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1

Type-specific changes in fibre size and satellite cell activation following muscle denervation in two strains of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).  

PubMed Central

Morphological features and the chronology of muscle changes after denervation were studied over a 21 d period in 2 heavy (HW) and light-weight (LW) strains of 6-wk-old male turkeys. The atrophy of tibialis cranialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and plantaris muscles was apparent at d 3 after denervation. By d 21 the weight of these muscles had reached 45-60% of that of nondenervated contralateral muscle. Cellular lesions, such as irregularities in mitochondrial distribution or coagulative necrosis with fragmentation and lysis associated with moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, were similar in both strains. Ten days after denervation, immunolabelling of a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expressed during the G1 and S phase of the cell cycle revealed satellite cell activation in denervated muscles. The number of satellite cells activated at d 21 was markedly greater in the HW than LW strain. Morphometric analysis revealed that fast twitch (type II) fibres were atrophied after denervation, whereas slow-twitch (type I) and slow tonic (type III) fibres were hypertrophied from d 10. Hypertrophy occurred more rapidly in the LW than HW strain. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8763485

Bakou, S; Cherel, Y; Gabinaud, B; Guigand, L; Wyers, M

1996-01-01

2

Skeletal muscle satellite cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form of control is to determine which of the many growth factors that can alter satellite cell behavior in vitro are at work in vivo. Little work has been done to determine what controls are at work after a regeneration response has been initiated. It seems likely that, after injury, growth factors are liberated through proteolytic activity and initiate an activation process whereby cells enter into a proliferative phase. After myofibers are formed, it also seems likely that satellite cell behavior is regulated through diffusible factors arising from the fibers rather than continuous control by circulating factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

1994-01-01

3

The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation (25 Gy) on the subsequent in vitro growth of satellite cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of in vivo and in vitro irradiation on subsequent satellite cell growth, in vitro, was investigated to ascertain the ability of a 25 Gy dose to inhibit satellite cell proliferation. Satellite cells were isolated from the left (irradiated) and right (non-irradiated) Pectoralis thoracicus of two-week-old tom turkeys 16 h (n=3) and seven weeks (n=2) after the left Pectoralis thoracicus had been irradiated (25 Gy). Satellite cells isolated from the irradiated and non-irradiated muscles exhibited similar (P>0.10) in vitro proliferation indicating that a population of satellite cells survived an in vivo dose of 25 Gy. In additional experiments, satellite cell cultures derived from tom turkey Pectoralis thoracicus were irradiated (25 Gy) in vitro. The number of satellite cells did not (P>0.05) increase in irradiated cultures for 134 h following irradiation, while satellite cells in non-irradiated cultures proliferated (P<0.05) over this time. At later time periods, satellite cell number increased (P<0.05) in irradiated cultures indicating that a population of satellite cells survived irradiation. The results of these in vitro experiments suggest that a 25 Gy dose of irradiation does not abolish satellite cell divisions in the turkey Pectoralis thoracicus.

Mozdziak, P. E.; Schultz, E.; Cassens, R. G.

1996-01-01

4

Satellite cells: the architects of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

The outstanding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is attributed to the resident muscle stem cell termed satellite cell. Satellite cells are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration as they ultimately provide the myogenic precursors that rebuild damaged muscle tissue. Satellite cells characteristically are a heterogeneous population of stem cells and committed progenitor cells. Delineation of cellular hierarchy and understanding how lineage fate choices are determined within the satellite cell population will be invaluable for the advancement of muscle regenerative therapies. PMID:24439806

Chang, Natasha C; Rudnicki, Michael A

2014-01-01

5

Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and ?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

2014-01-01

6

Solar cells for solar power satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a solar-cell array for a solar power satellite is developed to permit evaluation of its economic feasibility for generating power for delivery to public utilities on earth. Gallium arsenide solar cells were considered but it could not be assured that the world gallium resources could support constructions of two solar power satellites per year. Therefore, for preliminary

H. Oman

1978-01-01

7

Determination of horizontal and vertical distribution of Calabrian pine stands in Turkey using SRTM satellite data and GIS.  

PubMed

Forest areas in Turkey are generally spread on rugged terrain and different elevations. Site factors such as location, elevation from sea level, aspect and slope are effective on an ecosystem's climate, soil characteristics, and hence vegetation. Description of such characteristics will allow for the description of forest ecosystems living on these sites and comparison of such ecosystems to each other. Factors such as elevation, aspect and slope can easily be generated from Digital Elevation Models. In this study, using a digital elevation model obtained from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) satellite data and 1/25,000 scale Forest Information System database, horizontal and vertical distribution of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.), which is spatially the most extensively spread needled tree species in Turkey, (to elevation classes) is determined and the generated results (map, table etc.) are presented. PMID:24558804

Yener, Hakan

2013-09-01

8

Extrinsic regulation of satellite cell specification.  

PubMed

Cellular commitment during vertebrate embryogenesis is controlled by an interplay of intrinsic regulators and morphogenetic signals. These mechanisms recruit a subset of cells in the developing organism to become the ancestors of skeletal muscle. Signals that control progression through the myogenic lineage converge on a battery of hierarchically organized transcription factors which modulate the cells to either remain in a primitive state or allow their commitment and differentiation into skeletal muscle fibers. A small population of cells will retain a largely unspecified state throughout development. Such stem cells, in conjunction with more committed myogenic progenitors, form a heterogeneous population that colonizes adult skeletal muscle as satellite cells. The satellite cell pool is responsible for the remarkable regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. Similar to their counterparts during embryonic development, satellite cells are capable of self-renewal and can give rise to myogenic progeny. Impaired satellite cell homeostasis has been associated with numerous muscular disorders. Due to intense research efforts in the past two decades, the complex biology of muscle stem cells has now revealed some of its secrets and new avenues for the development of therapeutic molecules have emerged. In the present review we focus on the extrinsic mechanisms that control self-renewal, specification and differentiation of satellite cells and their significance for the development of biologic drugs. PMID:20804582

Bentzinger, C Florian; von Maltzahn, Julia; Rudnicki, Michael A

2010-01-01

9

Using Cell Phones From Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past several years, an interest has grown in using commercial telecommunications techniques to supply Telemetry and Command (T&C) services. Recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) has outlined plans to utilize satellite-based telecommunications services to support space operations in space missions over the next several decades. NASA currently obtains the bulk of its telecommunications services for earth-orbiting satellites via the existing government-owned and controlled Space Network (SN) system. This system consists of the constellation of Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS) in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and the associated ground terminals and communications intrastructure. This system is valuable and effective for scientific satellites costing over one million dollars. However, for smaller satellites, this system becomes problematic due to the cost of transponders and support infrastructure. The nominal transponders for using the TDRS cannot be obtained for a cost in dollars, and size, weight, or power that the 3 Corner Satellite project can afford. For these types of nanosatellite missions, alternatives that fit the mission cost and satellite profiles are needed. In particular, low-cost access using existing commercial infrastructure would be useful to mission planners. In particular, the ability to obtain low data rate T&C services would be especially valuable. The nanosatellites generally have low T&C requirements and therefore would benefit from using commercial services that could operate in the 2400 bps - 9600 bps range, especially if contact times longer than the 5 - 10 minute ground station passes could be found.

Horan, Stephen

2000-01-01

10

SIRT1 Synchs Satellite Cell Metabolism with Stem Cell Fate.  

PubMed

Metabolic reprogramming of muscle stem cells modulates myogenic cell fate. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Ryall et al. (2015) show that SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, acts as an epigenetic regulator that connects changes in satellite cell metabolism with changes in the transcriptional machinery toward myogenic commitment. PMID:25658362

Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

2015-02-01

11

Solar cells for solar power satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a solar-cell array for a solar power satellite is developed to permit evaluation of its economic feasibility for generating power for delivery to public utilities on earth. Gallium arsenide solar cells were considered but it could not be assured that the world gallium resources could support constructions of two solar power satellites per year. Therefore, for preliminary design an array blanket made from 5 by 10 cm silicon solar cells, 50 microns thick, and electrostatically bonded between borosilicate glass sheets was adopted. In annealing experiments, a radiated 50 microns thick cell was restored to its initial performance in a 500 C. Solar-cell efficiency effects significantly the solar power satellite mass, which varies from 90,000 metric tons for 20 percent cells to 120,000 metric tons for 12 percent cells. The anticipated cost of delivered power, based on 1977 dollars, varies from 4 cents per kWh with 18 percent cells, to 5 cents per kWh for 12 percent efficient cells.

Oman, H.

1978-01-01

12

Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal  

PubMed Central

Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD. PMID:24977132

Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Atsushi

2014-01-01

13

Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal  

PubMed Central

Adult skeletal muscle possesses extraordinary regeneration capacities. After muscle injury or exercise, large numbers of newly formed muscle fibers are generated within a week as a result of expansion and differentiation of a self-renewing pool of muscle stem cells termed muscle satellite cells. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent and reside beneath the basal lamina of muscle fibers. Upon regeneration, satellite cells are activated, and give rise to daughter myogenic precursor cells. After several rounds of proliferation, these myogenic precursor cells contribute to the formation of new muscle fibers. During cell division, a minor population of myogenic precursor cells returns to quiescent satellite cells as a self-renewal process. Currently, accumulating evidence has revealed the essential roles of satellite cells in muscle regeneration and the regulatory mechanisms, while it still remains to be elucidated how satellite cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how satellite cells are important in aging and diseased muscle. The number of satellite cells is decreased due to the changing niche during ageing, resulting in attenuation of muscle regeneration capacity. Additionally, in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, the loss of satellite cell regenerative capacity and decreased satellite cell number due to continuous needs for satellite cells lead to progressive muscle weakness with chronic degeneration. Thus, it is necessary to replenish muscle satellite cells continuously. This review outlines recent findings regarding satellite cell heterogeneity, asymmetric division and molecular mechanisms in satellite cell self-renewal which is crucial for maintenance of satellite cells as a muscle stem cell pool throughout life. In addition, we discuss roles in the stem cell niche for satellite cell maintenance, as well as related cell therapies for approaching treatment of DMD. PMID:25364710

Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Atsushi

2014-01-01

14

Satellite Cells and the Muscle Stem Cell Niche  

PubMed Central

Adult skeletal muscle in mammals is a stable tissue under normal circumstances but has remarkable ability to repair after injury. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process involving the activation of various cellular and molecular responses. As skeletal muscle stem cells, satellite cells play an indispensible role in this process. The self-renewing proliferation of satellite cells not only maintains the stem cell population but also provides numerous myogenic cells, which proliferate, differentiate, fuse, and lead to new myofiber formation and reconstitution of a functional contractile apparatus. The complex behavior of satellite cells during skeletal muscle regeneration is tightly regulated through the dynamic interplay between intrinsic factors within satellite cells and extrinsic factors constituting the muscle stem cell niche/microenvironment. For the last half century, the advance of molecular biology, cell biology, and genetics has greatly improved our understanding of skeletal muscle biology. Here, we review some recent advances, with focuses on functions of satellite cells and their niche during the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:23303905

Yin, Hang; Price, Feodor

2013-01-01

15

Isolation and cell culture propagation of rotaviruses from turkeys and chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Rotaviruses were detected by electron microscopy in the faeces of turkey poults and broiler chickens with diarrhoea. Apparently symptomless infection was also observed in broilers. The avian rotaviruses could not be isolated in cell cultures by conventional techniques, but were adapted to serial growth in chick cell cultures following trypsin treatment of the virus and the cells. Immunofluorescence studies

M. S. McNulty; G. M. Allan; D. Todd; J. B. McFerran

1979-01-01

16

Numb-deficient satellite cells have regeneration and proliferation defects  

PubMed Central

The adaptor protein Numb has been implicated in the switch between cell proliferation and differentiation made by satellite cells during muscle repair. Using two genetic approaches to ablate Numb, we determined that, in its absence, muscle regeneration in response to injury was impaired. Single myofiber cultures demonstrated a lack of satellite cell proliferation in the absence of Numb, and the proliferation defect was confirmed in satellite cell cultures. Quantitative RT-PCR from Numb-deficient satellite cells demonstrated highly up-regulated expression of p21 and Myostatin, both inhibitors of myoblast proliferation. Transfection with Myostatin-specific siRNA rescued the proliferation defect of Numb-deficient satellite cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Numb in satellite cells inhibited Myostatin expression. These data indicate a unique function for Numb during the initial activation and proliferation of satellite cells in response to muscle injury. PMID:24170859

George, Rajani M.; Biressi, Stefano; Beres, Brian J.; Rogers, Erik; Mulia, Amanda K.; Allen, Ronald E.; Rawls, Alan; Rando, Thomas A.; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne

2013-01-01

17

Isolation, culture, and transplantation of muscle satellite cells  

PubMed Central

Muscle satellite cells are a stem cell population required for postnatal skeletal muscle development and regeneration, accounting for 2–5% of sublaminal nuclei in muscle fibers. In adult muscle, satellite cells are normally mitotically quiescent. Following injury, however, satellite cells initiate cellular proliferation to produce myoblasts, their progenies, to mediate the regeneration of muscle. Transplantation of satellite cell-derived myoblasts has been widely studied as a possible therapy for several regenerative diseases including muscular dystrophy, heart failure, and urological dysfunction. Myoblast transplantation into dystrophic skeletal muscle, infarcted heart, and dysfunctioning urinary ducts has shown that engrafted myoblasts can differentiate into muscle fibers in the host tissues and display partial functional improvement in these diseases. Therefore, the development of efficient purification methods of quiescent satellite cells from skeletal muscle, as well as the establishment of satellite cell-derived myoblast cultures and transplantation methods for myoblasts, are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind satellite cell self-renewal, activation, and differentiation. Additionally, the development of cell-based therapies for muscular dystrophy and other regenerative diseases are also dependent upon these factors. However, current prospective purification methods of quiescent satellite cells require the use of expensive fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) machines. Here, we present a new method for the rapid, economical, and reliable purification of quiescent satellite cells from adult mouse skeletal muscle by enzymatic dissociation followed by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Following isolation of pure quiescent satellite cells, these cells can be cultured to obtain large numbers of myoblasts after several passages. These freshly isolated quiescent satellite cells or ex vivo expanded myoblasts can be transplanted into cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced regenerating mouse skeletal muscle to examine the contribution of donor-derived cells to regenerating muscle fibers, as well as to satellite cell compartments for the examination of self-renewal activities. PMID:24747722

Motohashi, Norio; Asakura, Yoko; Asakura, Atsushi

2014-01-01

18

Donor satellite cell engraftment is significantly augmented when the host niche is preserved and endogenous satellite cells are incapacitated.  

PubMed

Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy. PMID:22730231

Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

2012-09-01

19

Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

1994-01-01

20

Water quality determination of Küçükçekmece Lake, Turkey by using multispectral satellite data.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the analysis of the Landsat-5 TM + SPOT-Pan (1992), IRS-1C/D LISS + Pan (2000), and Landsat-5 TM (2006) satellite images that reflect the drastic land use/land cover changes in the Küçükçekmece Lake region, Istanbul. Landsat-5 TM satellite data dated 2006 was used for mapping water quality. A multiple regression analysis was carried out between the unitless planetary reflectance values derived from the satellite image and in situ water quality parameters chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, turbidity, and biological and chemical oxygen demand measured at a number of stations homogenously distributed over the lake surface. The results of this study provided valuable information to local administrators on the water quality of Küçükçekmece Lake, which is a large water resource of the Istanbul Metropolitan Area. Results also show that such a methodology structured by use of reflectance values provided from satellite imagery, in situ water quality measurements, and basin land use/land cover characteristics obtained from images can serve as a powerful and rapid monitoring tool for the drinking water basins that suffer from rapid urbanization and pollution, all around the world. PMID:19882091

Alparslan, Erhan; Coskun, Gonca; Alganci, Ugur

2009-01-01

21

Satellite cells from dystrophic muscle retain regenerative capacity.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, with a failure of muscle maintenance/repair mediated by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). The function of skeletal muscle stem cells resident in dystrophic muscle may be perturbed by being in an increasing pathogenic environment, coupled with constant demands for repairing muscle. To investigate the contribution of satellite cell exhaustion to this process, we tested the functionality of satellite cells isolated from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that satellite cells derived from young mdx mice contributed efficiently to muscle regeneration within our in vivo mouse model. To then test the effects of long-term residence in a dystrophic environment, satellite cells were isolated from aged mdx muscle. Surprisingly, they were as functional as those derived from young or aged wild type donors. Removing satellite cells from a dystrophic milieu reveals that their regenerative capacity remains both intact and similar to satellite cells derived from healthy muscle, indicating that the host environment is critical for controlling satellite cell function. PMID:25460248

Boldrin, Luisa; Zammit, Peter S; Morgan, Jennifer E

2015-01-01

22

Satellite cells from dystrophic muscle retain regenerative capacity  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, with a failure of muscle maintenance/repair mediated by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). The function of skeletal muscle stem cells resident in dystrophic muscle may be perturbed by being in an increasing pathogenic environment, coupled with constant demands for repairing muscle. To investigate the contribution of satellite cell exhaustion to this process, we tested the functionality of satellite cells isolated from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that satellite cells derived from young mdx mice contributed efficiently to muscle regeneration within our in vivo mouse model. To then test the effects of long-term residence in a dystrophic environment, satellite cells were isolated from aged mdx muscle. Surprisingly, they were as functional as those derived from young or aged wild type donors. Removing satellite cells from a dystrophic milieu reveals that their regenerative capacity remains both intact and similar to satellite cells derived from healthy muscle, indicating that the host environment is critical for controlling satellite cell function. PMID:25460248

Boldrin, Luisa; Zammit, Peter S.; Morgan, Jennifer E.

2015-01-01

23

Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells. Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and therefore provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells in 2-D could potentially limit cell-cell contacts important for developing the level of organization in skeletal muscle obtained in vivo. Culturing satellite cells on microcarrier beads suspended in the High-Aspect-Ratio-Vessel (HARV) designed by NASA provides a low shear, three-dimensional (3-D) environment to study muscle development. Primary cultures established from anterior tibialis muscles of growing rats (approximately 200 gm) were used for all studies and were composed of greater than 75 % satellite cells. Different inoculation densities did not affect the proliferative potential of satellite cells in the HARV. Plating efficiency, proliferation, and glucose utilization were compared between 2-D flat culture and 3-D HARV culture. Plating efficiency (cells attached - cells plated x 100) was similar between the two culture systems. Proliferation was reduced in HARV cultures and this reduction was apparent for both satellite cells and non-satellite cells. Furthermore, reduction in proliferation within the HARV could not be attributed to reduced substrate availability since glucose levels in media from HARV and 2-D cell culture were similar. Morphologically, microcarrier beads within the HARVS were joined together by cells into three-dimensional aggregates composed of greater than 10 beads/aggregate. Aggregation of beads did not occur in the absence of cells. Myotubes were often seen on individual beads or spanning the surface of two beads. In summary, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells on microcarrier beads within the HARV bioreactor results in a three dimensional level of organization that could provide a more suitable model to study postnatal muscle development.

Molnar, Greg; Hartzell, Charles R.; Schroedl, Nancy A.; Gonda, Steve R.

1993-01-01

24

Satellite cells and myonuclei in neonatally denervated rat muscle.  

PubMed

While it is well know that the percentage of stellite cells in relation to myonuclei rapidly decreases in aneurally regenerating adult muscle, the fate of satellite cells in neonatally denervated muscles has received little attention so far. In the present study, rat tibialis anterior muscles were denervated at birth and analysed after 5, 7 and 10 weeks. At least 400 myonuclei in each muscle were assessed by electron microscopy and the percentage of satellite cell nuclei in relation to the number of myonuclei was calculated. The results indicated that the percentage of satellite cells steeply declines after neonatal denervation and, after 10 weeks, satellite cells were practically lacking in the muscles under analysis. This process of exhaustion of the satellite cell pool appears to be more rapid in developing than in adult muscles. PMID:12043920

Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Geuna, Stefano; Rodrigues, Silvana Perezin de Mattos; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai; Aragon, Flávio Ferrari

2002-01-01

25

Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection  

E-print Network

Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection Simona Ozden1 , Michel Background. Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute, Afonso PV, et al (2007) Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection. PLoS ONE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Human satellite cells have regenerative capacity and are genetically manipulable  

PubMed Central

Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. Human satellite cells are scarce; therefore, clinical investigation has been limited. We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were activated and proliferated efficiently in culture. Independent of donor age, as few as 2 to 4 PAX7+ satellite cells gave rise to several thousand myoblasts. Transplantation of human muscle fiber fragments into irradiated muscle of immunodeficient mice resulted in robust engraftment, muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that subjecting the human muscle fiber fragments to hypothermic treatment successfully enriches the cultures for PAX7+ cells and improves the efficacy of the transplantation and muscle regeneration. Finally, we successfully altered gene expression in cultured human PAX7+ satellite cells with Sleeping Beauty transposon–mediated nonviral gene transfer, highlighting the potential of this system for use in gene therapy. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to culture and manipulate a rare population of human tissue-specific stem cells and suggest that these PAX7+ satellite cells have potential to restore gene function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:25157816

Marg, Andreas; Escobar, Helena; Gloy, Sina; Kufeld, Markus; Zacher, Joseph; Spuler, Andreas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Spuler, Simone

2014-01-01

27

Human satellite cells have regenerative capacity and are genetically manipulable.  

PubMed

Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. Human satellite cells are scarce; therefore, clinical investigation has been limited. We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were activated and proliferated efficiently in culture. Independent of donor age, as few as 2 to 4 PAX7+ satellite cells gave rise to several thousand myoblasts. Transplantation of human muscle fiber fragments into irradiated muscle of immunodeficient mice resulted in robust engraftment, muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that subjecting the human muscle fiber fragments to hypothermic treatment successfully enriches the cultures for PAX7+ cells and improves the efficacy of the transplantation and muscle regeneration. Finally, we successfully altered gene expression in cultured human PAX7+ satellite cells with Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated nonviral gene transfer, highlighting the potential of this system for use in gene therapy. Together, these results demonstrate the ability to culture and manipulate a rare population of human tissue-specific stem cells and suggest that these PAX7+ satellite cells have potential to restore gene function in muscular dystrophies. PMID:25157816

Marg, Andreas; Escobar, Helena; Gloy, Sina; Kufeld, Markus; Zacher, Joseph; Spuler, Andreas; Birchmeier, Carmen; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Spuler, Simone

2014-10-01

28

Satellite cell proliferation in adult skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Novel methods of retroviral-mediated gene transfer for the in vivo corporation and stable expression of eukaryotic or prokaryotic foreign genes in tissues of living animals is described. More specifically, methods of incorporating foreign genes into mitotically active cells are disclosed. The constitutive and stable expression of E. coli .beta.-galactosidase gene under the promoter control of the Moloney murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat is employed as a particularly preferred embodiment, by way of example, establishes the model upon which the incorporation of a foreign gene into a mitotically-active living eukaryotic tissue is based. Use of the described methods in therapeutic treatments for genetic diseases, such as those muscular degenerative diseases, is also presented. In muscle tissue, the described processes result in genetically-altered satellite cells which proliferate daughter myoblasts which preferentially fuse to form a single undamaged muscle fiber replacing damaged muscle tissue in a treated animal. The retroviral vector, by way of example, includes a dystrophin gene construct for use in treating muscular dystrophy. The present invention also comprises an experimental model utilizable in the study of the physiological regulation of skeletal muscle gene expression in intact animals.

Booth, Frank W. (Inventor); Thomason, Donald B. (Inventor); Morrison, Paul R. (Inventor); Stancel, George M. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

29

M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions activate satellite cell division.  

PubMed

Adult muscle stem cells and their committed myogenic precursors, commonly referred to as the satellite cell population, are involved in both muscle growth after birth and regeneration after damage. It has been previously proposed that, under these circumstances, satellite cells first become activated, divide and differentiate, and only later fuse to the existing myofiber through M-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions. Our data show that satellite cells fuse with the myofiber concomitantly to cell division, and only when the nuclei of the daughter cells are inside the myofiber, do they complete the process of differentiation. Here we demonstrate that M-cadherin plays an important role in cell-to-cell recognition and fusion, and is crucial for cell division activation. Treatment of satellite cells with M-cadherin in vitro stimulates cell division, whereas addition of anti-M-cadherin antibodies reduces the cell division rate. Our results suggest an alternative model for the contribution of satellite cells to muscle development, which might be useful in understanding muscle regeneration, as well as muscle-related dystrophies. PMID:24046443

Marti, Merce; Montserrat, Núria; Pardo, Cristina; Mulero, Lola; Miquel-Serra, Laia; Rodrigues, Alexandre Miguel Cavaco; Andrés Vaquero, José; Kuebler, Bernd; Morera, Cristina; Barrero, María José; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

2013-11-15

30

Skeletal muscle satellite cells cultured in simulated microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Satellite cells are postnatal myoblasts responsible for providing additional nuclei to growing or regenerating muscle cells.\\u000a Satellite cells retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro and, therefore, provide a useful model to study postnatal muscle development. Most culture systems used to study postnatal\\u000a muscle development are limited by the two-dimensional (2-D) confines of the culture dish. Limiting proliferation

Greg Molnar; Nancy A. Schroedl; Steve R. Gonda; Charles R. Hartzell

1997-01-01

31

Use of Advanced Solar Cells for Commercial Communication Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1995-01-01

32

The muscle satellite cell at 50: the formative years.  

PubMed

In February 1961, Alexander Mauro described a cell 'wedged' between the plasma membrane of the muscle fibre and the surrounding basement membrane. He postulated that it could be a dormant myoblast, poised to repair muscle when needed. In the same month, Bernard Katz also reported a cell in a similar location on muscle spindles, suggesting that it was associated with development and growth of intrafusal muscle fibres. Both Mauro and Katz used the term 'satellite cell' in relation to their discoveries. Today, the muscle satellite cell is widely accepted as the resident stem cell of skeletal muscle, supplying myoblasts for growth, homeostasis and repair.Since 2011 marks both the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the satellite cell, and the launch of Skeletal Muscle, it seems an opportune moment to summarise the seminal events in the history of research into muscle regeneration. We start with the 19th-century pioneers who showed that muscle had a regenerative capacity, through to the descriptions from the mid-20th century of the underlying cellular mechanisms. The journey of the satellite cell from electron microscope curio, to its gradual acceptance as a bona fide myoblast precursor, is then charted: work that provided the foundations for our understanding of the role of the satellite cell. Finally, the rapid progress in the age of molecular biology is briefly discussed, and some ongoing debates on satellite cell function highlighted. PMID:21849021

Scharner, Juergen; Zammit, Peter S

2011-01-01

33

The muscle satellite cell at 50: the formative years  

PubMed Central

In February 1961, Alexander Mauro described a cell 'wedged' between the plasma membrane of the muscle fibre and the surrounding basement membrane. He postulated that it could be a dormant myoblast, poised to repair muscle when needed. In the same month, Bernard Katz also reported a cell in a similar location on muscle spindles, suggesting that it was associated with development and growth of intrafusal muscle fibres. Both Mauro and Katz used the term 'satellite cell' in relation to their discoveries. Today, the muscle satellite cell is widely accepted as the resident stem cell of skeletal muscle, supplying myoblasts for growth, homeostasis and repair. Since 2011 marks both the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the satellite cell, and the launch of Skeletal Muscle, it seems an opportune moment to summarise the seminal events in the history of research into muscle regeneration. We start with the 19th-century pioneers who showed that muscle had a regenerative capacity, through to the descriptions from the mid-20th century of the underlying cellular mechanisms. The journey of the satellite cell from electron microscope curio, to its gradual acceptance as a bona fide myoblast precursor, is then charted: work that provided the foundations for our understanding of the role of the satellite cell. Finally, the rapid progress in the age of molecular biology is briefly discussed, and some ongoing debates on satellite cell function highlighted. PMID:21849021

2011-01-01

34

Immunological tolerance in chickens hatching from eggs injected with cell-associated herpesvirus of Turkey (HVT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-associated herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) was inoculated in ovo at various stages of incubation. Chickens hatching from these eggs were tested for anti-HVT antibodies by several serologic procedures including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and western blot. Viremic chickens that remained free of detectable antibodies were considered tolerant to HVT. Chickens exposed to HVT at embryonation day 14 or

Y Zhang; J. M Sharma

2003-01-01

35

Evaluation of solar cell materials for a Solar Power Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alternative solar cell materials being considered for the solar power satellite are described and price, production, and availability projections through the year 2000 are presented. The chief materials considered are silicon and gallium arsenide.

Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K. I.

1980-01-01

36

Cellular dynamics in the muscle satellite cell niche  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells, the quintessential skeletal muscle stem cells, reside in a specialized local environment whose anatomy changes dynamically during tissue regeneration. The plasticity of this niche is attributable to regulation by the stem cells themselves and to a multitude of functionally diverse cell types. In particular, immune cells, fibrogenic cells, vessel-associated cells and committed and differentiated cells of the myogenic lineage have emerged as important constituents of the satellite cell niche. Here, we discuss the cellular dynamics during muscle regeneration and how disease can lead to perturbation of these mechanisms. To define the role of cellular components in the muscle stem cell niche is imperative for the development of cell-based therapies, as well as to better understand the pathobiology of degenerative conditions of the skeletal musculature. PMID:24232182

Bentzinger, C Florian; Wang, Yu Xin; Dumont, Nicolas A; Rudnicki, Michael A

2013-01-01

37

Solar power satellites - Heat engine or solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A solar power satellite is the energy-converting element of a system that can deliver some 10 GW of power to utilities on the earth's surface. We evaluated heat engines and solar cells for converting sunshine to electric power at the satellite. A potassium Rankine cycle was the best of the heat engines, and 50 microns thick single-crystal silicon cells were the best of the photovoltaic converters. Neither solar cells nor heat engines had a clear advantage when all factors were considered. The potassium-turbine power plant, however, was more difficult to assemble and required a more expensive orbital assembly base. We therefore based our cost analyses on solar-cell energy conversion, concluding that satellite-generated power could be delivered to utilities for around 4 to 5 cents a kWh.

Oman, H.; Gregory, D. L.

1978-01-01

38

Muscle satellite cells and endothelial cells: close neighbours and privileged partners.  

E-print Network

of capillary density, including amyopathic dermatomyositis, a unique condition in which muscle capillary loss1 Muscle satellite cells and endothelial cells: close neighbours and privileged partners. Christo5GFP-P/+ ) allowing direct muscle satellite cell (SC) visualization indicate that, in addition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Epigenetic regulation of satellite cell activation during muscle regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are a population of adult muscle stem cells that play a key role in mediating muscle regeneration. Activation\\u000a of these quiescent stem cells in response to muscle injury involves modulating expression of multiple developmentally regulated\\u000a genes, including mediators of the muscle-specific transcription program: Pax7, Myf5, MyoD and myogenin. Here we present evidence\\u000a suggesting an essential role for the

F Jeffrey Dilworth; Alexandre Blais

2011-01-01

40

Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

Summers, Christopher J.

1991-01-01

41

Stra13 regulates satellite cell activation by antagonizing Notch signaling  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells play a critical role in skeletal muscle regeneration in response to injury. Notch signaling is vital for satellite cell activation and myogenic precursor cell expansion but inhibits myogenic differentiation. Thus, precise spatial and temporal regulation of Notch activity is necessary for efficient muscle regeneration. We report that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Stra13 modulates Notch signaling in regenerating muscle. Upon injury, Stra13?/? mice exhibit increased cellular proliferation, elevated Notch signaling, a striking regeneration defect characterized by degenerated myotubes, increased mononuclear cells, and fibrosis. Stra13?/? primary myoblasts also exhibit enhanced Notch activity, increased proliferation, and defective differentiation. Inhibition of Notch signaling ex vivo and in vivo ameliorates the phenotype of Stra13?/? mutants. We demonstrate in vitro that Stra13 antagonizes Notch activity and reverses the Notch-imposed inhibition of myogenesis. Thus, Stra13 plays an important role in postnatal myogenesis by attenuating Notch signaling to reduce myoblast proliferation and promote myogenic differentiation. PMID:17502421

Sun, Hong; Li, Li; Vercherat, Cécile; Gulbagci, Neriman Tuba; Acharjee, Sujata; Li, Jiali; Chung, Teng-Kai; Thin, Tin Htwe; Taneja, Reshma

2007-01-01

42

Life cycle testing of sodium\\/sulfur satellite battery cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Test results on sodium sulfur cells developed presently by the Air Force for NaS rechargeable batteries for baseload power applications are summarized. Cycle life data are presented on fourteen cells, some of which have accumulated more than 1900 days on test and\\/or more than 6000 cycles. Results demonstrated cycle life times to be sufficient for use on satellites in high-altitude

Richard A. Flake

1988-01-01

43

Human Muscle Satellite Cells as Targets of Chikungunya Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells), and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. Conclusions/Significance This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans. PMID:17565380

Ozden, Simona; Huerre, Michel; Riviere, Jean-Pierre; Coffey, Lark L.; Afonso, Philippe V.; Mouly, Vincent; de Monredon, Jean; Roger, Jean-Christophe; El Amrani, Mohamed; Yvin, Jean-Luc; Jaffar, Marie-Christine; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Sourisseau, Marion; Schwartz, Olivier; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Desprès, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel

2007-01-01

44

Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 influences cell cycle progression in muscle satellite cells  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle retains a resident stem cell population called satellite cells, which are mitotically quiescent in mature muscle, but can be activated to produce myoblast progeny for muscle homeostasis, hypertrophy and repair. We have previously shown that satellite cell activation is partially controlled by the bioactive phospholipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and that S1P biosynthesis is required for muscle regeneration. Here we investigate the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) in regulating murine satellite cell function. S1PR3 levels were high in quiescent myogenic cells before falling during entry into cell cycle. Retrovirally-mediated constitutive expression of S1PR3 led to suppressed cell cycle progression in satellite cells, but did not overtly affect the myogenic program. Conversely, satellite cells isolated from S1PR3-null mice exhibited enhanced proliferation ex-vivo. In vivo, acute cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration was enhanced in S1PR3-null mice, with bigger muscle fibres compared to control mice. Importantly, genetically deleting S1PR3 in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy produced a less severe muscle dystrophic phenotype, than when signalling though S1PR3 was operational. In conclusion, signalling though S1PR3 suppresses cell cycle progression to regulate function in muscle satellite cells. PMID:23911934

Fortier, Mathieu; Figeac, Nicolas; White, Robert B.; Knopp, Paul; Zammit, Peter S.

2013-01-01

45

Multi-temporal land cover classification of the Konya Basin, south-central Turkey, based on a LANDSAT TM-derived NDVI\\/NDMI time series: satellite remote sensing in support of landscape-scale soil biogeochemistry research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, terrestrial biogeochemists and soil scientists have called for new approaches to study human impacts on soil biogeochemical properties at landscape-wide, 100-1000 km2 spatial scales (Trumbore and Czimczik 2008). Here, we use satellite remote sensing to map land cover across a 16,000 km2 region in the Konya Basin, south-central Turkey, in support of research into agricultural and pastoral land use

M. T. Mayes; M. Ozdogan; E. Marin-Spiotta

2010-01-01

46

Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron satellite glial cell communication in dorsal  

E-print Network

Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron­ satellite glial cell communication in dorsal root activates P2X7 receptors in satellite cells that enwrap each DRG neuron and triggers the communication neuronal somata and thus triggers bidirectional communication between neurons and satellite cells. Results

Newman, Eric A.

47

Pax7 is critical for the normal function of satellite cells in adult skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Extensive analyses of mice carrying null mutations in paired box 7 (Pax7) have confirmed the progressive loss of the satellite cell lineage in skeletal muscle, resulting in severe muscle atrophy and death. A recent study using floxed alleles and tamoxifen-induced inactivation concluded that after 3 wk of age, Pax7 was entirely dispensable for satellite cell function. Here, we demonstrate that Pax7 is an absolute requirement for satellite cell function in adult skeletal muscle. Following Pax7 deletion, satellite cells and myoblasts exhibit cell-cycle arrest and dysregulation of myogenic regulatory factors. Maintenance of Pax7 deletion through continuous tamoxifen administration prevented regrowth of Pax7-expressing satellite cells and a profound muscle regeneration deficit that resembles the phenotype of skeletal muscle following genetically engineered ablation of satellite cells. Therefore, we conclude that Pax7 is essential for regulating the expansion and differentiation of satellite cells during both neonatal and adult myogenesis. PMID:24065826

von Maltzahn, Julia; Jones, Andrew E.; Parks, Robin J.; Rudnicki, Michael A.

2013-01-01

48

Monitoring the changing position of coastlines using aerial and satellite image data: an example from the eastern coast of Trabzon, Turkey.  

PubMed

Coastline mapping and coastline change detection are critical issues for safe navigation, coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and sustainable coastal development and planning. Changes in the shape of coastline may fundamentally affect the environment of the coastal zone. This may be caused by natural processes and/or human activities. Over the past 30 years, the coastal sites in Turkey have been under an intensive restraint associated with a population press due to the internal and external touristic demand. In addition, urbanization on the filled up areas, settlements, and the highways constructed to overcome the traffic problems and the other applications in the coastal region clearly confirm an intensive restraint. Aerial photos with medium spatial resolution and high resolution satellite imagery are ideal data sources for mapping coastal land use and monitoring their changes for a large area. This study introduces an efficient method to monitor coastline and coastal land use changes using time series aerial photos (1973 and 2002) and satellite imagery (2005) covering the same geographical area. Results show the effectiveness of the use of digital photogrammetry and remote sensing data on monitoring large area of coastal land use status. This study also showed that over 161 ha areas were filled up in the research area and along the coastal land 12.2 ha of coastal erosion is determined for the period of 1973 to 2005. Consequently, monitoring of coastal land use is thus necessary for coastal area planning in order to protecting the coastal areas from climate changes and other coastal processes. PMID:18560986

Sesli, Faik Ahmet; Karsli, Fevzi; Colkesen, Ismail; Akyol, Nihat

2009-06-01

49

Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a 12 month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application are summarized. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 watt-hour/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. Using advanced light weight cell construction which was achieved in experimental cells, composite tankage material for the reactant gases and the reversible stack concept, system energy densities of 115 watt-hours/lb can be projected.

Van Dine, Leslie; Levy, Alexander; Gonzalez-Sanabria, Olga

1987-01-01

50

Analysis of Land Use Change and Urbanization in the Kucukcekmece Water Basin (Istanbul, Turkey) with Temporal Satellite Data using Remote Sensing and GIS  

PubMed Central

Accurate and timely information about land use and land cover (LULC) and its changes in urban areas are crucial for urban land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring and urban planning. Also, monitoring and representation of urban sprawl and its effects on the LULC patterns and hydrological processes of an urbanized watershed is an essential part of water resource planning and management. This paper presents an image analysis study using multi temporal digital satellite imagery of LULC and changes in the Kucukcekmece Watershed (Metropolitan Istanbul, Turkey) from 1992 to 2006. The Kucukcekmece Basin includes portions of the Kucukcekmece District within the municipality of Istanbul so it faces a dramatic urbanization. An urban monitoring analysis approach was first used to implement a land cover classification. A change detection method controlled with ground truth information was then used to determine changes in land cover. During the study period, the variability and magnitude of hydrological components based on land-use patterns were cumulatively influenced by urban sprawl in the watershed. The proposed approach, which uses a combination of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, is an effective tool that enhances land-use monitoring, planning, and management of urbanized watersheds.

Coskun, H. Gonca; Alganci, Ugur; Usta, Gokce

2008-01-01

51

The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

2012-01-01

52

Pax7 directs postnatal renewal and propagation of myogenic satellite cells but not their specification.  

PubMed

The paired-box transcription factor Pax7 has been claimed to specify the muscle stem cell lineage since inactivation of Pax7 led to a failure to detect muscle satellite cells. Here we show that muscles of juvenile Pax7(-/-) mice at P11 contain a reduced but substantial number of satellite cells. Neither juvenile nor adult Pax7(-/-) mice displayed a significant reduction in the number and size of myotubes, indicating that the remaining number of satellite cells sufficed to allow normal postnatal muscle growth. The number of satellite cells in Pax7 mutant mice declined strongly during postnatal development, although single satellite cells were readily identified in adult Pax7 mutant mice. Muscle regeneration was impaired in adult Pax7 mutant mice. Our results clearly indicate an essential function of Pax7 for renewal and maintenance of muscle stem cells and exclude an exclusive role of Pax7 in satellite cell specification. PMID:15282552

Oustanina, Svetlana; Hause, Gerd; Braun, Thomas

2004-08-18

53

Regenerative fuel cell study for satellites in GEO orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summarized are the results of a 12-month study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous satellite application. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (W-hr/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both polymer membrane and alkaline electrolyte fuel cells were considered, with emphasis on the alkaline cell because of its high performance, advanced state of development, and proven ability to operate in a launch and space environment. Three alkaline system concepts were studied. The first, the integrated design, utilized a configuration in which the fuel cell and electrolysis cells are alternately stacked inside a pressure vessel. Product water is transferred by diffusion during electrolysis and waste heat is conducted through the pressure wall, thus using completely passive means for transfer and control. The second alkaline system, the dedicated design, uses a separate fuel cell and electrolysis stack so that each unit can be optimized in size and weight based on its orbital operating period. The third design was a dual function stack configuration, in which each cell can operate in both fuel cell and electrolysis mode, thus eliminating the need for two separate stacks and associated equipment. Results indicate that using near term technology energy densities between 46 and 52 W-hr/lb can be achieved at efficiencies of 55 percent. System densities of 115 W-hr/lb are contemplated.

Levy, Alexander; Vandine, Leslie L.; Stedman, James K.

1987-01-01

54

Extracellular matrix regulation in the muscle satellite cell niche.  

PubMed

Abstract Increasing evidence points to extracellular matrix (ECM) components playing integral roles in regulating the muscle satellite cell (SC) niche. Even small alterations to the niche ECM can have profound effects on SC localization, activation, self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. This review will focus on the ECM components that comprise the niche, how they are modulated in health and disease and how these changes are thought to affect SC function. Particular emphasis will be placed on the pathological niche and interventions that aim to restore healthy structure and function, as a better understanding of the interplay between the SC and its environment will drive more targeted and effective therapies. PMID:25047058

Thomas, Kelsey; Engler, Adam J; Meyer, Gretchen A

2015-02-01

55

Effect of yeast cell product (CitriStim) supplementation on turkey performance and intestinal immune cell parameters during an experimental lipopolysaccharide injection.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to identify the effect of whole yeast cell product supplementation in turkeys following an experimental inflammatory challenge. A total of 105 one-day-old turkey tom poults were fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, and 0.2% whole yeast cell product (CitriStim, ADM, Quincy, IL). At 6 wk of age and 16 wk of age, turkeys were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 0 or 0.25 mg/kg of BW in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. BW gain (P = 0.31) and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.53; 3.13, 2.94, and 2.98 for the 0, 0.10, and 0.20% CitriStim treatments, respectively) at 15 wk of age were not significantly affected by the treatment diets. Yeast cell wall product supplementation had no effect on growth in control-injected turkeys but decreased growth in LPS-injected turkeys (yeast × LPS, P < 0.05). Splenic macrophages from birds fed whole yeast cell product and injected with LPS produced higher (P < 0.01) nitric oxide than the control group injected with LPS at both 6 and 16 wk of age. At 6 and 16 wk of age, birds injected with LPS (P < 0.01; P < 0.01) and supplemented with whole yeast cell product (P = 0.05; P = 0.10) showed increased IL-1 mRNA amounts in cecal tonsils. In birds not injected with LPS, whole yeast cell supplementation increased regulatory T cell percentage and IL-10 mRNA amounts, whereas in birds injected with LPS, whole yeast cell supplementation decreased IL-10 mRNA amounts at both 6 (P < 0.01) and 16 wk (P = 0.01) of age in cecal tonsils. Whole yeast cell product supplementation increased Lactobacillus (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01) andBifidobacteria (P < 0.01 and P = 0.01) population at 6 and 16 wk of age. In conclusion, the effect of feeding whole yeast cell product on turkeys was dependent on the inflammatory status of the bird. PMID:25239535

Shanmugasundaram, Revathi; Sifri, Mamduh; Jeyabalan, Ramesh; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

2014-11-01

56

Turkey versus guinea pig red blood cells: hemagglutination differences alter hemagglutination inhibition responses against influenza A/H1N1.  

PubMed

For influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays, species selection of red blood cells (RBCs) is critical to determine antibody titers to influenza viruses reliably. We compared pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 (pdH1N1) HAI titers using turkey or guinea pig RBCs. Turkey RBCs appear to be the more appropriate species choice for influenza A/pH1N1 HAI assays. PMID:24787023

Ovsyannikova, Inna G; White, Sarah J; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Poland, Gregory A

2014-05-01

57

Complications of central venous catheters in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Turkey.  

PubMed

Although central venous catheters (CVCs) have become an integral element of the care of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the associated complications can lead to treatment delays and negatively affect the child and family's quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify the types, rate of, and risk factors for the complications relating to CVCs used in children undergoing HSCT in Turkey. One hundred children were followed prospectively to track catheter-related complications in the transplantation unit. Overall, 186 complications were documented. The most frequent complications were catheter-related infections and malfunctions. Children who had nonhematological disease had a higher rate of complications than those with hematological disease. HSCT nurses should follow and apply evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to support the management of catheters. Nurse staffing ratios and workload may be an issue in developing countries. The authors believe that proper maintenance of CVCs contributes to the reduction of catheter-related complications despite these issues and that problems can be overcome by hiring experienced staff, appropriate nursing education, and by organizing and improving home care programs for HSCT patients. PMID:22797681

Yilmaz, Medine C; Aksoylar, Serap; Erdogan, Durdane; Demirag, Bengu

2012-01-01

58

Notch1-mediated signaling regulates proliferation of porcine satellite cells (PSCs).  

PubMed

Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and fate decisions of mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the possible requirement for Notch signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of porcine satellite cells. We show that Notch1, 2 and 3 are expressed in cultured porcine satellite cells. Knock-down of NOTCH1, but not NOTCH2 and NOTCH3, decreases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. In contrast, enhancement of NOTCH1 expression via treatment of porcine satellite cells with recombinant NF-?B increases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. The alteration of porcine satellite cell proliferation is associated with significant changes in the expression of cell cycle related genes (cyclin B1, D1, D2, E1 and p21), myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) and the Notch effector Hes5. In addition, alteration of Notch1 expression in porcine satellite cells causes changes in the expression of GSK3?-3. Taken together, these findings suggest that of the four notch-related genes, Notch1is likely to be required for regulating the proliferation and therefore the maintenance of porcine satellite cells in vivo, and do so through activation of the Notch effector gene Hes5. PMID:23160004

Qin, Lili; Xu, Jian; Wu, Zhenfang; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Chong; Long, Qiaoming

2013-02-01

59

Frequency of M-Cadherin-stained Satellite Cells Declines in Human Muscles During Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

To answer the question of whether the satellite cell pool in human muscle is reduced during aging, we detected satellite cells in 30-?m-thick transverse sections under the confocal microscope by binding of M-cadherin antibody. The basal lamina was detected with laminin. Nuclei were stained with bisbenzimide or propidium iodide. Satellite cells were counted by applying the disector method and unbiased

Špela Sajko; Lucie Kubínová; Erika Cvetko; Marko Kreft; Anton Wernig; Ida Eržen

2004-01-01

60

Satellite-cell pool size does matter: defining the myogenic potency of aging skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

The deteriorating in vivo environment is thought to play a major role in reduced stem cell function with age. Stem cell capacity to support tissue maintenance depends not only on their response to cues from the surrounding niche, but also on their abundance. Here we investigate satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) pool size and its potential to participate in muscle maintenance through old age. The numbers and performance of mouse satellite cells have been analyzed using molecular markers that exclusively characterize quiescent satellite cells and their progeny as they transit through proliferation, differentiation and generation of reserve cells. The study establishes that abundance of resident satellite cells declines with age in myofibers from both fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Nevertheless, the inherent myogenic potential of satellite cells does not diminish with age. Furthermore, the aging satellite cell niche retains the capacity to support effective myogenesis upon enrichment of the mitogenic milieu with FGF. Altogether, satellite cell abundance, but not myogenic potential, deteriorates with age. This study suggests that the population of satellite cells that participate in myofiber maintenance during routine muscle utilization is not fully replenished throughout life. PMID:16554047

Shefer, Gabi; Van de Mark, Daniel P.; Richardson, Joshua B.; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

2009-01-01

61

Invited Review: Extrinsic regulation of domestic animal-derived myogenic satellite cells II  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The existence of myogenic satellite cells was reported some forty-seven years ago, and, since that time, satellite cell research has flourished. So much new information is generated (daily) on these cells that it can be difficult for individuals to keep abreast of important issues related to the act...

62

C-Met Expression and Mechanical Activation of Satellite Cells on Cultured Muscle Fibers  

PubMed Central

Single-fiber cultures can be used to model satellite cell activation in vivo. Although technical deficiencies previously prevented study of stretch-induced events, here we describe a method developed to study satellite cell gene expression by in situ hybridization (ISH) using protocol modifications for fiber adhesion and fixation. The hypothesis that mechanical stretching activates satellite cells was tested. Fiber cultures were established from normal flexor digitorum brevis muscles and plated on FlexCell dishes with a layer of Vitrogen. After 2 hr of stretch in the presence of BrdU, satellite cells on fibers attached to Vitrogen were activated above control levels. In the absence of activating treatments or mechanical stretch, ISH studies showed 0–6 c-Met+ satellite cells per fiber. Time course experiments demonstrated stable quiescence in the absence of stretch and significant peaks in activation after 30 min and 2 hr of stretch. Frequency distributions for unstretched fiber cultures showed a significantly greater number of quiescent c-Met+ satellite cells than were activated by stretching, suggesting that typical activation stimuli did not trigger cycling in the entire c-Met+ population of satellite cells. These methods have a strong potential to further dissect the nature of stretch-induced activation and gene expression among characterized populations of individual quiescent and activated satellite cells. PMID:14566016

Wozniak, Ashley C.; Pilipowicz, Orest; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Greenway, Steven; Craven, Shauna; Scott, Elliott; Anderson, Judy E.

2003-01-01

63

Globular Adiponectin Activates Motility and Regenerative Traits of Muscle Satellite Cells  

PubMed Central

Regeneration of adult injured skeletal muscle is due to activation of satellite cells, a population of stem cells resident beneath the basal lamina. Thus, information on soluble factors affecting satellite cell activation, as well as migration towards injury and fusion into new myofibers are essential. Here, we show that globular adiponectin (gAd), positively affects several features of muscle satellite cells. gAd activates satellite cells to exit quiescence and increases their recruitment towards myotubes. gAd elicits in satellite cells a specific motility program, involving activation of the small GTPase Rac1, as well as expression of Snail and Twist transcription factors driving a proteolytic motility, useful to reach the site of injury. We show that satellite cells produce autocrine full length adiponectin (fAd), which is converted to gAd by activated macrophages. In turns, gAd concurs to attract to the site of injury both satellite cells and macrophages and induces myogenesis in muscle satellite cells. Thus, these findings add a further role for gAd in skeletal muscle, including the hormone among factors participating in muscle regeneration. PMID:22629295

Fiaschi, Tania; Giannoni, Elisa; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola

2012-01-01

64

Applications of General Cell Platform in Satellite Design for Formation Flying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researches in formation flying are well envisioned in the 21st century including the launching and operation of micro-spacecrafts, establishment of inter-satellite link as well as satellite autonomous management. However, a stable and powerful satellite platform is desired to support these researches. Under such circumstance, general cell platform provides the key. Different from the traditional methods, general cell platform proposed by

Lan Shengchang; Zhang Jinxiu; Wang Jihe; Wang Feng; Xu Guodong

2007-01-01

65

Pericytes of human skeletal muscle are myogenic precursors distinct from satellite cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells derived from blood vessels of human skeletal muscle can regenerate skeletal muscle, similarly to embryonic mesoangioblasts. However, adult cells do not express endothelial markers, but instead express markers of pericytes, such as NG2 proteoglycan and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and can be prospectively isolated from freshly dissociated ALP+ cells. Unlike canonical myogenic precursors (satellite cells), pericyte-derived cells express myogenic markers

Arianna Dellavalle; Maurilio Sampaolesi; Rossana Tonlorenzi; Enrico Tagliafico; Benedetto Sacchetti; Laura Perani; Anna Innocenzi; Beatriz G. Galvez; Graziella Messina; Roberta Morosetti; Sheng Li; Marzia Belicchi; Giuseppe Peretti; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain; Woodring E. Wright; Yvan Torrente; Stefano Ferrari; Paolo Bianco; Giulio Cossu

2007-01-01

66

Reduced Satellite Cell Numbers and Myogenic Capacity in Aging Can Be Alleviated by Endurance Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells, myogenic stem cells that reside on the myofiber surface. Reduced numbers and/or decreased myogenic aptitude of these cells may impede proper maintenance and contribute to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and repair capacity. Endurance exercise was shown to improve muscle performance; however, the direct impact on satellite cells in aging was not yet thoroughly determined. Here, we focused on characterizing the effect of moderate-intensity endurance exercise on satellite cell, as possible means to attenuate adverse effects of aging. Young and old rats of both genders underwent 13 weeks of treadmill-running or remained sedentary. Methodology Gastrocnemius muscles were assessed for the effect of age, gender and exercise on satellite-cell numbers and myogenic capacity. Satellite cells were identified in freshly isolated myofibers based on Pax7 immunostaining (i.e., ex-vivo). The capacity of individual myofiber-associated cells to produce myogenic progeny was determined in clonal assays (in-vitro). We show an age-associated decrease in satellite-cell numbers and in the percent of myogenic clones in old sedentary rats. Upon exercise, there was an increase in myofibers that contain higher numbers of satellite cells in both young and old rats, and an increase in the percent of myogenic clones derived from old rats. Changes at the satellite cell level in old rats were accompanied with positive effects on the lean-to-fat Gast muscle composition and on spontaneous locomotion levels. The significance of these data is that they suggest that the endurance exercise-mediated boost in both satellite numbers and myogenic properties may improve myofiber maintenance in aging. PMID:20967266

Shefer, Gabi; Rauner, Gat; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Benayahu, Dafna

2010-01-01

67

Six family genes control the proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells  

SciTech Connect

Muscle satellite cells are essential for muscle growth and regeneration and their morphology, behavior and gene expression have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms involved in their proliferation and differentiation remain elusive. Six1 and Six4 proteins were expressed in the nuclei of myofibers of adult mice and the numbers of myoblasts positive for Six1 and Six4 increased during regeneration of skeletal muscles. Six1 and Six4 were expressed in quiescent, activated and differentiated muscle satellite cells isolated from adult skeletal muscle. Overexpression of Six4 and Six5 repressed the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. Conversely, knockdown of Six5 resulted in augmented proliferation, and that of Six4 inhibited differentiation. Muscle satellite cells isolated from Six4{sup +/-}Six5{sup -/-} mice proliferated to higher cell density though their differentiation was not altered. Meanwhile, overproduction of Six1 repressed proliferation and promoted differentiation of satellite cells. In addition, Six4 and Six5 repressed, while Six1 activated myogenin expression, suggesting that the differential regulation of myogenin expression is responsible for the differential effects of Six genes. The results indicated the involvement of Six genes in the behavior of satellite cells and identified Six genes as potential target for manipulation of proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells for therapeutic applications.

Yajima, Hiroshi [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan)] [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Motohashi, Norio; Ono, Yusuke [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Shigeru; Ikeda, Keiko [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan)] [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan); Masuda, Satoru; Yada, Erica; Kanesaki, Hironori; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Kawakami, Kiyoshi, E-mail: kkawakam@jichi.ac.jp [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan)] [Division of Biology, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi (Japan)

2010-10-15

68

Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters in Vivo and in Vitro Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4) deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW) were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P), supra-adequate (1.2% total P) in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P) in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured in vitro for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. In vivo satellite cell proliferation was reduced (P < 0.05) among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered in vitro expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted. PMID:22822445

Alexander, Lindsey S.; Seabolt, Brynn S.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Stahl, Chad H.

2012-01-01

69

A simplified but robust method for the isolation of avian and mammalian muscle satellite cells  

PubMed Central

Background Current methods of isolation of muscle satellite cells from different animal species are highly variable making inter-species comparisons problematic. This variation mainly stems from the use of different proteolytic enzymes to release the satellite cells from the muscle tissue (sometimes a single enzyme is used but often a combination of enzymes is preferred) and the different extracellular matrix proteins used to coat culture ware. In addition, isolation of satellite cells is frequently laborious and sometimes may require pre-plating of the cell preparation on uncoated flasks or Percoll centrifugation to remove contaminating fibroblasts. The methodology employed to isolate and culture satellite cells in vitro can critically determine the fusion of myoblasts into multi-nucleated myotubes. These terminally differentiated myotubes resemble mature myofibres in the muscle tissue in vivo, therefore optimal fusion is a keystone of in vitro muscle culture. Hence, a simple method of muscle satellite cell isolation and culture of different vertebrate species that can result in a high fusion rate is highly desirable. Results We demonstrate here a relatively simple and rapid method of isolating highly enriched muscle satellite cells from different avian and mammalian species. In brief, muscle tissue was mechanically dissociated, digested with a single enzyme (pronase), triturated with a 10-ml pipette, filtered and directly plated onto collagen coated flasks. Following this method and after optimization of the cell culture conditions, excellent fusion rates were achieved in the duck, chicken, horse and cow (with more than 50% cell fusion), and to a lesser extent pig, pointing to pronase as a highly suitable enzyme to release satellite cells from muscle tissue. Conclusions Our simplified method presents a quick and simple alternative to isolating highly enriched muscle satellite cell cultures which can subsequently rapidly differentiate into well developed primary myotubes. The use of the same isolation protocol allows better inter-species comparisons of muscle satellite cells. Of all the farm animal species investigated, harvested chicken muscle cells showed the highest percentage of muscle satellite cells, and equine muscle cells presented the highest fusion index, an impressive???77%. Porcine cells displayed the lowest amount of satellite cells but still achieved a modest fusion rate of???41%. PMID:22720831

2012-01-01

70

Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells  

SciTech Connect

Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-01-16

71

Hepatocyte growth factor plays a dual role in regulating skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-met, in proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells was studied in primary cultures of chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells and a myogenic C2 cell line. HGF mRNA was expressed mainly in the myotubes of both cultures. The addition of conditioned medium derived from those cultures had a scattering effect on

Ronit Gal-Levi; Yael Leshem; Shunsuke Aoki; Toshikazu Nakamura; Orna Halevy

1998-01-01

72

STAT3 signaling controls satellite cell expansion and skeletal muscle repair  

PubMed Central

The progression of disease- and age-dependent skeletal muscle wasting results in part from a decline in the number and function of satellite cells, the direct cellular contributors to muscle repair1–10. However, little is known about the molecular effectors underlying satellite cell impairment and depletion. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), are associated with both age-related and muscle-wasting conditions11–13. The levels of STAT3, a downstream effector of IL-6, are also elevated with muscle wasting14,15, and STAT3 has been implicated in the regulation of self-renewal and stem cell fate in several tissues16–19. Here we show that IL-6–activated Stat3 signaling regulates satellite cell behavior, promoting myogenic lineage progression through myogenic differentiation 1 (Myod1) regulation. Conditional ablation of Stat3 in Pax7-expressing satellite cells resulted in their increased expansion during regeneration, but compromised myogenic differentiation prevented the contribution of these cells to regenerating myofibers. In contrast, transient Stat3 inhibition promoted satellite cell expansion and enhanced tissue repair in both aged and dystrophic muscle. The effects of STAT3 inhibition were conserved in human myoblasts. The results of this study indicate that pharmacological manipulation of STAT3 activity can be used to counteract the functional exhaustion of satellite cells, thereby maintaining the endogenous regenerative response and ameliorating muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25194572

Tierney, Matthew Timothy; Aydogdu, Tufan; Sala, David; Malecova, Barbora; Gatto, Sole; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Latella, Lucia; Sacco, Alessandra

2015-01-01

73

A home away from home: challenges and opportunities in engineering in vitro muscle satellite cell niches  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells with a principal role in postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration. Satellite cells, like many tissue-specific adult stem cells, reside in a quiescent state in an instructive, anatomically defined niche. The satellite cell niche constitutes a distinct membrane-enclosed compartment within the muscle fiber, containing a diversity of biochemical and biophysical signals that influence satellite cell function. A major limitation to the study and clinical utility of satellite cells is that upon removal from the muscle fiber and plating in traditional plastic tissue culture platforms, their muscle stem cell properties are rapidly lost. Clearly, the maintenance of stem cell function is critically dependent on in vivo niche signals, highlighting the need to create novel in vitro microenvironments that allow for the maintenance and propagation of satellite cells while retaining their potential to function as muscle stem cells. Here, we discuss how emerging biomaterials technologies offer great promise for engineering in vitro microenvironments to meet these challenges. In engineered biomaterials, signaling molecules can be presented in a manner that more closely mimics cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrices can be fabricated with diverse rigidities that approximate in vivo tissues. The development of in vitro microenvironments in which niche features can be systematically modulated will be instrumental not only to future insights into muscle stem cell biology and therapeutic approaches to muscle diseases and muscle wasting with aging, but also will provide a paradigm for the analysis of numerous adult tissue-specific stem cells. PMID:19751902

Cosgrove, Benjamin D.; Sacco, Alessandra; Gilbert, Penney M.; Blau, Helen M.

2009-01-01

74

Recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 activates satellite cells in the mouse urethral rhabdosphincter  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of a new method for the treatment of urinary incontinence by stimulation of urethral rhabdosphincter satellite cells. We show that satellite cells do exist in the sphincter muscle of retired male mice breeders by staining for c-Met, a satellite cell specific protein. Once activated by recombinant mouse Insulin-like Growth Factor-1(rIgf-1), the satellite cells develop into muscle cells within the rhabdosphincter thereby potentially strengthening it. Methods 20 ?l (1 ?g/?l) of rIgf-1 was surgically injected directly into the urethral wall of retired male mouse breeders. Mice injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were used as controls. 4 weeks later, urethras were harvested and serially-sectioned through the sphincter for routine hematoxylin-eosin staining as well as immunohistochemical staining with satellite cell specific anti-c-Met antibody and proliferation specific anti-Ki-67 antibody. Results Anti-c-Met antibody positive cells (c-Met+) were identified in the rhabdosphincter. c-Met+ cells increased by 161.8% relative to controls four weeks after rIGF-1 injection. Anti- Ki-67 antibody positive cells were identified and characterized as cells with centrally located nuclei in striated muscle bundles of rIGF-1 treated animals. Conclusions Satellite cells in the mouse rhabdosphincter can be activated by rIGF-1 treatment, which subsequently are incorporated into existing skeletal muscle bundles. Using this approach, the rhabdosphincter can be induced to regenerate and potentially strengthen via satellite cell activation and likely improve urinary continence. PMID:24279352

2013-01-01

75

Acute effects of hindlimb unweighting on satellite cells of growing skeletal muscle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proliferative behavior of satellite cells in growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles was examined at short periods after initiation of hindlimb unweighting. Mitotic activity of satellite cells in both muscles decreased below weight-bearing control levels within 24 h of initiation of hindlimb unweighting. This satellite cell response was equal to or greater than 48 h before any atrophic morphological changes that take place in the muscles. Suppression of mitotic activity was most severe in the soleus muscle where continuous infusion of label demonstrated that virtually all mitotic activity was abolished between 3 and 5 days. The results of this study suggest that satellite cell mitotic activity is a sensitive indicator of primary atrophic changes occurring in growing myofibers and may be a predictor of future morphological changes.

Schultz, Edward; Darr, Kevin C.; Macius, Allison

1994-01-01

76

Inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling stimulates adult satellite cell function.  

PubMed

Diminished regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle occurs during adulthood. We identified a reduction in the intrinsic capacity of mouse adult satellite cells to contribute to muscle regeneration and repopulation of the niche. Gene expression analysis identified higher expression of JAK-STAT signaling targets in 18-month-old relative to 3-week-old mice. Knockdown of Jak2 or Stat3 significantly stimulated symmetric satellite stem cell divisions on cultured myofibers. Genetic knockdown of Jak2 or Stat3 expression in prospectively isolated satellite cells markedly enhanced their ability to repopulate the satellite cell niche after transplantation into regenerating tibialis anterior muscle. Pharmacological inhibition of Jak2 and Stat3 activity similarly stimulated symmetric expansion of satellite cells in vitro and their engraftment in vivo. Intramuscular injection of these drugs resulted in a marked enhancement of muscle repair and force generation after cardiotoxin injury. Together these results reveal age-related intrinsic properties that functionally distinguish satellite cells and suggest a promising therapeutic avenue for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25194569

Price, Feodor D; von Maltzahn, Julia; Bentzinger, C Florian; Dumont, Nicolas A; Yin, Hang; Chang, Natasha C; Wilson, David H; Frenette, Jérôme; Rudnicki, Michael A

2014-10-01

77

Protective effect of ATP on skeletal muscle satellite cells damaged by H2O 2.  

PubMed

This study investigated the protective effect of ATP on skeletal muscle satellite cells damaged by H2O2 in neonatal rats and the possible mechanism. The skeletal muscle satellite cells were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, model group (cells treated with 0.1 mmol/L H2O2 for 50 s), protection group (cells treated with 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, or 0.25 mmol/L ATP for 24 h, and then with 0.1 mmol/L H2O2 for 50 s), proliferation group (cells treated with 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, or 0.25 mmol/L ATP for 24 h). MTT assay, FITC+PI+DAPI fluorescent staining, Giemsa staining and immunofluorescence were performed to examine cell viability and apoptosis, and apoptosis-related proteins. The results showed that the survival rate of skeletal muscle satellite cells was decreased and the apoptosis rate was increased after H2O2 treatment (P<0.01). Different doses of ATP had different effects on skeletal muscle satellite cells damaged by H2O2: the survival rate of muscle satellite cells treated with ATP at 4, 2, or 1 mmol/L was increased. The protective effect was most profound on cells treated with 2 mmol/L ATP. Immunofluorescence showed that ATP could increase the number of Bcl-2-positive cells (P<0.01) and decrease the number of the Bax-positive cells (P<0.01). It was concluded that ATP could protect skeletal muscle satellite cells against H2O2 damage in neonatal rats, which may be attributed to the up-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax, resulting in the suppression of apoptosis. PMID:25673197

Fei, Fei; Zhu, Dao-Li; Tao, Li-Jun; Huang, Bao-Zhu; Zhang, Hong-Hong

2015-02-01

78

Identification and characterization of a non-satellite cell muscle resident progenitor during postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite cells are resident myogenic progenitors in postnatal skeletal muscle involved in muscle postnatal growth and adult regenerative capacity. Here, we identify and describe a population of muscle-resident stem cells, which are located in the interstitium, that express the cell stress mediator PW1 but do not express other markers of muscle stem cells such as Pax7. PW1+\\/Pax7? interstitial cells (PICs)

Kathryn J. Mitchell; Alice Pannérec; Bruno Cadot; Ara Parlakian; Vanessa Besson; Edgar R. Gomes; Giovanna Marazzi; David A. Sassoon

2010-01-01

79

Isolation and Culture of Skeletal Muscle Myofibers as a Means to Analyze Satellite Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Myofibers are the functional contractile units of skeletal muscle. Mononuclear satellite cells located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber are the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. This chapter describes protocols used in our laboratory for isolation, culturing and immunostaining of single myofibers from mouse skeletal muscle. The isolated myofibers are intact and retain their associated satellite cells underneath the basal lamina. The first protocol discusses myofiber isolation from the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle. Myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with Vitrogen collagen and satellite cells remain associated with the myofibers undergoing proliferation and differentiation on the myofiber surface. The second protocol discusses the isolation of longer myofibers from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Different from the FDB myofibers, the longer EDL myofibers tend to tangle and break if cultured together; therefore, EDL myofibers are cultured individually. These myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with Matrigel. The satellite cells initially remain associated with the myofiber and later migrate away to its vicinity, resulting in extensive cell proliferation and differentiation. These culture protocols allow studies on the interplay between the myofiber and its associated satellite cells. PMID:15361669

Shefer, Gabi; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

2012-01-01

80

Eph/ephrin interactions modulate muscle satellite cell motility and patterning  

PubMed Central

During development and regeneration, directed migration of cells, including neural crest cells, endothelial cells, axonal growth cones and many types of adult stem cells, to specific areas distant from their origin is necessary for their function. We have recently shown that adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells), once activated by isolation or injury, are a highly motile population with the potential to respond to multiple guidance cues, based on their expression of classical guidance receptors. We show here that, in vivo, differentiated and regenerating myofibers dynamically express a subset of ephrin guidance ligands, as well as Eph receptors. This expression has previously only been examined in the context of muscle-nerve interactions; however, we propose that it might also play a role in satellite cell-mediated muscle repair. Therefore, we investigated whether Eph-ephrin signaling would produce changes in satellite cell directional motility. Using a classical ephrin ‘stripe’ assay, we found that satellite cells respond to a subset of ephrins with repulsive behavior in vitro; patterning of differentiating myotubes is also parallel to ephrin stripes. This behavior can be replicated in a heterologous in vivo system, the hindbrain of the developing quail, in which neural crest cells are directed in streams to the branchial arches and to the forelimb of the developing quail, where presumptive limb myoblasts emigrate from the somite. We hypothesize that guidance signaling might impact multiple steps in muscle regeneration, including escape from the niche, directed migration to sites of injury, cell-cell interactions among satellite cell progeny, and differentiation and patterning of regenerated muscle. PMID:22071104

Stark, Danny A.; Karvas, Rowan M.; Siegel, Ashley L.; Cornelison, D. D. W.

2011-01-01

81

Inducible depletion of satellite cells in adult, sedentary mice impairs muscle regenerative capacity without affecting sarcopenia.  

PubMed

A key determinant of geriatric frailty is sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Although the etiology of sarcopenia is unknown, the correlation during aging between the loss of activity of satellite cells, which are endogenous muscle stem cells, and impaired muscle regenerative capacity has led to the hypothesis that the loss of satellite cell activity is also a cause of sarcopenia. We tested this hypothesis in male sedentary mice by experimentally depleting satellite cells in young adult animals to a degree sufficient to impair regeneration throughout the rest of their lives. A detailed analysis of multiple muscles harvested at various time points during aging in different cohorts of these mice showed that the muscles were of normal size, despite low regenerative capacity, but did have increased fibrosis. These results suggest that lifelong reduction of satellite cells neither accelerated nor exacerbated sarcopenia and that satellite cells did not contribute to the maintenance of muscle size or fiber type composition during aging, but that their loss may contribute to age-related muscle fibrosis. PMID:25501907

Fry, Christopher S; Lee, Jonah D; Mula, Jyothi; Kirby, Tyler J; Jackson, Janna R; Liu, Fujun; Yang, Lin; Mendias, Christopher L; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

2015-01-01

82

Hypoxia promotes satellite cell self-renewal and enhances the efficiency of myoblast transplantation.  

PubMed

Microenvironmental oxygen (O(2)) regulates stem cell activity, and a hypoxic niche with low oxygen levels has been reported in multiple stem cell types. Satellite cells are muscle-resident stem cells that maintain the homeostasis and mediate the regeneration of skeletal muscles. We demonstrate here that hypoxic culture conditions favor the quiescence of satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts by upregulating Pax7, a key regulator of satellite cell self-renewal, and downregulating MyoD and myogenin. During myoblast division, hypoxia promotes asymmetric self-renewal divisions and inhibits asymmetric differentiation divisions without affecting the overall rate of proliferation. Mechanistic studies reveal that hypoxia activates the Notch signaling pathway, which subsequently represses the expression of miR-1 and miR-206 through canonical Hes/Hey proteins, leading to increased levels of Pax7. More importantly, hypoxia conditioning enhances the efficiency of myoblast transplantation and the self-renewal of implanted cells. Given the robust effects of hypoxia on maintaining the quiescence and promoting the self-renewal of cultured myoblasts, we predict that oxygen levels in the satellite cell niche play a central role in precisely balancing quiescence versus activation, and self-renewal versus differentiation, in muscle stem cells in vivo. PMID:22764051

Liu, Weiyi; Wen, Yefei; Bi, Pengpeng; Lai, Xinsheng; Liu, X Shawn; Liu, Xiaoqi; Kuang, Shihuan

2012-08-01

83

On the non-equivalence of skeletal muscle satellite cells and embryonic myoblasts.  

PubMed

Postnatal satellite cells, isolated from normal or previously denervated skeletal muscles of juvenile quails, were tested as to their capacity to participate in embryonic muscle ontogeny. They were grafted into 2-day chick embryo hosts, in place of a piece of brachial somitic mesoderm. Satellite cell implants were prepared from pellets either of freshly isolated cells or of cells precultured in vitro under proliferative conditions. Myogenic capacity of the implanted cells was attested by their ability to fuse into myotubes when cultured under differentiation conditions. In no case did the implanted satellite cells invade the adjacent wing bud or participate in wing muscle morphogenesis. They did not either give rise to myotubes at the site of implantation, nor did they even survive longer than 3 days in the embryonic environment. These negative results indicate that postnatal satellite cells, unlike embryonic myoblasts, are unable to take part in muscle embryogenesis. Although they derive from the same somitic myogenic cell line as the embryonic myoblasts, they therefore represent a differentiated non-totipotent type of myogenic cell. PMID:3631956

Chevallier, A; Pautou, M P; Harris, A J; Kieny, M

84

Adult satellite cells and embryonic muscle progenitors have distinct genetic requirements.  

PubMed

Myogenic potential, survival and expansion of mammalian muscle progenitors depend on the myogenic determinants Pax3 and Pax7 embryonically, and Pax7 alone perinatally. Several in vitro studies support the critical role of Pax7 in these functions of adult muscle stem cells (satellite cells), but a formal demonstration has been lacking in vivo. Here we show, through the application of inducible Cre/loxP lineage tracing and conditional gene inactivation to the tibialis anterior muscle regeneration paradigm, that, unexpectedly, when Pax7 is inactivated in adult mice, mutant satellite cells are not compromised in muscle regeneration, they can proliferate and reoccupy the sublaminal satellite niche, and they are able to support further regenerative processes. Dual adult inactivation of Pax3 and Pax7 also results in normal muscle regeneration. Multiple time points of gene inactivation reveal that Pax7 is only required up to the juvenile period when progenitor cells make the transition into quiescence. Furthermore, we demonstrate a cell-intrinsic difference between neonatal progenitor and adult satellite cells in their Pax7-dependency. Our finding of an age-dependent change in the genetic requirement for muscle stem cells cautions against inferring adult stem-cell biology from embryonic studies, and has direct implications for the use of stem cells from hosts of different ages in transplantation-based therapy. PMID:19554048

Lepper, Christoph; Conway, Simon J; Fan, Chen-Ming

2009-07-30

85

Turkey Goulash Ingredients  

E-print Network

Turkey Goulash Ingredients: 8 ounces macaroni, whole-wheat 1 pound ground turkey 1 onion 1/2 green skillet to medium. Place ground turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break turkey into small pieces browned turkey on a plate covered with several layers of paper towels to absorb fat. Drain fat from

Liskiewicz, Maciej

86

Turkey Lentil Chili Ingredients  

E-print Network

Turkey Lentil Chili Ingredients: 1/2 pound ground turkey 1 small onion 2 cups lentils, cooked ground turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break turkey into small pieces as it browns. Keep on stirring and breaking into small pieces until it is no longer pink. Once it is done, put browned turkey

Liskiewicz, Maciej

87

Subunit structure of alpha-satellite DNA containing chromatin from African green monkey cells.  

PubMed Central

alpha-Satellite DNA containing chromatin from African green monkey cells (CV-1 cells) has been used to study the question whether or not nucleosomes are arranged in phase with the 172 bp repeat unit of the satellite DNA. Digestion experiments with DNAase II led us to exclude a simple phase relationship between the nucleosomal and the satellite DNA repeats. Digestion of CV-1 nuclei with micrococcal nuclease and endogenous nuclease (s) produced a series of sharp bands in the satellite DNA register over a background of heterogeneous length fragments. This observation is explained by a preferential cleavage of certain nucleotide sequences by these nucleases and is not in contradiction to our conclusion that a simple phase relationship does not exist. Images PMID:114981

Fittler, F; Zachau, H G

1979-01-01

88

Spotlight: Turkey.  

PubMed

Turkey's population stood at 55.4 million in 1989, with a 2.2% rate of natural increase. There were 30 births/1000 population (total fertility rate of 3.7) and 8 deaths/1000 population (infant mortality rate of 81/1000 live births). Until 1965, the Government of Turkey pursued a pronatalist population policy. However, a 1965 law allows individual freedom in determining one's family size and legalized contraception. Family planning service delivery programs have been integrated into numerous development projects. A 1983 survey indicated that 62% of eligible Turkish women were using some form of contraception, while 91% had knowledge of at least 1 modern method. The survey revealed an association between educational level and reproductive behavior: 82% of married women with a secondary education or more were contraceptive users compared with only 46% of illiterate married women. 50% of respondents expressed a desire for only 2 children. Internal and international immigration is, at present, Turkey's most pressing demographic concern. Trends in this area include migration from rural to urban areas of Turkey, emigration to West Germany for employment, and the immigration of ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and other Eastern European countries. PMID:12316015

Patriquin, W

1990-01-01

89

Turkey Trouble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Limiting factors are things that can limit the size of a population such as food, water, shelter, disease, nesting sites, predation, and parasitism. In this activity students will play a game to simulate changes in a turkey population and will learn about limiting factors.

Julie Ross

2011-09-11

90

Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is argued that a two-cell structure is likely to be the unique property, and potentially satellite-accessible observable, of the exceptionally severe tornado. Analysis elucidating the dynamic, thermodynamic, and geometric properties of this two-cell structure is described. The analysis ultimately will furnish instrumentation requirements.

Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

1979-01-01

91

Temporal Expression of Calcium Channel Subunits in Satellite Cells and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells.  

PubMed

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be differentiated into myocytes, as well as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes in culture. Calcium channels mediate excitation-contraction coupling and are essential for the function of muscle. However, little is known about the expression of calcium channel subunits and calcium handling in stem cells. We examined whether the expression of calcium channel subunits in MSC is similar to that of skeletal muscle satellite cells and if their levels of expression are modified after treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4). We found that during myogenic differentiation, MSC first express the ?2?1 subunit and the cardiac channel subunit Cav1.2. In contrast to the ?2?1 subunit levels, the Cav1.2 subunit decreases rapidly with time. The skeletal channel subunit Cav1.1 is detected at day 3 but its expression increases considerably, resembling more closely the expression of the subunits in satellite cells. Treatment of MSC with BMP4 caused a significant increase in expression of Cav1.2, a delay in expression of Cav1.1, and a reduction in the duration of calcium transients when extracellular calcium was removed. Calcium currents and transients followed a pattern related to the expression of the cardiac (Cav1.2) or skeletal (Cav1.1) ?1subunits. These results indicate that differentiation of untreated MSC resembles differentiation of skeletal muscle and that BMP4 reduces skeletal muscle calcium channel expression and promotes the expression of cardiac calcium channels during myogenic differentiation. PMID:25277766

Grajales, Liliana; Lach, Lawrence E; Janisch, Patrick; Geenen, David L; García, Jesús

2014-10-01

92

Evaluation of solar cells for potential space satellite power applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation focused on the following subjects: (1) the relative merits of alternative solar cell materials, based on performance and availability, (2) the best manufacturing methods for various solar cell options and the effects of extremely large production volumes on their ultimate costs and operational characteristics, (3) the areas of uncertainty in achieving large solar cell production volumes, (4) the effects of concentration ratios on solar array mass and system performance, (5) the factors influencing solar cell life in the radiation environment during transport to and in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) the merits of conducting solar cell manufacturing operations in space.

1977-01-01

93

Fibre type-specific satellite cell response to aerobic training in sedentary adults.  

PubMed

In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of a traditional, 12 week aerobic training protocol on skeletal muscle fibre type distribution and satellite cell content in sedentary subjects. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis [n = 23 subjects (six male and 17 female); body mass index 30.7 ± 1.2 kg m(-2)] before and after 12 weeks of aerobic training performed on a cycle ergometer. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression, cross-sectional area and satellite cell and myonuclear content. Following training, a decrease in MyHC hybrid type IIa/IIx fibre frequency occurred, with a concomitant increase in pure MyHC type IIa fibres. Pretraining fibre type correlated with body mass index, and the change in fibre type following training was associated with improvements in maximal oxygen consumption. Twelve weeks of aerobic training also induced increases in mean cross-sectional area in both MyHC type I and type IIa fibres. Satellite cell content was also increased following training, specifically in MyHC type I fibres, with no change in the number of satellite cells associated with MyHC type II fibres. With the increased satellite cell content following training, an increase in myonuclear number per fibre also occurred in MyHC type I fibres. Hypertrophy of MyHC type II fibres occurred without detectable myonuclear addition, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying growth in fast and slow fibres differ. These data provide intriguing evidence for a fibre type-specific role of satellite cells in muscle adaptation following aerobic training. PMID:24687582

Fry, Christopher S; Noehren, Brian; Mula, Jyothi; Ubele, Margo F; Westgate, Philip M; Kern, Philip A; Peterson, Charlotte A

2014-06-15

94

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is expressed in satellite cells and controls myogenesis.  

PubMed

Upon injury, muscle satellite cells become activated and produce skeletal muscle precursors that engage in myogenesis. We demonstrate that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP?) is expressed in the satellite cells of healthy muscle. C/EBP? expression is regulated during myogenesis such that C/EBP? is rapidly and massively downregulated upon induction to differentiate. Furthermore, persistent expression of C/EBP? in myoblasts potently inhibits differentiation at least in part through the inhibition of MyoD protein function and stability. As a consequence, myogenic factor expression, myosin heavy chain expression, and fusogenic activity were reduced in C/EBP?-overexpressing cells. Using knockout models, we demonstrate that loss of Cebpb expression in satellite cells results in precocious differentiation of myoblasts in growth conditions and greater cell fusion upon differentiation. In vivo, loss of Cebpb expression in satellite cells resulted in larger muscle fiber cross-sectional area and improved repair after muscle injury. Our results support the notion that C/EBP? inhibits myogenic differentiation and that its levels must be reduced to allow for activation of MyoD target genes and the progression of differentiation. PMID:23034923

Marchildon, François; Lala, Neena; Li, Grace; St-Louis, Catherine; Lamothe, Daniel; Keller, Charles; Wiper-Bergeron, Nadine

2012-12-01

95

Myf5-Positive Satellite Cells Contribute to Pax7-Dependent Long-Term Maintenance of Adult Muscle Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Skeletal muscle contains Pax7-expressing muscle stem or satellite cells, enabling muscle regeneration throughout most of adult life. Here, we demonstrate that induced inactivation of Pax7 in Pax7-expressing cells of adult mice leads to loss of muscle stem cells and reduced heterochromatin condensation in rare surviving satellite cells. Inactivation of Pax7 in Myf5-expressing cells revealed that the majority of adult muscle stem cells originate from myogenic lineages, which express the myogenic regulators Myf5 or MyoD. Likewise, the majority of muscle stem cells are replenished from Myf5-expressing myogenic cells during adult life, and inactivation of Pax7 in Myf5-expressing cells after muscle damage leads to a complete arrest of muscle regeneration. Finally, we demonstrate that a relatively small number of muscle stem cells are sufficient for efficient repair of skeletal muscles. We conclude that Pax7 acts at different levels in a nonhierarchical regulatory network controlling muscle-satellite-cell-mediated muscle regeneration. PMID:23933088

Günther, Stefan; Kim, Johnny; Kostin, Sawa; Lepper, Christoph; Fan, Chen-Ming; Braun, Thomas

2014-01-01

96

Skeletal muscle satellite cell migration to injured tissue measured with 111In-oxine and high-resolution SPECT imaging  

PubMed Central

The delivery of adult skeletal muscle stem cells, called satellite cells, to several injured muscles via the circulation would be useful, however, an improved understanding of cell fate and biodistribution following their delivery is important for this goal to be achieved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of systemically delivered satellite cells to home to injured skeletal muscle using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of 111In-labeled satellite cells. Satellite cells labeled with 111In-oxine and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected intravenously after bupivicaine-induced injury to the tibialis anterior muscle. Animals were imaged with a high-resolution SPECT system called FastSPECT II for up to 7 days after transplantation. In vivo FastSPECT II imaging demonstrated a three to five-fold greater number of transplanted satellite cells in bupivicaine-injured muscle as compared to un-injured muscle after transplantation; a finding that was verified through autoradiograph analysis and quantification of GFP expression. Satellite cells also accumulated in other organs including the lung, liver, and spleen, as determined by biodistribution measurements. These data support the ability of satellite cells to home to injured muscle and support the use of SPECT and autoradiograph imaging techniques to track systemically transplanted 111In labeled satellite cells in vivo, and suggest their homing may be improved by reducing their entrapment in filter organs. PMID:24190365

Elster, Jennifer L.; Rathbone, Christopher R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Liu, Xiasong; Barrett, Harrison H.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Allen, Ronald E.

2014-01-01

97

Sulforaphane causes a major epigenetic repression of myostatin in porcine satellite cells  

PubMed Central

Satellite cells function as skeletal muscle stem cells to support postnatal muscle growth and regeneration following injury or disease. There is great promise for the improvement of muscle performance in livestock and for the therapy of muscle pathologies in humans by the targeting of myostatin (MSTN) in this cell population. Human diet contains many histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, such as the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), whose epigenetic effects on MSTN gene in satellite cells are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the epigenetic influences of SFN on the MSTN gene in satellite cells. The present work provides the first evidence, which is distinct from the effects of trichostatin A (TSA), that SFN supplementation in vitro not only acts as a HDAC inhibitor but also as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor in porcine satellite cells. Compared with TSA and 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), SFN treatment significantly represses MSTN expression, accompanied by strongly attenuated expression of negative feedback inhibitors of the MSTN signaling pathway. miRNAs targeting MSTN are not implicated in posttranscriptional regulation of MSTN. Nevertheless, a weakly enriched myoblast determination (MyoD) protein associated with diminished histone acetylation in the MyoD binding site located in the MSTN promoter region may contribute to the transcriptional repression of MSTN by SFN. These findings reveal a new mode of epigenetic repression of MSTN by the bioactive compound SFN. This novel pharmacological, biological activity of SFN in satellite cells may thus allow for the development of novel approaches to weaken the MSTN signaling pathway, both for therapies of human skeletal muscle disorders and for livestock production improvement. PMID:23092945

Fan, Huitao; Zhang, Rui; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Hölker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas

2012-01-01

98

Reduced myotube diameter, atrophic signalling and elevated oxidative stress in cultured satellite cells from COPD patients  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms leading to skeletal limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been fully elucidated. Exhausted muscle regenerative capacity of satellite cells has been evocated, but the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and differentiate properly remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of satellite cells derived from COPD patients and healthy individuals, in terms of proliferative and differentiation capacities, morphological phenotype and atrophy/hypertrophy signalling, and oxidative stress status. Therefore, we purified and cultivated satellite cells from progressively frozen vastus lateralis biopsies of eight COPD patients and eight healthy individuals. We examined proliferation parameters, differentiation capacities, myotube diameter, expression of atrophy/hypertrophy markers, oxidative stress damages, antioxidant enzyme expression and cell susceptibility to H2O2 in cultured myoblasts and/or myotubes. Proliferation characteristics and commitment to terminal differentiation were similar in COPD patients and healthy individuals, despite impaired fusion capacities of COPD myotubes. Myotube diameter was smaller in COPD patients (P = 0.015), and was associated with a higher expression of myostatin (myoblasts: P = 0.083; myotubes: P = 0.050) and atrogin-1 (myoblasts: P = 0.050), and a decreased phospho-AKT/AKT ratio (myoblasts: P = 0.022). Protein carbonylation (myoblasts: P = 0.028; myotubes: P = 0.002) and lipid peroxidation (myotubes: P = 0.065) were higher in COPD cells, and COPD myoblasts were significantly more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, cultured satellite cells from COPD patients display characteristics of morphology, atrophic signalling and oxidative stress similar to those described in in vivo COPD skeletal limb muscles. We have therefore demonstrated that muscle alteration in COPD can be studied by classical in vitro cellular models. PMID:25339614

Pomiès, Pascal; Rodriguez, Julie; Blaquière, Marine; Sedraoui, Sami; Gouzi, Fares; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

2015-01-01

99

Reduced myotube diameter, atrophic signalling and elevated oxidative stress in cultured satellite cells from COPD patients.  

PubMed

The mechanisms leading to skeletal limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been fully elucidated. Exhausted muscle regenerative capacity of satellite cells has been evocated, but the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and differentiate properly remains unknown. Our objectives were to compare the characteristics of satellite cells derived from COPD patients and healthy individuals, in terms of proliferative and differentiation capacities, morphological phenotype and atrophy/hypertrophy signalling, and oxidative stress status. Therefore, we purified and cultivated satellite cells from progressively frozen vastus lateralis biopsies of eight COPD patients and eight healthy individuals. We examined proliferation parameters, differentiation capacities, myotube diameter, expression of atrophy/hypertrophy markers, oxidative stress damages, antioxidant enzyme expression and cell susceptibility to H2 O2 in cultured myoblasts and/or myotubes. Proliferation characteristics and commitment to terminal differentiation were similar in COPD patients and healthy individuals, despite impaired fusion capacities of COPD myotubes. Myotube diameter was smaller in COPD patients (P = 0.015), and was associated with a higher expression of myostatin (myoblasts: P = 0.083; myotubes: P = 0.050) and atrogin-1 (myoblasts: P = 0.050), and a decreased phospho-AKT/AKT ratio (myoblasts: P = 0.022). Protein carbonylation (myoblasts: P = 0.028; myotubes: P = 0.002) and lipid peroxidation (myotubes: P = 0.065) were higher in COPD cells, and COPD myoblasts were significantly more susceptible to oxidative stress. Thus, cultured satellite cells from COPD patients display characteristics of morphology, atrophic signalling and oxidative stress similar to those described in in vivo COPD skeletal limb muscles. We have therefore demonstrated that muscle alteration in COPD can be studied by classical in vitro cellular models. PMID:25339614

Pomiès, Pascal; Rodriguez, Julie; Blaquière, Marine; Sedraoui, Sami; Gouzi, Fares; Carnac, Gilles; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Mercier, Jacques; Préfaut, Christian; Hayot, Maurice

2015-01-01

100

Isolation and Culture of Skeletal Muscle Myofibers as a Means to Analyze Satellite Cells  

PubMed Central

Multinucleated myofibers are the functional contractile units of skeletal muscle. In adult muscle, mononuclear satellite cells, located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber, are the primary myogenic stem cells. This chapter describes protocols for isolation, culturing and immunostaining of myofibers from mouse skeletal muscle. Myofibers are isolated intact and retain their associated satellite cells. The first protocol discusses myofiber isolation from the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle. These short myofibers are cultured in dishes coated with PureCol collagen (formerly known as Vitrogen) using a serum replacement medium. Employing such culture conditions, satellite cells remain associated with the myofibers, undergoing proliferation and differentiation on the myofiber surface. The second protocol discusses the isolation of longer myofibers from the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Different from the FDB preparation, where multiple myofibers are processed together, the longer EDL myofibers are typically processed and cultured individually in dishes coated with Matrigel using a growth factor rich medium. Under these conditions, satellite cells initially remain associated with the parent myofiber and later migrate away, giving rise to proliferating and differentiating progeny. Myofibers from other types of muscles, such as diaphragm, masseter, and extraocular muscles can also be isolated and analyzed using protocols described herein. Overall, cultures of isolated myofibers provide essential tools for studying the interplay between the parent myofiber and its associated satellite cells. The current chapter provides background, procedural, and reagent updates, and step-by-step images of FDB and EDL muscle isolations, not included in our 2005 publication in this series. PMID:23179849

Keire, Paul; Shearer, Andrew; Shefer, Gabi; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

2012-01-01

101

Satellite cell-mediated angiogenesis in vitro coincides with a functional hypoxia-inducible factor pathway  

PubMed Central

Muscle regeneration involves the coordination of myogenesis and revascularization to restore proper muscle function. Myogenesis is driven by resident stem cells termed satellite cells (SC), whereas angiogenesis arises from endothelial cells and perivascular cells of preexisting vascular segments and the collateral vasculature. Communication between myogenic and angiogenic cells seems plausible, especially given the number of growth factors produced by SC. To characterize these interactions, we developed an in vitro coculture model composed of rat skeletal muscle SC and microvascular fragments (MVF). In this system, isolated epididymal MVF suspended in collagen gel are cultured over a rat SC monolayer culture. In the presence of SC, MVF exhibit greater indices of angiogenesis than MVF cultured alone. A positive dose-dependent effect of SC conditioned medium (CM) on MVF growth was observed, suggesting that SC secrete soluble-acting growth factor(s). Next, we specifically blocked VEGF action in SC CM, and this was sufficient to abolish satellite cell-induced angiogenesis. Finally, hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), a transcriptional regulator of VEGF gene expression, was found to be expressed in cultured SC and in putative SC in sections of in vivo stretch-injured rat muscle. Hypoxic culture conditions increased SC HIF-1? activity, which was positively associated with SC VEGF gene expression and protein levels. Collectively, these initial observations suggest that a heretofore unexplored aspect of satellite cell physiology is the initiation of a proangiogenic program. PMID:19386789

Rhoads, R. P.; Johnson, R. M.; Rathbone, C. R.; Liu, X.; Temm-Grove, C.; Sheehan, S. M.; Hoying, J. B.; Allen, R. E.

2009-01-01

102

Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion.  

PubMed

Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1(-/-) mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. PMID:25218946

Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Nam, Deokhwa; Li, Yong; Ma, Ke

2015-02-01

103

Satellite observations of ship emission induced transitions from broken to closed cell marine stratocumulus  

E-print Network

Satellite observations of ship emission induced transitions from broken to closed cell marine; accepted 3 August 2012; published 12 September 2012. [1] Documentation of the evolution of ship tracks during 42 h demonstrated that ship emissions are able to convert a marine stratocumulus regime of open

Daniel, Rosenfeld

104

Inadequate satellite cell replication compromises muscle regrowth following postnatal nutrient restriction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perinatal growth impairment permanently compromises skeletal muscle mass. The present study assessed the contribution of muscle satellite cell replicative capacity to this deficit. Mouse dams were fed either a low protein (LP, n=7) or control (C, n=6) diet during lactation. Pups were weaned at 21 d ...

105

Multi-grid-cell validation of satellite aerosol property retrievals in INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT 2004  

E-print Network

Sun photometer (AATS) on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft. Legs flown at low altitude (usually 100 m ASL). Midvisible AOD on low-altitude J31 legs in satellite grid cells ranged from 0.05 to 0.9, with horizontal aerosol scattering and absorption to estimate AOD below the J31. In these cases, which had J31 altitudes

106

Ground Turkey Stroganoff Ingredients  

E-print Network

Ground Turkey Stroganoff Ingredients: 8 ounces egg noodles, uncooked 1 pound ground turkey 1 onion. Meanwhile, brown ground turkey and onions in non stick skillet until meat is no longer pink and onions cup of egg noodles on plate, top with 1/2 cup of turkey mixture. Equipment: Knife Cutting board

Liskiewicz, Maciej

107

Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

1982-01-01

108

Expression of CD34 and Myf5 defines the majority of quiescent adult skeletal muscle satellite cells.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle is one of a several adult post-mitotic tissues that retain the capacity to regenerate. This relies on a population of quiescent precursors, termed satellite cells. Here we describe two novel markers of quiescent satellite cells: CD34, an established marker of hematopoietic stem cells, and Myf5, the earliest marker of myogenic commitment. CD34(+ve) myoblasts can be detected in proliferating C2C12 cultures. In differentiating cultures, CD34(+ve) cells do not fuse into myotubes, nor express MyoD. Using isolated myofibers as a model of synchronous precursor cell activation, we show that quiescent satellite cells express CD34. An early feature of their activation is alternate splicing followed by complete transcriptional shutdown of CD34. This data implicates CD34 in the maintenance of satellite cell quiescence. In heterozygous Myf5(nlacZ/+) mice, all CD34(+ve) satellite cells also express beta-galactosidase, a marker of activation of Myf5, showing that quiescent satellite cells are committed to myogenesis. All such cells are positive for the accepted satellite cell marker, M-cadherin. We also show that satellite cells can be identified on isolated myofibers of the myosin light chain 3F-nlacZ-2E mouse as those that do not express the transgene. The numbers of satellite cells detected in this way are significantly greater than those identified by the other three markers. We conclude that the expression of CD34, Myf5, and M-cadherin defines quiescent, committed precursors and speculate that the CD34(-ve), Myf5(-ve) minority may be involved in maintaining the lineage-committed majority. PMID:11121437

Beauchamp, J R; Heslop, L; Yu, D S; Tajbakhsh, S; Kelly, R G; Wernig, A; Buckingham, M E; Partridge, T A; Zammit, P S

2000-12-11

109

Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors do not efficiently target muscle satellite cells  

PubMed Central

Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are becoming an important tool for gene therapy of numerous genetic and other disorders. Several recombinant AAV vectors (rAAV) have the ability to transduce striated muscles in a variety of animals following intramuscular and intravascular administration, and have attracted widespread interest for therapy of muscle disorders such as the muscular dystrophies. However, most studies have focused on the ability to transduce mature muscle cells, and have not examined the ability to target myogenic stem cells such as skeletal muscle satellite cells. Here we examined the relative ability of rAAV vectors derived from AAV6 to target myoblasts, myocytes and myotubes in culture and satellite cells and myofibers in vivo. AAV vectors are able to transduce proliferating myoblasts in culture, albeit with reduced efficiency relative to post-mitotic myocytes and myotubes. In contrast, quiescent satellite cells are refractory to transduction in adult mice. These results suggest that while muscle disorders characterized by myofiber regeneration can be slowed or halted by AAV transduction, little if any vector transduction can be obtained in myogenic stems cells that might other wise support ongoing muscle regeneration.

Arnett, Andrea LH; Konieczny, Patryk; Ramos, Julian N; Hall, John; Odom, Guy; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Chamberlain, Joel R.; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

2014-01-01

110

Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates cell migration of satellite cells. A role for the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate axis.  

PubMed

Regulation of the motility of skeletal muscle precursor cells, such as satellite cells, is critically important for their proper recruitment at the site of tissue damage, and ultimately for its correct repair. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is well-recognized as a powerful bioactive agent, strongly stimulates cell migration of activated murine satellite cells. The biological effect exerted by LPA was found to be induced via activation of LPA1 and LPA3 , being abolished by cell treatment with the antagonist Ki16425, and severely impaired by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of the two receptor isoforms. In contrast, silencing of LPA2 potentiated the stimulation of cell motility by LPA, suggesting that it is negatively coupled to cell migration. Pharmacological inhibition of both sphingosine kinase (SK) isoforms using VPC96047, or the selective blocking of SK1 using VPC96091, abolished cell responsiveness to LPA; in agreement, gene silencing of SK1 or SK2 significantly reduced the biological effect of LPA. Moreover, the LPA-dependent stimulation of cell chemotaxis was found to be impaired by down-regulation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1P1 or S1P4 by specific siRNAs. In summary, the results obtained support the notion that the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SK/S1P) axis is critically involved in the mechanism by which LPA elicits its pro-migratory action. This study provides compelling new information on the regulatory mechanisms of satellite cell motility, and reinforces the view that the SK/S1P signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the control of skeletal muscle precursor cell biology. PMID:25131845

Cencetti, Francesca; Bruno, Gennaro; Blescia, Sabrina; Bernacchioni, Caterina; Bruni, Paola; Donati, Chiara

2014-10-01

111

Imprinted Genes and Satellite Loci Are Differentially Methylated in Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Clones  

PubMed Central

Abstract In mammals, genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming systems exist in primordial germ cells and zygotes. These reprogramming systems play crucial roles in regulating genome functions during critical stages of embryonic development, and they confer the stability of gene expression during mammalian development. The frequent unexpected loss of progeny from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an ongoing problem. In this study, we used six cloned bovines (named NT-1 to NT-6), which were created by ear fibroblast nuclear transfer and displayed short life spans with multiple organ defects, as an experimental model. We focus here on three imprinted genes (IGF2, H19, and XIST) and four satellite loci (Satellite I, Satellite II, Art2, and VNTR) to investigate their methylation changes. The results revealed that aberrant methylation frequently occurred in the analyzed imprinted genes, but not in the satellite loci, of the cloned bovines. After the bovine fibroblast cells were treated with the 5-aza-2(?)-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc) demethylation agent, the methylation percentages of the XIST and H19 putative differentially methylated region (DMR) were significantly decreased (XIST, p<0.01; H19, p<0.05) followed by an increase in their mRNA expression levels (p<0.01). Furthermore, we found that five short-lived cloned bovines (NT-1 to NT-5) exhibited more severe aberrant methylation changes in the three imprinted genes examined than the little longer-lived clone (NT-6) compared with wild-type (WT) cows. Our data suggest that the reprogramming of the methylation-controlled regions between the imprinted genes and satellite loci are differences and may be involved with additional mechanisms that need further elucidation. PMID:23961768

Shen, Chih-Jie; Lin, Chiao-Chieh; Shen, Perng-Chih; Cheng, Winston T.K.; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Tsung-Chou; Liu, Shyh-Shyan

2013-01-01

112

Spaceflight performance of several types of silicon solar cells on the LIPS 3 satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from exposure of several types of Solarex silicon cells to a space environment for nearly two years on the LIPS 3 satellite are presented. Experiments include standard thickness (10 mil) cells with and without back surface fields, and ultrathin (2 mil) cells also with and without back surface fields. A comparison between a widely used coverslide adhesive, DC 93-500 and a potential alternate is also presented. The major findings from the data are that the 2 mil cells without a back surface field show the smallest normalized short circuit current degradation and that the 10 mil back surface field cells show the greatest absolute power output for the radiation exposures and temperatures encountered. The new encapsulant (McGhan Nusil CV-2500) exhibits a degradation comparable to DC 93-500. A comparison is made with each of the cell types in this experiment with expectations based on JPL Radiation Handbook data.

Silver, J.; Warfield, D.

1991-01-01

113

A Role for Nitric Oxide in Muscle Repair: Nitric Oxide–mediated Activation of Muscle Satellite Cells  

PubMed Central

Muscle satellite cells are quiescent precursors interposed between myofibers and a sheath of external lamina. Although their activation and recruitment to cycle enable muscle repair and adaptation, the activation signal is not known. Evidence is presented that nitric oxide (NO) mediates satellite cell activation, including morphological hypertrophy and decreased adhesion in the fiber-lamina complex. Activation in vivo occurred within 1 min after injury. Cell isolation and histology showed that pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity prevented the immediate injury-induced myogenic cell release and delayed the hypertrophy of satellite cells in that muscle. Transient activation of satellite cells in contralateral muscles 10 min later suggested that a circulating factor may interact with NO-mediated signaling. Interestingly, satellite cell activation in muscles of mdx dystrophic mice and NOS-I knockout mice quantitatively resembled NOS-inhibited release of normal cells, in agreement with reports of displaced and reduced NOS expression in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscle and the complete loss of NOS-I expression in knockout mice. Brief NOS inhibition in normal and mdx mice during injury produced subtle alterations in subsequent repair, including apoptosis in myotube nuclei and myotube formation inside laminar sheaths. Longer NOS inhibition delayed and restricted the extent of repair and resulted in fiber branching. A model proposes the hypothesis that NO release mediates satellite cell activation, possibly via shear-induced rapid increases in NOS activity that produce “NO transients.” PMID:10793157

Anderson, Judy E.

2000-01-01

114

Infrared and visible satellite rain estimation. I - A grid cell approach. II - A cloud definition approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study explores the relationships between satellite-viewed cloudy grid cells and the variability of the precipitation contained therein, together with the relationships between the satellite-IR clouds and rainfall and the IR-thresholded visible clouds and rainfall. In the grid cell approach, IR, visible, and radar data for five days of the Florida Area Cumulus Experiment were examined using a 32-km grid and 30-min interval; the results of this experiment indicated that useful, accurate rainfall estimates beyond rain/no rain discrimination are unlikely. In the cloud definition approach, it was found that the cloud IR area was highly correlated with the rain area and with the volume rain rate across the entire spectrum of cloud sizes. It was poorly correlated with mean cloud rain rate.

Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.

1987-01-01

115

Multi-temporal land cover classification of the Konya Basin, south-central Turkey, based on a LANDSAT TM-derived NDVI/NDMI time series: satellite remote sensing in support of landscape-scale soil biogeochemistry research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, terrestrial biogeochemists and soil scientists have called for new approaches to study human impacts on soil biogeochemical properties at landscape-wide, 100-1000 km2 spatial scales (Trumbore and Czimczik 2008). Here, we use satellite remote sensing to map land cover across a 16,000 km2 region in the Konya Basin, south-central Turkey, in support of research into agricultural and pastoral land use impacts on soil biogeochemistry. Our land cover classification is based on time series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) data, derived from eight LANDSAT TM images spanning the 2006-2007 growing seasons. Using a hierarchical, binary-split classification approach and a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm, we map five land cover classes that correspond with the following dominant land-use categories: 1) annual cultivated row-crops, 2) perennial orchards/cultivated woody vegetation, 3) fallow fields, 4) uncultivated woody vegetation, 5) steppe vegetation/rangeland. The final map has an overall classification accuracy of 87.4% (kappa = 0.842), determined via traditional confusion-matrix analysis and over 150 site visits during summer 2010. Classes 1 and 2, which have the highest per-pixel NDVI and NDMI sums across image dates, attain the highest producer and consumer accuracies (>95%). We also compare the relative contributions and efficacy of NDVI and NDMI in separating land cover classes, and the influence of radiometric correction and calibration across image dates on classification accuracies. Our results support previous research showing that NDVI time series can effectively classify agricultural landscapes in semi-arid to arid environments (Simonneaux et al. 2008; Pax-Lenny et al. 1996). By combining our land cover map with other geospatial information in a GIS, we demonstrate how satellite remote sensing can help expand spatial scales of terrestrial biogeochemistry research from experimental plots to landscapes. As an example, our final map proved to be a very practical tool for locating sites for soil sampling in the Konya Basin during the summer 2010 field season.

Mayes, M. T.; Ozdogan, M.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

2010-12-01

116

Human skeletal muscle satellite cells: aging, oxidative stress and the mitotic clock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal satellite cell cultures, isolated from human skeletal muscle, have a limited proliferative capacity and inevitably reach replicative senescence. In this study, we have focused on the consequences of a single oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on both proliferative capacity and myogenic characteristics. Treatment with 1mM H2O2 for 30min causes a small decrease in the viability and lifespan while

Valérie Renault; Lars-Eric Thornell; Gillian Butler-Browne; Vincent Mouly

2002-01-01

117

Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.  

PubMed

Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

2013-10-01

118

Problem Solvers: Talking Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM page allows users to download The "Talking Turkey" problem from Teaching Children Mathematics journal's regular department, "Problem Solvers." The activity provides opportunities for students to reason and communicate their thinking. Learners must help Sam determine how big a turkey his family should buy for this Thanksgiving’s feast. He finds some “rules of thumb” for buying turkeys but must make decisions based on his family's eating preferences for turkey.

Barbara Britton

119

Total Solar Eclipse: Live from Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On March 29, 2006, a team from the Exploratorium filmed and broadcast live the total eclipse of the Sun as seen from Side, Turkey. The web site created around this event includes streaming video of the eclipse, a slide show from first contact through totality and fourth contact, and an image gallery with photos of the eclipse and the chosen site in Turkey, a Roman-era amphitheater. There is also information about how the location was chosen, a map showing the path of totality, how the eclipse was filmed and broadcast live by satellite, and the mechanics of a solar eclipse.

2006-02-23

120

Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey  

E-print Network

· · · · / · #12;V1 Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey 156 Cradle Of History V1 PRSRTSTD U Greece, Israel, Cyprus and Turkey. Depart Athens for Agios Nikolaos and admire its rich beauty that island of Rhodes, with its wealth of ancient archaeological monuments. Sail to Turkey and visit the ruins

Liu, Taosheng

121

Turkey Bean Macaroni Ingredients  

E-print Network

Turkey Bean Macaroni Ingredients: 8 ounces macaroni, whole-wheat 1 onion, chopped 2 tomatoes 1 pound ground turkey 48 ounces tomato juice, low sodium 15 ounces Mexican-style chili beans 1/2 teaspoon according to package directions. Drain and set aside. 2. Heat skillet to medium. Place ground turkey

Liskiewicz, Maciej

122

Fabrication of glass gas cells for the HALOE and MAPS satellite experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment are satellite-borne experiments which measure trace constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. The instruments which obtain the data for these experiments are based on the gas filter correlation radiometer measurement technique. In this technique, small samples of the gases of interest are encapsulated in glass cylinders, called gas cells, which act as very selective optical filters. This report describes the techniques employed in the fabrication of the gas cells for the HALOE and MAPS instruments. Details of the method used to fuse the sapphire windows (required for IR transmission) to the glass cell bodies are presented along with detailed descriptions of the jigs and fixtures used during the assembly process. The techniques and equipment used for window inspection and for pairing the HALOE windows are discussed. Cell body materials and the steps involved in preparing the cell bodies for the glass-to-sapphire fusion process are given.

Sullivan, E. M.; Walthall, H. G.

1984-01-01

123

Human skeletal muscle derived CD133+ form functional satellite cells after intramuscular transplantation in immunodeficient host mice  

PubMed Central

Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of muscular dystrophies. In addition to muscle fibre formation, reconstitution of functional stem cell pool by donor cells is vital for long term treatment. We show here that some CD133+ cells within human muscle are located underneath the basal lamina of muscle fibres, in the position of the muscle satellite cell. Cultured hCD133+ cells are heterogeneous and multipotent, capable of forming myotubes and reserve satellite cells in vitro. They contribute to extensive muscle regeneration and satellite cell formation following intramuscular transplantation into irradiated and cryodamaged tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient Rag2-/? chain-/C5- mice. Some donor-derived satellite cells expressed the myogenic regulatory factor MyoD, indicating that they were activated. In addition, when transplanted host muscles were re-injured, there were significantly more newly-regenerated muscle fibres of donor origin in treated than in control, non- re-injured muscles, indicating that hCD133+ cells had given rise to functional muscle stem cells, which were able to activate in response to injury and contribute to a further round of muscle regeneration. Our findings provide new evidence for the location and characterization of hCD133+ cells, and highlight that these cells are highly suitable for future clinical application. PMID:24569833

Meng, Jinhong; Chun, Soyon; Asfahani, Rowan; Lochmuller, Hanns; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer

2014-01-01

124

Skeletal muscle satellite cells: mediators of muscle growth during development and implications for developmental disorders.  

PubMed

Satellite cells (SCs) are the muscle stem cells responsible for longitudinal and cross-sectional postnatal growth and repair after injury and which provide new myonuclei when needed. We review their morphology and contribution to development and their role in sarcomere and myonuclear addition. SCs, similar to other tissue stem cells, cycle through different states, such as quiescence, activation, and self-renewal, and thus we consider the signaling mechanisms involved in maintenance of these states. The role of the SC niche and their interactions with other cells, such as fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, are all emerging as major factors that affect aging and disease. Interestingly, children with cerebral palsy appear to have a reduced SC number, which could play a role in their reduced muscular development and even in muscular contracture formation. Finally, we review the current information on SC dysfunction in children with muscular dystrophy and emerging therapies that target promotion of myogenesis and reduction of fibrosis. PMID:25186345

Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Lieber, Richard L

2014-11-01

125

The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global coverage systems range from $1 Billion to $9 Billion, the availability of radiation hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

1995-01-01

126

Inflammatory sensitization of nociceptors depends on activation of NMDA receptors in DRG satellite cells.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in the inflammatory sensitization of peripheral nociceptor terminals to mechanical stimulation. Injection of NMDA into the fifth lumbar (L5)-DRG induced hyperalgesia in the rat hind paw with a profile similar to that of intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which was significantly attenuated by injection of the NMDAR antagonist d(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP-5) in the L5-DRG. Moreover, blockade of DRG AMPA receptors by the antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione had no effect in the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in thepaw, showing specific involvement of NMDARs in this modulatory effect and suggesting that activation of NMDAR in the DRG plays an important role in the peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia. In following experiments we observed attenuation of PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw by the knockdown of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2B, NR2D, and NR3A with antisense-oligodeoxynucleotide treatment in the DRG. Also, in vitro experiments showed that the NMDA-induced sensitization of cultured DRG neurons depends on satellite cell activation and on those same NMDAR subunits, suggesting their importance for the PGE2-induced hyperalgesia. In addition, fluorescent calcium imaging experiments in cultures of DRG cells showed induction of calcium transients by glutamate or NMDA only in satellite cells, but not in neurons. Together, the present results suggest that the mechanical inflammatory nociceptor sensitization is dependent on glutamate release at the DRG and subsequent NMDAR activation in satellite glial cells, supporting the idea that the peripheral hyperalgesia is an event modulated by a glutamatergic system in the DRG. PMID:25489099

Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro; Araldi, Dionéia; Rodrigues, Marcos A; Macedo, Larissa P; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Parada, Carlos Amilcar

2014-12-23

127

Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

1978-01-01

128

Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

Glaser, P. E.

1974-01-01

129

Rat soleus muscle satellite cells during the recovery after gravitational unloading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the attempt was made to assess alterations of rat soleus satellite cell (SC) population during muscle regrowth after 14-day gravitational unloading (using the hindlimb suspension model). Myofiber size increases during the recovery period. SCs are supposed to participate in muscle growth by fusion with myofibers and supplying them with new myonuclei [Mitchell PO, Pavlath GK, 2001; Oishi Y., 2008]. Other points of view are known about SC participation in the recovery of atrophied muscle mass during the readaptation period [Bruusgaard J.C. et al., 2011; Jackson JR et al., 2012]. After 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension mki67 expression was fivefold lower as compared to control animals and increased gradually up to 28 times by the day 7 of reloading. Cdh15 was decreased after hindlimb unloading and rose from the 1st day of reloading. The expression reached control level to the day 7th of reloading. Cellular response was going on concurrently with the spike of IGF-1 blood level and the increase in muscle IGF-1 concentration. It is possible that in the early days of reloading period differentiation and fusion of satellite cells which were active by the end of hindlimb suspension occurred. Satellite cell incorporation was assessed by counting the amount of BrdU+ myonuclei under myofiber dystrophin layer. It came more intensively in the 1st day of readaptation. It is in accordance with the 4,5 time increase in myogenin expression as compared to hindlimb suspended animals detected at the same time point. Myogenin expression 3 fold decreased by 3rd day of readaptation. We observed only the tendency of resizing but no significant changes in in myonuclear domain size. The number of myonuclei per myofiber cross section was decreased after hindlimb suspension and was not restored by the day 14th of readaptation. Cdh15 and myogenin expression at some extent stabilized after 7 days of readaptation, but high mki67 level pointed to intensive proliferation, which could cause the increase of myonuclei and satellite cell number and enhancing protein synthesis in the late readaptation period. Supported by RFBR grant 13-04-01891

Turtikova, Olga; Shenkman, Boris; Altaeva, Erzhena; Leinsoo, Toomas

130

Istanbul Technical University Istanbul, Turkey  

E-print Network

Istanbul Technical University Istanbul, Turkey About: Having a 238 year prominent history distinguished in Turkey with its engineering and architecture education. Istanbul Technical University is a state university that defines the professions of engineering and architecture in Turkey while providing

Duchowski, Andrew T.

131

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey) Earthquake -1  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, The 2011 Mw 7.1 Van (Eastern Turkey, 2012, 5:45pm D R A F T #12;X - 2 ELLIOTT ET AL.: 2011 VAN EARTHQUAKE, EASTERN TURKEY moment and source.: 2011 VAN EARTHQUAKE, EASTERN TURKEY X - 3 Interferograms from the ENVISAT satellite were derived from

Cambridge, University of

132

Label-free screening of niche-to-niche variation in satellite stem cells using functionalized pores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combinations of surface markers are currently used to identify muscle satellite cells. Using pores functionalized with specific antibodies and measuring the transit time of cells passing through these pores, we discovered remarkable heterogeneity in the expression of these markers in muscle (satellite) stem cells that reside in different single myofibers. Microniche-specific variation in stem cells of the same organ has not been previously described, as bulk analysis does not discriminate between separate myofibers or even separate hind-leg muscle groups. We found a significant population of Sca-1+ satellite cells that form myotubes, thereby demonstrating the myogenic potential of Sca-1+ cells, which are currently excluded in bulk sorting. Finally, using our label-free pore screening technique, we have been able to quantify directly surface expression of Notch1 without activation of the Notch pathway. We show for the first time Notch1-expression heterogeneity in unactivated satellite cells. The discovery of fiber-to-fiber variations prompts new research into the reasons for such diversity in muscle stem cells.

Chapman, Matthew R.; Balakrishnan, Karthik; Conboy, Michael J.; Mohanty, Swomitra; Jabart, Eric; Huang, Haiyan; Hack, James; Conboy, Irina M.; Sohn, Lydia L.

2012-02-01

133

New Insights into the Relationship between mIGF-1-Induced Hypertrophy and Ca2+ Handling in Differentiated Satellite Cells  

PubMed Central

Muscle regeneration involves the activation of satellite cells, is regulated at the genetic and epigenetic levels, and is strongly influenced by gene activation and environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine whether the overexpression of mIGF-1 can modify functional features of satellite cells during the differentiation process, particularly in relation to modifications of intracellular Ca2+ handling. Satellite cells were isolated from wild-type and MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic mice. The cells were differentiated in vitro, and morphological analyses, intracellular Ca2+ measurements, and ionic current recordings were performed. mIGF-1 overexpression accelerates satellite cell differentiation and promotes myotube hypertrophy. In addition, mIGF-1 overexpression-induced potentiation of myogenesis triggers both quantitative and qualitative changes to the control of intracellular Ca2+ handling. In particular, the differentiated MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic myotubes have reduced velocity and amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ increases after stimulation with caffeine, KCl and acetylcholine. This appears to be due, at least in part, to changes in the physico-chemical state of the sarcolemma (increased membrane lipid oxidation, increased output currents) and to increased expression of dihydropyridine voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Interestingly, extracellular ATP and GTP evoke intracellular Ca2+ mobilization to greater extents in the MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic satellite cells, compared to the wild-type cells. These data suggest that these MLC/mIGF-1 transgenic satellite cells are more sensitive to trophic stimuli, which can potentiate the effects of mIGF-1 on the myogenic programme. PMID:25229238

Belia, Silvia; Barberi, Laura; Musarò, Antonio; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Mariggiò, Maria A.

2014-01-01

134

Dynamic elastic behavior of alpha-satellite DNA domains visualized in situ in living human cells  

PubMed Central

We have constructed a fluorescent alpha-satellite DNA-binding protein to explore the motile and mechanical properties of human centromeres. A fusion protein consisting of human CENP-B coupled to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) of A. victoria specifically targets to centromeres when expressed in human cells. Morphometric analysis revealed that the alpha-satellite DNA domain bound by CENPB-GFP becomes elongated in mitosis in a microtubule-dependent fashion. Time lapse confocal microscopy in live mitotic cells revealed apparent elastic deformations of the central domain of the centromere that occurred during metaphase chromosome oscillations. These observations demonstrate that the interior region of the centromere behaves as an elastic element that could play a role in the mechanoregulatory mechanisms recently identified at centromeres. Fluorescent labeling of centromeres revealed that they disperse throughout the nucleus in a nearly isometric expansion during chromosome decondensation in telophase and early G1. During interphase, centromeres were primarily stationary, although motility of individual or small groups of centromeres was occasionally observed at very slow rates of 7-10 microns/h. PMID:8909532

1996-01-01

135

Earth-satellite path attenuation statistics influenced by orientation of rain cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is examined whether there may be preferred azimuths for earth-satellite paths along which fading and space diversity statistics are influenced differently than along other azimuths. Such preferred directions may exist if individual rain cells are statistically elongated along them for the given climatological region. The analysis is performed using the rain reflectivity data base obtained at Wallops Island during June, July and August 1973 using a high resolution radar. It is found that in the vicinity of Wallops Island increased attenuation and poorer diversity gains exist along paths whose azimuths and base lines lie in the NE-SW quadrants as compared to the NW-SE sectors. This result suggests the dominance of the major axis of rain cells in these quadrants.

Goldhirsh, J.

1977-01-01

136

The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communication systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented, which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can help minimize the cost of a global satellite communications system. An important distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium, Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation at orbital altitudes within the earth's radiation belts (10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4)km) can reduce the total cost of a system by several hundred percent, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells can be used. A detailed evaluation of the predicted performance of photovoltaic arrays using several different planar solar cell technologies is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge, and InP/Si which is currently under development. Several examples of applying the program are given, which show that the end of life (EOL) power density of different technologies can vary by a factor of ten for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation-soft technology can usually provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact upon the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate, these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global-coverage systems range from $1B to $9B, the availability of radiation-hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

1996-01-01

137

Satellite cell activity is differentially affected by contraction mode in human muscle following a work-matched bout of exercise.  

PubMed

Optimal repair and adaptation of skeletal muscle is facilitated by resident stem cells (satellite cells). To understand how different exercise modes influence satellite cell dynamics, we measured satellite cell activity in conjunction with markers of muscle damage and inflammation in human skeletal muscle following a single work- and intensity-matched bout of eccentric (ECC) or concentric contractions (CON). Participants completed a single bout of ECC (n = 7) or CON (n = 7) of the knee extensors. A muscle biopsy was obtained before and 24 h after exercise. Functional measures and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine the extent of muscle damage and indices of satellite cell activity. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a multiplexed magnetic bead assay. Isokinetic peak torque decreased following ECC (p < 0.05) but not CON. Greater histological staining of the damage marker Xin was observed in muscle samples of ECC vs. CON. Tenasin C immunoreactivity increased 15 fold (p < 0.01) following ECC and was unchanged following CON. The inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) increased pre- to post-ECC (4.26 ± 1.4 vs. 10.49 ± 5.8 pg/ml, and 3.06 ± 0.7 vs. 6.25 ± 4.6 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in any cytokine post-CON. Satellite cell content increased 27% pre- to post-ECC (0.10 ± 0.031 vs. 0.127 ± 0.041, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in satellite cell number in CON (0.099 ± 0.027 vs. 0.102 ± 0.029, respectively). There was no fiber type-specific satellite cell response following either exercise mode. ECC but not CON resulted in an increase in MyoD positive nuclei per myofiber pre- to post-exercise (p < 0.05), but there was no change in MyoD DNA binding activity in either condition. In conclusion, ECC but not CON results in functional and histological evidence of muscle damage that is accompanied by increased satellite cell activity 24 h post-exercise. PMID:25566087

Hyldahl, Robert D; Olson, Ty; Welling, Tyson; Groscost, Logan; Parcell, Allen C

2014-01-01

138

Satellite cell activity is differentially affected by contraction mode in human muscle following a work-matched bout of exercise  

PubMed Central

Optimal repair and adaptation of skeletal muscle is facilitated by resident stem cells (satellite cells). To understand how different exercise modes influence satellite cell dynamics, we measured satellite cell activity in conjunction with markers of muscle damage and inflammation in human skeletal muscle following a single work- and intensity-matched bout of eccentric (ECC) or concentric contractions (CON). Participants completed a single bout of ECC (n = 7) or CON (n = 7) of the knee extensors. A muscle biopsy was obtained before and 24 h after exercise. Functional measures and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine the extent of muscle damage and indices of satellite cell activity. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a multiplexed magnetic bead assay. Isokinetic peak torque decreased following ECC (p < 0.05) but not CON. Greater histological staining of the damage marker Xin was observed in muscle samples of ECC vs. CON. Tenasin C immunoreactivity increased 15 fold (p < 0.01) following ECC and was unchanged following CON. The inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) increased pre- to post-ECC (4.26 ± 1.4 vs. 10.49 ± 5.8 pg/ml, and 3.06 ± 0.7 vs. 6.25 ± 4.6 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in any cytokine post-CON. Satellite cell content increased 27% pre- to post-ECC (0.10 ± 0.031 vs. 0.127 ± 0.041, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no change in satellite cell number in CON (0.099 ± 0.027 vs. 0.102 ± 0.029, respectively). There was no fiber type-specific satellite cell response following either exercise mode. ECC but not CON resulted in an increase in MyoD positive nuclei per myofiber pre- to post-exercise (p < 0.05), but there was no change in MyoD DNA binding activity in either condition. In conclusion, ECC but not CON results in functional and histological evidence of muscle damage that is accompanied by increased satellite cell activity 24 h post-exercise. PMID:25566087

Hyldahl, Robert D.; Olson, Ty; Welling, Tyson; Groscost, Logan; Parcell, Allen C.

2014-01-01

139

Defining a role for non-satellite stem cells in the regulation of muscle repair following exercise  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle repair is essential for effective remodeling, tissue maintenance, and initiation of beneficial adaptations post-eccentric exercise. A series of well characterized events, such as recruitment of immune cells and activation of satellite cells, constitute the basis for muscle regeneration. However, details regarding the fine-tuned regulation of this process in response to different types of injury are open for investigation. Muscle-resident non-myogenic, non-satellite stem cells expressing conventional mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, have the potential to significantly contribute to regeneration given the role for bone marrow-derived MSCs in whole body tissue repair in response to injury and disease. The purpose of this mini-review is to highlight a regulatory role for Pnon-satellite stem cells in the process of skeletal muscle healing post-eccentric exercise. The non-myogenic, non-satellite stem cell fraction will be defined, its role in tissue repair will be briefly reviewed, and recent studies demonstrating a contribution to eccentric exercise-induced regeneration will be presented. PMID:24204344

Boppart, Marni D.; De Lisio, Michael; Zou, Kai; Huntsman, Heather D.

2013-01-01

140

Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia.  

PubMed

Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain. PMID:24665354

Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

2014-01-01

141

Micro space power system using MEMS fuel cell for nano-satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A micro space power system using micro fuel cell was developed for nano-satellites. The power system was fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technologies. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell was selected in consideration of space environment. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) was selected as a hydrogen source while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was selected as an oxygen source. The power system consists of a micro fuel cell, micro-reactor, micro-pump, and fuel cartridges. The micro fuel cell was fabricated on a light-weight and corrosion-resistant glass plates. The micro-reactor was used to generate hydrogen from NaBH4 alkaline solution via a catalytic hydrolysis reaction. All components such as micro-pump, fuel cartridges, and auxiliary battery were integrated for a complete power system. The storability of NaBH4 solution was evaluated at -25 °C and the performance of the micro power system was measured at various operating conditions. The power output of micro power system reasonably followed up the given electric load conditions.

Lee, Jongkwang; Kim, Taegyu

2014-08-01

142

Constitutive Notch activation upregulates Pax7 and promotes the self-renewal of skeletal muscle satellite cells.  

PubMed

Notch signaling is a conserved cell fate regulator during development and postnatal tissue regeneration. Using skeletal muscle satellite cells as a model and through myogenic cell lineage-specific NICD(OE) (overexpression of constitutively activated Notch 1 intracellular domain), here we investigate how Notch signaling regulates the cell fate choice of muscle stem cells. We show that in addition to inhibiting MyoD and myogenic differentiation, NICD(OE) upregulates Pax7 and promotes the self-renewal of satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts in culture. Using MyoD(-/-) myoblasts, we further show that NICD(OE) upregulates Pax7 independently of MyoD inhibition. In striking contrast to previous observations, NICD(OE) also inhibits S-phase entry and Ki67 expression and thus reduces the proliferation of primary myoblasts. Overexpression of canonical Notch target genes mimics the inhibitory effects of NICD(OE) on MyoD and Ki67 but not the stimulatory effect on Pax7. Instead, NICD regulates Pax7 through interaction with RBP-J?, which binds to two consensus sites upstream of the Pax7 gene. Importantly, satellite cell-specific NICD(OE) results in impaired regeneration of skeletal muscles along with increased Pax7(+) mononuclear cells. Our results establish a role of Notch signaling in actively promoting the self-renewal of muscle stem cells through direct regulation of Pax7. PMID:22493066

Wen, Yefei; Bi, Pengpeng; Liu, Weiyi; Asakura, Atsushi; Keller, Charles; Kuang, Shihuan

2012-06-01

143

Implication of the satellite cell in dystrophic muscle fibrosis: a self-perpetuating mechanism of collagen overproduction.  

PubMed

Because of its mechanical function, skeletal muscle is heavily influenced by the composition of its extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibrosis generated by chronic damage, such as occurs in muscular dystrophies, is thus particularly disastrous in this tissue. Here, we examined the interrelationship between the muscle satellite cell and the production of collagen type I, a major component of fibrotic ECM, by using both C2C12, a satellite cell-derived cell line, and primary muscle satellite cells. In C2C12 cells, we found that expression of collagen type I mRNA decreases substantially during skeletal muscle differentiation. On a single-cell level, collagen type I and myogenin became mutually exclusive after 3 days in differentiation medium, whereas addition of collagen markedly suppressed differentiation of C2C12 cells. Primary cultures of satellite cells associated with isolated single fibers of the young (4 wk old) mdx dystrophic mouse and of C57BL/10ScSn wild-type controls expressed collagen type I and type III mRNA and protein. This pattern persisted in wild-type mice at all ages. But, curiously, in older (18-mo-old) mdx mice, although the myogenic cells continued to express type III collagen, type I expression became restricted to nonmyogenic cells. These cells typically constituted part of a cellular sheet surrounding the old mdx fibers. This combination of features strongly suggests that the progression to fibrosis in dystrophic muscle involves changes in the mechanisms controlling matrix production, which generates positive feedback that results in a reprogramming of myoblasts to a profibrotic function. PMID:17475662

Alexakis, Catherine; Partridge, Terence; Bou-Gharios, George

2007-08-01

144

A New Satellite Multicast Security Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve Signatures Attila Altay Yavuz , Fatih Alagozl , Emin Anarim2  

E-print Network

A New Satellite Multicast Security Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve Signatures Attila Altay Yavuz, Turkey'. ([attila.yavuz, alagozi @boun.edu.tr) Electrical Engineering Department, Bogazici University

Ning, Peng

145

Adult Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

2013-01-01

146

Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From funnel-cloud-length interpretation, the severe tornado is characterized by peak swirl speed relative to the axis of rotation of about 90 m/s. Thermohydrodynamic achievement of the pressure deficit from ambient necessary to sustain such swirls requires that a dry, compressionally heated, non-rotating downdraft of initially tropopause-level air lie within an annulus of rapidly swirling, originally low-level air ascending on a near-moist-adiabatic locus of thermodynamic states. The two-cell structure furnishes an observable parameter possibly accessible to a passively instrumented, geosynchronous meteorological satellite with mesoscale resolution, for early detection of a severe tornado. Accordingly, the low-level turnaround region, in which the surface inflow layer separates to become a free ascending layer and for which inviscid modeling suffices, is examined quantitatively. Preliminary results indicate that swirl overshoot, i.e., swirl speeds in the turnaround region in excess of the maximum achieved in the potential vortex, is modest.

Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

1979-01-01

147

Decentralisation in Turkey [ July 2012  

E-print Network

07 Decentralisation in Turkey [ July 2012 ] Ula BAYRAKTAR Mersin University, Turkey �lise MASSICARD Institut français d'études anatoliennes (IFEA), Istanbul AUTHORS #12;Decentralisation in Turkey AUTHORS Ula BAYRAKTAR Mersin University, Turkey �lise MASSICARD Institut français d'études anatoliennes (IFEA), Istanbul

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Pancreatic Satellite Cells Derived Galectin-1 Increase the Progression and Less Survival of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Galectin-1, a member of carbohydrate-binding proteins with a polyvalent function on tumor progression, was found strongly expressed in pancreatic satellite cells (PSCs), which partner in crime with cancer cells and promote the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We evaluated the effects of PSCs derived Galectin-1 on the progression of PDAC, as well as the tumor establishment and development in mouse xenografts. Methods The relationship between immunohistochemistry staining intensity of Galectin-1 and clinicopathologic variables were assessed in 66 PDAC tissues, 18 chronic pancreatitis tissues and 10 normal controls. The roles of PSCs isolated from PDAC and normal pancreas on the proliferative activity, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and the invasion of CFPAC-1 in the co-cultured system, as well as on the tumor establishment and development in mouse xenografts by mixed implanting with CFPAC-1 subcutaneously were evaluated. Results Galectin-1 expression was gradually increased from normal pancreas (negative), chronic pancreatitis (weak) to PDAC (strong), in which Galectin-1 expression was also increased from well, moderately to poorly differentiated PDAC. Galectin-1 staining intensity of pancreatic cancer tissue was associated with increase in tumor size, lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion and differentiation and UICC stage, and served as the independent prognostic indicator of poor survival of pancreatic cancer. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that TGF-?1 upregulated Galectin-1 expression in PSCs, which could further promotes the proliferative activity, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, as well as the tumor establishment and growth. Conclusion Galectin-1 expression in stromal cells of pancreatic cancer suggests that this protein plays a role in the promotion of cancer cells invasion and metastasis and provides a therapeutic target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:24595374

Gao, Jun; Wang, Sen; Ye, Nianyuan; Li, Ping; Gao, Sujun; Miao, Yi; Wang, Daorong; Jiang, Kuirong

2014-01-01

149

Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

2001-01-01

150

Influence of mesterolone on satellite cell distribution and fiber morphology within maturing chicken pectoralis muscle.  

PubMed

Mesterolone is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid used to treat hypogonadism. There are frequent reports of mesterolone abuse in human and equine sports to increase muscle mass and strength. However, limited information is available about how this drug exerts its effects on skeletal muscle. Satellite cells (SCs) are mononuclear myogenic stem cells that contribute to postnatal muscle growth and repair. As SC activation and subsequent differentiation to new myonuclei is a major event during muscle hypertrophy, this study investigated the influence of mesterolone on SC distribution within the pectoralis muscle of chickens. Specifically, this study tested the hypotheses that mesterolone induces avian skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and that mesterolone increases the number of SCs in avian skeletal muscle. Robust immunocytochemical techniques and morphometric analyses were used to calculate the numbers of SCs and myonuclei. Also, DNA concentration and Pax7 protein levels were measured to confirm immunocytochemical findings. Mesterolone significantly increased pectoralis mass and fiber size. All SC indices and number of myonuclei increased significantly by mesterolone administration. In addition, greater DNA concentration and Pax7 protein expression were found in mesterolone-treated birds. This study indicates that mesterolone can induce avian skeletal muscle hypertrophy and that this is correlated with increased number of SCs. We suggest that SCs are key cellular intermediaries for mesterolone-induced muscle hypertrophy. PMID:22419647

Allouh, Mohammed Z; Aldirawi, Mohammed H

2012-05-01

151

Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain is a very common complication in diabetes mellitus (DM), and treatment for it is limited. As DM is becoming a global epidemic it is important to understand and treat this problem. The mechanisms of diabetic neuropathic pain are largely obscure. Recent studies have shown that glial cells are important for a variety of neuropathic pain types, and we investigated what are the changes that satellite glial cells (SGCs) in dorsal root ganglia undergo in a DM type 1 model, induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in mice and rats. We carried out immunohistochemical studies to learn about changes in the activation marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in SGCs. We found that after STZ-treatment the number of neurons surrounded with GFAP-positive SGCs in dorsal root ganglia increased 4-fold in mice and 5-fold in rats. Western blotting for GFAP, which was done only on rats because of the larger size of the ganglia, showed an increase of about 2-fold in STZ-treated rats, supporting the immunohistochemical results. These results indicate for the first time that SGCs are activated in rodent models of DM1. As SGC activation appears to contribute to chronic pain, these results suggest that SGCs may participate in the generation and maintenance of diabetic neuropathic pain, and can serve as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25312986

Hanani, Menachem; Blum, Erez; Liu, Shuangmei; Peng, Lichao; Liang, Shangdong

2014-01-01

152

Molecular Cell, Vol. 6, 9991011, November, 2000, Copyright 2000 by Cell Press Chromatin Opening of DNA Satellites  

E-print Network

of DNA Satellites by Targeted Sequence-Specific Drugs in chromosome condensation and PEV. We were en. This structural motif confers dramatic SARsophila melanogaster satellites. Dimeric oligopyrroles specificity to MATH, since the linked AT hooks favorwere shown to target the AT-rich satellites I, III

Halazonetis, Thanos

153

Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

154

Multi-grid-cell validation of satellite aerosol property retrievals in INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol transport off the US Northeast coast during the Summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX) and Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiments produced a wide range of aerosol types and aerosol optical depth (AOD) values, often with strong horizontal AOD gradients. In these conditions we flew the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun photometer (AATS) on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft. Legs flown at low altitude (usually ?100 m ASL) provided comparisons of AATS AOD spectra to retrievals for 90 grid cells of the satellite radiometers MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR, all over the ocean. Characterization of the retrieval environment was aided by using vertical profiles by the J31 (showing aerosol vertical structure) and, on occasion, shipboard measurements of light scattering and absorption. AATS provides AOD at 13 wavelengths ? from 354 to 2138 nm, spanning the range of aerosol retrieval wavelengths for MODIS over ocean (466-2119 nm) and MISR (446-866 nm). Midvisible AOD on low-altitude J31 legs in satellite grid cells ranged from 0.05 to 0.9, with horizontal gradients often in the range 0.05 to 0.13 per 10 km. When possible, we used ship measurements of humidified aerosol scattering and absorption to estimate AOD below the J31. In these cases, which had J31 altitudes 60-110 m ASL (typical of J31 low-altitude transects), estimated midvisible AOD below the J31 ranged from 0.003 to 0.013, with mean 0.009 and standard deviation 0.003. These values averaged 6% of AOD above the J31. MISR-AATS comparisons on 29 July 2004 in 8 grid cells (each ˜17.6 km × 17.6 km) show that MISR versions 15 and 16 captured the AATS-measured AOD gradient (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.87 to 0.92), but the MISR gradient was somewhat weaker than the AATS gradient. The large AOD (midvisible values up to ˜0.9) and differing gradients in this case produced root-mean-square (RMS) MISR-AATS AOD differences of 0.03 to 0.21 (9 to 31%). MISR V15 Ångstrom exponent ? ( = -dlnAOD/dln?) was closer to AATS than was MISR V16. MODIS-AATS AOD comparisons on 8 overpasses using 61 grid cells (each nominally 10 km × 10 km) had R2 ˜ 0.97, with RMS AOD difference ˜0.03 (˜20%). About 87% of the MODIS AOD retrievals differed from AATS values by less than the predicted MODIS over-ocean uncertainty, ?? = ±0.03 ± 0.05?. In contrast to the small MODIS-AATS differences in AOD, MODIS-AATS differences in Ångstrom exponent ? were large: RMS differences for ?(553, 855 nm) were 0.28 for MODIS-Terra and 0.64 for MODIS-Aqua; RMS differences for ?(855, 2119 nm) were larger still, 0.61 for MODIS-Terra and 1.14 for MODIS-Aqua. The largest MODIS-AATS Ångstrom exponent differences were associated with small AOD values, for which MODIS AOD relative uncertainty is large. Excluding cases with AOD(855 nm) < 0.1 reduced MODIS-AATS ? differences substantially. In one grid cell on 21 July 2004, smoke over cloud appeared to impair the MODIS-Aqua cloud mask, resulting in retrieved AODs that significantly exceeded AATS values. Experiments with extending MODIS retrievals into the glint mask yielded MODIS AODs consistently less than AATS AODs, especially at long wavelength, indicating that the current MODIS glint mask limits should not be reduced to the extent tried here. The sign of the AOD differences within the glint mask (MODIS AOD < AATS AOD) is consistent with ship-measured wind speeds there.

Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Ramirez, S. A.; Eilers, J.; Kahn, R.; Chu, D. A.; Remer, L.; Quinn, P. K.; Rood, M. J.; Wang, W.

2007-06-01

155

Repetitive centromeric satellite RNA is essential for kinetochore formation and cell division.  

PubMed

Chromosome segregation requires centromeres on every sister chromatid to correctly form and attach the microtubule spindle during cell division. Even though centromeres are essential for genome stability, the underlying centromeric DNA is highly variable in sequence and evolves quickly. Epigenetic mechanisms are therefore thought to regulate centromeres. Here, we show that the 359-bp repeat satellite III (SAT III), which spans megabases on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, produces a long noncoding RNA that localizes to centromeric regions of all major chromosomes. Depletion of SAT III RNA causes mitotic defects, not only of the sex chromosome but also in trans of all autosomes. We furthermore find that SAT III RNA binds to the kinetochore component CENP-C, and is required for correct localization of the centromere-defining proteins CENP-A and CENP-C, as well as outer kinetochore proteins. In conclusion, our data reveal that SAT III RNA is an integral part of centromere identity, adding RNA to the complex epigenetic mark at centromeres in flies. PMID:25365994

Roši?, Silvana; Köhler, Florian; Erhardt, Sylvia

2014-11-10

156

Acute Tissue Injury Activates Satellite Cells and Promotes Sarcoma Formation via the HGF/c-MET Signaling Pathway.  

PubMed

Some patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) report a history of injury at the site of their tumor. Although this phenomenon is widely reported, there are relatively few experimental systems that have directly assessed the role of injury in sarcoma formation. We recently described a mouse model of STS whereby p53 is deleted and oncogenic Kras is activated in muscle satellite cells via a Pax7(CreER) driver following intraperitoneal injection with tamoxifen. Here, we report that after systemic injection of tamoxifen, the vast majority of Pax7-expressing cells remain quiescent despite mutation of p53 and Kras. The fate of these muscle progenitors is dramatically altered by tissue injury, which leads to faster kinetics of sarcoma formation. In adult muscle, quiescent satellite cells will transition into an active state in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). We show that modulating satellite cell quiescence via intramuscular injection of HGF increases the penetrance of sarcoma formation at the site of injection, which is dependent on its cognate receptor c-MET. Unexpectedly, the tumor-promoting effect of tissue injury also requires c-Met. These results reveal a mechanism by which HGF/c-MET signaling promotes tumor formation after tissue injury in a mouse model of primary STS, and they may explain why some patients develop a STS at the site of injury. Cancer Res; 75(3); 605-14. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25503558

Van Mater, David; Añó, Leonor; Blum, Jordan M; Webster, Micah T; Huang, WeiQiao; Williams, Nerissa; Ma, Yan; Cardona, Diana M; Fan, Chen-Ming; Kirsch, David G

2015-02-01

157

Nucleosome arrangement in alpha-satellite chromatin of African green monkey cells.  

PubMed Central

By analyzing the accessibility of restriction endonuclease sites in African green monkey alpha-satellite chromatin, we demonstrate the absence of a unique phase relationship between nucleosomes and alpha-satellite DNA. The data indicate a minimum of three different positions for nucleosome cores relative to the alpha-satellite sequence and suggest a random distribution in at least some regions. In addition, while we confirm published reports that staphylococcal nuclease cuts the alpha-satellite sequence in chromatin at a highly preferred site, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of nuclear digests demonstrates that this site is preferentially cut by staphylococcal nuclease even when it is within the nucleosome core. These data indicate that staphylococcal nuclease is not useful for determining nucleosome positions on alpha-satellite DNA, and perhaps on other specific DNA sequences as well. Images PMID:6089117

Smith, M R; Lieberman, M W

1984-01-01

158

Charge efficiency of Ni/H2 cells during transfer orbit of Telstar 4 satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The TELSTAR 4 communication satellites being manufactured by Martin Marietta Astro Space (Astro Space) for AT&T are three axis stabilized spacecraft scheduled to be launched on expendable vehicles such as the Atlas or Ariane rockets. Typically, these spacecraft consist of a box that holds the electronics and supports the antenna reflectors and the solar array wings. The wings and reflectors are folded against the sides of the box during launch and the spacecraft is spun for attitude control in that phase; they are then deployed after achieving the final orbit. The launch phase and transfer orbits required to achieve the final geosynchronous orbit typically take 4 to 5 days during which time the power required for command, telemetry, attitude control, heaters, etc., is provided by two 50 AH nickel hydrogen batteries augmented by the exposed outboard solar panels. In the past, this situation has presented no problem since there was a considerable excess of power available from the array. In the case of large high powered spacecraft such as TELSTAR 4, however, the design power levels in transfer orbit approach the time-averaged power available from the exposed surface area of the solar arrays, resulting in a very tight power margin. To compound the difficulty, the array output of the spinning spacecraft in transfer orbit is shaped like a full wave rectified sine function and provides very low charging rates to the batteries during portions of the rotation. In view of the typically low charging efficiency of alkaline nickel batteries at low rates, it was decided to measure the efficiency during a simulation of the TELSTAR 4 conditions at the expected power levels and temperatures on three nickel hydrogen cells of similar design. The unique feature of nickel hydrogen cells that makes the continuous measurement of efficiency possible is that hydrogen is one of the active materials and thus, cell pressure is a direct measure of the state of charge or available capacity. The pressure is measured with a calibrated strain gage mounted on the outside of the pressurized cell.

Fang, W. C.; Maurer, Dean W.; Vyas, B.; Thomas, M. N.

1994-01-01

159

Impedances of Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF satellite) and comparison with cells stored terrestrially  

SciTech Connect

Impedances were measured on several Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. These cells were used to power instruments and recorders and had all been partially or fully discharged. Impedances were also measured on several cells that were stored in cold storage since manufacture. Unfortunately, none of the cells stored terrestrially had undergone any discharge, whereas all of the cells on the satellite were at least partially discharged early in the mission and then remained on orbit for about 5 years further. It has been observed by others that storage of an Li/SO2 cell after partial discharge, increases the resistance and thickness of the passive film on the Li electrode, as indicated by an increase in the time for recovery of voltage when a load is applied (voltage lag), or in some cases by an inability of a cell to sustain a normal current after such storage. Since the cells stored terrestrially were not discharged in the same manner as the LDEF cells, a direct comparison cannot be made. Thus, the effects of the space environment cannot be separated from the effects of storage after partial discharge. It is believed that the increases in impedance in the LDEF cells are largely due to the storage upon partial discharge rather than the effects of the space environment.

Reid, M.A.

1991-11-01

160

Impedances of Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF satellite) and comparison with cells stored terrestrially  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impedances were measured on several Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. These cells were used to power instruments and recorders and had all been partially or fully discharged. Impedances were also measured on several cells that were stored in cold storage since manufacture. Unfortunately, none of the cells stored terrestrially had undergone any discharge, whereas all of the cells on the satellite were at least partially discharged early in the mission and then remained on orbit for about 5 years further. It has been observed by others that storage of an Li/SO2 cell after partial discharge, increases the resistance and thickness of the passive film on the Li electrode, as indicated by an increase in the time for recovery of voltage when a load is applied (voltage lag), or in some cases by an inability of a cell to sustain a normal current after such storage. Since the cells stored terrestrially were not discharged in the same manner as the LDEF cells, a direct comparison cannot be made. Thus, the effects of the space environment cannot be separated from the effects of storage after partial discharge. It is believed that the increases in impedance in the LDEF cells are largely due to the storage upon partial discharge rather than the effects of the space environment.

Reid, Margaret A.

1991-01-01

161

The molecular responses of skeletal muscle satellite cells to continuous expression of IGF-1: implications for the rescue of induced muscular atrophy in aged rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 50% of humans older than 85 years have physical frailty due to weak skeletal muscles. This indicates a need for determining mechanisms to combat this problem. A critical cellular factor for postnatal muscle growth is a population of myogenic precursor cells called satellite cells. Given the complex process of sarcopenia, it has been postulated that, at some point in this process, a limited satellite cell proliferation potential could become rate-limiting to the regrowth of old muscles. It is conceivable that if satellite cell proliferative capacity can be maintained or enhanced with advanced age, sarcopenia could potentially be delayed or prevented. Therefore, the purposes of this paper are to describe whether IGF-I can prevent muscular atrophy induced by repeated cycles of hindlimb immobilization, increase the in vitro proliferation in satellite cells from these muscles and, if so, the molecular mechanisms by which IGF-I mediates this increased proliferation. Our results provide evidence that IGF-I can enhance aged muscle regrowth possibly through increased satellite cell proliferation. The results also suggest that IGF-I enhances satellite cell proliferation by decreasing the cell cycle inhibitor, p27Kip1, through the PI3'-K/Akt pathway. These data provide molecular evidence for IGF-I's rescue effect upon aging-associated skeletal muscle atrophy.

Chakravarthy, M. V.; Booth, F. W.; Spangenburg, E. E.

2001-01-01

162

Ground Turkey Stir Fry Ingredients  

E-print Network

Ground Turkey Stir Fry Ingredients: 1 1/2 cups brown rice, medium- grain, making 3 cups cooked 1 pound ground turkey 4 zucchini 1 onion 1 green pepper 1/4 teaspoon pepper Directions 1. Cook brown rice turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break beef into small pieces as it browns. Keep on stirring

Liskiewicz, Maciej

163

MALE RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEY  

E-print Network

217 MALE RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEY HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS IN THE TEXAS PANHANDLE AND SOUTHWESTERN Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) in the northern extent of their native range habitat used for different behaviors (displaying, loafing, and foraging) by male Rio Grande wild turkeys

164

High Energy Instrumentation Efforts in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

This work summarizes the efforts in Turkey to build a laboratory capable of building and testing high energy astrophysics detectors that work in space. The EC FP6 ASTRONS project contributed strongly to these efforts, and as a result a fully operational laboratory at Sabanci University have been developed. In this laboratory we test and develop Si and CdZnTe based room temperature semiconductor strip detectors and develop detector and electronics system to be used as a payload on potential small Turkish satellites.

Kalemci, Emrah [Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-09-21

165

Transcriptional profiling identifies differentially expressed genes in developing turkey skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal muscle growth and development from embryo to adult consists of a series of carefully regulated changes in gene expression. Understanding these developmental changes in agriculturally important species is essential to the production of high quality meat products. For example, consumer demand for lean, inexpensive meat products has driven the turkey industry to unprecedented production through intensive genetic selection. However, achievements of increased body weight and muscle mass have been countered by an increased incidence of myopathies and meat quality defects. In a previous study, we developed and validated a turkey skeletal muscle-specific microarray as a tool for functional genomics studies. The goals of the current study were to utilize this microarray to elucidate functional pathways of genes responsible for key events in turkey skeletal muscle development and to compare differences in gene expression between two genetic lines of turkeys. To achieve these goals, skeletal muscle samples were collected at three critical stages in muscle development: 18d embryo (hyperplasia), 1d post-hatch (shift from myoblast-mediated growth to satellite cell-modulated growth by hypertrophy), and 16wk (market age) from two genetic lines: a randombred control line (RBC2) maintained without selection pressure, and a line (F) selected from the RBC2 line for increased 16wk body weight. Array hybridizations were performed in two experiments: Experiment 1 directly compared the developmental stages within genetic line, while Experiment 2 directly compared the two lines within each developmental stage. Results A total of 3474 genes were differentially expressed (false discovery rate; FDR < 0.001) by overall effect of development, while 16 genes were differentially expressed (FDR < 0.10) by overall effect of genetic line. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis was used to group annotated genes into networks, functions, and canonical pathways. The expression of 28 genes involved in extracellular matrix regulation, cell death/apoptosis, and calcium signaling/muscle function, as well as genes with miscellaneous function was confirmed by qPCR. Conclusions The current study identified gene pathways and uncovered novel genes important in turkey muscle growth and development. Future experiments will focus further on several of these candidate genes and the expression and mechanism of action of their protein products. PMID:21385442

2011-01-01

166

Multi-Grid-Cell Validation of Satellite Aerosol Property Retrievals in INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT 2004  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerosol transport off the US Northeast coast during the Summer 2004 International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX) and Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiments produced a wide range of aerosol types and aerosol optical depth (AOD) values, often with strong horizontal AOD gradients. In these conditions we flew the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sun photometer (AATS) on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft. Legs flown at low altitude (usually less than 100 m ASL) provided comparisons of AATS AOD spectra to retrievals for 90 grid cells of the satellite radiometers MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR, all over the ocean. Characterization of the retrieval environment was aided by using vertical profiles by the J31 (showing aerosol vertical structure) and, on occasion, shipboard measurements of light scattering and absorption. AATS provides AOD at 13 wavelengths lambda from 354 to 2138 nm, spanning the range of aerosol retrieval wavelengths for MODIS over ocean (466-2119 nm) and MISR (446-866 nm). Midvisible AOD on low-altitude J31 legs in satellite grid cells ranged from 0.05 to 0.9, with horizontal gradients often in the range 0.05 to 0.13 per 10 km. When possible, we used ship measurements of humidified aerosol scattering and absorption to estimate AOD below the J31. In these cases, which had J31 altitudes 60-110 m ASL (typical of J31 low-altitude transects), estimated midvisible AOD below the J31 ranged from 0.003 to 0.013, with mean 0.009 and standard deviation 0.003. These values averaged 6 percent of AOD above the 53 1. MISR-AATS comparisons on 29 July 2004 in 8 grid cells (each -17.6 km x 17.6 km) show that MISR versions 15 and 16 captured the AATS-measured AOD gradient (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.87 to 0.92), but the MISR gradient was somewhat weaker than the AATS gradient. The large AOD (midvisible values up to -0.9) and differing gradients in this case produced root-mean-square (RMS) MISR-AATS AOD differences of 0.03 to 0.21 (9 to 31%). MISR V15 Angstrom exponent alpha (= -dlnAOD/dln lambda) was closer to AATS than was MISR V16. MODIS-AATS AOD comparisons on 8 overpasses using 61 grid cells (each nominally 10 km x 10 km) had R2 approximately 0.97, with RMS AOD difference approximately 0.03 (approximately 20%). About 87% of the MODIS AOD retrievals differed from AATS values by less than the predicted MODIS over-ocean uncertainty, Delta tau = plus/minus 0.03 plus/minus 0.05 tau. In contrast to the small MODIS-AATS differences in AOD, MODIS-AATS differences in Angstrom exponent alpha were large: RMS differences for alpha (553, 855 nm) were 0.28 for MODIS-Terra and 0.64 for MODIS-Aqua; RMS differences for alpha (855, 2119 nm) were larger still, 0.61 for MODIS-Terra and 1.14 for MODIS-Aqua. The largest MODIS-AATS Angstrom exponent differences were associated with small AOD values, for which MODIS AOD relative uncertainty is large. Excluding cases with AOD(855 nm) less than 0.1 reduced MODIS-AATS alpha differences substantially. In one grid cell on 21 July 2004, smoke over cloud appeared to impair the MODIS-Aqua cloud mask, resulting in retrieved AODs that significantly exceeded AATS values. Experiments with extending MODIS retrievals into the glint mask yielded MODIS AODs consistently less than AATS AODs, especially at long wavelength, indicating that the current MODIS glint mask limits should not be reduced to the extent tried here. The sign of the AOD differences within the glint mask (MODIS AOD less than AATS AOD) is consistent with ship-measured wind speeds there.

Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Ramirez, S. A.; Eilers, J.; Kahn, R.; Chu, D. A.; Remer, L.; Quinn, P. K.; Rood, M. J.; Wang, W.

2007-01-01

167

Wild Turkeys in California:Wild Turkeys in California: Introduced or Reintroduced?Introduced or Reintroduced?  

E-print Network

11/6/2008 1 Wild Turkeys in California:Wild Turkeys in California: Introduced or Reintroduced turkeyturkey History of wild turkeysHistory of wild turkeys in Californiain California Restoration efforts OcellatedOcellated (Meleagris ocellata)(Meleagris ocellata) Wild turkeyWild turkey (Meleagris gallapavo

Gray, Matthew

168

Turkey and Sweet Potato Dinner Ingredients  

E-print Network

Turkey and Sweet Potato Dinner Ingredients: 1 pound ground turkey 4 sweet potatoes 15 ounces green to 350ºF. 2. Heat skillet to medium. Place ground turkey in skillet and use a spatula to break turkey. Once it is done, put browned turkey on a plate covered with several layers of paper towels to absorb

Liskiewicz, Maciej

169

Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients  

E-print Network

Ground Turkey and Potato Plate Ingredients: 1 onion 1/2 pound ground turkey 1 cup ketchup, low, brown ground turkey and onion together over medium heat 8 to 10 minutes or until turkey is no longer. Return turkey to skillet. 3. Add ketchup to skillet; cover and simmer over medium-low heat 10 minutes. 4

Liskiewicz, Maciej

170

Juxtacrine and paracrine interactions of rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, muscle-derived satellite cells, and neonatal cardiomyocytes with endothelial cells in angiogenesis dynamics.  

PubMed

Research into angiogenesis has contributed to progress in the fast-moving field of regenerative medicine. Designing coculture systems is deemed a helpful method to understand the dynamic interaction of various cells involved in the angiogenesis process. We investigated the juxtacrine and paracrine interaction between 3 different cells, namely rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs), rat muscle-derived satellite cells (rSCs), and rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (rCMs), and endothelial cells (ECs) during angiogenesis process. In vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assay was performed whereby ECs were monocultured or cocultured with rMSCs, rSCs, and rCMs or their conditioned media (CM). In addition, in vivo Matrigel plug assay for angiogenesis was conducted to assess the angiogenic potential of the rCM-, rMSC-, and rSC-derived CM. Our results demonstrated that the rMSCs, rSCs, and rCMs elongated along the EC tubules, whereas the rMSCs formed tube-like structures with sprouting tip cells, leading to improved angiogenesis in the coculture system. Moreover, the rMSC- and rSC-derived CM significantly improved angiogenesis tube formation on Matrigel, accelerated EC chemotaxis, and increased the arteriolar density, vascularization index, and vascularization flow index in the Matrigel plug in vivo. Western blotting showed that rMSCs secreted a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and stromal-derived factor-1-alpha. Tie2 is also shed from rMSCs. This study demonstrated that stem cells interact with ECs in the juxtacrine and paracrine manner during angiogenesis, and marrow MSCs have superior angiogenic properties. PMID:23072248

Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Khazraiinia, Parvaneh; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Mohammadi, Elham; Molazem, Mohammad; Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad

2013-03-15

171

Potential of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Skeletal Muscle-Derived Satellite Cells for Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Mediated Transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere Goats  

PubMed Central

Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs–pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs–pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

2014-01-01

172

Potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients (P<0.01). With their high proliferative capacity and transfection efficiency, gADSCs and gMDSCs are a valuable cell source for breeding new, genetically modified varieties of livestock by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:24699686

Ren, Yu; Wu, Haiqing; Ma, Yuzhen; Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

2014-01-01

173

Mechano growth factor (MGF) promotes proliferation and inhibits differentiation of porcine satellite cells (PSCs) by down-regulation of key myogenic transcriptional factors.  

PubMed

Porcine satellite cells represent an ideal model system for studying the cellular and molecular basis regulating myogenic stem cell proliferation and differentiation and for exploring the experimental conditions for myoblast transplantation. Here, we investigated the effects of mechano growth factor (MGF), a spliced variant of the IGF-1 gene, on porcine satellite cells. We show that MGF potently stimulated proliferation while inhibited differentiation of porcine satellite cells. MGF-treatment acutely down-regulates the expression of myogenic determination factor (MyoD) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. MGF-treatment also markedly reduced the overall expression of cyclin B1 and key factors of the myogenic regulatory and myocyte enhancer families, including Myogenein and MEF2A. Taken together, the gene expression data from MGF-treated porcine satellite cells are in favor of a molecular model in which MGF inhibits porcine satellite cell differentiation by down-regulating either the activity or expression of MyoD, which, in turn, suppresses the expression of key genes required for cell cycle progression and differentiation, such as p21, Myogenin, and MEF2. Overall, our findings are in support of the previous suggestion that MGF may be used in vivo and in vitro to promote proliferation of myogenic stem cells to prevent and treat age-related muscle degenerative diseases. PMID:22875667

Qin, Li-Li; Li, Xiao-Kui; Xu, Jian; Mo, De-Lin; Tong, Xiong; Pan, Zhi-Cheng; Li, Jia-Qi; Chen, Yao-Sheng; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Chong; Long, Qiao-Ming

2012-11-01

174

Turkeys and Cows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In honor of Thanksgiving, this blog posts an adaptation of the familiar chicken and cows problems that promote informal algebraic reasoning. Learners must find the correct number of turkeys and cows given the number of heads and the number of legs. A solution is modeled and a downloadable PDF of four more problems is included.

Kawas, Terry

2011-11-17

175

Leftover Turkey Soup Ingredients  

E-print Network

onions 1/2 green pepper 3 carrots 2 stalks celery 10 ounces corn, frozen 15 ounces low sodium tomatoes for 1/2 hour. 3. While turkey and rice are cooking, cut the ends off of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat

Liskiewicz, Maciej

176

Country Profiles, Turkey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

Anderson, Lewis S.

177

Wind energy and Turkey.  

PubMed

The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

2012-03-01

178

Special Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

2009-01-01

179

Let's Talk Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site will help users plan and enjoy their Thanksgiving feasts. This Thanksgiving site from the Food Network contains a host of resources, including recipes; turkey, pie, and stuffing guides; wine and leftover tips; and just in case, Kitchen Disaster 911.

2001-01-01

180

Educational Reform in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

Aksit, Necmi

2007-01-01

181

Elevated In Vivo Levels of a Single Transcription Factor Directly Convert Satellite Glia into Oligodendrocyte-like Cells.  

PubMed

Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system and ensure rapid saltatory conduction. Shortage or loss of these cells leads to severe malfunctions as observed in human leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis, and their replenishment by reprogramming or cell conversion strategies is an important research aim. Using a transgenic approach we increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression. These rarely studied and poorly characterized satellite glia did not go through a classic oligodendrocyte precursor cell stage. Instead, Sox10 directly induced key elements of the regulatory network of differentiating oligodendrocytes, including Olig2, Olig1, Nkx2.2 and Myrf. An upstream enhancer mediated the direct induction of the Olig2 gene. Unlike Sox10, Olig2 was not capable of generating oligodendrocyte-like cells in dorsal root ganglia. Our findings provide proof-of-concept that Sox10 can convert conducive cells into oligodendrocyte-like cells in vivo and delineates options for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25680202

Weider, Matthias; Wegener, Amélie; Schmitt, Christian; Küspert, Melanie; Hillgärtner, Simone; Bösl, Michael R; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Wegner, Michael

2015-02-01

182

Satellite Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

Technology Teacher, 1985

1985-01-01

183

Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 4: Silicon solar cell annealing test, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser annealing tests were conducted on ten 50 micron cells. Two were control cells that were not irradiated. These showed no loss in output due to exposure to the laser. Two cells were broken in handling. Six cells were successfully tested. All cells tested without breakage showed some recovery. One cell was subjected to two cycles and showed recovery on both cycles. Cells that were moderately degraded appeared to recover more completely than those more severly degraded. Exposure times ranged from two to ten seconds at 500 degrees centigrade. There was some indication that longer exposure was beneficial.

Walker, F.

1979-01-01

184

Nursing in Turkey.  

PubMed

The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada. PMID:16982724

Baumann, Steven L

2006-10-01

185

Extraocular muscle satellite cells are high performance myo-engines retaining efficient regenerative capacity in dystrophin deficiency.  

PubMed

Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are highly specialized skeletal muscles that originate from the head mesoderm and control eye movements. EOMs are uniquely spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and animal models of dystrophin deficiency. Specific traits of myogenic progenitors may be determinants of this preferential sparing, but very little is known about the myogenic cells in this muscle group. While satellite cells (SCs) have long been recognized as the main source of myogenic cells in adult muscle, most of the knowledge about these cells comes from the prototypic limb muscles. In this study, we show that EOMs, regardless of their distinctive Pax3-negative lineage origin, harbor SCs that share a common signature (Pax7(+), Ki67(-), Nestin-GFP(+), Myf5(nLacZ+), MyoD-positive lineage origin) with their limb and diaphragm somite-derived counterparts, but are remarkably endowed with a high proliferative potential as revealed in cell culture assays. Specifically, we demonstrate that in adult as well as in aging mice, EOM SCs possess a superior expansion capacity, contributing significantly more proliferating, differentiating and renewal progeny than their limb and diaphragm counterparts. These robust growth and renewal properties are maintained by EOM SCs isolated from dystrophin-null (mdx) mice, while SCs from muscles affected by dystrophin deficiency (i.e., limb and diaphragm) expand poorly in vitro. EOM SCs also retain higher performance in cell transplantation assays in which donor cells were engrafted into host mdx limb muscle. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive picture of EOM myogenic progenitors, showing that while these cells share common hallmarks with the prototypic SCs in somite-derived muscles, they distinctively feature robust growth and renewal capacities that warrant the title of high performance myo-engines and promote consideration of their properties for developing new approaches in cell-based therapy to combat skeletal muscle wasting. PMID:25236433

Stuelsatz, Pascal; Shearer, Andrew; Li, Yunfei; Muir, Lindsey A; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Shen, Qingwu W; Kirillova, Irina; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

2015-01-01

186

Greece and Turkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

187

Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

2000-01-01

188

Refugee movements and Turkey.  

PubMed

There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human rights. Europe in return has tightened legislation and procedures to differentiate economically motivated refugees from authentic political asylum seekers. Further research is needed to investigate refugee problems. Further refugees may come due to the promotion of a Black Sea Cooperation Region and easier crossings of borders to the former Soviet Republics. Ethnic Turks in Moldavia or Romania or Bulgaria may leave due to unrest. Factors affecting asylum seekers are improvements in Turkey's human rights record, repeal of bans of the Kurdish language, completion of the South Eastern Development Project, and the European government policy on asylum. PMID:12285110

Kirisci, K

1991-12-01

189

Perineuronal satellite neuroglia in the telencephalon of New Caledonian crows and other Passeriformes: evidence of satellite glial cells in the central nervous system of healthy birds?  

PubMed Central

Glia have been implicated in a variety of functions in the central nervous system, including the control of the neuronal extracellular space, synaptic plasticity and transmission, development and adult neurogenesis. Perineuronal glia forming groups around neurons are associated with both normal and pathological nervous tissue. Recent studies have linked reduction in the number of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex with human schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Therefore, perineuronal glia may play a decisive role in homeostasis and normal activity of the human nervous system. Here we report on the discovery of novel cell clusters in the telencephala of five healthy Passeriforme, one Psittaciform and one Charadriiforme bird species, which we refer to as Perineuronal Glial Clusters (PGCs). The aim of this study is to describe the structure and distribution of the PGCs in a number of avian species. PGCs were identified with the use of standard histological procedures. Heterochromatin masses visible inside the nuclei of these satellite glia suggest that they may correspond to oligodendrocytes. PGCs were found in the brains of nine New Caledonian crows, two Japanese jungle crows, two Australian magpies, two Indian mynah, three zebra finches (all Passeriformes), one Southern lapwing (Charadriiformes) and one monk parakeet (Psittaciformes). Microscopic survey of the brain tissue suggests that the largest PGCs are located in the hyperpallium densocellulare and mesopallium. No clusters were found in brain sections from one Gruiform (purple swamphen), one Strigiform (barn owl), one Trochiliform (green-backed firecrown), one Falconiform (chimango caracara), one Columbiform (pigeon) and one Galliform (chick). Our observations suggest that PGCs in Aves are brain region- and taxon-specific and that the presence of perineuronal glia in healthy human brains and the similar PGCs in avian gray matter is the result of convergent evolution. The discovery of PGCs in the zebra finch is of great importance because this species has the potential to become a robust animal model in which to study the function of neuron-glia interactions in healthy and diseased adult brains. PMID:23904989

Medina, Felipe S.; Hunt, Gavin R.; Gray, Russell D.; Wild, J. Martin

2013-01-01

190

Protein tyrosine and mitogen activated kinase activities in turkey heterophils isolated from commercial and wild-type turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Protein tyrosine and mitogen activated kinases are crucial mediators of the host innate immune response, conferring signals from surface receptors on the host cell to the nucleus of the cell where gene expression occurs. Heterophils were isolated from wild-type Rio Grande turkeys and a commercial li...

191

The Turkey Transcription Factor Pit-1/GHF-1 Can Activate the Turkey Prolactin and Growth Hormone  

E-print Network

The Turkey Transcription Factor Pit-1/GHF-1 Can Activate the Turkey Prolactin and Growth Hormone by cotransfection assays and immunofluorescence staining of pituitary sec- tions. In cotransfection assays, turkey Pit-1 activated the turkey Prl, turkey GH, and rat Prl promoters 3.8-, 3.7-, and 12.5-fold

Ramachandran, Ramesh

192

Sustainable Energy Development in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy, and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues

S. Karagoz; K. Bakirci

2009-01-01

193

Neotectonics of Turkey – a synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey forms one of the most actively deforming regions in the world and has a long history of devastating earthquakes. The better understanding of its neotectonic features and active tectonics would provide insight, not only for the country but also for the entire Eastern Mediterranean region. Active tectonics of Turkey is the manifestation of collisional intracontinental convergence- and tectonic escape-related

Erdin Bozkurt

2001-01-01

194

Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through inversely modulating Notch and NF-?B signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Satellite cell self-renewal is an essential process to maintaining the robustness of skeletal muscle regenerative capacity. However, extrinsic factors that regulate self-renewal of satellite cells are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that TWEAK cytokine reduces the proportion of Pax7(+)/MyoD(-) cells (an index of self-renewal) on myofiber explants and represses multiple components of Notch signaling in satellite cell cultures. The number of Pax7(+) cells is significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK knock-out (KO) mice compared with wild-type in response to injury. Furthermore, Notch signaling is significantly elevated in cultured satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers of TWEAK-KO mice. Forced activation of Notch signaling through overexpression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) rescued the TWEAK-mediated inhibition of satellite cell self-renewal. TWEAK also activates the NF-?B transcription factor in satellite cells and inhibition of NF-?B significantly improved the number of Pax7(+) cells in TWEAK-treated cultures. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that a reciprocal interaction between NF-?B and Notch signaling governs the inhibitory effect of TWEAK on satellite cell self-renewal. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through activating NF-?B and repressing Notch signaling. PMID:24151074

Ogura, Yuji; Mishra, Vivek; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kuang, Shihuan; Kumar, Ashok

2013-12-01

195

B: Pancakes, Turkey Baked Apples, Milk  

E-print Network

B: Pancakes, Turkey Sausage, Baked Apples, Milk L: Hamburger, Potato Wedges, Mixed Fruit, Milk S: Oranges B: Toast, Turkey Sausage, Pears, Milk L: Turkey Breast, Iceberg Lettuce, Tomato, Baked Apples Fruit, Bread, Milk S: Yogurt B: Waffles, Turkey Sausage Baked Apples, Milk L: Salisbury Steak, Mashed

O'Toole, Alice J.

196

Satellite battery testing status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

Haag, R.; Hall, S.

1986-01-01

197

Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

198

Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.  

PubMed

We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevation model for a measure of terrain ruggedness. A turkey vulture fitted with a heart-rate logger during 124 h of flight during 38 contiguous days showed only a small increase in mean heart rate as distance traveled per day increased, which suggests that, unlike flapping, soaring flight does not lead to greatly increased metabolic costs. Data from 10 migrations for 724 hourly segments and 152 daily segments showed that vultures depended heavily upon high levels of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer to increase flight distances and maintain preferred bearings at both hourly and daily scales. We suggest how the MEM can be extended to other spatial and temporal scales of avian migration. Our success in relating model-derived atmospheric variables to migration indicates the potential of using regional reanalysis data, as here, and potentially other regional, higher-resolution, atmospheric models in predicting changing movement patterns of soaring birds under various scenarios of climate and land use change. PMID:19060195

Mandel, J T; Bildstein, K L; Bohrer, G; Winkler, D W

2008-12-01

199

Nutritional Rickets in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Nutritional rickets (NR) remains the most common form of developmental bone disease, in spite of the efforts of clinicians and health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease in Turkey. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR exists along a spectrum ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR results from vita-min D deficiency that may have temporary but profound effects on short- and long-term skeletal development. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency during infancy may predispose a patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, etc. The factors responsible for the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries include the following: limited sunshine exposure as individuals spend more time indoors watching television and working on computers or intentional sunshine avoidance for skin cancer prevention. Traditional clothing (covered dress) further limits the exposure to sunshine and thus decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal vitamin D deficiency and breast feeding without supplementation are the most prominent reasons. The diagnosis of NR is established with a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. In conclusion, recent literature has drawn attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l), the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium, suppress excess secretion of parathyroid hormone, and reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effects.

Ozkan, Behzat

2010-01-01

200

Development works on nickel/hydrogen cells. [for satellite energy storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were performed to reduce the costs for NI/H2 cells by using nickel oxide electrodes with high capacity per unit area. No maintenance requirements, long cycle life, insensitivity to overcharge and cell reversal, and high power capability were revealed.

Gutmann, G.

1982-01-01

201

Seasonal demand and supply analysis of turkeys  

E-print Network

differences in elasti. city of demand between seasons in the period 1956-63. He reported a relatively less elastic fourth quarter, for farm level turkey demand [24]. Bluestone and Rojko used regression analysis to estimate the structural parameters... for January-September. Model III estimates turkey demand specifically on a monthly basis. The variables related to turkey are per capita supplies of turkey in the fourth quarter of the previous year and current cold 18 storage stocks of turkey...

Blomo, Vito James

2012-06-07

202

Testosterone inhibits transforming growth factor-? signaling during myogenic differentiation and proliferation of mouse satellite cells: Potential role of follistatin in mediating testosterone action  

PubMed Central

Testosterone (T) administration is associated with increased satellite cell number and skeletal muscle hypertrophy, although there is considerable heterogeneity in the response of different skeletal muscle groups to T in vivo. We investigated the effects of T on the growth and differentiation of satellite cells isolated from levator ani (LA) and gastrocnemius (gastroc) muscles. T up regulated follistatin (Fst) expression, but down regulated the mRNA and protein expression of a number of genes in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?)-signaling pathway. Inhibition of Fst expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited myogenic differentiation and blocked the pro-myogenic effects of T. Treatment of satellite cells with T or Fst up regulated the expression of Pax7 and PCNA, and increased their proliferation. T and Fst blocked TGF-? induced inhibition of growth and myogenic differentiation and down regulated TGF-?-dependent transcriptome in both LA and gastroc cells. We conclude that T stimulation of satellite cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation are associated with up regulation of Fst and inhibition of TGF-?-signaling. PMID:22138414

Braga, Melissa; Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi; Pervin, Shehla; Singh, Rajan

2012-01-01

203

Testosterone inhibits transforming growth factor-? signaling during myogenic differentiation and proliferation of mouse satellite cells: potential role of follistatin in mediating testosterone action.  

PubMed

Testosterone (T) administration is associated with increased satellite cell number and skeletal muscle hypertrophy, although there is considerable heterogeneity in the response of different skeletal muscle groups to T in vivo. We investigated the effects of T on the growth and differentiation of satellite cells isolated from levator ani (LA) and gastrocnemius (gastroc) muscles. T up regulated follistatin (Fst) expression, but down regulated the mRNA and protein expression of a number of genes in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?)-signaling pathway. Inhibition of Fst expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited myogenic differentiation and blocked the pro-myogenic effects of T. Treatment of satellite cells with T or Fst up regulated the expression of Pax7 and PCNA, and increased their proliferation. T and Fst blocked TGF-? induced inhibition of growth and myogenic differentiation and down regulated TGF-?-dependent transcriptome in both LA and gastroc cells. We conclude that T stimulation of satellite cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation are associated with up regulation of Fst and inhibition of TGF-?-signaling. PMID:22138414

Braga, Melissa; Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi; Pervin, Shehla; Singh, Rajan

2012-03-01

204

Satellite reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of the observation equipment in remote sensing satellites is described. United States meteorology, land use and oceanography satellites and the major US Earth observation programs are listed. Imaging satellite systems are described such as: visible light and near infrared, thermal IR window, and microwave window. It is concluded that a geometrical resolution between 10 and 40 m can be expected. In order to reduce the data flow from the satellite system the input side of the system (the object-sensor interaction) has to be known. Satellites with synthetic aperture radar are increasingly important, but satellites can never fully replace observations with aircraft and drones.

Deloor, G. P.

1984-06-01

205

Evaluation of solar cells and arrays for potential solar power satellite applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed solar array designs and manufacturing methods are evaluated to identify options which show the greatest promise of leading up to the develpment of a cost-effective SPS solar cell array design. The key program elements which have to be accomplished as part of an SPS solar cell array development program are defined. The issues focussed on are: (1) definition of one or more designs of a candidate SPS solar array module, using results from current system studies; (2) development of the necessary manufacturing requirements for the candidate SPS solar cell arrays and an assessment of the market size, timing, and industry infrastructure needed to produce the arrays for the SPS program; (3) evaluation of current DOE, NASA and DOD photovoltaic programs to determine the impacts of recent advances in solar cell materials, array designs and manufacturing technology on the candidate SPS solar cell arrays; and (4) definition of key program elements for the development of the most promising solar cell arrays for the SPS program.

Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K.; Gaudet, A. D.

1978-01-01

206

Community effect triggers terminal differentiation of myogenic cells derived from muscle satellite cells by quenching Smad signaling  

SciTech Connect

A high concentration of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) stimulates myogenic progenitor cells to undergo heterotopic osteogenic differentiation. However, the physiological role of the Smad signaling pathway during terminal muscle differentiation has not been resolved. We report here that Smad1/5/8 was phosphorylated and activated in undifferentiated growing mouse myogenic progenitor Ric10 cells without exposure to any exogenous BMPs. The amount of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was severely reduced during precocious myogenic differentiation under the high cell density culture condition even in growth medium supplemented with a high concentration of serum. Inhibition of the Smad signaling pathway by dorsomorphin, an inhibitor of Smad activation, or noggin, a specific antagonist of BMP, induced precocious terminal differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells in a cell density-dependent fashion even in growth medium. In addition, Smad1/5/8 was transiently activated in proliferating myogenic progenitor cells during muscle regeneration in rats. The present results indicate that the Smad signaling pathway is involved in a critical switch between growth and differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, precocious cell density-dependent myogenic differentiation suggests that a community effect triggers the terminal muscle differentiation of myogenic cells by quenching the Smad signaling.

Yanagisawa, Michiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan) [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Aging Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Mukai, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kosuke [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)] [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Song, Si-Yong [Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan)] [Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki-shi, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro, E-mail: nao@ncgg.go.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)] [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 35 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)

2011-01-15

207

Regenerative fuel cell systems for mid- to high-orbit satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the present and projected capabilities of selected hydrogen-oxygen and hydrogen-halogen fuel cell and electrolyzer combinations for energy storage systems (ESS) in configurations useful for spacecraft missions operating in the 10- to 50-kW range for many years in midaltitude to geosynchronous orbits has recently been completed. Results of the study indicate that regenerative fuel cell ESS are feasible for the intended application. A computer model was used to provide tradeoff analyses for optimizing the various ESS fuel cell concepts. When appropriately configured to be compatible with the mission needs of the selected model spacecraft, the specific energy for these ESS are intermediate between that presently available for nickel-hydrogen batteries and that expected for the newly emerging sodium-sulfur technology.

Taenaka, R. K.; Adler, E.; Stofel, E. J.; Clark, K. B.

1987-01-01

208

Sciatic nerve injury induces apoptosis of dorsal root ganglion satellite glial cells and selectively modifies neurosteroidogenesis in sensory neurons.  

PubMed

Neurosteroids are synthesized either by glial cells, by neurons, or within the context of neuron-glia cross-talk. Various studies suggested neurosteroid involvement in the control of neurodegeneration but there is no evidence showing that the natural protection of nerve cells against apoptosis directly depends on their own capacity to produce neuroprotective neurosteroids. Here, we investigated the interactions between neurosteroidogenesis and apoptosis occurring in sensory structures of rats subjected to neuropathic pain generated by sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI). Using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), we observed no apoptotic cells in the spinal cord up to 30 days after CCI although pain symptoms such as mechano-allodynia, thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia were evidenced with the Hargreaves's behavioral and von Frey filament tests. In contrast, double-labeling experiments combining TUNEL and immunostaining with antibodies against glutamine synthetase or neuronal nuclei protein revealed apoptosis occurrence in satellite glial cells (SGC) (not in neurons) of CCI rat ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at day 30 after injury. Pulse-chase experiments coupled with high performance liquid chromatography and flow scintillation detection showed that, among numerous biosynthetic pathways converting [(3)H]pregnenolone into various [(3)H]neurosteroids, only [(3)H]estradiol formation was selectively modified and upregulated in DRG of CCI rats. Consistently, immunohistochemical investigations localized aromatase (estradiol-synthesizing enzyme) in DRG neurons but not in SGC. Pharmacological inhibition of aromatase caused apoptosis of CCI rat DRG neurons. Altogether, our results suggest that endogenously produced neurosteroids such as estradiol may be pivotal for the protection of DRG sensory neurons against sciatic nerve CCI-induced apoptosis. PMID:19565659

Schaeffer, Véronique; Meyer, Laurence; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Eckert, Anne; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe G

2010-01-15

209

Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Enhances Satellite Cell Activation in Dystrophic Muscles through a S1PR2/STAT3 Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) activates a widely expressed family of G protein-coupled receptors, serves as a muscle trophic factor and activates muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that muscle injury induces dynamic changes in S1P signaling and metabolism in vivo. These changes include early and profound induction of the gene encoding the S1P biosynthetic enzyme SphK1, followed by induction of the catabolic enzyme sphingosine phosphate lyase (SPL) 3 days later. These changes correlate with a transient increase in circulating S1P levels after muscle injury. We show a specific requirement for SphK1 to support efficient muscle regeneration and SC proliferation and differentiation. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), were found to be S1P-deficient and exhibited muscle SPL upregulation, suggesting that S1P catabolism is enhanced in dystrophic muscle. Pharmacological SPL inhibition increased muscle S1P levels, improved mdx muscle regeneration and enhanced SC proliferation via S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2)-dependent inhibition of Rac1, thereby activating Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), a central player in inflammatory signaling. STAT3 activation resulted in p21 and p27 downregulation in a S1PR2-dependent fashion in myoblasts. Our findings suggest that S1P promotes SC progression through the cell cycle by repression of cell cycle inhibitors via S1PR2/STAT3-dependent signaling and that SPL inhibition may provide a therapeutic strategy for MD. PMID:22606352

Carlson, Morgan E.; Oskouian, Babak; Kumar, Ashok; Fyrst, Henrik; Zhang, Meng; Proia, Richard L.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Saba, Julie D.

2012-01-01

210

Effect of satellite cell ablation on low-frequency-stimulated fast-to-slow fibre-type transitions in rat skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether satellite cell ablation within rat fast-twitch muscles exposed to chronic low-frequency stimulation (CLFS) would limit fast-to-slow fibre-type transitions. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Satellite cells of the left tibialis anterior were ablated by weekly exposure to a 25 Gy dose of ?-irradiation during 21 days of CLFS (IRR-Stim), whilst a second group received only 21 days of CLFS (Stim). A third group received weekly doses of ?-irradiation (IRR). Non-irradiated right legs served as internal controls. Continuous infusion of 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) revealed that CLFS induced an 8.0-fold increase in satellite cell proliferation over control (mean ± s.e.m.: 23.9 ± 1.7 versus 3.0 ± 0.5 mm?2, P < 0.0001) that was abolished by ?-irradiation. M-cadherin and myogenin staining were also elevated 7.7- and 3.8-fold (P < 0.0001), respectively, in Stim compared with control, indicating increases in quiescent and terminally differentiating satellite cells; these increases were abolished by ?-irradiation. Myonuclear content was elevated 3.3-fold (P < 0.0001) in Stim, but remained unchanged in IRR-Stim. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed attenuation of fast-to-slow fibre-type transitions in IRR-Stim compared with Stim. Comparable changes were observed at the protein level by SDS-PAGE. It is concluded that although considerable adaptive potential exists within myonuclei, satellite cells play a role in facilitating fast-to-slow fibre-type transitions. PMID:16439424

Martins, Karen J B; Gordon, Tessa; Pette, Dirk; Dixon, Walter T; Foxcroft, George R; MacLean, Ian M; Putman, Charles T

2006-01-01

211

Effects of sustanon on the distribution of satellite cells and the morphology of skeletal muscle fibers during maturation.  

PubMed

Sustanon is one of the most commonly used anabolic androgenic drugs to increase skeletal muscle mass and strength. This drug is a blend of four esterized testosterone derivatives: Testosterone propionate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone isocaproate and testosterone decanoate. Little is known about the effects of this drug on skeletal muscle at the cellular level. This study aimed to investigate the influence of Sustanon on the morphology of skeletal muscle fibers and the distribution of myogenic stem cells known as Satellite Cells (SCs) during postnatal growth. We hypothesized that Sustanon-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is associated with an increase in the number of SCs. Robust immunocytochemical techniques and morphometric analyses were used to calculate the numbers of SCs and myonuclei within the pectoralis muscle of chickens. Also, DNA concentration and Pax7 protein levels were measured to confirm immunocytochemical findings. Sustanon significantly increased pectoralis mass and fiber size. All SC indices and the number of myonuclei increased significantly by Sustanon administration. In addition, greater DNA concentration and Pax7 protein expression were found in Sustanon-treated birds. This study indicates that Sustanon can induce avian skeletal muscle hypertrophy and that this is correlated with increased numbers of SCs and myonuclei. PMID:24199455

Allouh, Mohammed Z; Aldirawi, Mohammed H

2012-03-01

212

Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed in Myogenin Knock-Down Bovine Muscle Satellite Cells during Differentiation through RNA Sequencing Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) consisting of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin (MyoG) and MRF4 characterizes various phases of skeletal muscle development including myoblast proliferation, cell-cycle exit, cell fusion and the maturation of myotubes to form myofibers. Although it is well known that the function of MyoG cannot be compensated for other MRFs, the molecular mechanism by which MyoG controls muscle cell differentiation is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to profile changes in gene expression in response to MyoG knock-down (MyoGkd) in primary bovine muscle satellite cells (MSCs). Results About 61–64% of the reads of over 42 million total reads were mapped to more than 13,000 genes in the reference bovine genome. RNA-Seq analysis identified 8,469 unique genes that were differentially expressed in MyoGkd. Among these genes, 230 were up-regulated and 224 were down-regulated by at least four-fold. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) and pathway analysis of all up- and down-regulated genes identified overrepresentation for cell cycle and division, DNA replication, mitosis, organelle lumen, nucleoplasm and cytosol, phosphate metabolic process, phosphoprotein phosphatase activity, cytoskeleton and cell morphogenesis, signifying the functional implication of these processes and pathways during skeletal muscle development. The RNA-Seq data was validated by real time RT-PCR analysis for eight out of ten genes as well as five marker genes investigated. Conclusions This study is the first RNA-Seq based gene expression analysis of MyoGkd undertaken in primary bovine MSCs. Computational analysis of the differentially expressed genes has identified the significance of genes such as SAP30-like (SAP30L), Protein lyl-1 (LYL1), various matrix metalloproteinases, and several glycogenes in myogenesis. The results of the present study widen our knowledge of the molecular basis of skeletal muscle development and reveal the vital regulatory role of MyoG in retaining muscle cell differentiation. PMID:24647404

Pokharel, Smritee; Ahmad, Sarafraz; Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Cho, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Jihoe; Kong, Joon Chan; Lee, Dong-Mok; Chung, Ki Yong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Choi, Inho

2014-01-01

213

Turkey's foreign dependence on energy  

SciTech Connect

Turkey becomes more dependent on the external countries in energy production every year. As an average of the period 1994-2002 the total primary energy production has been 27.9 Mtoe, and consumption has been 73.06 Mtoe, so Turkey is dependent on external countries in petroleum, natural gas, and hard coal consumption. The external dependency rate of these fuels has been at levels of 89.3%, 96.6%, and 82%, respectively. In the projections of Turkey for 2020, the primary energy consumption is estimated to be 298 Mtoe, production is estimated to be 70 Mtoe, the ratio of production to consumption will be reduced to 23.5%, and this situation will cause serious risks for sustainable development. In other words, Turkey will have to import 76.5% of the energy that it consumes in the 2020s.

Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2008-07-01

214

Devastating Earthquake in Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The death toll will pass 10,000 today from Tuesday's earthquake, which measured 7.4 on the Richter scale and shattered a 400-mile stretch from northwestern Turkey to areas near central Ankara. Relief officials have publicly stated that they fear the worst for the estimated 35,000 people who remain trapped beneath rubble, as most will now have been without water for more than 72 hours. In addition to locating and rescuing survivors, the Turkish Government and international aid workers are working feverishly to organize relief efforts, prevent the spread of disease, repair damaged infrastructure, and contain a massive fire at the country's largest oil refinery. The sites listed provide information about this horrible act of nature

de Nie, Michael Willem.

215

Turkey Flat Site Effects Test Area The Turkey-Flat strong motion "blind"  

E-print Network

Turkey Flat Site Effects Test Area B B' A A' C C' The Turkey-Flat strong motion "blind" prediction Geological Survey Turkey Flat, USA Site Effects Test Area: "Blind" Test of Predicted Ground Response of a Shallow Stiff-Soil Site to the September 28, 2004 M6.0 Parkfield Earthquake Turkey Flat Working Group Stay

Oprsal, Ivo

216

Influence of Pasteurella multocida and high and low environmental temperatures on adrenals and bursa of Fabricius in turkeys  

SciTech Connect

The morphologic changes in the adrenals and bursa of Fabricius were evaluated from turkeys inoculated with Pasteurella multocida either in the palatine air spaces or via drinking water and maintained at high (33.4-37.4 C), low (2.6-5.3 C), and moderate (19.8-22.4 C) temperatures in temperature-controlled chambers. There was a slight hyperplasia of the adrenal cortical cells and a hypertrophy of the nuclei in the uninoculated turkeys maintained at both high and low temperatures, but these changes were more marked in turkeys maintained at low temperatures. Regardless of the temperature to which the turkeys were exposed, there was an increase in adrenal weight, hyperplasia of the cortical cells, hypertrophy of the nuclei of the cortical cells, and depletion of lipid in the cortical cells in the turkeys that became depressed after inoculation with P. multocida. In the uninoculated turkeys exposed to high temperatures there was a reduction in the weight of the bursa of Fabricius, atrophy of the follicles, and a reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicle, which did not occur in the bursae from uninoculated turkeys maintained at low temperatures. In the turkeys inoculated with P. multocida, there was a marked reduction in bursal weight, atrophy of the follicles, and reduction in the number of lymphocytes within the follicles.

Simensen, E.; Olson, L.D.; Hahn, G.L.

1980-01-01

217

Isolation and serological studies with infectious bursal disease viruses from fowl, turkeys and ducks: Demonstration of a second serotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation of a number of strains of infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus from fowl, turkeys and ducks is described. These isolates could be grouped into two serotypes using the neutralisation test. It is proposed that the cell culture adapted vaccine strain from fowl should be the prototype virus for serotype 1 and that the TY89 isolate from a turkey

J. B. McFerran; M. S. McNulty; E. R. McKillop; T. J. Connor; R. M. McCracken; D. S. Collins; G. M. Allan

1980-01-01

218

Satellite congestion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At last count, there were more than 160 satellites in geostationary orbits, circling the earth at an altitude of 37,000 km, and according to a research review published recently by the Rand Corporation, that's already too crowded. The risk of physical collisions among satellites is small, say authors Alvin L. Hiebert and William Sollfrey, but there is an emerging problem with what they call “spectral and orbital congestion,” the result of too many satellites and ground stations sending out too many electromagnetic signals that can interfere with one another.The report comes at a time when the Federal Communications Commission is planning to reduce the spacing between satellites along the U.S. segment of the orbital arc so that 37 additional satellites can be squeezed into the high orbit favored for telecommunications. “As more satellites are launched and others are shifted to avoid collisions, interference problems will get more complicated,” say the authors of the report.

219

Health Tip: Safely Thaw the Thanksgiving Turkey  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Safely Thaw the Thanksgiving Turkey One option is to thaw in the fridge (* ... want Thanksgiving guests to become sick from contaminated turkey, so make sure you thaw your holiday bird ...

220

Angiogenesis as a novel therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy through decreased ischemia and increased satellite cells  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary muscular dystrophy caused by mutation in dystrophin, and there is no curative therapy. Dystrophin is a protein which forms the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC) at the sarcolemma linking the muscle cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. When dystrophin is absent, muscle fibers become vulnerable to mechanical stretch. In addition to this, accumulating evidence indicates DMD muscle having vascular abnormalities and that the muscles are under an ischemic condition. More recent studies demonstrate decreased vascular densities and impaired angiogenesis in the muscles of murine model of DMD. Therefore, generation of new vasculature can be considered a potentially effective strategy for DMD therapy. The pro-angiogenic approaches also seem to be pro-myogenic and could induce muscle regeneration capacity through expansion of the satellite cell juxtavascular niche in the mouse model. Here, we will focus on angiogenesis, reviewing the background, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor-pathway, effect, and concerns of this strategy in DMD. PMID:24600399

Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Asakura, Atsushi

2014-01-01

221

Artificial Satellites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over 2,000 man-made satellites are currently orbiting the Earth, providing a wide range of services like communications, remote sensing, and global positioning. As more are launched and new technologies are developed, they will play an increasingly important role in everyday life.The Tech Museum offers this site (1) dedicated to the basics of satellites and their functions. A Java program complements the Satellite Anatomy section, which illustrates the standard components of three different categories of satellites. More information specific to satellite launches and their orbits can be found here (2). Most of the material is composed of fun experiments that demonstrate satellite operation. One of the most interesting features on this NASA site (3) is the Live 3D Java Tracking Display, which shows hundreds of different satellites and their current position in orbit. A few selected news articles and a separate section on satellite applications are also provided. The European Space Agency provides a look at solar power satellites (4), which could essentially "beam" energy to Earth. While it is not a new concept, the sheer magnitude of a project to construct a solar power satellite has thus far been too great to justify an attempt. At a conference held in December 2002 (5), representatives from the satellite industry convened to discuss current developments. Although many of the articles only address industry outlooks, some are more technology-oriented. For instance, one considers a new navigation system that could improve overall coverage and signal availability. A lesson plan (6) for grades K-5 teaches children how satellites are launched and some basic terminology. The activity uses different sized marbles, clay, and some other items to demonstrate fundamental concepts. Satellites of the Global Positioning System are being used for more than they were originally intended in England. This news article (7) describes how they are used to study earthquakes and corresponding movements in the Earth's crust. In other news (8), the largest communications satellite ever built was lost in November 2002. The failure of one of its launching rockets resulted in the satellite falling in a decaying orbit until it fell into the sea.

Leske, Cavin.

2003-01-01

222

Geothermal energy in Turkey: the sustainable future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an energy importing nation with more than half of our energy requirements met by imported fuels. Air pollution is becoming a significant environmental concern in the country. In this regard, geothermal energy and other renewable energy sources are becoming attractive solution for clean and sustainable energy future for Turkey. Turkey is the seventh richest country in the world

Kamil Kaygusuz; Abdullah Kaygusuz

2004-01-01

223

Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

2009-01-01

224

Fluid satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotating planet and satellite systems with large mass ratios are examined in terms of the stability of the systems, particularly for conditions which result in the formation of planet-moon systems such as Pluto-Charon. The planet is modeled as a Maclaurin spheroid massive enough to experience little influence by the satellite. Several equilibrium sequences are calculated for the shapes which can

I. Hachisu; Y. Eriguchi

1985-01-01

225

Satellite Tracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use satellite tracking software available on the Internet to monitor a very large satellite, the International Space Station. Using information from this online resource, students predict and graph the motion of the space station at their location and create a 3-D display of its path through the sky.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

226

Maternal Filicide in Turkey.  

PubMed

Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

2014-07-28

227

Navigation satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution, capabilities and uses of satellite-based navigation systems are explored, with emphasis on the accompanying space- and earth-based technologies. Early measurements of the Doppler shifts of Sputnik signals spurred development of the Transit satellite system as a precision navigation aid for Polaris submarines. The development of gravimetric programs to project the actual position of the satellites and the use of high frequency signals to offset ionospheric interference are noted. The design features, performances, and numerous launch and operational failures, of successive Transit spacecraft, i.e., the 5BN, 5C1 and Oscar satellites, are summarized. Details of the operational parameters and design features of the prototype and planned NAVSTAR GPS system are outlined, and plans for a SARSAT search and rescue satellite and the commercial GEOSTAR radionavigation and positioning system are described.

Weiffenbach, George C.

228

Centromere detection in vinblastine- and radiation-induced micronuclei of cytokinesis-blocked mouse cells by using in situ hybridization with a mouse gamma (major) satellite DNA probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-isotopic in situ hybridization using a mouse gamma (major) satellite probe DNA was applied to detect centromeres in micronuclei, which were induced in vitro mouse liver cells by ionizing radiation and by vinblastine sulfate. In a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay a dose-dependent induction of micronuclei was found for both agents. After vinblastine exposure the observed micronuclei showed centromere-positive hybridization signals in

K. Salassidis; R. Huber; H. Zitzelsberger; M. Bauchinger

1992-01-01

229

A comparison of virulence of influenza A virus isolates from mallards in experimentally inoculated turkeys.  

PubMed

Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) from wild waterfowl can and do cross species barriers, infecting and sometimes becoming established in domestic poultry. Turkeys are naturally highly susceptible to LPAIV infections, especially with viruses from ducks. In this study, we describe clinical signs and lesions in experimentally inoculated commercial turkeys produced by a LPAIV, A/mallard/MN/1714/09 (H7N1), isolated from a mallard duck. Our results demonstrate that this H7N1 isolate produced clinical signs, including severe edema of the head and face because of an early inflammatory response in both inoculated and contact turkeys. In comparison, an isolate, A/mallard/MN/2749/09 (H6N8) from the same mallard population, infected and was transmitted between naive turkeys but did not cause clinical disease or lesions. Our data indicate that proinflammatory (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6) and antiviral (IFN-gamma and IL-2) cytokines are expressed at different levels in H7N1- and H6N8-infected turkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These differences correlate inversely with clinical lesions, suggesting that differences in host responses result in variances in viral pathogenesis and in virulence of LPAIV in commercial turkeys. Based on these results, we can conclude that turkeys may exhibit variable immunologic responses to infection with different AIV strains. PMID:24597123

Mondal, Shankar; Xing, Zheng; Cardona, Carol

2013-12-01

230

Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

1988-01-01

231

Stand?up exercise training facilitates muscle recovery from disuse atrophy by stimulating myogenic satellite cell proliferation in mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Determining the cellular and molecular recovery processes in inactivity – or unloading –induced atrophied muscles should improve rehabilitation strategies. We assessed the effects of stand?up exercise (SE) training on the recovery of atrophied skeletal muscles in male mice. Mice were trained to stand up and press an elevated lever in response to a light?tone cue preceding an electric foot shock and then subjected to tail suspension (TS) for 2 weeks to induce disuse atrophy in hind limb muscles. After release from TS, mice were divided into SE?trained (SE cues: 25 times per set, two sets per day) and non?SE?trained groups. Seven days after the training, average myofiber cross?sectional area (CSA) of the soleus muscle was significantly greater in the SE?trained group than in the non?SE?trained group (1843 ± 194 ?m2 vs. 1315 ± 153 ?m2). Mean soleus muscle CSA in the SE trained group was not different from that in the CON group subjected to neither TS nor SE training (2005 ± 196 ?m2), indicating that SE training caused nearly complete recovery from muscle atrophy. The number of myonuclei per myofiber was increased by ~60% in the SE?trained group compared with the non?SE?trained and CON groups (0.92 ± 0.03 vs. 0.57 ± 0.03 and 0.56 ± 0.11, respectively). The number of proliferating myonuclei, identified by 5?ethynyl?2??deoxyuridine staining, increased within the first few days of SE training. Thus, it is highly likely that myogenic satellite cells proliferated rapidly in atrophied muscles in response to SE training and fused with existing myofibers to reestablish muscle mass. PMID:25367692

Itoh, Yuta; Hayakawa, Kimihide; Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Inoue?Miyazu, Masumi; Murakami, Taro; Sokabe, Masahiro; Kawakami, Keisuke

2014-01-01

232

Performance analysis for a guaranteed handover service in an LEO constellation with a “satellite-fixed cell” system  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is anticipated that the satellite component of the future universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) will be based (partly or totally) on non-geostationary (nonGEO) constellations of satellites to serve mixed populations of users, each category being treated through different contracts stipulating different quality of service (QoS). In particular, we envisage a high-quality premium service which guarantees the success of each

G. Maral; J. Restrepo; E. del Re; R. Fantacci; G. Giambene

1998-01-01

233

?-Hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) enhances the proliferation of satellite cells in fast muscles of aged rats during recovery from disuse atrophy.  

PubMed

Loss of myonuclei by apoptosis is thought to contribute to sarcopenia. We have previously shown, that the leucine metabolite, ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) suppresses apoptotic signaling and the apoptotic index (the ratio of apoptotic positive to apoptotic negative myonuclei) during muscle disuse and during reloading periods after disuse in aged rats. However, it was not clear if the apoptotic signaling indexes were due only to preservation of myonuclei or if perhaps the total myogenic pool increased as a result of HMB-mediated satellite cell proliferation as this would have also reduced the apoptotic index. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HMB would augment myogenic cells (satellite cells) proliferation during muscle recovery (growth) after a period of disuse in senescent animals. The hindlimb muscles of 34 month old Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats were unloaded for 14 days by hindlimb suspension (HLS), and then reloaded for 14 days. The rats received either Ca-HMB (340 mg/kg body weight; n = 16), or the vehicle (n = 10) by gavage throughout the experimental period. HMB prevented the functional decline in maximal plantar flexion isometric force production during the reloading period, but not during HLS. HMB-treatment enhanced the proliferation of muscle stem cells as shown by a greater percentage of satellite cells that had proliferated (more BrdU positive, Pax-7 positive, and more Pax7/Ki67 positive nuclei) and as a result, more differentiated stem cells were present (more MyoD/myogenin positive myonuclei), relative to total myonuclei, in reloaded plantaris muscles as compared to reloaded muscles from vehicle-treated animals. Furthermore HMB increased the nuclear protein abundance of proliferation markers, inhibitor of differentiation-2 and cyclin A, as compared to vehicle treatment in reloaded muscles. Although HMB increased phosphorylated Akt during reloading, other mTOR related proteins were not altered by HMB treatment. These data show that HMB improved the proliferation of muscle stem cells in fast twitch plantaris muscles. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation leading to increased differentiated myonuclei should increase the transcriptional potential to support muscle hypertrophic changes and functional changes in sarcopenic muscles, and this could partly explain the reduced apoptotic index in HMB treated muscles. Indeed, muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area were significantly greater in plantaris muscles from HMB-treated animal muscles after reloading as compared to vehicle-treated animals. PMID:23832076

Alway, Stephen E; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K; Hao, Yanlei; Bennett, Brian T

2013-09-01

234

Salad Sensations Turkey, Monterey Jack cheese* and spring mix  

E-print Network

Salad Sensations Turkey, Monterey Jack cheese* and spring mix Turkey Bliss Will Roger's Pride & Joy Chef Salad Turkey and honey ham, Monterey Jack cheese*, cherry tomatoes, and ranch dressing Ham Honey ham, Monterey Jack cheese*, cherry tomatoes, and honey mustard dressing Turkey Turkey, cucumbers

Oklahoma, University of

235

Satellite Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This undergraduate meteorology tutorial focuses on the use of satellite imagery by forecasters. Different types of imagery are discussed, followed by training on the identification of particular types of weather systems.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-01-01

236

Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about the three types of satellite images (visible, infrared, and water vapor); how to identify basic cloud types and storm systems in satellite images; and demonstrate the basic knowledge necessary to interpret satellite observations. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

237

Satellite Videoconferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is helping thousands of teachers to learn more about aerospace matters, improve their classroom skills, and expand significantly the content of their aerospace education curricula by means of live educational satellite videoconferences. The 1 1/2 hour 'Update for Teachers' programs originate at Oklahoma State University (OSU) Telecommunications Center. The television signals are transmitted to the WESTAR IV communications satellite, which remits them to participating schools across the U.S. and in parts of Mexico and Canada. The schools are equipped with small home style satellite reception dishes. Education Satellite Videoconference programs are conducted four times yearly, covering a variety of aerospace subjects. Teachers can call toll-free and have questions answered after the speaker's presentations. Information about NASA educational resources and how to obtain them will be provided.

1990-01-01

238

Satellite positioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments in satellite positioning techniques and their applications are reviewed on the basis of the theoretical and practical work published by U.S. researchers in 1987-1990. Current techniques are classified into two main categories: satellite laser tracking and radio tracking. Particular attention is given to the Geoscience Laser Ranging System, the Lunar Laser Ranging concept; GPS ephemerides determination, fiducial networks, and reference frame; static GPS positioning; and kinematic GPS positioning.

Colombo, Oscar L.; Watkins, Michael M.

1991-01-01

239

Requirement Turkey Duck1 Muscovy  

E-print Network

day 20th day 21st day Incubation Period and Incubator Operation for Eggs of Domestic Birds 1 It has been reported that duck eggs hatch better in stiffair incubators than in forcedair incubators. 2Requirement Chicken and Bantam Turkey Duck1 Muscovy Duck Goose Guinea Pheasant Peafowl Bobwhite

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

240

Biomass energy potential in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass energy includes fuelwood, agricultural residues, animal wastes, charcoal and other fuels derived from biological sources. It currently accounts for about 14% of world energy consumption. Biomass is the main source of energy for many developed and developing countries. In Turkey energy wood is available in the form of forest chips, fuelwood, wood waste, wood pellets, and it is also

K. Kaygusuz; M. F. Türker

2002-01-01

241

Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

2005-01-01

242

Genetic deletion of TNFR2 augments inflammatory response and blunts satellite-cell-mediated recovery response in a hind limb ischemia model.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that TNF-tumor necrosis factor receptor-2/p75 (TNFR2/p75) signaling plays a critical role in ischemia-induced neovascularization in skeletal muscle and heart tissues. To determine the role of TNF-TNFR2/p75 signaling in ischemia-induced inflammation and muscle regeneration, we subjected wild-type (WT) and TNFR2/p75 knockout (p75KO) mice to hind limb ischemia (HLI) surgery. Ischemia induced significant and long-lasting inflammation associated with considerable decrease in satellite-cell activation in p75KO muscle tissue up to 10 d after HLI surgery. To determine the possible additive negative roles of tissue aging and the absence of TNFR2/p75, either in the tissue or in the bone marrow (BM), we generated 2 chimeric BM transplantation (BMT) models where both young green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive p75KO and WT BM-derived cells were transplanted into adult p75KO mice. HLI surgery was performed 1 mo after BMT, after confirming complete engraftment of the recipient BM with GFP donor cells. In adult p75KO with the WT-BMT, proliferative (Ki67(+)) cells were detected only by d 28 and were exclusively GFP(+), suggesting significantly delayed contribution of young WT-BM cell to adult p75KO ischemic tissue recovery. No GFP(+) young p75KO BM cells survived in adult p75KO tissue, signifying the additive negative roles of tissue aging combined with decreased/absent TNFR2/p75 signaling in postischemic recovery.-Sasi, S. P., Rahimi, L., Yan, X., Silver, M., Qin, G., Losordo, D. W., Kishore, R., Goukassian, D. A. Genetic deletion of TNFR2 augments inflammatory response and blunts satellite-cell-mediated recovery response in a hind limb ischemia model. PMID:25466901

Sasi, Sharath P; Rahimi, Layla; Yan, Xinhua; Silver, Marcy; Qin, Gangjian; Losordo, Douglas W; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A

2014-12-01

243

Satellite Winds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about the using successive satellite observations of clouds to determine wind direction and speed. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

244

2, 169190, 2007 Turkey-Arabia and  

E-print Network

eED 2, 169­190, 2007 Turkey-Arabia and Africa-Arabia plate boundaries R. Westaway et al. Title PageEarth Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of eEarth Geometry of the Turkey-Arabia and Africa in eastern Turkey R. Westaway1,2 , T. Demir3 , and A. Seyrek4 1 Faculty of Mathematics and Computing

Boyer, Edmond

245

Monitoring forest structure at landscape level: a case study of Scots pine forest in NE Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the change in spatial-temporal configuration of secondary forest succession and generate measurements\\u000a for monitoring the changes in structural plant diversity in Yaln?zçam Scots pine forest in NE Turkey from 1972 to 2005. The\\u000a successional stages were mapped using the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS),\\u000a aerial photos and high resolution satellite

Salih Terzio?lu; Emin Zeki Ba?kent; Ali ?hsan Kad?o?ullar?

2009-01-01

246

Dynamic organization of DNA replication in mammalian cell nuclei: spatially and temporally defined replication of chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Five distinct patterns of DNA replication have been identified during S- phase in asynchronous and synchronous cultures of mammalian cells by conventional fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. During early S-phase, replicating DNA (as identified by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) appears to be distributed at sites throughout the nucleoplasm, excluding the nucleolus. In CHO cells, this pattern of replication peaks at 30 min into S-phase and is consistent with the localization of euchromatin. As S-phase continues, replication of euchromatin decreases and the peripheral regions of heterochromatin begin to replicate. This pattern of replication peaks at 2 h into S-phase. At 5 h, perinucleolar chromatin as well as peripheral areas of heterochromatin peak in replication. 7 h into S-phase interconnecting patches of electron-dense chromatin replicate. At the end of S-phase (9 h), replication occurs at a few large regions of electron-dense chromatin. Similar or identical patterns have been identified in a variety of mammalian cell types. The replication of specific chromosomal regions within the context of the BrdU-labeling patterns has been examined on an hourly basis in synchronized HeLa cells. Double labeling of DNA replication sites and chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences indicates that the alpha-satellite DNA replicates during mid S-phase (characterized by the third pattern of replication) in a variety of human cell types. Our data demonstrates that specific DNA sequences replicate at spatially and temporally defined points during the cell cycle and supports a spatially dynamic model of DNA replication. PMID:1740468

1992-01-01

247

Satellite Telecommunications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of a quarterly publication of the Council of Europe covers aspects of the history, technology, policies, and impact of telecommunications in Europe, with an emphasis on European television. The following articles are included: (1) "Man and the World of Telecommunications" (Piet Stoffelen); (2) "The European Communications Satellite…

Forum, 1986

1986-01-01

248

Satellite Footprint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief overview of the use of satellites in education mentions sources of information about their use and available programing. There is a review of the technological aspects of the Europlus Network, which markets European programing to viewers in the U.S. via Intelsat. (CNP)

Siskin, Marc Neil

1993-01-01

249

Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

2001-01-01

250

Rights of the Child in Turkey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

Naqvi, Yasmin

251

Renewable energy and sustainable development in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. So clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life for Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use

Kamil Kaygusuz; Abdullah Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

252

IMPACT OF FENBENDAZOLE ON TURKEY SEMEN QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fenbendazole (FBZ) is an anthelmintic recently approved to treat and control nematode infections in growing turkeys. When administered to growing turkeys there are no detrimental side effects. However, when we used FBZ to treat nematodes in mature breeder toms, we observed a decrease in semen quali...

253

A Review of Geothermal Energy in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review of the geothermal potential, the installed geothermal capacity, a comparison between geothermal energy and some other energies economically and environmentally, and projections and future policies of Turkey. Some useful suggestions and recommendations are also presented. The present study shows that there is an important geothermal potential in Turkey and geothermal energy has some advantages, such

H. IBRAHIM ACAR

2003-01-01

254

Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

Anameric, Hakan

2009-01-01

255

INTESTINAL FLORA OF WILD AND DOMESTIC TURKEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GOAL: To describe and compare the intestinal bacterial communities of domestic and wild turkeys. METHODS: Ceca from five domestic turkeys killed on-farm (Farm A) and eight from the abattoir (five from Farm A, three from Farm B) were examined for bacterial composition. Ceca from wild birds were p...

256

Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

Ince, Basak

2012-01-01

257

Comprehensive analysis of commercially available mouse antichicken monoclonal antibodies for cross-reactivity with peripheral blood leukocytes from commercial turkeys.  

PubMed

In the United States, turkey production contributes approximately $14.4 billion to the US economy; however, the number of reagents specifically developed to study the immune system of this economically important species is limited. To compensate for this, laboratories focused on the turkey system have each empirically tested various chicken-specific reagents for cross-reactivity with turkeys. The result is a patchwork of reports using different genetic lines and different ages, and in many cases, leading to inconsistent conclusions about the cross-reactivity of the reagents tested. In the current study, we investigated a large panel of commercially available monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken leukocyte markers for their ability to specifically recognize the turkey homolog of their respective ligand using 2 different genetic lines of commercial turkeys. The results of these studies identify 8 chicken-specific monoclonal antibodies (F21-21, F21-2, CT4, EP96, 3-298, AV7, c264, and AV6) as demonstrating strong evidence for cross-reactivity with turkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both commercial lines, 3 of which (F21-2, EP96, and c264), to our knowledge, have not previously been reported. In addition, characterization of the anti-CD8? monoclonal antibody 3-298 provides evidence that turkeys, like chickens, have a relatively high percentage of CD4CD8 double-positive T-cells in circulation and have at least 5 alleles of the CD8? gene. Collectively, the results from these experiments strengthen our understanding of the turkey immune system, its relative level of conservation with the chicken system, and adds to the list of reagents that can be reliably used to assess immune responses in commercial turkeys. PMID:22252352

Meyerhoff, R R; Ali, R A; Liu, K; Huang, G-Q; Koci, M D

2012-02-01

258

Male Rio Grande Turkey Survival and Movements in the  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife managers depend on accurate information regarding wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) survival patterns to properly manage turkey populations. Survival patterns of male Rio Grande wild turkeys (M. g. intermedia) have not been studied intensively. Wildlife managers in the Texas Panhandle, USA, and southwestern Kansas, USA, suspected that turkey populations were declining. From January 2000 through August 2002, we studied survival

Texas Panhandle

259

Turkey's Natural Gas, Hydropower, and Geothermal Energy Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with Turkey's natural gas, hydropower, and geothermal energy policies. Turkey has made repeated efforts to increase foreign investment in its power industry. Turkey's energy demand is growing at 8% a year, one of the highest rates in the world. But investment has lagged far behind what is required to ensure reliable supply. Turkey's energy use causes serious

AYHAN DEMIRBAS; AYSE SAHIN-DEMIRBAS; A. HILAL DEMIRBAS

2004-01-01

260

TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION  

E-print Network

TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION 1 TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST-CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION by Teri Murphy & Onur Sazak #12;Turkey's Civilian Capacity in post-Conflict Reconstruction By Teri-checking was indispensable for the realization of this project. #12;TURKEY'S CIVILIAN CAPACITY IN POST

Yanikoglu, Berrin

261

Scholarship Updated (date) Illinois State Wild Turkey Scholarship  

E-print Network

Scholarship Updated (date) Illinois State Wild Turkey Scholarship Scholarship source: Illinois State Wild Turkey Federation Address: Dr. Robert E. Reich, Chair Illinois State Wild Turkey Federation: The Illinois state wild turkey federation is awarding scholarships to 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , and 4 th year

Karonis, Nicholas T.

262

Evaluation of Bio-Mos® Mannan Oligosaccharide as a Replacement For Growth Promoting Antibiotics in Diets for Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the use of Bio-Mos®, a mannan oligosaccharide derived from the cell wall of yeast, as a potential replacement for growth promoting antibiotics in the diet of growing turkeys. Bio-Mos® was added to nutritionally complete turkey diets at the rate of 0.05 and 0.10%. The growth-promoting antibiotics bambermycins and bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) were added

2003-01-01

263

What can I do with leftover turkey? Remove meat from turkey carcass and store in a covered  

E-print Network

What can I do with leftover turkey? Remove meat from turkey carcass and store in a covered of chopped leftover turkey, 4 cups of chopped vegetables and 2 cups cooked rice, wild rice or noodles to 3 have blended. Add some parsley, bay leaves, and garlic for extra flavor. Salads: Add leftover turkey

Minnesota, University of

264

Dynamic expression of tgf-?2, tgf-?3 and inhibin ?A during muscle growth resumption and satellite cell differentiation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

Members of the TGF-? superfamily are involved in numerous cell functions; however, except for myostatin, their roles in the regulation of muscle growth in fish are completely unknown. We measured tgf-?1, tgf-?2, tgf-?3, inhibin ?A (inh) and follistatin (fst) gene expression during muscle growth recovery following a fasting period. We observed that tgf-?1a and tgf-?2 expression were quickly down-regulated after refeeding and that tgf-?3 reached its highest level of expression 7days post-refeeding, mirroring myogenin expression. Inh ?A1 mRNA levels decreased sharply after refeeding, in contrast to fst b2 expression, which peaked at day 2. No significant modification of expression was observed for tgf-?1a, tgf-?1b, tgf-?1c and tgf-?6 during refeeding. In vitro, tgf-?2 and inh ?A1 expression decreased during the differentiation of satellite cells, whereas tgf-?3 expression increased following the same pattern as myogenin. Surprisingly, fst b1 and fst b2 expression decreased during differentiation, whereas no variation was observed in fst a1 and fst a2 expression levels. In vitro analyses also indicated that IGF1 treatment up-regulated tgf-?3, inh ?A1 and myogenin expression, and that MSTN treatment increased fst b1 and fst b2 expression. In conclusion, we showed that the expression of tgf-?2, tgf-?3 and inh ?A1 is dynamically regulated during muscle growth resumption and satellite cell differentiation, strongly suggesting that these genes have a role in the regulation of muscle growth. PMID:25449661

de Mello, Fernanda; Streit, Danilo Pedro; Sabin, Nathalie; Gabillard, Jean-Charles

2015-01-01

265

Satellite positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fifth International Geodetic Symposium on Satellite Positioning was held in Las Cruces, N.Mex., March 13-17, 1989. It was cosponsored by the Defense Mapping Agency and the National Geodetic Survey of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. More than 385 geodesists, engineers, scientists, surveyors, instrument manufacturers, and managers from 32 countries attended the symposium.The keynote address and 96 papers including 9 invited papers and 10 poster papers were presented in the 5-day meeting. In addition, there were three well-attended workshops with lively technical discussions. The invited guest presentations at the symposium luncheon and banquet provided very useful and interesting information.

Stein, William L.; Kumar, Muneendra

266

General Ecological Characteristics Based on GIS Methods in Poyrazlar Lake, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

General Ecological Characteristics Based on GIS Methods in Poyrazlar Lake, Turkey Cercis Ikiel Derya Evrim Kilic• Ayse Atalay Dutucu Sakarya University, Art and Science Faculty, Department of Geography, Sakarya, Turkey In this research, general ecological features in Poyrazlar lake is investigated. The study area is located in the east part of Marmara region and north-western part of the Adapazari plain (north-western part of Turkey) between the coordinates of 40°48'-40°52' N and 30°23'-30°30' E. Research area is within phytogeographical region of Euro-Siberian that is among flora and phytogeographical region of Turkey. The main element of vegetation consists Humid-Mild Deciduous forests (especially Quercus spp.) and hydrophyte plants (such as reeds and Nymphaea alba L.). Poyrazlar lake, that's water is fresh, is one of the important wetland areas in the region with its ecological characteristics. Especially the research area is haunted by various migratory birds and it is an important recreation area. The objective of this study is to analyze particularly the formation of Poyrazlar lake, ecological features of this area and negative influence of surrounding human activities in the area. For this purpose topography, geology, soil maps, forest arrangement plan, Spot 5 (2010 period) satellite image for current land use map and field observations data are used. These images are analyzed by utilizing data image processing techniques in ERDAS Imagine© 10.0 and ArcGIS© 10.0 software. Keywords: Ecology; Ecological Features; GIS; Alluvial Dam Lake; Poyrazlar Lake

Ikiel, C.; Kilic, D. E.; Atalay Dutucu, A.

2012-04-01

267

The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.  

PubMed

Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87. PMID:24485280

Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

2014-08-01

268

Mapping chlorophyll- a through in-situ measurements and Terra ASTER satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of water quality mapping through real-time satellite and ground data. The Lake Beysehir\\u000a which is the largest freshwater lake and drinking water reservoir in Turkey was selected as the study area. Terra ASTER satellite\\u000a image is used as remote sensing data source for water quality mapping in addition to simultaneously performed in-situ measurements.\\u000a Ground data

Bilgehan Nas; Hakan Karabork; Semih Ekercin; Ali Berktay

2009-01-01

269

Contamination effects of satellite-material outgassing products on thermal surfaces and solar cells. Final report, 1 Oct 88-30 Sep 90  

SciTech Connect

The Wright Research and Development Center (WRDC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) have initiated a program for measuring optical and radiative effects of satellite material outgassing products on thermal control and cryo-optic surfaces. A solar absorptance chamber for making reflectance/absorptance measurements on thermal control materials has been established. This report describes the operation of the solar absorptance chamber used to measure the degradation of reflective surfaces and solar cells caused by deposition of outgassing contaminants. The effects of solar irradiation (UV) were also studied, and results are presented. Data are presented for Dow Corning 93-500 Space-grade encapsulant (DC93-500), Furane Products Uralane 5753-A/B(LV) encapsulant, and Polyclad FR-4 Epoxy laminate. (js)

Seiber, B.L.; Bertrand, W.T.; Wood, B.E.

1990-12-01

270

MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--role of satellite cells in anabolic steroid-induced muscle growth in feedlot steers.  

PubMed

Both androgenic and estrogenic steroids are widely used as growth promoters in feedlot steers because they significantly enhance feed efficiency, rate of gain, and muscle growth. However, despite their widespread use relatively little is known about the biological mechanism by which androgenic and estrogenic steroids enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth in cattle. Treatment of feedlot steers with a combined estradiol (E2) and trenbolone acetate (TBA) implant results in an increased number of muscle satellite cells, increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA in muscle tissue, and increased levels of circulating IGF-1. Similarly, treatment of bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures with either TBA or E2 results in increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA, increased rates of proliferation and protein synthesis, and decreased rates of protein degradation. Effects of E2 on BSC are mediated at least in part through the classical E2 receptor, estrogen receptor-? (ESR1), the IGF-1 receptor (IGFR1), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR30). The effects of TBA appear to be primarily mediated through the androgen receptor. Based on current research results, it is becoming clear that anabolic steroid-enhanced bovine muscle growth involves a complex interaction of numerous pathways and receptors. Consequently, additional in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms involved in this complex process. The fundamental information generated by this research will help in developing future, safe, and effective strategies to increase rate and efficiency of muscle growth in beef cattle. PMID:24166993

Dayton, W R; White, M E

2014-01-01

271

The Turkey Ig-Like Receptor Family: Identification, Expression and Function  

PubMed Central

The chicken leukocyte receptor complex located on microchromosome 31 encodes the chicken Ig-like receptors (CHIR), a vastly expanded gene family which can be further divided into three subgroups: activating CHIR-A, bifunctional CHIR-AB and inhibitory CHIR-B. Here, we investigated the presence of CHIR homologues in other bird species. The available genome databases of turkey, duck and zebra finch were screened with different strategies including BLAST searches employing various CHIR sequences, and keyword searches. We could not identify CHIR homologues in the distantly related zebra finch and duck, however, several partial and complete sequences of CHIR homologues were identified on chromosome 3 of the turkey genome. They were designated as turkey Ig-like receptors (TILR). Using cDNA derived from turkey blood and spleen RNA, six full length TILR could be amplified and further divided according to the typical sequence features into one activating TILR-A, one inhibitory TILR-B and four bifunctional TILR-AB. Since the TILR-AB sequences all displayed the critical residues shown to be involved in binding to IgY, we next confirmed the IgY binding using a soluble TILR-AB1-huIg fusion protein. This fusion protein reacted with IgY derived from various gallinaceous birds, but not with IgY from other bird species. Finally, we tested various mab directed against CHIR for their crossreactivity with either turkey or duck leukocytes. Whereas no staining was detectable with duck cells, the CHIR-AB1 specific mab 8D12 and the CHIR-A2 specific mab 13E2 both reacted with a leukocyte subpopulation that was further identified as thrombocytes by double immunofluorescence employing B-cell, T-cell and thrombocyte specific reagents. In summary, although the turkey harbors similar LRC genes as the chicken, their distribution seems to be distinct with predominance on thrombocytes rather than lymphocytes. PMID:23527222

Windau, Katharina; Viertlboeck, Birgit C.; Göbel, Thomas W.

2013-01-01

272

Satellite altimetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since altimetry data are not really old enough to use the term data archaeology, Mr. Cheney referred to the stewardship of these data. He noted that it is very important to document the basis for an altimetry data set as the algorithms and corrections used to arrive at the Geophysical Data Record (GDR) have been improving and are continuing to improve the precision of sea level data derived from altimetry. He noted that the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data set has recently been reprocessed by his organization in the National Ocean Service of NOAA and made available to the scientific community on CD/ROM disks by the National Oceanographic Data Center of the U.S. (NODC). The new data set contains a satellite orbit more precise by an order of magnitude together with an improved water vapor correction. A new, comprehensive GDR Handbook has also been prepared.

Cheney, Robert E.

1992-01-01

273

Propagation and characterization of turkey reoviruses isolated in Germany, 2004-2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

From 2004 to 2008, suspected avian reoviruses were isolated from turkey flocks in ten counties in Germany. The age of birds at isolation ranged from 9 to 54 days. The suspected avian reoviruses elicited characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) in chicken embryo kidney (CEK) cell culture. In 2009, CEK ...

274

DIFFERENTIAL HETEROPHIL INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING AND FUNCTIONS IN WILD-TYPE AND COMMERCIAL TURKEYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A comparison of cell signaling and functions in heterophils from a commercial line (A) to wild-type Rio Grande turkeys days 4 and 7 post-hatch was conducted. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 and ERK 1/2 and total protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activities were measured. After stimulation...

275

Outer planet satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon.

Schenk, Paul M.

1991-01-01

276

Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

2011-01-01

277

Energy related environmental policies in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing consensus in both the scientific and political communities that significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are necessary to limit the magnitude and extent of climate change. Renewable energy systems already reduce GHG emissions from the energy sector, although on a modest scale. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources (oil, gas, and coal) that place a big burden on the economy, and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. This article presents a review of the energy related environmental policies in Turkey.

Kaygusuz, K.; Bilgen, S. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

2008-07-01

278

Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

279

LONG-TERM INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I EXPRESSION IN SKELETAL MUSCLES ATTENUATES THE ENHANCED IN VITRO PROLIFERATION ABILITY OF THE RESIDENT SATELLITE CELLS IN TRANSGENIC MICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue...

280

Geoid determination in Turkey (TG91)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is considered that precise geoid determination is one of the main current geodetic problems in Turkey since GPS defined\\u000a coordinates require geoidal heights in practice. In order to determine the geoid by least squares collocation (LSC) the area\\u000a covering Turkey was divided into 114 blocks of size 1° × 1°. LSC approximation to the geoid based upon the tailored

M. Emin Ayhan

1993-01-01

281

Dressing the Thanksgiving Turkey: Using Measurement?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog post presents a Thanksgiving activity that engages learners as they practice measuring with nonstandard units and comparing lengths. Learners use unifix cubes to measure the heights of four turkeys then compare and arrange them in order from shortest to tallest. The last part of the activity has students measuring Tom Turkey to determine which clothing he should be dressed in for dinner. The lesson plan and all student worksheets can be downloaded to a PDF.

Myrna Mitchell

2013-11-15

282

Influenza A and paramyxoviruses in turkeys  

E-print Network

INFLUENZA A AND PARAMYXOVIRUSES IN TURKEYS A Thesis by FLOYD MERRILL RANCK, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1968 Major... Subject: Veterinary Microbiology INFLUENZA A AND PARAMYXOVIRUSES IN TURKEYS A Thesis by FLOYD MERRILL RANCK, JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Me er) (Membe r ) (Member) (Member) (Member...

Ranck, Floyd Merrill

2012-06-07

283

Turkey vulture and California condor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.

1989-01-01

284

Transmission of Chlamydiae from grackles to turkeys.  

PubMed

Two female common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula) were inoculated intratracheally with 1.6 X 10(8) chick embryo lethal doses50 of a chlamydial organism isolated from turkeys. Eight female grackles were kept as uninoculated contacts. Six days later, two 12-week-old Broad-Breasted White turkeys (1 male and 1 female) were placed in the pen with the grackles. Chlamydiae were isolated in mice from cloacal swabs taken 14 days postinoculation from the infected grackles. Swabs from the contact grackles did not yield chlamydiae, nor did swabs taken 7 days later from all birds. Twenty-one days after being placed with the grackles, the turkeys developed signs of chlamydiosis. Cloacal swabs taken at 24 days yielded chlamydiae from only the female. Visceral organ tissues collected at 28 days from the male yielded chlamydiae. The only lesions in the turkeys at necropsy were enlarged spleens. The turkeys were serologically negative for chlamydial antibody both when placed and 15 days later, but were positive at days 24 and 28. These results indicate contact transmission of chlamydiae from infected grackles to turkeys. PMID:678235

Grimes, J E

1978-01-01

285

Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells: Initial evaluation tests of General Electric Company 6.0 ampere hour nickle cadmium spacecraft cells for the dynamic explorer satellite program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation tests of 10 nickel cadmium cells are described. Although pressures were greater than what normally was exhibited by General Electric cells in the past, it is recommended that these cells be placed on life test simulating the predicted Dynamic Explorer flight profiles.

Harkness, J. D.

1980-01-01

286

Turkey origin reovirus-induced immune dysfunction in specific-pathogen free and commercial turkey poults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, pathogenesis studies using genetically distinct turkey-origin reoviruses (TRVs) revealed that poults infected with certain TRV isolates had moderate to severe bursal atrophy, suggesting virus-induced immune dysfunction. In order to characterize the effect of TRV infection on the turkey imm...

287

Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

2012-01-01

288

STRESS INDUCED COLIBACILLOSIS AND TURKEY OSTEOMYELITIS COMPLEX IN TURKEYS SELECTED FOR INCREASED BODY WEIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two stress models were used to induce colibacillosis and turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC): Escherichia coli challenge following dexamethasone injection (DEX) and E. coli challenge preceding transport stress (TRANSPORT). A total of 160 birds from 3 lines of turkeys: a slow growing line selected for...

289

ASPEC: Solar power satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar power satellite (SPS) will provide a clean, reliable source of energy for large-scale consumption. The system will use satellites in geostationary orbits around the Earth to capture the Sun's energy. The intercepted sunlight will be converted to laser beam energy that can be transmitted to the Earth's surface. Ground systems on the Earth will convert the transmissions from space into electric power. The preliminary design for the SPS consists of one satellite in orbit around the Earth transmitting energy to a single ground station. The SPS design uses multilayer solar cell technology arranged on a 20 km squared planar array to intercept sunlight and convert it to an electric voltage. Power conditioning devices then send the electricity to a laser, which transmits the power to the surface of the Earth. A ground station will convert the beam into electricity. Typically, a single SPS will supply 5 GW of power to the ground station. Due to the large mass of the SPS, about 41 million kg, construction in space is needed in order to keep the structural mass low. The orbit configuration for this design is to operate a single satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO). The GEO allows the system to be positioned above a single receiving station and remain in sunlight 99 percent of the time. Construction will take place in low Earth orbit (LEO); array sections, 20 in total, will be sailed on solar wind out to the GEO location in 150 days. These individual transportation sections are referred to as solar sailing array panels (SSAP's). The primary truss elements used to support the array are composed of composite tubular members in a pentahedral arrangement. Smart segments consisting of passive and active damping devices will increase the control of dynamic SPS modes.

1991-01-01

290

Small Glacier Area Studies: A New Approach for Turkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many regions of Earth have glaciers that have been neglected for study because they are small. We report on a new approach to overcome the problem of studying small glaciers, using Turkey as an example. Prior to our study, no reliable estimates of Turkish glaciers existed because of a lack of systematic mapping, difficulty in using Landsat data collected before 1982, snowpack vs. glacier ice differentiation using existing satellite data and aerial photography, the previous high cost of Landsat images, and a lack of high-resolution imagery of small Turkish glaciers. Since 2008, a large number of < 1 m satellite images have become available at no cost to the research community. In addition, Landsat data are now free of charge from the U.S. Geological Survey, enabling the use of multiple images. We used 174 Landsat and eight high-resolution satellite images to document the areal extent of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2007-2011. Multiple Landsat images, primarily Thematic Mapper (TM) data from 1984 to 2011, enabled us to minimize differentiation problems between snow and glacier ice, a potential source of error. In addition, we used Ikonos, Quickbird, and World View-1 & -2 very high-resolution imagery to evaluate our TM accuracies and determine the area of nine smaller glaciers in Turkey. We also used five Landsat-3 Return Beam Videcon (RBV) 30 m pixel resolution images, all from 1980, for six glaciers. The total area of Turkish glaciers decreased from 23 km2 in the 1970s to 10.1 km2 in 2007-2011. By 2007-2011, six Turkish glaciers disappeared, four were < 0.3 km2, and only three were 1.0 km2 or larger. No trends in precipitation from 1970 to 2006 and cloud cover from 1980 to 2010 were found, while surface temperatures increased, with summer minimum temperatures showing the greatest increase. We conclude that increased surface temperatures during the summer were responsible for the 56% recession of Turkish glaciers from the 1970s to 2006-2011.

Yavasli, Dogukan D.; Tucker, Compton J.

2012-01-01

291

Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial pathogen, especially in poultry, where it can lead to both subclinical and clinical disease. The aim of this study was to present data on pathological findings at outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) in turkey production in Finland during the period from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48) of a turkey company that produces 99% of domestic turkey meat in Finland were interviewed about background information, management at the farm, and stress factors related to NE outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis with SmaI restriction enzyme resulted in 30 PFGE patterns among the 92 C. perfringens isolates of high diversity. Out of all isolates, 212 (100%) were ?-toxin-positive and one isolate (0.5%) was both ?- and ?2 toxin-positive. Fourteen isolates (6.6%) were necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) positive; all were recovered from turkeys with NE. In none of the isolates obtained from healthy turkeys was the netB toxin identified. In conclusion, a high diversity of C. perfringens isolates from turkeys with different health status was shown. All isolates produced ? toxin, whereas only low percentages of isolates carried the netB toxin gene. The role of the netB toxin in NE in turkeys needs to be further investigated. PMID:23776261

Lyhs, U; Perko-Mäkelä, P; Kallio, H; Brockmann, A; Heinikainen, S; Tuuri, H; Pedersen, K

2013-07-01

292

Let's Talk Turkey -Facts for Food Safety It is important to be careful when you handle, store, cook, and serve turkey.  

E-print Network

Let's Talk Turkey - Facts for Food Safety It is important to be careful when you handle, store, cook, and serve turkey. Follow the rules and the guidelines in this fact sheet to keep your turkey safe and delicious. What to do when you get the turkey Take the turkey home right after you get it. Put

Alpay, S. Pamir

293

RioGrande Wild Turkey Life History and Management Calendar  

E-print Network

This calendar is for landowners and managers who want to manage and improve their wild turkey habitat. The calendar is in easy-to-follow chart form and shows important annual events pertaining to wild turkey life history, habitat management...

Locke, Shawn; Cathey, James; Collier, Bret; Hardin, Jason

2008-05-08

294

78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record...orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to continuation...respect to imports of certain pasta from...

2013-09-09

295

Tips on Studying Abroad at Bilkent University in Turkey  

E-print Network

Tips on Studying Abroad at Bilkent University in Turkey Want to know what it's like to study abroad-hand experience of living in Turkey as a college student. How- ever, the university was not representative

Li, Mo

296

The role of rain in satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most fundamental obstacle encountered in design of satellite communication systems at frequencies above 10 GHz is attenuation by rain. The microwave power radiated toward an earth station, being limited by factors such as available primary power and size of antenna on the satellite, is insufficient, with present technology, to overcome the large attenuation produced by intense rain cells on

D. C. Hogg; Ta-Shing Chu

1975-01-01

297

Assessing the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet Turkey’s growing energy demand, the installed electric power capacity of 27.8 GW in 2001 has to be doubled by 2010 and increased fourfold by 2020. The difference between Turkey’s total primary energy supply (TPES) of from its own sources and total final consumption (TFC) is projected grow from 1 quad (1.06–2.06) in 1999 to 5.71 quads (2.79–8.5) in

F Evrendilek; C Ertekin

2003-01-01

298

ORIGINAL PAPER Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) using the string solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), six captive vultures were presented with a string. Keywords Turkey vulture Á Cathartes aura Á Cognition Á String-pulling Introduction Selective pressures

299

Talking Turkey for democracy: Fundamentalism, fascism and the EU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of pro-Islamic politics, the eastward expansion of the EU and the invasion of Iraq have increased the Western media's interest in the only Muslim member of Nato: Turkey. Popular discussion, however, has overshadowed a lack of systematic analyses for a proper understanding of major political developments in Turkey. This paper aims to debate Turkey's state of affairs from

Surhan Cam

2005-01-01

300

Development of geothermal energy utilization in Turkey: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy is accepted as a key source for the future, not only for Turkey but also for the world. Turkey has a considerably high level of renewable energy sources that can be a part of the total energy network in the country. Turkey is located in the Mediterranean sector of Alpine–Himalayan Tectonic Belt and has a place among the

Arif Hepbasli; Leyla Ozgener

2004-01-01

301

Renewable and sustainable energy use in Turkey: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an energy importing nation with more than half of our energy requirements met by imported fuels. Air pollution is becoming a significant environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources are becoming attractive for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution mitigation in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of

Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

302

Energy production and sustainable energy policies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. Turkey's energy production meets nearly 28% of its total primary energy consumption. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production

Ibrahim Yüksel

2010-01-01

303

Hydropower Energy Versus Other Energy Sources in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroelectric energy is one of the major renewable energy resources in Turkey. Turkey's gross hydropower potential is estimated as 433–442 terawatt hours\\/year; that is equal to 1% of world and 14% of European hydropower potential. This article presents the historical development, potential, and current status of hydropower, and examines the current role hydropower is playing in Turkey, along with some

M. ?. Kömürcü; A. Akpinar

2010-01-01

304

A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil

Erkan Erdogdu

2009-01-01

305

ROOSTING HABITAT AND POULT SURVIVAL OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE  

E-print Network

ROOSTING HABITAT AND POULT SURVIVAL OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH AND POULT SURVIVAL OF MERRIAM'S TURKEYS IN THE SOUTHERN BLACK HILLS OF SOUTH DAKOTA This thesis is approved the National Wild Turkey Federation and Bob Hodorff for helping with trapping and fieldwork (many early

306

Everyday Engineering: Time's up, turkey--Pop-up thermometers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an ex

Richard Moyer

2009-11-01

307

Research Destination Turkey: Workshop Series on "European and  

E-print Network

Research Destination Turkey: Workshop Series on "European and National Funding Opportunities in Turkish. #12;Research Destination Turkey : Workshop Series on "European and National Funding Opportunities Council of Turkey (TÃ?BTAK) will organize workshop on January 24, 2014 in Berlin, Germany. The event aims

Hasýrcý, Vasýf

308

Ordovician chitinozoans and acritarchs from southern and southeastern Turkey  

E-print Network

Ordovician chitinozoans and acritarchs from southern and southeastern Turkey Chitinozoaires et'Orléans, 45067 Orléans cedex, France d TPAO, Exploration Group, M. Kemal Mah. 06520 Ankara, Turkey e EOST CNRS in southern and southeastern Turkey led to a re-evaluation of the age assignments of formations identified

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA  

E-print Network

A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA by Tara L. Wertz A thesis submitted Sciences (Wildlife Option) South Dakota State University 1986 #12;A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY. of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences 11 Date Date #12;A TURKEY NESTING STUDY IN GREGORY COUNTY, SOUTH DAKOTA

310

ORIGINAL ARTICLE A brief history of mathematics education in Turkey  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE A brief history of mathematics education in Turkey: K-12 mathematics curricula 2010 Abstract In this study, we survey the history of mathe- matics education in Turkey starting in Turkey over the last century are investigated through an analysis of changes in curricular documents

Bardsley, John

311

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) association to roads: implications for distance roads. Our objective was to determine if and when Rio Grande wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo intermedia . Rio Grande wild turkey. Roads . Texas Communicated by H. Kierdorf D. R. Erxleben :M

Wallace, Mark C.

312

European Journal of Turkish Being a MP in contemporary Turkey  

E-print Network

European Journal of Turkish Studies 3 (2005) Being a MP in contemporary Turkey ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Gilles Dorronsoro and Elise Massicard Being a Member of Parliament in contemporary Turkey Turkey », European Journal of Turkish Studies [Online], 3 | 2005, Online since 01 décembre 2009. URL

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

European Journal of Turkish Hometown Organisations in Turkey  

E-print Network

European Journal of Turkish Studies 2 (2005) Hometown Organisations in Turkey Organisations in Turkey, URL : http://www.ejts.org/document362.html To quote a passage, use paragraph Studies, Thematic Issue N°2 - Hometown Organisations in Turkey, URL : http://www.ejts.org/document362.html

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

314

1 INTRODUCTION Precast construction was first introduced in Turkey  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION Precast construction was first introduced in Turkey in the 1960s. Common structural systems used in Turkey today are based on systems developed in Western Europe to carry only gravity loads earthquakes in Turkey S.L. Wood & M. Posada University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA ABSTRACT: Precast frame

Spencer Jr., B.F.

315

European Journal of Turkish Being a MP in contemporary Turkey  

E-print Network

European Journal of Turkish Studies 3 (2005) Being a MP in contemporary Turkey Studies, Thematic Issue N°3 , Being a MP in contemporary Turkey, URL : http://www.ejts.org/document499 Massicard Abstract. Like in many countries, MPs in Turkey are confronted with contradictory role

Boyer, Edmond

316

LATE QUATERNARY GLACIATION OF THE ERCIYES VOLCANO, CENTRAL TURKEY  

E-print Network

LATE QUATERNARY GLACIATION OF THE ERCIYES VOLCANO, CENTRAL TURKEY SARIKAYA, M. Akif1, Ã?INER, Attila, Turkey, aciner@hun.edu.tr, (2) Hydrology and Water Resources, Univ of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 Mount Erciyes (3917 m), highest stratovolcano of Central Turkey, is located in the northeastern part

Zreda, Marek

317

THE KOCAELI, TURKEY EARTHQUAKE OF 17 AUGUST 1999  

E-print Network

I THE KOCAELI, TURKEY EARTHQUAKE OF 17 AUGUST 1999 A FIELD REPORT BY EEFIT Dina D'Ayala (editor of useful Internet links IX 1. THE EARTHQUAKE AFFECTED REGION 1 Introduction 1 Seismic hazard of Turkey ASPECTS AND SEISMOLOGY 15 Basic seismological data 15 Tectonic setting of Turkey 15 Historic earthquakes

Bilham, Roger

318

SABANCI UNIVERSITY Orhanli-Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey  

E-print Network

SABANCI UNIVERSITY Orhanli-Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey Phone: +90 (216) 483-9500 Fax: +90 (216 of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey. htekiner@su.sabanciuniv.edu S Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Istanbul, Turkey. sibirbil@sabanciuniv.edu Kerem B¨ulb¨ul Manufacturing

Yanikoglu, Berrin

319

Essential oils of Mentha species from Marmara region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mentha L. (Lamiaceae) is represented in the world by 62 taxa including 18 species and 11 hybrids. In Turkey, 15 taxa exist. In the course of the present work, 90 samples belonging to 11 Mentha taxa collected from the Marmara region of Turkey in north western Turkey were hydrodistilled to obtain essential oils, which were then subjected to

K. H. C. Ba?er; M. Kürkçüo?lu; B. Demirci; T. Özek; G. Tar?mc?lar

2012-01-01

320

Turkey's Renewable Energy Sources: Part 1. Historical Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy is accepted as a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, but also for the world. Turkey has a considerably high level of renewable energy resources that can be a part of the total energy network in the country. The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate the historical development of Turkey's renewable

ARIF HEPBASLI; ONDER OZGENER

2004-01-01

321

Turkey liver - a chromium enriched food source  

SciTech Connect

There are presently no known foods for humans that are particularly good sources of chromium. As a means of obtaining Cr enriched foods, turkeys were fed diets containing various levels of supplemental chromium. Four groups of 6-month old turkey hens were fed either the basal diet for laying hens or this diet supplemented with 25, 100 or 200 ..mu..g of chromium as chromium chloride per g of diet. Liver Cr concentration of the turkeys sacrificed after 1 week increased from 7 ng/g (wet wt) while consuming the basal diet to 15, 48 and 68 ng/g, respectively, while consuming the diets with supplemental chromium. Comparable values for the turkeys sacrificed after 5 weeks were 2, 43, 170 and 325 ng/g. Similar trends but higher chromium values were observed for kidney samples. The chromium contents of the dark and white meat and eggs were not altered significantly. Chromium concentrations of the pancreas, gizzard and heart increased marginally; final chromium concentrations were less than 23 ng/g even after 5 weeks on the highest level of supplemental chromium. Chromium content of spleen and lungs was approximately 2-fold higher than that of the pancreas, gizzard or heart. Therefore, turkey liver is a food source suitable for Cr enrichment while the eggs, dark and white meat and other edible parts do not appear to be enriched following chromium supplementation.

Polansky, M.M.; Bryden, N.A.; Richards, M.; Anderson, R.A.

1986-03-01

322

Exploring the Uranian satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the Uranian satellites from the January 25, 1986 flyby of Voyager 2 are presented. Ten new satellites were discovered by Voyager 2; the features and orbits of these ten satellites are examined. The main geological characteristics for Oberon, Umbriel, Titania, Ariel, and Miranda discovered in the Voyager 2 images are described. Possible relationships between the Uranian satellites and Jovian and Saturnian satellites are being researched.

Brown, Robert Hamilton

1986-01-01

323

Outer planet satellites  

SciTech Connect

Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

Schenk, P.M. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

324

Stevioside enhances satellite cell activation by inhibiting of NF-?B signaling pathway in regenerating muscle after cardiotoxin-induced injury.  

PubMed

Stevioside, a noncaloric sweetener isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects through interference of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B pathway. We investigated whether this anti-inflammatory property of stevioside could improve muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. Adult male Wistar rats received stevioside orally at an accepted daily dosage of 10 mg kg?¹ for 7 days before cardiotoxin injection at the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of the right hindlimb (the left hindlimb served as control), and stevioside administration was continued for 3 and 7 days. TA muscle was examined at days 3 and 7 postinjury. Although stevioside treatment had no significant effect in enhancing muscle regeneration as indicated by the absence of decreased muscle inflammation or improved myofibrillar protein content compared with vehicle treated injured group at day 7 postinjury, the number of MyoD-positive nuclei were increased (P < 0.05), with a corresponding decrease in NF-?B nuclear translocation (P < 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate that stevioside could enhance satellite cell activation by modulation of the NF-?B signaling pathway in regenerating muscle following injury. Thus, stevioside may be beneficial as a dietary supplementation for promoting muscle recovery from injury. However, its pharmacological effect on muscle function recovery warrants further investigation. PMID:22316332

Bunprajun, Tipwadee; Yimlamai, Tossaporn; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

2012-03-21

325

Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Chemical Engineering B.S., 2006 Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Chemical Engineering M.S., 2008  

E-print Network

Education Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Chemical Engineering B.S., 2006 Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Chemical Engineering M.S., 2008 The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio Chemical study awarded from The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey Ibrahim Ilgaz Soykal

Pennycook, Steve

326

Current leakage for low altitude satellites - Modeling applications. [simulation of high voltage solar cell array in ionospheric plasma environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To simulate the behavior of a high voltage solar cell array in the ionospheric plasma environment, the large (90 ft x 55 ft diameter) vacuum chamber was used to measure the high-voltage plasma interactions of a 3 ft x 30 ft conductive panel. The chamber was filled with Nitrogen and Argon plasma at electron densities of up to 1,000,000 per cu cm. Measurements of current flow to the plasma were made in three configurations: (a) with one end of the panel grounded, (b) with the whole panel floating while a high bias was applied between the ends of the panel, and (c) with the whole panel at high negative voltage with respect to the chamber walls. The results indicate that a simple model with a constant panel conductivity and plasma resistance can adequately describe the voltage distribution along the panel and the plasma current flow. As expected, when a high potential difference is applied to the panel ends more than 95% of the panel floats negative with respect to the plasma.

Konradi, A.; Mccoy, J. E.; Garriott, O. K.

1979-01-01

327

The Mexican national satellite system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The satellites, tracking, telemetry, command, and monitoring facilities, and the earth station complex for the Mexican national satellite system, Morelos, are described. The spacecraft are intended to provide educational television, rural telephony, data transmission, and business and industrial services. Scheduled for 1985 launch, the satellites will be placed in GEO and use the C and Ku bands with 12 narrow band and six wideband transponders. Spin-stabilized and solar cell powered, the functional mass will be 666 kg, including propellant. The solar panels will provide 940 W of power and 830 W will be available from NiCd batteries during eclipse conditions. The earth station will be located at Iztapalapa, which will have a 12 m antenna, redundant uplink and downlink radios, and command and ranging equipment. Back-up capability will be provided by a station at Tulancingo. Ku band and C band stations are in planning.

Sanchez Ruiz, M. E.; Briskman, R. D.

1983-10-01

328

INDOOR RADON MEASUREMENTS IN TURKEY DWELLINGS.  

PubMed

In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. PMID:25389360

Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Task?n, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

2014-11-11

329

Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. METHODS: Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 × 10-RM) 4 times\\/wk for 28 days while also ingesting 27 g\\/day of placebo

Brian Shelmadine; Matt Cooke; Thomas Buford; Geoffrey Hudson; Liz Redd; Brian Leutholtz; Darryn S Willoughby

2009-01-01

330

Satellite orbit predictor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

331

Evaluating the energy utilization efficiency of Turkey’s renewable energy sources during 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the energy utilization efficiency of Turkey’s renewable energy sources (RESs) during 2001 by using energy and exergy analyses, giving a brief outlook on the utilization of RESs. Total energy and exergy inputs are calculated to be 3203.22 PJ and 3139.07 PJ, while renewable energy and exergy production values are determined to be 428.62 PJ and 395.68 PJ,

Arif Hepbasli; Zafer Utlu

2004-01-01

332

Endochondral ossification process of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) during embryonic and juvenile development.  

PubMed

The long bones of the developing skeleton arise from the process of endochondral ossification, which begins during the embryonic stages and resumes later in the growth plates located at the extremities of the long bones. This process includes commitment of cells to the chondrocytic lineage and further differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes, which subsequently undergo apoptosis and are replaced by osteoblasts laying down the trabecular bone. In this study we characterize, for the first time, the endochondral bone development of the turkey during embryonic and juvenile stages. Turkey tibias were collected on embryonic d 11, 14, and 18; and at 3 and 7 d posthatching, alcian blue and Von Kossa staining, alkaline phosphatase activity, and in situ expression of collagen types II and X were studied in these samples. We showed that the principles of bone development in the turkey follow the known vertebrate pattern, and that the initiation of ossification is related to the perichondrium and compact bone. These results increase the knowledge about this process in the turkey, which is an important animal in the agricultural industries. PMID:17297170

Simsa, S; Ornan, E Monsonego

2007-03-01

333

THE POPULATION BIOLOGY AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY OF RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEYS IN THE ROLLING  

E-print Network

THE POPULATION BIOLOGY AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY OF RIO GRANDE WILD TURKEYS IN THE ROLLING PLAINS Department, the National Wild Turkey Federation, the Texas state superfund of the National Wild Turkey OF FIGURES xii CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Wild Turkey 1 Rio Grande Wild Turkeys 2 Reasons for Study 3

334

Satellite Imaging Corporation: IKONOS Satellite Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Satellite Imaging Corporation (SIC) acquires and processes imagery from the IKONOS satellite as well as others and makes the products available through their website. The images in the gallery are arranged in several categories based on what applications the images might be useful for, such as Agriculture, Coastal Management, or Sports and Tourism.

Satellite Imaging Corporation

335

A Review of University Facilities in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of the massive growth of higher education in Turkey, the most pressing priority for this sector today is to meet the new space requirements for an increasing number of students. Now a subject of public attention more than ever before, the second largest item of expenditure for universities is the construction of physical spaces. This…

Altinsoy, Selcen

2011-01-01

336

Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

2009-01-01

337

Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

Aydin, Kemal

2006-01-01

338

Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults H. L. ShivaprasadA, M. S. FrancaA, P. R. WoolcockA, R. NordhausenB, M. DayC and M. Pantin-JackwoodC California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, AFresno and BDavis Branches, University of California, Davis, 2789 South Orange Av...

339

Fuel supply chain analysis of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of its natural sources, Turkey depends on other countries in terms of energy production, and a transfer from conventional fossil sources to sustainable energy sources is strongly necessary. Among the sustainable energy sources, biomass is the subject of this study. The characteristics, logistic aspects, environmental aspects, economical, legal and technical aspects are investigated in order to show that

Ahu Gümrah Dumanli; Ibrahim Gulyurtlu; Yuda Yürüm

2007-01-01

340

Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

2009-01-01

341

Attitudes towards questionable negotiation tactics in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of individualism-collectivism, trust, and ethical ideology on ethically questionable negotiation tactics, such as pretending, deceiving and lying, in Turkey. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey questionnaires translated from English to Turkish were administered to 400 respondents, of whom 379 fully completed the questionnaires. Findings – The research empirically corroborated a classification

Ahmet Erku?; Moshe Banai

2011-01-01

342

Early Childhood Education: The Case of Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…

Usakli, Hakan

2010-01-01

343

Transition to Family Practice in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

2008-01-01

344

Tissue sulfonamide concentration and correlation in turkeys.  

PubMed

Nineteen hen turkeys (10 to 12 kg each) were used in a feeding study to determine sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline concentrations in blood serum, liver, and skeletal muscle, as well as the respective ratios at selected withdrawal intervals. Two feeds were prepared by use of premixes to achieve 60 mg of sulfadimethoxine/kg and 100 mg of sulfaquinoxaline/kg, respectively. Each of the medicated feeds was given to 9 turkeys for 7 days. The turkeys were then fed nonmedicated feed at intervals from 24 to 56 hours and were slaughtered. One turkey was used as control. The serum/liver and serum/muscle ratios for sulfaquinoxaline were 60 to 70% higher than for sulfadimethoxine. However, the liver/muscle ratio for both sulfonamides was equivalent, approximately 3. Disposition of both sulfonamides approximated first-order pharmacokinetics. The calculated half-life of sulfadimethoxine was half that of sulfaquinoxaline, approximately 16 vs 30 hours. The coefficients of variation in the serum/tissue ratios for both sulfonamides were between 13% and 25% for serum/liver and less than 15% for serum/muscle, indicating excellent potential for using serum as a predictor of actionable concentrations of sulfonamide residues. PMID:2764344

Epstein, R L; Ashworth, R B

1989-06-01

345

DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT PORSUK/ULUKISLA, TURKEY  

E-print Network

DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT PORSUK/ULUKISLA, TURKEY PRELIMINARY REPORT, 1987-1989 PAR August 1987; 15 August 1983; and 22 August 1989 the Aegean Dendrochronology Project visited the Bronze, at the kind invitation of its excavator, Prof. Olivier Pelon, to take samples for dendrochronological analysis

Manning, Sturt

346

Clay Corner: Light up a Turkey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two activities that enable students to work with clay: a tile project and turkey candle-holders. Explains that before students actually create their own projects, they get an opportunity to experience the clay itself. Asserts that the new vocabulary, unusual equipment, and intriguing techniques make ceramics a motivating activity. (CMK)

Hiller, Peter

1998-01-01

347

Stereo Measurements from Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The papers in this presentation include: 1) 'Stereographic Observations from Geosynchronous Satellites: An Important New Tool for the Atmospheric Sciences'; 2) 'Thunderstorm Cloud Top Ascent Rates Determined from Stereoscopic Satellite Observations'; 3) 'Artificial Stereo Presentation of Meteorological Data Fields'.

Adler, R.

1982-01-01

348

Hurricane Katrina Satellite Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides access to a good number of satellite images of Hurricane Katrina taken by polar orbiting and geostationary satellites operated by NOAA. High resolution images are available on the site.

National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service

349

Solar power satellite, system definition study. Part 2, volume 3: SPS satellite systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The differences in approach to solar energy conversion by solar cells and thermal engine systems are examined. Systems requirements for the solar power satellite (SPS) are given along with a description of the primary subsystems. Trades leading to exact configuration selection, for example, selection of the Rankine cycle operating temperatures are explained, and two satellite configurations are discussed.

1977-01-01

350

Effects of high-orbit spaceflight on signaling cascades and apoptosis in immune cells from mice flied on board the BION-M1 satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study was designed to evaluate immune cell activity in male C57bl mice after a 30-day high-orbit spaceflight (550 km, higher than conventional manned spaceflights) on board the BION-M1 satellite (Roskosmos Program, Russia). For the present study, thymus, spleens and plasma samples were collected from mice 12 h after landing and, additionally, 7 days subsequently. Assessing the activity of NF-kappaB signaling cascade by measuring Rel A (p65) protein phosphorylation in splenic lymphocytes, we showed that the NF-kappaB activity was significantly increased at 12 h after landing. Contrariwise, one week after landing, the NF-kappaB activity was markedly decreased, even below to the control values. Interestingly, after landing there were no significant changes in SAPK/JNK cascade activity in splenic lymphocytes as well as in the expression of transcription factor IRF3 in thymus cells. To assess the apoptosis status in thymus lymphocytes, levels of p53 protein and its phosphorylated form were measured in thymic lymphocytes. It is known that p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage, genomic aberrations, and other characteristic of apoptosis. The results showed that the high-orbit spaceflight environment caused some increase in level of p53 protein, but most notably, activated phosphorylated form of p53 protein. Calculated ratio of active and inactive forms of the protein (ph-p53/p53) 12 h after landing increased by more than 2-fold, indicating the apparent induction of apoptosis in thymus cells. Interestingly, 7 days after the landing, this ratio was not restored, but rather increased: the specified ratio was 4 times higher as compared to the ground-based control. We can conclude that response to the prolonged high-orbit spaceflight is not like the classic "stress response", which is usually observed under various stressful factors. It is known that the stress response is surely accompanied by increased SAPK/JNK cascade activity as well as the expression of the IRF3; in fact, we did not observed any changes in the SAPK/JNK phosphorylation or in the IRF3 production. Furthermore, stressful factors usually result in the fast, but reversible, thymus involution. But our measurements showed that the thymus depletion at 7th day after landing was expressed even more than 12 h after the spaceflight. This is consistent with the results of the level of apoptosis in thymus cells; indeed, the apoptosis in thymus lymphocytes 7 days after was higher than 12 h after landing. Collectively, these results indicate that the changes of immune cell homeostasis may be a result of exposure to damaging factors of not very high intensity. In any case, similar effects are caused, to our knowledge, by low doses of ionizing radiation. As spaceflight is not accompanied only with the gravitational changes, but also with other factors, such as radiation, it is possible that immune disbalance after spaceflight was caused by a combined action of several factors. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project 12-04-00113-a.The authors express their gratitude to unified team involved in preparation and implementation of the spaceflight of BION-M #1.

Novoselova, Elena; Shenkman, Boris; Lunin, Sergey; Parfenyuk, Svetlana; Novoselova, Tatyana; Fesenko, Eugeny

351

Modern Technologies: Satellites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's increasing dependence on satellites was recently made clear when a PanAmSat communications satellite went down, disrupting communication and data transmission around the world. The eight resources in this week's In the News highlight satellites, and the many important roles they play in our lives. Today, satellites are used to convey a wealth of information, from communications to important scientific data.

Harris, Kathryn L.

1998-01-01

352

EUROPE'S GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES  

E-print Network

METEOSAT EUROPE'S GEOSTATIONARY METEOROLOGICAL SATELLITES MONITORING WEATHER AND CLIMATE FROM SPACE, 6 July 2010 Paul de Valk Koninklijk nederlands Meteorologisch instituut (KnMi) "you need satellites for a country to have its own satellites so it is very beneficial to share costs in Europe, as we do through Eu

Stoffelen, Ad

353

IMAGE Satellite Scale Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about scale model building. Learners will use mathematics to determine the scale model size, construct a pattern, and build a paper scale model of the IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite, the first satellite mission to image the Earth's magnetosphere. This is the second activity in the Solar Storms and You: Exploring Satellite Design educator guide.

354

Toward a phenology network in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

2012-04-01

355

Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from outside the space arena in which organizations have pursued technological capability. Scholars have analyzed these examples and developed insightful frameworks. The paper draws key concepts from this literature about the nature of development, technology, knowledge and organizational learning. These concepts are relevant to learning in new satellite programs, but the ideas must be applied cautiously because of the nature of satellite technology. The paper draws three major lessons from the international development literature regarding absorptive capacity, tacit knowledge and organizational learning; it synthesizes these lessons into a cohesive, original framework. The closing section proposes future work on a detailed study of technological learning in specific government satellite programs.

Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

2011-12-01

356

78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...Shane Subler at (202) 482-0189 (Turkey), AD/CVD Operations, Import Administration...oil country tubular goods from India and Turkey.\\1\\ Currently, the preliminary...

2013-09-16

357

9 CFR 381.171 - Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.171 Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.” (a) “Turkey Ham” shall be fabricated from boneless, turkey thigh meat with skin and the surface fat attached to the skin removed. The...

2012-01-01

358

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section...Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants....

2011-01-01

359

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section...Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants....

2012-01-01

360

75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the January 1, 2008, through December...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of...

2010-07-29

361

78 FR 21107 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey (pipes and tubes from Turkey) for the period of review (POR) of January...

2013-04-09

362

9 CFR 381.171 - Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.”  

...Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.171 Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.” (a) “Turkey Ham” shall be fabricated from boneless, turkey thigh meat with skin and the surface fat attached to the skin removed. The...

2014-01-01

363

76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

2011-08-09

364

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2013-01-01

365

75 FR 16439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey: Preliminary Results of Countervailing...welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the period January 1, 2008, through...carbon steel pipe and tube products from Turkey. See Countervailing Duty Order:...

2010-04-01

366

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

...Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section...Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants....

2014-01-01

367

78 FR 60831 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...C-489-819] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation AGENCY...reinforcing bar (``rebar'') from the Republic of Turkey (``Turkey''), filed in proper form on behalf of the...

2013-10-02

368

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2010-01-01

369

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2014-01-01

370

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section...Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants....

2013-01-01

371

9 CFR 381.171 - Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.171 Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.” (a) “Turkey Ham” shall be fabricated from boneless, turkey thigh meat with skin and the surface fat attached to the skin removed. The...

2011-01-01

372

9 CFR 381.171 - Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.171 Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.” (a) “Turkey Ham” shall be fabricated from boneless, turkey thigh meat with skin and the surface fat attached to the skin removed. The...

2010-01-01

373

78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination...certain oil tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1,...

2013-12-23

374

76 FR 38691 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey Institution of five-year review concerning...welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey and the antidumping duty orders on certain...Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey. AGENCY: United States...

2011-07-01

375

78 FR 73838 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary Determination...on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Turkey.\\1\\ The original signature date for...See Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

2013-12-09

376

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2012-01-01

377

9 CFR 381.171 - Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.171 Definition and standard for “Turkey Ham.” (a) “Turkey Ham” shall be fabricated from boneless, turkey thigh meat with skin and the surface fat attached to the skin removed. The...

2013-01-01

378

9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system. 381.68 Section...68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1...

2011-01-01

379

9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section...Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants....

2010-01-01

380

The ideal satellite pharmacy.  

PubMed

The pharmacy service at the Seattle Veterans Administration Medical Center moved into a replacement facility in September 1986. A description of the present medical center and the satellite pharmacy is presented. The ideal satellite pharmacy for this medical center is then described. The satellite is discussed with respect to the satellite door, transportation systems (i.e., dumbwaiter, pneumatic tubes), communication systems (i.e., Omnifax, intercom, typewriter, telephone, computer), equipment (i.e., IV hood, refrigerator, shelving), stock, and space. Because each medical center has specific needs and equipment available, the information presented should be used as a guide when designing a satellite pharmacy. PMID:10280299

Suzuki, N T

1987-02-01

381

Satellite system survivability  

SciTech Connect

Present U.S. military capability relies heavily on Earth satellites to maintain connectivity. The essential nature of these satellite systems has made them tempting targets to nuclear attack in wartime. The author reviews U.S. history in high-altitude nuclear device testing and nuclear effects testing on satellites, events in which he directly participated. Physics of the production of nuclear enhanced high-altitude electron belts are reviewed. The author discusses primary effects of the enhanced environment on satellite components. A glimpse into future satellite hardening reveals measures against developing directed energy weapons.

Shelton, F.H.

1983-01-01

382

Survey: National Environmental Satellite Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The national Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) receives data at periodic intervals from satellites of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series and from the Improved TIROS (Television Infrared Observational Satellite) Operational Satellite. Within the conterminous United States, direct readout and processed products are distributed to users over facsimile networks from a central processing and data distribution facility. In addition, the NESS Satellite Field Stations analyze, interpret, and distribute processed geostationary satellite products to regional weather service activities.

1977-01-01

383

The mobile telecom market in Turkey, with her 70 million inhabitants, is growing fast. Soon Turkey will lead Europe in the penetration  

E-print Network

The mobile telecom market in Turkey, with her 70 million inhabitants, is growing fast. Soon Turkey, the Republic of Turkey, with her 70 million inhabitants and a dynamic mobile market perspective, is taken and expected near-term developments in the mobile telecommunication industry in Turkey, a country which

384

Initial evaluation tests of Eagle-Picher Industries 9.0 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells for the heat capacity mapping mission satellite and the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of tests to insure that all cells put into the life cycle program are of high quality are reported. The tests consisted of the following: phenolptalein leak tests, internal short test, charge efficiency test, and overcharge tests. The results of tests for 10 cells are tabulated.

Harkness, J. D.

1978-01-01

385

Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described.\\u000a Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination\\u000a fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey\\u000a include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal

Alper Baba; Gokmen Tayfur

386

Status of geothermal energy amongst Turkey's energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a comparison between geothermal energy and other energy sources in Turkey. Turkey's primary energy consumption is about 64Mtoe in 2003, mostly provided by fossil fuels (74.7%). Renewables collectively provide 25.3% of the primary energy, in the form of hydro (14.6%), combustible renewable and waste (9%), geothermal (1.2%), and the other renewables (0.5%). Although Turkey has a great

Adem Akp?nar; Murat ?. Kömürcü; H?z?r Önsoy; Kamil Kaygusuz

2008-01-01

387

Predictors of Informal Health Payments: The Example from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the factors that can affect informal health payments in Turkey, which is pertinent given that Turkey\\u000a has been undergoing and considering a series of reforms in the health sector. This paper aims to examine the predictors of\\u000a informal payments in Turkey. The study surveyed a random sample of 3,727 people in a medium-sized city, of whom

Hacer Özgen; Bayram Sahin; Paolo Belli; Mehtap Tatar; Peter Berman

2010-01-01

388

Vanguard I Satellite Structure and Separation Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reevaluation of the Vanguard program objectives in January 1957 resulted in the production of the Vanguard I Satellite, a 6.44-inch-diameter, 3.25-pound sphere with six equally spaced solar cell clusters and six equally spaced antennas mounted on its surface. Experiment requirements necessitated the development of a mechanism to separate the satellite from the third-stage rocket. On the basis of the existing standard separation mechanism, a strap pull-pin girth-ring arrangement was developed. Both the satellite and the separation mechanism were fully tested prior to flight. Successful orbiting and flight operation proved the adequacy of the design.

Shea, John T.; Baumann, Robert C.

1961-01-01

389

Serum proteins of wild turkey vultures (Cathartes aura).  

PubMed

We separated and identified the major serum proteins of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura): albumin, HDL, LDL, IgG and M, transferrin, alpha 2M and putatively, IgA, ceruloplasmin and fibronectin. Turkey vulture HDL and LDL had similar electrophorectic mobility and solution properties as those from gallinaceous birds. Turkey vulture IgG and M, and their subunits, had molecular weights comparable to other birds. Serum IgG and M levels in wild turkey vultures were within the range of values reported for domestic avian species. PMID:6661906

Apanius, V; Temple, S A; Bale, M

1983-01-01

390

Denizli - Kizildere geothermal power-plant, Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The first geothermal power-plant in Turkey, the Kizildere 20 MW geothermal power-plant, is being constructed near Denizli - Saraykoy by GIE, Italy. Start-up operations have already begun an it will be generating electricity by the beginning of 1984. The plant will supply part of the power demands of Southwestern Anatolia, especially in the city of Denizli. This power-plant will utilize the geothermal resources discovered by the MTA (Mineral Research Exploration Institute) near Kizildere - Saraykoy at the end of research conducted between 1968 and 1971. MTA has been conducting this research all over Turkey and recently a new geothermal system has bee found in Germencik - Aydin. In Kizildere there are 16 wells drilled by MTA. However six of them (KD 13, KD 15, KD 16, KD 6 and KD 7, KD 14, three as stand-by) will be utilized for electricity generation.

Ar, G.

1985-01-01

391

Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

1999-01-01

392

Hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, both hypertension and chronic kidney disease are major public health problems, due to their epidemic proportions and their association with high cardiovascular mortality. In 2003, the first Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (the PatenT) study was conducted in a nationally representative population (n=4910) by the Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases, and showed that overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in Turkey was 31.8%. The PatenT study also reported that overall awareness (40.7%), treatment (31.1%), and control rates (8.1%) of hypertension were strikingly low. Only 20.7% of the patients who were aware of their hypertension and receiving treatment had their blood pressure controlled to <140/90?mm?Hg. In the Chronic Renal Disease in Turkey (CREDIT) study (n=10,748), the overall prevalence of chronic kidney (including all stages) disease was 15.7% and increased with advancing age. In the same population, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome were reported as 32.7%, 12.7%, 76.3%, 20.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. The prevalence and awareness of hypertension in CREDIT population was 32.7% and 48.6%, respectively. According to the data obtained from national surveys, the prevalence of hypertension and chronic kidney disease in Turkey is alarmingly high. To improve prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of these major public health problems, appropriate health strategies should be implemented by the government, together with medical societies, non-governmental organizations, industry, health-care providers, and academia. PMID:25019009

Sengul, Sule; Erdem, Yunus; Batuman, Vecihi; Erturk, Sehsuvar

2013-01-01

393

Seismicity and the Crustal Structure in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkey and adjacent areas which is located in the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt suffer from active seismicity for many years. The number of recorded earthquakes in the area increase day by day with the improvement of the seismic networks operated in the area. A well defined crustal (velocity-depth) model is one of the most important parameters in the process and the location of earthquake data. Three largest networks of Turkey are operated by Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) and TÜB?TAK Marmara Research Center (MRC). In this study an integrated homogeneous earthquake catalogue is obtained by combining the catalogues of these three agencies operating seismic networks in Turkey. Approximately 120.000 earthquakes in five years between 2008 and 2013 recorded by more than 400 broadband stations, belonging to the networks of KOERI, AFAD and MRC in the area are combined and relocated. Integrated homogeneous earthquake catalogue obtained in the frame of this study from the combination of three different catalogues are used not only for a better understanding and interpretation of the active tectonics and seismicity in the area, but also for obtaining the regional one dimensional (1-D) P and S wave velocity-depth models on a variety of different regional crustal structures in Turkey. Determination of the detailed crustal structure on different lithospheric fragments and the relocation of earthquakes by using these new models will improve the knowledge on the seismicity and the distribution of earthquake clusters together with a better understanding of the correlation of these earthquake locations with the existing active faults. The results of the study will also serve as an input for later studies for the determination of three dimensional (3-D) Vp and Vp/Vs models in the area.

Cambaz, Didem

2014-05-01

394

BURNOUT AMONG HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

atoktamis@cumhuriyet.edu.tr, atoktamis@hotmail.com Objective: The purpose of present study was (a) to examine the burnout in a sample of Turkish high school teachers and (b) to test the hypothesis that Turkish teachers suffer from burnout more than the teachers in the developed countries. Methods: All of the high schools in the city Centrum of Sivas, Turkey were contacted for this study.

YELTEKIN DEMIREL; NURAN GÜLER; AYDIN TOKTAMIS; Deniz Özdemir; R. Erol Sezer

2005-01-01

395

Contemporary surface wind climatology of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to examine the climatological characteristics of boundary layer gradient winds in Turkey in detail. In the study, monthly average wind speed ( V m) data measured at 267 stations for the 16 directions, prevailing wind direction ( V p), and station pressure ( P s) data measured at 174 stations during the period 1970-2008 by the Turkish Meteorological Service (TMS) were used. The data were provided by the TMS. To attain the aim of the study, wind patterns of midseason months representing the seasonal wind distributions were used, and surface wind formations were examined through calculation of divergent and rotational components of the average wind rate. Besides, it was aimed at explaining the relationships between sea level pressure (SLP) patterns and wind formations. The patterns of midseason months were examined via the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In accordance with V m data, it is seen that air flows in Turkey generally tend to orientate radially from west to east. Climatologically, the strongest prevailing winds in Turkey blow during the summer months, while the weakest winds blow during the autumn months. V m and V p distributions show a parallelism (i.e., wind gradient) in the months during which temperature differences between land and sea are high due to the differences in their specific heat values. The distributions of V m and V p values vary considerably in spring and autumn months during which temperature differences are relatively lower. According to the PCA results, the first two components represent the strong wind areas in Turkey. These components presumably explain the existence of coherent wind formation areas, which display different characteristics due to regional physical geographical factors and processes (e.g., orography, altitude, exposure, land-sea distribution, surface mechanical and thermodynamic modifications of the air masses and air flows, etc.) in addition to the direct effect of different synoptic-scale pressure and circulation conditions.

Sahin, Sinan; Türke?, Murat

2013-07-01

396

Healthcare Information Technology Infrastructures in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sa?l?k-Net (Turkish for “Health-Net”), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sa?l?k-Net are also briefly summarized. Methods The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Results Sa?l?k-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients’ Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sa?l?k-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. Conclusion With the introduction of the “Health Transformation Program” in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality. PMID:24853036

Yuksel, M.; Ertürkmen, G. L.; Kabak, Y.; Namli, T.; Y?ld?z, M. H.; Ay, Y.; Ceyhan, B.; Hülür, Ü.; Öztürk, H.; Atbakan, E.

2014-01-01

397

Pollen morphology of Agropyron Gaertner in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen morphology of Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertner. s.s. (subsp. incanum (Náb?lek) Melderis and subsp. pectinatum (M. Bieb.) Tzvelev, latter including var. pectinatum and var. imbricatum (Roemer & Schultes) G. Beck) in Turkey has been studied by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The above-mentioned taxa are homogenous in both aperture type and exine ornamentation. Pollen grains are monoporate (rarely

Hülya Özler; Evren Cabi; Ebru Us; Musa Do?an; Sevil Pehlivan

2009-01-01

398

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Schroeder, Richard L.

1985-01-01

399

Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

1998-01-01

400

Research on embryos in Turkey with ethical and legal aspects  

PubMed Central

Technically, the term embryo refers to the products of conception after implantation into the wall of the womb, usually nearly two weeks after fertilization, up until the eighth week. Embryos contain stem cells which, according to scientists, could be used to cure a wide range of conditions. Stem cells can be coaxed into growing cells of any other type, which makes them potentially very useful indeed. However, removing stem cells from an embryo will kill the embryo, which some people object to. From the mid 1970s, IVF was being developed and research was carried out on the spare embryos produced. This research helped to improve IVF techniques, as well as to better understand the earliest stages of human development. Research also shed light on a variety of inheritable disorders. In Turkish Law, assisted reproduction treatment (ART) services are regulated with the Regulation of Assisted Reproductive Treatment Centers Act (RAPTCA) The Regulation was issued in 1987, but it has been amended several times since. Also, article 90 of the Turkish Penal Code covers some aspects of research on embryos. At the same time, the Biomedicine Convention (Oviedo Convention), signed by Turkey and which entered into force in 2003, has binding regulations about this issue. Different legal regulations and some ethical guidelines are in conflict with each other, creating much confusion for the researchers. In this paper these conflicts are discussed, giving some practical proposals. PMID:24592037

Vatano?lu-Lutz, Emine Elif

2012-01-01

401

Neptune's small inner satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The six small inner satellites of Neptune discovered by Voyager 2 are described. Proteus (1989N1), the largest of these sattelites, has a mean radius of 208 +/-8 km, while the radius of the smallest, Naiad (1989N6), is 29 +/-6 km. The inner satellite system of Neptune is similar to that of Uranus in that the albedos of the satellites are effectively the same (four of the Neptune's satellites have geometric albedos of 0.06 at 0.48 micron), the sizes are similar, and some have orbits within the region of planetary rings. The two largest satellites of this group are resolved as irregular objects; they have limb roughnesses comparable to those of similarly sized satellites of other planets.

Thomas, Peter; Veverka, Joseph

1991-10-01

402

Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment for Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a GIS-environment to present the results, seismic risk analysis is considered as a helpful tool to support the decision making for planning and prioritizing seismic retrofit intervention programs at large scale. The main ingredients of seismic risk analysis consist of seismic hazard, regional inventory of buildings and vulnerability analysis. In this study, the assessment of the national earthquake hazard based on the NGA ground motion prediction models and the comparisons of the results with the previous models have been considered, respectively. An evaluation of seismic risk based on the probabilistic intensity ground motion prediction for Turkey has been investigated. According to the Macroseismic approach of Giovinazzi and Lagomarsino (2005), two alternative vulnerability models have been used to estimate building damage. The vulnerability and ductility indices for Turkey have been taken from the study of Giovinazzi (2005). These two vulnerability models have been compared with the observed earthquake damage database. A good agreement between curves has been clearly observed. In additional to the building damage, casualty estimations based on three different methods for each return period and for each vulnerability model have been presented to evaluate the earthquake loss. Using three different models of building replacement costs, the average annual loss (AAL) and probable maximum loss ratio (PMLR) due to regional earthquake hazard have been provided to form a basis for the improvement of the parametric insurance model and the determination of premium rates for the compulsory earthquake insurance in Turkey.

Betul Demircioglu, Mine; Sesetyan, Karin; Erdik, Mustafa

2010-05-01

403

Determination of air quality zones in Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, the particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter <10 microm; PM10) profile of Turkey with data from the air quality monitoring stations located throughout the country was used. The number of stations (119) was reduced to 55 after a missing data treatment for statistical analyses. First, a classification method was developed based on ongoing national and international (European Commission directives) legislations to categorize air zones into six groups, from a "Very Clear Air Zone" to a "Polluted Air Zone". Then, a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based interpolation technique and statistical analyses (correlation analysis and factor analysis) were used to generate PM10 pollution profiles of the annual heating time and nonheating time periods. Finally, the coherent air pollution management zones of Turkey, based on air quality criteria and measured data using a GIS-based model supported by statistical analyses, were suggested. Based on the analysis, four hot spots were identified: (i) the eastern part of the Black Sea region; (ii) the northeastern part of inland Anatolia; (iii) the western part of Northeastern Anatolia; and (vi) the eastern part of Turkey. The possible reasons for the elevated PM10 levels are discussed using topographic, climatologic, land use, and energy utilization parameters. Finally, the suggested air zones were compared with the administrative air zones, which were newly developed by the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry, to evaluate the level of agreement between the two. PMID:22616283

Karaca, Ferhat

2012-04-01

404

Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.  

PubMed

Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

2007-10-01

405

Television satellite programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why and how satellite television transmission is being done, especially TDF-1\\/TV-Sat, are considered. The need for satellite television is assessed in terms of extending areas of reception. Problems of optimal signal strength, installation cost, and spillover are assessed. Political, cultural, and commercial aspects are also covered. Diverse satellite television systems to date are compared. The TDF-1\\/TV-Sat program is outlined as

P. Usunier

1981-01-01

406

Matrix metalloproteinase expression and localization in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) during the endochondral ossification process.  

PubMed

Vertebrate long bones are formed by endochondral ossification, a process accompanied by changes in extracellular matrix synthesis and remodeling, performed mainly by the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). The temporal/spatial expression patterns of 5 members of the MMP family known to be important for endochondral ossification were studied, for the first time, in the turkey growth plate during embryonic and juvenile stages. The expression of MMP-2 was detected in the proliferative zone, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 in cells lining the blood vessels; MMP-13 was also detected in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The MMP-16 expression was detected in the reserve zone of the growth plate. These results present a detailed survey of turkey MMP, serving as a data source (atlas) for further studies in this subject. PMID:17296767

Simsa, S; Genina, O; Ornan, E Monsonego

2007-06-01

407

How Satellites See  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson allows students to compare and contrast three NASA satellites: The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The lesson includes access to data and images from these three NASA astronomy satellites, contrasting the way the sky appears in three very different electromagnetic wavelengths or colors of light. Other satellite information is included, but the focus is a simple introduction to the electromagnetic spectrum as used by the three space observatories. While participating in this activity, students will compare physical parts and orbits of each satellite and participate in hands-on experiments to begin to understand visible, infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths.

408

Polar Operational Environmental Satellite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates POES, the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite system. Comprised of several components (namely, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS)), these satellites make nearly polar orbits daily, providing global coverage of land, ocean, and atmospheric data. The POES Website includes an overview of the satellite system and lists data types such as vegetation index, sea surface temperature charts, volcanic eruption clouds, and much more. For researchers interested in environmental monitoring using satellite-based data, the POES Webpage will serve as a useful reference point.

409

Equalizers for communications satellites  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates equalization for advanced protected satellite communications systems in development at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Equalizers facilitate high data rate communication by correcting dispersion in the ...

Fay, Leon

2008-01-01

410

Satellite Antenna Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

1997-01-01

411

Satellite to satellite tracking error analysis studies and data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An error analysis was conducted to examine the effects of placing the target satellite in an orbit nearly coplanar with the relay satellite and of data span length on the accuracy with which the satellite states can be recovered. An analysis of error models using actual satellite to satellite tracking data spans is included. Results are tabulated.

Ayres, C. L.; Rosenblatt, G.

1975-01-01

412

Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth in Turkey: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present article is to investigate the increasing electricity consumption with the growth of the economy in Turkey. With its emerging and rapidly growing economy and with a population of 73 million people, Turkey has today become the world's 17th largest economy. The country's electricity consumption has risen rapidly as a result of social and economic development.

M. Balat

2009-01-01

413

Listeria monocytogenes contamination in French breeding and fattening turkey flocks.  

PubMed

This study aimed to collect data and create a database related to Listeria monocytogenes contamination in breeding and fattening turkey flocks. Seventy-five breeding turkey flocks and 86 fattening turkey flocks were sampled. Three hundred seventy-five and 428 samples were analyzed in breeding and fattening turkey flocks, respectively. L. monocytogenes was detected in 9 of 75 breeding flocks, leading to an estimated prevalence of 12% (95% confidence interval, 4.6-19.4). In fattening turkeys, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes-positive flocks was 9.3% (95% confidence interval, 3.1-15.5). The serotyping of L. monocytogenes strains highlighted the dominance of serovar 1/2a in breeding as well as in fattening turkeys. The relationship between rearing practices and L. monocytogenes status in turkey flocks was studied by using multiple correspondence analyses and then a hierarchical classification. Results were separated into two classes and revealed profiles that were associated with the presence or the absence of L. monocytogenes. This study highlighted the need to implement strict sanitary measures to reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination in turkey production. PMID:21740711

Aury-Hainry, Kristell; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Labbé, Annie; Petetin, Isabelle; Chemaly, Marianne

2011-07-01

414

ORGANOCHLORINE INSECTICIDE CONTAMINATION OF BOTTLED WATERS IN TURKEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollution of organochlorine insecticides in drink- ing water poses risks for humans. Turkey is a candidate country for the European Community and should, there- fore, perform pesticide residue analyses in the near future, including that of organochlorine residues in drinking water. In 2005, bottled water samples were collected from local markets and market chains in Aydin, Turkey, and analyzed

Cafer Turgut; Cengiz Gokbulut

415

New Bythinella (Gastropoda, Bythinellidae) species from western Turkey  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bythinella anatolica sp. n., Bythinella istanbulensis sp. n., Bythinella magdalenae sp. n., and Bythinella wilkei sp. n. from western Turkey are described herein. Illustrations of the shell and genitalia of the newly described taxa, together with comparisons with previously known Bythinella taxa and a key to the species from western Turkey, are also provided.

Y?ld?r?m, Mehmet Zeki; Kebapç?, Ümit; Koca, Seval Bahad?r; Yüce, Arzu

2015-01-01

416

The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

Hale, Francis J.

417

Consumer Willingness to Pay for Organic Products in Urban Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the paper is to present the preliminary results of the survey project whose aim is to explore the Turkish consumer's perceptions regarding food safety and the tradeoff they make between chemical residues and cosmetic quality in fresh fruit and vegetable marketing chain. Previous research in Turkey contends that Turkey organic food exports are growing and that there

Sedef Akgungor; Bulent Miran; Canan Abay

2007-01-01

418

Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

Toker, Boran

2011-01-01

419

Islamic activism in Turkey since the 1980 military takeover  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the nature and strength of the Islamic movement in contemporary Turkey. It argues that the policies of the military and civilian governments, in attempting to establish a strong ideological base that could challenge the left, allowed and even promoted the activities of Turkey's Islamic organizations. Indeed, these counter?balancing efforts backfired as the Islamic movement rejected the national

Anat Lapidot

1996-01-01

420

Islamic terrorist activities in turkey in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on Islamic terrorism in the framework of overall Islamic activity in Turkey. It argues that Islamic terrorist organizations active in Turkey during the 1990s strived to establish an Islamic shari ’a?based state on the Iranian example, profited from deeper social and political trends in Turkish society and, at the same time, strengthened those trends by their violence.

Ely Karmon

1998-01-01

421

Determinants of duration of unemployment insurance benefits in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first empirical study on the duration of unemployment insurance benefits in Turkey. Turkey has adopted an unemployment insurance programme in 2000, and the first payment of the benefit was made in 2002. Thus, it is new and the first programme to partially compensate the income of workers when they are unemployed. The unemployment insurance programme has

Hasan Sahin; A. Burca Kizilirmak

2007-01-01

422

Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

2013-01-01

423

International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

2012-01-01

424

The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

Cekerol, Kamil

2012-01-01

425

Republic of Turkey, State Institute of Statistics (SIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State Institute of Statistics (SIS) produces, collects, and compiles national social, economic, cultural, and demographic data for the Republic of Turkey. The SIS, a division of the Prime Ministry, provides the latest figures, indicators, and statistical reports on Turkey published by the Turkish government and other international statistical agencies.

1999-01-01

426

Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

Topbas, Seyhun

2011-01-01

427

A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

2015-01-01

428

Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

Usun, Salih

2006-01-01

429

Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

2011-01-01

430

Energy sector and wind energy potential in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey has very limited indigenous energy resources and has to import around 65% of primary energy to meet her needs. It is a large importer of primary energy despite having ample renewable energy sources.Turkey’s vibrant economy has led to increased energy demand in recent years. This situation is expected to continue in the near future because its economy is dependent

R. Tugrul Ogulata

2003-01-01

431

Accreditation Policies of Turkey in Primary and Secondary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Turkey's quality of education is being improved in order to become a member of EU (European Union), and Turkey is following the EU's system of educational policies. In the field of education, to encourage teaching and learning, accreditation process is used. It helps programs improve and be accountable for their quality. Accreditation provides…

Furuzan, Verda Gizem

2012-01-01

432

Turkey: Human Rights And The European Union Accession Partnership  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In September, Human Rights Watch posted five new reports on their Website. Turkey: Human Rights And The European Union Accession Partnership is a 31-page report detailing Human Rights Watch's recommendations for the EU's Accession Partnership Document laying out the human rights criteria Turkey will have to meet to be granted EU membership.

433

Essential Oils of Mentha Species from Northern Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of 8 species and 15 taxa (including hybrids) of Mentha existing in the flora of Turkey, 8 taxa belonging to 6 species were investigated for essential oils. Of 272 samples collected from 181 stations in northern Turkey, 85 were subjected to water distillation and GC\\/MS analysis. The taxa investigated were as follows: Mentha pulegium, M. suaveolens, M. aquatica, M.

K. H. C. Baser; M. Kürkçüoglu; Gül Tarimcilar; Gönül Kaynak

1999-01-01

434

Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey) Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altunok V., E. Yazar, N. Yuksek: Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey) Cats. Acta Vet Brno 2007, 76: 171-177. The Turkish Van cat originates from eastern Turkey. One of the characteristic features of Van cats is the colour of their eyes, which can be both eyes blue, both eyes amber or one eye blue and the other amber. Serum

V. Altunok; E. Yazar; N. Yuksek

2007-01-01

435

Victims of Sex Trafficking in Turkey: Characteristics, Motivations, and Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging transnational crime problem, human trafficking occurs in almost every part of the world. But as a transit, source, and destination nexus for immigration, Turkey is particularly vulnerable in this regard. Turkey attracts many foreigners who choose to come there for geographical, historical, economic, and political reasons; some of these persons are victims of human trafficking. This article examines

Oguzhan Omer Demir; James O. Finckenauer

2010-01-01

436

Managing dental caries in children in Turkey - a discussion paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper describes the oral healthcare system and disease situation amongst children in Turkey. Considering the high prevalence and severity of dental caries, a proposal for improvement of oral health in this population group is formulated. DISCUSSION: A virtual absence of palliative, preventive and restorative care characterises juvenile oral healthcare in Turkey. Consequently, carious cavities remain untreated, which may

Asli Topaloglu-Ak; Ece Eden; J. E. F. M. Frencken

2009-01-01

437

Integration of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Indices of Marbofloxacin in Turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoroquinolones are extensively used in the treatment of systemic bacterial infections in poultry, including systemic Escherichia coli bacillosis, which is a common disease in turkey flocks. Marbofloxacin has been licensed for use in various mammalian species, but not as yet for turkeys, although its kinetic properties distinguish it from other fluoroquinolones. For example, the longer half-life of marbofloxacin in many

Aneliya Milanova Haritova; Nikolina Velizarova Rusenova; Parvan Rusenov Parvanov; Lubomir Dimitrov Lashev; Johanna Fink-Gremmels

2006-01-01

438

MIMO over Satellite: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article carries out a review of MIMO- based techniques that have been recently proposed for satellite communications. Due to the plethora of MIMO interpretations in terrestrial systems and the particularities of satellite communica- tions, this review is built on two pillars, namely fixed satellite and mobile satellite. Special attention is given to the characteristics of the satellite channel,

Pantelis-Daniel Arapoglou; Konstantinos Liolis; Massimo Bertinelli; Athanasios Panagopoulos; Panayotis Cottis; Riccardo De Gaudenzi

2011-01-01

439

Outer planets satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation takes into account the published literature on outer planet satellites for 1979-1982. It is pointed out that all but three (the moon and the two Martian satellites) of the known planetary satellites are found in the outer solar system. Most of these are associated with the three regular satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. The largest satellites are Titan in the Saturn system and Ganymede and Callisto in the Jupiter system. Intermediate in size between Mercury and Mars, each has a diameter of about 5000 km. Presumably each has an internal composition about 60 percent rock and 40 ice, and each is differentiated with a dense core extending out about 75 percent of the distance to the surface, with a mantle of high-pressure ice and a crust of ordinary ice perhaps 100 km thick. Attention is also given to Io, Europa, the icy satellites of Saturn, the satellites of Uranus, the small satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, Triton and the Pluto system, and plans for future studies.

Morrison, D.

1983-01-01

440

Satellite atmospheres and magnetospheres.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galileo radio-occultation measurements show that all four of the Galilean satellites possess ionospheres. Peak ionospheric densities for the icy satellites are several thousand electrons per cubic centimeter, and the distributions are not spherically symetric. Io's ionosphere is much denser and remarkably simiilar to that measured by Voyager.

Kliore, A. J.

441

Efficient Packet Satellite Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an extensive analysis of a Packet satellite (PACSAT) communications system that uses a digital processing satellite in a packet data network. It is shown that multiple uplinks coupled with on-board switching and storage can provide significant gains in throughput, efficiency, and margin against instability. Design tradeoffs are presented and the theoretical results are verified by extensive computer

JOSEPH K. DEROSA; LAWRENCE H. OZAROW; LESLIE N. WEINER

1979-01-01

442

Mobile satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an up-to-date overview as well as new results on mobile satellite communications. Specifically, the following subjects are addressed: worldwide activities; satellite orbits; multiple access techniques; Novstar global positioning system; economic and regulatory issues; future trends. Some of these technical and nontechnical subjects appeal disjoint, but they are unique and significant among the many facets, which effect the

W. W. Wu; E. F. Miller; W. L. Pritchard; R. L. Pickholtz

1994-01-01

443

Engineer a Satellite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners select the scientific instruments for their satellite, calculate the power requirements for all the subsystems, and construct a scale model of their very own Earth observing satellite using building blocks and/or Legos. Includes instructions and worksheets.

2012-08-26

444

Communications technology satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

1976-01-01

445

ASTER's Satellite Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides access to satellite images acquired by NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer satellite. The images are sorted into eight categories: Archeology, Cities, Geology, Hydrology, Land Use, Natural Hazards, and Volcanoes. Users can also view the most popular images and the most recent additions to the gallery.

Laboratory, Nasa J.

446

Signals from Communications Satellites.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Doppler effect for relative motion between a source of waves and an observer and the orbital dynamics of communications satellites. Presents preliminary calculations of the satellite's altitude and linear velocity using only the concepts of the Doppler shift and the mechanics of motion in a circular path. (JRH)

Thomsen, Volker

1996-01-01

447

Jovian satellite nomenclature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of the history of Jovian satellite nomenclature is given to indicate the background for the names proposed for the numbered satellites. The new names are consistent with established tradition and should cause minimal confusion with other named objects in the solar system.

Owen, T.

1976-01-01

448

Tethered satellite control mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tethered satellite control mechanisms consist of four major subsystems. The reel drive mechanism stores the tether. It is motor driven and includes a level wind to uniformly feed the tether to the reel. The lower boom mechanism serves two primary functions: (1) it measures tether length and velocity as the tether runs through the mechanism, and (2) it reads the tether tension at the reel. It also provides change the direction for the tether from the reel to the upper boom mechanism. The deployment boom positions the upper boom mechanism with satellite out of the cargo bay. The deployment function places the 500-kg satellite 20 m away from the Space Shuttle (producing a small natural gravity gradient force), impacts an initial velocity to the satellite for deployment, and allows for satellite docking at a safe distance from the body of the Space Shuttle. The upper boom mechanism (UBM) services three functions: (1) it provides tether control to the satellite as the satellite swings in and out of plane; (2) it reads tether tension in the low range during the early deployment and final retrieval parts of the mission; and (3) it produces additional tether tension at the reel when tether tension to the satellite is in the low range.

Kyrias, G. M.

1983-01-01

449

Audio direct broadcast satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite sound broadcasting is, as the name implies, the use of satellite techniques and technology to broadcast directly from space to low-cost, consumer-quality receivers the types of sound programs commonly received in the AM and FM broadcast bands. It would be a ubiquitous service available to the general public in the home, in the car, and out in the open.

Miller, J. E.

1983-01-01

450

Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications  

E-print Network

Quantum Communications on planetary scale require complementary channels including ground and satellite links. The former have progressed up to commercial stage using fiber-cables, while for satellite links, the absence of terminals in orbit has impaired theirs development. However, the demonstration of the feasibility of such links is crucial for designing space payloads and to eventually enable the realization of protocols such as quantum-key-distribution (QKD) and quantum teleportation along satellite-to-ground or intersatellite links. We demonstrated the faithful transmission of qubits from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors acting as transmitter in orbit, obtaining a low error rate suitable for QKD. We also propose a two-way QKD protocol exploiting modulated retroreflectors that necessitates a minimal payload on satellite, thus facilitating the expansion of Space Quantum Communications.

Giuseppe Vallone; Davide Bacco; Daniele Dequal; Simone Gaiarin; Vincenza Luceri; Giuseppe Bianco; Paolo Villoresi

2014-06-16

451

Liver pathology associated with increased mortality in turkey breeder and meat turkey flocks.  

PubMed

Between 2006 and 2011 a series of disease conditions characterized by raised mortality and liver disorders occurred in turkey breeder flocks and in meat turkey flocks in Germany. The flocks were between 12 and 23 wk of age, and mostly hens were affected. Clinical signs were nonspecific and accompanied by mortality varying between 1% and 7%. Affected birds displayed swollen livers that were marbled with black and red spots and yellowish areas. The pericardium was filled with an amber fluid, and the coronary groove was extensively filled with fat. Spleens were swollen, and a serous fluid that seemed to leak from the liver was present in the body cavity. Histopathological findings in all but one case included fatty degeneration of hepatocytes with parenchymal collapse and associated hemorrhages. Some animals showed cholangitis and hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. In three cases with breeders, electron microscopy detected virus particles that were between 23 and 30 nm and similar to parvo- or picornavirus. In addition, picornavirus RNA was detected in the livers of one meat turkey flock. Investigations by PCR for circovirus, polyomavirus parvovirus, and aviadenovirus yielded negative results in all cases, but an aviadenovirus was isolated from livers twice and a reovirus from the intestines once. Supplementation with vitamin E and selenium seemed to improve the situation. The most likely diagnosis is lipidosis, a metabolic disorder with complex etiology, which has rarely been described in turkeys. PMID:25518445

Popp, Christina; Hauck, Rüdiger; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Lüschow, Dörte; Kershaw, B Olivia; Hoferer, Marc; Hafez, Hafez M

2014-09-01

452

Engineers checkout Early Bird-Communication Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Engineers Stanley R. Peterson (left) and Ray Bowerman (right), checkout the Early Bird, the world's first communication satellite. NASA launched the satellite built by Hughes Aircraft Corporation on April 6, 1955 at 6:48pm E.S.T. from Complex 17a at Cape Kennedy, Florida. Early Bird was built for the Communications Satellite Corporation and weighed about 85 pounds after being placed in a synchronous orbit of 22,300 miles above the earth. It was positioned over the Atlantic to provide 240 two-way telephone channels or 2-way television between Europe and North America. The outer surface of Early Bird was covered with 6,000 silicon-coated solar cells, which absorbed the sun's rays to provide power to the satellite for its intricate transmitting and receiving equipment.

1984-01-01

453

Climate change and glacier retreat from 1955 to 2006 on Cilo Mountains, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine glaciers are amongst key indicators of global-scale climate changes because of their natural dynamics and quick response to global warming. Although there is vast number of studies on recent glaciers of the world, less attention has been paid to the glaciers of Turkey and the Middle East. In the present study, present