chromosomal distribution and organization of two families of sheep centromeric satellite DNA. This study shows that the centromeres of the sheep metacentric chromosomes 1, 2 and 3 differ in their organization and relative quantities of sheep satellite I DNA. The results, when correlated with the proposed formation of these metacentric chromosomes by ancient Robertsonian translocations, suggest a loss or replacement of satellite I centromeric DNA from the centromeres of these sheep chromosomes. Using Southern blot analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, this study shows that the recent centric fusion chromosome t2 (rob 9;10) contains little satellite II DNA. Together these results suggest the possibility of substantial reorganization of sheep centromeric DNA families after Robertsonian translocations. PMID:8653269

Burkin, D J; Broad, T E; Jones, C

1996-01-01

183

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

184

Development works on nickel/hydrogen cells. [for satellite energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed to reduce the costs for NI/H2 cells by using nickel oxide electrodes with high capacity per unit area. No maintenance requirements, long cycle life, insensitivity to overcharge and cell reversal, and high power capability were revealed.

Gutmann, G.

1982-01-01

185

The Hippo transducer YAP1 transforms activated satellite cells and is a potent effector of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma formation.  

PubMed

The role of the Hippo pathway effector YAP1 in soft tissue sarcomas is poorly defined. Here we report that YAP1 activity is elevated in human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). In mice, sustained YAP1 hyperactivity in activated, but not quiescent, satellite cells induces ERMS with high penetrance and short latency. Via its transcriptional program with TEAD1, YAP1 directly regulates several major hallmarks of ERMS. YAP1-TEAD1 upregulate pro-proliferative and oncogenic genes and maintain the ERMS differentiation block by interfering with MYOD1 and MEF2 pro-differentiation activities. Normalization of YAP1 expression reduces tumor burden in human ERMS xenografts and allows YAP1-driven ERMS to differentiate in situ. Collectively, our results identify YAP1 as a potent ERMS oncogenic driver and a promising target for differentiation therapy. PMID:25087979

Tremblay, Annie M; Missiaglia, Edoardo; Galli, Giorgio G; Hettmer, Simone; Urcia, Roby; Carrara, Matteo; Judson, Robert N; Thway, Khin; Nadal, Gema; Selfe, Joanna L; Murray, Graeme; Calogero, Raffaele A; De Bari, Cosimo; Zammit, Peter S; Delorenzi, Mauro; Wagers, Amy J; Shipley, Janet; Wackerhage, Henning; Camargo, Fernando D

2014-08-11

186

Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on human skeletal muscle satellite cell content and muscle fiber growth.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following training, SCs increased with Conc in both type I and type II fibers (P < 0.01) and exhibited a group difference from Ecc (P < 0.05), which did not increase. Myonuclei content in type I fibers increased in all groups (P < 0.01), while a specific accretion of myonuclei in type II fibers was observed in the Whey-Conc (P < 0.01) and Placebo-Ecc (P < 0.01) groups. Similarly, whereas type I fiber CSA increased independently of intervention (P < 0.001), type II fiber CSA increased exclusively with Whey-Conc (P < 0.01) and type II fiber hypertrophy correlated with whole muscle hypertrophy exclusively following Conc training (P < 0.01). In conclusion, isolated concentric knee extensor resistance training appears to constitute a stronger driver of SC content than eccentric resistance training while type II fiber hypertrophy was accentuated when combining concentric resistance training with whey protein supplementation. PMID:25103976

Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Riis, Simon; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Paoli, Frank de; Vissing, Kristian

2014-10-15

187

High density NOAA time series of ET in the Gediz Basin, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evapotranspiration method comparison was carried out by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI, Sri Lanka), at two locations in the Gediz Basin, Turkey, in the period from May to September 1998. In the IWMI study a number of ground-based techniques were compared with results obtained by remote sensing methods. Recently, a search of the satellite active archive yielded over

Ambro Gieske; Wouter Meijninger

2005-01-01

188

Affinity label for beta-adrenergic receptor in turkey erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

The compound N-[2-hydroxy-3-(1-naphthoxy)-propyl]-N'-bromoacetylethylenediamine (NHNP-NBE) was found to label covalently the beta-adrenergic receptor in turkey erythrocytes. The compound inhibits irreversibly 1-epinephrine-dependent adenylate cyclase activity [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] in the whole turkey erythrocyte as well as in the erythrocyte membranes possessing the beta-receptor. The affinity label blocks, also irreversibly, the specific [3H] propranolol binding, whereas other bromoacetyl compounds tested have no effect on binding, even at high concentrations, which cause enzyme inactivation. 1-Epinephrine and propranolol offer protection against the affinity label in whole turkey erythrocytes as well as in membranes prepared from these cells. The potential usefulness of an irreversible beta-antagonist is discussed. PMID:180528

Atlas, D; Steer, M L; Levitzki, A

1976-01-01

189

Turkey's foreign dependence on energy  

SciTech Connect

Turkey becomes more dependent on the external countries in energy production every year. As an average of the period 1994-2002 the total primary energy production has been 27.9 Mtoe, and consumption has been 73.06 Mtoe, so Turkey is dependent on external countries in petroleum, natural gas, and hard coal consumption. The external dependency rate of these fuels has been at levels of 89.3%, 96.6%, and 82%, respectively. In the projections of Turkey for 2020, the primary energy consumption is estimated to be 298 Mtoe, production is estimated to be 70 Mtoe, the ratio of production to consumption will be reduced to 23.5%, and this situation will cause serious risks for sustainable development. In other words, Turkey will have to import 76.5% of the energy that it consumes in the 2020s.

Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2008-07-01

190

Devastating Earthquake in Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The death toll will pass 10,000 today from Tuesday's earthquake, which measured 7.4 on the Richter scale and shattered a 400-mile stretch from northwestern Turkey to areas near central Ankara. Relief officials have publicly stated that they fear the worst for the estimated 35,000 people who remain trapped beneath rubble, as most will now have been without water for more than 72 hours. In addition to locating and rescuing survivors, the Turkish Government and international aid workers are working feverishly to organize relief efforts, prevent the spread of disease, repair damaged infrastructure, and contain a massive fire at the country's largest oil refinery. The sites listed provide information about this horrible act of nature

De Nie, Michael W.

191

The effects of axotomy on neurons and satellite glial cells in mouse trigeminal ganglion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage to peripheral nerves induces ectopic firing in sensory neurons, which can contribute to neuropathic pain. As most of the information on this topic is on dorsal root ganglia we decided to examine the influence of infra-orbital nerve section on cells of murine trigeminal ganglia. We characterized the electrophysiological properties of neurons with intracellular electrodes. Changes in the coupling of

Pavel S. Cherkas; Tian-Ying Huang; Thomas Pannicke; Michael Tal; Andreas Reichenbach; Menachem Hanani

2004-01-01

192

Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Enhances Satellite Cell Activation in Dystrophic Muscles through a S1PR2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) activates a widely expressed family of G protein-coupled receptors, serves as a muscle trophic factor and activates muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that muscle injury induces dynamic changes in S1P signaling and metabolism in vivo. These changes include early and profound induction of the gene encoding the S1P biosynthetic enzyme SphK1, followed by induction of the catabolic enzyme sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) 3 days later. These changes correlate with a transient increase in circulating S1P levels after muscle injury. We show a specific requirement for SphK1 to support efficient muscle regeneration and SC proliferation and differentiation. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), were found to be S1P-deficient and exhibited muscle SPL upregulation, suggesting that S1P catabolism is enhanced in dystrophic muscle. Pharmacological SPL inhibition increased muscle S1P levels, improved mdx muscle regeneration and enhanced SC proliferation via S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2)-dependent inhibition of Rac1, thereby activating Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), a central player in inflammatory signaling. STAT3 activation resulted in p21 and p27 downregulation in a S1PR2-dependent fashion in myoblasts. Our findings suggest that S1P promotes SC progression through the cell cycle by repression of cell cycle inhibitors via S1PR2/STAT3-dependent signaling and that SPL inhibition may provide a therapeutic strategy for MD. PMID:22606352

Carlson, Morgan E.; Oskouian, Babak; Kumar, Ashok; Fyrst, Henrik; Zhang, Meng; Proia, Richard L.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Saba, Julie D.

2012-01-01

193

Relaxin Regulates MMP Expression and Promotes Satellite Cell Mobilization During Muscle Healing in Both Young and Aged Mice  

PubMed Central

The polypeptide hormone relaxin has been proven to be effective in promoting both the remodeling and regeneration of various tissues, including cardiac muscle. In addition, our previous study demonstrated that relaxin is beneficial to skeletal muscle healing by both promoting muscle regeneration and preventing fibrosis formation. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of relaxin in regulating both myogenic cell differentiation and muscle healing process are still unclear. In this study, C2C12 mouse myoblasts and primary human myoblasts were treated with relaxin to investigate its potential effect in vitro; relaxin was also injected intramuscularly into the injured site of the mouse on the second day after injury to observe its function in vivo, especially in the aged muscle. Results showed that relaxin promoted myogenic differentiation, migration, and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) of cultured myoblasts in vitro. In the injured muscle, relaxin administration promoted the activation of Pax7-positive skeletal muscle satellite cells and increased its local population compared with nontreated control muscles. Meanwhile, both angiogenesis and revascularization were increased, while the extended inflammatory reaction was repressed in the relaxin-treated injured muscle. Moreover, relaxin similarly promoted muscle healing in mice with aged muscle. These results revealed the multiple effects of relaxin in systematically improving muscle healing as well as its potential for clinical applications in patients with skeletal muscle injuries and diseases. PMID:20934971

Mu, Xiaodong; Urso, Maria L.; Murray, Kiley; Fu, Freddie; Li, Yong

2010-01-01

194

Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed in Myogenin Knock-Down Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells during Differentiation through RNA Sequencing Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) consisting of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin (MyoG) and MRF4 characterizes various phases of skeletal muscle development including myoblast proliferation, cell-cycle exit, cell fusion and the maturation of myotubes to form myofibers. Although it is well known that the function of MyoG cannot be compensated for other MRFs, the molecular mechanism by which MyoG controls muscle cell differentiation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to profile changes in gene expression in response to MyoG knock-down (MyoGkd) in primary bovine muscle satellite cells (MSCs). Results About 61–64% of the reads of over 42 million total reads were mapped to more than 13,000 genes in the reference bovine genome. RNA-Seq analysis identified 8,469 unique genes that were differentially expressed in MyoGkd. Among these genes, 230 were up-regulated and 224 were down-regulated by at least four-fold. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) and pathway analysis of all up- and down-regulated genes identified overrepresentation for cell cycle and division, DNA replication, mitosis, organelle lumen, nucleoplasm and cytosol, phosphate metabolic process, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, cytoskeleton and cell morphogenesis, signifying the functional implication of these processes and pathways during skeletal muscle development. The RNA-Seq data was validated by real time RT-PCR analysis for eight out of ten genes as well as five marker genes investigated. Conclusions This study is the first RNA-Seq based gene expression analysis of MyoGkd undertaken in primary bovine MSCs. Computational analysis of the differentially expressed genes has identified the significance of genes such as SAP30-like (SAP30L), Protein lyl-1 (LYL1), various matrix metalloproteinases, and several glycogenes in myogenesis. The results of the present study widen our knowledge of the molecular basis of skeletal muscle development and reveal the vital regulatory role of MyoG in retaining muscle cell differentiation. PMID:24647404

Pokharel, Smritee; Ahmad, Sarafraz; Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Cho, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jihoe; Kong, Joon Chan; Lee, Dong-Mok; Chung, Ki Yong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Choi, Inho

2014-01-01

195

Investigating the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors in trigeminal ganglion neurons and satellite glial cells: implications for craniofacial pain  

PubMed Central

Context/objective Previous studies have demonstrated that various subtypes of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), implicating that glutamate potentially contributes to sensory transmission through these receptors. While mGluR expression has been investigated largely in the DRG, the present study focused on mGluR expression on neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the trigeminal ganglion (TG). Materials and methods: To address the presence of mGluRs in rat TG neurons and their corresponding SGCs, the trigeminal ganglia from six adult male Wistar rats were isolated and immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry were performed. The expression of mGluR1?-, mGluR2/3- and mGluR8 on TG neurons and SGCs was investigated in tissue slices and isolated cells. Results: 35.1 ± 6.0% of the TG neurons were positive for mGluR1?, whereas 39.9 ± 7.7% and 55.5 ± 6.3% were positive for mGluR2/3 and mGluR8, respectively. Immunoreactive neurons expressing mGluRs were mainly medium- to large sized, with a smaller population of small-sized neurons showing immunoreactivity. The SGCs showed immunoreactivity toward mGluR1? and mGluR8, but not mGluR2/3, both in the tissue and in isolated cells. Conclusions: Findings from the present study showed that trigeminal neurons express mGluR1?, mGluR2/3 and mGluR8, while SGCs only express mGluR1? and mGluR8. This novel evidence may advance investigations on a possible role of mGluRs in relation to trigeminal pain transmission within the craniofacial region. PMID:24495291

Boye Larsen, Dennis; Ingemann Kristensen, Gunda; Panchalingam, Vinodenee; Laursen, Jens Christian; N?rgaard Poulsen, Jeppe; Skallerup Andersen, Maria; Kandiah, Aginsha

2014-01-01

196

Seasonal demand and supply analysis of turkeys  

E-print Network

turkeys. The supplies of substitutes, a combination of red meat and broilers, were not shown to affect turkey demand enough to measure at any of the three market levels. Per capita disposable income was shown to affect farm and retail prices, only...). Over time, turkey price is seen to be decreasing and turkey consumption increasing. The outward shi. ft in the relationship after 1964 may be due to higher prices for red meat and rising disposable income Problem Explaining market equilibrium...

Blomo, Vito James

2012-06-07

197

Skeletal muscle wasting with disuse atrophy is multi-dimensional: the response and interaction of myonuclei, satellite cells and signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Maintenance of skeletal muscle is essential for health and survival. There are marked losses of skeletal muscle mass as well as strength and physiological function under conditions of low mechanical load, such as space flight, as well as ground based models such as bed rest, immobilization, disuse, and various animal models. Disuse atrophy is caused by mechanical unloading of muscle and this leads to reduced muscle mass without fiber attrition. Skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and myonuclei are integrally involved in skeletal muscle responses to environmental changes that induce atrophy. Myonuclear domain size is influenced differently in fast and slow twitch muscle, but also by different models of muscle wasting, a factor that is not yet understood. Although the myonuclear domain is 3-dimensional this is rarely considered. Apoptosis as a mechanism for myonuclear loss with atrophy is controversial, whereas cell death of satellite cells has not been considered. Molecular signals such as myostatin/SMAD pathway, MAFbx, and MuRF1 E3 ligases of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and IGF1-AKT-mTOR pathway are 3 distinctly different contributors to skeletal muscle protein adaptation to disuse. Molecular signaling pathways activated in muscle fibers by disuse are rarely considered within satellite cells themselves despite similar exposure to unloading or low mechanical load. These molecular pathways interact with each other during atrophy and also when various interventions are applied that could alleviate atrophy. Re-applying mechanical load is an obvious method to restore muscle mass, however how nutrient supplementation (e.g., amino acids) may further enhance recovery (or reduce atrophy despite unloading or ageing) is currently of great interest. Satellite cells are particularly responsive to myostatin and to growth factors. Recently, the hibernating squirrel has been identified as an innovative model to study resistance to atrophy. PMID:24672488

Brooks, Naomi E; Myburgh, Kathryn H

2014-01-01

198

B: Pancakes, Turkey Baked Apples, Milk  

E-print Network

, Boiled Egg, Oranges, Milk L: Chicken Fajita, Black Beans, Pineapple, Milk S: Bananas B: Toast, Turkey Sausage, Pears, Milk L: Black Bean Quesadillas, Spinach & Tomato Salad w/ Light Ranch, Pears, Milk S, Applesauce, Milk L: Turkey Tacos, Black Beans, Pineapples, Milk S: Cheese Crackers B: Biscuit, Turkey Sausage

O'Toole, Alice J.

199

Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

Selim, Sibel

2008-01-01

200

Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

2009-01-01

201

Aquatic toxicology of Turkey Creek, Missouri, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

At low flows, ambient toxicity (measured as a reduction in Ceriodaphnia survival) was observed in two tributaries and in the main channel of Turkey Creek. Toxicity during periods of no observable stream flow was absent in Turkey Creek upstream of these sources and reduced downstream of them and a wastewater treatment plant. During stormwater runoff, ambient toxicity increased throughout Turkey

Tim D. Harrell; Joseph A. Arruda; James R. Triplett

2007-01-01

202

Pax7 Reveals a Greater Frequency and Concentration of Satellite Cells at the Ends of Growing Skeletal Muscle Fibers  

PubMed Central

The main sites of longitudinal growth in skeletal muscle are the ends of the fibers. This study tests the hypothesis that satellite cells (SCs) are at a greater frequency (#SC nuclei/all nuclei within basal laminae) and concentration (closer together) within growing fiber ends of posthatch chicken pectoralis. SCs were localized by their Pax7 expression, and fiber ends were identified by their retention of neonatal myosin heavy chains and small cross-sectional profiles. Whereas SC frequency decreased from about 20% at 9 days posthatch to <5% at 115 days, fiber ends retained a frequency of ?16%. Calculated mean area of sarcolemma per SC revealed higher concentrations of SCs at fiber ends. There was also a strong inverse correlation between SC frequency and fiber profile cross-sectional size throughout development. This study suggests that SCs at fiber ends play a key role in the longitudinal growth of muscle fibers, and that fiber profile size may impact SC distribution. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:77–87, 2008) PMID:17938281

Allouh, Mohammed Z.; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Rosser, Benjamin W.C.

2008-01-01

203

Human muscle satellite cells show age-related differential expression of S100B protein and RAGE.  

PubMed

During aging, skeletal muscles show reduced mass and functional capacity largely due to loss of the regenerative ability of satellite cells (SCs), the quiescent stem cells located beneath the basal lamina surrounding each myofiber. While both the external environment and intrinsic properties of SCs appear to contribute to the age-related SC deficiency, the latter ones have been poorly investigated especially in humans. In the present work, we analyzed several parameters of SCs derived from biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle from healthy non-trained young (28.7 ± 5.9 years; n = 10) and aged (77.3 ± 6.4 years; n = 11) people. Compared with young SCs, aged SCs showed impaired differentiation when cultured in differentiation medium, and exhibited the following: (1) reduced proliferation; (2) higher expression levels of S100B, a negative regulator of myoblast differentiation; (3) undetectable levels in growth medium of full-length RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products), a multiligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, the engagement of which enhances myoblast differentiation; and (4) lower expression levels of the transcription factors, MyoD and Pax7. Also, either overexpression of full-length RAGE or knockdown of S100B in aged SCs resulted in enhanced differentiation, while overexpression of either a non-transducing mutant of RAGE (RAGE?cyto) or S100B in young SCs resulted in reduced differentiation compared with controls. Moreover, while aged SCs maintained the ability to respond to mitogenic factors (e.g., bFGF and S100B), they were no longer able to secrete these factors, unlike young SCs. These data support a role for intrinsic factors, besides the extracellular environment in the defective SC function in aged skeletal muscles. PMID:21140295

Beccafico, Sara; Riuzzi, Francesca; Puglielli, Cristina; Mancinelli, Rosa; Fulle, Stefania; Sorci, Guglielmo; Donato, Rosario

2011-12-01

204

Satellite telemetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrologic application of satellite data collection systems in Brazil is discussed. The Data Collection Platform (DCP) is a telemetry station used for the acquisition of environmental parameters. Artificial satellites are employed to relay the data to receiving centers. Two meteorologic satellite data collection systems are in operation in Brazil: the ARGOS system, on board low-orbit (850 km) satellites of the TIROS-NOAA series, and the Geostationary Operational Satellite (GOES) system, on board geostationary satellites (36,000 km) of the SMS/GOES series. DCPs have been used mainly in the field of hydrology to obtain timely data, to make decisions, and to compose historical records. The first DCP network established in Brazil was in the Tocantins Basin, which has 10 telemetry stations. Other networks are currently being planned. Prototypes of ARGOS and GOES DCPs are being developed that are aimed at further industrialization and improved supply of national demand.

Deolveira, J. R.

1983-08-01

205

Heat shock factor 1 binds to and transcribes satellite II and III sequences at several pericentromeric regions in heat-shocked cells  

SciTech Connect

Cells respond to stress by activating the synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) which protect the cells against the deleterious effects of stress. This mechanism is controlled by the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). In parallel to HSP gene transcription, in human cells, HSF1 also binds to and transcribes satellite III repeated sequences present in numerous copies in the 9q12 pericentromeric region of chromosome 9. These HSF1 accumulation sites are termed nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). In tumor cells, however, the number of nSBs is higher than the number of 9q12 copies, suggesting the existence of other HSF1 targets. In this paper, we were interested in characterizing these other HSF1 binding sites. We show that HSF1 indeed binds to the pericentromeric region of 14 chromosomes, thereby directing the formation of 'secondary nSBs'. The appearance of secondary nSBs depends on the number of satellite sequences present in the target locus, and on the cellular amount of HSF1 protein. Moreover, secondary nSBs also correspond to transcription sites, thus demonstrating that heat shock induces a genome-wide transcription of satellite sequences. Finally, by analyzing published transcriptomic data, we show that the derepression of these large heterochromatic blocks does not significantly affect the transcription of neighboring genes.

Eymery, Angeline, E-mail: aeymery@gmail.com [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France) [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France); INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 (France); Souchier, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.souchier@ujf-grenoble.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France) [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France); INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 (France); Vourc'h, Claire, E-mail: claire.vourch@ujf-grenoble.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France) [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France); INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 (France); Jolly, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.jolly@upmf-grenoble.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France) [Universite Joseph Fourier-Grenoble I (France); INSERM Institut Albert Bonniot U823, La Tronche, F-38700 (France)

2010-07-01

206

Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

1988-01-01

207

Artificial Satellites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over 2,000 man-made satellites are currently orbiting the Earth, providing a wide range of services like communications, remote sensing, and global positioning. As more are launched and new technologies are developed, they will play an increasingly important role in everyday life.The Tech Museum offers this site (1) dedicated to the basics of satellites and their functions. A Java program complements the Satellite Anatomy section, which illustrates the standard components of three different categories of satellites. More information specific to satellite launches and their orbits can be found here (2). Most of the material is composed of fun experiments that demonstrate satellite operation. One of the most interesting features on this NASA site (3) is the Live 3D Java Tracking Display, which shows hundreds of different satellites and their current position in orbit. A few selected news articles and a separate section on satellite applications are also provided. The European Space Agency provides a look at solar power satellites (4), which could essentially "beam" energy to Earth. While it is not a new concept, the sheer magnitude of a project to construct a solar power satellite has thus far been too great to justify an attempt. At a conference held in December 2002 (5), representatives from the satellite industry convened to discuss current developments. Although many of the articles only address industry outlooks, some are more technology-oriented. For instance, one considers a new navigation system that could improve overall coverage and signal availability. A lesson plan (6) for grades K-5 teaches children how satellites are launched and some basic terminology. The activity uses different sized marbles, clay, and some other items to demonstrate fundamental concepts. Satellites of the Global Positioning System are being used for more than they were originally intended in England. This news article (7) describes how they are used to study earthquakes and corresponding movements in the Earth's crust. In other news (8), the largest communications satellite ever built was lost in November 2002. The failure of one of its launching rockets resulted in the satellite falling in a decaying orbit until it fell into the sea.

Leske, Cavin.

2003-01-01

208

British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

Lawrence, S

2009-01-01

209

Human Satellite Cell-Proliferation in Vitro Is Regulated by Autocrine Secretion of IL6 Stimulated by a Soluble Factor(s) Released by Activated Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously showed that macrophages, besides their scavenger role, selectively induce rat myoblast proliferation in vitro by releasing soluble factors. In this paper we demonstrate a relationship between human-activated monocytes and increased human myoblast proliferation due to IL-6 autocrine secretion by satellite cells. Indeed in the supernatants of muscle cultures treated with activated monocyte-conditioned medium we show by means of

M. Cantini; M. L. Massimino; E. Rapizzi; K. Rossini; C. Catani; L. Dallalibera; U. Carraro

1995-01-01

210

Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride and trenbolone acetate on longissimus muscle fiber area, diameter, and satellite cell numbers in cull beef cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evalu- ate the effects of coadministration of ractopamine-HCl (RAC) and trenbolone acetate plus estradiol (TBA) on LM fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), diameter, fiber- associated myonuclei, and satellite cell number. Culled crossbred beef cows (n = 98; 11 ± 1.8 yr old; BCS 4.3 ± 0.03) from a single ranch in south Florida were

J. M. Gonzalez; J. N. Carter; D. D. Johnson; S. E. Ouellette; S. E. Johnson

2010-01-01

211

New multiple labelling method for improved satellite cell identification in human muscle: application to a cohort of power-lifters and sedentary men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently applied methods to identify and quantify human satellite cells (SCs) give discrepant results. We introduce a new\\u000a immunofluorescence method that simultaneously monitors two SC markers (NCAM and Pax7), the basal lamina and nuclei. Biopsies\\u000a from power-lifters, power-lifters using anabolic substances and untrained subjects were re-examined. Significantly different\\u000a results from those with staining for NCAM and nuclei were observed. There

Mona Lindström; Lars-Eric Thornell

2009-01-01

212

Satellite Tracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use satellite tracking software available on the Internet to monitor a very large satellite, the International Space Station. Using information from this online resource, students predict and graph the motion of the space station at their location and create a 3-D display of its path through the sky.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

213

Soaring Satellites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in small teams, learners try to build a satellite that can float for at least five seconds in the marked area of a vertical wind tube. Learners think about and explore the concepts of lift and weight as they try to adapt their satellite to hover between the lines.

Museum Of Science, Boston

2010-01-01

214

Meteorological satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

Allison, L. J. (editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

1980-01-01

215

Stand-up exercise training facilitates muscle recovery from disuse atrophy by stimulating myogenic satellite cell proliferation in mice.  

PubMed

Determining the cellular and molecular recovery processes in inactivity - or unloading -induced atrophied muscles should improve rehabilitation strategies. We assessed the effects of stand-up exercise (SE) training on the recovery of atrophied skeletal muscles in male mice. Mice were trained to stand up and press an elevated lever in response to a light-tone cue preceding an electric foot shock and then subjected to tail suspension (TS) for 2 weeks to induce disuse atrophy in hind limb muscles. After release from TS, mice were divided into SE-trained (SE cues: 25 times per set, two sets per day) and non-SE-trained groups. Seven days after the training, average myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of the soleus muscle was significantly greater in the SE-trained group than in the non-SE-trained group (1843 ± 194 ?m(2) vs. 1315 ± 153 ?m(2)). Mean soleus muscle CSA in the SE trained group was not different from that in the CON group subjected to neither TS nor SE training (2005 ± 196 ?m(2)), indicating that SE training caused nearly complete recovery from muscle atrophy. The number of myonuclei per myofiber was increased by ~60% in the SE-trained group compared with the non-SE-trained and CON groups (0.92 ± 0.03 vs. 0.57 ± 0.03 and 0.56 ± 0.11, respectively). The number of proliferating myonuclei, identified by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine staining, increased within the first few days of SE training. Thus, it is highly likely that myogenic satellite cells proliferated rapidly in atrophied muscles in response to SE training and fused with existing myofibers to reestablish muscle mass. PMID:25367692

Itoh, Yuta; Hayakawa, Kimihide; Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Inoue-Miyazu, Masumi; Murakami, Taro; Sokabe, Masahiro; Kawakami, Keisuke

2014-11-01

216

Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

2005-01-01

217

Research Article Rio Grande Wild Turkey Habitat Selection in the  

E-print Network

, USA ABSTRACT We recorded telemetry locations from 1,129 radiotagged turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo cattle grazing, habitat use, Meleagris gallopavo intermedia, nesting ecology, Rio Grande wild turkey. Interactions between cattle and wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) varied depending on local habitat

218

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters species but its application for wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations has been limited. We populations (Thompson et al. 1998; Bibby et al. 2000). However, many wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survey

Butler, Matthew J.

219

A Full Pharmacological Analysis of the Three Turkey ?-Adrenoceptors and Comparison with the Human ?-Adrenoceptors  

PubMed Central

Background There are three turkey ?-adrenoceptors: the original turkey ?-adrenoceptor from erythrocytes (t?trunc, for which the X-ray crystal structure has recently been determined), t?3C and t?4C-receptors. This study examined the similarities and differences between these avian receptors and mammalian receptors with regards to binding characteristics and functional high and low affinity agonist conformations. Methodology/Principal Findings Stable cell lines were constructed with each of the turkey ?-adrenoceptors and 3H-CGP12177 whole cell binding, CRE-SPAP production and 3H-cAMP accumulation assays performed. It was confirmed that the three turkey ?-adrenoceptors are distinct from each other in terms of amino acid sequence and binding characteristics. The greatest similarity of any of the turkey ?-adrenoceptors to human ?-adrenoceptors is between the turkey ?3C-receptor and the human ?2-adrenoceptor. There are pharmacologically distinct differences between the binding of ligands for the t?trunc and t?4C and the human ?-adrenoceptors (e.g. with CGP20712A and ICI118551). The t?trunc and t?4C-adrenoceptors appear to exist in at least two different agonist conformations in a similar manner to that seen at both the human and rat ?1-adrenoceptor and human ?3-adrenoceptors. The t?3C-receptor, similar to the human ?2-adrenoceptor, does not, at least so far, appear to exist in more than one agonist conformation. Conclusions/Significance There are several similarities, but also several important differences, between the recently crystallised turkey ?-adrenoceptor and the human ?-adrenoceptors. These findings are important for those the field of drug discovery using the recently structural information from crystallised receptors to aid drug design. Furthermore, comparison of the amino-acid sequence for the turkey and human adrenoceptors may therefore shed more light on the residues involved in the existence of the secondary ?-adrenoceptor conformation. PMID:21152092

Baker, Jillian G.

2010-01-01

220

Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about the three types of satellite images (visible, infrared, and water vapor); how to identify basic cloud types and storm systems in satellite images; and demonstrate the basic knowledge necessary to interpret satellite observations. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

221

Satellite radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi-form broadcasts. This has led to a revival of the radio era. The\\u000a satellite radio is a natural choice to bridge the digital gap. It has several novel features like selective addressing and\\u000a error control. The value-added services from such systems are of particular interest.

S. Rangarajan

2002-01-01

222

Artificial Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A man-made object placed in orbit round the Earth or some other celestial body. The first artificial Earth satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the then Soviet Union, on 4 October 1957. Spherical in shape, and with a mass of 84 kg, it entered an orbit with a perigee altitude of 229 km, an apogee altitude of 947 km and a period of 96 min. Artificial satellites are used for a wide variety of roles,...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

223

IL-6 Induced STAT3 Signalling Is Associated with the Proliferation of Human Muscle Satellite Cells Following Acute Muscle Damage  

PubMed Central

Background Although the satellite cell (SC) is a key regulator of muscle growth during development and muscle adaptation following exercise, the regulation of human muscle SC function remains largely unexplored. STAT3 signalling mediated via interleukin-6 (IL-6) has recently come to the forefront as a potential regulator of SC proliferation. The early response of the SC population in human muscle to muscle-lengthening contractions (MLC) as mediated by STAT3 has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve male subjects (21±2 y; 83±12 kg) performed 300 maximal MLC of the quadriceps femoris at 180°•s?1 over a 55° range of motion with muscle samples (vastus lateralis) and blood samples (antecubital vein) taken prior to exercise (PRE), 1 hour (T1), 3 hours (T3) and 24 hours (T24) post-exercise. Cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of muscle biopsies were purified and analyzed for total and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) by western blot. p-STAT3 was detected in cytoplasmic fractions across the time course peaking at T24 (p<0.01 vs. PRE). Nuclear total and p-STAT3 were not detected at appreciable levels. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a progressive increase in the proportion of SCs expressing p-STAT3 with ?60% of all SCs positive for p-STAT3 at T24 (p<0.001 vs. PRE). Additionally, cMyc, a STAT3 downstream gene, was significantly up-regulated in SCs at T24 versus PRE (p<0.05). Whole muscle mRNA analysis revealed induction of the STAT3 target genes IL-6, SOCS3, cMyc (peaking at T3, p<0.05), IL-6R? and GP130 (peaking at T24, p<0.05). In addition, Myf5 mRNA was up-regulated at T24 (p<0.05) with no appreciable change in MRF4 mRNA. Conclusions/Significant Findings We demonstrate that IL-6 induction of STAT3 signaling occurred exclusively in the nuclei of SCs in response to MLC. An increase in the number of cMyc+ SCs indicated that human SCs were induced to proliferate under the control of STAT3 signaling. PMID:21408055

Toth, Kyle G.; McKay, Bryon R.; De Lisio, Michael; Little, Jonathon P.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Parise, Gianni

2011-01-01

224

Turkey knockdown in successive flocks.  

PubMed

Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as affected, a detailed investigation was initiated within 3 hr. The fifth flock was followed on a twice weekly basis from 0 to 8 wk of age to determine if initiating events were evident, but knockdown did not occur. PMID:11007029

Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N

2000-01-01

225

Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Turkey.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease due to cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important public-health and economic problems in Turkey. Human CE occurs throughout Turkey whereas alveolar echinococcosis (AE) predominantly occurs in the eastern Anatolian region of the country. Human AE is also endemic in eastern Azarbaijan and northern Iran. Reports of approximately 207 cases of AE and 21,303 cases of CE in Turkey were published over the periods 1962-1995 and 1987-1994, respectively. Most of the data on cases of hydatid disease in Turkey and the Middle East have been collected from hospital records. PMID:9924542

Altinta?, N

1998-09-01

226

Turkey: World Oil Report 1991  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a marked oil production increase, an exploration program in the Black Sea and the planned development of an offshore gas field in the Sea of Mamara in Turkey. The production increase stems from development of new fields in southeastern Turkey by Turkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortakligi (TPAO), the national oil company. Discovered in 1989, development of Kahta, Karakus, Cendere and several other nearby finds have pushed Turkish crude output to the highest level in 14 years. Last May, BP entered into a three-year joint venture with TPAO to explore a 29,344 sq mi area in the Black Sea in waters to 6,500+ ft deep. The three-year program calls for BP to run seismic this year followed by its Airborne Laser Fluorosensor survey technique. Drilling will depend on survey results.

Not Available

1991-08-01

227

[Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].  

PubMed

In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning. PMID:7857034

Oztekin-Mat, A

1994-01-01

228

CHINA KYRGYZSTAN UZBEKISTAN TURKMENISTAN TURKEY  

E-print Network

CHINA · KYRGYZSTAN · UZBEKISTAN TURKMENISTAN · TURKEY The Ultimate Silk Road Journey: From Xian.HARVARD.EDU/HAA/TRAVEL The Ultimate Silk Road Journey: From Xian to Istanbul May 19­June 8, 2014 · 20 NIGHTS / 21 DAYS · GROUP SIZE: 12-30 SET OUT ON A MODERN-DAY CARAVAN OVER THE OLD SILK ROAD from its origins in the middle of China

Dorf, Martin E.

229

Stimulation with monochromatic green light during incubation alters satellite cell mitotic activity and gene expression in relation to embryonic and posthatch muscle growth of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight (BW) and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated the morphological and molecular basis of this phenomenon. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880) were pre-weighed and randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 incubation treatment groups: (1) dark condition (control group), and (2) monochromatic green light group (560 nm). The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps and were equalized at the intensity of 15 lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day 1 until hatching. After hatch, 120 male 1-day-old chicks from each group were housed under incandescent white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. No effects of light stimuli during embryogenesis on hatching time, hatchability, hatching weight and bird mortality during the feeding trial period were observed in the present study. Compared with the dark condition, the BW, pectoral muscle weight and myofiber cross-sectional areas were significantly greater on 7-day-old chicks incubated under green light. Green light also increased the satellite cell mitotic activity of pectoral muscle on 1- and 3-day-old birds. In addition, green light upregulated MyoD, myogenin and myostatin mRNA expression in late embryos and/ or newly hatched chicks. These data suggest that stimulation with monochromatic green light during incubation promote muscle growth by enhancing proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in late embryonic and newly hatched stages. Higher expression of myostatin may ultimately help prevent excessive proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in birds incubated under green light. PMID:24168791

Zhang, L; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Qiao, X; Yue, H Y; Yao, J H; Qi, G H

2014-01-01

230

CENP-A, B, and -C Chromatin Complex That Contains the I-Type  Satellite Array Constitutes the Prekinetochore in HeLa Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

CENP-A is a component of centromeric chromatin and defines active centromere regions by forming cen- tromere-specific nucleosomes. We have isolated centromeric chromatin containing the CENP-A nucleosome, CENP-B, and CENP-C from HeLa cells using anti-CENP-A and\\/or anti-CENP-C antibodies and shown that the CENP-A\\/B\\/C complex is predominantly formed on -satellite DNA that contains the CENP-B box (I-type array). Mapping of hypersensitive sites

Satoshi Ando; Hua Yang; Naohito Nozaki; Tuneko Okazaki; Kinya Yoda

2002-01-01

231

Turkey origin reovirus-induced immune dysfunction in specific pathogen free and commercial turkey poults.  

PubMed

Recently, pathogenesis studies, using genetically distinct turkey-origin reoviruses (TRVs), revealed that poults infected with certain TRV isolates had moderate to severe bursal atrophy, suggesting virus-induced immune dysfunction. In order to characterize the effect of TRV infection on the turkey immune system, classical assays were undertaken to quantify the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in small Beltsville and broad-breasted white poults infected with the TRV isolate NC/SEP-R44/03. A marked effect on the cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response, and on the antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) exposure, was noted in commercial and specific pathogen free (SPF) poults inoculated with NC/SEP-R44/03 at three days of age. Moderate to severe bursal atrophy, similar to that noted previously in SPF poults, occurred in commercial poults inoculated at three days of age. This immune dysfunction and bursal atrophy was not present in commercial poults inoculated at three weeks of age. PMID:18939624

Day, J Michael; Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

2008-09-01

232

Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

2001-01-01

233

On the wind energy in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Today, clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that

Erkan Erdogdu

2009-01-01

234

Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

Ince, Basak

2012-01-01

235

Capacity Building in Agricultural Biotechnology in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey, situated at the junction of two continents, benefits both from its rich Asian legacy and its proximity to neighboring European countries. Although the level of socioeconomic development places the country clearly in the group of developing countries, Turkey has been a candidate country for admission to the European Union (EU) since 1999. As a result, the conditions for capacity

Eva Dobos; Artemis Karaali

2003-01-01

236

Turkeys Raised (Released August 25, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preliminary estimate of turkeys raised in the United States during 2008 is 271 million, down slightly from the number raised during 2007. The following six States are expected to account for about two-thirds of the turkeys produced in the United State...

2008-01-01

237

Turkeys Raised (Released August 23, 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preliminary estimate of turkeys raised in the United States during 2007 is 272 million, up 4 percent from the number raised during 2006. The following six States are expected to account for about two-thirds of the turkeys produced in the United States...

2007-01-01

238

Turkeys Raised (Released September 25, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Turkeys raised in the United States during 2009 is 250 million, down 8 percent from the number raised during 2008. The following six States are expected to account for about two-thirds of the turkeys produced in the United States during 2009: Minnesota, a...

2009-01-01

239

Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

Anameric, Hakan

2009-01-01

240

Turkey's entry into the Concert of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the start, Turkey s aspirations to join the European Union aroused considerable opposition. Recently, the debate has focused increasingly on supposed disparities in the spheres of culture, politics or mentality, implying that this Muslim country would not be able to comply with European norms and values. Supporters of Turkey s candidacy, on the other hand, have pointed out that

FIKRET ADANIR

2005-01-01

241

Anthrax in Eastern Turkey, 1992–2004  

PubMed Central

We investigated animal and human anthrax cases during a 13-year period in eastern Turkey. From 1992 to 2004, a total of 464 animal and 503 human anthrax cases were detected. Most cases occurred in summer. Anthrax remains a health problem in eastern Turkey, and preventive measures should be taken. PMID:16485484

Parlak, Mehmet; Tastan, Rustu; Dinler, Ufuk; Saglam, Yavuz S.; Ozyurek, Serhat F.

2005-01-01

242

Renewable energy and sustainable development in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. So clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life for Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use

Kamil Kaygusuz; Abdullah Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

243

Talking Turkey at the Wildwood Education Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vocational education program at the Wildwood Education Center (Hornell, NY) enabled 9th and 10th grade special education students to design, build, and market turkey calls. A module on wildlife management piqued student interest in wildlife calls and turkey hunting and led to the project. The program improved vocational skills and increased…

Warren, Mike

1994-01-01

244

Spatial Patterns of Marriage Migration in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though recent societal phenomena such as a heightened sense of individualism, economic well-being, and institutionalization have caused a shift in people's life course and made their lives less standard in developed societies, marriage still remains an important life course event in Turkey. Between the years 1995 and 2000 marriage migration comprised 7.4% of the interprovincial migration in Turkey, and

E. Murat Özgür; Olgu Aydin

2012-01-01

245

Primary Education Curriculum Reforms in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to examine and evaluate the basic structure of changes in primary educational curricula in Turkey since the establishment of Republic. The study is mainly qualitative and is based on literature and document analyses and teaching curricular reviews. The research findings indicate that primary educational reforms in Turkey

Akinoglu, Orhan

2008-01-01

246

Political violence in pre?coup Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long?standing and pervasive patterns of political violence in Turkey, which were only abated by the military coup of September 1980, are examined in terms of their historical and sociopolitical antecedents. The paper concludes that political violence in Turkey is the result on the one hand of the specific forms of Kemalist modernization to which the country was subjected from

Dietrich Orlow

1982-01-01

247

Prevalence of parvoviruses in commercial turkey flocks.  

PubMed

Turkey parvovirus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae, Genus parvovirus. Since the initial report on turkey parvovirus in the United States appeared in 1983, there had been no further reports of parvovirus in turkeys until 2008. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of parvovirus in commercial turkey flocks using PCR; to determine their genetic relationship to previous strains identified in North America and Europe; and to test samples for enteric viruses by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A total of 169 fecal samples collected from 42 turkey farms in four different states within the United States between 2000 and 2010 were examined. We found that the most frequently detected viruses by TEM were small round viruses, accounting for 52% of the examined samples; however, the PCR detected parvoviruses in 71% of the samples. The phylogenetic analysis of partial nonstructural gene sequences showed a certain degree of variability among the turkey samples tested in the study. Moreover, there was a clear dichotomy in the phylogenetic tree between chicken and turkey samples, with the exception of one turkey isolate from 2000, which clustered together with the chicken group. PMID:23397849

Murgia, M V; Rauf, A; Tang, Y; Gingerich, E; Lee, C-W; Saif, Y M

2012-12-01

248

Foreign direct investment in Turkey: regional determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uneven regional distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkey poses an interesting question from the perspective of multinational firms (MNFs) and policy-makers alike. This paper focuses on the factors governing the location decisions of MNFs within Turkey with specific reference to policy implications. Using a conditional logit model, it is found that agglomeration, depth of local financial markets,

Joel Deichmann; Socrates Karidis; Selin Sayek

2003-01-01

249

New Records of Aphid Fauna in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Three aphid species were identified as new records for Turkey aphid fauna from Bartin province. These species are Ceruraphis viburnicola (Gillette) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Dysaphis apiifolia (Theobald) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Macrosiphum mordvilkoi Miyazaki (Hemiptera: Aphididae). These records increase the recorded aphid-fauna of Turkey to 433 species. PMID:20569127

Kaygin, Azize Toper; Gorur, Gazi; Cota, Figen

2010-01-01

250

Effect of Fenbendazole on Turkey Semen Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Fenbendazole (FBZ) is an anthelmintic recently approved to treat and control nematode infections in growing turkeys. When administered to growing turkeys there are no detrimental side effects. However, when we used FBZ to treat nematodes in mature breeder toms, we observed a decrease in semen quality and a subsequent precipitous decline in fertility to less than 20% within 6

M. R. Bakst; M. Kramer; J. Long

2006-01-01

251

Jupiter: Satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

As befitting the king of the planets, JUPITER is orbited by an entourage of at least 39 natural satellites in addition to its faint rings, intense radiation belts and occasional temporary visitors from Earth and the outer solar system. Named after Zeus' lovers and other mythological companions, Jupiter's moons can be divided into four groups on the basis of their

P. Geissler

2003-01-01

252

Satellite Telecommunications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of a quarterly publication of the Council of Europe covers aspects of the history, technology, policies, and impact of telecommunications in Europe, with an emphasis on European television. The following articles are included: (1) "Man and the World of Telecommunications" (Piet Stoffelen); (2) "The European Communications Satellite

Forum, 1986

1986-01-01

253

Male Rio Grande Turkey Survival and Movements in the  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife managers depend on accurate information regarding wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survival patterns to properly manage turkey populations. Survival patterns of male Rio Grande wild turkeys (M. g. intermedia) have not been studied intensively. Wildlife managers in the Texas Panhandle, USA, and southwestern Kansas, USA, suspected that turkey populations were declining. From January 2000 through August 2002, we studied survival

Texas Panhandle

254

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) detectability from helicopters for wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations has been limited. We surveyed Rio Grande wild turkey (M et al. 1998; Bibby et al. 2000). However, many wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survey efforts have

Wallace, Mark C.

255

Management and Conservation Article Merriam's Turkey Nest Survival and Factors Affecting Nest  

E-print Network

of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Factors influencing mammalian predation on turkey nests fluctuations of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo; Wakeling 1991, Roberts et al. 1995, Roberts and Porter 1996

256

Considerations for NATO satellite communications in the post-2000 era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Delegates Board of AGARD, upon recommendation by the Avionics Panel of AGARD, approved in March 1986 the establishment of WG-13 to study satellite communications for NATO under the direction of Prof. Dr. Nejat Ince of Turkey. Some 14 scientists/engineers, from research and industrial establishments of Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Norway, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States of America as well as from International Military Staff of NATO and SHAPE Technical Centre, participated in the work of WG-13. This paper is a brief summary of the studies carried out by the group in the period 1988-1990 on the type of satellite communication systems which NATO can have in the post-2000 era including the critical techniques and technologies that need to be developed for this purpose.

Ince, A. Nejat

1993-02-01

257

Isolation and characterization of a turkey arthritis reovirus.  

PubMed

During the spring and summer of 2011, the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Minnesota received 14 submissions of 15-to-18-week-old tom turkeys that were recumbent with wing tip bruises ("wing walkers") and uni- or bilateral swelling of the hock (tibiotarsal) joints. Gastrocnemius or digital flexor tendons were occasionally ruptured. A total of five turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV-MN1 through TARV-MN5) were isolated in specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs and QT-35 cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by electron microscopy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and gene sequence analysis. BLAST analysis on the basis of a 880 bp nucleotide sequence of the S4 gene confirmed all isolates as a reovirus. Phylogenetic analysis divided the five isolates into two subgroups: subgroup I containing TARV-MN1, -2, -3, and -5, and the other subgroup containing TARV-MN4. Isolates in subgroup I had a similarity of 97%-100% with each other, while subgroup II (TARV-MN4) had a similarity of only 89.2% with subgroup I viruses. This isolate showed 90%-93% similarity with turkey enteric reoviruses in the United States, while the other four isolates in subgroup I had 89%-97.6% similarity. These results indicate divergence within TARVs as well as from enteric viruses, which needs to be confirmed by complete genome sequence analysis. Further experimental studies are planned to determine the role of these isolates in turkey arthritis and to compare them with classical chicken reovirus. PMID:23678736

Mor, Sunil K; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Ziegler, Andre; Patnayak, Devi P; Goyal, Sagar M

2013-03-01

258

Virtual Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

Hammrs, Stephan R.

2008-01-01

259

Role of the mTORC1 complex in satellite cell activation by RNA-induced mitochondrial restoration: dual control of cyclin D1 through microRNAs.  

PubMed

During myogenesis, satellite stem cells (SCs) are induced to proliferate and differentiate to myogenic precursors. The role of energy sensors such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in SC activation is unclear. We previously observed that upregulation of ATP through RNA-mediated mitochondrial restoration (MR) accelerates SC activation following skeletal muscle injury. We show here that during regeneration, the AMPK-CRTC2-CREB and Raptor-mTORC-4EBP1 pathways were rapidly activated. The phosho-CRTC2-CREB complex was essential for myogenesis and activated transcription of the critical cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 (Ccnd1). Knockdown (KD) of either mTORC or its subunit Raptor delayed SC activation without influencing the differentiation program. KD of 4EBP1 had no effect on SC activation but enhanced myofiber size. mTORC1 positively regulated Ccnd1 translation but destabilized Ccnd1 mRNA. These antithetical effects of mTORC1 were mediated by two microRNAs (miRs) targeted to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Ccnd1 mRNA: miR-1 was downregulated in mTORC-KD muscle, and depletion of miR-1 resulted in increased levels of mRNA without any effect on Ccnd1 protein. In contrast, miR-26a was upregulated upon mTORC depletion, while anti-miR-26a oligonucleotide specifically stimulated Ccnd1 protein expression. Thus, mTORC may act as a timer of satellite cell proliferation during myogenesis. PMID:25047835

Jash, Sukanta; Dhar, Gunjan; Ghosh, Utpalendu; Adhya, Samit

2014-10-01

260

Extragonadal teratoma in a domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domestica).  

PubMed

This is the first report of a primary, spontaneous and, most probably, congenital teratoma in a domestic turkey, localized in front of the left eyeball. The unique localization allowed surgical excision of the tumour. The histopathological examination revealed that the tumour included structures derived from all three germ cell layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm (e.g. cartilaginous, osseous, haematopoietic, fibrous, nervous, glandular, squamous epithelial and smooth muscle tissues). The presence of epithelial cells as well as smooth muscle cells was confirmed using anti-cytokeratin and anti-desmin antibodies, respectively. The proliferative activity of the tumour cells was confirmed using proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining. The other cases of teratoma in wild and domestic birds are reviewed briefly. PMID:22702456

Pa?dzior, Katarzyna; Szweda, Magdalena; Otrocka-Domaga?a, Iwona; Rotkiewicz, Tadeusz

2012-01-01

261

How Satellites Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Collection of seven classroom activities that focus on satellite technology. Topics include: coordinated universal time (UTC); satellite pass prediction; satellite design; satellite orbits; satellite launching; and, use of satellites in at-sea rescues. Each activity provides list of materials needed, background information, and procedure.

262

Turkey Operation - Year Round Production (VHS 3/4 inch) (Video).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Turkey operations are at greater risk since turkeys are more sensitive to disease than other commercial poultry. Turkeys also require longer to mature and need more contact with people. Range turkeys require different biosecurity procedures since it is ha...

1989-01-01

263

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II and IGFBP secretion by ovine satellite cell strains grown alone or in coculture with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The current study was designed to examine the effects of muscle and fat stem cell coculture on the secretion of insulinlike\\u000a growth factor (IGF)-I and -II and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) by these cells. Two sheep satellite cell strains with negligible\\u000a or high potential for differentiation (10A and 01, respectively) were placed in coculture with 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using a filter

K. L. Hossner; R. Yemm; J. Vierck; M. V. Dodson

1997-01-01

264

Reduction of exposure to blood donors in preterm infants submitted to red blood cell transfusions using pediatric satellite packs  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: In preterm newborn infants transfused with erythrocytes stored up to 28 days, to compare the reduction of blood donor exposure in two groups of infants classified according to birth weight. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with preterm infants with birth weight <1000g (Group 1) and 1000-1499g (Group 2), born between April, 2008 and December, 2009. Neonates submitted to exchange transfusions, emergency erythrocyte transfusion, or those who died in the first 24 hours of life were excluded. Transfusions were indicated according to the local guideline using pediatric transfusion satellite bags. Demographic and clinical data, besides number of transfusions and donors were assessed. . Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with multiple transfusions. RESULTS: 30 and 48 neonates were included in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The percentage of newborns with more than one erythrocyte transfusion (90 versus 11%), the median number of transfusions (3 versus 1) and the median of blood donors (2 versus 1) were higher in Group 1 (p<0.001), compared to Group 2. Among those with multiple transfusions, 14 (82%) and one (50%) presented 50% reduction in the number of blood donors, respectively in Groups 1 and 2. Factors associated with multiple transfusions were: birth weight <1000g (OR 11.91; 95%CI 2.14-66.27) and presence of arterial umbilical catheter (OR 8.59; 95%CI 1.94-38.13), adjusted for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of pediatrics satellites bags on blood donor reduction was higher in preterm infants with birth weight <1000g. PMID:24142309

Uezima, Cristina Lika; Barreto, Ariane Moreira; Guinsburg, Ruth; Chiba, Akemi Kuroda; Bordin, Jose Orlando; Barros, Melca Maria O.; dos Santos, Amelia Miyashiro N.

2013-01-01

265

The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys  

PubMed Central

Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys. PMID:23363433

2013-01-01

266

Precipitating antigens associated with Marek's disease viruses and a herpesvirus of Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precipitating antigens associated with a number of Marek's disease virus strains and with a turkey herpesvirus have been analyzed. The ‘A’ antigen has been defined as the major soluble antigen in feather follicles of infected chickens, which is identical with the major antigen usually present in supernatants of chicken kidney cell cultures infected with strains of Marek's disease virus. ‘BC’

V. v. Bülow; P. M. Biggs

1975-01-01

267

Cellular telephony in Turkey: A technology of self-produced modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the collective attachment to cellphones in Turkey by focusing on the dynamic relationship between the cellphone as a containing technology of modernity, and its non-elite users who are in search of a safe shelter for their hybrid identities. By taking a close look at the practices whereby the cell phone and its users reciprocally affect each other

Burçe Çelik

2011-01-01

268

Growth of L. monocytogenes strain F2365 on ready-to-eat turkey meat does not enhance gastrointestinal listeriosis in intragastrically inoculated A/J mice.  

PubMed

There have been significant outbreaks of listeriosis associated with consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products. In this study, we investigated whether growth on RTE deli turkey meat sends environmental signals to listerial cells that makes them more virulent in the gastrointestinal tract of mice. L. Listeria monocytogenes strain F2365 grew from a starting inoculum of 10(3) CFU/mL to final numbers of 10(8)-10(9) CFU/mL (within 12 days at 10 degrees C) when inoculated onto sliced processed, or whole muscle, turkey breast, or into emulsified whole turkey breast. We did not observe any difference in the numbers of CFU recovered from the spleens and livers of A/J mice inoculated intragastrically with L. monocytogenes grown on sliced turkey meat, in emulsified turkey meat, or in brain heart infusion broth. These results suggest that growth on RTE sliced deli turkey, or in RTE emulsified deli turkey, does not enhance the ability of L. monocytogenes F2365 to cause gastrointestinal listeriosis in intragastrically challenged A/J mice. PMID:18559288

Peterson, Luke D; Faith, Nancy G; Czuprynski, Charles J

2008-08-15

269

MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--role of satellite cells in anabolic steroid-induced muscle growth in feedlot steers.  

PubMed

Both androgenic and estrogenic steroids are widely used as growth promoters in feedlot steers because they significantly enhance feed efficiency, rate of gain, and muscle growth. However, despite their widespread use relatively little is known about the biological mechanism by which androgenic and estrogenic steroids enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth in cattle. Treatment of feedlot steers with a combined estradiol (E2) and trenbolone acetate (TBA) implant results in an increased number of muscle satellite cells, increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA in muscle tissue, and increased levels of circulating IGF-1. Similarly, treatment of bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures with either TBA or E2 results in increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA, increased rates of proliferation and protein synthesis, and decreased rates of protein degradation. Effects of E2 on BSC are mediated at least in part through the classical E2 receptor, estrogen receptor-? (ESR1), the IGF-1 receptor (IGFR1), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR30). The effects of TBA appear to be primarily mediated through the androgen receptor. Based on current research results, it is becoming clear that anabolic steroid-enhanced bovine muscle growth involves a complex interaction of numerous pathways and receptors. Consequently, additional in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms involved in this complex process. The fundamental information generated by this research will help in developing future, safe, and effective strategies to increase rate and efficiency of muscle growth in beef cattle. PMID:24166993

Dayton, W R; White, M E

2014-01-01

270

Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

2011-01-01

271

Tertium Datur: Turkey's Application for EU Membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

In place of an ‘in or out’ dichotomy, a third way must be offered between European Union (EU) membership and the European\\u000a Neighbourhood Policy, consisting of a diversification of the forms of cooperation and integration between the EU and its neighbouring\\u000a countries. The question as to Turkey’s accession capability and the EU’s enlargement capacity affects the identity of both\\u000a sides.

Thomas Silberhorn

272

Dressing the Thanksgiving Turkey: Using Measurement?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog post presents a Thanksgiving activity that engages learners as they practice measuring with nonstandard units and comparing lengths. Learners use unifix cubes to measure the heights of four turkeys then compare and arrange them in order from shortest to tallest. The last part of the activity has students measuring Tom Turkey to determine which clothing he should be dressed in for dinner. The lesson plan and all student worksheets can be downloaded to a PDF.

Mitchell, Myrna

2013-11-15

273

Current status of neurosurgery in Turkey.  

PubMed

With a population of more than 70 million, Turkey has a large demand for neurosurgery. Neurosurgery is provided by a socialized health care system partly supported by private institutions. There are more than 1200 neurosurgeons practicing in Turkey, and sophisticated surgical procedures are performed in most large cities. Residency training is provided at universities and training hospitals, and the quality of care is supported by two neurosurgical societies. PMID:21492577

Pamir, Necmettin M; Özduman, Koray

2010-01-01

274

Complete genomic sequence of turkey coronavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV), one of the least characterized of all known coronaviruses, was isolated from an outbreak of acute enteritis in young turkeys in Ontario, Canada, and the full-length genomic sequence was determined. The full-length genome was 27,632 nucleotides plus the 3? poly(A) tail. Two open reading frames, ORFs 1a and 1b, resided in the first two thirds of the

M. H. Gomaa; J. R. Barta; D. Ojkic; D. Yoo

2008-01-01

275

Transmission of Chlamydiae from grackles to turkeys.  

PubMed

Two female common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula) were inoculated intratracheally with 1.6 X 10(8) chick embryo lethal doses50 of a chlamydial organism isolated from turkeys. Eight female grackles were kept as uninoculated contacts. Six days later, two 12-week-old Broad-Breasted White turkeys (1 male and 1 female) were placed in the pen with the grackles. Chlamydiae were isolated in mice from cloacal swabs taken 14 days postinoculation from the infected grackles. Swabs from the contact grackles did not yield chlamydiae, nor did swabs taken 7 days later from all birds. Twenty-one days after being placed with the grackles, the turkeys developed signs of chlamydiosis. Cloacal swabs taken at 24 days yielded chlamydiae from only the female. Visceral organ tissues collected at 28 days from the male yielded chlamydiae. The only lesions in the turkeys at necropsy were enlarged spleens. The turkeys were serologically negative for chlamydial antibody both when placed and 15 days later, but were positive at days 24 and 28. These results indicate contact transmission of chlamydiae from infected grackles to turkeys. PMID:678235

Grimes, J E

1978-01-01

276

Current situation of scrap batteries in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports the current situation of waste batteries and policies in Turkey. Turkey is a developing country where the battery consumption per person is around three to four pieces annually. Although the rate of consumption in Europe is around 10, the required amount of battery is growing rapidly with increasing technological development. According to the statistics of the year 2002, 10 million pieces of GSM batteries are consumed, whereas 250 million pieces of other sort of batteries are used in Turkey annually. Consumption figures suggest that the market value of the consumed batteries approximates to US$ 200 million. Based upon the amount of the used battery and marketing values, it is estimated that 10,000 t of scrap batteries will accumulate per annum. Only 1.2% of scrap batteries in Turkey can be recollected through Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. At present, there is no recycling plant in Turkey to recycle scrap batteries. In this investigation, the variety of batteries used, the situation of scrap battery collection and its capacity and also the possibilities of recycling of scrap batteries in Turkey are put forward.

Akta?, S.; Sirkeci, A. A.; Açma, E.

277

Turkey vulture and California condor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.

1989-01-01

278

Tissue changes in enlarged sternal bursas of turkeys.  

PubMed

Enlarged sternal bursas evident in turkeys beyond 12 weeks of age were examined grossly and microscopically in 169 turkeys 3 to 26 weeks old. Grossly, the enlarged sternal bursas were sacs of varied size and wall thickness containing fluid in amounts from a fraction of a milliliter up to 70 ml. The fluid was usually the consistency of serum but was sometimes viscid, and in infected bursas it would be purulent. Its color varied from amber to red to dark brown depending on the amounts of and the changes in the blood pigments. The synovial membranes were smooth and glistening and of variable thicknesses. Strands or cords of the synovial membrane of variable thickness and number extended from side to side of the sac. Microscopically, the synovial membrane was focally thickened in the small bursas and generally thickened in the larger bursas. The thickening was the result of an increase in the very cellular fibrous tissue and in the number and size of blood vessels. The lining cells were flat fibrocytes one cell thick in the smaller bursas, and round stratified cells in the larger bursas. In infected bursas, mononuclear and heterophilic infiltration occurred. Hemorrhaging occurred quite often, the result of trauma to the highly vascular synovial membrane. PMID:1156256

Miner, M L; Smart, R A; Olson, A E

1975-01-01

279

Effect of whole wheat feeding on selected immune parameters in growing male turkeys.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of whole wheat feeding on selected parameters of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in growing turkeys. A total of 210 one-day-old heavy-type Hybrid Converter male turkeys were randomly divided into three different dietary treatment groups, each consisting of 7 replicate pens of 10 birds per pen. Until 4 wk of age, all birds were fed a commercial diet formulated to meet nutrient requirements. From 5 to 12 wk of age, diets were composed of wheat (ground-pelleted or whole grain) and protein-fat-mineral-vitamin concentrate. The total wheat concentration in diets was 500 or 600 g/kg in the feeding periods of 5-8 and 9-12 wk of birds' age, respectively. Whole grain wheat had a 0, 50 or 100% share of the total wheat amount in the daily ration in treatment groups W0, W50 or W100, respectively. Commercial vaccines against ND (Newcastle disease) and TRT (Turkey rhinotracheitis) were administered to turkeys via the drinking water on days 20 and 30, respectively. Over the entire experiment, a significant linear decrease was observed in body weight gains (BWG) with increasing dietary levels of whole grain wheat. As a result the BWG of control turkeys (W0) were significantly higher than the BWG of group W100 birds (P = 0.002). A significant linear increase in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed with increasing dietary levels of whole grain wheat (P < 0.001). The levels of antibodies against TRT and ND viruses after immunization were significantly higher in both the W50 and W100 group, in comparison to group W0 (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively). Turkeys from group W50, in comparison to those from groups W0 and W100, had a significantly higher percentage of CD4+ T cell subpopulation within the lymphocytes isolated from blood and ileal mucosa, as well as CD4+ CD8+ and CD8+ T cell subpopulations within the blood immunocompetent cells (P = 0.022, P = 0.029, P = 0.009 and P = 0.011, respectively). In the cecal tonsils, the percentage of CD8+ T cell subpopulation was significantly lower in group W50 than in groups W0 and W100 (P = 0.014). The results of our study indicate that diluting diets with whole grain wheat stimulates the non-specific cell-mediated defense mechanisms of the gastrointestinal immune system in turkeys, thus positively affecting humoral response after vaccination. PMID:24988851

Tyka?owski, B; Smia?ek, M; Pestka, D; Stenzel, T; Jankowski, J; Mikulski, D; Koncicki, A

2014-01-01

280

Satellite altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since altimetry data are not really old enough to use the term data archaeology, Mr. Cheney referred to the stewardship of these data. He noted that it is very important to document the basis for an altimetry data set as the algorithms and corrections used to arrive at the Geophysical Data Record (GDR) have been improving and are continuing to improve the precision of sea level data derived from altimetry. He noted that the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data set has recently been reprocessed by his organization in the National Ocean Service of NOAA and made available to the scientific community on CD/ROM disks by the National Oceanographic Data Center of the U.S. (NODC). The new data set contains a satellite orbit more precise by an order of magnitude together with an improved water vapor correction. A new, comprehensive GDR Handbook has also been prepared.

Cheney, Robert E.

1992-01-01

281

Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

2012-01-01

282

Effects of recombinant turkey interferon-gamma on development of immunity to coccidia in neonatal turkeys  

E-print Network

experiments (EXP 3, 4, or 5) over time in which rtIFN? was administered to turkey poults one day post-hatch by intraperitoneal injection 30 min prior to per os challenge with Eimeria adenoeides (EA). In EXP 4 and 5, neonatal turkeys received a second...

Beltran, Ruben

2012-06-07

283

Policy options for Turkey: a critique of the interpretation and utilization of PISA results in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD’s PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we present the way in

Bekir S. Gür; Zafer Çelik; Murat Özo?lu

2012-01-01

284

Policy options for Turkey: a critique of the interpretation and utilization of PISA results in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD’s PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we present the way in

Bekir S. Gür; Zafer Çelik; Murat Özo?lu

2011-01-01

285

Swedish small satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 the first Swedish small satellite VIKING was launched on the Ariane I rocket together with the French remote sensing satellite SPOT. This paper describes the development of the Swedish Small Satellite Program. The satellites have delivered excellent scientific data at a low cost by using streamlined project organisations, competitive procurement programs and piggy-back launch opportunities.The first micro satellite

Kaj Lundahl; Fredrik Von Schéele

1998-01-01

286

Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

Shamma, Mohammed A.

2004-01-01

287

Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial pathogen, especially in poultry, where it can lead to both subclinical and clinical disease. The aim of this study was to present data on pathological findings at outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) in turkey production in Finland during the period from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48) of a turkey company that produces 99% of domestic turkey meat in Finland were interviewed about background information, management at the farm, and stress factors related to NE outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with SmaI restriction enzyme resulted in 30 PFGE patterns among the 92 C. perfringens isolates of high diversity. Out of all isolates, 212 (100%) were ?-toxin-positive and one isolate (0.5%) was both ?- and ?2 toxin-positive. Fourteen isolates (6.6%) were necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) positive; all were recovered from turkeys with NE. In none of the isolates obtained from healthy turkeys was the netB toxin identified. In conclusion, a high diversity of C. perfringens isolates from turkeys with different health status was shown. All isolates produced ? toxin, whereas only low percentages of isolates carried the netB toxin gene. The role of the netB toxin in NE in turkeys needs to be further investigated. PMID:23776261

Lyhs, U; Perko-Mäkelä, P; Kallio, H; Brockmann, A; Heinikainen, S; Tuuri, H; Pedersen, K

2013-07-01

288

Satellite Glial Cells Surrounding Primary Afferent Neurons Are Activated and Proliferate during Monoarthritis in Rats: Is There a Role for ATF3?  

PubMed Central

Joint inflammatory diseases are debilitating and very painful conditions that still lack effective treatments. Recently, glial cells were shown to be crucial for the development and maintenance of chronic pain, constituting novel targets for therapeutic approaches. At the periphery, the satellite glial cells (SGCs) that surround the cell bodies of primary afferents neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) display hypertrophy, proliferation, and activation following injury and/or inflammation. It has been suggested that the expression of neuronal injury factors might initially trigger these SGCs-related events. We then aimed at evaluating if SGCs are involved in the establishment/maintenance of articular inflammatory pain, by using the monoarthritis (MA) model, and if the neuronal injury marker activating transcriptional factor 3 (ATF3) is associated with these SGCs' reactive changes. Western Blot (WB) analysis of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was performed in L4-L5 DRGs from control non-inflamed rats and MA animals at different time-points of disease (4, 7, and 14d, induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection into the left hind paw ankle joint). Data indicate that SGCs activation is occurring in MA animals, particularly after day 7 of disease evolution. Additionally, double-immunostaining for ATF3 and GFAP in L5 DRG sections shows that SGCs's activation significantly increases around stressed neurons at 7d of disease, when compared with control animals. The specific labelling of GFAP in SGCs rather than in other cell types was also confirmed by immunohistochemical labeling. Finally, BrdU incorporation indicates that proliferation of SGCs is also significantly increased after 7 days of MA. Data indicate that SGCs play an important role in the mechanisms of articular inflammation, with 7 days of disease being a critical time-point in the MA model, and suggest that ATF3 might be involved in SGCs' reactive changes such as activation. PMID:25247596

Nascimento, Diana Sofia Marques; Castro-Lopes, Jose Manuel; Neto, Fani Lourenca Moreira

2014-01-01

289

78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record...orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to continuation...respect to imports of certain pasta from...

2013-09-09

290

Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of < 1 m satellite images have become available at no cost to the research community. In addition, Landsat data are now free of charge from the U.S. Geological Survey, enabling the use of multiple images. We used 174 Landsat and eight high-resolution satellite images to document the areal extent of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2007-2011. Multiple Landsat images, primarily Thematic Mapper (TM) data from 1984 to 2011, enabled us to minimize differentiation problems between snow and glacier ice, a potential source of error. In addition, we used Ikonos, Quickbird, and World View-1 & -2 very high-resolution imagery to evaluate our TM accuracies and determine the area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

2012-01-01

291

Spermatogenesis in the turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo): Quantitative approach in immature and adult males subjected to various photoperiods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to identify and quantitate the germ cell populations of the testes in sexually mature male turkeys (Trial 1), determine the duration of meiosis based on BrdU labeling and stereological analyses (Trial 2), and examine the impact of various photoperiods on germinal and somatic cell populations in immature and adult males (Trial 3). In Trial

Jérôme Noirault; Jean-Pierre Brillard; Murray R. Bakst

2006-01-01

292

Satellite cell proliferation in the adult rat trigeminal ganglion results from the release of a mitogenic protein from explanted sensory neurons [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1994 Jun;125(6):1429  

PubMed Central

Explant of trigeminal ganglia neurons in adult rats induces perineuronal glial proliferation of primarily satellite cells as opposed to Schwann cells. This proliferation begins at 15 h after explant culture and by 27 h there is a significant increase in glial proliferation as measured by scintillation counts of [3H]thymidine. Blocking protein synthesis between 0 and 3.5 h after explant culture (early) results in an enhanced proliferative response, while blocking protein synthesis between 3.5 and 7 h (late) causes a complete block of the proliferative response assessed at 27 h. Conditioned media experiments demonstrate that both the mitogenic and inhibitory signals are diffusible and heat labile. Finally, the addition of neurotrophic factors to rescue injured ganglionic neurons attenuates the proliferative glial response suggesting that injured neurons produce and release signals that induce glial proliferation. PMID:8132704

1994-01-01

293

Assessing the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet Turkey’s growing energy demand, the installed electric power capacity of 27.8 GW in 2001 has to be doubled by 2010 and increased fourfold by 2020. The difference between Turkey’s total primary energy supply (TPES) of from its own sources and total final consumption (TFC) is projected grow from 1 quad (1.06–2.06) in 1999 to 5.71 quads (2.79–8.5) in

F Evrendilek; C Ertekin

2003-01-01

294

Gene transfer into satellite cell from regenerating muscle: Bupivacaine allows ?-gal transfection and expression in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A large bulk of experimental evidence (15) suggests that myogenic cell transfer can be regarded as a promising therapeutic\\u000a approach in the cure of inherited pathologies. In particular, it has been shown that primary myoblasts obtained from embryonic\\u000a or neonatal muscles allows the recovery of the normal phenotype in defective muscle tissues. The utilization of this approach\\u000a in clinical settings

Marcello Cantini; Maria Lina Massimino; Claudia Catani; Rosario Rizzuto; Marisa Brini; Ugo Carraro

1994-01-01

295

IMAGE Satellite Scaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about satellite size. Learners will calculate the volume of the IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite, the first satellite mission to image the Earth's magnetosphere. They will then determine the effect of doubling and tripling the satellite dimensions on the satellite's mass and cost. This is the first activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring Satellite Design educator guide.

296

DENSITY AND DYNAMICS OF ACROPTILON REPENS L., PATCHES IN TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acroptilon repens is an herbaceous perennial that propagates by seeds and vegetative means. Its natural range extends from Turkey throughout Central Asia to China. A. repens is a major weed for grape, orchards and meadow area in Central of Turkey. Our objective was to determine density and expanding of A. repens patches in Central of Turkey. The patche experiments were

O. KOLOREN; S. UYGUR; O. BOZDOGAN; F. N. UYGUR; U. SCHAFFNER

2008-01-01

297

Development of geothermal energy utilization in Turkey: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy is accepted as a key source for the future, not only for Turkey but also for the world. Turkey has a considerably high level of renewable energy sources that can be a part of the total energy network in the country. Turkey is located in the Mediterranean sector of Alpine–Himalayan Tectonic Belt and has a place among the

Arif Hepbasli; Leyla Ozgener

2004-01-01

298

Ground Roost Resource Selection for Merriam's Wild Turkeys  

E-print Network

for Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA. Females and knowledge of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) demographics during the earliest portions of life of ground roosts have been less rigorously evaluated. Eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris

299

Turkey's Renewable Energy Sources: Part 1. Historical Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy is accepted as a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, but also for the world. Turkey has a considerably high level of renewable energy resources that can be a part of the total energy network in the country. The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate the historical development of Turkey's renewable

ARIF HEPBASLI; ONDER OZGENER

2004-01-01

300

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads  

E-print Network

(Alectoris rufa), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamai- censis; BrennanORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance roads. Our objective was to determine if and when Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo

Wallace, Mark C.

301

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads  

E-print Network

-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamai- censisORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia; RGWT) were randomly distributed around roads to identify

Butler, Matthew J.

302

Energy Status and Peaceful Usage of Nuclear Energy in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey needs a large of amount of energy to develop its economy and to improve the lives of its own people. Nowadays, Turkey uses various types of energy sources such as coal, hydro, natural gas, and others. Turkey needs nuclear power plants to meet the increasing energy demand. There has been a significant increase in the use of nuclear knowledge

F. Oner

2011-01-01

303

ASPEC: Solar power satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

304

Satellite communications in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of satellite communication technology in China is reviewed. Particular attention is given to satellite communication networks for public service and some specialized communication networks.

Guorui Chen; Warren Stutzman

1991-01-01

305

DNA methylation at a bovine alpha satellite I repeat CpG site during development following fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Incomplete epigenetic reprogramming is postulated to contribute to the low developmental success following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, we describe the epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an alpha satellite I CpG site (?satI-5) during development of cattle generated either by artificial insemination (AI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Quantitative methylation analysis identified that SCNT donor cells were highly methylated at ?satI-5 and resulting SCNT blastocysts showed significantly more methylation than IVF blastocysts. At implantation, no difference in methylation was observed between SCNT and AI in trophoblast tissue at ?satI-5, however, SCNT embryos were significantly hyper-methylated compared to AI controls at this time point. Following implantation, DNA methylation at ?satI-5 decreased in AI but not SCNT placental tissues. In contrast to placenta, the proportion of methylation at ?satI-5 remained high in adrenal, kidney and muscle tissues during development. Differences in the average proportion of methylation were smaller in somatic tissues than placental tissues but, on average, SCNT somatic tissues were hyper-methylated at ?satI-5. Although sperm from all bulls was less methylated than somatic tissues at ?satI-5, on average this site remained hyper-methylated in sperm from cloned bulls compared with control bulls. This developmental time course confirms that epigenetic reprogramming does occur, at least to some extent, following SCNT. However, the elevated methylation levels observed in SCNT blastocysts and cellular derivatives implies that there is either insufficient time or abundance of appropriate reprogramming factors in oocytes to ensure complete reprogramming. Incomplete reprogramming at this CpG site may be a contributing factor to low SCNT success rates, but more likely represents the tip of the iceberg in terms of incompletely reprogramming. Until protocols ensure the epigenetic signature of a differentiated somatic cell is reset to a state resembling totipotency, the efficiency of SCNT is likely to remain low. PMID:23383311

Couldrey, Christine; Wells, David N

2013-01-01

306

Inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 is responsible for the native inward potassium conductance of satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.  

PubMed

Satellite glial cells (SGCs) surround primary afferent neurons in sensory ganglia, and increasing evidence has implicated the K(+) channels of SGCs in affecting or regulating sensory ganglion excitability. The inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel Kir4.1 is highly expressed in several types of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) where it has been implicated in extracellular K(+) concentration buffering. Upon neuronal activity, the extracellular K(+) concentration increases, and if not corrected, causes neuronal depolarization and uncontrolled changes in neuronal excitability. Recently, it has been demonstrated that knockdown of Kir4.1 expression in trigeminal ganglia leads to neuronal hyperexcitability in this ganglia and heightened nociception. Thus, we investigated the contribution of Kir4.1 to the membrane K(+) conductance of SGCs in neonatal and adult mouse trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed in conjunction with immunocytochemistry and quantitative transcript analysis in various mouse lines. We found that in wild-type mice, the inward K(+) conductance of SGCs is blocked almost completely with extracellular barium, cesium and desipramine, consistent with a conductance mediated by Kir channels. We then utilized mouse lines in which genetic ablation led to partial or complete loss of Kir4.1 expression to assess the role of this channel subunit in SGCs. The inward K(+) currents of SGCs in Kir4.1+/- mice were decreased by about half while these currents were almost completely absent in Kir4.1-/- mice. These findings in combination with previous reports support the notion that Kir4.1 is the principal Kir channel type in SGCs. Therefore Kir4.1 emerges as a key regulator of SGC function and possibly neuronal excitability in sensory ganglia. PMID:20074622

Tang, X; Schmidt, T M; Perez-Leighton, C E; Kofuji, P

2010-03-17

307

Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows  

SciTech Connect

Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

2009-06-15

308

Solar radiation potential in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The primary input in solar energy applications is the solar radiation data. In places of interest, the long term correlations can be developed using the other meterological parameters. Bright sunshine hours are the mostly applied parameter. In this work, a quadratic equation of modified Angstrom type is used to estimate the global irradiances of the fifty stations in the country. These stations are located between 36/sup 0/ and 42/sup 0/ N latitudes. Moreover, the information of the beam and diffuse components of radiation on both the hourly and daily basis are necessary for the detailed system analyses. The general approach is to split the daily medium global radiation to its components, and to predict their hourly variations during a day. These values can also be converted to non-horizontal surfaces with the given inclination and orientation. To this end, there exist important relations deducted from the measured data. Among them the interrelationships of Liu and Jordon are applied to predict the hourly radiation components on any plane for the same fifty locations. The most significant computer output tables are collected to form a ''Solar Radiation Handbook of Turkey''. Any required information on solar radiation can be obtained in detail from these tables.

Tasdemiroglu, E.

1983-12-01

309

Solar array experiments on the Sphinx satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations; the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the Teflon encased cells and the violet cells.

Stevens, N. J.

1973-01-01

310

Odyssey personal communications satellite system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

Spitzer, Christopher J.

1993-01-01

311

The role of rain in satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most fundamental obstacle encountered in design of satellite communication systems at frequencies above 10 GHz is attenuation by rain. The microwave power radiated toward an earth station, being limited by factors such as available primary power and size of antenna on the satellite, is insufficient, with present technology, to overcome the large attenuation produced by intense rain cells on

D. C. Hogg; Ta-Shing Chu

1975-01-01

312

Optimum power and beam allocation based on traffic demands and channel conditions over satellite downlinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

For data services over satellite networks, the efficient management of satellite downlink communication resources is crucial for economic competitiveness of the medium. To support a broad spectrum of users with small terminals at high rates, narrow transmit spotbeams on the satellite will be used. Since satellite transmitter resources are expensive and there can be many spotbeam-coverage cells within the satellite

Jihwan P. Choi; Vincent W. S. Chan

2005-01-01

313

Stevioside enhances satellite cell activation by inhibiting of NF-?B signaling pathway in regenerating muscle after cardiotoxin-induced injury.  

PubMed

Stevioside, a noncaloric sweetener isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects through interference of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B pathway. We investigated whether this anti-inflammatory property of stevioside could improve muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. Adult male Wistar rats received stevioside orally at an accepted daily dosage of 10 mg kg?¹ for 7 days before cardiotoxin injection at the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of the right hindlimb (the left hindlimb served as control), and stevioside administration was continued for 3 and 7 days. TA muscle was examined at days 3 and 7 postinjury. Although stevioside treatment had no significant effect in enhancing muscle regeneration as indicated by the absence of decreased muscle inflammation or improved myofibrillar protein content compared with vehicle treated injured group at day 7 postinjury, the number of MyoD-positive nuclei were increased (P < 0.05), with a corresponding decrease in NF-?B nuclear translocation (P < 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate that stevioside could enhance satellite cell activation by modulation of the NF-?B signaling pathway in regenerating muscle following injury. Thus, stevioside may be beneficial as a dietary supplementation for promoting muscle recovery from injury. However, its pharmacological effect on muscle function recovery warrants further investigation. PMID:22316332

Bunprajun, Tipwadee; Yimlamai, Tossaporn; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

2012-03-21

314

A case of salinomycin intoxication in turkeys.  

PubMed

A flock of 4287 heavy hybrid turkey hens were accidentally fed broiler premix containing salinomycin sodium and suffered a 34.5% death loss. Measures taken to ensure food safety for the remaining flock and consumer food safety included feed record studies, on-farm veterinary consultation, diagnostic laboratory studies, and CgFARAD and CFIA consultation. The remaining turkeys were processed 3 weeks after the initial toxicosis with no evidence of lesions that would render the product unfit for human consumption. PMID:16604983

Van Assen, Earl J

2006-03-01

315

Feasibility of microminiature satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A conceptual study is conducted on technical problems and system design techniques to accomplish higher performance microminiature satellites by smaller systems. Applications of microminiature satellite technology to practical satellite mission are mentioned. Concepts of microminiature satellites, measures to miniaturize satellites, and micro-miniaturization technologies for communication and data processing, electric solar power paddle, attitude and orbit control, structure, thermal control, propulsion, and instrumentation systems are outlined. Examples of miniaturizing satellite missions such as planet exploration, low-altitude communication networks, space positioning system, low-altitude earth observation mission, clustered satellites, tethered satellites, and timely observation are described. Satellite miniaturizing technology can also be used to launch systems by lasers, and superconductive linear catapults (space escalator). It is pointed out that keys to promote satellite miniaturization are electronics, precision machining, raw material, electric power source technologies, and system design technology to integrate those technologies.

Imai, Ryouichi

1991-07-01

316

Europeanization of foreign policy and world culture: Turkey’s Cyprus policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re\\/definition of national interests is a dialectical process that involves not only internal dynamics and domestic interests but also explanatory factors transcending national level, such as the European-level and global-level stimuli. Accordingly, the study offers four alternative explanantia for Turkey’s preferences on the Cyprus question: European Union’s (EU) constraining stimuli, EU’s constitutive stimuli, global-level constraining stimuli, global-level constitutive stimuli.

Didem Buhari-Gulmez

2012-01-01

317

Integrated Satellite Control in REIMEI (INDEX) Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

REIMEI/INDEX (INnovative-technology Demonstration EXperiment) is a 70kg class small satellite which the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Exploration Agency, ISAS/JAXA, has developed for observation of auroral small-scale dynamics as well as demonstration of advanced satellite technologies. An important engineering mission of REIMEI is integrated satellite control using commercial RISC CPUs with a triple voting system in order to ensure fault-tolerance against radiation hazards. Software modules concerning every satellite function, such as attitude control, data handling, and mission applications, work cooperatively so that highly sophisticated satellite control can be performed. In this paper, after a concept of the integrated satellite control is introduced, the Integrated Controller Unit (ICU) is described in detail. Also unique topics in developing the integrated control system are shown.

Fukuda, Seisuke; Mizuno, Takahide; Sakai, Shin-Ichiro; Fukushima, Yousuke; Saito, Hirobumi

318

Korea's first satellite for satellite laser ranging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science Technology Satellite-2 (STSAT-2) has been developed since October 2002 as a sequel mission to KAISTSAT-4 (STSAT-1). STSAT-2 is scheduled to be launched into an ellipsoidal orbit of 300km×1500km in December 2005 by the first Korea Satellite Launch Vehicle KSLV-1. STSAT-2 has two payloads: a Lyman-? imaging solar telescope and a laser reflector array (LRA) for satellite laser ranging. The

Jun Ho Lee; Seung Bum Kim; Kyung Hee Kim; Sang Hyun Lee; Yong Jo Im; Yang Fumin; Chen Wanzhen

2005-01-01

319

Korea's first satellite for satellite laser ranging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science Technology Satellite-2 (STSAT-2) has been developed since October 2002 as a sequel mission to KAISTSAT-4 (STSAT-1). STSAT-2 is scheduled to be launched into an ellipsoidal orbit of 300km×1500km in December 2005 by the first Korea Satellite Launch Vehicle KSLV-1. STSAT-2 has two payloads: a Lyman-alpha imaging solar telescope and a laser reflector array (LRA) for satellite laser ranging. The

Jun Ho Lee; Seung Bum Kim; Kyung Hee Kim; Sang Hyun Lee; Yong Jo Im; Yang Fumin; Chen Wanzhen

2005-01-01

320

Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

2009-01-01

321

Transition to Family Practice in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

2008-01-01

322

Factors Influencing Teaching Choice in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why choose to become a teacher in Turkey? The authors examined motivations and perceptions among preservice teachers (N = 1577) encompassing early childhood, primary and secondary education. The Factors Influencing Teaching Choice (FIT-Choice) instrument was translated into Turkish and its construct validity and reliability assessed. Altruistic…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Watt, Helen M. G.; Richardson, Paul W.

2012-01-01

323

Occupational gender wage discrimination in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate gender based wage differences by schooling and occupations and to estimate the occupational gender wage discrimination in Turkey where strenuous attempts are underway to modernize and negotiate its culturally (Islamic)-based gender differences. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study employs an extension of Blinder and Oaxaca's approach to measure the effect of wage

Orhan Kara

2006-01-01

324

ARSLANTEPE, MALATYA (TURKEY): TEXTILES, TOOLS AND IMPRINTS  

E-print Network

ARSLANTEPE, MALATYA (TURKEY): TEXTILES, TOOLS AND IMPRINTS OF FABRICS FROM THE 4th TO THE 2nd-EICHER and A. WISTI LASSEN Abstract: Textile production is one of the oldest crafts and has played a crucial role in societies. Yet, very few archaeological textiles are preserved and we must therefore rely

Boyer, Edmond

325

Vaginal douching practices and beliefs in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify women's motivations for vaginal douching, vaginal douching practices, and women's reactions to situations that discourage vaginal douching. Research took place in the outskirts of Antalya, a city located on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. A total of 776 women participated in the study. Age, religious affiliation, place of residence, and poverty were

Kamile Kukulu

2006-01-01

326

The genus Septoria Sacc. in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventynine Septoria species from 72 host plants have been identified in Turkey so far. There can be distinguished different interrelations between Septoria species and their host plants. So there are indifferent relationships between Cercis siliquastrum and S. cercidis, Petroselinum sativum and S. petroselini, Apium graveolens and S. apiicola, Cannabis sativa and S. cannabis presented negative consortium relationship. On Lycopersicum esculentum

Faruk Selçuk; Hasan Akgül

2009-01-01

327

Sleep characteristics in the turkey Meleagris gallopavo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiological and behavioral characteristics of the states of vigilance were analyzed in chronically implanted specimens of the turkey Meleagris gallopavo (M. gallopavo). Five different states of vigilance were observed throughout the nyctohemeral period: active wakefulness (AW), quiet wakefulness (QW), drowsiness (D), slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.These states exhibit characteristics similar to those described in other

Fructuoso Ayala-Guerrero; G. Mexicano; J. I. Ramos

2003-01-01

328

Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

2010-01-01

329

Attitudes towards questionable negotiation tactics in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of individualism-collectivism, trust, and ethical ideology on ethically questionable negotiation tactics, such as pretending, deceiving and lying, in Turkey. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey questionnaires translated from English to Turkish were administered to 400 respondents, of whom 379 fully completed the questionnaires. Findings – The research empirically corroborated a classification

Ahmet Erku?; Moshe Banai

2011-01-01

330

The Benefits of Renewables in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy is proving to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. Renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond energy alone. More and more, renewable energies are contributing to the three pillars of sustainable development not only in IEA countries, but globally. Turkey is an energy-importing country; more than half of the energy

Kamil Kaygusuz; Ahmet Sari

2006-01-01

331

Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

Aydin, Kemal

2006-01-01

332

The Distribution of The Inflation in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates distribution of inflation items using various measures of skewness and kurtosis for Turkey covering the period 1996-2007. Considering sensitivity of traditional distribution measures to outlying observations robust skewness and kurtosis are also computed as a novelty. Analysis results mainly reveal that inflation components are right skewed and fat tailed as documented by the previous studies. However due

Nazif Catik; Ozlem Onder

2010-01-01

333

The Mexican national satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

1983-10-01

334

Toward a phenology network in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

2012-04-01

335

Forest burning as a counterinsurgency strategy in Eastern Turkey. Paper presented at the World Congress of Kurdish Studies, organized by the Kurdish Institute of Paris and Salahaddin University, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, September 6 to September 9, 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in the early 1990s, the Turkish Army was reported to use the burning of forests, fields and villages as a strategy in the conflict against the insurgent PKK. A case study of armed conflict in Tunceli, Eastern Turkey was done to evaluate this claim using satellite images for the verification of eye-witness reports collected by human rights groups. This

J. P. Jongerden; Etten van J; Vos de H

2006-01-01

336

Thunderstorm solar power satellite-issues dealing with weather modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tornadoes represent the most dangerous and destructive of storms. A revolutionary concept for disrupting the formation of tornadoes in a thunderstorm is proposed for evaluation. Beamed microwave energy from a satellite could heat cold rainy downdrafts to alter convective forces in the storm cell. Such a satellite is termed a thunderstorm solar power satellite (TSPS). The TSPS is based on

Bernard J. Eastlund; Lyle M. Jenkins

2006-01-01

337

Differential muscle hypertrophy is associated with satellite cell numbers and Akt pathway activation following activin type IIB receptor inhibition in Mtm1 p.R69C mice.  

PubMed

X-linked myotubular myopathy is a congenital myopathy caused by deficiency of myotubularin. Patients often present with severe perinatal weakness, requiring mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. We recently reported that an activin receptor type IIB inhibitor produced hypertrophy of type 2b myofibers and modest increases of strength and life span in the severely myopathic Mtm1?4 mouse model of X-linked myotubular myopathy. We have now performed a similar study in the less severely symptomatic Mtm1 p.R69C mouse in hopes of finding greater treatment efficacy. Activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment of Mtm1 p.R69C animals produced behavioral and histological evidence of hypertrophy in gastrocnemius muscles but not in quadriceps or triceps. The ability of the muscles to respond to activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment correlated with treatment-induced increases in satellite cell number and several muscle-specific abnormalities of hypertrophic signaling. Treatment-responsive Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscles displayed lower levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 and higher levels of phosphorylated eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase than were observed in Mtm1 p.R69C quadriceps muscle or in muscles from wild-type littermates. Hypertrophy in the Mtm1 p.R69C gastrocnemius muscle was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6. Our findings indicate that muscle-, fiber type-, and mutation-specific factors affect the response to hypertrophic therapies that will be important to assess in future therapeutic trials. PMID:24726641

Lawlor, Michael W; Viola, Marissa G; Meng, Hui; Edelstein, Rachel V; Liu, Fujun; Yan, Ke; Luna, Elizabeth J; Lerch-Gaggl, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Pierson, Christopher R; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L; Pearsall, Scott; Yang, Lin; Hillard, Cecilia J; Beggs, Alan H

2014-06-01

338

What are Satellites?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students differentiate between natural satellites and artificial satellites, and are challenged to create a model of an artificial satellite, including calculating the amount of energy required to power the satellite and the size of the solar array required to generate that power. Student worksheets, answer sheet, illustrations of satellites, teacher tips and Web links are included. This is Lesson 2 in What are Satellites, part of IMAGERS, Interactive Media Adventures for Grade School Education using Remote Sensing. The website provides hands-on activities in the classroom supporting the science content in two interactive media books, The Adventures of Echo the Bat and Amelia the Pigeon.

339

75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the January 1, 2008, through December...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

2010-07-29

340

78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of January...

2013-04-09

341

78 FR 73838 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Turkey.\\1\\ The original signature date for...See Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

2013-12-09

342

Turkey's Membership in the European Union: Analyzing Potential Benefits and Drawbacks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Relations between Turkey and European integration institutions began with Turkey's application for associate membership in the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1959. Turkey applied for full membership in the EEC in 1987 but did not gain candidate stat...

A. Pehlivan

2008-01-01

343

76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

2011-08-09

344

78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination...certain oil tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1,...

2013-12-23

345

78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...Shane Subler at (202) 482-0189 (Turkey), AD/CVD Operations, Import Administration...oil country tubular goods from India and Turkey.\\1\\ Currently, the preliminary...

2013-09-16

346

Effects of high-orbit spaceflight on signaling cascades and apoptosis in immune cells from mice flied on board the BION-M1 satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was designed to evaluate immune cell activity in male C57bl mice after a 30-day high-orbit spaceflight (550 km, higher than conventional manned spaceflights) on board the BION-M1 satellite (Roskosmos Program, Russia). For the present study, thymus, spleens and plasma samples were collected from mice 12 h after landing and, additionally, 7 days subsequently. Assessing the activity of NF-kappaB signaling cascade by measuring Rel A (p65) protein phosphorylation in splenic lymphocytes, we showed that the NF-kappaB activity was significantly increased at 12 h after landing. Contrariwise, one week after landing, the NF-kappaB activity was markedly decreased, even below to the control values. Interestingly, after landing there were no significant changes in SAPK/JNK cascade activity in splenic lymphocytes as well as in the expression of transcription factor IRF3 in thymus cells. To assess the apoptosis status in thymus lymphocytes, levels of p53 protein and its phosphorylated form were measured in thymic lymphocytes. It is known that p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage, genomic aberrations, and other characteristic of apoptosis. The results showed that the high-orbit spaceflight environment caused some increase in level of p53 protein, but most notably, activated phosphorylated form of p53 protein. Calculated ratio of active and inactive forms of the protein (ph-p53/p53) 12 h after landing increased by more than 2-fold, indicating the apparent induction of apoptosis in thymus cells. Interestingly, 7 days after the landing, this ratio was not restored, but rather increased: the specified ratio was 4 times higher as compared to the ground-based control. We can conclude that response to the prolonged high-orbit spaceflight is not like the classic "stress response", which is usually observed under various stressful factors. It is known that the stress response is surely accompanied by increased SAPK/JNK cascade activity as well as the expression of the IRF3; in fact, we did not observed any changes in the SAPK/JNK phosphorylation or in the IRF3 production. Furthermore, stressful factors usually result in the fast, but reversible, thymus involution. But our measurements showed that the thymus depletion at 7th day after landing was expressed even more than 12 h after the spaceflight. This is consistent with the results of the level of apoptosis in thymus cells; indeed, the apoptosis in thymus lymphocytes 7 days after was higher than 12 h after landing. Collectively, these results indicate that the changes of immune cell homeostasis may be a result of exposure to damaging factors of not very high intensity. In any case, similar effects are caused, to our knowledge, by low doses of ionizing radiation. As spaceflight is not accompanied only with the gravitational changes, but also with other factors, such as radiation, it is possible that immune disbalance after spaceflight was caused by a combined action of several factors. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 12-04-00113-a.The authors express their gratitude to unified team involved in preparation and implementation of the spaceflight of BION-M #1.

Novoselova, Elena; Shenkman, Boris; Lunin, Sergey; Parfenyuk, Svetlana; Novoselova, Tatyana; Fesenko, Eugeny

347

Satellite Home Tutorials vs. Satellite Classroom Tutorials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, students who registered for a course at the Open University of Israel could choose the tutorial method they preferred: group face-to-face tutorials with a local tutor in their residential vicinity; tutorials via satellite broadcasting to groups of students around the country; or getting the same satellite tutorial at home on the…

Beyth-Marom, Ruth; Yafe, Edna; Privman, Meira; Harpaz, Hamutal Razy

348

Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

Stevens, N. J.

1974-01-01

349

Pineal concretions in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a result of collagen-mediated calcification.  

PubMed

The intra-pineal calcification is a well-known phenomenon in mammals, however it is almost completely unknown in birds. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphology and genesis of the pineal concretions in the turkey. The studies were performed on the pineals collected from one-year-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). In addition to standard morphological methods, the alizarin red S and potassium pyroantimonate methods were employed for localization of calcium at the light and electron microscopy level. In light microscopy, calcified concretions with diameters from 300 microm to 2 mm and quantities from 3 to 6 per gland were observed in all the examined pineals. They were stained red with alizarin S and showed the presence of collagen in Mallory's staining. Two types of cells were noted inside the concretion: polygonal and elongated ones. Using electron microscopy, three parts were distinguished within the calcification area. The peripheral part contained densely packed collagen fibrils, some elongated cells and numerous pyroantimonate precipitates demonstrating the presence of calcium ions. In the intermediate part, the fibrils were covered by almost continuous sheets of pyroantimonate precipitates and fused side by side. The central part showed an appearance of calcified hard tissue and contained some polygonal (osteocyte-like) cells. The obtained data demonstrated that the formation of the pineal concretions in the turkey is associated with the mineralization of collagen. This process is completely different from the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the concretions in the mammalian pineal. PMID:19224443

Przybylska-Gornowicz, B; Lewczuk, B; Prusik, M; Bulc, M

2009-04-01

350

Stereo Measurements from Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers in this presentation include: 1) 'Stereographic Observations from Geosynchronous Satellites: An Important New Tool for the Atmospheric Sciences'; 2) 'Thunderstorm Cloud Top Ascent Rates Determined from Stereoscopic Satellite Observations'; 3) 'Artificial Stereo Presentation of Meteorological Data Fields'.

Adler, R.

1982-01-01

351

Radar Calibration Test Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A satellite has been designed for application to radar calibration. Electromagnetic and mechanical characteristics of the satellite and their influence on the selection of shape and other parameters are discussed. Theoretical and experimental scattering data are included.

L. J. Kaplan; J. F. A. Ormsby; EVERT N. FOWLE; KENT R. JOHNSON; Richard T. Bates; S. H. Bickel

1969-01-01

352

Hurricane Katrina Satellite Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides access to a good number of satellite images of Hurricane Katrina taken by polar orbiting and geostationary satellites operated by NOAA. High resolution images are available on the site.

National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service

353

Solar power satellite, system definition study. Part 2, volume 3: SPS satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differences in approach to solar energy conversion by solar cells and thermal engine systems are examined. Systems requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS) are given along with a description of the primary subsystems. Trades leading to exact configuration selection, for example, selection of the Rankine cycle operating temperatures are explained, and two satellite configurations are discussed.

1977-01-01

354

To nest successfully, female Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) rely on endogenous  

E-print Network

To nest successfully, female Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) rely on endogenous energy reserves of their expanded range, information on Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo mer- riami) is lacking, specifically

355

Evaluation of a method for surgically implanting radiotransmitters in Rio Grande turkey poults.  

E-print Network

??Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) poult survival is fundamental to understanding wild turkey populations. However, current technology only allows managers to measure survival through the first… (more)

McKenzie, Stephanie Lynn

2007-01-01

356

Microbiological and nutritional aspects of pendulous crop in turkey poults  

E-print Network

infection in a group of turkeys. Hinshaw (1933) was able to transmit the thrush like Infections to turkeys, chickens,, and rabbits. Wickerham and Rettger (1939) iden? tified the causative organism as Monllia albicans (Candida albicans). Jordon (1953...) reported that Candida albicans was frequently present in the Intestinal tract of birds. Ainsworth and Austwick (1955) reported Isolating the following organisms from turkeys; Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumlgatus, Candida albicans, Candida Krusei...

Wheeler, Harry Ogden

2013-10-04

357

Dietary Butylated Hydroxytoluene Protects against Aflatoxicosis in Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkeys are among the most sensitive species to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In mammals, dietary antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), have been shown to lessen the toxic effects of AFB1 by various mechanisms. To test whether BHT protects against aflatoxicosis in turkeys, we supplemented the feed of 10-day-old male white turkeys with low (1000

Patrick J. Klein; Terry R. Van Vleet; Jeffery O. Hall; Roger A. Coulombe

2002-01-01

358

India's earth resources satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Satellite for Earth Observation (SEO), the second Indian satellite launched by the USSR in February 1979, for studying cultivated land, forests, rivers, snow and wetland in coastal areas is described. Consideration is given to its design and to two slow-scan TV cameras and a passive microwave radiometer, forming the main payload of SEO. The satellite is a 26 faceted

H. P. Mama

1979-01-01

359

Role of intestinal microflora in the immunopotentiation of gut associated lymphoid tissue in turkeys  

E-print Network

, and 3) untreated controls. For antibiotic treatment, fert1le turkey eggs were d1pped in gentami- c1n solution (500 ppm) pr1or to incubat1on, poults were injected with gentamicin at hatching (1. 0 mg per poult) and fed a diet containing...A cells predominated in the small intestines and IgM cells in the large intestines. The small intestines generally had lower numbers of IgG positive cells. Although effects of antibiotic treatments wer e subtle and lacked consistency, they generally...

Cook, Jeanne Marie

2012-06-07

360

Initial evaluation tests of Eagle-Picher Industries 9.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the heat capacity mapping mission satellite and the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of tests to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality are reported. The tests consisted of the following: phenolptalein leak tests, internal short test, charge efficiency test, and overcharge tests. The results of tests for 10 cells are tabulated.

Harkness, J. D.

1978-01-01

361

Serum proteins of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura).  

PubMed

We separated and identified the major serum proteins of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura): albumin, HDL, LDL, IgG and M, transferrin, alpha 2M and putatively, IgA, ceruloplasmin and fibronectin. Turkey vulture HDL and LDL had similar electrophorectic mobility and solution properties as those from gallinaceous birds. Turkey vulture IgG and M, and their subunits, had molecular weights comparable to other birds. Serum IgG and M levels in wild turkey vultures were within the range of values reported for domestic avian species. PMID:6661906

Apanius, V; Temple, S A; Bale, M

1983-01-01

362

Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

Hubbard, M. W.; Garner, D. L.; Klaas, E. E.

1999-01-01

363

Pharmacokinetics of orally administered simvastatin in turkeys.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin (SIM) administered orally in 6-week-old turkeys at a single dose of 2 mg/kg b.w. The SIM concentrations in plasma were determined by validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Mean (+/- SD; n = 10) values of pharmacokinetic parameters evaluated were as follows: Cmax = 0.49 +/- 0.21 ng/ml, t(max) = 1.6 +/- 1.1 h, AUC(0-infinity) = 1.08 +/- 0.57 h x ng/ml, t1/2kel = 2.14 +/-1.3 h and MRT = 3.08 +/- 1.52 h. The results indicate that the SIM is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys; however, achieved plasma level is lower compared to those observed in mammals. PMID:23971207

Jasiecka, A; Grabowski, T; Ma?lanka, T; Zió?kowski, H; Jaroszewski, J J

2013-01-01

364

The GLOMR satellite payload G-308  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Low Orbiting Message Relay (GLOMR) Satellite and its participation in the pioneering development of a Get Away Special (GAS) satellite launch capability is described. The GLOMR is a data relay communication satellite. Experiment objectives are to demonstrate the store-forward relay of data/messages and the communication to ground user equipment. The 150 pound brass satellite, powered by lead acid batteries and solar cells, includes processing, control and radio frequency electronics for data message handling and storage. The GLOMR is mounted through a Marman clamp ejection/retention pedestal to a five cubic foot GAS canister bottom plate. The GAS canister includes a Full Diameter Motorized Door Assembly lid which is opened remotely by astronauts for satellite launch.

1986-01-01

365

Satellite Feature Identification: Cyclogenesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, Satellite Feature Identification: Cyclogenesis, uses water vapor satellite imagery to present a satellite perspective of basic features associated with the formation and development of extratropical cyclones. First, through an initial case study, the precursor elements leading to cyclogenesis are identified. Then three conceptual views of different ways cyclogenesis can evolve are presented along with additional examples to illustrate the concepts. Finally a series of exercises, again using real case studies, are used to emphasize the important points and provide realistic scenarios describing some of the many ways cyclogenesis reveals itself on satellite imagery. This module is part of the series: 'Dynamic Feature Identification: The Satellite Palette'.

Comet

2012-08-17

366

Digital satellite communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of satellite communications in point-to-multipoint transmission of data is studied. The theory, systems, and equipment for satellite communications are described. The topics of satellite orbits, satellite construction, earth station equipment, and the analysis of the satellite link are discussed. Different types of digital modulation for carrier transmission, and techniques for enhancing the transmission capacity, such as digital speech interpolation and demand assignment, are examined. Techniques and equipment for performing the multiple access-broadcasting functions including FDMA, TDMA, DAMA, CDMA, and random access are considered.

Ha, T. T.

1986-06-01

367

Weather Satellite and Orbits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, online module, students learn about satellite orbits (geostationary and polar), remote-sensing satellite instruments (radiometers and sounders), satellite images, and the math and physics behind satellite technology. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

368

ABC of Satellites for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the basic concepts and elements of satellite and telecommunications satellites. Identifies the advantages of using the unique characteristics of telecommunications satellites in education. Lists cautions of using telecommunications satellite systems to deliver educational programs. (Author/AEF)

Wang, Shousan

1995-01-01

369

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.

1985-01-01

370

Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

Rus, David, L.; Soenksen, Philip, J.

1998-01-01

371

Trend analysis of streamflow in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents trends computed for the 31-year period of monthly streamflows obtained from 26 basins over Turkey. Four non-parametric trend tests (the Sen's T, the Spearman's Rho, the Mann-Kendall, and the Seasonal Kendall which are known as appropriate tools in detecting linear trends of a hydrological time series) are adapted in this study. Moreover, the Van Belle and Hughes’

Ercan Kahya; Serdar Kalayc?

2004-01-01

372

Pollen morphology of Agropyron Gaertner in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen morphology of Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertner. s.s. (subsp. incanum (Náb?lek) Melderis and subsp. pectinatum (M. Bieb.) Tzvelev, latter including var. pectinatum and var. imbricatum (Roemer & Schultes) G. Beck) in Turkey has been studied by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The above-mentioned taxa are homogenous in both aperture type and exine ornamentation. Pollen grains are monoporate (rarely

Hülya Özler; Evren Cabi; Ebru Us; Musa Do?an; Sevil Pehlivan

2009-01-01

373

The Turkey Maiden Educational Computer Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

An educational computer game project underway in the Digital Media department of the University of Central Florida is the subject of this article. It is based on a folktale called “The Turkey Maiden,” collected in Ybor City, Florida, in the 1930s. A game mod (user-created addition and modification to an existing commercial off-the-shelf computer game) has been created that integrates

Natalie M. Underberg

2008-01-01

374

Contemporary surface wind climatology of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to examine the climatological characteristics of boundary layer gradient winds in Turkey in detail. In the study, monthly average wind speed ( V m) data measured at 267 stations for the 16 directions, prevailing wind direction ( V p), and station pressure ( P s) data measured at 174 stations during the period 1970-2008 by the Turkish Meteorological Service (TMS) were used. The data were provided by the TMS. To attain the aim of the study, wind patterns of midseason months representing the seasonal wind distributions were used, and surface wind formations were examined through calculation of divergent and rotational components of the average wind rate. Besides, it was aimed at explaining the relationships between sea level pressure (SLP) patterns and wind formations. The patterns of midseason months were examined via the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In accordance with V m data, it is seen that air flows in Turkey generally tend to orientate radially from west to east. Climatologically, the strongest prevailing winds in Turkey blow during the summer months, while the weakest winds blow during the autumn months. V m and V p distributions show a parallelism (i.e., wind gradient) in the months during which temperature differences between land and sea are high due to the differences in their specific heat values. The distributions of V m and V p values vary considerably in spring and autumn months during which temperature differences are relatively lower. According to the PCA results, the first two components represent the strong wind areas in Turkey. These components presumably explain the existence of coherent wind formation areas, which display different characteristics due to regional physical geographical factors and processes (e.g., orography, altitude, exposure, land-sea distribution, surface mechanical and thermodynamic modifications of the air masses and air flows, etc.) in addition to the direct effect of different synoptic-scale pressure and circulation conditions.

Sahin, Sinan; Türke?, Murat

2013-07-01

375

Seismicity and the Crustal Structure in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkey and adjacent areas which is located in the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt suffer from active seismicity for many years. The number of recorded earthquakes in the area increase day by day with the improvement of the seismic networks operated in the area. A well defined crustal (velocity-depth) model is one of the most important parameters in the process and the location of earthquake data. Three largest networks of Turkey are operated by Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) and TÜB?TAK Marmara Research Center (MRC). In this study an integrated homogeneous earthquake catalogue is obtained by combining the catalogues of these three agencies operating seismic networks in Turkey. Approximately 120.000 earthquakes in five years between 2008 and 2013 recorded by more than 400 broadband stations, belonging to the networks of KOERI, AFAD and MRC in the area are combined and relocated. Integrated homogeneous earthquake catalogue obtained in the frame of this study from the combination of three different catalogues are used not only for a better understanding and interpretation of the active tectonics and seismicity in the area, but also for obtaining the regional one dimensional (1-D) P and S wave velocity-depth models on a variety of different regional crustal structures in Turkey. Determination of the detailed crustal structure on different lithospheric fragments and the relocation of earthquakes by using these new models will improve the knowledge on the seismicity and the distribution of earthquake clusters together with a better understanding of the correlation of these earthquake locations with the existing active faults. The results of the study will also serve as an input for later studies for the determination of three dimensional (3-D) Vp and Vp/Vs models in the area.

Cambaz, Didem

2014-05-01

376

Nephrology, dialysis and transplantation in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment of the Turkish Society of Nephrology (TSN) in 1970 coincided with that of many western European nephrology societies. The TSN organized the 15th ERA-EDTA Congress in Istanbul in 1978, earlier than many European Countries, and currently has 286 active members. At present, Turkey has 161 nephrologists, which equals 2.5 nephrologists per million population (p.m.p.). The number of original

Ekrem Erek; G ultekin Suleymanlar; Kamil Serdengecti

377

Survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of chick survival rates is required to develop species-specific habitat-survival relationships. We determined pre-flight daily survival of Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) chicks from hatching to time of tree roost at four sites in southwestern Kansas and the Texas Rolling Plains, May-August, 2000 and 2001. One-hundred twenty-three chicks from 39 broods were equipped with cyanoacrylate-attached transmitters. The

Brian L. Spears; Warren B. Ballard; Mark C. Wallace; Richard S. Phillips; Derrick P. Holdstock; John H. Brunjes; Roger D. Applegate; Michael S. Miller; Philip S. Gipson

378

Predisposing factors in childhood masturbation in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this prospective, referral-based study was to assess demographical and developmental features associated with\\u000a childhood masturbation in Turkey. A total of 61 children with childhood masturbation who were referred for the first time\\u000a to the Department of Child Psychiatry were examined from demographical, psychosocial and medical aspects and compared with\\u000a two control groups consisting of 61 age and

Fatih Unal

2000-01-01

379

Turkey coronavirus polymerase gene and genome transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is a group 3 coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae. However, little is known about TCoV genome and genome transcription. The objectives of this study were to investigate polymerase gene and genome transcription of TCoV. ^ Sequences of polymerase gene and full-length genome of TCoV were completed for isolates 540 and ATCC. The genome contains 27749 nucleotides (nt)

Jianzhong Cao

2007-01-01

380

Build It Yourself: Satellite!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Build It Yourself: Satellite!" is an online Flash game hosted on the James Webb Space Telescope website. The goal of the game is to explain the decision-making process of satellite design. The user can choose to build a "small," "medium," or "large" astronomy satellite. The user then selects science goals, wavelength, instruments, and optics. The satellite is then launched on the appropriate rocket (shown via an animation). Finally, the user is shown what their satellite might look like, as well as what kind of data it might collect, via examples from similar real-life satellites. Satellites range from small X-ray missions without optics (like the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) to large missions with segmented mirrors (like the James Webb Space Telescope).

381

Determination of air quality zones in Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, the particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter <10 microm; PM10) profile of Turkey with data from the air quality monitoring stations located throughout the country was used. The number of stations (119) was reduced to 55 after a missing data treatment for statistical analyses. First, a classification method was developed based on ongoing national and international (European Commission directives) legislations to categorize air zones into six groups, from a "Very Clear Air Zone" to a "Polluted Air Zone". Then, a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based interpolation technique and statistical analyses (correlation analysis and factor analysis) were used to generate PM10 pollution profiles of the annual heating time and nonheating time periods. Finally, the coherent air pollution management zones of Turkey, based on air quality criteria and measured data using a GIS-based model supported by statistical analyses, were suggested. Based on the analysis, four hot spots were identified: (i) the eastern part of the Black Sea region; (ii) the northeastern part of inland Anatolia; (iii) the western part of Northeastern Anatolia; and (vi) the eastern part of Turkey. The possible reasons for the elevated PM10 levels are discussed using topographic, climatologic, land use, and energy utilization parameters. Finally, the suggested air zones were compared with the administrative air zones, which were newly developed by the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry, to evaluate the level of agreement between the two. PMID:22616283

Karaca, Ferhat

2012-04-01

382

History of forensic medicine in Turkey.  

PubMed

Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaro?lu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library. PMID:19152790

Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

2009-05-01

383

Survey: National Environmental Satellite Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The national Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) receives data at periodic intervals from satellites of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series and from the Improved TIROS (Television Infrared Observational Satellite) Operational Satellite. Within the conterminous United States, direct readout and processed products are distributed to users over facsimile networks from a central processing and data distribution facility. In addition, the NESS Satellite Field Stations analyze, interpret, and distribute processed geostationary satellite products to regional weather service activities.

1977-01-01

384

Dimensioning of Aeronautical Satellite Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will provide a generalised baseline for a systematic AirCom design process and address in particular the dimensioning of satellite systems for aeronautical services. These services will roll out soon in medium- and long-haul aircraft. The offered services will range from low rate telephony, internet access, and streaming applications for video and audio. The aggregate bit rates on up- and downlink will certainly be statistically time-dependent and asymmetric in forward and backward direction. A tool will be described that is able to model this traffic. Furthermore the dimensioning of satellite constellations can be done. Due to the stochastic nature of the traffic, multi-service models for the traffic generation of different services will be described. Furthermore, the traffic will be affected by the available bit rate and shaping or blocking will equalize the peak loads. If fleets with many aircraft are considered, aeronautical traffic models must be based on actual aircraft routes, flight schedules, location and time of day, as well as seats per aircraft and type of aircraft (charter, business etc.). The regionally distributed traffic has to be served by several satellites and appropriate sharing of the serving satellites may spread the traffic in hot zones and yield a better load distribution. When aeronautical services will spread out, the capacity demand will grow quickly and the capacity of existing Ku-band GEO satellites will soon be exceeded. Changing to higher frequency bands will provide large spectrum portions and smaller spotbeams will allow better frequency reuse. Even constellations with non-geostationary satellites could be re-advent to serve better the higher latitude regions. Then, another mobility component for the fast changing satellite topology need to be addressed, and routing issues of the traffic must be considered. The paper will describe solutions for the mapping of satellites and traffic demand as well as routing algorithms. Numerical values will show the capabilities of the developed tool by calculating the performance of some selected scenarios. The paper will also address wireless cabin services (cell phones and W-LAN access for laptops) of the WirelessCabin project.

Holzbock, M.; Jahn, A.; Werner, M.

2002-01-01

385

Skeletal muscle stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem

Jennifer CJ Chen; David J Goldhamer

2003-01-01

386

Handover Policies in LEO Systems with Satellite Diversity E. Papapetrou, S. Karapantazis, F.-N. Pavlidou  

E-print Network

and satellite components (i.e. UMTS, IMT2000). Regarding real-time and interactive services, Low Earth Orbit and the satellite handover. The former refers to the transfer of an ongoing call from one cell to the next one in the same satellite footprint while the latter describes the transfer of an ongoing call from a satellite

Papapetrou, Evaggelos

387

Islamic terrorist activities in turkey in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on Islamic terrorism in the framework of overall Islamic activity in Turkey. It argues that Islamic terrorist organizations active in Turkey during the 1990s strived to establish an Islamic shari ’a?based state on the Iranian example, profited from deeper social and political trends in Turkish society and, at the same time, strengthened those trends by their violence.

Ely Karmon

1998-01-01

388

Islamic activism in Turkey since the 1980 military takeover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the nature and strength of the Islamic movement in contemporary Turkey. It argues that the policies of the military and civilian governments, in attempting to establish a strong ideological base that could challenge the left, allowed and even promoted the activities of Turkey's Islamic organizations. Indeed, these counter?balancing efforts backfired as the Islamic movement rejected the national

Anat Lapidot

1996-01-01

389

Literacy in Turkey with Special Reference to Women's State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Turkey today, 93% of all persons between the ages of 6 and 15 attend school, and 89.7% of males and 71.1.% of females over the age of 15 are literate. Turkey's largest adult education programs are public, free, and offered both within and outside the formal educational system by governmental bodies, national institutions, and voluntary…

Ulusavas, Mualla

390

Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

Sanal, Mustafa

2008-01-01

391

Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples

Ozgur Dogan Uluozlu; Mustafa Tuzen; Durali Mendil; Mustafa Soylak

2009-01-01

392

Managing dental caries in children in Turkey - a discussion paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper describes the oral healthcare system and disease situation amongst children in Turkey. Considering the high prevalence and severity of dental caries, a proposal for improvement of oral health in this population group is formulated. DISCUSSION: A virtual absence of palliative, preventive and restorative care characterises juvenile oral healthcare in Turkey. Consequently, carious cavities remain untreated, which may

Asli Topaloglu-Ak; Ece Eden; J. E. F. M. Frencken

2009-01-01

393

Identification of the second form of acrosin in Turkey spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Acrosin from turkey spermatozoa has been recently identified and characterized. In this study, we reported the identification of second form of acrosin (acrosin II) in turkey spermatozoa. Using the three-step isolation procedure, we purified and characterized the acrosin II from a turkey spermatozoa extract. N-terminal Edman sequencing allowed the identification of the 24 amino acids from the internal part of acrosin II: SLQEYVEPYRVLQEAKVQLIDLNL. Thanks to homology alignment, we concluded that acrosin II is an acrosin-like protein similar to avian acrosin, including turkey acrosin. The molecular mass of acrosin II estimated by mass spectrometry was 30.869 kDa. During chromatofocusing, the acrosin II was eluted at pH range from 6.4 to 6.2. Acrosin II was found to be a glycoprotein. The glucosamine and galactosamine were present in carbohydrate structures of acrosin II. Acrosin II is characterized by similar physicochemical characteristics like previously identified bird acrosins, including acrosin from turkey spermatozoa. Similarities between turkey acrosins were also confirmed immunologically by western blot analysis. It can be suggested that two forms of serine proteinase similar to acrosin exist in turkey spermatozoa. These phenomena of both acrosins in spermatozoa agree with the concept of functional redundancy of proteolytic enzymes in the reproductive system. These redundancies may be important for efficient fertilization in turkey. PMID:22268795

S?owi?ska, M; Ciereszko, A

2012-10-01

394

The Republican People's Party and Turkey's EU Membership  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the founder of the Turkish secular state, the Republican People's Party (CHP) has defended the Westernisation of Turkish society, supported Turkey's acceptance to the EU as a full member, and played crucial roles in Turkey–EU relations. Nevertheless, the CHP's language towards the EU started to sound critical during the 2000s. This study argues that the CHP's seeming scepticism towards

Ödül Celep

2011-01-01

395

The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

Cekerol, Kamil

2012-01-01

396

International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

2012-01-01

397

Accreditation Policies of Turkey in Primary and Secondary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turkey's quality of education is being improved in order to become a member of EU (European Union), and Turkey is following the EU's system of educational policies. In the field of education, to encourage teaching and learning, accreditation process is used. It helps programs improve and be accountable for their quality. Accreditation provides…

Furuzan, Verda Gizem

2012-01-01

398

Republic of Turkey, State Institute of Statistics (SIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State Institute of Statistics (SIS) produces, collects, and compiles national social, economic, cultural, and demographic data for the Republic of Turkey. The SIS, a division of the Prime Ministry, provides the latest figures, indicators, and statistical reports on Turkey published by the Turkish government and other international statistical agencies.

1999-01-01

399

Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

2013-01-01

400

Victims of Sex Trafficking in Turkey: Characteristics, Motivations, and Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging transnational crime problem, human trafficking occurs in almost every part of the world. But as a transit, source, and destination nexus for immigration, Turkey is particularly vulnerable in this regard. Turkey attracts many foreigners who choose to come there for geographical, historical, economic, and political reasons; some of these persons are victims of human trafficking. This article examines

Oguzhan Omer Demir; James O. Finckenauer

2010-01-01

401

The Necessity of Nuclear-Based Energy Production for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Turkey has abundant conventional energy sources, except for lignite and hydro energies, these sources are not enough for meeting increasing energy demand. Large portions of energy demands are met by energy sources imported from other countries, and foreign dependence on energy increases every year. Energy projections show that Turkey will have to import 76.5% of the energy that it

T. Uslu

2010-01-01

402

Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

2011-01-01

403

Nuclear Energy in Turkey, Do We Need It Indeed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main events happened in 2007’s forced Turkey to reconsider of nuclear power plant building which has been postponed in several occasions. On the one hand Turkey aware that energy dependency to another states causing the negative effects to its developing economy, on the other hand she should take into consideration the threat coming by the Iran’s ongoing nuclear program.

Serdar Erdurmaz

2012-01-01

404

Total quality management and ISO 9000 applications in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature includes many success and failure stories of the firms adopting total quality management (TQM). As many firms in Turkey try to adopt this philosophy, there is a need to clarify quality concepts and comment on applications. This paper attempts a broad review of the current status of TQM and ISO 9000 in Turkey. It considers the extent to

Ahmet Beskese; Ufuk Cebeci

2001-01-01

405

On the Link between Dollarisation and Inflation: Evidence from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the role of dollarisation in the dynamics of inflation in Turkey. Descriptive analysis suggests that, in addition to high inflation and economic instability, institutional factors also played an important role in the evolution of dollarisation in Turkey. The empirical findings corroborate the importance of dollarisation in the dynamics of inflation. The results suggest that shocks to dollarisation

Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee; Ilker Domaç

2003-01-01

406

Exacerbation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in Turkeys by rhinotracheitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groups of 1?day?old turkey poults from a parent flock free of antibodies to turkey rhinotracheitis virus (TRTV) and the pathogenic mycoplasmas, were infected by eyedrop with virulent TRTV, with Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) or with both agents together. Dual infection resulted in increased morbidity compared with those groups given single infections. The presence of the Mg in the dual infection had

C. J. Naylor; J. M. Bradbury; R. C. Jones

1992-01-01

407

Climate Change And Agriculture In Turkey: A Cge Modeling Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture remains an important source of income and employment in Turkey. Agricultural production is heavily dependent on water availability for increasing productivity and decreasing volatility in production. Half of the crop production in Turkey relies on irrigation. Irrigated agriculture currently consumes about 75 percent of total water consumption which is about 30 percent of renewable water availability. However climate change

Erol H. Cakmak; Hasan Dudu; Sirin Saracoglu

2009-01-01

408

Microsatellite Loci for Genetic Mapping in the Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New microsatellite loci for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) were developed from two small insert DNA libraries. Polymorphism at these new loci was examined in domestic birds and two resource populations designed for genetic linkage mapping. The majority of loci (152 of 168) was polymorphic in domestic turkeys and informative in two mapping resource populations and thus will be useful for

K. M. Reed; L. D. Chaves; M. K. Hall; T. P. Knutson; J. A. Rowe; A. J. Torgerson

2003-01-01

409

Comparative gait analysis of two strains of turkey, meleagris gallopavo  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Economic requirements have encouraged farmers to select broad?breasted strains of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). These birds are very heavy (more than 30 kg), have pectoral hypertrophy and are frequently lame. Traditional turkeys, closer to wild birds, weigh 9 kg on average.2. Gaits, which are motor pattern expressions, seem to be linked to species morphology. However, no significant differences are evident

A. Abourachid

1991-01-01

410

Tips on Studying Abroad at Bilkent University in Turkey  

E-print Network

Tips on Studying Abroad at Bilkent University in Turkey Want to know what it's like to study abroad-hand experience of living in Turkey as a college student. How- ever, the university was not representative? Want to know what your peers think? Your fellow Georgia Tech students who have previously gone

Li, Mo

411

Subclinical Infections with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Turkey  

PubMed Central

To investigate Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Turkey, we conducted a seroepidemiologic survey during January–April 2009. Seroprevalence of infection was 10% in a sample from an outbreak region and increased with patient age, indicating that the virus had been previously present in Turkey. We also estimated that 88% of infections were subclinical. PMID:22469474

Akinci, Esragul; Ascioglu, Sibel; Onguru, Pinar; Uyar, Yavuz

2012-01-01

412

Histomorphometrical Study of Infundibulum and Magnum in Turkey and Pigeon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was carried out to define the morphological features of infundibulum and magnum in turkey and pigeon. For this purpose, a total of 10 adult healthy turkey (No=5) and pigeon (No= 5) were used. After dissecting, infundibulum and magnum of each specimen was separated by incision and fixed in 10 % buffered formalin. For histological studies, after tissue preparation

A. A. Mohammadpour; M. Keshtmandi

2008-01-01

413

Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey) Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altunok V., E. Yazar, N. Yuksek: Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey) Cats. Acta Vet Brno 2007, 76: 171-177. The Turkish Van cat originates from eastern Turkey. One of the characteristic features of Van cats is the colour of their eyes, which can be both eyes blue, both eyes amber or one eye blue and the other amber. Serum

V. Altunok; E. Yazar; N. Yuksek

2007-01-01

414

Wind energy status in electrical energy production of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal (lignite, natural gas, coal, fuel oil, etc.) and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable

Önder Güler

2009-01-01

415

Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the

Kamil Kaygusuz

2010-01-01

416

An IPE back-end study for Turkey Point plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of Turkey Point plant's large dry containment as part of a response to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's individual plant examination Generic Letter 88-20. Two unique features of Turkey Point containment are discussed. This study includes an evaluation of the containment response to the physical processes occurring during an accident and probabilistic analysis of the

C. Guey; J. Kabadi

1991-01-01

417

78 FR 45502 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations...Shane Subler at (202) 482-0189 (Turkey), AD/CVD Operations, Import Administration...OCTG'') from India and the Republic of Turkey (``Turkey''), filed in proper...

2013-07-29

418

DISEASES DIAGNOSED IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic findings are presented on 139 sick or dead wild turkeys examined during the period 1972 through 1984. Turkeys originated from eight southeastern states (Alabama, Ar- kansas, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia) and included 31 turkeys categorized as capture-related mortalities and 108 turkeys categorized as natural mortal- ities. Frequent diagnoses (? 10% of case accessions) in the

William R. Davidson; Victor F. Nettles; C. Edward Couvillion; Elizabeth W. Howerth

419

Importance and Necessity for the Utilization of Nuclear Energy in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article expresses both importance and necessity for utilization nuclear energy in Turkey. Turkey's flirtation with nuclear power began in July 1955, when it signed a bilateral agreement with the USA to cooperate in the “peaceful uses of nuclear energy.” Turkey is a net energy importer because it is not rich in energy resources. Today Turkey is producing 24.4 Mteo

A. M. Kiliç

2008-01-01

420

Satellites Orbiting Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, there has been a push to better understand how Earth works as a system- how land, oceans, air, and life all interact. Satellites in orbit around Earth are a fast and efficient way of gathering remotely sensed data about the planet as a whole. This animated video shows the orbital paths of the satellites in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS), a collection of satellites that work together to study Earth on a wide scale.

421

Modeling and forecasting of Turkey’s energy consumption using socio-economic and demographic variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the modeling of the energy consumption in Turkey in order to forecast future projections based on socio-economic and demographic variables (gross domestic product-GDP, population, import and export amounts, and employment) using artificial neural network (ANN) and regression analyses. For this purpose, four diverse models including different indicators were used in the analyses. As the result of

Murat Kankal; Adem Akp?nar; Murat ?hsan Kömürcü; Talat ?ükrü Öz?ahin

2011-01-01

422

Turkey Flat Site Effects Test Area The Turkey-Flat strong motion "blind"  

E-print Network

and Jiri Zahradnik, Charles University, Prague Phase II: D3 predictions (required synthetics: R2,V1,V2,D1,D observed basin recordings of and compare with predictions Charles R. Real and Anthony F. Shakal California Tuned........ www.quake.ca.gov/Parkfield_2004 Geologic Structure D3 D2 D1 R1 V1 V2 R2 Turkey Flat

Oprsal, Ivo

423

Satellite communication antenna technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

Mittra, R. (editor); Imbriale, W. A. (editor); Maanders, E. J. (editor)

1983-01-01

424

How Satellites See  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson allows students to compare and contrast three NASA satellites: The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The lesson includes access to data and images from these three NASA astronomy satellites, contrasting the way the sky appears in three very different electromagnetic wavelengths or colors of light. Other satellite information is included, but the focus is a simple introduction to the electromagnetic spectrum as used by the three space observatories. While participating in this activity, students will compare physical parts and orbits of each satellite and participate in hands-on experiments to begin to understand visible, infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths.

425

Retrospective study of turkey viral hepatitis in California turkey flocks, 2000-2012.  

PubMed

Turkey viral hepatitis (TVH) is a disease characterized by an inflammation of the liver, and occasionally of the pancreas, of turkeys. Little is known about the occurrence of TVH in turkey flocks; thus, the aim of the present article is to summarize retrospectively 76 cases of TVH diagnosed at the California Animal Health and Food Safety System (CAHFS), University of California, Davis, in the years 2000 through 2012. Flocks diagnosed with TVH were between 7 and 61 days old, with an average age of 29.4 days and a median age of 28 days. In the majority of cases, increased mortality was reported. In 55 cases, gross lesions were present in the liver; the most common lesions were a few to numerous pale white foci in 35 cases. In livers of 74 cases, histologic lesions were observed. Multifocal necrosis with inflammation was observed in livers of 42 cases, inflammation but no necrosis in 22 cases, and necrosis without inflammation in 8 cases. In 17 cases, pale white foci were found in the pancreas; in 4 cases, larger areas of the organ were pale. In 33 cases, histologic changes were observed in the pancreas. Necrosis with inflammation was observed in the pancreas of 17 cases, necrosis without inflammation in 7 cases, and inflammation without necrosis in 9 cases. No Salmonella was isolated from any of the livers cultured. Transmission electron microscopy of liver and pancreas demonstrated viral particles between 23 and 25 nm in two cases. Concurrent diseases were mostly poult enteritis (65 cases), but also respiratory diseases and colibacillosis. TVH occurred more often in turkeys during winter months. In conclusion, TVH was observedon a regular basis in California turkey flocks during the last 12 yr. PMID:25055622

Hauck, R; Chin, R P; Sentíes-Cué, G; Charlton, B; Shivaprasad, H L

2014-06-01

426

Hierarchical structures of correlations networks among Turkey’s exports and imports by currencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the hierarchical structures of correlations networks among Turkey’s exports and imports by currencies for the 1996-2010 periods, using the concept of a minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT) which depend on the concept of ultrametricity. These trees are useful tools for understanding and detecting the global structure, taxonomy and hierarchy in financial markets. We derived a hierarchical organization and build the MSTs and HTs during the 1996-2001 and 2002-2010 periods. The reason for studying two different sub-periods, namely 1996-2001 and 2002-2010, is that the Euro (EUR) came into use in 2001, and some countries have made their exports and imports with Turkey via the EUR since 2002, and in order to test various time-windows and observe temporal evolution. We have carried out bootstrap analysis to associate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We have also used the average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) to observe the cluster structure more clearly. Moreover, we have obtained the bidimensional minimal spanning tree (BMST) due to economic trade being a bidimensional problem. From the structural topologies of these trees, we have identified different clusters of currencies according to their proximity and economic ties. Our results show that some currencies are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other currencies. We have also found that the obtained currencies play a key role for Turkey’s exports and imports and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

2012-12-01

427

Response of the Hepatic Transcriptome to Aflatoxin B1 in Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)  

PubMed Central

Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. AFB1 is especially hepatotoxic in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), since these birds are unable to detoxify AFB1 by glutathione-conjugation. The impacts of AFB1 on the turkey hepatic transcriptome and the potential protection from pretreatment with a Lactobacillus-based probiotic mixture were investigated through RNA-sequencing. Animals were divided into four treatment groups and RNA was subsequently recovered from liver samples. Four pooled RNA-seq libraries were sequenced to produce over 322 M reads totaling 13.8 Gb of sequence. Approximately 170,000 predicted transcripts were de novo assembled, of which 803 had significant differential expression in at least one pair-wise comparison between treatment groups. Functional analysis linked many of the transcripts significantly affected by AFB1 exposure to cancer, apoptosis, the cell cycle or lipid regulation. Most notable were transcripts from the genes encoding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2, osteopontin, S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2, and lipoprotein lipase. Expression was modulated by the probiotics, but treatment did not completely mitigate the effects of AFB1. Genes identified through transcriptome analysis provide candidates for further study of AFB1 toxicity and targets for efforts to improve the health of domestic turkeys exposed to AFB1. PMID:24979717

Monson, Melissa S.; Settlage, Robert E.; McMahon, Kevin W.; Mendoza, Kristelle M.; Rawal, Sumit; El-Nezami, Hani S.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

2014-01-01

428

Response of the hepatic transcriptome to aflatoxin B1 in domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).  

PubMed

Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. AFB1 is especially hepatotoxic in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), since these birds are unable to detoxify AFB1 by glutathione-conjugation. The impacts of AFB1 on the turkey hepatic transcriptome and the potential protection from pretreatment with a Lactobacillus-based probiotic mixture were investigated through RNA-sequencing. Animals were divided into four treatment groups and RNA was subsequently recovered from liver samples. Four pooled RNA-seq libraries were sequenced to produce over 322 M reads totaling 13.8 Gb of sequence. Approximately 170,000 predicted transcripts were de novo assembled, of which 803 had significant differential expression in at least one pair-wise comparison between treatment groups. Functional analysis linked many of the transcripts significantly affected by AFB1 exposure to cancer, apoptosis, the